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Sample records for antioxidant treatment alters

  1. Cell wall, cell membrane, and volatile metabolism are altered by antioxidant treatment, temperature shifts, and peel necrosis during apple fruit storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisso, Rachel; Buchanan, David; Lee, Jinwook; Mattheis, James; Rudell, David

    2013-02-13

    The transition from cold storage to ambient temperature alters apple quality through accelerated softening, flavor and color changes, and development of physiological peel disorders, such as superficial scald, in susceptible cultivars. To reveal global metabolism associated with this transition, the 'Granny Smith' peel metabolome was evaluated during storage of 6 months and shelf life periods. Treatment with the antioxidant diphenylamine (DPA) reduced scald, creating a metabolic contrast with untreated fruit, which developed superficial scald. Superficial scald symptoms developed on control fruit after 120 days of storage, and symptoms progressed following transition to ambient-temperature shelf life. The metabolic profile of control and DPA-treated fruit was divergent after 30 days of cold storage due to differing levels of α-farnesene oxidation products, methyl esters, phytosterols, and other compounds potentially associated with chloroplast integrity and oxidative stress response. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed coregulation within the volatile synthesis pathway including control of the availability of methyl, propyl, ethyl, acetyl, and butyl alcohol and/or acid moieties for ester biosynthesis. Overall, the application of metabolomics techniques lends new insight into physiological processes leading to cell death and ripening processes that affect fruit flavor, appearance, and overall quality.

  2. Treatment of stable COPD: antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. MacNee

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence that an increased oxidative burden occurs in the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and this results in an imbalance between oxidants/antioxidants or oxidative stress, which may play a role in many of the processes involved in the pathogenesis of COPD. These include enhanced proteolytic activity, mucus hypersecretion and the enhanced inflammatory response in the lungs to inhaling tobacco smoke, which is characteristic of COPD. COPD is now recognised to have multiple systemic consequences, such as weight loss and skeletal muscle dysfunction. It is now thought that oxidative stress may extend beyond the lungs and is involved in these systemic effects. Antioxidant therapy therefore would seem to be a logical therapeutic approach in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. There is a need for more potent antioxidant therapies to test the hypothesis that antioxidant drugs may be a new therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  3. Physical activity alters antioxidant status in exercising elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Anne-Sophie; Margaritis, Irène; Arnaud, Josiane; Faure, Henri; Roussel, Anne-Marie

    2006-07-01

    Nutritional adequacy and physical activity are two aspects of a health-promoting lifestyle. Not much is known about antioxidant nutrient requirements for exercising elderly (EE) subjects. The question of whether exercise training alters the status of antioxidant vitamins as well as trace elements in elderly subjects and fails to balance the age-related increase in oxidative stress is addressed in this study. There were 18 EE (68.1+/-3.1 years), 7 sedentary elderly (SE; 70.4+/-5.0 years), 17 exercising young (EY; 31.2+/-7.1 years) and 8 sedentary young (SY; 27.1+/-5.8 years) subjects who completed 7-day food and activity records. Each subject's blood was sampled on Day 8. A similar selenium (Se) status but a higher erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were found in EE subjects as compared with EY and SE subjects. Blood oxidized glutathione was higher and plasma total thiol was lower in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. Mean vitamin C (167 vs. 106 mg/day), vitamin E (11.7 vs. 8.3 mg/day) and beta-carotene (4 vs. 2.4 mg/day) intakes were higher in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. However, EE subjects exhibited the lowest plasma carotenoid concentrations, especially in beta-carotene, which was not related to intakes. Despite high intakes of antioxidant micronutrients, no adaptive mechanism able to counteract the increased oxidative stress in aging was found in EE subjects. Results on GSH-Px activity illustrate that the nature of the regulation of this biomarker of Se status is different in response to training and aging. These data also strongly suggest specific antioxidant requirements for athletes with advancing age, with a special attention to carotenoids.

  4. Current Antioxidant Treatments in Organ Transplantation

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    Shaojun Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the key mechanisms affecting the outcome throughout the course of organ transplantation. It is widely believed that the redox balance is dysregulated during ischemia and reperfusion (I/R and causes subsequent oxidative injury, resulting from the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Moreover, in order to alleviate organ shortage, increasing number of grafts is retrieved from fatty, older, and even non-heart-beating donors that are particularly vulnerable to the accumulation of ROS. To improve the viability of grafts and reduce the risk of posttransplant dysfunction, a large number of studies have been done focusing on the antioxidant treatments for the purpose of maintaining the redox balance and thereby protecting the grafts. This review provides an overview of these emerging antioxidant treatments, targeting donor, graft preservation, and recipient as well.

  5. Alterations in antioxidants enzymes and Malondialdehyde status in preeclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnodim Johnkennedy; Ihim Augustin; Uduji Hellen Ifeoma

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was done to determine and evaluate the level of antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde (MDA) in preeclamptic women. Method: 100 preeclamptic and 100 healthy pregnant women between the age of 20-32 attending General Hospital Owerri were selected in this study. Fasting veinous blood was collected and was used for the estimation of antioxidant enzymes and malondiadehyde. Result: The result obtained showed that the level of MDA was significantly increased in preeclamptic pregnant women when compared with the healthy control (P<0.05). On the other hand, the level of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) was significantly reduced in preeclamptic women when compared with the control(P<0.05). Conclusions: This observation showed that the antioxidants are excessively used to attenuate the cellular changes mediated by free radicals. Hence, the level of antioxidants are depleted.

  6. Growth at elevated ozone or elevated carbon dioxide concentration alters antioxidant capacity and response to acute oxidative stress in soybean (Glycine max)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, K.M.; Rogers, A.; Ainsworth, E. A.

    2011-01-31

    Soybeans (Glycine max Merr.) were grown at elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO{sub 2}]) or chronic elevated ozone concentration ([O{sub 3}]; 90 ppb), and then exposed to an acute O{sub 3} stress (200 ppb for 4 h) in order to test the hypothesis that the atmospheric environment alters the total antioxidant capacity of plants, and their capacity to respond to an acute oxidative stress. Total antioxidant metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, and antioxidant transcript abundance were characterized before, immediately after, and during recovery from the acute O{sub 3} treatment. Growth at chronic elevated [O{sub 3}] increased the total antioxidant capacity of plants, while growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}] decreased the total antioxidant capacity. Changes in total antioxidant capacity were matched by changes in ascorbate content, but not phenolic content. The growth environment significantly altered the pattern of antioxidant transcript and enzyme response to the acute O{sub 3} stress. Following the acute oxidative stress, there was an immediate transcriptional reprogramming that allowed for maintained or increased antioxidant enzyme activities in plants grown at elevated [O{sub 3}]. Growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}] appeared to increase the response of antioxidant enzymes to acute oxidative stress, but dampened and delayed the transcriptional response. These results provide evidence that the growth environment alters the antioxidant system, the immediate response to an acute oxidative stress, and the timing over which plants return to initial antioxidant levels. The results also indicate that future elevated [CO{sub 2}] and [O{sub 3}] will differentially affect the antioxidant system.

  7. Antioxidant supplementation does not alter endurance training adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yfanti, Christina; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Nielsen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a considerable commercial market, especially within the sports community, claiming the need for antioxidant supplementation. One argument for antioxidant supplementation in sports is that physical exercise is associated with increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS......) production, which may cause cell damage. However, RONS production may also activate redox sensitive signaling pathways and transcription factors, which subsequently may promote training adaptation. PURPOSE: Our aim was to investigate the effects of combined vitamin C and E supplementation to healthy...... individuals on different measures of exercise performance after endurance training. METHODS:: Using a double-blinded placebo-controlled design, moderately trained young men received either oral supplementation with vitamins C and E (n=11) or placebo (n=10) before and during 12 weeks of supervised, strenuous...

  8. Altered Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Vávrová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, an increase of oxidative stress could play an important role which is closely linked with insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and chronic inflammation. The aim of our study was to assess several parameters of the antioxidant status in MetS. Methods: 40 subjects with MetS and 40 age- and sex-matched volunteers without MetS were examined for activities of superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1, glutathione reductase (GR, paraoxonase1 (PON1, concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH, and conjugated dienes in low-density lipoprotein (CD-LDL. Results: Subjects with MetS had higher activities of CuZnSOD (p Conclusions: Our results implicated an increased oxidative stress in MetS and a decreased antioxidative defense that correlated with some laboratory (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and clinical (waist circumference, blood pressure components of MetS.

  9. Alterations of erythrocyte antioxidant mechanisms: antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and serum trace elements associated with anemia in bovine tropical theileriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, S M; Nazifi, S; Bateni, M; Rakhshandehroo, E

    2011-08-25

    In order to investigate the alterations of erythrocyte protective antioxidant mechanisms, lipid peroxidation and trace elements associated with anemia in bovine tropical theileriosis, an infected group comprised of 50 crossbred Holstein cattle, about 1-2 years old, naturally infected with Theileria annulata, were divided into 4 subgroups according to their parasitemia rates (5%) and also 10 healthy cattle as control were selected. Blood samples were taken and hematological parameters, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase and serum concentrations of some antioxidant trace elements (copper, iron, zinc, manganese and selenium) were measured. As an index of lipid peroxidation, the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) was also determined. The results showed a conspicuous decrease in the activities of SOD, GPX and catalase (P<0.01), and a significant decrease in the serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn and Se in cattle with higher than 1% parasitemia (P<0.05) compared to the control. In addition, remarkable elevations in the MDA level (P<0.01) and serum concentration of iron (P<0.05) were observed in the infected animals. These findings pointed to the occurrence of exacerbating oxidative injuries to erythrocytes during parasitemia. Furthermore, it can be concluded that infection with T. annulata can interfere with protective antioxidant mechanisms of RBCs against oxidative damages, which promote the development of anemia.

  10. Alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华明; 胡岳华; 杨武国; 敖伟琴; 邱冠周

    2004-01-01

    Diaspore (α-AlOOH) was heated at various temperatures from 300 to 1000 ℃ for 2 h. The alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment was investigated by differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The mechanism of thermal decomposition of diaspore was discussed according to the Coats-Redfern equation. It is found that after thermal treatment at 500 ℃, diaspore is transformed entirely to corundum (α-Al2O3). Combined with the mass loss ratio obtained from the thermogravimetric analysis data, the activation energies for the thermal treatment of diaspore are calculated as Ea=10.4 kJ/mol below 400 ℃ and Eb=47.5 kJ/mol above 400 ℃, respectively, which is directly related to the structural alteration of diaspore during the thermal treatment. The results indicate that the thermal decomposition of diaspore is conducted primarily by means of an interfacial reaction.

  11. Antioxidant vitamins and cytokines are altered in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abranches, Monise Viana; Mendes, Maria Carolina Santos; Pena, Georgia das Graças; Maia, Yara Cristina de Paiva; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; de Paula, Sérgio Oliveira; de Freitas, Renata Nascimento; Peluzio, Maria Carmo Gouveia

    2011-09-01

    A case-control study was conducted to assess the levels of α-tocopherol, retinol, and β-carotene in different tissues and the genetic expression of inflammatory mediators in women with breast cancer. The study included 51 women divided into two groups: case (n = 25) and benign breast disease (n = 26). We evaluated the dietary intake of α-tocopherol, retinol, and β-carotene and measured plasma and tissue concentrations of these compounds and the inflammatory mediators IL-8, IL-10, and IFNγ. The benign breast disease group showed greater ingestion of α-tocopherol (P = 0.04) and β-carotene (P = 0.011). The concentration of tissue α-tocopherol was reduced in the case group (P = 0.005). The expression of IL-10, IL-8, and IFNγ increased by 231.0, 49.1, and 57.5%, respectively in the case group. The results show that antioxidant nutrients possibly exert biological effects in preventing breast cancer and the immune response is activated in the course of the disease, given the increased expression of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory compounds with the aid of food.

  12. Alterations in lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in lichen planus

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    Falguni H Panchal

    2015-01-01

    oxidative stress and imbalance in the antioxidant defense mechanisms in LP may play a role in the pathogenesis of LP.

  13. Amelioration of altered antioxidant status and membrane linked functions by vanadium and Trigonella in alloxan diabetic rat brains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Rizwan Siddiqui; Asia Taha; K Moorthy; Mohd Ejaz Hussain; S F Basir; Najma Zaheer Baquer

    2005-09-01

    Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP) and sodium orthovanadate (SOV) have been reported to have antidiabetic effects. However, SOV exerts hypoglycemic effects at relatively high doses with several toxic effects. We used low doses of vanadate in combination with TSP and evaluated their antidiabetic effects on antioxidant enzymes and membrane-linked functions in diabetic rat brains. In rats, diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body wt.) and they were treated with 2 IU insulin, 0.6 mg/ml SOV, 5% TSP and a combination of 0.2 mg/ml SOV with 5% TSP for 21 days. Blood glucose levels, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Na+/K+ ATPase, membrane lipid peroxidation and fluidity were determined in different fractions of whole brain after 21 days of treatment. Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose ( < 0.001), decreased activities of SOD, catalase and Na+/K+ ATPase ( < 0.01, < 0.001 and < 0.01), increased levels of GPx and MDA ( < 0.01 and < 0.001) and decreased membrane fluidity ( < 0.01). Treatment with different antidiabetic compounds restored the above-altered parameters. Combined dose of Trigonella and vanadate was found to be the most effective treatment in normalizing these alterations. Lower doses of vanadate could be used in combination with TSP to effectively counter diabetic alterations without any toxic effects.

  14. Clinical, hemato-biochemical alterations and oxidant–antioxidant biomarkers in Babesia-infected calves

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    Noha Y. Salem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Babesia is one of the main causes of anemia in cattle, a lot of elucidations have been suggested to explain its pathogenesis. This study was designed to investigate clinical, hemato-biochemical and oxidant/antioxidant status and its relation with the resultant anemia in Babesia-infected calves. Seventeen (17 native breed calves were involved in this study, clinical signs and microscopic findings were recorded, also blood samples were taken to investigate hematologic changes, serum biochemical variations and oxidative stress biomarkers. The most commonly observed clinical signs were fever, emaciation, depression, icterus and hemoglobinuria. Significant reduction in PCV, HB, RBCs, MCHC, Total protein, and albumin along with significant increase in MCV, WBCs, monocytes and BUN were the most consistent hemato-biochemical changes. Oxidant/antioxidant and trace mineral assessment showed significant reduction in Superoxide dismutase “SOD”, Glutathione peroxidase “GPx”, Zn, Cu along with significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA activities. In the current investigation, oxidant/antioxidant imbalance along with the synchronized alterations in antioxidant trace minerals was detected in Babesia-infected calves. These findings support notion that Babesia infection associated with oxidative stress and this process may be linked to the resultant anemia.

  15. Radiofrequency treatment alters cancer cell phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Matthew J.; Tinger, Sophia; Colbert, Kevin L.; Corr, Stuart J.; Rees, Paul; Koshkina, Nadezhda; Curley, Steven; Summers, H. D.; Godin, Biana

    2015-07-01

    The importance of evaluating physical cues in cancer research is gradually being realized. Assessment of cancer cell physical appearance, or phenotype, may provide information on changes in cellular behavior, including migratory or communicative changes. These characteristics are intrinsically different between malignant and non-malignant cells and change in response to therapy or in the progression of the disease. Here, we report that pancreatic cancer cell phenotype was altered in response to a physical method for cancer therapy, a non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) treatment, which is currently being developed for human trials. We provide a battery of tests to explore these phenotype characteristics. Our data show that cell topography, morphology, motility, adhesion and division change as a result of the treatment. These may have consequences for tissue architecture, for diffusion of anti-cancer therapeutics and cancer cell susceptibility within the tumor. Clear phenotypical differences were observed between cancerous and normal cells in both their untreated states and in their response to RF therapy. We also report, for the first time, a transfer of microsized particles through tunneling nanotubes, which were produced by cancer cells in response to RF therapy. Additionally, we provide evidence that various sub-populations of cancer cells heterogeneously respond to RF treatment.

  16. The role of antioxidants in skin cancer prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godic, Aleksandar; Poljšak, Borut; Adamic, Metka; Dahmane, Raja

    2014-01-01

    Skin cells are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress from exogenous and endogenous sources. UV radiation is the most important environmental factor in the development of skin cancer and skin aging. The primary products caused by UV exposure are generally direct DNA oxidation or generation of free radicals which form and decompose extremely quickly but can produce effects that can last for hours, days, or even years. UV-induced generation of ROS in the skin develops oxidative stress when their formation exceeds the antioxidant defense ability. The reduction of oxidative stress can be achieved on two levels: by lowering exposure to UVR and/or by increasing levels of antioxidant defense in order to scavenge ROS. The only endogenous protection of our skin is melanin and enzymatic antioxidants. Melanin, the pigment deposited by melanocytes, is the first line of defense against DNA damage at the surface of the skin, but it cannot totally prevent skin damage. A second category of defense is repair processes, which remove the damaged biomolecules before they can accumulate and before their presence results in altered cell metabolism. Additional UV protection includes avoidance of sun exposure, usage of sunscreens, protective clothes, and antioxidant supplements.

  17. Efficacy of lower doses of vanadium in restoring altered glucose metabolism and antioxidant status in diabetic rat lenses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anju Preet; Bihari L Gupta; Gupta Pramod K Yadava; Najma Z Baquer

    2005-03-01

    Vanadium compounds are potent in controlling elevated blood glucose levels in experimentally induced diabetes. However the toxicity associated with vanadium limits its role as therapeutic agent for diabetic treatment. A vanadium compound sodium orthovanadate (SOV) was given to alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats in lower doses in combination with Trigonella foenum graecum, a well-known hypoglycemic agent used in traditional Indian medicines. The effect of this combination was studied on lens morphology and glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. Lens, an insulin-independent tissue, was found severely affected in diabetes showing visual signs of cataract. Alterations in the activities of glucose metabolizing enzymes (hexokinase, aldose reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase) besides the levels of related metabolites, [sorbitol, fructose, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH)] were observed in the lenses from diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated with insulin (2 IU/day), SOV (0.6 mg/ml), T. f. graecum seed powder (TSP, 5%) and TSP (5%) in combination with lowered dose of vanadium SOV (0.2 mg/ml), for a period of 3 weeks. The activity of the enzymes, hexokinase, aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase was significantly increased whereas the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase decreased significantly in lenses from 3 week diabetic rats. Significant increase in accumulation of metabolites, sorbitol, fructose, glucose was found in diabetic lenses. TBARS measure of peroxidation increased whereas the levels of antioxidant GSH decreased significantly in diabetic condition. Insulin restored the levels of altered enzyme activities and metabolites almost to control levels. Sodium orthovanadate (0.6 mg/ml) and Trigonella administered separately to diabetic animals could

  18. Antioxidant Phytochemicals for the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases

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    Yu-Jie Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Overproduction of oxidants (reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in the human body is responsible for the pathogenesis of some diseases. The scavenging of these oxidants is thought to be an effective measure to depress the level of oxidative stress of organisms. It has been reported that intake of vegetables and fruits is inversely associated with the risk of many chronic diseases, and antioxidant phytochemicals in vegetables and fruits are considered to be responsible for these health benefits. Antioxidant phytochemicals can be found in many foods and medicinal plants, and play an important role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases caused by oxidative stress. They often possess strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities, as well as anti-inflammatory action, which are also the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits, such as anticancer, anti-aging, and protective action for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, obesity and neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes recent progress on the health benefits of antioxidant phytochemicals, and discusses their potential mechanisms in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases.

  19. Screening of Natural Antioxidants from Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plants Associated with Treatment of Rheumatic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hua-Bin Li; Feng-Lin Song; En-Qin Xia; Yuan Zhang; Xiang-Rong Xu; Lei Kuang; Ren-You Gan

    2010-01-01

    In order to find new sources of natural antioxidants, the antioxidant capacities of 50 medicinal plants associated with treatment of rheumatic diseases were systemically evaluated using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays, and their total phenolic contents were measured by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Their antioxidant activities of some of these plants were analyzed for the first time. The FRAP and TEAC assay results suggested ...

  20. Barley yellow dwarf virus infection and elevated CO2 alter the antioxidants ascorbate and glutathione in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegeer, Rebecca K; Powell, Kevin S; Tausz, Michael

    2016-05-20

    Plant antioxidants ascorbate and glutathione play an important role in regulating potentially harmful reactive oxygen species produced in response to virus infection. Barley yellow dwarf virus is a widespread viral pathogen that systemically infects cereal crops including wheat, barley and oats. In addition, rising atmospheric CO2 will alter plant growth and metabolism, including many potential but not well understood effects on plant-virus interactions. In order to better understand the wheat-BYDV interaction and any potential changes under elevated CO2, the total concentration and oxidised fraction of ascorbate and glutathione was measured in leaves of a susceptible wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L. 'Yitpi') infected with Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (Padi Avenae virus) and grown under elevated CO2 in controlled environment chambers. Virus infection decreased total leaf ascorbate and glutathione concentrations and increased the fraction of oxidised ascorbate (dehydroascorbate). Elevated CO2 decreased the fraction of oxidised ascorbate. In this work, we demonstrate that systemic infection by a phloem-restricted virus weakens the antioxidant pools of ascorbate and glutathione. In addition, elevated CO2 may decrease oxidative stress, for example, from virus infection, but there was no direct evidence for an interactive effect between treatments.

  1. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  2. Screening of natural antioxidants from traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with treatment of rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ren-You; Kuang, Lei; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhang, Yuan; Xia, En-Qin; Song, Feng-Lin; Li, Hua-Bin

    2010-08-30

    In order to find new sources of natural antioxidants, the antioxidant capacities of 50 medicinal plants associated with treatment of rheumatic diseases were systemically evaluated using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays, and their total phenolic contents were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Their antioxidant activities of some of these plants were analyzed for the first time. The FRAP and TEAC assay results suggested that the antioxidant compounds in these plants possessed free radicals scavenging activity and oxidant reducing power. A positive linear correlation between antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents implied that phenolic compounds in these plants could be the main components contributing to the observed activities. The results showed that Geranium wilfordii, Loranthus parasiticus, Polygonum aviculare, Pyrrosia sheaeri, Sinomenium acutum and Tripterygium wilfordii possessed the highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolic content among 50 plants tested, and could be rich potential sources of natural antioxidants.

  3. Screening of Natural Antioxidants from Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plants Associated with Treatment of Rheumatic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to find new sources of natural antioxidants, the antioxidant capacities of 50 medicinal plants associated with treatment of rheumatic diseases were systemically evaluated using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays, and their total phenolic contents were measured by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Their antioxidant activities of some of these plants were analyzed for the first time. The FRAP and TEAC assay results suggested that the antioxidant compounds in these plants possessed free radicals scavenging activity and oxidant reducing power. A positive linear correlation between antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents implied that phenolic compounds in these plants could be the main components contributing to the observed activities. The results showed that Geranium wilfordii, Loranthus parasiticus, Polygonum aviculare, Pyrrosia sheaeri, Sinomenium acutum and Tripterygium wilfordii possessed the highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolic content among 50 plants tested, and could be rich potential sources of natural antioxidants.

  4. Antioxidant treatment attenuates lactate production in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Nielsen, Per Mose; Stokholm Nørlinger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The early progression of diabetic nephropathy is notoriously difficult to detect and quantify before the occurrence of substantial histological damage. Recently, hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate has demonstrated increased lactate production in the kidney early after the onset of diabetes, implying......-of-the-art hyperpolarized magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Ten-week-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: healthy controls, untreated diabetic (streptozotocin treatment to induce insulinopenic diabetes), and diabetic, receiving chronic antioxidant treatment with TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2......-IDEAL spiral sequence. Untreated diabetic rats showed increased renal lactate production compared with that shown by the controls. However, chronic TEMPOL treatment significantly attenuated diabetes-induced lactate production. No significant effects of diabetes or TEMPOL were observed on [13C]alanine levels...

  5. Effect of Lutein and Antioxidant Supplementation on VEGF Expression, MMP-2 Activity, and Ultrastructural Alterations in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Fernández-Robredo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as atherosclerosis and age-related macular degeneration (AMD. ApoE-deficient mice (apoE−/− are a well-established model of genetic hypercholesterolemia and develop retinal alterations similar to those found in humans with AMD. Thus supplementation with lutein or multivitamin plus lutein and glutathione complex (MV could prevent the onset of these alterations. ApoE−/− mice (n=40, 3 months old were treated daily for 3 months with lutein (AE-LUT or MV (two doses: AE-MV15 (15 mg/kg/day and AE-MV50 (50 mg/kg/day and were compared to controls with vehicle (AE-C. Wild-type mice (n=10 were also used as control (WT-C. ApoE−/− mice showed higher retinal lipid peroxidation and increased VEGF expression and MMP-2 activity, associated with ultrastructural alterations such as basal laminar deposits, vacuoles, and an increase in Bruch's membrane thickness. While lutein alone partially prevented the alterations observed in apoE−/− mice, MV treatment substantially reduced VEGF levels and MMP-2 activity and ameliorated the retinal morphological alterations. These results suggest that oxidative stress in addition to an increased expression and activity of proangiogenic factors could participate in the onset or development of retinal alterations of apoE−/− mice. Moreover, these changes could be prevented by efficient antioxidant treatments.

  6. Antioxidant treatment ameliorates experimental diabetes-induced depressive-like behaviour and reduces oxidative stress in brain and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Abelaira, Helena M; Titus, Stephanie E; Carlessi, Anelise S; Matias, Beatriz I; Bruchchen, Livia; Florentino, Drielly; Vieira, Andriele; Petronilho, Fabricia; Ceretta, Luciane B; Zugno, Alexandra I; Quevedo, João

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown a relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and the development of major depressive disorder. Alterations in oxidative stress are associated with the pathophysiology of both diabetes mellitus and major depressive disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine on behaviour and oxidative stress parameters in diabetic rats. To this aim, after induction of diabetes by a single dose of alloxan, Wistar rats were treated with N-acetylcysteine or deferoxamine for 14 days, and then depressive-like behaviour was evaluated. Oxidative stress parameters were assessed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas. Diabetic rats displayed depressive-like behaviour, and treatment with N-acetylcysteine reversed this alteration. Carbonyl protein levels were increased in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and pancreas of diabetic rats, and both N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine reversed these alterations. Lipid damage was increased in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and pancreas; however, treatment with N-acetylcysteine or deferoxamine reversed lipid damage only in the hippocampus and pancreas. Superoxide dismutase activity was decreased in the amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas of diabetic rats. In diabetic rats, there was a decrease in catalase enzyme activity in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas, but an increase in the hippocampus. Treatment with antioxidants did not have an effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, animal model of diabetes produced depressive-like behaviour and oxidative stress in the brain and periphery. Treatment with antioxidants could be a viable alternative to treat behavioural and biochemical alterations induced by diabetes.

  7. Congenital malformations in experimental diabetic pregnancy: aetiology and antioxidative treatment. Minireview based on a doctoral thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simán, M

    1997-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy causes congenital malformations in the offspring. The aim of this work was to characterize biochemical and morphologic anomalies in the conceptus of an animal model of diabetic pregnancy. In addition, a preventive treatment against diabetes-induced dysmorphogenesis was developed. Congenital cataract was often found in the offspring of diabetic rats. The fetal lenses had increased water accumulation, sorbitol concentration and aldose reductase activity compared to control lenses. The results suggest that the cataracts form via osmotic attraction of water due to sorbitol accumulation in the fetal lens. Another set of malformations, with possible neural crest cell origin, occurred frequently in offspring of diabetic rats. These included low set ears, micrognathia, hypoplasia of the thymus, thyroid and parathyroid glands, as well as anomalies of the heart and great vessels. Furthermore, diabetes caused intrauterine death and resorptions more frequently in the late part of gestation. When the pregnant diabetic rats were treated with the antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene, vitamin E or vitamin C, the occurrence of gross malformations was reduced from approximately 25% to less than 8%, and late resorptions from 17% to 7%. This suggests that an abnormal handling of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in diabetes-induced dysmorphogenesis in vivo. Indeed, an increased concentration of lipid peroxides, indicating damage caused by ROS, was found in fetuses of diabetes rats. In addition, embryos of diabetic rats had low concentrations of the antioxidant vitamin E compared to control embryos. These biochemical alterations were normalized by vitamin E treatment of the pregnant diabetic rats. The antioxidants are likely to have prevented ROS injury in the embryos of the diabetic rats, in particular in the neural crest cells, thereby normalizing embryonic development. These results provide a rationale for developing new anti

  8. Changes in whole grain polyphenols and antioxidant activity of six sorghum genotypes under different irrigation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gangcheng; Johnson, Stuart K; Bornman, Janet F; Bennett, Sarita J; Fang, Zhongxiang

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum grain containing elevated polyphenolic antioxidant content may provide foods with benefits to human health. A study was undertaken to determine the potential role of irrigation on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant levels in sorghum grain. Bound, free and total polyphenols were investigated in six diverse sorghum genotypes grown under either full irrigation or a deficit irrigation regime. Results showed genotype, irrigation and their interaction had a significant effect on polyphenols and antioxidant activity (P⩽0.05). The deficit irrigation treatment significantly increased polyphenol content and antioxidant activity compared to the full irrigation treatment. Of the six genotypes Shawaya black short 1 and IS1311C (brown) showed the highest polyphenols levels and antioxidant activity. Therefore, both irrigation treatments and genotype need to be considered by sorghum breeders and farmers during sorghum production to produce grain with the required levels of polyphenolics and antioxidant activity for targeted end-use.

  9. Findings on sperm alterations and DNA fragmentation, nutritional, hormonal and antioxidant status in an elite triathlete. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vaamonde

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: In this high-intensity endurance athlete, sperm parameters, mainly sperm morphology and DNA fragmentation, are altered. Further knowledge is needed with regards nutritional antioxidant intake and other dietetic strategies oriented toward avoiding oxidative damage in semen of high-performance triathletes. Moreover, adequate nutritional strategies must be found and nutritional advice given to athletes so as to palliate or dampen the effects of exercise on semen quality.

  10. Effects of various storage conditions and alterations of antioxidant contents on chromatic aberration of hydroquinone ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Teruhisa; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Kita, Tomoko; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Kakumoto, Mikio; Funasaka, Yoko; Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Fujita, Takuya; Kamiyama, Fumio; Yamamoto, Akira; Nordlund, James J; Kaneko, Masafumi; Iida, Akira; Okumura, Katsuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Ointments of the skin depigmentation agent hydroquinone (HQ) have been prepared by extemporaneous nonsterile compounding in our hospital. The HQ ointments were highly effective in the treatment of various types of skin pigmentations; however, various problems have emerged including chromatic aberration of the ointments, a relatively large variability of efficacy, and mild side effects. Chromatic aberration is expected to induce non-compliance, and this may be the reason for the relatively large variability in efficacy. In this paper, the effects of various storage conditions on the chromatic aberration and HQ content of HQ ointments were evaluated, and it was suggested that the chromatic aberration was accelerated by exposure to high temperature, air and light, although these had no effect on the HQ content. In addition, various types of HQ ointments were prepared to find a formulation to minimize chromatic aberration, and it was found that the concentrations of antioxidants, Na(2)SO(3) and L(+)-ascorbic acid (AsA), seemed to be too high, and that the protective effect of AsA on chromatic aberration was mainly due to its acidifying effect.

  11. Alteration in membrane protein, antioxidant status and hexokinase activity in erythrocytes of CCl4- induced cirrhotic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Doustimotlagh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that hepatocyte membrane composition changes in patients with cholestasis and cirrhosis. These alterations that are because of intracellular oxidative stress are supposed to be reflected in erythrocyte membrane. The aim of this study was to investigate the modification of erythrocyte membrane along with hexokinase and antioxidant enzymes during development of cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 in male Wistar rats. The test groups were: baseline, cholestatic, early cirrhotic and advanced cirrhotic along with an equal number of sham-control animals. The erythrocyte membrane modifications (protein sulfhydryl, protein carbonyl, and lipid peroxidation, as well as NO metabolites, were assessed. Activities of GPX, CAT, SOD and HK were also measured. Protein sulfhydryl content of the erythrocyte membrane (after 2, 6 and 10 weeks of injection had significant progressive decrease. In contrast, protein carbonyls were remarkably increased 2 weeks after injection but significantly decreased after 6 weeks and returned to normal levels after 10 weeks. No significant difference in erythrocyte HK activity or MDA content was observed. Test groups showed significantly lower erythrocyte GPx activity after six weeks and CAT and SOD activities along with NO metabolites content after two weeks (P<0.05. This study indicates that the progression of cirrhosis is accompanied by alterations in antioxidant enzyme and decreased NO metabolites. Protein carbonyl alteration occurs in the early stages of cirrhosis while protein sulfhydryl alterations have a progressive decrease in advanced cirrhosis.

  12. Alterations in seedling vigour and antioxidant enzyme activities in Catharanthus roseus under seed priming with native diazotrophs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KARTHIKEYAN B.; JALEEL C.A.; GOPI R.; DEIVEEKASUNDARAM M.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on Catharanthus roseus to study the effect of seed treatments with native diazotrophs on its seedling growth and antioxidant enzyme activities. The treatments had significant influence on various seedling parameters.There is no significant influence on dry matter production with the diazotrophs, Azospirillum and Azotobacter. However, the vital seedling parameters such as germination percentage and vigour index were improved. Azotobacter treatment influenced maximum of 50% germination, whereas Azospirillum and Azotobacter were on par with C. roseus with respect to their vigour index. There was significant difference in the population of total diazotrophs. Azospirillum and Azotobacter between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of C. roseus had the same trend and were observed at various locations of the study. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) were increased to a significant extent due to the treatment with diazotrophs.

  13. Prenatal hormones alter antioxidant enzymes and lung histology in rats with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. IJsselstijn (Hanneke); B.A. Pacheco; A. Albert; W. Sluiter (Wim); P.K. Donahoe; J.C. de Jongste (Johan); J.J. Schnitzer; D. Tibboel (Dick)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal administration of dexamethasone (Dex) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) synergistically enhances lung maturity, but TRH suppresses the antioxidant enzyme activity. Prenatal hormonal therapy improves alveolar surfactant content and lung compliance in rat

  14. Lipid Peroxidative Damage on Cisplatin Exposure and Alterations in Antioxidant Defense System in Rat Kidneys: A Possible Protective Effect of Selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka I. Ognjanović

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II, CP is an important chemotherapeutic agent, useful in the treatment of several cancers, but with several side effects such as nephrotoxicity. The present study investigated the possible protective effect of selenium (Se against CP-induced oxidative stress in the rat kidneys. Male Wistar albino rats were injected with a single dose of cisplatin (7 mg CP/kg b.m., i.p. and selenium (6 mg Se/kg b.m, as Na2SeO3, i.p., alone or in combination. The obtained results showed that CP increased lipid peroxidation (LPO and decreased reduced glutathione (GSH concentrations, suggesting the CP-induced oxidative stress, while Se treatment reversed this change to control values. Acute intoxication of rats with CP was followed by statistically significant decreased activity of antioxidant defense enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione reductase (GR and glutathione-S-transferase (GST. Treatment with Se reversed CP-induced alterations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities and significantly prevented the CP-induced kidney damage.

  15. Lipid peroxidative damage on Cisplatin exposure and alterations in antioxidant defense system in rat kidneys: a possible protective effect of selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognjanović, Branka I; Djordjević, Nataša Z; Matić, Miloš M; Obradović, Jasmina M; Mladenović, Jelena M; Stajn, Andraš Š; Saičić, Zorica S

    2012-01-01

    Cisplatin (Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II, CP) is an important chemotherapeutic agent, useful in the treatment of several cancers, but with several side effects such as nephrotoxicity. The present study investigated the possible protective effect of selenium (Se) against CP-induced oxidative stress in the rat kidneys. Male Wistar albino rats were injected with a single dose of cisplatin (7 mg CP/kg b.m., i.p.) and selenium (6 mg Se/kg b.m, as Na(2)SeO(3), i.p.), alone or in combination. The obtained results showed that CP increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations, suggesting the CP-induced oxidative stress, while Se treatment reversed this change to control values. Acute intoxication of rats with CP was followed by statistically significant decreased activity of antioxidant defense enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Treatment with Se reversed CP-induced alterations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities and significantly prevented the CP-induced kidney damage.

  16. Processing strawberries to different products alters contents of vitamin C, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Otto, Konrad; Böhm, Volker

    2005-07-13

    Strawberries were processed to juice, nectar, wine, and puree. For investigation of the antioxidant capacity as well as the contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, samples were taken after different stages of production to determine the effects of processing. The content of vitamin C was measured spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic content was analyzed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the amount of total anthocyanins was determined by using the pH-differential method. Two different methods-the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test-were used to determine the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity. This study showed the decrease of all investigated parameters within processing strawberries to different products. The content of ascorbic acid decreased with production time and processing steps, especially during heat treatment. The investigations on total phenolics in strawberry products proved fining to be a mild method to clarify berry juices and wines without removing high amounts of total phenolics. Fermentation did not lead to heavy losses of total phenolics, probably due to polymerization and condensation of monomer phenolics such as anthocyanins. Total anthocyanins and the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity decreased while using high temperatures. Anthocyanins also decreased considerably during the processing of wines, mainly caused by fermentation and pasteurization.

  17. Radiation recall dermatitis after docetaxel chemotherapy. Treatment by antioxidant ointment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncker-Rohr, Viola; Freund, Ulrich; Momm, Felix [Ortenau-Klinikum Offenburg-Gengenbach Lehrkrankenhaus der Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg i. Br., Radio-Onkologie, Offenburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is an acute skin toxicity caused by different anticancer or antibiotic drugs within a former completely healed irradiation field. Predictive factors for RRD are not known and its mechanisms are not completely understood. A case of RRD induced by docetaxel and successfully treated by an antioxidant ointment (Mapisal {sup registered}) is presented here. Such an ointment might be useful not only in RRD therapy, but also in the treatment of high-grade dermatitis induced by radiotherapy and thus may contribute to the improvement of patients' quality of life and to the scheduled completion of cancer therapies. (orig.) [German] Die Strahlen-Recall-Dermatitis (RRD) ist eine akute Hauttoxizitaet, die durch verschiedene Chemotherapeutika oder Antibiotika innerhalb eines frueheren, komplett abgeheilten Bestrahlungsfelds hervorgerufen wird. Praediktive Faktoren fuer die RRD sind nicht bekannt und ihr Mechanismus ist nicht vollstaendig geklaert. Es wird ein Fallbericht einer durch Docetaxel induzierten RRD dargestellt, die erfolgreich mit einer antioxidativen Salbe (Mapisal {sup registered}) behandelt wurde. Solche Salben koennten nicht nur zur Therapie der RRD, sondern auch bei der Behandlung einer akuten Dermatitis waehrend der Strahlentherapie nuetzlich sein und damit zur Verbesserung der Lebensqualitaet der Patienten und zur planmaessigen Durchfuehrung der Tumortherapie beitragen. (orig.)

  18. Altered Antioxidant Status and Increased Lipid Per-Oxidation in Seminal Plasma of Tunisian Infertile Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Atig, Monia Raffa, Habib Ben Ali, Kerkeni Abdelhamid, Ali Saad, Mounir Ajina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF for the first tentative. Patients were characterized by an idiopathic infertility. They were divided into three groups: normozoospermics who were considered as controls (n=40, asthenozoospermics (Astheno; n=45 and oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (OAT; n=35. Seminal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX and the levels of glutathione (GSH, zinc (Zn and malondialdehyde (MDA were measured. With the significant increase of the seminal activities of SOD and GPX in normozoospermics group, there were positive correlations observed between this enzymes and sperm quality. Also, significant elevated rates of seminal zinc and GSH were observed in control group, but there was contradictory associations reflecting the effects of these antioxidants on semen parameters. However, we noted significant increase of MDA levels in groups with abnormal seminogram. We showed negative associations between this per-oxidative marker and sperm parameters. These results obviously suggested that impairment on seminal antioxidants is an important risk factor for low sperm quality associated to idiopathic infertility and as a result can lead to poor IVF outcome.

  19. Dietary pollutants induce oxidative stress, altering maternal antioxidant provisioning and reproductive output in the temperate sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Kathryn N; Lamare, Miles D; Burritt, David J

    2016-08-01

    Evidence is growing to suggest that the capacity to withstand oxidative stress may play an important role in shaping life-history trade-offs, although little is known on the relationship in broadcast spawning marine invertebrates. In this group, variation in gamete quantity and quality are important drivers of offspring survival and successful recruitment. Therefore the provisioning of eggs with antioxidants may be an important driver of life history strategies because they play a critical role in preventing damage from reactive oxygen species to macromolecules. In this study, a suite of oxidative stress biomarkers was measured in the gonads and eggs of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Links between oxidative stress markers and core components of fitness including fecundity, gamete quality and maternal transfer of antioxidants were assessed. Experimental induction of oxidative stress was achieved via exposure to a mix of four PAHs over a 21-day period. In PAH exposed individuals, we observed a significant upregulation of the antioxidant defence and detoxification enzymes SOD, CAT, GR, GPx and GST, as well as a greater pool of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione in gonad tissue and eggs. In contrast, glutathione redox status was not affected by PAH exposure, with the percentage of reduced glutathione remaining at approximately 80% in both gonad tissue and released eggs. PAH-exposed adults experienced greater than three- and five-fold increases in oxidative protein and lipid damage, respectively, in gonad tissue. In contrast, eggs maintained low levels of damage, not differing from baseline levels found in eggs released from PAH-naïve mothers. PAH exposure also resulted in a 2-fold reduction in fecundity of reproductively mature females but no significant alteration to egg diameter. Although PAH-exposed females released fewer eggs, successful fertilisation of those eggs was slightly enhanced with average

  20. An altered antioxidant balance occurs in Down syndrome fetal organs: implications for the "gene dosage effect" hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, J B; Susil, B; Pritchard, M; Kola, I

    2003-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the congenital birth defect responsible for the greatest number of individuals with mental retardation. It arises due to trisomy of human chromosome 21 (HSA21) or part thereof. To date there have been limited studies of HSA21 gene expression in trisomy 21 conceptuses. In this study we investigate the expression of the HSA21 antioxidant gene, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) in various organs of control and DS aborted conceptuses. We show that SOD1 mRNA levels are elevated in DS brain, lung, heart and thymus. DS livers show decreased SOD1 mRNA expression compared with controls. Since non-HSA21 antioxidant genes are reported to be concomitantly upregulated in certain DS tissues, we examined the expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) in control and DS fetal organs. Interestingly, GPX1 expression was unchanged in the majority of DS organs and decreased in DS livers. We examined the SOD1 to GPX1 mRNA ratio in individual organs, as both enzymes form part of the body's defense against oxidative stress, and because a disproportionate increase of SOD1 to GPX1 results in noxious hydroxyl radical damage. All organs investigated show an approximately 2-fold increase in the SOD1 to GPX1 mRNA ratio. We propose that it is the altered antioxidant ratio that contributes to certain aspects of the DS phenotype.

  1. A Methionine Deficient Diet Enhances Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism and Alters Anti-Oxidant Pathways in Young Growing Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Castellano

    Full Text Available Methionine is a rate-limiting amino-acid for protein synthesis but non-proteinogenic roles on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress have been demonstrated. Contrary to rodents where a dietary methionine deficiency led to a lower adiposity, an increased lipid accretion rate has been reported in growing pigs fed a methionine deficient diet. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a dietary methionine deficiency on different aspects of tissue lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant pathways in young pigs. Post-weaned pigs (9.8 kg initial body weight were restrictively-fed diets providing either an adequate (CTRL or a deficient methionine supply (MD during 10 days (n=6 per group. At the end of the feeding trial, pigs fed the MD diet had higher lipid content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake, lipogenesis but also lipolysis, and activities of NADPH enzyme suppliers were generally higher in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of MD pigs, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in those pigs. Activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in adipose tissues and muscle of MD pigs. Expression level and activity of the glutathione peroxidase were also higher in liver of MD pigs, but hepatic contents in the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and glutathione reductase activity were lower compared with control pigs. In plasma, superoxide dismutase activity was higher but total anti-oxidant power was lower in MD pigs. These results show that a dietary methionine deficiency resulted in increased levels of lipogenesis and lipolytic indicators in porcine adipose tissues. Decreased glutathione content in the liver and coordinated increase of enzymatic antioxidant activities in adipose tissues altered the cellular redox status of young pigs fed a methionine-deficient diet. These findings illustrate that a rapidly growing animal differently

  2. A Methionine Deficient Diet Enhances Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism and Alters Anti-Oxidant Pathways in Young Growing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Rosa; Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Conde-Aguilera, José Alberto; van Milgen, Jaap; Collin, Anne; Tesseraud, Sophie; Mercier, Yves; Gondret, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Methionine is a rate-limiting amino-acid for protein synthesis but non-proteinogenic roles on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress have been demonstrated. Contrary to rodents where a dietary methionine deficiency led to a lower adiposity, an increased lipid accretion rate has been reported in growing pigs fed a methionine deficient diet. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a dietary methionine deficiency on different aspects of tissue lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant pathways in young pigs. Post-weaned pigs (9.8 kg initial body weight) were restrictively-fed diets providing either an adequate (CTRL) or a deficient methionine supply (MD) during 10 days (n=6 per group). At the end of the feeding trial, pigs fed the MD diet had higher lipid content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake, lipogenesis but also lipolysis, and activities of NADPH enzyme suppliers were generally higher in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of MD pigs, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in those pigs. Activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in adipose tissues and muscle of MD pigs. Expression level and activity of the glutathione peroxidase were also higher in liver of MD pigs, but hepatic contents in the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and glutathione reductase activity were lower compared with control pigs. In plasma, superoxide dismutase activity was higher but total anti-oxidant power was lower in MD pigs. These results show that a dietary methionine deficiency resulted in increased levels of lipogenesis and lipolytic indicators in porcine adipose tissues. Decreased glutathione content in the liver and coordinated increase of enzymatic antioxidant activities in adipose tissues altered the cellular redox status of young pigs fed a methionine-deficient diet. These findings illustrate that a rapidly growing animal differently adapts tissue

  3. Antioxidant capacity of amaranth products: effects of thermal and enzymatic treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Pazinatto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different process -defatting, protein concentration, thermal treatment, hydrolysis with Alcalase and in vitro digestion- on the antioxidant capacity of amaranth seeds was studied. The antioxidant capacity of the products was determined in methanolic and aqueous extracts and varied from 1.00 to 21.22 and 4.97 to 369.18 µ mol TE/g sample for DPPH and ORAC assays, respectively. The combination of protein concentration and hydrolysis with Alcalase led to products with higher antioxidant activity. However, after in vitro digestion, protein concentrate and its hydrolysate showed similar antioxidant capacity. A high correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacity and the total phenolic content for methanolic extracts, with r² values ranging from 0.6133 to 0.9352.

  4. Antioxidant activity of low molecular weight alginate produced by thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishomi, Zahra Habibi; Goliaei, Bahram; Mahdavi, Hossein; Nikoofar, Alireza; Rahimi, Mahmood; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Mamashli, Fatemeh; Bigdeli, Bahareh

    2016-04-01

    By definition, antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules. Therefore, such compounds have very important clinical roles. In this study alginate polymer was depolymerized by heat treatment. The resulting low molecular weight alginates were investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy, Viscometry, Dynamic light scattering and FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. Antioxidant properties of these heat products were studied by ABTS and superoxide radical scavenging assays. Results showed that heating caused breaks in the polymer chain and so generation of low molecular weight alginates. Antioxidant measurements confirmed antioxidant activity of alginate increased upon a decrease in molecular weight. Therefore, low molecular weight alginate produced by heating could be considered as a stronger antioxidant than alginate polymer. These products could be useful for industrial and biomedical applications.

  5. Altered DNA repair, oxidative stress and antioxidant status in coronary artery disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Supriya Simon; V Chithra; Anoop Vijayan; Roy D Dinesh; T Vijayakumar

    2013-06-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disease caused by the interplay of environmental risk factors with multiple predisposing genes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of DNA repair efficiency and oxidative stress and antioxidant status in CAD patients. Malonaldehyde (MDA), which is an indicator of oxidative stress, and mean break per cell (b/c) values, which is an indicator of decreased DNA repair efficiency, were found to be significantly increased in patients compared to normal controls ( < 0.05) whereas ascorbic acid and GSH were found to be lower among patients than the control group. It has been found that elevated oxidative stress decreased antioxidant level and decreased DNA repair efficiency can contribute to the development of CAD. This study also showed that high MDA, low ascorbic acid and GSH were significantly associated with high b/c value.

  6. WHITE OYSTER MUSHROOM (p leurotus F lorida MUTANT WITH ALTERED ANTIOXIDANT CONTENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRA DJAJANEGARA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation using gamma ray (60Co at 0.75 KGray with dose velocity of 1.149 KGray/hour on white oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus florida mycelia yielded several mutants. Based on isozyme analysis using two enzyme markers such as esterase (EST and acid phosphatase (ACP showed that 3 putative mutants (PO-3, PO-4 and PO-5 among 5 mutants are positive. Even though the isozyme patterns indicated that those 3 putative mutants are positively mutated, only PO-5 showed higher productivity compared to control (PO-K which is reflected by significantly higher number of fruit bodies, higher fresh weight and dry weight yield of three successive flush periods. It was assumed that the mutation which occurred in PO-3 and PO-4 may affect other trait(s of the white oyster mushroom. Antioxidant analysis of those mutants indicate that mutant PO-4 has significantly higher antioxidant content compared to control (PO-K and the two other mutants (PO-3 & PO-5. This finding leads to the possible applica -tion of white oyster mushroom as a natural antioxidant source.

  7. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Andrew Shanely

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p < 0.0125. Exercise performance did not differ between WM puree or carbohydrate beverage trials (p > 0.05, however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05. WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05, but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine, antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function.

  8. THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY POSTHARVEST TREATMENTS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF STRAWBERRY FRUITS DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivna Štolfa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Proper postharvest storage is an effective way to maintain the quality and nutritional values of fruits. The aim of this study was to determine how environmentally friendly postharvest treatments with salicylic acid solution, colloidal silver solution and ozone, affect the antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. Albion during 7 days of storage at 4°C. The content of ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits were determined spec-trophotometrically. After 7 days of storage in strawberry fruits treated with all three treatments separately, the contents of ascorbic acid were higher than in the control fruits, supporting the usefulness of these treatments for preserving fruit quality and nutritional value during storage. The treatment with salicylic acid solution showed the most beneficial effect during storage causing a significant increase in the content of ascorbic acid, phenols and antioxidant activity at the end of the storage period.

  9. Alteration of antioxidant enzymes and impairment of DNA in the SiO2 nanoparticles exposed zebra fish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, R; Kavitha, P; Kanipandian, N; Arun, S; Thirumurugan, R; Subramanian, P

    2013-07-01

    The incorporation of nanoparticles in industrial and biomedical applications has increased significantly in recent years, yet their hazardous and toxic effects have not been studied extensively. While standard toxicological test methods are generally capable of detecting the toxic effects, the choice of relevant methods for nanomaterials is still discussed. Among the various oxide nanomaterials, silica nanoparticles are widely used in biological applications that include nano-medicine. But studies on adverse effects of silica nanoparticle exposure to fish remain unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the oxidative toxic effects of silicon dioxide nanoparticles using fish model. The size of the SiO2 nanoparticles was between 68 and 100 nm which was confirmed by X-ray diffractometer, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The zebra fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (5 and 2.5 mg/L) of characterized SiO2 nanoparticles for a period of 7 days. After 7 days, SiO2 nanoparticle-treated fishes were sacrificed, and tissues such as liver, muscle and gill were dissected out for the analysis of antioxidant enzymes and DNA fragmentation. The DNA profiles were analysed in the tissues of zebra fish that treated with SiO2 nanoparticles. Tissues of fish from clean water were used as control, and DNA profiles were analysed. It is found that DNA from control tissues was intact, whereas the tissues treated with SiO2 were all fragmented. SiO2 nanoparticle-mediated antioxidant enzymes activities, such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH)-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and GSH, in the tissues of zebra fish were measured. The results revealed that alteration of antioxidant enzymes due to SiO2 nanoparticle can be considered as a biomarker to SiO2-mediated oxidative stress in biological samples.

  10. Selenium fertilization alters the chemical composition and antioxidant constituents of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Dall'acqua, Stefano; Mietto, Anna; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H; Sambo, Paolo; Masi, Antonio; Malagoli, Mario

    2013-11-06

    Although selenium (Se) is a known anticarcinogen, little is known regarding how Se affects other nutritional qualities in crops. Tomato ( Solanum lycopersicon ) was supplied with 0-50 μM selenate and analyzed for elemental composition and antioxidant compounds. When supplied at low doses (5 and 10 μM) via the roots, Se stimulated the synthesis of phenolic compounds in leaves and reduced the levels of Mo, Fe, Mn, and Cu in roots. At higher doses (25 and 50 μM Se) leaf glutathione levels were 3-5-fold enhanced. Supply of selenate via foliar spray (0, 2, or 20 mg Se plant(-1)) resulted in Se-biofortified tomato fruits, with Se levels low enough not to pose a health risk. The Se-biofortified fruits showed enhanced levels of the antioxidant flavonoids naringenin chalcone and kaempferol and a concomitant decrease of cinnamic acid derivatives. Thus, tomato fruits can be safely enriched with Se, and Se biofortification may enhance levels of other neutraceutical compounds.

  11. Antioxidant supplementation during oncology treatment has no effect on cervical cancer recurrence

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    Karolina Álvarez-Altamirano

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim: Antioxidant therapy with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in cervical cancer patients is controversial. While some evidence suggests that the use of antioxidants diminishes side effects from anticancer therapy, there is also data to suggest that antioxidants increase the risk of recurrence by affecting oncology treatments. Methods: We conducted a controlled clinical trial in cervical cancer patients supplemented with an antioxidant mixture or a placebo during four years after their antineoplastic treatment was completed and the effect on recurrence. We also conducted data on used hemoglobin and albumin levels. Differences between groups were analyzed using chi-square test. Survival was calculated by the Multivariate COX regression with omnibus test and the enter method. Results: 103 treated patients were in clinical stages IIB and IIIB of cervical cancer, 48% (n = 49 of the patients were treated with antioxidant supplementation and 52% (n =54 of the patients were in the placebo group. Of the original 103 patients, were able to follow up on 88 patients for an additional four years.23.9% (n = 21 of the patients presented cancer recurrence and 76.1% (n = 67 did not, 21.6% (n = 19 patients showed metastasis. 8% (n = 7 patients were in the antioxidant group and 15.9% (n = 14 were in the placebo group (p > 0.05. Regarding implications of cancer survivors, antioxidant supplementation apparently seems not to have interference with recurrence in cervical cancer patients but there is not enough evidence to prove it. A different dosage may have the expected effect; however, further studies with another dosage and criteria are necessary. Conclusions: Supplementation with antioxidants during treatment of cervical cancer has no effect on cancer recurrence after 4 years of follow-up.

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of mango after formalin treatment during preservation

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    G.M. Masud Parvez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals are producing continuously inside the living cell as a part of normal metabolic process and responsible for the generation of various types of disease such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurological disease, pulmonary disease, rheumatoid arthritis, nephropathy, ocular disease etc. Antioxidants are continuously counterbalancing the oxidative radical by breakdown or neutralizing the free radical. Various fruits and plant parts possesses antioxidant activity for example our studied sample mango has antioxidant property but when it treated with formalin it markedly reduces antioxidant potential of it. In phosphomolybdate assay it is found that normal mango peel contains more antioxidant activity than mango flesh, but treatment with formalin, antioxidant potential decreases in both peels and fleshes. Similar result was found in iron reducing power assay and DPPH radical scavenging assay where it is found that normal mango peel has almost similar scavenging property as compared to standard BHT. Normal mango peel (NP exhibits very high radical scavenging activity (IC50 is 4.2. At 100 μg/ml radical scavenging activity of normal mango peel (NP is 93.79%, but formalin treated mango peel (FP at same concentration possess scavenging property 76.36%, where as standard antioxidant scavenges about 93.95%. Scavenging power of normal mango flesh (NF is 39.57% and in formalin treated mango flesh (FF scavenging potential is only 7.12% at 100 μg/ml.

  13. Induction of Cell Death through Alteration of Oxidants and Antioxidants in Epithelial Cells Exposed to High Energy Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Govindarajan; Wu, Honglu

    2012-01-01

    Radiation affects several cellular and molecular processes including double strand breakage, modifications of sugar moieties and bases. In outer space, protons are the primary radiation source which poses a range of potential health risks to astronauts. On the other hand, the use of proton radiation for tumor radiation therapy is increasing as it largely spares healthy tissues while killing tumor tissues. Although radiation related research has been conducted extensively, the molecular toxicology and cellular mechanisms affected by proton radiation remain poorly understood. Therefore, in the present study, we irradiated rat epithelial cells (LE) with different doses of protons and investigated their effects on cell proliferation and cell death. Our data showed an inhibition of cell proliferation in proton irradiated cells with a significant dose dependent activation and repression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, glutathione and superoxide dismutase respectively as compared to control cells. In addition, apoptotic related genes such as caspase-3 and -8 activities were induced in a dose dependent manner with corresponding increased levels of DNA fragmentation in proton irradiated cells than control cells. Together, our results show that proton radiation alters oxidant and antioxidant levels in the cells to activate apoptotic pathway for cell death.

  14. Distillation time alters essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of male Juniperus scopulorum trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A; Schlegel, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 15 distillation times (DT), ranging from 1.25 to 960 min, on oil yield, essential oil profiles, and antioxidant capacity of male J. scopulorum trees. Essential oil yields were 0.07% at 1.25 min DT and reached a maximum of 1.48% at 840 min DT. The concentrations of alpha-thujene (1.76-2.75%), alpha-pinene (2.9-8.7%), sabinene (45-74.7%), myrcene (2.4-3.4%), and para-cymene (0.8-3.1%) were highest at the shortest DT (1.5 to 5 min) and decreased with increasing DT. Cis-sabinene hydrate (0.5-0.97%) and linalool plus trans-sabinene (0.56-1.6%) reached maximum levels at 40 min DT. Maximum concentrations of limonene (2.3-2.8%) and pregeijerene-B (0.06-1.4%) were obtained at 360-480 min DT, and 4-terpinenol (0.7-5.7%) at 480 min DT. Alpha-terpinene (0.16-2.9%), gamma-terpinene (0.3-4.9%) and terpinolene (0.3-1.4%) reached maximum at 720 min DT. The concentrations of delta-cadinene (0.06-1.65%), elemol (0-6.0%), and 8-alpha-acetoxyelemol (0-4.4%) reached maximum at 840 min DT. The yield of the essential oil constituents increased with increasing DT. Only linalool/transsabinene hydrate reached a maximum yield at 360 min DT. Maximum yields of the following constituents were obtained at 720 min DT: alpha-thujene, alpha-pinene, camphene, sabinene, myrcene, alpha-terpinene, para-cimene, limonene, gamma-terpinene, terpinolene, and 4-terpinenol. At 840 min DT, cis-sabinene hydrate, prejeijerene-B, gamma muurolene, delta-cadinene, reached maximum. At 960 min DT, maximum yields of beta-pinene, elemol, alphaeudesmol/betaeudesmol, 8-alpha-acetoxyelemol were reached. These changes were adequately modeled by either the Michaelis-Menten or the Power (Convex) nonlinear regression models. Oils from the 480 min DT showed higher antioxidant activity compared to samples collected at 40, 160, or 960 min DT. These results show the potential for obtaining essential oils with various compositions and antioxidant capacity from male J

  15. Passiflora incarnata treatment during gestation and lactation: toxicological and antioxidant evaluation in wistar dams

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    Karine Maria Boll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora incarnata is marketed in many countries as a phytomedicine. Even though the directions of most marketed phytomedicines recommend them to be used under medical supervision, reproductive and developmental studies are sparse and not mandatory for regulatory purposes. In this study, a reproductive toxicity evaluation of P. incarnata was conducted in Wistar rats gavaged (30 or 300 mg/kg during pregnancy and lactation. Moreover, considering that antioxidant properties have been attributed to flavonoids present in the genus Passiflora, it was also evaluated the antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance in the plasma of these dams and the antioxidant potential in an in vitro test. P. incarnata treatment did not influence dams´ body weight as well as reproductive (gestation length, post-implantation loss, litter size, litter weight and hepatic (albumin, AST, ALT, GGT parameters. The antioxidant property of P. incarnata was evidenced both in vivo (increase in the total antioxidant plasmatic potential and in vitro (decrease in neutrophil-induced respiratory burst. The results from the present study indicate that under the experimental conditions evaluated, P. incarnata treatment during gestation and lactation presented antioxidant activity in the absence of maternal reproductive toxicity.

  16. Antioxidative status of saliva before and after non-surgical periodontal treatment

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    Novaković Nada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Oxidative stress and antioxidants play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease, including chronic periodontitis (CP. Saliva contains enzymatic (glutathione peroxidase - GPx, superoxide dismutase - SOD, etc. and non-enzymatic (albumin - ALB, uric acid - UA, glutathione, etc. antioxidants. Objective. The aims of this study were to investigate: a level of SOD, GPx, UA, ALB and total antioxidative status (TAS of saliva in CP patients before and after non-surgical treatment, and b correlations between clinical periodontal parameters and levels of salivary antioxidants. Methods. Saliva was collected from 21 CP patients before and after non-surgical treatment. The condition of periodontium was assessed by plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing depth and clinical attachment loss. Level of investigated antioxidants (except GPx and TAS was determined using colorimetric method and commercial kits. GPx activity was determined using UV method and commercial kits. Results. After the treatment significant increase of UA, ALB, Gpx, TAS was detected (p0.05. A significant correlation was observed between GPx and PI (r=0.575, p=0.008, SOD and GI (r=0.525, p=0.017 before therapy, and SOD and bleeding on probing (BP (r=0.59, p=0.006, TAS and BP (r=0.453, p=0.045 after therapy. Conclusion. These data suggest that levels of salivary antioxidants generally increase after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Correlation between some clinical periodontal parameters and level of salivary antioxidants was found. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41008

  17. Antioxidant treatment promotes prostate epithelial proliferation in Nkx3.1 mutant mice.

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    Erin E Martinez

    Full Text Available Discordant results in preclinical and clinical trials have raised questions over the effectiveness of antioxidants in prostate cancer chemoprevention. Results from the large-scale Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT showed that antioxidants failed to prevent, and in some cases promoted, prostate cancer formation in men without a history of the disease. One possible explanation for these alarming results is the notion that the effects of antioxidant treatment on the prostate are modified by specific, intrinsic genetic risk factors, causing some men to respond negatively to antioxidant treatment. Loss of expression of the homeobox transcription factor NKX3.1 in the prostate is frequently associated with human prostate cancer. Nkx3.1 mutant mice display prostatic hyperplasia and dysplasia and are used as a model of the early stages of prostate cancer initiation. While the mechanisms by which Nkx3.1 loss promotes prostate tumorigenicity are not completely understood, published data have suggested that elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS associated with Nkx3.1 loss may be a causative factor. Here we have tested this hypothesis by treating Nkx3.1 mutant mice with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC for 13 weeks post-weaning. Surprisingly, while NAC treatment decreased ROS levels in Nkx3.1 mutant mouse prostates, it failed to reduce prostatic epithelial hyperplasia/dysplasia. Rather, NAC treatment increased epithelial cell proliferation and promoted the expression of a pro-proliferative gene signature. These results show that ROS do not promote proliferation in the Nkx3.1-null prostate, but instead inhibit proliferation, suggesting that antioxidant treatment may encourage prostate epithelial cell proliferation early in prostate tumorigenesis. Our findings provide new insight that may help explain the increased prostate cancer risk observed with vitamin E treatment in the SELECT trial and emphasize the need for preclinical studies

  18. Long-term melatonin treatment reduces ovarian mass and enhances tissue antioxidant defenses during ovulation in the rat

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    L.G.A. Chuffa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin regulates the reproductive cycle, energy metabolism and may also act as a potential antioxidant indoleamine. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether long-term melatonin treatment can induce reproductive alterations and if it can protect ovarian tissue against lipid peroxidation during ovulation. Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats, 60 days old (± 250-260 g, were randomly divided into two equal groups. The control group received 0.3 mL 0.9% NaCl + 0.04 mL 95% ethanol as vehicle, and the melatonin-treated group received vehicle + melatonin (100 µg·100 g body weight-1·day-1 both intraperitoneally daily for 60 days. All animals were killed by decapitation during the morning estrus at 4:00 am. Body weight gain and body mass index were reduced by melatonin after 10 days of treatment (P < 0.05. Also, a marked loss of appetite was observed with a fall in food intake, energy intake (melatonin 51.41 ± 1.28 vs control 57.35 ± 1.34 kcal/day and glucose levels (melatonin 80.3 ± 4.49 vs control 103.5 ± 5.47 mg/dL towards the end of treatment. Melatonin itself and changes in energy balance promoted reductions in ovarian mass (20.2% and estrous cycle remained extensive (26.7%, arresting at diestrus. Regarding the oxidative profile, lipid hydroperoxide levels decreased after melatonin treatment (6.9% and total antioxidant substances were enhanced within the ovaries (23.9%. Additionally, melatonin increased superoxide dismutase (21.3%, catalase (23.6% and glutathione-reductase (14.8% activities and the reducing power (10.2% GSH/GSSG ratio. We suggest that melatonin alters ovarian mass and estrous cyclicity and protects the ovaries by increasing superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-reductase activities.

  19. Experimental evidence for protein oxidative damage and altered antioxidant defense in patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Terry G J; Touw, Catharina M L; Ribas, Graziela S; Biancini, Giovana B; Vanzin, Camila S; Negretto, Giovanna; Mescka, Caroline P; Reijngoud, Dirk Jan; Smit, G Peter A; Wajner, Moacir; Vargas, Carmen R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether macromolecule oxidative damage and altered enzymatic antioxidative defenses occur in patients with medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency. We performed a cross-sectional observational study of in vivo parameters of lipid and prote

  20. Ferulic acid chronic treatment exerts antidepressant-like effect: role of antioxidant defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Juliana; Rodrigues, Andre Felipe; Rós, Adriana de Sousa; de Castro, Amanda Blanski; de Castro, Bianca Blanski; de Lima, Daniela Delwing; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been claimed a place in pathophysiology of depression; however, the details of the neurobiology of this condition remains incompletely understood. Recently, treatments employing antioxidants have been thoroughly researched. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound with antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Herein, we investigated the involvement of the antioxidant activity of chronic oral FA treatment in its antidepressant-like effect using the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. The modulation of antioxidant system in blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex was assessed after stress induction through TST and FST. Our results show that FA at the dose of 1 mg/kg has antidepressant-like effect without affecting locomotor activity. The stress induced by despair tests was able to decrease significantly the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood, catalase (CAT) in the blood and cerebral cortex and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the cerebral cortex. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) levels were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the results show that FA was capable to increase SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities and decrease TBA-RS levels in the blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These findings demonstrated that FA treatment in low doses is capable to exert antidepressant-like effect with the involvement of the antioxidant defense system modulation.

  1. Protective effects of niacin against methylmercury-induced genotoxicity and alterations in antioxidant status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva de Paula, Eloisa; Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Grotto, Denise; Hernandes, Lívia Cristina; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Barbosa, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the potential beneficial effects of niacin (NA; vitamin B3) supplementation in rats chronically exposed to methylmercury (MeHg). Animals were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups (n = 6): Group I, control, received distilled water by gavage; Group II, received MeHg (100 µg/kg/d) by gavage; Group III, received NA (50 mg/kg/d) in drinking water; Group IV, received MeHg (100 µg/kg/d) by gavage + NA (50 mg/kg/d) in drinking water. Biochemical parameters levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions, and enzyme activities aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were determined. Further, oxidative stress markers activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activity, as well as levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide, were examined, and the comet assay was performed, using blood/plasma. Hg levels were measured in blood, brain, and kidneys of animals. Our results demonstrated that NA reduced adverse effects produced by MeHg. The mechanism underlying these effects appears to be related to the intrinsic antioxidant potential of NA. Considering the beneficial effects attributed to NA following MeHg exposure and that fish are the main source of both NA and MeHg, future studies need to evaluate the potential counteractive effect of NA against the adverse consequences of MeHg exposure in fish-eating populations.

  2. Dietary quercetin supplementation increases serum antioxidant capacity and alters hepatic gene expression profile in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liting; Wu, Jianquan; Yang, Jijun; Wei, Jingyu; Gao, Weina; Guo, Changjiang

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of quercetin on hepatic gene expression profile in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into the control group and the quercetin-treated group, in which a diet containing 0.5% quercetin was provided. After two weeks of feeding, serum and liver samples were collected. Biomarkers of oxidative stress, including serum ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values and levels of ascorbic acid, vitamin E (VE), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. The hepatic gene expression profile was examined using a microarray technique. The results showed that serum FRAP value, levels of ascorbic acid and VE were increased significantly, whereas serum levels of GSH and MDA were not changed significantly after quercetin supplementation. The microarray analysis revealed that some hepatic genes involved in phase 2 reaction, metabolism of cholesterol and homocysteine, and energy production were expressed differentially in response to quercetin administration. These findings provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of the actions played by quercetin in vivo.

  3. Elicitation and treatment with precursors of phenolics synthesis improve low-molecular antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of buckwheat sprouts

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    Michał Świeca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, an increase of interest in the modification of food products on each step of production (breeding, production technology, storage condition is observed. Nutritional properties as well as level and activity of bioactive compounds in plant-origin food may be modified using a range of technological and biotechnological practices and elicitation should be mentioned between them. Material and methods. Elicitation with willow bark infusion supported by feeding with the phenylpropa- noid pathway precursors were used for improving the quality of buckwheat sprouts. Special emphasis has been placed on the metabolomic and biochemical changes and the mechanism of overproduction of low-molecular antioxidants. Results. The accumulation of phenolics is caused by stimulation of two main enzymes the phenylpropanoid pathway (tyrosine ammonia-lyase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. Tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities were effectively induced by feeding with tyrosine (about four times that of the control, whereas phenylala- nine ammonia-lyase activity was the highest in the elicited control sprouts and those fed with shikimic acid (an increase by 60% compared to the control. Shikimic acid feeding (both elicited and non-elicited sprouts effectively improved the total phenolics (by about 10% and 20%, respectively, condensed tannins (by about 30% and 28%, respectively, and flavonoids (by about 46% and 70%, respectively. Significant increase of vitexin, rutin, chlorogenic acid and isoorientin contents was also observed. The treatments increased the ascorbic acid content, too. Total antioxidant capacity of sprouts was most effectively increased by feeding with shikimic acid and further elicitation. Conclusion. The studies transfer biotechnology commonly used for the induction of overproduction of sec- ondary metabolites in plant cell line systems to low-processed food production. The obtained results could be used for better understanding of

  4. Altered Plasma Profile of Antioxidant Proteins as an Early Correlate of Pancreatic β Cell Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Taiyi; Kim-Muller, Ja Young; McGraw, Timothy E; Accili, Domenico

    2016-04-29

    Insulin resistance and β cell dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Unlike insulin resistance, β cell dysfunction remains difficult to predict and monitor, because of the inaccessibility of the endocrine pancreas, the integrated relationship with insulin sensitivity, and the paracrine effects of incretins. The goal of our study was to survey the plasma response to a metabolic challenge in order to identify factors predictive of β cell dysfunction. To this end, we combined (i) the power of unbiased iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification) mass spectrometry with (ii) direct sampling of the portal vein following an intravenous glucose/arginine challenge (IVGATT) in (iii) mice with a genetic β cell defect. By so doing, we excluded the effects of peripheral insulin sensitivity as well as those of incretins on β cells, and focused on the first phase of insulin secretion to capture the early pathophysiology of β cell dysfunction. We compared plasma protein profiles with ex vivo islet secretome and transcriptome analyses. We detected changes to 418 plasma proteins in vivo, and detected changes to 262 proteins ex vivo The impairment of insulin secretion was associated with greater overall changes in the plasma response to IVGATT, possibly reflecting metabolic instability. Reduced levels of proteins regulating redox state and neuronal stress markers, as well as increased levels of coagulation factors, antedated the loss of insulin secretion in diabetic mice. These results suggest that a reduced complement of antioxidants in response to a mixed secretagogue challenge is an early correlate of future β cell failure.

  5. Cerium oxide nanoparticles alter the antioxidant capacity but do not impact tuber ionome in Raphanus sativus (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Diaz, Baltazar; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; Rodrigo-García, Joaquin; Morales, Maria Isabel; Osuna-Avila, Pedro; Niu, Genhua; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-11-01

    The effects of nCeO2 on food quality are not well known yet. This research was performed to determine the impact of nCeO2 on radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Plants were cultivated to full maturity in potting soil treated with nCeO2 at concentrations of 0, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg. Germination, growth, photosynthesis, ionome, and antioxidants were evaluated at different growth stages. Results showed that at 500 mg/kg, nCeO2 significantly retarded seed germination but did not reduce the number of germinated seeds. None of the treatments affected gas exchange, photosynthesis, growth, phenols, flavonoids, and nutrients' accumulation in tubers and leaves of adult plants. However, tubers' antioxidant capacity, expressed as FRAP, ABTS(•-) and DPPH, increased by 30%, 32%, and 85%, respectively, in plants treated with 250 mg nCeO2kg(-1) soil. In addition, cerium accumulation in tubers of plants treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg reached 72 and 142 mg/kg d wt, respectively. This suggests that nCeO2 could improve the radical scavenging potency of radish but it might introduce nCeO2 into the food chain with unknown consequences.

  6. Alterations in blood pressure, antioxidant status and caspase 8 expression in cobalt chloride-induced cardio-renal dysfunction are reversed by Ocimum gratissimum and gallic acid in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinrinde, A S; Oyagbemi, A A; Omobowale, T O; Asenuga, E R; Ajibade, T O

    2016-07-01

    The protective abilities of the chloroform extract of Ocimum gratissimum (COG) and gallic acid against cobalt chloride (CoCl2) - induced cardiac and renal toxicity were evaluated. Rats were exposed to CoCl2 (350ppm) for 7 days, either alone, or in combination with COG (100 and 200mg/kg) or gallic acid (120mg/kg). CoCl2 given alone, caused significant increases (pgallic acid treatment significantly reduced (pgallic acid by modulation of CoCl2-induced alterations in blood pressure, antioxidant status and pro-apoptotic caspase 8 in Wistar rats.

  7. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers.

  8. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content in Olive Leaf Tisane as Affected by Boiling Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia AOUIDI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of preparation method on the quality of olive leaf tisane. Secondly, it aimed at evaluating and understanding the effect of boiling treatment on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves. The Phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by ABTS+ method. The Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity depended on extraction procedure of olive leaf tisane. It was found that boiling leads to a decrease in the phenolic content and a rise of antioxidant capacity of aqueous extract from olive leaves. The mass molecular distribution of the polymeric aromatic fraction was analyzed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G50. Results suggested the hydrolysis of phenolic polymers following boiling. Moreover, HPLC analyses showed an increase in rutin, oleuropein and caffeic acid levels in treated sample. As a conclusion, thermal processing could be useful for enhancing the antioxidant capacity and the extractability of phenolic compounds in olive leaf tisane.

  9. Antioxidant treatment attenuates hyperglycemia-induced cardiomyocyte death in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiordaliso, Fabio; Bianchi, Roberto; Staszewsky, Lidia; Cuccovillo, Ivan; Doni, Mirko; Laragione, Teresa; Salio, Monica; Savino, Costanza; Melucci, Silvia; Santangelo, Francesco; Scanziani, Eugenio; Masson, Serge; Ghezzi, Pietro; Latini, Roberto

    2004-11-01

    Diabetes and oxidative stress concur to cardiac myocyte death in various experimental settings. We assessed whether N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and glutathione precursor, has a protective role in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and in isolated myocytes exposed to high glucose (HG). Diabetic rats were treated with NAC (0.5 g/kg per day) or vehicle for 3 months. At sacrifice left ventricle (LV) myocyte number and size, collagen deposition and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by quantitative histological methods. Diabetes reduced LV myocyte number by 29% and increased myocyte volume by 20% compared to non-diabetic controls. NAC protected from myocyte loss (+25% vs. untreated diabetics, P < 0.05) and reduced reactive hypertrophy (-16% vs. untreated diabetics, P < 0.05). Perivascular fibrosis was high in diabetic rats (+88% vs. control, P < 0.001) but prevented by NAC. ROS production and fraction of ROS-positive cardiomyocyte nuclei were drastically raised in diabetic rats (2.4- and 5.1-fold vs. control, P < 0.001) and normalized by NAC. In separate experiments, isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes were incubated in a medium containing high concentrations of glucose (HG, 25 mM) +/- 0.01 mM NAC; myocyte survival (Trypan blue exclusion and apoptosis by TUNEL) and glutathione content were evaluated. The number of dead and apoptotic myocytes increased five and 6.7-fold in HG and glutathione decreased by 48% (P < 0.05). NAC normalized cell death and apoptosis and prevented glutathione loss. NAC effectively protects from hyperglycemia-induced myocyte cell death and compensatory hypertrophy through direct scavenging of ROS and replenishment of the intracellular glutathione content.

  10. Antioxidant response of Stevia rebaudiana B. to polyethylene glycol and paclobutrazol treatments under in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajihashemi, Shokoofeh; Ehsanpour, Ali Akbar

    2014-04-01

    This investigation was carried out with the aim of determining the effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ) (0 and 2 mg l(-1)) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) (0, 2, 4 and 6 % w/v of PEG 6000) treatments on antioxidant system of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni under in vitro condition. Analysis of data showed that PEG treatment significantly increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and phenolic contents, while PBZ treatment limited the effect of PEG on them. Our data revealed that PEG treatment significantly increased total antioxidant capacity, catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity, while it inversely decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was not affected by PEG treatment. PBZ treatment induced significantly higher levels of CAT and GR activity and lower levels of SOD activity in PEG-treated plants. PBZ in combination with PEG resulted in no significant difference on APX activity with PEG treatment alone. PBZ treatment prevented the effect of PEG on the PPO activity. PEG (with or without PBZ) treatment increased the ascorbate pool, whereas total glutathione level was not affected by PEG. Our finding indicated that PBZ reduced the negative effect of PEG treatment by quenching H2O2 accumulation and increasing the CAT activity. Collectively, the antioxidant capacity of S. rebaudiana in PEG treatment condition was associated with active enzymatic and non-enzymatic defence systems which partly could be improved by the PBZ treatment. In addition, a higher accumulation of phenolic compounds leads to a more potent reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in S. rebaudiana.

  11. Influence of heat treatment on antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of selected vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juániz, Isabel; Ludwig, Iziar A; Huarte, Estibaliz; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Moreno-Rojas, Jose Manuel; Cid, Concepción; De Peña, María-Paz

    2016-04-15

    The impact of cooking heat treatments (frying in olive oil, frying in sunflower oil and griddled) on the antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of onion, green pepper and cardoon, was evaluated. The main compounds were quercetin and isorhamnetin derivates in onion, quercetin and luteolin derivates in green pepper samples, and chlorogenic acids in cardoon. All heat treatments tended to increase the concentration of phenolic compounds in vegetables suggesting a thermal destruction of cell walls and sub cellular compartments during the cooking process that favor the release of these compounds. This increase, specially that observed for chlorogenic acids, was significantly correlated with an increase in the antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH (r=0.70). Griddled vegetables, because of the higher temperature applied during treatment in comparison with frying processes, showed the highest amounts of phenolic compounds with increments of 57.35%, 25.55% and 203.06% compared to raw onion, pepper and cardoon, respectively.

  12. Treatment of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning with a Combination of Intravenous Glucagon, Digoxin and Antioxidant Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghabian, Zohreh; Mehrpour, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is used to protect stored grains from rodents. It produces phosphine gas (PH3), a mitochondrial poison thought to cause toxicity by blocking the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme and inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation, which results in cell death. AlP poisoning has a high mortality rate among humans due to the rapid onset of cardiogenic shock and metabolic acidosis, despite aggressive treatment. We report a 21-year-old male who was referred to the Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran, in 2015 after having intentionally ingested a 3 g AlP tablet. He was successfully treated with crystalloid fluids, vasopressors, sodium bicarbonate, digoxin, glucagon and antioxidant agents and was discharged from the hospital six days after admission in good clinical condition. For the treatment of AlP poisoning, the combination of glucagon and digoxin with antioxidant agents should be considered. However, evaluation of further cases is necessary to optimise treatment protocols. PMID:27606117

  13. Treatment of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning with a Combination of Intravenous Glucagon, Digoxin and Antioxidant Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Oghabian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is used to protect stored grains from rodents. It produces phosphine gas (PH3, a mitochondrial poison thought to cause toxicity by blocking the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme and inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation, which results in cell death. AlP poisoning has a high mortality rate among humans due to the rapid onset of cardiogenic shock and metabolic acidosis, despite aggressive treatment. We report a 21-yearold male who was referred to the Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran, in 2015 after having intentionally ingested a 3 g AlP tablet. He was successfully treated with crystalloid fluids, vasopressors, sodium bicarbonate, digoxin, glucagon and antioxidant agents and was discharged from the hospital six days after admission in good clinical condition. For the treatment of AlP poisoning, the combination of glucagon and digoxin with antioxidant agents should be considered. However, evaluation of further cases is necessary to optimise treatment protocols.

  14. Oral antioxidant treatment partly improves integrity of human sperm DNA in infertile grade I varicocele patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual-Frau, Josep; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María J; Hannaoui, Naim; Checa, Miguel A; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Lozano, Iris; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Benet, Jordi; García-Peiró, Agustín; Prats, Juan

    2015-09-01

    Infertile males with varicocele have the highest percentage of sperm cells with damaged DNA, compared to other infertile groups. Antioxidant treatment is known to enhance the integrity of sperm DNA; however, there are no data on the effects in varicocele patients. We thus investigated the potential benefits of antioxidant treatment specifically in grade I varicocele males. Twenty infertile patients with grade I varicocele were given multivitamins (1500 mg L-Carnitine, 60 mg vitamin C, 20 mg coenzyme Q10, 10 mg vitamin E, 200 μg vitamin B9, 1 μg vitamin B12, 10 mg zinc, 50 μg selenium) daily for three months. Semen parameters including total sperm count, concentration, progressive motility, vitality, and morphology were determined before and after treatment. In addition, sperm DNA fragmentation and the amount of highly degraded sperm cells were analyzed by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion. After treatment, patients showed an average relative reduction of 22.1% in sperm DNA fragmentation (p = 0.02) and had 31.3% fewer highly degraded sperm cells (p = 0.07). Total numbers of sperm cells were increased (p = 0.04), but other semen parameters were unaffected. These data suggest that sperm DNA integrity in grade I varicocele patients may be improved by oral antioxidant treatment.

  15. Effect of Antioxidant Mineral Elements Supplementation in the Treatment of Hypertension in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. The current work was designed with the aim of investigating the potentials of antioxidants copper, manganese, and zinc in the treatment of hypertension in Wistar rats. The rats were fed 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and treatment with supplements in the presence of the challenging agent for additional 4 weeks. The supplementation significantly decreased the blood pressure as compared with hypertensive control. The result also indicated significant decreased in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, insulin and increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total antioxidant activities, and nitric oxide of the supplemented groups relative to the hypertensive control. The average percentage protection against atherogenesis indicated 47.13 ± 9.60% for all the supplemented groups. The mean arterial blood pressure showed significant positive correlation with glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, insulin resistance and malondialdehyde while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total antioxidant activities showed negative correlation. The result therefore indicated strong relationship between oxidative stress and hypertension and underscores the role of antioxidant minerals in reducing oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance associated with hypertension.

  16. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity in saliva of periodontitis patients: effect of smoking and periodontal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guentsch, Arndt; Preshaw, Philip M; Bremer-Streck, Sybille; Klinger, Gisela; Glockmann, Eike; Sigusch, Bernd W

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to measure lipid peroxidation (as an end product of oxidative stress) and corresponding antioxidant activity in patients with periodontitis and assess the influence of smoking and periodontal treatment on these parameters. Thirty healthy subjects (including 15 smokers) were compared to periodontitis patients (n = 30, including 15 smokers). Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) were recorded in saliva. The lowest level of lipid peroxidation (MDA) was measured in saliva in the non-smoking periodontally healthy subjects (0.065 +/- 0.05 micromol/l). MDA levels were significantly higher in periodontitis patients who smoked (0.123 +/- 0.08 micromol/l) compared to non-smoking controls (0.065 +/- 0.05 micromol/l; p periodontally healthy subjects demonstrated significantly lower levels of GSHPx (antioxidative parameter) than the periodontitis group (p saliva) was significantly lower in patients with periodontitis (0.34 +/- 0.26 micromol/ml) in comparison to the controls (0.62 +/- 0.24 micromol/ml; p periodontitis demonstrate more lipid peroxidation than healthy subjects, and this effect is enhanced by smoking. Imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity may play a role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Non-surgical periodontal treatment leads to a reduction of MDA and GSHPx to levels comparable to healthy controls.

  17. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on postharvest quality, antioxidant activities, and free polyamines of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunxiao; Liu, Zhenfeng; Su, Yujing; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2011-03-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the quality and antioxidant activity of asparagus stored at 18 ± 2 °C were investigated by analyzing the color, chlorophyll, shear force, and the activity of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and polyamines (PAs). The results showed that SA improved the color and maintained the chlorophyll, phenolic, flavonoid, and ascorbic acid content of asparagus. High concentrations of SA caused a deterioration in asparagus would harm to color and had no effect on shear force within 6 d. SA induced the maximum concentration of phenolics in postharvest asparagus, promoted the increase in total flavonoids before 6 to 9 d, affected the antioxidant activity positively as indicated by the resultant increase in FRAP concentration; however, SA was only active with regard to DPPH scavenging activity within 6 d of treatment. Spermidine (Spd) is the most common form of PA in asparagus, and free putrescine (Put) contents increased over the first 3 d following harvest and then decreased. Spd and Spm concentrations evolved in a similar way and decreased during storage. Higher Spd and Spm contents in the SA pre-treatment Put was inhabited and its peaks appeared later.

  18. [Comparative experimental study of antioxidant efficiency in treatment of acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliuĭko, D A; Korik, V E; Zhidkov, S A

    2011-01-01

    The aims of our experiments on animals were (i) to evaluate by direct oximery the efficiency of various antioxidant drugs in a complex treatment of acute pancreatitis and (ii) to determine the diagnostic value of the direct oximetry method for estimation of the efficiency of medical treatment. The article presents data obtained in a group 75 outbred Guinea with a model acute pancreatitis, which were treated with mexibel (group 1), emoxipin (group 2), end cytoflavin (group 3), with subsequent investigation of the pancreatic tissues by the direct oximetry method. The obtained results confirmed that the intraperitoneal injection of cytoflavin to animals stimulates tissue respiration, improves metabolism, promotes pancreas recovery, and also improves the prognosis and reduces the lethal outcome. The efficiency of cytoflavin within the complex therapy exceeds the effect of other antioxidants (mexibel and emoxipin) under otherwise equal conditions.

  19. Disorders induced by chromium to health and the use of antioxidants in the prevention or treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio L. Becerra-Torres

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cell maintains a constant balance of redox processes, thus preserving regulating the balance between pro-oxidant production and antioxidant defense systems. Disruption of this balance leads to oxidative stress state which is characterized by increased levels of free radicals, leading to damage or cell death. Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of various diseases. In this regard, the evidence shows the oxidizing capacity of heavy metals, including chromium. However, this event can be regulated by nucleophilic nature substances which prevent or reverse the respective disorders. In this context, when the capacity of cellular response against the action of reactive oxygen species is suppressed, the intake of products that help keep the respective functional integrity is indispensable. Already reported some beneficial effects of antioxidants on the functional alterations promoted by heavy metals. The intent of this review is to summarize the scientific ability of chromium to induce pathology in different organ systems and the ability of some antioxidants to prevent or reverse this quality.

  20. Antioxidant phenolic extracts obtained from secondary Tunisian date varieties (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by hydrothermal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrabet, Abdessalem; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; Rubio-Senent, Fátima; Lama-Muñoz, Antonio; Sindic, Marianne; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Three common non-commercial Tunisian date varieties were treated by two thermal systems, obtaining a liquid fraction which was characterized and its antioxidant capacity determined. The concentration of total phenols in the three varieties (Smeti, Garen Gazel, and Eguwa) was increased by steam explosion treatment up to 5311, 4680, and 3832 mg/kg of fresh dates, and their antioxidant activity up to 62.5, 46.5 and 43.1 mmol Trolox/kg of fresh date, respectively. Both thermal treatments increased the content of phenolic acids. Additionally, a long scale study was carried out in a pilot plant, with steam treatment at 140 °C and 160 °C for 30 min. The liquid phase was extracted and fractionated chromatographically using adsorbent or ionic resins. The phenolic profiles were determined for each fraction, yielding fractions with interesting antioxidant activities with EC50 values of up to 0.08 mg/L or values of TEAC of 0.67 mmol Trolox/g of extract.

  1. β-carotene treatment alters the cellular death process in oxidative stress-induced K562 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçakaya, Handan; Tok, Sabiha; Dal, Fulya; Cinar, Suzan Adin; Nurten, Rustem

    2017-03-01

    Oxidizing agents (e.g., H2 O2 ) cause structural and functional disruptions of molecules by affecting lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. As a result, cellular mechanisms related to disrupted macro molecules are affected and cell death is induced. Oxidative damage can be prevented at a certain point by antioxidants or the damage can be reversed. In this work, we studied the cellular response against oxidative stress induced by H2 O2 and antioxidant-oxidant (β-carotene-H2 O2 ) interactions in terms of time, concentration, and treatment method (pre-, co-, and post) in K562 cells. We showed that co- or post-treatment with β-carotene did not protect cells from the damage of oxidative stress furthermore co- and post-β-carotene-treated oxidative stress induced cells showed similar results with only H2 O2 treated cells. However, β-carotene pre-treatment prevented oxidative damage induced by H2 O2 at concentrations lower than 1,000 μM compared with only H2 O2 -treated and co- and post-β-carotene-treated oxidative stress-induced cells in terms of studied cellular parameters (mitochondrial membrane potential [Δψm ], cell cycle and apoptosis). Prevention effect of β-carotene pre-treatment was lost at concentrations higher than 1,000 μM H2 O2 (2-10 mM). These findings suggest that β-carotene pre-treatment alters the effects of oxidative damage induced by H2 O2 and cell death processes in K562 cells.

  2. Human-chromosome alterations induced by argon laser treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simi, S.; Colella, C. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa (Italy). Lab. di Mutagenesi e Differenziamento); Agati, G.; Fusi, F. (Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Farmacologia); Corsi, M.F.; Pratesi, R. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Florence (Italy). Lab. di Elettronica Quantistica); Tocco, G.A. (Naples Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Istologia ed Embrilogia)

    1984-07-01

    The possible occurrence of genetic damage arising from exposure of human cells to visible laser light has been evaluated in PHA-stimulated human lymphocytes. Aneuploidy and chromosome aberrations have been observed after exposure to an argon laser. These findings appear of special interest in view of the possible role of these chromosome alterations in carcinogenesis.

  3. L-carnitine Mediated Reduction in Oxidative Stress and Alteration in Transcript Level of Antioxidant Enzymes in Sheep Embryos Produced In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A; Reddy, I J; Gupta, P S P; Mondal, S

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the effect of L-carnitine on oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development, with L-carnitine-mediated alteration if any in transcript level of antioxidant enzymes (GPx, Cu/Zn-SOD (SOD1) and Mn-SOD (SOD2) in oocytes and developing sheep embryos produced in vitro. Different concentrations of L-carnitine (0 mm, 2.5 mm, 5 mm, 7.5 mm and 10 mm) were used in maturation medium. Oocytes matured with 10 mm L-carnitine showed significantly (p carnitine were not significantly different. Maturation rate was not influenced by supplementation of any experimental concentration of L-carnitine. There was a significant (p carnitine-treated oocytes and embryos than control group. Antioxidant effect of L-carnitine was proved by culturing oocytes and embryos with H2O2 in the presence of L-carnitine which could be able to protect oocytes and embryos from H2O2-induced oxidative damage. L-carnitine supplementation significantly (p carnitine supplementation during in vitro maturation reduces oxidative stress-induced embryo toxicity by decreasing intracellular ROS and increasing intracellular GSH that in turn improved developmental potential of oocytes and embryos and alters transcript level of antioxidant enzymes.

  4. Free radicals, antioxidant defense systems, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing Qin; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2013-10-01

    The etiopathogenic mechanisms of schizophrenia are to date unknown, although several hypotheses have been suggested. Accumulating evidence suggests that excessive free radical production or oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia as evidenced by increased production of reactive oxygen or decreased antioxidant protection in schizophrenic patients. This review aims to summarize the basic molecular mechanisms of free radical metabolism, the impaired antioxidant defense system and membrane pathology in schizophrenia, their interrelationships with the characteristic clinical symptoms and the implications for antipsychotic treatments. In schizophrenia, there is accumulating evidence of altered antioxidant enzyme activities and increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as altered levels of plasma antioxidants. Moreover, free radical-mediated abnormalities may contribute to specific aspects of schizophrenic symptomatology and complications of its treatment with antipsychotic drugs, as well as the development of tardive dyskinesia (TD). Finally, the potential therapeutic strategies implicated by the accumulating data on oxidative stress mechanisms for the treatment of schizophrenia are discussed.

  5. Alterations in the fatty acid profile, antioxidant enzymes and protein pattern of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to the pesticides diazinon and profenfos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Fayez A; El-Hommossany, Karem; Abd El-Atti, Mahmoud; Ismail, Somaya M

    2016-04-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in agricultural activities. These pesticides may contaminate the irrigation and drainage systems during agriculture activities and pests' control and then negatively affect the biotic and a biotic component of the polluted water courses. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the pesticides diazinon and profenfos on some biological activities of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails such as fatty acid profile, some antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) as well as glutathione reductase (GR) and lipid peroxidation (LP)) and protein patterns in snails' tissues exposed for 4 weeks to LC10 of diazinon and profenfos. The results showed that the two pesticides caused considerable reduction in survival rates and egg production of treated snails. Identification of fatty acid composition in snail tissues treated with diazinon and profenfos pesticides was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The results declared alteration in fatty acid profile, fluctuation in percentage of long chain and short chain fatty acid contributions either saturated or unsaturated ones, and a decrease in total lipid content in tissues of snails treated with these pesticides. The data demonstrate that there was a significant inhibition in the activities of tissues SOD, CAT, glutathione reductase (GR), TrxR, and SDH in tissues of treated snails, while a significant elevation was detected in LP as compared to the normal control. On the other hand, the electrophoretic pattern of total protein showed differences in number and molecular weights of protein bands due to the treatment of snails. It was concluded that the residues of diazinon and profenfos pesticides in aquatic environments have toxic effects onB. alexandrina snails.

  6. Arsenite treatment induces oxidative stress, upregulates antioxidant system, and causes phytochelatin synthesis in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shruti; Jha, A B; Dubey, R S

    2011-07-01

    The effects of arsenite treatment on generation of reactive oxygen species, induction of oxidative stress, response of antioxidative system, and synthesis of phytochelatins were investigated in two indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cvs. Malviya-36 and Pant-12 grown in sand cultures for a period of 5-20 days. Arsenite (As(2)O(3); 25 and 50 μM) treatment resulted in increased formation of superoxide anion (O (2) (.-) ), elevated levels of H(2)O(2) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, showing enhanced lipid peroxidation. An enhanced level of ascorbate (AA) and glutathione (GSH) was observed irrespective of the variation in the level of dehydroascorbate (DHA) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) which in turn influenced redox ratios AA/DHA and GSH/GSSG. With progressive arsenite treatment, synthesis of total acid soluble thiols and phytochelatins (PC) increased in the seedlings. Among antioxidative enzymes, the activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), total ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7), monodehydroascorbate reductase (EC 1.6.5.4), and glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) increased in arsenite treated seedlings, while dehyroascorbate reductase (EC 1.8.5.1) activity declined initially during 5-10 days and increased thereafter. Results suggest that arsenite treatment causes oxidative stress in rice seedlings, increases the levels of many enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and induces synthesis of thiols and PCs, which may serve as important components in mitigating arsenite-induced oxidative damage.

  7. Sperm quality improvement after natural anti-oxidant treatment of asthenoteratospermic men with leukocytospermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paola Piomboni; Laura Gambera; Francesca Serafini; Giovanna Campanella; Giuseppe Morgante; Vincenzo De Leo

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the immune-modulating and anti-oxidant effects of beta-glucan, papaya, lactoferrin, and vitamins C and E on sperm characteristics of patients with asthenoteratozoospermia associated with leucocytosis. Methods:Fifty-one patients referred to our Sterility Center for semen analysis were selected. Sperm parameters were assessed before and after patient's treatment with beta-glucan, lactoferrin, papaya, and vitamins C and E. DNA damage was assessed by the acridine orange test and sperm structural characteristics were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Results: After 90 days of treatment, an increase in the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (17.0±5.2 vs. 29.8±6.5) and total progressive motility (19.0±7.8 vs. 34.8±6.8) were detected. Structural sperm characteristics as well as chromatin integrity were also improved after treatment. In terms of leukocyte concentration in seminal fluid, a significant reduction was recorded (2.2±0.9 vs. 0.9±0.2). Conclusion: The treatment of an inflammatory process by the synergic action of immune modulators and anti-oxidants could protect sperm during maturation and migration, leading to improved sperm function.

  8. Ultrasound treatment: effect on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Sabeera; Ahmad, Mudasir; Wani, S M; Gani, Adil; Baba, Waqas N; Shah, Umar; Khan, Asma Ashraf; Masoodi, F A; Gani, Asir; Wani, Touseef Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The cherry was treated with ultrasonic waves (33 kHz, 60 W) at different time intervals (10, 20, 30, 40, 60 min) and study was carried out to analyze the change in physico-chemical properties (TSS, pH, color, acidity and firmness), antioxidant potential and microbial load of the fruit during the storage period of 15 days at 4 °C. It was observed that ultrasound treatment (US) between 30 and 40 min showed better retention of color of the fruit during the storage period. The antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS and TPC) also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) up to 40 min, however the firmness of the fruit was affected and it showed a significant decrease beyond 20 min of US treatment. The sample with 40 min US treatment showed significantly less microbial load than other samples. The 20-40 min US treatment time (33 kHz, 60 W) was suggested for preservation of cherry during the storage at 4 °C.

  9. Does ibuprofen treatment in patent ductus arteriosus alter oxygen free radicals in premature infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Melek; Yildirim, Tulin G; Sandal, Gonca; Bozdag, Senol; Erdeve, Omer; Altug, Nahide; Uras, Nurdan; Oguz, Serife S; Dilmen, Ugur

    2016-06-20

    Introduction Ibuprofen is used widely to close patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants. The anti-inflammatory activity of ibuprofen may also be partly due to its ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. We evaluated the interaction between oxidative status and the medical treatment of patent ductus arteriosus with two forms of ibuprofen. Materials and methods This study enrolled newborns of gestational age ⩽32 weeks, birth weight ⩽1500 g, and postnatal age 48-96 hours, who received either intravenous or oral ibuprofen to treat patent ductus arteriosus. Venous blood was sampled before ibuprofen treatment from each patient to determine antioxidant and oxidant concentrations. Secondary samples were collected 24 hours after the end of the treatment. Total oxidant status and total antioxidant capacity were measured using Erel's method.

  10. ROS and RNS Signaling in Heart Disorders: Could Antioxidant Treatment Be Successful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Afanas'ev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is not too much success in the antioxidant treatment of heart deceases in humans. However a new approach is now developed that suggests that depending on their structures and concentrations antioxidants can exhibit much more complicated functions in many pathological disorders. It is now well established that physiological free radicals superoxide and nitric oxide together with their derivatives hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite (all are named reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS play a more important role in heart diseases through their signaling functions. Correspondingly this work is dedicated to the consideration of damaging signaling by ROS and RNS in various heart and vascular disorders: heart failure (congestive heart failure or CHF, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH, coronary heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and so forth. It will be demonstrated that ROS overproduction (oxidative stress is a main origin of the transformation of normal physiological signaling processes into the damaging ones. Furthermore the favorable effects of low/moderate oxidative stress through preconditioning mechanisms in ischemia/reperfusion will be considered. And in the last part we will discuss the possibility of efficient application of antioxidants and enzyme/gene inhibitors for the regulation of damaging ROS signaling in heart disorders.

  11. Antioxidants: Friends or foe in prevention or treatment of cancer: The debate of the century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh [Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417614411 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417614411 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    There are a number of intrinsic (e.g. oncogenes) and extrinsic (e.g. radiation and inflammation) factors, which may arise in reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in DNA instability and then cancer. In this situation, initial cancerous cells would balance the harmful effects of ROS by switching on the protective effects in a longstanding manner. In normal conditions, ROS have an important role in signal transduction and gene transcription, nevertheless, ROS may act as a trigger for carcinogenesis via persistent DNA injuries as well as mutations in p53 such as conditions observed in skin, hepatocellular, and colon cancers. Some compounds like paclitaxel are able to attack cancer cells through generation of ROS or interfering with ROS metabolism, while there are a few anti-angiogenesis compounds without toxicity such as endostatin, which act as anti-neoplastic only together with another chemotherapeutic drug. Furthermore, some anti-cancer agents like piperlongumine bind to the active sites of several key cellular antioxidants including glutathione S transferase and carbonyl reductase 1 only in the cancer cells. Although the natural antioxidants can alone or in combination with the diet provide some benefits for chemoprevention, their position in cancer therapy, especially initial stages of carcinogenesis is breaking down. On the other hand antioxidants can promote the survival of detached cells from extra cellular medium playing dual activities with respect to tumorigenesis through inhibition of tumorigenesis by preventing oxidative injuries to DNA and otherwise maintenance of tumor by promoting cell survival via metabolic rescue. Hopefully, more details of antioxidant and anti-neoplastic mechanisms become clear day by day, which have made researchers renew the strategy for designing cancer prevention or treatment.

  12. Effects of Hypobaric Treatments on the Quality, Bioactive Compounds, and Antioxidant Activity of Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiaohong; Wu, Ji Yun; Wang, Yong; Chen, Qiong; Xue, Zhaohui; Bai, Yang; Zhou, Fengjuan

    2016-07-01

    Hypobaric treatment is becoming a potential technology to protect fruits from postharvest decay. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of hypobaric treatments on storage quality, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity of tomato fruit. In this study, green tomatoes (cv. "Fen guan") were treated with hypobaric pressures (0.04 and 0.07 MPa) at ambient temperature (20 ℃) for 28 d. The results showed that under hypobaric storage, the respiration rates significantly declined and the respiratory peaks postponed 12 and 8 d by 0.04 and 0.07 MPa treatments, respectively, compared to control. Total soluble solid, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, and lycopene were retained by hypobaric treatment. Moreover, ascorbic acid contents treated with 0.04 and 0.07 MPa were, respectively, 37% and 26% higher than control at day 24 and the contents of total polyphenols were, respectively, 1.28 and 1.11 times higher than control. Production and accumulation of toxic substances were significantly restrained. The ethanol content decreased, respectively, by 53% and 84% than control. At later storage period, the superoxide dismutase activity in treated fruits was about 0.58 U/(g·FW·min), whereas only 0.29 U/(g·FW·min) in control. Hypobaric treatment not only maintained a high activity of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase (POD), but also improved antioxidant capacity. All the results indicated that hypobaric treatment was a potential helpful method to protect the quality and nutrition of tomato and prolong ripening of tomato. Furthermore, the effect of 0.04 MPa hypobaric treatment was found better than 0.07 MPa.

  13. Sulfation of a polysaccharide produced by a marine filamentous fungus Phoma herbarum YS4108 alters its antioxidant properties in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X B; Gao, X D; Han, F; Tan, R X

    2005-08-30

    Free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by all aerobic cells and are widely believed to play a significant role in aging as well as a number of degenerative or pathological diseases. This study compared the free radical-scavenging properties and antioxidant activity of YCP, a polysaccharide from the mycelium of a marine filamentous fungus Phoma herbarum YS 4108 and its two chemically sulfated derivatives YCP-S1 and YCP-S2. Sulfation, which masks hydroxyl groups of YCP polysaccharide molecule, could introduce new antioxidant activity, such as superoxide and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity, metal chelating action, lipid peroxidation and linoleic acid oxidation inhibition capability. Furthermore, sulfated YCP was more potent than YCP at protecting erythrocytes against oxidative damage hemolysis. The current data suggest for the first time that sulfation of polysaccharide significantly increases its antioxidant activity and the chemical modification of polysaccharides may allow the preparation of derivatives with new properties and a variety of applications.

  14. Anterior Cingulate Volumetric Alterations in Treatment-Naive Adults with ADHD: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Nikos; Seidman, Larry J.; Valera, Eve M.; Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kennedy, David N.; Caviness, Verne S., Jr.; Bush, George; Crum, Katherine; Brown, Ariel B.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We sought to examine preliminary results of brain alterations in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in treatment-naive adults with ADHD. The ACC is a central brain node for the integration of cognitive control and allocation of attention, affect and drive. Thus its anatomical alteration may give rise to impulsivity, hyperactivity and…

  15. Expression patterns of antioxidant genes in human SH-SY5Y cells after treatment with methadone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saify, Khyber; Saadat, Mostafa

    2015-11-30

    The expression levels of nine antioxidant genes in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to methadone (final concentrations 1-20µM) were investigated. Based on this study the genes could be categorized on three different groups. The number of down-regulated genes were increased as a function of exposure time (P=0.004). The methadone associated mRNA alterations were modulated by N-acetyl-cysteine. These findings suggested that different pathways for regulation of antioxidant genes could be active after exposing of SH-SY5Y cells to methadone; and also suggested that methadone might act by inducing the reactive oxygen species.

  16. Medico-legal aspects of altered sensation following endodontic treatment: a retrospective case series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givol, Navot; Rosen, Eyal; Bjørndal, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze cases of liability claims related to persistent altered sensation following endodontic treatments so as to characterize the medico-legal aspects of this complication....

  17. Alemtuzumab treatment alters circulating innate immune cells in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetspahic, Diana; Ruck, Tobias; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Andreas; Schwarte, Kathrin; Jörgens, Silke; Scheu, Stefanie; Windhagen, Susanne; Graefe, Bettina; Melzer, Nico; Klotz, Luisa; Arolt, Volker; Wiendl, Heinz; Meuth, Sven G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To characterize changes in myeloid and lymphoid innate immune cells in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) during a 6-month follow-up after alemtuzumab treatment. Methods: Circulating innate immune cells including myeloid cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were analyzed before and 6 and 12 months after onset of alemtuzumab treatment. Furthermore, a potential effect on granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)–23 production by myeloid cells and natural killer (NK) cell cytolytic activity was determined. Results: In comparison to CD4+ T lymphocytes, myeloid and lymphoid innate cell subsets of patients with MS expressed significantly lower amounts of CD52 on their cell surface. Six months after CD52 depletion, numbers of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) and conventional DCs were reduced compared to baseline. GM-CSF and IL-23 production in DCs remained unchanged. Within the ILC compartment, the subset of CD56bright NK cells specifically expanded under alemtuzumab treatment, but their cytolytic activity did not change. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that 6 months after alemtuzumab treatment, specific DC subsets are reduced, while CD56bright NK cells expanded in patients with MS. Thus, alemtuzumab specifically restricts the DC compartment and expands the CD56bright NK cell subset with potential immunoregulatory properties in MS. We suggest that remodeling of the innate immune compartment may promote long-term efficacy of alemtuzumab and preserve immunocompetence in patients with MS. PMID:27766281

  18. Improvement of the antioxidative status of pig ovaries by selenopyran treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Vasileva Abadjieva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential micro-element in animal diet due to its high antioxidative properties. As a part of selenocystein it is an important constituent of the glutathione peroxidase (GPx enzyme, which has a big importance for cell protection from oxidative damage. The aim of the present work was the investigation of the selenopyran effect on the antioxidative state of the pig ovary. The experiment was conducted with 18 gilts of Danube white breed randomly divided into two groups between 120 - 228 days of age. The animals received equal basal diets without selenium additives. The experimental gilts were injected once per month intramuscularly with oil solution of preparation selenopyran (9-phenylsymmetrical octahydroselenoxanthene ensured 0.1 mgSe/kg live weight. After slaughtering, the ovaries were used for histological analysis and estimation of the selenium content in ovarian tissue by the atomic absorption spectroscopy method. The GPx activity in ovary homogenates using the colorimetric assay kit (BioVision was measured. The expression of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT in ovaries by immunochistochemical method was estimated. The selenopyran treatment leads to significant (P0.05 in ovarian tissue. Enhancement of GPx activity in the ovaries of experimental group was observed (142.61±6.6 versus 122.28±3.4U/gP, P<0.05. The GGT expression in the ovarian cortex cells, follicular fluid and in the erythrocytes of ovarian blood vessels in treated gilts was an evidence of active transport of glutathione from blood to the ovary tissue. The selenopyran treatment promotes the increase of the GPx dependent antioxidative defense in ovary of growing gilts.

  19. Soil applied cobalt alters the nodulation, leg-haemoglobin content and antioxidant status of Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayakumar, Kaliyamoorthy; Vijayarengan, Packirisamy; Changxing, Zhao; Gomathinayagam, M.; Jaleel, Cheruth Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation has been carried out to estimate the effect of cobalt on the nodulation leg-haemoglobin content and antioxidant enzyme activities of soybean plants. The experiments were conducted in earthen pots containing 3 kg of air dried soil. The inner surface of pots was lined with po

  20. Dietary antioxidants for chronic periodontitis prevention and its treatment: a review on current evidences from animal and human studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Given the relationship between chronic periodontitis and high levels of oxidative stress, this review aims to clarify what role can played the dietary intake of different antioxidants in maintaining a healthy periodontium and in reducing chronic periodontitis risk, as well as possible use of dietary therapies based on them for this disease treatment. Methods: The database of the National Library of Medicine, Washington, DC (MEDLINE PubMed was used and all the studies in animals and humans are on the subject of interest in English writing online available from inception of the database until May 2015 were collected. Results: Antioxidants analyzed in this regard include vitamin C, vitamin A, carotenoids and some polyphenols, and coenzyme Q; as well as minerals iron, copper and zinc that are constituents of antioxidant enzymes. Still, there is a paucity of studies with few human studies, mostly observational. Among the various antioxidants, vitamin E and polyphenols seem to have more evidence for its beneficial effect, but in general the studies are insufficient to rule out or establish what antioxidants are useful and which are not. Conclusions: Overall, the data presented indicate that dietary antioxidants are beneficial for periodontal health, at least under certain circumstances. However more studies are needed to establish the relationship between chronic periodontitis and each specific antioxidant and to design useful dietary interventions for this disease management.

  1. Combined conventional/antioxidant "Astaxanthin" treatment for male infertility: a double blind, randomized trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. H. Comhaire; Y. El Garem; A. Mahmoud; F. Eertmans; F. Schoonjans

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the treatment of male infertility with a strong natural antioxidant, in addition to conventional treatment.Methods: Using a double blind, randomized trial design, 30 men with infertility of ≥12 months and female partners with no demonstrable cause of infertility received conventional treatment according to the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO), and either a strong antioxidant Astaxanthin 16 mg/day (AstaCarox(R), AstaReal AB,Gustavsberg, Sweden) or placebo for 3 months. The effects of treatment on semen parameters, reactive oxygen species (ROS), zona-free hamster oocyte test, serum hormones including testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH),follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Inhibin B, and spontaneous or intrauterine insemination (IUI)-induced pregnancies were evaluated. Results: ROS and Inhibin B decreased significantly and sperm linear velocity increased in the Astaxanthin group (n = 11), but not in the placebo group (n = 19). The results of the zona-free hamster oocyte test tended to improve in the Astaxanthin group in contrast with the placebo group, though not reaching statistical significance.The total and per cycle pregnancy rates among the placebo cases (10.5 % and 3.6 %) were lower compared with 54.5 % and 23.1% respectively in the Astaxanthin group (P = 0.028; P = 0.036). Conclusion: Although the present study suggests a positive effect of Astaxanthin on sperm parameters and fertility, the results need to be confirmed in a larger trial before recommending Astaxanthin for the complementary treatment of infertile men.

  2. Photodynamic treatment of red blood cell concentrates for virus inactivation enhances red blood cell aggregation: protection with antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hur, E; Barshtein, G; Chen, S; Yedgar, S

    1997-10-01

    Photodynamic treatment (PDT) using phthalocyanines and red light appears to be a promising procedure for decontamination of red blood cell (RBC) concentrates for transfusion. A possible complication of this treatment may be induced aggregation of RBC. The production of RBC aggregates was measured with a novel computerized cell flow properties analyzer (CFA). The PDT of RBC concentrates with sulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AIPcS4) and the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 under virucidal conditions markedly enhanced RBC aggregation and higher shear stress was required to disperse these aggregates. The clusters of cells were huge and abnormally shaped, unlike the rouleaux formed by untreated RBC. This aggregation was prevented when a mixture of antioxidants was included during PDT. Addition of the antioxidants after PDT reduced aggregation only partially. It is concluded that inclusion of antioxidants during PDT of RBC concentrates prior to transfusion may reduce or eliminate the hemodynamic risk that the virucidal treatment may present to the recipient.

  3. α-Lipoic acid antioxidant treatment limits glaucoma-related retinal ganglion cell death and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Denise M; Lambert, Wendi S; Calkins, David J; Horner, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, including glaucoma. However, due to the lack of clinically relevant models and expense of long-term testing, few studies have modeled antioxidant therapy for prevention of neurodegeneration. We investigated the contribution of oxidative stress to the pathogenesis of glaucoma in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. Similar to other neurodegenerative diseases, we observed lipid peroxidation and upregulation of oxidative stress-related mRNA and protein in DBA/2J retina. To test the role of oxidative stress in disease progression, we chose to deliver the naturally occurring, antioxidant α-lipoic acid (ALA) to DBA/2J mice in their diet. We used two paradigms for ALA delivery: an intervention paradigm in which DBA/2J mice at 6 months of age received ALA in order to intervene in glaucoma development, and a prevention paradigm in which DBA/2J mice were raised on a diet supplemented with ALA, with the goal of preventing glaucoma development. At 10 and 12 months of age (after 4 and 11 months of dietary ALA respectively), we measured changes in genes and proteins related to oxidative stress, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) number, axon transport, and axon number and integrity. Both ALA treatment paradigms showed increased antioxidant gene and protein expression, increased protection of RGCs and improved retrograde transport compared to control. Measures of lipid peroxidation, protein nitrosylation, and DNA oxidation in retina verified decreased oxidative stress in the prevention and intervention paradigms. These data demonstrate the utility of dietary therapy for reducing oxidative stress and improving RGC survival in glaucoma.

  4. Influence of heat stress on the cortisol and oxidant-antioxidants balance during oestrous phase in buffalo-cows (Bubalus bubalis): thermo-protective role of antioxidant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, G A; Anwar, M M; Wasfy, S I; Hammadeh, M E

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of heat stress, which is commonly observed in the animals of Upper Egypt area in summer, as well as the effect of antioxidant treatment as a thermo-protective was examined. In this study, the animals (n = 120) were divided into winter group (n = 40, bred during winter) and summer group (n = 80, bred during summer) as well as, animals in the summer group were divided into first subgroup animals (n = 40) and injected with Viteselen intramuscularly (15 ml) twice weekly for 10 weeks and second subgroup animals (n = 40) were not treated (as control). Serum levels of progesterone (P4), oestradiol (E2), cortisol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidase (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. The pregnancy rate of all animals was detected rectally. The levels of oestradiol and the activity of the antioxidant SOD were decreased in serum of animals in behavioural oestrus during summer as compared with those in winter. During the same time period the levels of oxidants such as LPO and NO were increased in the serum of animals again in the phase of oestrus. In another group of animals treated by intramuscular injection with 15 ml viteselen (antioxidant) twice weekly for 6 weeks during hot months, the activities of serum SOD showed an increase and the levels of oxidants and cortisol decreased. Moreover, the levels of oestradiol were increased during the oestrous behaviour. The pregnancy rate was decreased in animals under heat stress and the pregnancy rate was enhanced dramatically when these animals received antioxidants during the heat stress. This means that the heat-stress in Upper Egypt may affect the fertility of animals and pregnancy rate and this effect may be through an increased production of free radicals and decreased production of antioxidants as well as increased levels of cortisol. Treatment of animals or supplementation with antioxidants before the beginning of months of heat-stress and also during the stress period may

  5. Lectin Digestibility and Stability of Elderberry Antioxidants to Heat Treatment In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Jiménez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Elderberry contains healthy low molecular weight nutraceuticals and lectins which are sequence-related to the elderberry allergen Sam n1. Some of these lectins are type II ribosome-inactivating proteins. The sensitivity of native lectins present in elderberry fruits and bark to the proteolysis triggered by in vitro simulated gastric and duodenal fluids has been investigated. It was found that these lectins are refractory to proteolysis. Nonetheless, incubation for 5–10 min in a boiling water bath completely sensitized them to the hydrolytic enzymes in vitro. Under these conditions neither total Folin-Ciocalteau’s reagent reactive compounds, total anthocyanins and the mixture of cyanidin-3-glucoside plus cyanidin-3-sambubioside, nor antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities were affected by more than 10% for incubations of up to 20 min. Therefore, short-time heat treatment reduces potential allergy-related risks deriving from elderberry consumption without seriously affecting its properties as an antioxidant and free-radical scavenging food.

  6. Characterization, antioxidative and bifidogenic effects of polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii after heat treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siqian; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-04-15

    Polysaccharides were extracted from freeze-dried-, oven-dried- and boiling-treated Pleurotus eryngii (FDPEPS, ODPEPS and BTPEPS). Yield of FDPEPS and its total carbohydrates, total polysaccharides, reducing sugars, phenolics and protein content were higher than ODPEPS and BTPEPS. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) identified that FDPEPS, ODPEPS, and BTPEPS were composed of mannose (5.75%, 5.52%, 6.97%), glucose (88.90%, 89.31%, 87.68%) and galactose (5.34%, 5.17%, 5.35%). All three polysaccharides showed typical saccharic absorption bands in FT-IR. The FDPEPS showed the highest antioxidant activities in ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ABTS, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging tests. Denser aggregates and larger serum pores were observed in confocal micrographs of soymilk added with ODPEPS. Viability of Bifidobacterium longum in soymilk added with polysaccharides was significantly higher (p<0.01) than those without polysaccharides during fermentation. Heat treatments applied before extraction affected the properties, composition and microstructures of FDPEPS, ODPEPS and BTPEPS.

  7. Topical treatment with coenzyme Q10-containing formulas improves skin's Q10 level and provides antioxidative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Anja; Achterberg, Volker; Smuda, Christoph; Mielke, Heiko; Sperling, Gabi; Dunckelmann, Katja; Vogelsang, Alexandra; Krüger, Andrea; Schwengler, Helge; Behtash, Mojgan; Kristof, Sonja; Diekmann, Heike; Eisenberg, Tanya; Berroth, Andreas; Hildebrand, Janosch; Siegner, Ralf; Winnefeld, Marc; Teuber, Frank; Fey, Sven; Möbius, Janne; Retzer, Dana; Burkhardt, Thorsten; Lüttke, Juliane; Blatt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10, Q10) represents an endogenously synthesized lipid-soluble antioxidant which is crucial for cellular energy production but is diminished with age and under the influence of external stress factors in human skin. Here, it is shown that topical Q10 treatment is beneficial with regard to effective Q10 replenishment, augmentation of cellular energy metabolism, and antioxidant effects. Application of Q10-containing formulas significantly increased the levels of this quinone on the skin surface. In the deeper layers of the epidermis the ubiquinone level was significantly augmented indicating effective supplementation. Concurrent elevation of ubiquinol levels suggested metabolic transformation of ubiquinone resulting from increased energy metabolism. Incubation of cultured human keratinocytes with Q10 concentrations equivalent to treated skin showed a significant augmentation of energy metabolism. Moreover, the results demonstrated that stressed skin benefits from the topical Q10 treatment by reduction of free radicals and an increase in antioxidant capacity.

  8. Serum Oxidative Stress Markers and Lipidomic Profile to Detect NASH Patients Responsive to an Antioxidant Treatment: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Stiuso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver steatosis can evolve to steatohepatitis (NASH through a series of biochemical steps related to oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Antioxidants, such as silybin, have been proposed as a treatment of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and NASH. In this study, we evaluated, in patients with histologically documented NASH, the oxidant/antioxidant status and lipid “fingerprint” in the serum of NASH patients, both in basal conditions and after 12 months of treatment with silybin-based food integrator Realsil (RA. The oxidant/antioxidant status analysis showed the presence of a group of patients with higher basal severity of disease (NAS scores 4.67 ± 2.5 and a second group corresponding to borderline NASH (NAS scores = 3.8 ± 1.5. The chronic treatment with RA changed the NAS score in both groups that reached the statistical significance only in group 2, in which there was also a significant decrease of serum lipid peroxidation. The lipidomic profile showed a lipid composition similar to that of healthy subjects with a restoration of the values of free cholesterol, lysoPC, SM, and PC only in group 2 of patients after treatment with RA. Conclusion. These data suggest that lipidomic and/or oxidative status of serum from patients with NASH could be useful as prognostic markers of response to an antioxidant treatment.

  9. Root endophyte Piriformospora indica DSM 11827 alters plant morphology, enhances biomass and antioxidant activity of medicinal plant Bacopa monniera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ram; Kamal, Shwet; Sharma, Pradeep K; Oelmüller, Ralf; Varma, Ajit

    2013-12-01

    Unorganized collections and over exploitation of naturally occurring medicinal plant Bacopa monniera is leading to rapid depletion of germplasm and is posing a great threat to its survival in natural habitats. The species has already been listed in the list of highly threatened plants of India. This calls for micropropagation based multiplication of potential accessions and understanding of their mycorrhizal associations for obtaining plants with enhanced secondary metabolite contents. The co-cultivation of B. monniera with axenically cultivated root endophyte Piriformospora indica resulted in growth promotion, increase in bacoside content, antioxidant activity and nuclear hypertrophy of this medicinal plant.

  10. [Oxidative stress and combined antioxidant energy correction in the treatment of periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarov, I A; Bolevich, S B; Savateeva-Liubimova, T N; Silina, E V; Sivak, K V

    2011-01-01

    Experimental-clinical study with inclusion of 50 Wistar rats with modeled parodontitis and 71 patients with chronic generalized parodontitis of different severity degree was conducted. Significance of oxidation stress in disease development and running was established in the course of the study. Disbalance of free-radical processes (FRP) in case of periodontal diseases affects oxygen stage of the oxidation stress in bigger degree and continues for a long time. In the course of experiment positive influence of cytoflavine preparation as energy-correction and antioxidant was confirmed as well as its combination with calcium-D3. In the course of comprehensive clinical study the efficacy of cytoflavine use was verified by the example of FRP correction that was accompanied by clinical picture and treatment results improvement.

  11. Antioxidant effect of carnosine treatment on renal oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yay, A; Akkuş, D; Yapıslar, H; Balcıoglu, E; Sonmez, M F; Ozdamar, S

    2014-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a significant role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. We investigated the effects of an antioxidant, carnosine, on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced renal injury in diabetic rats. We used four groups of eight rats: group 1, control; group 2, carnosine treated; group 3, untreated diabetic; group 4, carnosine treated diabetic. Kidneys were removed and processed, and sections were stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and subjected to eNOS immunohistochemistry. Examination by light microscopy revealed degenerated glomeruli, thickened basement membrane and glycogen accumulation in the tubules of diabetic kidneys. Carnosine treatment prevented the renal morphological damage caused by diabetes. Moreover, administration of carnosine decreased somewhat the oxidative damage of diabetic nephropathy. Appropriate doses of carnosine might be a useful therapeutic option to reduce oxidative stress and associated renal injury in diabetes mellitus.

  12. Antioxidant treatments counteract the non-culturability of bacterial endophytes isolated from legume nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muresu, Rosella; Tondello, Alessandra; Polone, Elisa; Sulas, Leonardo; Baldan, Barbara; Squartini, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    In many wild legumes, attempts to cultivate nodule bacteria fail. We hypothesized that the limited culturability could be related to injury from oxidative stress caused by disruption of plant tissues during isolation. To test that, we isolated bacteria from nodules of Hedysarum spinosissimum and Tetragonolobus purpureus using buffers supplemented with scavenging systems to prevent damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treatments included the following: antioxidants (glutathione, ascorbate, EDTA) or enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase), tested either as modified squashing buffers or added in plates. Some combinations yielded dramatic increases of culturability. Different endophytes were found, including additional Rhizobiaceae that were not the primary symbiont and were unable to nodulate. Their H2O2 tolerance in broth culture showed differences consistent with the unequal culturability observed. In wild legumes species, ROS generation during extraction appears to be a major factor limiting microbiota isolation, and protocols presented here significantly improve the recovery of culturable bacterial endophytes from plants.

  13. Status of plasma nitric oxide and non-enzymatic antioxidants before and after antipsychotic treatment in Nigerian patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Olatubosun Arinola

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Recently, it is proposed that oxidant-antioxidant imbalance may have a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The present study was performed to assess differences in plasma levels of nitric oxide (as oxidant, caeruloplasmin (secondary antioxidant, and antioxidant trace metals (Zn, Se, Mn, Cu and Fe in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls. Our secondary aim was to further evaluate the impact of psychopharmacologic treatment on these parameters.
    • METHODS: Plasma levels of nitric oxides (NO, caeruloplasmin, zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, manganese (Mn, copper (Cu and iron (Fe in patients with schizophrenia before (n = 15 and after antipsychotic drug treatment (n = 20 were compared with those of healthy controls (n = 20. Convenient sampling method was used for the selection of subjects. NO was estimated by the use of Griess method, caeruloplasmin was estimated by the use of immunodiffusion method and antioxidant trace metals was estimated by the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
    • RESULTS: The levels of Cu and caeruloplasmin were not significantly different while Fe and Se were significantly reduced in both groups of schizophrenic patients compared with the controls. Zn was significantly elevated in medicated
    • schizophrenics compared with drug-free patients or controls. NO was significantly elevated in drug free patients with schizophrenia compared with controls or treated patients.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the application of management strategies that will reduce NO but will increase antioxidant trace metals in patients with schizophrenia.
    • KEYWORDS: Schizophrenia, antioxidant defense system, antioxidant status, oxidative Stress.

  14. Antitumoral, antioxidant, and antimelanogenesis potencies of Hawthorn, a potential natural agent in the treatment of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Nadia; Mokdad-Bzéouich, Imèn; Maatouk, Mouna; Ghedira, Kamel; Hennebelle, Thierry; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2016-06-01

    The lack of an efficient agent that does not have the disadvantage of low activity (kojic acid), high cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity (hydroquinone), poor skin penetration (arbutin), or low stability in formulation (glabridin) led us to continue our research on new antipigmentation/skin-lightening agents. Therefore, research of natural products that can modulate the metabolism of pigmentation is of great interest. Otherwise, malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of skin cancer, with high metastatic potential, and currently, there is no effective chemotherapy against invasive melanoma. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new drugs with potent activity and weak side effects against melanoma. The in-vitro anticancer effect of hawthorn was analyzed against B16F10 melanoma cells using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The effect of isolated compounds from hawthorn on melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells was investigated by measuring the amounts of melanin and tyrosinase spectrophotometrically at 475 nm. Balb/c mice models inoculated with B16F10 mouse tumor cells were used to evaluate the in-vivo antitumoral potential of hawthorn by assessing its effect on the growth of transplanted tumors. The antioxidant potential of tested samples was evaluated in B16F10 and primary human keratinocyte cells using a cellular antioxidant activity assay. Hawthorn tested samples inhibited effectively the growth of melanoma cells in vitro. Furthermore, it appears that tested samples from hawthorn reduced melanogenesis by inhibiting the tyrosinase activity of B16F10 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In-vivo studies showed that hawthorn total oligomer flavonoids extract treatment at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight for 21 days in implanted tumor mice resulted in significant inhibition of the tumor growth volume and weight. In addition, tested samples showed significant cellular antioxidant capacity against the reactive oxygen species

  15. Changes in non Protein Thiols, some Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Ultrastructural Alteration in Radish Plant (Raphanus sativus L. Grown under Lead Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Saad EL-BELTAGI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty days old radish plants (Raphanus sativus L. were exposed to different regimes of lead stress as Pb(NO32 at the following concentrations 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 250 and 500 ppm. The possible generation of oxidative stress, antioxidant metabolism and changes in the chloroplast and cell membrane ultrastructure were investigated. Greater loss of the photosynthetic pigments (Chl. a, Chl. b and total carotenoids were observed especially under 500 ppm lead (Pb. The accumulation of lead in roots and leaves of plant were measured and the results showed that lead accumulation increased with increasing of the metal treatment concentration. An increasing trend was observed in levels of ascorbate and decreasing trend in glutathione. Also, the antioxidant enzymes, viz., guaiacol peroxidase (GPX ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and glutathione S-transferase (GST showed significant variation with the increase in lead stress compared to control (untreated plants. The rapid inducibility of some of these enzymes is useful early and sensitive indicators of heavy metal toxicity. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed an increase in the isoenzymes profile of CAT in both leaves and roots. While POD isoenzymes bands prominently increased in leaves and slightly decreased in roots at the higher Pb concentration in the growth media. The ultrastructural studies at selected concentrations; 100 and 500 ppm of Pb showed distortion of the structure and cell membranes in roots. Therefore, the changes in the levels of some antioxidants may play an important role against oxidative injury.

  16. Cannabidiol Post-Treatment Alleviates Rat Epileptic-Related Behaviors and Activates Hippocampal Cell Autophagy Pathway Along with Antioxidant Defense in Chronic Phase of Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Mahshid; Nikseresht, Sara; Khodagholi, Fariba; Naderi, Nima; Maghsoudi, Nader

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal and sometimes severe behavioral and molecular symptoms are usually observed in epileptic humans and animals. To address this issue, we examined the behavioral and molecular aspects of seizure evoked by pilocarpine. Autophagy can promote both cell survival and death, but there are controversial reports about the neuroprotective or neurodegenerative effects of autophagy in seizure. Cannabidiol has anticonvulsant properties in some animal models when used as a pretreatment. In this study, we investigated alteration of seizure scores, autophagy pathway proteins, and antioxidant status in hippocampal cells during the chronic phase of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy after treatment with cannabidiol. Cannabidiol (100 ng, intracerebroventricular injection) delayed the chronic phase of epilepsy. Single administration of cannabidiol during the chronic phase of seizure significantly diminished seizure scores such as mouth clonus, head nodding, monolateral and bilateral forelimb clonus and increased the activity of catalase enzyme and reduced glutathione content. Such a protective effect in the behavioral scores of epileptic rats was also observed after repeated administrations of cannabidiol at the onset of the silent phase. Moreover, the amount of Atg7, conjugation of Atg5/12, Atg12, and LC3II/LC3I ratio increased significantly in epileptic rats treated with repeated injections of cannabidiol. In short, our results suggest that post-treatment of Cannabidiol could enhance the induction of autophagy pathway and antioxidant defense in the chronic phase of epilepsy, which could be considered as the protective mechanisms of cannabidiol in a temporal lobe epilepsy model.

  17. Consumo de antioxidantes durante tratamento quimioterápico Antioxidants consumption during chemotherapy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cavali Rohenkohl

    2011-06-01

    inadequate diet. The stages of initiation, promotion and progression of carcinogenesis have often been related to oxidative stress. AIM: To assess the consumption of antioxidants in cancer patients during the different cycles of chemotherapy. METHODS: A descriptive exploratory study, including patients undergoing outpatient chemotherapy. To investigate the consumption of antioxidants, was prepared a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (sqFFQ and an anamnesis clinic-nutrition chart. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 30 patients with mean age of 56.4 ± 2.3 years. According to the daily consumption represented by cycles, there was an adequate intake of vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc and inadequate intake of vitamin A and selenium. By dividing the study in the four quartiles of intake of antioxidants, there was adequate intake of vitamin A with 25% and inadequate amounts of vitamin C, vitamin E, Zinc in 25% of the sample and also selenium in all quartiles. Among the studied food sources considered rich in antioxidants, the most used were carrot, spinach, papaya, orange, soybean oil, sunflower oil, red meat, cheese and chicken. CONCLUSION: The studied population reached the recommended daily intake for antioxidants when it was analyzed in cycles of treatment, but there was high percentage of inadequate intake when divided into quartiles. Thus, the nutritional advice is an indispensable factor to help prevent and control cancer.

  18. Utilization of squid pen for the efficient production of chitosanase and antioxidants through prolonged autoclave treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, San-Lang; Wu, Pei-Chen; Liang, Tzu-Wen

    2009-05-26

    We have developed a culture system for efficient production of chitosanase by Bacillus sp. TKU004. TKU004 was cultivated by using squid pen powder as the sole carbon/nitrogen source. The effects of autoclave treatments of the medium on the production of chitosanase were investigated. Autoclave treatment of squid pen powder for 45 min remarkably promoted enzyme productivity. When the culture medium containing an initial squid pen powder concentration of 3% was autoclaved for 45 min, the chitosanase activity was optimal and reached 0.14-0.16 U/mL. In addition, extracellular surfactant-stable chitosanase was purified from the TKU004 culture supernatant. The antioxidant activity of TKU004 culture supernatant was determined through the scavenging ability of DPPH, with 70% per mL. With this method, we have shown that marine wastes can be utilized efficiently through prolonged autoclave treatments to generate a high value-added product, and have revealed its hidden potential in the production of functional foods.

  19. Effect of selenium treatment on mineral nutrition, bulb size, and antioxidant properties of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põldma, Priit; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Viitak, Anu; Luik, Anne; Moor, Ulvi

    2011-05-25

    Foliar selenium (Se) treatment of garlic at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg of Se/mL was carried out in open field conditions in 2008 and 2009 in Estonia. Bulb weight and yield structure, content of total Se, S, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, ascorbic acid content (AAC), pungency, total phenolics, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. The highest level of Se decreased total S, K, and Ca in both years; no negative impact on bulb weight was observed. In 2009 Se10 treatment had significantly more bulbs with the largest diameter compared to the other treatments. In 2008, the AAC was decreased by Se50 and the content of total phenolics by all Se treatments; however, TAC was increased. Foliar Se fertilization of garlic at rates of 10-50 μg of Se/mL can be recommended to increase the number of large bulbs and increase bulb antioxidant capacity.

  20. Effect of steam explosion treatment on barley bran phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lingxiao; Huang, Luolian; Zhang, Ying

    2012-07-25

    A steam explosion pretreatment process followed by methanol extraction has been applied for releasing and extracting phenolic compounds, as well as other effective components, from barley bran. The steam explosion treatment was performed at different temperatures ranging from 210 to 250 °C, with a residence time of 30 s. The effect of residence time was also studied in the range 10 s to 120 s at 220 °C. The extracts were evaluated for their total soluble phenolic content (TSPC) including total free phenolic acids (TFPC) and total soluble conjugates (TSC), identified phenolic acids, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and total methanol extracts (TME). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array detector (PDA) was used in this study for the analysis of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid in barley bran before and after steam explosion. Our results indicate that TSPC and TAC increased with residence time. They also increased dramatically with temperature up to 220 °C. After steam explosion at 220 °C for 120 s, the TSPC reached 1686.4 gallic acid equivalents mg/100 g dry weight, which was about 9-fold higher than that of the untreated sample. The TSPC and TAC obtained were highly positively correlated (r = 0.918-0.993), which meant that the increase of TAC for the steam explosion pretreated barley bran extracts was due, at least in part, to the increase of TSPC in the methanol soluble fraction. Also, under optimum conditions, the WSC in aqueous solution was 5 times as much as that of the untreated sample, which demonstrated that steam explosion also hydrolyzes carbohydrates into water-soluble sugars. It can be concluded that a proper and reasonable steam explosion pretreatment could be applied to release the bound phenolic compounds and enhance the antioxidant capacity of barley bran extracts.

  1. Treatment of a multiple sclerosis animal model by a novel nanodrop formulation of a natural antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binyamin O

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Orli Binyamin,1,* Liraz Larush,2,* Kati Frid,1 Guy Keller,1 Yael Friedman-Levi,1 Haim Ovadia,1 Oded Abramsky,1 Shlomo Magdassi,2 Ruth Gabizon1 1Department of Neurology, The Agnes Ginges Center of Human Neurogenetics, Hadassah University Hospital, 2Casali Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and is associated with demyelination, neurodegeneration, and sensitivity to oxidative stress. In this work, we administered a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil (PSO, denominated Nano-PSO, to mice induced for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an established model of MS. PSO comprises high levels of punicic acid, a unique polyunsaturated fatty acid considered as one of the strongest natural antioxidants. We show here that while EAE-induced mice treated with natural PSO presented some reduction in disease burden, this beneficial effect increased significantly when EAE mice were treated with Nano-PSO of specific size nanodroplets at much lower concentrations of the oil. Pathological examinations revealed that Nano-PSO administration dramatically reduced demyelination and oxidation of lipids in the brains of the affected animals, which are hallmarks of this severe neurological disease. We propose that novel formulations of natural antioxidants such as Nano-PSO may be considered for the treatment of patients suffering from demyelinating diseases. On the mechanistic side, our results demonstrate that lipid oxidation may be a seminal feature in both demyelination and neurodegeneration. Keywords: nanodrops, PSO, EAE, oxidative stress, neurodegeneration

  2. Beyond AREDS: is there a place for antioxidant therapy in the prevention/treatment of eye disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowluru, Renu A; Zhong, Qing

    2011-11-07

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the major cause of blindness in adults (65 years of age and older), and diabetic retinopathy, the major cause of blindness in working adults, are chronic, progressive diseases with multifaceted etiologies that are not fully understood. Progression and lack of treatment of both diseases may lead to the advanced stage with neovascularization. Although the detailed cellular mechanisms leading to the development of AMD and diabetic retinopathy remain elusive, oxidative damage to the retina and its pigment epithelium are considered to be involved. Clinical studies have shown that the progression of AMD can be slowed down by nutritional antioxidants, but trials with antioxidants for diabetic retinopathy (very limited in number) have been inconclusive. Long-term administration of the AREDS antioxidants, the same nutritional antioxidants that have been demonstrated to slow the progression of AMD, have yielded exciting results in preventing the pathogenesis of retinopathy in diabetic rodents. These results suggest the merit of testing the AREDS antioxidants in a clinical trial to prevent the development and/or progression of diabetic retinopathy, with the possibility of reducing the impact of this common vision-threatening disease.

  3. Alterations of mast cells and TGF-β1 on the silymarin treatment for CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Hee Jeong; Gi-Ppeum Lee; Won-Il Jeong; Sun-Hee Do; Hai-Jie Yang; Dong-Wei Yuan; Ho-Yong Park; Kyu-Jong Kim; Kyu-Shik Jeong

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Silymarin is a potent antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anti-fibrogenic agent in the liver, which is mediated by alteration of hepatic Kupffer cell function, lipid peroxidation, and collagen production. Especially, in hepatic fibrogenesis, mast cells are expressed in chronic inflammatory conditions, and promote fibroblast growth and stimulate production of the extracellular matrix by hepatic stellate cells.METHODS: We examined the inhibitory mechanism of silymarin on CCl4-induced hepatic cirrhosis in rats. At 4, 8,and 12 wk, liver tissues were examined histopathologically for fibrotic changes produced by silymarin treatment.RESULTS: In the silymarin with CCl4-treated group,increase of hepatic stellate cells and TGF-β1 production were lower than in the CCl4-treated group at early stages.Additionally, at the late fibrogenic stage, expressions of TGF-β1 were weaker and especially not expressed in hepatocytes located in peripheral areas. Moreover, the number of mast cell in portal areas gradually increased and was dependent on the fibrogenic stage, but those of CCl4+silymarin-treated group decreased significantly.CONCLUSION: Anti-fibrotic and antiinflammatory effects of silymarin were associated with activation of hepatic stellate cells through the expression of TGF-β1 and stabilization of mast cells. These results suggest that silymarin prevent hepatic fibrosis through suppression of inflammation and hypoxia in the hepatic fibrogenesis.

  4. Periconceptional growth hormone treatment alters fetal growth and development in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J M; Wilmoth, T A; Wilson, M E

    2010-05-01

    Research in the area of fetal programming has focused on intrauterine growth restriction. Few studies have attempted to examine programming mechanisms that ultimately lead to lambs with a greater potential for postnatal growth. We previously demonstrated that treatment of ewes with GH at the time of breeding led to an increase in birth weight. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of a single injection of sustained-release GH given during the periconceptional period on fetal growth and development and to determine if the GH axis would be altered in these offspring. Estrus was synchronized using 2 injections of PGF(2alpha); at the time of the second injection, ewes assigned to treatment were also given an injection of sustained-release GH. A maternal jugular vein sample was taken weekly to analyze IGF-I as a proxy for GH to estimate the duration of the treatment effect. In ewes treated with GH, IGF-I increased (P growth and development. Lambs born to ewes treated with GH were larger at birth and had altered organ development, which may indicate that early maternal GH treatment may lead to permanent changes in the developing fetus. The ewe lambs maintained their growth performance to at least 100 d of postnatal life and appeared to have an altered GH axis, as demonstrated by the altered response to GHRH.

  5. Decreased Total Antioxidant Activity in Major Depressive Disorder Patients Non-Responsive to Antidepressant Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Song-Eun; Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Rho, Dae-Young; Kim, Do-Hoon; Huh, Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity (TAA) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and the effect of antidepressants on TAA using a novel potentiometric method. Methods Twenty-eight patients with MDD and thirty-one healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The control group comprised 31 healthy individuals matched for gender, drinking and smoking status. We assessed symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We measured TAA using potentiometry. All measurements were made at baseline and four and eight weeks later. Results There was a significant negative correlation between BDI scores and TAA. TAA was significantly lower in the MDD group than in controls. When the MDD group was subdivided into those who showed clinical response to antidepressant therapy (response group) and those who did not (non-response group), only the non-response group showed lower TAA, while the response group showed no significant difference to controls at baseline. After eight weeks of antidepressant treatment, TAA in both the response and non-response groups was similar, and there was no significant difference among the three groups. Conclusion These results suggest that the response to antidepressant treatment in MDD patients might be predicted by measuring TAA. PMID:27081384

  6. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the total phenolic and antioxidant activity of extracts from citrus peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y-Q; Chen, J-C; Liu, D-H; Ye, X-Q

    2008-10-01

    Application of ultrasound to extract a variety of biologically active compounds from plant materials has been widely investigated. However, there are few reports on the local effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the yields of these compounds. In the present article, the local effect of ultrasonic treatment on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities (ATT) of extracts from citrus peels was investigated. To optimize the extraction process, a response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effects of ultrasonic variables including ultrasonic power, ultrasonic time, and extraction temperature on extracts from penggan (Citrus reticulata) peel. The results showed that TPC and ATT increased on increasing ultrasonic time and temperature. The maximum of TPC and ATT by ultrasonic treatment was observed in near ultrasonic irradiation surface, in which ultrasonic power appeared to be positive effect. Furthermore, when the effect of the 3 independent variables was evaluated simultaneously using RSM, the optimal ultrasonic conditions for responses were determined as: 42 to 45 W, 23 to 25 min, 31 to 34 degrees C. The results presented here emphasized that application of ultrasound should be considered both the optimization of ultrasonic variables and available ultrasonic device.

  7. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles enhance production of superoxide anion and alter the antioxidant system in human osteoblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niska K

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Karolina Niska,1 Katarzyna Pyszka,1 Cecylia Tukaj,2 Michal Wozniak,1 Marek Witold Radomski,3–5 Iwona Inkielewicz-Stepniak1 1Department of Medical Chemistry, 2Department of Electron Microscopy, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland; 3School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, The University of Dublin Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland; 4Kardio-Med Silesia, 5Silesian Medical University, Zabrze, Poland Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs are manufactured worldwide for a variety of engineering and bioengineering applications. TiO2NPs are frequently used as a material for orthopedic implants. However, to the best of our knowledge, the biocompatibility of TiO2NPs and their effects on osteoblast cells, which are responsible for the growth and remodeling of the human skeleton, have not been thoroughly investigated. In the research reported here, we studied the effects of exposing hFOB 1.19 human osteoblast cells to TiO2NPs (5–15 nm for 24 and 48 hours. Cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, cellular uptake of NPs, cell morphology, superoxide anion (O2•- generation, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and protein level, sirtuin 3 (SIR3 protein level, correlation between manganese (Mn SOD and SIR, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde were measured following exposure of hFOB 1.19 cells to TiO2NPs. Exposure of hFOB 1.19 cells to TiO2NPs resulted in: (1 cellular uptake of NPs; (2 increased cytotoxicity and cell death in a time- and concentration-dependent manner; (3 ultrastructure changes; (4 decreased SOD and ALP activity; (5 decreased protein levels of SOD1, SOD2, and SIR3; (6 decreased total antioxidant capacity; (7 increased O2•- generation; and (8 enhanced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde level. The linear relationship between the protein level of MnSOD and SIR3 and between O2•- content and SIR3 protein level was observed. Importantly, the cytotoxic

  8. Dietary selenium and prolonged exercise alter gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in equine skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S H; Johnson, S E; Bobel, J M; Warren, L K

    2016-07-01

    Untrained Thoroughbred horses (6 mares and 6 geldings; 11 yr [SE 1] and 565 kg [SE 11]) were used to evaluate antioxidant gene expression and enzyme activity in blood and skeletal muscle in response to prolonged exercise after receiving 2 levels of dietary selenium for 36 d: 0.1 (CON; = 6) or 0.3 mg/kg DM (SEL; = 6). Horses were individually fed 1.6% BW coastal bermudagrass hay, 0.4% BW whole oats, and a mineral/vitamin premix containing no Se. Sodium selenite was added to achieve either 0.1 or 0.3 mg Se/kg DM in the total diet. On d 35, horses underwent 2 h of submaximal exercise in a free-stall exerciser. Blood samples were obtained before (d 0) and after 34 d of Se supplementation and on d 35 to 36 immediately after exercise and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Biopsies of the middle gluteal muscle were obtained on d 0, before exercise on d 34, and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Supplementation with Se above the NRC requirement (SEL) increased serum Se ( = 0.011) and muscle thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity ( = 0.051) but had no effect on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in plasma, red blood cell (RBC) lysate, or muscle in horses at rest. Serum creatine kinase activity increased ( SEL immediately following exercise. Muscle expression of was unchanged at 6 h but increased ( = 0.005) 2.8-fold 24 h after exercise, whereas muscle TrxR activity remained unchanged. Glutathione peroxidase activity increased in plasma (P impact of prolonged exercise on the activities of antioxidant enzymes varied. Furthermore, changes in enzyme activity did not necessarily align with enzyme gene expression following exercise. A higher level of Se intake elevated Se status of untrained horses, increased GPx activity, and lessened lipid peroxidation following exercise, suggesting that Se may be beneficial for mitigating oxidative muscle damage and aiding in postexercise recovery.

  9. Alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content in pea leaves under long-term drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Ilhami; Öztürk, Lokman; Demir, Yavuz; Unlükara, Ali; Kurunç, Ahmet; Düzdemir, Oral

    2014-09-01

    The effects of long-term drought stress on chlorophyll, proline, protein and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents, malondialdehyde (MDA) in terms of lipid peroxidation and on the changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POX; EC 1.11.1.7) in the leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were studied in field conditions. Chlorophyll and protein contents in leaves decreased significantly with increased drought stress. The proline content increased markedly under water deficit. MDA amounts were elevated as a result of water shortage, whereas H(2)O(2) content changed slightly in pea leaves exposed to drought stress. Drought stress markedly enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POX but slightly changed the activity of APX. We conclude that in field conditions, long-term water shortage increased the susceptibility to drought in peas.

  10. Antioxidants as a treatment for acute pancreatitis : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, S. M.; Nijs, M. M.; Prins, H. A B; Greving, J. P.; Siersema, P. D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of antioxidants in acute (AP) pancreatitis. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane library for all randomized controlled trials (RCT) involving administration of antioxidants in the therapy of AP until February 2012. AP studies were pooled to analyze the

  11. Antioxidants as a treatment for acute pancreatitis: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, S.M.; Nijs, M.M.; Prins, H.A.; Greving, J.P.; Siersema, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of antioxidants in acute (AP) pancreatitis. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane library for all randomized controlled trials (RCT) involving administration of antioxidants in the therapy of AP until February 2012. AP studies were pooled to analyze t

  12. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use.

  13. Curcumin pretreatment and post-treatment both improve the antioxidative ability of neurons with oxygen-glucose deprivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-xian Wu; Lu-yu Zhang; Yan-lin Chen; Shan-shan Yu; Yong Zhao; Jing Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that induced expression of endogenous antioxidative enzymes thr-ough activation of the antioxidant response element/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway may be a neuroprotective strategy. In this study, rat cerebral cortical neurons culturedin vitrowere pretreated with 10 µM curcumin or post-treated with 5 µM curcumin, respectively before or after being subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation for 24 hours. Both pretreatment and post-treatment resulted in a signiifcant decrease of cell injury as indicated by propidium iodide/Hoechst 33258 staining, a prominent increase of Nrf2 protein expression as indicated by western blot analysis, and a remarkable increase of protein expression and enzyme activity in whole cell lysates of thioredoxin before ischemia, after ischemia, and after reoxygenation. In addition, post-treatment with curcumin inhibited early DNA/RNA oxidation as indicated by immunocytochemistry and increased nuclear Nrf2 protein by inducing nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. These findings suggest that curcumin activates the expression of thi-oredoxin, an antioxidant protein in the Nrf2 pathway, and protects neurons from death caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation in anin vitro model of ischemia/reperfusion. We speculate that pharmacologic stimulation of antioxidant gene expression may be a promising approach to neu-roprotection after cerebral ischemia.

  14. Curcumin pretreatment and post-treatment both improve the antioxidative ability of neurons with oxygen-glucose deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-xian Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that induced expression of endogenous antioxidative enzymes thr-ough activation of the antioxidant response element/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 pathway may be a neuroprotective strategy. In this study, rat cerebral cortical neurons cultured in vitro were pretreated with 10 μM curcumin or post-treated with 5 μM curcumin, respectively before or after being subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation for 24 hours. Both pretreatment and post-treatment resulted in a significant decrease of cell injury as indicated by propidium iodide/Hoechst 33258 staining, a prominent increase of Nrf2 protein expression as indicated by western blot analysis, and a remarkable increase of protein expression and enzyme activity in whole cell lysates of thioredoxin before ischemia, after ischemia, and after reoxygenation. In addition, post-treatment with curcumin inhibited early DNA/RNA oxidation as indicated by immunocytochemistry and increased nuclear Nrf2 protein by inducing nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. These findings suggest that curcumin activates the expression of thioredoxin, an antioxidant protein in the Nrf2 pathway, and protects neurons from death caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation in an in vitro model of ischemia/reperfusion. We speculate that pharmacologic stimulation of antioxidant gene expression may be a promising approach to neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia.

  15. Shelf life, physicochemical, microbiological and antioxidant properties of purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) juice after thermoultrasound treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly del Socorro; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; León-Rivera, Jesús Ernesto; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Manríquez-Torres, José de Jesús; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in color, betalain content, browning index, viscosity, physical stability, microbiological growth, antioxidant content and antioxidant activity of purple cactus pear juice during storage after thermoultrasonication at 80% amplitude level for 15 and 25 min in comparison with pasteurized juice. Thermoultrasound treatment for 25 min increased color stability and viscosity compared to treatment for 15 min (6.83 and 6.72 MPa, respectively), but this last parameter was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the control and pasteurized juices (22.47 and 26.32 MPa, respectively). Experimental treatment reduced significantly (p<0.05) sediment solids in juices. Total plate counts decreased from the first day of storage exhibiting values of 1.38 and 1.43 logCFU/mL, for 15 and 25 min treatment, respectively. Compared to the control, both treatments reduced enterobacteria counts (1.54 logCFU/mL), and compared to pasteurized juice decreased pectinmethylesterase activity (3.76 and 3.82 UPE/mL), maintained high values of ascorbic acid (252.05 and 257.18 mg AA/L) and antioxidant activity (by ABTS: 124.8 and 115.6 mg VCEAC/100 mL; and DPPH: 3114.2 and 2757.1 μmol TE/L). During storage thermoultrasonicated juices had a minimum increase in pectinmethylesterase activity (from day 14), and exhibited similar total plate counts to pasteurized juice. An increase of phenolic content was observed after 14 days of storage, particularly for treatment at 80%, 25 min, and an increase in antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH) by the end of storage.

  16. Shelf life extension and antioxidant activity of 'Hayward' kiwi fruit as a result of prestorage conditioning and 1-methylcyclopropene treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Seo; Im, Myeng He; Gorinstein, Shela

    2015-05-01

    Kiwi fruits (Actinidia deliciosa C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson) were treated by prestorage conditioning (20 °C for 2 days), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, 1 ppm for 16 h) and conditioning plus 1-MCP. After the treatment the fruits were immediately stored at 0 °C during 24 weeks. Flesh firmness gradually decreased with storage time and the rate of its loss was lower in 1-MCP and conditioning plus 1-MCP treatments than those of control or conditioning. However, SSC, acidity and pH did not change among treatments. Starch content decreased during the storage time regardless of treatments. Oppositely the amount of reducing sugars increased at the same duration of the treatments. Rate and incidence of fruit decay was the lowest in fruit treated with conditioning plus 1-MCP treatment. Fruit decay mainly caused pathogen Botrytis cinerea and its rate significantly decreased with conditioning plus 1-MCP treatment. Ethylene and respiration abruptly increased after 8 weeks of storage, but their contents were lower in 1-MCP and conditioning plus 1-MCP. Total soluble phenolics, flavonoids, and total antioxidant capacities were much higher than in other treatments. Kiwi fruits treated with conditioning plus 1-MCP extended the shelf life by reducing the rate of fruit decay and softening during the storage. The bioactive compounds and total antioxidant status of fruits increased during the treatment.

  17. Alterations in oxidant/antioxidant balance, high-mobility group box 1 protein and acute phase response in cross-bred suckling piglets suffering from rotaviral enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar De, Ujjwal; Mukherjee, Reena; Nandi, Sukdeb; Patel, Bhimnere Hanumatnagouda Manjunatha; Dimri, Umesh; Ravishankar, Chintu; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Rotaviral enteritis has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in piglets during their post-natal life. The present study was carried out to examine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, acute phase response and oxidative stress indices in the serum of suckling piglets suffering from enteritis with or without association of porcine group A rotavirus infection. The present investigation utilized 23 clinical cases with signs of acute enteritis and 12 more healthy piglets of a similar age group as control animals. Out of 23 enteritis cases, 12 cases were found to be positive for porcine group A rotavirus infection as confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers for group A rotavirus, and the rest were found negative. The acute enteritis cases in piglets were associated with an elevated level of HMGB1 protein and serum haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin suggestive of an acute phase response. Among the oxidative stress indices, the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in serum were significantly increased. A pronounced drop of total antioxidant capacity and the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase in the serum of piglets suffering from acute enteritis compared to healthy ones were also noticed. The alterations in HMGB1 protein, acute phase response and oxidative stress indices were more pronounced in cases with the involvement of porcine rotavirus as compared to rotavirus-negative cases. It is concluded that HMGB1 protein, markers of oxidative stress and acute phase proteins might play an important role in the aetiopathogenesis of porcine diarrhoea caused by rotavirus and might be true markers in diagnosing the conditions leading to the extension of the prompt and effective therapeutic care.

  18. Plantago major treatment enhanced innate antioxidant activity in experimental acetaminophen toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farida; Hussan; Rina; Haryani; Osman; Basah; Mohd; Rai; zul; Mohd; Yusof; Nur; Aqilah; Kamaruddin; Faizah; Othman

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the ef ect of Plantago major(P. major) extract on the liver injury following acetaminophen(APAP) toxicity. Methods: The male Sprague Dawley rats(n = 38) were randomly divided into normal control(n = 6) and experiment(n = 32) groups. The latter was subdivided into four groups and induced with APAP(1 000 mg/kg) per oral, followed by P. major extract and N-acetylcysteine orally to the respective groups for six days. Results: On the seventh day, the serum bilirubin, liver enzymes and tissue malondialdehyde were increased in APAP groups whereas the total protein in serum, tissue superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels were reduced. The plant extract treatment reduced the histological deteriorations such as aggregation of hepatocellular cords, formation of binucleated cells and vacuolisation of the cells with scanty cytoplasm. It also revealed signii cant reduction of malondialdehyde and increased level of superoxide dismutase and glutathione. The i ndings in the extract treated groups were comparable to the group treated with N-acetylcysteine. Conclusions: In conclusion, P. major can enhance innate antioxidant activity and ameliorate the APAP-induced liver injury.

  19. Plantago major treatment enhanced innate antioxidant activity in experimental acetaminophen toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farida Hussan; Rina Haryani Osman Basah; Mohd Rafizul Mohd Yusof; Nur Aqilah Kamaruddin; Faizah Othman

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of Plantago major (P. major) extract on the liver injury following acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. Methods: The male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 38) were randomly divided into normal control (n= 6) and experiment (n = 32) groups. The latter was subdivided into four groups and induced with APAP (1000 mg/kg) per oral, followed by P. major extract and N-acetylcysteine orally to the respective groups for six days. Results: On the seventh day, the serum bilirubin, liver enzymes and tissue malondialdehyde were increased in APAP groups whereas the total protein in serum, tissue superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels were reduced. The plant extract treatment reduced the histological deteriorations such as aggregation of hepatocellular cords, formation of binucleated cells and vacuolisation of the cells with scanty cytoplasm. It also revealed significant reduction of malondialdehyde and increased level of superoxide dismutase and glutathione. The findings in the extract treated groups were comparable to the group treated with N-acetylcysteine. Conclusions: In conclusion, P. major can enhance innate antioxidant activity and ameliorate the APAP-induced liver injury.

  20. Antioxidant activity of olive oil mill wastewater obtained from different thermal treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuffrè, A. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In food industry, Olive Oil Mill Wastewater (OOMWW is considered a by-product because of the presence of biostatic compounds with a high polluting rate, in particular phenols. Moreover, during olive oil processing, a large amount of this by-product constitutes an ecological and economical problem for the producers. To reevaluate this by-product, the reuse of this wastewater to obtain useful compounds appears to be very important. In order to purify the wastewater, the development of operations that modify its organic content seems necessary for obtaining of eventual fertilizing agents and/or to recover substances with a high added value such as phenolic compounds, which are currently recognized scientifically as molecules with a high antioxidant activity. A chromatographic analysis of these compounds was conducted to characterize different concentrations of wastewater and the reducing power of the extracts was measured. The thermal treatment of olive oil mill wastewater in a rotary evaporator and in an oven involved an increase in radical scavenging efficiency. These results could be correlated with the possibility of recovering and reusing this type of waste for its antioxidant properties.

    En la industria alimentaria, el alpechín se considera un subproducto debido a la presencia de compuestos bioestáticos, con una alta tasa de contaminación, particularmente los fenoles. Además, durante el procesado de la aceituna, la generación de una gran cantidad de este subproducto supone un problema ecológico y económico para los productores. Es importante la reutilización de este agua de desecho para obtener compuestos útiles. Para purificar el agua de desecho es necesario el desarrollo de operaciones que modifiquen su contenido orgánico, para poder obtener agentes fertilizantes y/o recuperar sustancias con un alto valor añadido como los compuestos fenólicos, que actualmente están reconocidos científicamente como moléculas con una

  1. Photosynthetic and antioxidative alterations in coffee leaves caused by epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin sprays and Hemileia vastatrix infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorato Júnior, J; Zambolim, L; Aucique-Pérez, C E; Resende, R S; Rodrigues, F A

    2015-09-01

    were maintained at high levels in the leaves of inoculated plants, regardless of the fungicide sprayed, indicating that CHI and GLU are less important for coffee resistance against CLR. The results of the present study clearly demonstrated that plants sprayed with either EPO or PYR showed milder CLR symptoms with adequate photosynthetic performance and optimal conditioning of their antioxidant systems.

  2. Global DNA methylation is altered by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer and may predict response to treatment - A pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tsang, J S

    2014-07-28

    In rectal cancer, not all tumours display a response to neoadjuvant treatment. An accurate predictor of response does not exist to guide patient-specific treatment. DNA methylation is a distinctive molecular pathway in colorectal carcinogenesis. Whether DNA methylation is altered by neoadjuvant treatment and a potential response predictor is unknown. We aimed to determine whether DNA methylation is altered by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and to determine its role in predicting response to treatment.

  3. Scaling-Stimulated Salivary Antioxidant Changes and Oral-Health Behavior in an Evaluation of Periodontal Treatment Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Sheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Our goal was to investigate associations among scaling-stimulated changes in salivary antioxidants, oral-health-related behaviors and attitudes, and periodontal treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods. Thirty periodontitis patients with at least 6 pockets with pocket depths of >5 mm and more than 16 functional teeth were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into three groups: an abandoned group (AB group, a nonprogress outcome group (NP group, and an effective treatment group (ET group. Nonstimulated saliva was collected before and after scaling were received to determine superoxide dismutase (SOD and the total antioxidant capacity (TAOC. Results. Salivary SOD following scaling significantly increased from 83.09 to 194.30 U/g protein in patients who had irregular dental visit patterns (<1 visit per year. After scaling, the TAOC was significantly higher in patients who had regular dental visits than in patients who had irregular dental visits (3.52 versus 0.70 mmole/g protein, P<0.01. The scaling-stimulated increase in SOD was related to a higher severity of periodontitis in the NP group, while the scaling-stimulated increase in the TAOC was inversely related to the severity of periodontitis in the AB group. Conclusions. These results demonstrate the importance of scaling-stimulated salivary antioxidants as prognostic biomarkers of periodontal treatment.

  4. Antioxidant therapy in the treatment of vitiligo%白癜风的抗氧化治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范英姬; 刘志军

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been identified as an important process in the pathogenesis of vitiligo in re-cent years. Antioxidant therapy has become a research focus and many antioxidants have proven to be effec-tive in the treatment of vitiligo. This article aims to review the efficacy of antioxidants in the treatment of viti-ligo and provide reference for the relevant research and treatment in the future.%近年来氧化应激被认为是白癜风发病与病情发展的重要机制,因而抗氧化治疗白癜风成为研究热点,部分抗氧化治疗药物已经应用于临床治疗并取得满意效果,本文将对抗氧化治疗药物做一综述,为今后抗氧化相关研究及治疗提供参考。

  5. Yields, Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activities of Ziziphus jujube Mill. in Response to Different Fertilization Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for more jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill. production requires understanding the specific fertilization needs of jujube trees. This study was conducted to compare fruit yields, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of jujube in response to different fertilizers. Application of organic fertilizer appeared to enhance the phenolics and antioxidant activity accumulation of jujubes, compared to conventional fertilized jujubes. Amongst inorganic fertilizers, supplemental potassium as an individual nutrient improved the accumulation of phenolics in jujubes. Our results demonstrate that phenolics levels and antioxidant activity of jujube can be manipulated through fertilizer management and tracked by following proanthocyanidin concentrations. In a practical production context, the combination of organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers such as more supplemental individual potassium, and less supplemental individual nitrogen and phosphorus, might be the best management combination for achieving higher phenolic concentration, stronger antioxidant activity and a good harvest.

  6. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of mango after formalin treatment during preservation

    OpenAIRE

    G.M. Masud Parvez; Md Badrul Islam; Ashik Mosaddik

    2016-01-01

    Free radicals are producing continuously inside the living cell as a part of normal metabolic process and responsible for the generation of various types of disease such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurological disease, pulmonary disease, rheumatoid arthritis, nephropathy, ocular disease etc. Antioxidants are continuously counterbalancing the oxidative radical by breakdown or neutralizing the free radical. Various fruits and plant parts possesses antioxidant activity for example our st...

  7. Tribulus terrestris (Linn.) Attenuates Cellular Alterations Induced by Ischemia in H9c2 Cells Via Antioxidant Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshma, P L; Lekshmi, V S; Sankar, Vandana; Raghu, K G

    2015-06-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. was evaluated for its cardioprotective property against myocardial ischemia in a cell line model. Initially, methanolic extract was prepared and subjected to sequential extraction with various solvents. The extract with high phenolic content (T. terrestris L. ethyl acetate extract-TTME) was further characterized for its chemical constituents and taken forward for evaluation against cardiac ischemia. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds like caffeic acid (12.41 ± 0.22 mg g(-1)), chlorogenic acid (0.52 ± 0.06 mg g(-1)) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (0.60 ± 0.08 mg g(-1)). H9c2 cells were pretreated with TTME (10, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml) for 24 h before the induction of ischemia. Then ischemia was induced by exposing cells to ischemia buffer, in a hypoxic chamber, maintained at 0.1% O2, 95% N2 and 5% CO2, for 1 h. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in reactive oxygen species generation (56%), superoxide production (18%), loss of plasma membrane integrity, dissipation of transmembrane potential, permeability transition pore opening and apoptosis had been observed during ischemia. However, pretreatment with TTME was found to significantly (p ≤ 0.05) attenuate the alterations caused by ischemia. The overall results of this study partially reveal the scientific basis of the use of T. terrestris L. in the traditional system of medicine for heart diseases.

  8. Altered chromatin organization and SUN2 localization in mandibuloacral dysplasia are rescued by drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camozzi, Daria; D'Apice, Maria Rosaria; Schena, Elisa; Cenni, Vittoria; Columbaro, Marta; Capanni, Cristina; Maraldi, Nadir M; Squarzoni, Stefano; Ortolani, Michela; Novelli, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Giovanna

    2012-10-01

    Mandibuloacral dysplasia type A (MADA) is a rare laminopathy characterized by growth retardation, craniofacial anomalies, bone resorption at specific sites including clavicles, phalanges and mandibula, mottled cutaneous pigmentation, skin rigidity, partial lipodystrophy, and insulin resistance. The disorder is caused by recessive mutations of the LMNA gene encoding for A-type lamins. The molecular feature of MADA consists in the accumulation of the unprocessed lamin A precursor, which is detected at the nuclear rim and in intranuclear aggregates. Here, we report the characterization of prelamin A post-translational modifications in MADA cells that induce alterations in the chromatin arrangement and dislocation of nuclear envelope-associated proteins involved in correct nucleo-cytoskeleton relationships. We show that protein post-translational modifications change depending on the passage number, suggesting the onset of a feedback mechanism. Moreover, we show that treatment of MADA cells with the farnesyltransferase inhibitors is effective in the recovery of the chromatin phenotype, altered in MADA, provided that the cells are at low passage number, while at high passage number, the treatment results ineffective. Moreover, the distribution of the lamin A interaction partner SUN2, a constituent of the nuclear envelope, is altered by MADA mutations, as argued by the formation of a highly disorganized lattice. Treatment with statins partially rescues proper SUN2 organization, indicating that its alteration is caused by farnesylated prelamin A accumulation. Given the major role of SUN1 and SUN2 in the nucleo-cytoskeleton interactions and in regulation of nuclear positioning in differentiating cells, we hypothesise that mechanisms regulating nuclear membrane-centrosome interplay and nuclear movement may be affected in MADA fibroblasts.

  9. Reduced arsenic accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) shoot involves sulfur mediated improved thiol metabolism, antioxidant system and altered arsenic transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Kumar, Smita; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination in rice is at alarming level as majority of rice growing regions are As contaminated such as South East Asia. Restricting the As in aerial parts of rice plant may be an effective strategy to reduce As contamination in food chain. Sulfur (S), an essential element for plant growth and development, plays a crucial role in diminishing heavy metal toxicity. Current study is designed to investigate the role of S to mitigate As toxicity in rice under different S regimes. High S (5 mM) treatment resulted in enhanced root As accumulation as well as prevented its entry in to shoot. Results of thiol metabolism indicate that As was complexed in plant roots through enhanced synthesis of phytochelatins. High S treatment also reduced the expression of OsLsi1 and OsLsi2, the potent transporters of As in rice. High S treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and mitigated the As induced oxidative stress. Thus from present study it is evident that proper supply of S nutrition may be helpful in prevention of As accumulation in aerial parts of plant as well as As induced toxicity.

  10. Impact of DNA mismatch repair system alterations on human fertility and related treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min-hao; Liu, Shu-yuan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Yan; Jin, Fan

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is one of the biological pathways, which plays a critical role in DNA homeostasis, primarily by repairing base-pair mismatches and insertion/deletion loops that occur during DNA replication. MMR also takes part in other metabolic pathways and regulates cell cycle arrest. Defects in MMR are associated with genomic instability, predisposition to certain types of cancers and resistance to certain therapeutic drugs. Moreover, genetic and epigenetic alterations in the MMR system demonstrate a significant relationship with human fertility and related treatments, which helps us to understand the etiology and susceptibility of human infertility. Alterations in the MMR system may also influence the health of offspring conceived by assisted reproductive technology in humans. However, further studies are needed to explore the specific mechanisms by which the MMR system may affect human infertility. This review addresses the physiological mechanisms of the MMR system and associations between alterations of the MMR system and human fertility and related treatments, and potential effects on the next generation.

  11. Influence of hydrothermal treatment on dietary fiber and phenolic compounds content as well as antioxidative activity of legumes seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Filipiak-Florkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dry legumes seeds are food of high nutrient density. Besides the biologically precious protein they contain essential unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins of group B, dietary fiber and antioxidants. The aim of the research was to assess the influence of different soaking and cooking methods on dietary fiber and phe- nolic compounds content, as well as antioxidative activity of selected legumes’seeds. Material and methods. The experimental material was dry kidney bean originating from collection of Krakow’s Plants and Seeds Horticulture POLAN LTD, and soya bean seeds bought at the market store. The technological treatment of seeds was performed in two stages: 1 soaking in cold and hot water, 2 cook- ing with three different kinds of equipment – electrical stove, induction stove and microwave oven. In the above described ways prepared material was examined for the dietary fiber and phenolic compounds content, as well as antioxidative activity. Results. The highest amount of dietary fiber was found in soya bean seeds cooked on an induction stove (27.4 g·100 g-1 d.m. and electric stove (27.3 g·100 g-1 d.m. after previous soaking in hot water. The dry soya bean and kidney bean seeds were characterised by a high content of phenolic compounds 163.2 mg GAE·100 g-1d.m. and 173.1 mg GAE·100 g-1d.m. respectively. The dry matter of cooked (on induction and electric stove kidney bean and soya seeds was characterised by a higher phenolic compounds level (232.7-311.6 mg GAE·100 g-1and 224.4-315.6 respectively than raw material. Antioxidative activity of untreated seeds of kidney bean and soya bean was 4.5 and 4.1 μmol Tx·g-1d.m. respectively. The high ability of free radicals scavenging was observed in kidney bean i.e. 8.7 μmol Tx·g-1  d.m. after traditional soaking and 9.5 μmol Tx·g-1d.m. after “hot” soaking. Conclusions. Soaking and cooking of seeds (despite the species influenced growth of phenolic compounds content in dry

  12. Restoration of tryptophan hydroxylase functions and serotonin content in the Atlantic croaker hypothalamus by antioxidant treatment during hypoxic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saydur Rahman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are prototypical scavengers of oxygen-free radicals and have been shown to prevent neuroendocrine dysfunction in vertebrates during oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated whether antioxidant treatment can reverse hypoxia-induced down-regulation of hypothalamic tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH and serotonergic functions in Atlantic croaker. Hypothalamic neuronal contents of TPH-1 and TPH-2 proteins, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT and its precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP as well as hypothalamic TPH-1 and TPH-2 mRNA expression and TPH activity were measured in croaker after exposure to hypoxia and treatment with pharmacological agents. Multiple injections of N-ethylmaleimide, a sulfhydryl alkylating agent, caused comparable decreases in hypothalamic TPHs functions and 5-HT contents to that induced by hypoxia exposure (dissolved oxygen: 1.7 mg/L for 4 weeks which were partially restored by repeated injections with a nitric oxide synthase (NOS-inhibitor and/or vitamin E. Double-labeled immunohistochemical results showed that TPHs and 5-HT neurons were co-expressed with neuronal NOS (nNOS, a neuroenzyme that catalyzes the production of nitric oxide, a free radical, in hypothalamic neurons. These results suggest that hypoxia-induced impairment of TPH and serotonergic functions are mediated by nNOS and involve the generation of free radicals and a decrease in the antioxidant status. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence of a protective role for an antioxidant in maintaining neural TPHs functions and 5-HT regulation in an aquatic vertebrate during hypoxic stress.

  13. Silicon Promotes Adventitious Shoot Regeneration and Enhances Salinity Tolerance of Ajuga multiflora Bunge by Altering Activity of Antioxidant Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyyakkannu Sivanesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of Si concentration on shoot regeneration and salinity tolerance of Ajuga multiflora. Addition of Si to the shoot induction medium significantly increased the frequency of shoot induction. The average number of shoots regenerated per explant decreased on the medium containing NaCl alone, while there was less decrease when the shoot induction medium was supplemented with both NaCl and Si. The shoot induction percentage increased linearly with increasing concentration of Si in the NaCl containing medium. Addition of Si to the shoot induction medium significantly increased SOD, POD, APX, and CAT activity in regenerated shoot buds as compared with the control. The inclusion of Si to the NaCl containing medium significantly increased the SOD activity in leaves and roots, while it decreased POD, APX, and CAT activity in both organs. Scanning electron microscopic analysis showed that there are no distinct differences in the structure of stomata between the control and Si-treated plants. However, NaCl treatment significantly affected the structure and number of stomata as compared to the control. Wavelength dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed the high Si deposition in trichomes of plants grown in the Si containing medium but not in plants grown in the medium without Si.

  14. Altered cortical activation from the hand after facial botulinum toxin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenzi, Sara; Stefanics, Gabor; Lanaras, Tatjana; Calcagni, Maurizio; Ghosh, Arko

    2014-01-01

    Plastic interactions between face and hand cortical tactile circuits occur after severe injuries that affect the hand such as in amputation or spinal cord injury. However, whether loss of facial movements alters the cortical circuits involved in processing tactile inputs from the hand remains unknown. In this prospective observational study we used electroencephalography (EEG) to measure cortical activity evoked by tactile stimulation of the hands before and after botulinum toxin-A-induced facial paralysis. We found a reduction in the tactile event-related potentials (ERPs) 6 weeks after the treatment. This suggests that the limited paralysis of facial muscles induced during cosmetic interventions designed to smooth lines and wrinkles on the face is sufficient to alter the cortical processing of tactile inputs from the hand.

  15. Antioxidative effects of berberine pre-treatment on hydrogen peroxide-induced PC12 cell toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daohua Xu; Chenhui Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.Oxidative damage could be prevented by augmenting the endogenous defense capacity against oxidative stress by antioxidant intake.As an effective alkaloid component of Chinese herbal medicine Rhizoma coptidis extract,berberine exhibits antioxidative properties and ameliorates memory impairment in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.The present study investigated the protective effects of berberine on H2O2-induced PC12 cell toxicity.Results demonstrated that berbedne protects PC12 cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis and increases PC12 cell viability.Lactate dehydrogenase release,reactive oxygen content,and malonyl dialdehyde levels were significantly decreased(P < 0.01).The protective effects of berberine on H2O2-induced PC12 cell toxicity were achieved via the antioxidative effects of berberine.

  16. Enhancement of antioxidant effects of naringin after atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Jang, Soo Jeung; Chung, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yong, Hae In; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-03-15

    Naringin is the natural chief bitter flavonoid found in Citrus species. Herein, bitter naringin was treated with atmospheric pressure plasma to afford two new converted flavonoids, narinplasmins A (2) and B (3), along with the known compound, 2R-naringin. The structures of the two new naringin derivatives were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant activity of all isolates was evaluated based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) scavenging assays. The new flavanone glycoside 2 containing a methoxyalkyl group exhibited significantly improved antioxidant properties in these assays relative to the parent naringin.

  17. Alteration of split renal function during Captopril treatment. Diagnostic significance in renovascular hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aburano, Tamio; Takayama, Teruhiko; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi; Yasuhara, Shuichirou; Miyamori, Isamu; Takeda, Ryoyu

    1987-07-01

    Two different methods to evaluate the alteration of split renal function following continued Captopril treatment were studied in a total of 21 patients with hypertension. Eight patients with renovascular hypertension (five with unilateral renal artery stenosis and three with bilateral renal artery stenoses), three patients with diabetic nephropathy, one patient with primary aldosteronism, and nine patients with essential hypertension were included. The studies were performed the day prior to receiving Captopril (baseline), and 6th or 7th day following continued Captopril treatment (37.5 mg or 75 mg/day). Split effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after injections of I-131 hippuran and Tc-99m DTPA were measured using kidney counting corrected for depth and dose, described by Schlegel and Gates. In the patients with renovascular hypertension, split GFR in the stenotic kidney was significantly decreased 6th or 7th day following continued Captopril treatment compared to a baseline value. And split ERPF in the stenotic kidney was slightly increased although significant increase of split ERPF was not shown. In the patients with diabetic nephropathy, primary aldosteronism or essential hypertension, on the other hand, split GFR was not changed and split ERPF was slightly increased. These findings suggest that the Captopril induced alterations of split renal function may be of importance for the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. For this purpose, split GFR determination is more useful than split ERPF determination.

  18. Cancer cachexia and diabetes: similarities in metabolic alterations and possible treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Stéphanie; Farsijani, Samaneh

    2014-06-01

    Cancer cachexia is a metabolic syndrome featuring many alterations typical of type 2 diabetes (T2D). While muscle wasting is a hallmark of cachexia, epidemiological evidence also supports an accelerated age-related muscle loss in T2D. Insulin resistance manifests in both conditions and impairs glucose disposal and protein anabolism by tissues. A greater contribution of gluconeogenesis to glucose production may limit amino acid availability for muscle protein synthesis, further aggravating muscle loss. In the context of inter-dependence between glucose and protein metabolism, the present review summarizes the current state of knowledge on alterations that may lead to muscle wasting in human cancer. By highlighting the similarities with T2D, a disease that has been more extensively studied, the objective of this review is to provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of cancer cachexia and to consider potential treatments usually targeted for T2D. Nutritional approaches aimed at stimulating protein anabolism might include specially formulated food with optimal protein and amino acid composition. Because the gradual muscle loss in T2D may be attenuated by diabetes treatment, anti-diabetic drugs might be considered in cachexia treatment. Metformin emerges as a choice candidate as it acts both on reducing gluconeogenesis and improving insulin sensitivity, and has demonstrated tumour suppressor properties in multiple cancer types. Such a multimodal approach to slow or reverse muscle wasting in cachexia warrants further investigation.

  19. Antioxidant agents: a future alternative approach in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced oral mucositis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Cuba, Letícia; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves; Cherubini, Karen; de Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a therapeutic modality frequently employed for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). It destroys tumor cells, but it is not selective, also affecting healthy tissues and producing adverse effects. One that stands out is oral mucositis because of the morbidity that it is capable of causing. This lesion is characterized by the presence of erythema, ulcerations, pain, opportunistic infections, and weight loss. These side effects can lead to serious situations that require the interruption of the antineoplastic treatment and can result in hospitalization and even death. The complex mechanisms linked to the pathogenesis of oral mucositis were recently established, and since then, the control of oxidative stress (OS) has been tied to the prevention and management of this disease. The authors have carried out a review of the literature about the use of antioxidant agents in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced oral mucositis, using the PubMed database. This review has shown that the research on use of antioxidants (AOX) has proved insufficient to justify suggesting the products in treatment protocols. Results are promising, however, and AOX may represent a future alternative in the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis.

  20. Long-term treatment with shengmai san-derived herbal supplement (Wei Kang Su) enhances antioxidant response in various tissues of rats with protection against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Pou Kuan; Chen, Na; Chiu, Po Yee; Leung, Hoi Yan; Ma, Chung Wah; Tang, Qing Tao; Ko, Kam Ming

    2010-04-01

    Wei Kang Su (WKS) is a commercial herbal product based on a Chinese herbal formula, Shengmai San. Here, we investigated the effects of long-term treatment with WKS on mitochondrial antioxidant status and functional ability, as well as heat shock protein (Hsp) 25/70 production, in various tissues of rats. WKS treatment enhanced mitochondrial antioxidant status and ATP generation capacity, as well as Hsp 25/70 production in various rat tissues. WKS treatment suppressed plasma reactive oxygen metabolite levels and protected against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in rats. Long-term WKS treatment may prevent diseases by enhancing the resistance of mitochondria to oxidative stress.

  1. Non-Nutrient, Naturally Occurring Phenolic Compounds with Antioxidant Activity for the Prevention and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main factors able to explain the pathophysiological mechanism of inflammatory conditions that occur in periodontal disease is oxidative stress. Given the emerging understanding of this relationship, host-modulatory therapies using antioxidants could be interesting to prevent or slow the breakdown of soft and hard periodontal tissues. In this context, non-nutrient phenolic compounds of various foods and plants have received considerable attention in the last decade. Here, studies focusing on the relationship between different compounds of this type with periodontal disease have been collected. Among them, thymoquinone, coenzyme Q (CoQ, mangiferin, resveratrol, verbascoside and some flavonoids have shown to prevent or ameliorate periodontal tissues damage in animal models. However evidence regarding this effect in humans is poor and only limited to topical treatments with CoQ and catechins. Along with animal experiments, in vitro studies indicate that possible mechanisms by which these compounds might exert their protective effects include antioxidative properties, oxygen and nitrogen scavenging abilities, and also inhibitory effects on cell signaling cascades related to inflammatory processes which have an effect on RNS or ROS production as well as on antioxidant defense systems.

  2. Antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine during adult respiratory distress syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, S; Herlevsen, P; Knudsen, P

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine could ameliorate the course of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in man. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SETTING: Medical and surgical ICU in a regional hospital. PATIENTS: Sixty-six ICU patients...

  3. The role of antioxidant therapy in the treatment of male infertility: an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Lombardo; Andrea Sansone; Francesco Romanelli; Donatella Paoli; Loredana Gandini; Andrea Lenzi

    2011-01-01

    @@ In recent years,many studies have focused on the effect of oxidative stress,reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants on the male eproductive system.Under physiological conditions,sperm produces small amounts of ROS,which are needed for fertilisation,acrosome reaction and capacitation.However,if an increased production of ROS is not associated with a similar increase in scavenging systems,peroxidative damage of the sperm plasma membrane and loss of DNA integrity typically occur,which leads to cell death and reduced fertility.Furthermore,since there is no linear correlation between sperm quality and pregnancy rates,an improvement in semen parameters should not be the sole outcome considered in studies of antioxidant therapies.A definitive conclusion regarding the benefit of these therapies is difficult to obtain,as most of the previous studies lacked control groups,considered different antioxidants in different combinations and doses,or did not evaluate pregnancy rates in previously infertile couples.Even if beneficial effects were reported in a few cases of male infertility,more multicentre,double-blind studies performed with the same criteria are necessary for an increased understanding of the effects of various antioxidants on fertility.

  4. Chronic exposure to low levels of inorganic arsenic causes alterations in locomotor activity and in the expression of dopaminergic and antioxidant systems in the albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Verónica Mireya; Limón-Pacheco, Jorge Humberto; Carrizales, Leticia; Mendoza-Trejo, María Soledad; Giordano, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have associated chronic arsenicism with decreases in IQ and sensory and motor alterations in humans. Likewise, studies of rodents exposed to inorganic arsenic ((i)As) have found changes in locomotor activity, brain neurochemistry, behavioral tasks, oxidative stress, and in sensory and motor nerves. In the current study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of (i)As (0.05, 0.5 mg (i)As/L) and to a high dose (50 mg (i)As/L) in drinking water for one year. Hypoactivity and increases in the striatal dopamine content were found in the group treated with 50 mg (i)As/L. Exposure to 0.5 and 50 mg (i)As/L increased the total brain content of As. Furthermore, (i)As exposure produced a dose-dependent up-regulation of mRNA for Mn-SOD and Trx-1 and a down-regulation of DAR-D₂ mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens. DAR-D₁ and Nrf2 mRNA expression were down-regulated in nucleus accumbens in the group exposed to 50 mg (i)As/L. Trx-1 mRNA levels were up-regulated in the cortex in an (i)As dose-dependent manner, while DAR-D₁ mRNA expression was increased in striatum in the 0.5 mg (i)As/L group. These results show that chronic exposure to low levels of arsenic causes subtle but region-specific changes in the nervous system, especially in antioxidant systems and dopaminergic elements. These changes became behaviorally evident only in the group exposed to 50 mg (i)As/L.

  5. The curative and antioxidative efficiency of ivermectin and ivermectin + vitamin E-selenium treatment on canine Sarcoptes scabiei infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Suvendu Kumar; Dimri, Umesh; Singh, Shanker Kumar; Mohanta, Ranjan Kumar

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the curative and antioxidative efficacy of ivermectin and ivermectin + vitamin E-selenium, and the influence of these agents on oxidative stress parameters in canines infested by Sarcoptes scabiei. Twenty two sarcoptic mites infested dogs and nine healthy dogs of 6 months to 2 years of age were divided into three groups. Group I comprised of healthy dogs (n=9) whereas animals in group II (n=11) and III (n=11) were positive for scabies. Group II animals were treated with only 1% ivermectin @ 0.2 mg/kg SC whereas group III were additionally treated with Vitamin E and selenium (tocopherol 50 mg + Se 1.5 mg/ml) @ 0.5 ml/20 kg IM at weekly intervals for three times. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and 28 post therapy. The values for hemato-biochemical parameters and activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased (Pdogs in comparison to the healthy dogs on day 0 which approached normalcy by day 28 post therapy. The dogs of group III showed better clinical recovery in comparison to group II at the end of therapy. Thus, administration of vitamin E and selenium in addition to standard therapy can alleviate these alterations hastening the clinical recovery of diseased dogs and can be recommended as an adjunct therapy with miticides for canine sarcoptic mange.

  6. Antioxidant effect of parsley and panax ginseng extract standardized with ginsenosides Rg3 against alteration induced in reproductivefunctions in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza M. Hassan1 and Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab2

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the antigcidant effects of parsley oil and panax ginseng have been evaluated against the clastogenecity of ZEN. One hundred and eight mature male mice were distributed into nine treatment groups, including the control group and the groups treated with parsley oil (0.6 ml/kg b.w, panax ginseng extract (40 mg/kg b.w or parsley oil plus panax ginseng extract with or without ZEN (10 µg/kg b.w. Animals within different treatment groups were divided into two subgroups (A and B. Subgroup A were used for the determination of serum testosterone levels and chromosomal aberrations and received their respective doses for two weeks whereas, subgroup B were used for sperm abnormality and received their respective doses twice a day for one week and sacrificed after 30 days. The results indicated that ZEN treatment resulted in a significant decrease in testosterone concentration, sperm count and sperm motility. Whereas it caused a significant increase in abnormal sperms counts and total chromosomal aberrations in germ cells. Animals treated with parsley oil or panax ginseng extract alone or in combination were comparable to the controls regarding all the tested parameters. The combined treatment with ZEN and parsley oil, panax ginseng or parsley oil plus panax ginseng extract resulted in a significant improvement in all tested parameters. Moreover, parsley oil was found to be effective than panax ginseng extract and the combined treatment was more effective than the single treatment. It could be concluded that both parsley oil and panax ginseng extract induced a protective action against ZEN-induced alteration in the reproductive performance and the combined treatment may be useful than the single treatment.

  7. Use of Genetically Altered Stem Cells for the Treatment of Huntington’s Disease

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    Andrew T. Crane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of stem cells for the treatment of Huntington’s disease (HD garnered much attention prior to the turn of the century. Several studies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have indicated that these cells have enormous therapeutic potential in HD and other disorders. Advantages of using MSCs for cell therapies include their ease of isolation, rapid propagation in culture, and favorable immunomodulatory profiles. However, the lack of consistent neuronal differentiation of transplanted MSCs has limited their therapeutic efficacy to slowing the progression of HD-like symptoms in animal models of HD. The use of MSCs which have been genetically altered to overexpress brain derived neurotrophic factor to enhance support of surviving cells in a rodent model of HD provides proof-of-principle that these cells may provide such prophylactic benefits. New techniques that may prove useful for cell replacement therapies in HD include the use of genetically altering fate-restricted cells to produce induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. These iPSCs appear to have certain advantages over the use of embryonic stem cells, including being readily available, easy to obtain, less evidence of tumor formation, and a reduced immune response following their transplantation. Recently, transplants of iPSCs have shown to differentiate into region-specific neurons in an animal model of HD. The overall successes of using genetically altered stem cells for reducing neuropathological and behavioral deficits in rodent models of HD suggest that these approaches have considerable potential for clinical use. However, the choice of what type of genetically altered stem cell to use for transplantation is dependent on the stage of HD and whether the end-goal is preserving endogenous neurons in early-stage HD, or replacing the lost neurons in late-stage HD. This review will discuss the current state of stem cell technology for treating the different stages of HD and

  8. Antioxidant system of oral cavity in children with inflammatory diseases oral mucosa and acute forms of leukemia under the treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kovach, I. V.; Khotimskаy, J. V.

    2017-01-01

    Kovach I. V., Khotimskаy J. V. Antioxidant system of oral cavity in children with inflammatory diseases oral mucosa and acute forms of leukemia under the treatment. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(1):387-395. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.276515 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4246         The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 754 (09.12.2016)....

  9. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid. The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain, with an optimum condition of: (1 ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2 concentration of substrate, 4%; (3 reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4 pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01 under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen.

  10. Preharvest treatments with malic, oxalic, and acetylsalicylic acids affect the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of coriander, dill and parsley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaeddi, Hussein; Calín-Sánchez, Ángel; Nowicka, Paulina; Martínez-Tomé, Juan; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Burló, Francisco; Wojdyło, Aneta; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-07-01

    The effects of a preharvest treatment with malic (MA), oxalic (OA), or acetylsalicylic (ASA) acid at three concentrations (1, 2 and 3mM) on the bioactivity and antioxidant capacity of coriander, dill, and parsley were investigated. The antioxidant capacity of the herbs extracts was assayed by spectrophotometric methods by using three different analytical methods: ORAC, FRAP, and ABTS; the effects of treatments were very positive in coriander, produced intermediate results in dill, and no effects were found in parsley plants. Polyphenol compounds were identified by LC-MS-QTof and quantified by UPLC-PDA-FL. Thirty phenolic compounds were identified in these three herbs. The major compounds were (i) coriander: dimethoxycinnamoyl hexoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, (ii) dill: neochlorogenic acid and quercetin glucuronide, and (iii) parsley: apigenin-7-apiosylglucoside (apiin) and isorhamnetin-3-O-hexoside. The application of these three organic acids favored the accumulation of phenolic compounds in coriander plants, but had no significant positive effects on dill and parsley. The treatments leading to the best results in all three plants were the application of MA or OA at 1mM.

  11. Alterations in Gene Expression in Depression: Prospects for Personalize Patient Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donev, Rossen; Alawam, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    The number of people around the world suffering from depression has dramatically increased in last few decades. It has been predicted that by 2020 depression will become the second most common cause of disability. Furthermore, depression is often misdiagnosed and confused with other psychiatric disorders showing similar symptoms, i.e., anxiety and bipolar disorder, due to the fact that diagnosing is often carried out by medical workers who are not psychiatrically trained. These facts prompt us to prepare this review which focuses on alterations in gene expression in depression. We believe that an in-depth knowledge of molecular bases of behavior in depression and other mood disorders would be of a great benefit for the correct diagnosing of these disorders, as well as for prescribing a treatment that best suits each individual depending on expression alterations in depression-related genes. Therefore, the main aim of this review is to promote further translational research on the biochemistry of mood disorders and take the results further for the design of new targeted therapeutics that can be used for personalized treatment with minimal adverse effects.

  12. Systemic Cytokine Profiles in Strongyloides stercoralis Infection and Alterations following Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Munisankar, Saravanan; Bhootra, Yukti; Jagannathan, Jeeva; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Shen, Kui; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2015-11-23

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth organism that infects ~50 to 100 million people worldwide. Despite its widespread prevalence, very little is known about the immune response that characterizes human S. stercoralis infection. To study the systemic cytokine profile characteristic of Strongyloides infection, we measured the circulating levels of a large panel of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in asymptomatic, infected individuals (n = 32) and compared them to those in uninfected, controls (n = 24). Infected individuals exhibited significantly lower circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and interleukin-1β [IL-1β]) and significantly higher levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, IL-27, IL-37, and transforming growth factor β [TGF-β]). Moreover, treatment of Strongyloides infection resulted in a significant reversal of the cytokine profile, with increased levels of proinflammatory (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-23, and IL-1β) and decreased levels of anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, IL-27, IL-37, and TGF-β) cytokines following treatment. Thus, S. stercoralis infection is characterized by alterations in the levels of systemic cytokines, reflecting major alterations in the underlying immune response to this chronic helminth infection.

  13. Alteration of brain viscoelasticity after shunt treatment in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freimann, Florian Baptist; Sprung, Christian [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Neurosurgical Department, Berlin (Germany); Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Klatt, Dieter; Sack, Ingolf [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Lin, Kui; McLaughlin, Joyce [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Mathematics Department, Troy, NY (United States); Braun, Juergen [Charite - University Medicine Campus Benjamin Franklin, Institute of Medical Informatics, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) represents a chronic neurological disorder with increasing incidence. The symptoms of NPH may be relieved by surgically implanting a ventriculoperitoneal shunt to drain excess cerebrospinal fluid. However, the pathogenesis of NPH is not yet fully elucidated, and the clinical response of shunt treatment is hard to predict. According to current theories of NPH, altered mechanical properties of brain tissue seem to play an important role. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a unique method for measuring in vivo brain mechanics. In this study cerebral MRE was applied to test the viscoelastic properties of the brain in 20 patients with primary (N = 14) and secondary (N = 6) NPH prior and after (91 {+-} 16 days) shunt placement. Viscoelastic parameters were derived from the complex modulus according to the rheological springpot model. This model provided two independent parameters {mu} and {alpha}, related to the inherent rigidity and topology of the mechanical network of brain tissue. The viscoelastic parameters {mu} and {alpha} were found to be decreased with -25% and -10%, respectively, compared to age-matched controls (P < 0.001). Interestingly, {alpha} increased after shunt placement (P < 0.001) to almost normal values whereas {mu} remained symptomatically low. The results indicate the fundamental role of altered viscoelastic properties of brain tissue during disease progression and tissue repair in NPH. Clinical improvement in NPH is associated with an increasing complexity of the mechanical network whose inherent strength, however, remains degraded. (orig.)

  14. Mechanical hulling and thermal pre-treatment effects on rapeseed oil antioxidant capacity and related lipophilic and hydrophilic bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rękas, Agnieszka; Wroniak, Małgorzata; Siger, Aleksander; Ścibisz, Iwona; Derewiaka, Dorota; Anders, Andrzej

    2017-02-20

    In this study, the effect of rapeseed mechanical hulling and thermal pre-treatment by microwaves (from 2 to 10 min with 2-min intervals, 800 W) and roasting (from 20 to 100 min with 20-min intervals, 165 °C) on the content of phytochemicals in the oil was investigated. Results showed that both pre-treatments applied differentiated the oils in terms of the content of bioactive compounds. In general, oils pressed from hulled and thermally pre-treated seeds contained higher content of tocopherols, PC-8 and phytosterols, while oils pressed from non-hulled and pre-processed seeds had significantly higher concentration of polyphenols. Both microwaving and roasting contributed to an increase of antioxidant capacity of studied oils. The increase of radical scavenging activity of oils was seen mainly in hydrophilic fraction of oil, which was highly positively correlated with the amount of canolol formed during seeds heating.

  15. Hybridization in endophyte symbionts alters host response to moisture and nutrient treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Cyd E; Dowling, Thomas E; Faeth, Stanley H

    2010-05-01

    When a host organism is infected by a symbiont, the resulting symbiotum has a phenotype distinct from uninfected hosts. Genotypic interactions between the partners may increase phenotypic variation of the host at the population level. Neotyphodium is an asexual, vertically transmitted endophytic symbiont of grasses often existing in hybrid form. Hybridization in Neotyphodium rapidly increases the symbiotum's genomic content and is likely to increase the phenotypic variation of the host. This phenotypic variation is predicted to enhance host performance, especially in stressful environments. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the growth, survival, and resource allocation of hybrid and nonhybrid infected host plants exposed to controlled variation in soil moisture and nutrients. Infection by a hybrid endophyte did not fit our predictions of comparatively higher root and total biomass production under low moisture/low nutrient treatments. Regardless of whether the host was infected by a hybrid or nonhybrid endophyte, both produced significantly higher root/total biomass when both nutrient and moisture were high compared to limited nutrient/moisture treatments. However, infection by hybrid Neotyphodium did result in significantly higher total biomass and host survival compared to nonhybrid infected hosts, regardless of treatment. Endophyte hybridization alters host strategies in response to stress by increasing survival in depauperate habitats and thus, potentially increasing the relative long-term host fitness.

  16. Comprehensive analysis of temporal alterations in cellular proteome of Bacillus subtilis under curcumin treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panga Jaipal Reddy

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a natural dietary compound with antimicrobial activity against various gram positive and negative bacteria. This study aims to investigate the proteome level alterations in Bacillus subtilis due to curcumin treatment and identification of its molecular/cellular targets to understand the mechanism of action. We have performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of B. subtilis AH75 strain at different time intervals of curcumin treatment (20, 60 and 120 min after the drug exposure, three replicates to compare the protein expression profiles using two complementary quantitative proteomic techniques, 2D-DIGE and iTRAQ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive longitudinal investigation describing the effect of curcumin treatment on B. subtilis proteome. The proteomics analysis revealed several interesting targets such UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase 1, putative septation protein SpoVG and ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit. Further, in silico pathway analysis using DAVID and KOBAS has revealed modulation of pathways related to the fatty acid metabolism and cell wall synthesis, which are crucial for cell viability. Our findings revealed that curcumin treatment lead to inhibition of the cell wall and fatty acid synthesis in addition to differential expression of many crucial proteins involved in modulation of bacterial metabolism. Findings obtained from proteomics analysis were further validated using 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC assay for respiratory activity, resazurin assay for metabolic activity and membrane integrity assay by potassium and inorganic phosphate leakage measurement. The gene expression analysis of selected cell wall biosynthesis enzymes has strengthened the proteomics findings and indicated the major effect of curcumin on cell division.

  17. Antioxidant enzymes as potential targets in cardioprotection and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Enzyme antioxidants: the next stage of pharmacological counterwork to the oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vavaev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus in antioxidant research is on enzyme derivative investigations. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD is of particular interest, as it demonstrates in vivo the protective action against development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus. The reliable association of coronary artery disease with decreased level of heparin-released EC-SOD was established in clinical research. To create a base for and to develop antioxidant therapy, various SOD isozymes, catalase (CAT, methods of gene therapy, and combined applications of enzymes are used. Covalent bienzyme SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate (CHS, chondroitin sulphate showed high efficacy and safety as the drug candidate. There is an evident trend to use the components of glycocalyx and extracellular matrix for target delivery of medical substances. Development of new enzyme antioxidants for therapeutic application is closely connected with progress in medical biotechnology, pharmaceutical industry, and bioeconomy.

  18. Oxidants, antioxidants and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gibanananda; Husain, Syed Akhtar

    2002-11-01

    nitrosamine formation and an alteration of metabolic activations of carcinogens. They can prevent genetic changes by inhibiting DNA damage induced by the ROMs. Therefore, these antioxidants may be helpful in the treatment of human cancer. However, detailed studies are required to draw a definite conclusion.

  19. Effects of Heat Treatment on Flavonoids Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaert) Flour Ethanolic Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Geng; Romeo T Toledo; CHEN Zong-dao

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition, total flavonoids and antioxidant capacity of 50% ethanolic extracts from raw and cooked buckwheat flour from southwest of China were determined. The heat treatment used to gelatinize the flour starch significantly reduced the total flavonoids in the extract from 83.52 to 67.36 mg 100 g-1 of dry matter in the raw and cooked flour, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated using autooxidation in a β-carotene-linoleate model system (AA or AAC), DPPH radical scavenging assay (IP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Values for raw buckwheat flour extract were 97.84, 874.31, 76.45 and 94.92% for AA, AAC, ORAC and IP, respectively, while values in cooked buckwheat flour were 86.14, 842.88, 63.93 and 94.74% for AA, AAC, ORAC and IP, respectively. Values before cooked and raw buckwheat flour extracts were significantly different (P<0.05) for AA, AAC, and ORAC.

  20. Effect of cultivar x ozone treatment interaction on the total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of globe artichoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lombardo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two globe artichoke cultivars (Violet de Provence and Apollo were harvested at an experimental field in Sicily, immediately washed with ozonised water and stored in: i normal atmosphere; ii ozone-enriched atmosphere for 3 days and for the last 4 days in normal atmosphere; iii ozone-enriched atmosphere for 7 days. A control (samples unwashed and stored at room temperature was also investigated. The effect of cultivar x ozone treatment interaction on water content losses, total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity was evaluated after 0, 3 and 7 days of storage. Washing with ozonised water and storage under O3- enriched atmosphere allowed higher water retention compared with the control, especially for Violet de Provence. After 3 days of storage in ozone-enriched atmosphere, on average of cultivars, the total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity increased by 11.7% and 5.5%, respectively. By contrast, after further 4 days of storage in ozonised atmosphere, Apollo and Violet de Provence displayed a significant reduction in their level of total polyphenols and aantioxidant activity. The exposure of globe artichoke heads to an ozone-enriched atmosphere should not exceed 3 days aimed at preserving their high nutritional value, with special emphasis on total polyphenols content.

  1. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of extracts from ultrasonic treatment of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ya-Qin; Ye, Xing-Qian; Fang, Zhong-Xiang; Chen, Jian-Chu; Xu, Gui-Hua; Liu, Dong-Hong

    2008-07-23

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract phenolic compounds from Satsuma mandarin ( Citrus unshiu Marc.) peels (SMP), and maceration extraction (ME) was used as a control. The effects of ultrasonic time (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min), temperature (15, 30, and 40 degrees C), and ultrasonic power (3.2, 8, 30, and 56 W) on phenolic compounds were investigated. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array (PDA) detector was used for the analysis of phenolic acids after alkaline hydrolysis (bound phenolic acids) and flavanone glycosides. The contents of seven phenolic acids (caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and vanillic acid) and two flavanone glycosides (narirutin and hesperidin) in extracts obtained by ultrasonic treatment were significantly higher than in extracts obtained by the maceration method. Moreover, the contents of extracts increased as both treatment time and temperature increased. Ultrasonic power had a positive effect on the contents of extracts. However, the phenolic acids may be degraded by ultrasound at higher temperature for a long time. For example, after ultrasonic treatment at 40 degrees C for 20 min, the contents of caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid decreased by 48.90, 44.20, 48.23, and 35.33%, respectively. The interaction of ultrasonic parameters probably has a complex effect on the extracts. A linear relationship was observed between Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values and total phenolic contents (TPC); the correlation coefficient, R(2), is 0.8288 at 15 degrees C, 0.7706 at 30 degrees C, and 0.8626 at 40 degrees C, respectively. The data indicated that SMPs were rich sources of antioxidants. Furthermore, UAE techniques should be carefully used to enhance the yields of phenolic acids from SMPs.

  2. Reversible alteration of CO2 adsorption upon photochemical or thermal treatment in a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhee; Yuan, Daqiang; Pham, Khanh T; Li, Jian-Rong; Yakovenko, Andrey; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-01-11

    A metal-organic framework (MOF) for reversible alteration of guest molecule adsorption, here carbon dioxide, upon photochemical or thermal treatment has been discovered. An azobenzene functional group, which can switch its conformation upon light irradiation or heat treatment, has been introduced to the organic linker of a MOF. The resulting MOF adsorbs different amount of CO(2) after UV or heat treatment. This remarkable stimuli-responsive adsorption effect has been demonstrated through experiments.

  3. Reversible Alteration of CO2 Adsorption upon Photochemical or Thermal Treatment in a Metal-Organic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinhee; Yuan, Daqiang; Pham, Khanh T.; Li, Jian-Rong; Yakovenko, Andrey A; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-01-11

    A metal–organic framework (MOF) for reversible alteration of guest molecule adsorption, here carbon dioxide, upon photochemical or thermal treatment has been discovered. An azobenzene functional group, which can switch its conformation upon light irradiation or heat treatment, has been introduced to the organic linker of a MOF. The resulting MOF adsorbs different amount of CO₂ after UV or heat treatment. This remarkable stimuli-responsive adsorption effect has been demonstrated through experiments.

  4. Treatment with D-penicillamine or zinc sulphate affects copper metabolism and improves but not normalizes antioxidant capacity parameters in Wilson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromadzka, Grażyna; Grażyna, Gromadzka; Karpińska, Agata; Agata, Karpińska; Przybyłkowski, Adam; Adam, Przybyłkowski; Litwin, Tomasz; Tomasz, Litwin; Wierzchowska-Ciok, Agata; Agata, Wierzchowska-Ciok; Dzieżyc, Karolina; Karolina, Dzieżyc; Chabik, Grzegorz; Grzegorz, Chabik; Członkowska, Anna; Anna, Członkowska

    2014-02-01

    Copper accumulation in tissues due to a biallelic pathogenic mutation of the gene: ATP7B results in a clinical phenotype known as Wilson disease (WD). Aberrations in copper homeostasis can create favourable conditions for superoxide-yielding redox cycling and oxidative tissue damage. Drugs used in WD treatment aim to remove accumulated copper and normalise the free copper concentration in the blood. In the current study the effect of decoppering treatment on copper metabolism and systemic antioxidant capacity parameters was analyzed. Treatment naïve WD patients (TNWD) (n = 33), those treated with anti-copper drugs (TWD) (n = 99), and healthy controls (n = 99) were studied. Both TNWD and TWD patients characterised with decreased copper metabolism parameters, as well as decreased total antioxidant potential (AOP), glutathione (GSH) level, activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and S-transferase glutathione, compared to controls. TWD patients had significantly lower copper metabolism parameters, higher total AOP and higher levels of GSH than TWD individuals; however, no difference was observed between these two patient groups with respect to the rest of the antioxidant capacity parameters. Patients who had undergone treatment with D-penicillamine or zinc sulphate did not differ with respect to copper metabolism or antioxidant capacity parameters, with the exception of GPx that was lower in D-penicillamine treated individuals. These data suggest that anti-copper treatment affects copper metabolism as well as improves, but does not normalize, natural antioxidant capacity in patients with WD. We propose to undertake studies aimed to evaluate the usefulness of antioxidants as well as selenium as a supplemental therapy in WD.

  5. Chronic fluoxetine treatment alters the structure, connectivity and plasticity of cortical interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirado, Ramon; Perez-Rando, Marta; Sanchez-Matarredona, David; Castrén, Eero; Nacher, Juan

    2014-10-01

    Novel hypotheses suggest that antidepressants, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, induce neuronal structural plasticity, resembling that of the juvenile brain, although the underlying mechanisms of this reopening of the critical periods still remain unclear. However, recent studies suggest that inhibitory networks play an important role in this structural plasticity induced by fluoxetine. For this reason we have analysed the effects of a chronic fluoxetine treatment in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of transgenic mice displaying eGFP labelled interneurons. We have found an increase in the expression of molecules related to critical period plasticity, such as the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), GAD67/65 and synaptophysin, as well as a reduction in the number of parvalbumin expressing interneurons surrounded by perineuronal nets. We have also described a trend towards decrease in the perisomatic inhibitory puncta on pyramidal neurons in the mPFC and an increase in the density of inhibitory puncta on eGFP interneurons. Finally, we have found that chronic fluoxetine treatment affects the structure of interneurons in the mPFC, increasing their dendritic spine density. The present study provides evidence indicating that fluoxetine promotes structural changes in the inhibitory neurons of the adult cerebral cortex, probably through alterations in plasticity-related molecules of neurons or the extracellular matrix surrounding them, which are present in interneurons and are known to be crucial for the development of the critical periods of plasticity in the juvenile brain.

  6. Low dose chronic treatment of human keratinocytes with inorganic arsenic causes hyperproliferation and altered protein phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.L. [City College of New York, NY (United States); Su, L.; Snow, E.T. [New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY (United States)]|[City College of New York, NY (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenate [As(V)] or arsenite [As(III)] causes hyperproliferation of normal and SV40-transformed human epidermal keratinocytes. Line 327 SV40-infected human keratinocytes were grown in the presence of either As(III) or As(V) (0.01 to 10 {mu}M) in complete medium for seven days prior to harvesting and counting. Both As(III) and As(V) were cytotoxic at micromolar concentrations, however submicromolar arsenic caused a significant increase in cell growth. Cell numbers in cultures exposed to As(V) were increased more than 186% relative to controls, and an even larger stimulation in cell growth was observed after treatment with 50 nM As(III). Normal non-SV40 T-antigen. Preliminary cell cycle analysis using unselected, log-phase cultures of arsenic-treated keratinocytes shows an increased proportion of cells in S- and G2/M-phase. Isoelectric focusing of phosphotyrosine-containing proteins from cells labeled with {sup 32}P-inorganic phosphate showed that the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes grown in low concentrations of arsenic is accompanied by altered tyrosine-specific protein phosphorylation. A number of phosphorylated proteins were observed in As-treated cells that were not observed in the controls; and minor bands at IEPs of 3.0, 4.2, 7.2, 7.5 and 8.2. These results, together with the lack of direct enzyme inhibition by arsenic shown by Su et al., this volume, suggest that arsenic-induced skin lesions and carcinogenesis may be the result of altered cell cycle control rather than DNA damage or reduced DNA repair.

  7. Does Scoliosis-Specific Exercise Treatment in Adolescence Alter Adult Quality of Life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Płaszewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Health-related quality of life in adults, who in adolescence participated in a scoliosis-specific exercise program, was not previously studied. Design. Cross-sectional study, with retrospective data collection. Material and Methods. Homogenous groups of 68 persons (43 women aged 30.10 (25–39 years, with mild or moderate scoliosis, and 76 (38 women able-bodied persons, aged 30.11 (24–38 years, who 16.5 (12–26 years earlier had completed scoliosis-specific exercise or observation regimes, participated. Their respiratory characteristics did not differ from predicted values. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, and pain scale (VAS were applied. Results. The transformed WHOQOL-BREF scores ranged from 54.6 ± 11.19 in the physical domain in the mild scoliotic subgroup to 77.1 ± 16.05 in the social domain in the able-bodied subgroup. The ODQ values did not generally exceed 5.3 ± 7.53. Inter- and intragroup differences were nonsignificant. Age, marital status, education, and gender were significantly associated with the ODQ scores. Significant association between the ODQ and WHOQOL-BREF social relationships domain scores with the participation in exercise treatment was found. Conclusions. Participants with the history of exercise treatment generally did not differ significantly from their peers who were only under observation. This study cannot conclude that scoliosis-specific exercise treatment in adolescence alters quality of life in adulthood.

  8. Antioxidant Treatment and Induction of Autophagy Cooperate to Reduce Desmin Aggregation in a Cellular Model of Desminopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Cabet

    Full Text Available Desminopathies, a subgroup of myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs, the progressive muscular diseases characterized by the accumulation of granulofilamentous desmin-positive aggregates, result from mutations in the desmin gene (DES, encoding a muscle-specific intermediate filament. Desminopathies often lead to severe disability and premature death from cardiac and/or respiratory failure; no specific treatment is currently available. To identify drug-targetable pathophysiological pathways, we performed pharmacological studies in C2C12 myoblastic cells expressing mutant DES. We found that inhibition of the Rac1 pathway (a G protein signaling pathway involved in diverse cellular processes, antioxidant treatment, and stimulation of macroautophagy reduced protein aggregation by up to 75% in this model. Further, a combination of two or three of these treatments was more effective than any of them alone. These results pave the way towards the development of the first treatments for desminopathies and are potentially applicable to other muscle or brain diseases associated with abnormal protein aggregation.

  9. Investigation of Comparative Regulation on Antioxidant Enzyme System under Copper Treatment and Drought Stress in Maize (Zea mays L.

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    Hatice CETİNKYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to present the responses of drought-sensitive ‘Shemal’ and drought-tolerant ‘71MAY69’ maize cultivars under drought condition (20% Polyethylene glycol, -0.40 MPa and three different copper concentrations (0.5 mM, 1 mM, 1.5 mM uSO4.5H2O for 5 days to determine the enzymatic responses of copper treatment in maize leaves. Copper treatments alone did not change stomatal conductance, relative water content, malondialdehyde, proline, hydrogen peroxide content and abscisic acid level according to control groups.  Combined treatment (drought and copper alleviated the damage of PEG- induced drought stress in maize leaves. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutatione reductase (GR activity increased and glutathione -S transferase (GST activity decreased, while ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity did not change under drought stress in the tolerant cultivar. SOD, CAT and APX were decreased and GST activities were increased while GR did not change in ‘Shemal’. Also SOD, APX and CAT activity increased by copper treatment alone in both cultivars. Otherwise combined treatment increased SOD, APX and CAT activity at all concentrations, but GR and GST activity increased only by (PEG+1.5 mM treatment when compared with PEG treatment alone in sensitive ones. As a result, exogenous copper alleviated drought stress, while it induced an oxidative damage by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities differently from drought tolerance. Copper tolerance in maize is not a common response of its defense mechanism because of different response to copper and drought in the same cultivar. 

  10. High-shear, jet-cooking, and alkali treatment of corn distillers' dried grains to obtain products with enhanced protein, oil and phenolic antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglett, G E; Chen, D; Rose, D J; Berhow, M

    2010-08-01

    Distillers dried grains (DDG) have potential to be a nutritionally important source of protein, oil and phenolic antioxidants. DDG was subjected to high-shear and jet-cooking, with or without alkaline pH adjustment and autoclaving. Soluble and insoluble fractions were analyzed for protein, oil and ash. Extracts were analyzed for phenolic acids and antioxidant activity. Protein contents were significantly elevated in the insoluble fractions after treatment and the oil content was drastically increased in the insoluble fraction after high-shear and jet-cooking without pH adjustment. Alkaline pH adjustment resulted in a soluble fraction that was highest in phenolic acids, but not antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity was found in the 50% ethanol extract from DDG that had been subjected to high-shear and jet-cooking. These results suggest that high-shear and jet-cooking may be useful processing treatments to increase the value of DDG by producing fractions high in protein, oil and extractable phenolic acids with high antioxidant activity. The DDG fractions and extracts described herein may be useful as food and nutraceutical ingredients, and, if used for these applications, will increase the value of DDG and ease economic burdens on ethanol producers, allowing them to compete in the bio-fuel marketplace.

  11. Repeated dexamphetamine treatment alters the dopaminergic system and increases the phMRI response to methylphenidate

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    Schrantee, Anouk; Tremoleda, Jordi L.; Wylezinska-Arridge, Marzena; Bouet, Valentine; Hesseling, Peter; Meerhoff, Gideon F.; de Bruin, Kora M.; Koeleman, Jan; Freret, Thomas; Boulouard, Michel; Desfosses, Emilie; Galineau, Laurent; Gozzi, Alessandro; Dauphin, François; Gsell, Willy; Booij, Jan; Lucassen, Paul J.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2017-01-01

    Dexamphetamine (AMPH) is a psychostimulant drug that is used both recreationally and as medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that repeated exposure to AMPH can induce damage to nerve terminals of dopamine (DA) neurons. We here assessed the underlying neurobiological changes in the DA system following repeated AMPH exposure and pre-treated rats with AMPH or saline (4 times 5 mg/kg s.c., 2 hours apart), followed by a 1-week washout period. We then used pharmacological MRI (phMRI) with a methylphenidate (MPH) challenge, as a sensitive and non-invasive in-vivo measure of DAergic function. We subsequently validated the DA-ergic changes post-mortem, using a.o. high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and autoradiography. In the AMPH pre-treated group, we observed a significantly larger BOLD response to the MPH challenge, particularly in DA-ergic brain areas and their downstream projections. Subsequent autoradiography studies showed that AMPH pre-treatment significantly reduced DA transporter (DAT) density in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens, whereas HPLC analysis revealed increases in the DA metabolite homovanillic acid in the CPu. Our results suggest that AMPH pre-treatment alters DAergic responsivity, a change that can be detected with phMRI in rats. These phMRI changes likely reflect increased DA release together with reduced DAT binding. The ability to assess subtle synaptic changes using phMRI is promising for both preclinical studies of drug discovery, and for clinical studies where phMRI can be a useful tool to non-invasively investigate DA abnormalities, e.g. in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:28241065

  12. Phosphorus availability from the solid fraction of pig slurry is altered by composting or thermal treatment.

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    Christel, Wibke; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-10-01

    The alteration of easily available phosphorus (P) from the separated solid fraction of pig slurry by composting and thermal processing (pyrolysis or combustion at 300-1000 °C) was investigated by water and acidic extractions and the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Temporal changes in P availability were monitored by repeated DGT application in three amended temperate soils over 16 weeks. P availability was found to decrease in the order: drying>composting>pyrolysis>combustion with increasing degree of processing. Water extractions suggested that no P would be available after pyrolysis above 700 °C or combustion above 400 °C, respectively, but during soil incubation, even char and ash, processed at 800 °C, increased P availability. Low-temperature pyrolysis vs. combustion was found to favor P availability as did application to acidic vs. neutral soil. Composting and thermal treatment produced a slow-release P fertilizer, with P availability being governed by abiotic and biotic mechanisms.

  13. Genetic and molecular alterations in olfactory neuroblastoma: implications for pathogenesis, prognosis and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapiewski, Piotr; Kunc, Michał; Haybaeck, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB, Esthesioneuroblastoma) is an infrequent neoplasm of the head and neck area derived from olfactory neuroepithelium. Despite relatively good prognosis a subset of patients shows recurrence, progression and/or metastatic disease, which requires additional treatment. However, neither prognostic nor predictive factors are well specified. Thus, we performed a literature search for the currently available data on disturbances in molecular pathways, cytogenetic changes and results gained by next generation sequencing (NGS) approaches in ONB in order to gain an overview of genetic alterations which might be useful for treating patients with ONB. We present briefly ONB molecular pathogenesis and propose potential therapeutic targets and prognostic factors. Possible therapeutic targets in ONB include: receptor tyrosine kinases (c-kit, PDGFR-b, TrkB; EGFR); somatostatin receptor; FGF-FGFR1 signaling; Sonic hedgehog pathway; apoptosis-related pathways (Bcl-2, TRAIL) and neoangiogenesis (VEGF; KDR). Furthermore, we compare high- and low-grade ONB, and describe its frequent mimicker: sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma. ONB is often a therapeutic challenge, so our goal should be the implementation of acquired knowledge into clinical practice, especially at pretreated, recurrent and metastatic stages. Moreover, the multicenter molecular studies are needed to increase the amount of available data. PMID:27256979

  14. Effects of treatment with the anti-parasitic drug diminazene aceturate on antioxidant enzymes in rat liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Gonçalves, Ricardo A; Sagrillo, Michele R; Grando, Thirssa H; Ritter, Camila S; Grotto, Fabielly S; Brum, Gerson F; da Luz, Sônia C A; Silveira, Sergio O; Fausto, Viviane P; Boligon, Aline A; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Stefani, Lenita M; da Silva, Aleksandro S; Souza, Carine F; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2016-04-01

    Diminazene aceturate (DA) is the active component of some trypanocidal drugs used for the treatment of animals infected with trypanosomosis and babesiosis. Residues of DA may cause hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of oxidative stress, i.e., changes in the antioxidant defense system of rats treated with a single dose of 3.5 mg kg(-1) of DA. All treatments were intramuscularly administered, and evaluations were performed on days 7 and 21 post-treatment (PT). Liver and kidney samples were collected and evaluated by histopathology and oxidative stress parameters (thiobarbituric acid-reactive species, catalase, superoxide dismutase, carbonyl, non-protein thiols, and reduced glutathione). Finally, blood was collected to determine seric DA concentration. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in liver and kidney of rats were dramatically inhibited (p  0.05). Both non-protein thiols (NPSH) and glutathione (GSH) levels in liver and kidney decreased (p kidney tissues on 21 days PT. Histopathology revealed vacuolar degeneration in liver and kidney samples on day 21 PT. Our findings indicate that DA could cause oxidative damage to liver and kidney of rats.

  15. Antioxidant and Metal Chelation-Based Therapies in the Treatment of Prion Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, Marcus W; Wedd, Anthony G; Collins, Steven J

    2014-04-21

    Many neurodegenerative disorders involve the accumulation of multimeric assemblies and amyloid derived from misfolded conformers of constitutively expressed proteins. In addition, the brains of patients and experimental animals afflicted with prion disease display evidence of heightened oxidative stress and damage, as well as disturbances to transition metal homeostasis. Utilising a variety of disease model paradigms, many laboratories have demonstrated that copper can act as a cofactor in the antioxidant activity displayed by the prion protein while manganese has been implicated in the generation and stabilisation of disease-associated conformers. This and other evidence has led several groups to test dietary and chelation therapy-based regimens to manipulate brain metal concentrations in attempts to influence the progression of prion disease in experimental mice. Results have been inconsistent. This review examines published data on transition metal dyshomeostasis, free radical generation and subsequent oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of prion disease. It also comments on the efficacy of trialed therapeutics chosen to combat such deleterious changes.

  16. Antioxidant and Metal Chelation-Based Therapies in the Treatment of Prion Disease

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    Marcus W. Brazier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative disorders involve the accumulation of multimeric assemblies and amyloid derived from misfolded conformers of constitutively expressed proteins. In addition, the brains of patients and experimental animals afflicted with prion disease display evidence of heightened oxidative stress and damage, as well as disturbances to transition metal homeostasis. Utilising a variety of disease model paradigms, many laboratories have demonstrated that copper can act as a cofactor in the antioxidant activity displayed by the prion protein while manganese has been implicated in the generation and stabilisation of disease-associated conformers. This and other evidence has led several groups to test dietary and chelation therapy-based regimens to manipulate brain metal concentrations in attempts to influence the progression of prion disease in experimental mice. Results have been inconsistent. This review examines published data on transition metal dyshomeostasis, free radical generation and subsequent oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of prion disease. It also comments on the efficacy of trialed therapeutics chosen to combat such deleterious changes.

  17. Chronic insulin treatment of diabetes does not fully normalize alterations in the retinal transcriptome

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    Kimball Scot R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a leading cause of blindness in working age adults. Approximately 95% of patients with Type 1 diabetes develop some degree of retinopathy within 25 years of diagnosis despite normalization of blood glucose by insulin therapy. The goal of this study was to identify molecular changes in the rodent retina induced by diabetes that are not normalized by insulin replacement and restoration of euglycemia. Methods The retina transcriptome (22,523 genes and transcript variants was examined after three months of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male Sprague Dawley rats with and without insulin replacement for the later one and a half months of diabetes. Selected gene expression changes were confirmed by qPCR, and also examined in independent control and diabetic rats at a one month time-point. Results Transcriptomic alterations in response to diabetes (1376 probes were clustered according to insulin responsiveness. More than half (57% of diabetes-induced mRNA changes (789 probes observed at three months were fully normalized to control levels with insulin therapy, while 37% of probes (514 were only partially normalized. A small set of genes (5%, 65 probes was significantly dysregulated in the insulin-treated diabetic rats. qPCR confirmation of findings and examination of a one month time point allowed genes to be further categorized as prevented or rescued with insulin therapy. A subset of genes (Ccr5, Jak3, Litaf was confirmed at the level of protein expression, with protein levels recapitulating changes in mRNA expression. Conclusions These results provide the first genome-wide examination of the effects of insulin therapy on retinal gene expression changes with diabetes. While insulin clearly normalizes the majority of genes dysregulated in response to diabetes, a number of genes related to inflammatory processes, microvascular integrity, and neuronal function are still altered in expression in

  18. Chronic treatment with glucocorticoids alters rat hippocampal and prefrontal cortical morphology in parallel with endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng-Yang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Huang, Jingjing; Regunathan, Soundar

    2007-12-01

    In the present study, we examined the possible effect of chronic treatment with glucocorticoids on the morphology of the rat brain and levels of endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase (ADC) protein, the enzyme essential for agmatine synthesis. Seven-day treatment with dexamethasone, at a dose (10 and 50 mug/kg/day) associated to stress effects contributed by glucocorticoids, did not result in obvious morphologic changes in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as measured by immunocytochemical staining with beta-tubulin III. However, 21-day treatment (50 mug/kg/day) produced noticeable structural changes such as the diminution and disarrangement of dendrites and neurons in these areas. Simultaneous treatment with agmatine (50 mg/kg/day) prevented these morphological changes. Further measurement with HPLC showed that endogenous agmatine levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were significantly increased after 7-day treatments with dexamethasone in a dose-dependent manner. On the contrary, 21-day treatment with glucocorticoids robustly reduced agmatine levels in these regions. The treatment-caused biphasic alterations of endogenous agmatine levels were also seen in the striatum and hypothalamus. Interestingly, treatment with glucocorticoids resulted in a similar change of ADC protein levels in most brain areas to endogenous agmatine levels: an increase after 7-day treatment versus a reduction after 21-day treatment. These results demonstrated that agmatine has neuroprotective effects against structural alterations caused by glucocorticoids in vivo. The parallel alterations in the endogenous agmatine levels and ADC expression in the brain after treatment with glucocorticoids indicate the possible regulatory effect of these stress hormones on the synthesis and metabolism of agmatine in vivo.

  19. Effects of erdosteine treatment against doxorubicin-induced toxicity through erythrocyte and plasma oxidant/antioxidant status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadillioğlu, Ersin; Erdoğan, Hasan

    2003-04-01

    The clinical use of doxorubicin (Dxr), an antineoplastic agent, is limited by its extensive toxicity which is mostly mediated by oxidant injury. We have studied the effect of erdosteine, a mucolytic drug showing antioxidant properties, in preventing Dxr-toxicity to improve future Dxr therapy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. The first group that underwent no medication was accepted as control group; the second group was treated with a single i.p. injection of Dxr (20 mg kg(-1) b.wt.); the third group was treated with oral erdosteine alone (10 mg kg(-1) b.wt. day(-1) for 12 days); and in the last group erdosteine was administered starting before Dxr injection for 12 days. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level of Dxr group was higher in both plasma and erythrocyte than the other groups. In plasma and erythrocyte, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were increased in Dxr plus erdosteine group in comparison with control group, and the activities of GSH-Px were increased in Dxr plus erdosteine group in comparison with Dxr group. The erythrocyte catalase (CAT) activity of Dxr plus erdosteine group was higher than control and Dxr groups. Plasma xanthine oxidase activities and nitric oxide (NO) levels were not significantly different between groups, however erythrocyte NO level of Dxr group was higher than control. In conclusion, Dxr administration resulted in increased lipid peroxidation in plasma as well as erythrocyte and erdosteine treatment helped to prevent oxidative injury by increasing antioxidant enzymes, especially SOD, GSH-Px and CAT, in rats.

  20. Cysteamine treatment ameliorates alterations in GAD67 expression and spatial memory in heterozygous reeler mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutiyanawalla, Ammar; Promsote, Wanwisa; Terry, Alvin; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2012-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling through its receptor, TrkB is known to regulate GABAergic function and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 expression in neurons. Alterations in BDNF signalling have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and as a result, they are a potential therapeutic target. Interestingly, heterozygous reeler mice (HRM) have decreased GAD67 expression in the frontal cortex and hippocampus and they exhibit many behavioural and neurochemical abnormalities similar to schizophrenia. In this study, we evaluated the potential of cysteamine, a neuroprotective compound to improve the deficits in GAD67 expression and cognitive function in HRM. We found that cysteamine administration (150 mg/kg.d, through drinking water) for 30 d significantly ameliorated the decreases in GAD67, mature BDNF and full-length TrkB protein levels found in frontal cortex and hippocampus of HRM. A significant attenuation of the increased levels of truncated BDNF in frontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as truncated TrkB in frontal cortex of HRM was also observed following cysteamine treatment. In behavioural studies, HRM were impaired in a Y-maze spatial recognition memory task, but not in a spontaneous alternation task or a sensorimotor, prepulse inhibition (PPI) procedure. Cysteamine improved Y-maze spatial recognition in HRM to the level of wide-type controls and it improved PPI in both wild-type and HRM. Finally, mice deficient in TrkB, showed a reduced response to cysteamine in GAD67 expression suggesting that TrkB signalling plays an important role in GAD67 regulation by cysteamine.

  1. Simulated aging of lubricant oils by chemometric treatment of infrared spectra: potential antioxidant properties of sulfur structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Sandrine; Braham, Zeineb; Le Dréau, Yveline; Kister, Jacky; Dupuy, Nathalie

    2013-03-30

    Lubricant oils are complex mixtures of base oils and additives. The evolution of their performance over time strongly depends on its resistance to thermal oxidation. Sulfur compounds revealed interesting antioxidant properties. This study presents a method to evaluate the lubricant oil oxidation. Two samples, a synthetic and a paraffinic base oils, were tested pure and supplemented with seven different sulfur compounds. An aging cell adapted to a Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) spectrometer allows the continuous and direct analysis of the oxidative aging of base oils. Two approaches were applied to study the oxidation/anti-oxidation phenomena. The first one leads to define a new oxidative spectroscopic index based on a reduced spectral range where the modifications have been noticed (from 3050 to 2750 cm(-1)). The second method is based on chemometric treatments of whole spectra (from 4000 to 400 cm(-1)) to extract underlying information. A SIMPLe-to-use Interactive Self Modeling Analysis (SIMPLISMA) method has been used to identify more precisely the chemical species produced or degraded during the thermal treatment and to follow their evolution. Pure spectra of different species present in oil were obtained without prior information of their existence. The interest of this tool is to supply relative quantitative information reflecting evolution of the relative abundance of the different products over thermal aging. Results obtained by these two ways have been compared to estimate their concordance.

  2. Ex-situ and in-situ investigations of thermal anti-oxidation treatments of stainless steels by reflection mode EXAFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Wulff, D.; Wagner, R.; Holländer, U.; Maier, HJ; Frahm, R.

    2016-05-01

    Different thermal treatments were performed for the anti-oxidation of steel surfaces, and the processes were investigated ex-situ and in-situ by surface sensitive reflection mode EXAFS experiments at the Cr and Fe K-edges. While the samples for the ex-situ studies were heat-treated in a conveyor belt furnace at temperatures between 600 and 900 °C in inert carrier gases (N2 or Ar) using different additives such as hydrogen (H2) and monosilane (SiH4), the in- situ anti-oxidation treatments have been performed in a high vacuum environment (p < 10-6 mbar). While the ex-situ experiments suggest that SiH4-additives are needed for the reduction of the steel to a metallic state, the in-vacuum treatments appear successful for temperatures above approx. 900 °C.

  3. Antioxidant Carbocysteine Treatment in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Wu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of carbocysteine in OSAS patients.A total of 40 patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS were randomly divided into two groups. One group was treated with 1500 mg carbocysteine daily, and the other was treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP at night. Before treatment and after 6 weeks of treatment, all patients underwent polysomnography and completed questionnaires. Treatment compliance was compared between the two groups. Plasma was collected for various biochemical analyses. Endothelial function was assessed with ultrasound in the carbocysteine group.The proportion of patients who fulfilled the criteria for good compliance was higher in the carbocysteine group (n = 17 than in the CPAP group (n = 11; 100% vs. 64.7%. Compared with baseline values, the carbocysteine group showed significant improvement in their Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (10.18 ± 4.28 vs. 6.82 ± 3.66; P ≤ 0.01, apnea-hypopnea index (55.34 ± 25.03 vs. 47.56 ± 27.32; P ≤ 0.01, time and percentage of 90% oxygen desaturation (12.66 (2.81; 50.01 vs. 8.9 (1.41; 39.71; P ≤ 0.01, and lowest oxygen saturation level (65.88 ± 14.86 vs. 70.41 ± 14.34; P ≤ 0.01. Similar changes were also observed in the CPAP group. The CPAP group also showed a decreased oxygen desaturation index and a significant increase in the mean oxygen saturation after treatment, but these increases were not observed in the carbocysteine group. Snoring volume parameters, such as the power spectral density, were significantly reduced in both groups after the treatments. The plasma malondialdehyde level decreased and the superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide levels increased in both groups. The endothelin-1 level decreased in the CPAP group but did not significantly change in the carbocysteine group. Ultrasonography showed that the intima-media thickness decreased (0.71 ± 0.15 vs. 0.66 ± 0.15; P ≤ 0.05 but that flow

  4. ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE SYSTEM CORRECTION IN TREATMENT OF PAYIENTS WITH INFERTILITY AND PERITONEAL ENDOMETRIOSIS

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    Dubinskaya, E.D.

    2016-09-01

    The findings suggest that the efficiency of the proposed comprehensive treatment techniques (laparoscopy and subsequent course of therapeutic plasmapheresis of patients with peritoneal endometriosis and infertility and with point mutations in the gene NAT2. The use of plasmapheresis  is pathogenetically justified in patients of the studied group.

  5. Whole-body cryostimulation--potential beneficial treatment for improving antioxidant capacity in healthy men--significance of the number of sessions.

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    Anna Lubkowska

    Full Text Available It is claimed that WBC (whole-body cryotherapy enhances the resistance of the human body, also thanks to the beneficial effect on the antioxidant system. Accordingly, this research aimed to evaluate the effect of a series of whole-body cryostimulations on the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in healthy men. The study was carried out on 30 young and healthy men aged 27.8±6.1 years with average body mass index and peak oxygen consumption (46.34±6.15 ml kg(-1 •min(-1. The participants were daily exposed for 3 minutes to cryogenic temperatures (-130°C. Blood samples were obtained in the morning before cryostimulation, again 30 min after exposure and the following day in the morning, during the 1(st, 10(th and 20(th session. Analysis concerned changes in plasma concentrations of total protein, albumin, glucose, uric acid and ceruloplasmin, and the most important components of the antioxidant system in red blood cells: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, reduced and oxidized glutathione. To assess the oxidative stress level the 8-isoprostane concentration in plasma was measured. The obtained results indicate that cryogenic temperatures in repeated daily treatments result in changes in the peroxidant and antioxidant status. These changes seem to depend on the number of cryostimulations. After 20 daily treatments there was an increase in SOD, SOD:CAT ratio, a decrease in the concentration of reduced and oxidized glutathione and in the activity of GPx. It could be possible that differences in the activity of GSSG-R after 20 treatments depended on the body mass index of participants.

  6. Artificial neural network modelling of the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of bananas submitted to different drying treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiné, Raquel P F; Barroca, Maria João; Gonçalves, Fernando J; Alves, Mariana; Oliveira, Solange; Mendes, Mateus

    2015-02-01

    Bananas (cv. Musa nana and Musa cavendishii) fresh and dried by hot air at 50 and 70°C and lyophilisation were analysed for phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. All samples were subject to six extractions (three with methanol followed by three with acetone/water solution). The experimental data served to train a neural network adequate to describe the experimental observations for both output variables studied: total phenols and antioxidant activity. The results show that both bananas are similar and air drying decreased total phenols and antioxidant activity for both temperatures, whereas lyophilisation decreased the phenolic content in a lesser extent. Neural network experiments showed that antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds can be predicted accurately from the input variables: banana variety, dryness state and type and order of extract. Drying state and extract order were found to have larger impact in the values of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds.

  7. Chronic arsenic poisoning in the rat: treatment with combined administration of succimers and an antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Gurusamy M; Flora, Swaran J S

    2004-05-01

    The influence of the coadministration of vitamin C or vitamin E on the efficacy of two thiol chelators, meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) or monoisoamyl DMSA, in counteracting chronic arsenic toxicity was investigated in rats. Vitamin C and vitamin E were only mildly effective when given alone or in combination with the above chelators in mobilizing arsenic from the target tissues. However, combined administration of vitamin C plus DMSA and vitamin E plus MiADMSA led to a more pronounced depletion of brain arsenic. The supplementation of vitamins was significantly effective in restoring inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) oxidative stress in liver, kidneys, and brain as reflected by reduced levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and oxidized and reduced glutathione levels. The results thus lead us to suggest that coadministration of vitamin E or vitamin C may be useful in the restoration of altered biochemical variables (particularly the effects on heme biosynthesis and oxidative injury) although it has only a limited role in depleting arsenic burden.

  8. Effect of Treatment with Natural Antioxidant on the Chilled Beef Lipid Oxidation

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    G.Y. Ivanov

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of superficial treatment of beef trimm ings and beef knuckles with bone with taxifolin solution (1 g/L on the lipid oxidation development during chilled storage was studied. Beef samples were airpacked or packaged in modified atmosphere consisting of 80%O2/20%CO2. It was found that the combined application of taxifolin treatment and MAP inhibited effectively formation of secondary derivates of lipid oxidation. The lipid hydroperoxides formation of these samples was reduced by 50-60% and accumulation of TBARS was significantly retarded in com parison with untreated w ith taxifolin, air-packed control samples. The MAP was found as the crucial factor for minimization of the FAME composition changes of chilled beef.

  9. Bisphenol A alters n-6 fatty acid composition and decreases antioxidant enzyme levels in rat testes: a LC-QTOF-based metabolomics study.

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    Minjian Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male reproductive toxicity induced by exposure to bisphenol A (BPA has been widely reported. The testes have proven to be a major target organ of BPA toxicity, so studying testicular metabolite variation holds promise for the discovery of mechanisms linked to the toxic effects of BPA on reproduction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered doses of BPA at the levels of 0, 50 mg/kg/d for 8 weeks. We used an unbiased liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF-based metabolomics approach to discover, identify, and analyze the variation of testicular metabolites. Two n-6 fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA and arachidonic acid (AA were identified as potential testicular biomarkers. Decreased levels of LA and increased levels of AA as well as AA/LA ratio were observed in the testes of the exposed group. According to these suggestions, testicular antioxidant enzyme levels were detected. Testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD declined significantly in the exposed group compared with that in the non-exposed group, and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px as well as catalase (CAT also showed a decreasing trend in BPA treated group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BPA caused testicular n-6 fatty acid composition variation and decreased antioxidant enzyme levels. This study emphasizes that metabolomics brings the promise of biomarkers identification for the discovery of mechanisms underlying reproductive toxicity.

  10. Region-selective effects of neuroinflammation and antioxidant treatment on peripheral benzodiazepine receptors and NMDA receptors in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biegon, A.; Alvarado, M.; Budinger, T.F.; Grossman, R.; Hensley, K.; West, M.S.; Kotake, Y.; Ono, M.; Floyd, R.A.

    2001-12-10

    Following induction of acute neuroinflammation by intracisternal injection of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) in rats, quantitative autoradiography was used to assess the regional level of microglial activation and glutamate (NMDA) receptor binding. The possible protective action of the antioxidant phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone in this model was tested by administering the drug in the drinking water for 6 days starting 24 hours after endotoxin injection. Animals were killed 7 days post-injection and consecutive cryostat brain sections labeled with [3H]PK11195 as a marker of activated microglia and [125I]iodoMK801 as a marker of the open-channel, activated state of NMDA receptors. Lipopolysaccharide increased [3H]PK11195 binding in the brain, with the largest increases (2-3 fold) in temporal and entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and substantia innominata. A significant (>50 percent) decrease in [125I]iodoMK801 binding was found in the same brain regions. Phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone treatment resulted in a partial inhibition ({approx}25 percent decrease) of the lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in [3H]PK11195 binding but completely reversed the lipopolysaccharide-induced decrease in [125I]iodoMK80 binding in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and substantia innominata. Loss of NMDA receptor function in cortical and hippocampal regions may contribute to the cognitive deficits observed in diseases with a neuroinflammatory component, such as meningitis or Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of extract from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Birch, Edward John

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of ultrasonic extraction of phenolics and flavonoids from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes was compared to the conventional extraction method. Ultrasonic treatment at room temperature showed increased polyphenol extraction yield and antioxidant capacity by two-fold over the conventional extraction method. Different combinations of ultrasonic treatment parameters consisting of solvent volume (25, 50, 75 and 100 mL), extraction time (20, 30 and 40 min) and temperature (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C) were selected for polyphenol extractions from the seed cakes. The chosen parameters had a significant effect (pextraction yield and subsequent antioxidant capacity from the seed cakes. Application of heat during ultrasonic extraction yielded higher polyphenol content in extracts compared to the non-heated extraction. From an orthogonal design test, the best combination of parameters was 50 mL of solvent volume, 20 min of extraction time and 70 °C of ultrasonic temperature.

  12. Hemostatic alterations in liver disease : A review on pathophysiology, clinical consequences, and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisman, Ton; Leebeek, Frank W. G.

    2007-01-01

    In most patients with acute or chronic liver failure, extensive changes in all pathways contributing to hemostasis are found. These hemostatic alterations concern both pro- and antihemostatic pathways, and therefore the net result of the hemostatic dysbalance is unclear. Although it is generally bel

  13. Antioxidant Pre-Treatment Reduces the Toxic Effects of Oxalate on Renal Epithelial Cells in a Cell Culture Model of Urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kizivat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is characterized by the formation and retention of solid crystals within the urinary tract. Kidney stones are mostly composed of calcium oxalate, which predominantly generates free radicals that are toxic to renal tubular cells. The aim of the study is to explore possible effects of antioxidant pre-treatment on inhibition of oxidative stress. Three cell lines were used as in vitro model of urolithiasis: MDCK I, MDCK II and LLC-PK1. Oxidative stress was induced by exposure of cells to sodium oxalate in concentration of 8 mM. In order to prevent oxidative stress, cells were pre-treated with three different concentrations of l-arginine and vitamin E. Oxidative stress was evaluated by determining the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD, osteopontin (OPN, and by the concentration of glutathione (GSH. In all three cell lines, pre-treatment of antioxidants increased cell survival. Positive correlation of SOD and OPN expression as well as GSH concentration was observed in all groups of cells. Our results indicate that an antioxidant pre-treatment with l-arginine and vitamin E is able to hamper oxalate-induced oxidative stress in kidney epithelial cells and as such could play a role in prevention of urolithiasis.

  14. Influence of hydrothermal treatment on dietary fiber and phenolic compounds content as well as antioxidative activity of legumes seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Filipiak-Florkiewicz; Adam Florkiewicz; Ewa Cieślik; Maria Walczycka; Joanna Kapusta-Duch; Teresa Leszczyńska

    2012-01-01

    Background. Dry legumes seeds are food of high nutrient density. Besides the biologically precious protein they contain essential unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins of group B, dietary fiber and antioxidants. The aim of the research was to assess the influence of different soaking and cooking methods on dietary fiber and phe- nolic compounds content, as well as antioxidative activity of selected legumes’seeds. Material and methods. The experimental material was dry kidney bean origin...

  15. Comparative evaluation of natural antioxidants spirulina and aloe vera for the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Santosh; Al-Zarea, Bader Kureyem; Maheshwari, Sneha; Sahu, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Aim Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a high risk premalignant condition predominantly seen in the Indian subcontinent. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spirulina and aloe vera in the management of OSMF. Material and methods 42 subjects with clinico-pathologically diagnosed OSMF were included in the study and divided equally in 2 groups, Group A (spirulina group) and Group B (aloe vera group). Group A was administered 500 mg spirulina in 2 divided doses for 3 months and Group B was given 5 mg aloe vera gel to be applied topically thrice daily for 3 months. Evaluation for different clinical parameters was done at regular intervals and data was analyzed using the Chi-square test. P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The patients in Group A showed significant clinical improvement in mouth opening and ulcers/erosions/vesicles (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant improvement in burning sensation (p = 0.06) and pain associated with the lesion (p = 0.04) among the 2 groups. Conclusion Both the drugs showed improvement in the condition; however spirulina can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms like mouth opening and ulcers/erosion/vesicles. Thus, spirulina appears to be more promising when compared to aloe vera for the treatment of OSMF. PMID:25853042

  16. Alteration in Taste Perception in Cancer: Causes and Strategies of Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Babar; Hichami, Aziz; Khan, Amira S.; Ghiringhelli, François; Khan, Naim A.

    2017-01-01

    The sense of taste is responsible for the detection and ingestion of food to cover energetic requirements in health and disease. The change in taste perception might lead to malnutrition that is usually one of the frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of taste perception and how they are altered in cancer. We also address the question of the implication of inflammation, responsible for the alterations in taste modalities. We highlight the role of radio- and chemotherapy in the modulation of taste physiology. Other several factors like damage to taste progenitor cells and disruption of gut microbiota are also dealt with relation to taste perception in cancer. We further shed light on how to restore taste acuity, by using different preventive methods, dietary modifications and pharmacotherapy in subjects with advanced cancer state. PMID:28337150

  17. Altered cortical activation from the hand after facial Botulinum Toxin treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Haenzi, Sara; Stefanics, Gabor; Lanaras, Tatjana; Calcagni, Maurizio; Ghosh, Arko

    2014-01-01

    Plastic interactions between face and hand cortical tactile circuits occur after severe injuries that affect the hand such as in amputation or spinal cord injury. However, whether loss of facial movements alters the cortical circuits involved in processing tactile inputs from the hand remains unknown. In this prospective observational study we used electroencephalography (EEG) to measure cortical activity evoked by tactile stimulation of the hands before and after botulinum toxin-A-induced fa...

  18. Acute melatonin treatment alters dendritic morphology and circadian clock gene expression in the hippocampus of Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Tomoko; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-02-01

    In the hippocampus of Siberian hamsters, dendritic length and dendritic complexity increase in the CA1 region whereas dendritic spine density decreases in the dentate gyrus region at night. However, the underlying mechanism of the diurnal rhythmicity in hippocampal neuronal remodeling is unknown. In mammals, most daily rhythms in physiology and behaviors are regulated by a network of circadian clocks. The central clock, located in the hypothalamus, controls melatonin secretion at night and melatonin modifies peripheral clocks by altering expression of circadian clock genes. In this study, we examined the effects of acute melatonin treatment on the circadian clock system as well as on morphological changes of hippocampal neurons. Male Siberian hamsters were injected with melatonin in the afternoon; 4 h later, mRNA levels of hypothalamic and hippocampal circadian clock genes and hippocampal neuron dendritic morphology were assessed. In the hypothalamus, melatonin treatment did not alter Period1 and Bmal1 expression. However, melatonin treatment increased both Period1 and Bmal1 expression in the hippocampus, suggesting that melatonin affected molecular oscillations in the hippocampus. Melatonin treatment also induced rapid remodeling of hippocampal neurons; melatonin increased apical dendritic length and dendritic complexity in the CA1 region and reduced the dendritic spine density in the dentate gyrus region. These data suggest that structural changes in hippocampal neurons are regulated by a circadian clock and that melatonin functions as a nighttime signal to coordinate the diurnal rhythm in neuronal remodeling.

  19. Chronic imipramine treatment differentially alters the brain and plasma amino acid metabolism in Wistar and Wistar Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Mao; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-05

    In the present study, the amino acids which have the possibility for the therapeutic efficacy of imipramine were explored and compared between Wistar Kyoto rats, an animal model of depression, and Wistar rats as a normal model. The antidepressant-like effect caused by chronic imipramine treatment was confirmed by decreased immobility in the forced swimming test. Chronic imipramine administration altered the amino acid dynamics in the brain. In the striatum, the concentrations of asparagine, glutamine and methionine were significantly increased by chronic imipramine administration. In the thalamus and hypothalamus, chronic imipramine administration significantly decreased the valine concentration. On the other hand, no amino acid was altered by chronic imipramine administration in the hippocampus, brain stem and cerebellum. In addition, lower concentration of asparagine in the prefrontal cortex of WKY rats was improved by chronic imipramine administration. This amelioration only in WKY rats may be a specific effect of chronic imipramine administration under the depressive state. In conclusion, chronic imipramine administration altered the several amino acid dynamics in the brain. Modification of the amino acid metabolism in the brain may provide a new strategy in the development of therapeutic treatment of major depression.

  20. [Efficacy of disinfection treatments using essential oils and ultrasound on tomato fruits inoculated with Escherichia coli and impact on antioxidant activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Guevara, María L; Luna Guevara, Juan J; Ruiz Espinosa, Héctor; Leyva Abascal, Lucero; Díaz González, Carolina B

    2015-01-01

    Fresh produce often harbors a great number of microorganisms; hence, its growing demand may constitute a risk for consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of several disinfection procedures against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) inoculated on tomato fruits and the conservation of the antioxidant properties of these disinfected fruits. Fruits were immersed for 5 or 10min in oregano or thyme essential oil dispersions (5, 10ppm), with or without ultrasound treatment. Antioxidant activity of disinfected fruits was determined as the ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-pricrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and was reported as percentage of inhibition (%I). The most efficient disinfectant treatments showing significant differences (p≤.05) between the reductions log10 CFU/g (S) of ETEC were those using 10ppm oregano for 10min, with S=3.05 in individual treatments and S=4.03 in mixed treatments. The highest %I was obtained with individual sonication treatments (69.52 and 72.48), while in combined treatments the %I values increased with thyme oil 5ppm and ultrasound for 5min (51.27%) and 10min (53.31%).

  1. Disseminated glioneuronal tumors occurring in childhood: treatment outcomes and BRAF alterations including V600E mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgshun, Andrew J; SantaCruz, Nadine; Hwang, Jaeho; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Malkin, Hayley; Bergthold, Guillaume; Manley, Peter; Chi, Susan; MacGregor, Duncan; Goumnerova, Liliana; Sullivan, Michael; Ligon, Keith; Beroukhim, Rameen; Herrington, Betty; Kieran, Mark W; Hansford, Jordan R; Bandopadhayay, Pratiti

    2016-06-01

    Disseminated glioneuronal tumors of childhood are rare. We present a retrospective IRB-approved review of the clinical course and frequency of BRAF mutations in disseminated glioneuronal tumors at two institutions. Defining features of our cohort include diffuse leptomeningeal-spread, often with a discrete spinal cord nodule and oligodendroglioma-like histologic features. Patients were identified through a pathology database search of all cases with disseminated low-grade neoplasms with an oligodendroglioma-like component. De-identified clinical information was collected by chart review and all imaging was reviewed. We retrieved the results of targeted genomic analyses for alterations in BRAF. Ten patients (aged 2-14 years) were identified from the Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Hospital and the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne pathology databases. Nine patients received chemotherapy. Eight patients are alive, although three have had episodes of progressive disease. We identified genomic alterations affecting the MAPK pathway in six patients. One patient had a germline RAF1 mutation and a clinical diagnosis of cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome. BRAF duplications were identified in four and BRAF V600E mutation was identified in one. These data support the presence of targetable genomic alterations in this disease.

  2. Human bronchial epithelial cells exposed in vitro to diesel exhaust particles exhibit alterations in cell rheology and cytotoxicity associated with decrease in antioxidant defenses and imbalance in pro- and anti-apoptotic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seriani, Robson; de Souza, Claudia Emanuele Carvalho; Krempel, Paloma Gava; Frias, Daniela Perroni; Matsuda, Monique; Correia, Aristides Tadeu; Ferreira, Márcia Zotti Justo; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Negri, Elnara Marcia; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais; Macchione, Mariangela

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) from diesel engines produce adverse alterations in cells of the airways by activating intracellular signaling pathways and apoptotic gene overexpression, and also by influencing metabolism and cytoskeleton changes. This study used human bronchial epithelium cells (BEAS-2B) in culture and evaluates their exposure to DEPs (15ug/mL for 1 and 2 h) in order to determine changes to cell rheology (viscoelasticity) and gene expression of the enzymes involved in oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. BEAS-2B cells exposed to DEPs were found to have a significant loss in stiffness, membrane stability, and mitochondrial activity. The genes involved in apoptosis [B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2 and caspase-3)] presented inversely proportional expressions (p = 0.05, p = 0.01, respectively), low expression of the genes involved in antioxidant responses [SOD1 (superoxide dismutase 1); SOD2 (superoxide dismutase 2), and GPx (glutathione peroxidase) (p = 0.01)], along with an increase in cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) (p = 0.01). These results suggest that alterations in cell rheology and cytotoxicity could be associated with oxidative stress and imbalance between pro- and anti-apoptotic genes.

  3. Antioxidant effect of simvastatin throught oxidative imbalance caused by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme A. Eger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to directly investigate the behavioral and antioxidant effects of simvastatin in a model of bipolar mania induced by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate. Wistar rats were treated for 30 days with simvastatin. On the 24th day after the start of treatment, each rat was administered lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for 7 days. The results suggest that simvastatin combined with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate induced a significant increased locomotion and lisdexamfetamine dimesylate administration causes an oxidative imbalance determined by an increment in lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and alterations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in brain areas; moreover, in the presence of simvastatin, most of these effects were prevented. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the critical roles of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, associated with increased oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant enzymatic defense. In view of the central role played by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, the established antioxidant effect of simvastatin therapy is of major interest.

  4. Streptomycin treatment alters the intestinal microbiome, pulmonary T cell profile and airway hyperresponsiveness in a cystic fibrosis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazett, Mark; Bergeron, Marie-Eve; Haston, Christina K

    2016-01-12

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator deficient mouse models develop phenotypes of relevance to clinical cystic fibrosis (CF) including airway hyperresponsiveness, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and an altered intestinal microbiome. As dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been recognized as an important contributor to many systemic diseases, herein we investigated whether altering the intestinal microbiome of BALB/c Cftr(tm1UNC) mice and wild-type littermates, through treatment with the antibiotic streptomycin, affects the CF lung, intestinal and bone disease. We demonstrate that streptomycin treatment reduced the intestinal bacterial overgrowth in Cftr(tm1UNC) mice and altered the intestinal microbiome similarly in Cftr(tm1UNC) and wild-type mice, principally by affecting Lactobacillus levels. Airway hyperresponsiveness of Cftr(tm1UNC) mice was ameliorated with streptomycin, and correlated with Lactobacillus abundance in the intestine. Additionally, streptomycin treated Cftr(tm1UNC) and wild-type mice displayed an increased percentage of pulmonary and mesenteric lymph node Th17, CD8 + IL-17+ and CD8 + IFNγ+ lymphocytes, while the CF-specific increase in respiratory IL-17 producing γδ T cells was decreased in streptomycin treated Cftr(tm1UNC) mice. Bone disease and intestinal phenotypes were not affected by streptomycin treatment. The airway hyperresponsiveness and lymphocyte profile of BALB/c Cftr(tm1UNC) mice were affected by streptomycin treatment, revealing a potential intestinal microbiome influence on lung response in BALB/c Cftr(tm1UNC) mice.

  5. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on arsenic induced alteration in blood biochemical profile, oxidant/antioxidant status, serum cortisol level and retention of arsenic and selenium in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Ranjan Kumar; Garg, Anil Kumar; Dass, Ram Sharan

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exerts oxidative stress with depletion of body selenium in monogastric animals. But in ruminants this fact is not yet verified. Vitamin E is an effective dietary antioxidant. Thus, in this experiment, the protective effect of vitamin E against arsenic toxicity induced by sodium arsenite (60mg As/kg diet) was investigated in goat kids. For this, 21 male kids were divided into three equal groups and fed either basal diet as such (control), or supplemented with 60mg As/kg diet and 60mg As/kg diet+250IU vitamin E/kg diet for 180 days. Vitamin E supplementation alleviated the toxic effects caused by arsenic on serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and lipid peroxidation. It also prevented the depletion of reduced glutathione content and reduction in activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-s-transferase in erythrocytes resulted from arsenic intoxication. The elevated levels of arsenic and reduced levels of selenium in the serum and tissues in arsenic treated animals were attenuated by vitamin E supplementation, though not completely. However, serum cortisol level was not affected by arsenic. It was concluded that arsenic exerts cortisol independent stressor mechanism and supplementation of vitamin E at a level of 250IU/kg diet was partially effective in reducing tissue accumulation of arsenic in the body and protect the kids from oxidative stress induced by arsenic.

  6. Aluminium oxide nanoparticles induce mitochondrial-mediated oxidative stress and alter the expression of antioxidant enzymes in human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshatwi, Ali A; Subbarayan, Periasamy Vaiyapuri; Ramesh, E; Al-Hazzani, Amal A; Alsaif, Mohammed A; Alwarthan, Abdulrahman A

    2013-01-01

    An urgent need for toxicological studies on aluminium oxide nanoparticles (Al(2) [Formula: see text]NPs) has arisen from their rapidly emerging range of applications in the food and agricultural sectors. Despite the widespread use of nanoscale aluminium and its composites in the food industry, there is a serious lack of information concerning the biological activities of Al(2) [Formula: see text]NPs (ANPs) and their impact on human health. In this preliminary study, the effects of ANPs on metabolic stress in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were analysed. The results showed dose-dependent effects, including cellular toxicity. The mitochondrial membrane potential in the hMSCs decreased with increasing ANP concentrations after 24 h of exposure. The expression levels of oxidative stress-responsive enzymes were monitored by RT-PCR. The expression levels of CYP1A and POR were up-regulated in response to ANPs, and a significant down-regulation in the expression of the antioxidant enzyme SOD was observed. Further, dose-dependent changes in the mRNA levels of GSTM3, GPX and GSR were noted. These findings suggest that the toxicity of ANPs in hMSCs may be mediated through an increase in oxidative stress. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the nanotoxicological effects of ANPs on hMSCs, which will be useful for nanotoxicological indexing.

  7. Does squalene alter the antioxidant potential of astaxanthin and fucoxanthinol? In vitro evidence in RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, Sangeetha; Narayan, Bhaskar; Kizawa, Yuki; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Astaxanthin (Ax) and fucoxanthin/fucoxanthinol (FuOH) are marine xanthophylls exhibiting anti-oxidant effects. Squalene (SQ) is a triterpenoid and is a precursor of sterols. This study aimed to determine if SQ can improve the effect of Ax/FuOH on lipid peroxidation. RAW 264.7 cells were treated with different concentrations of Ax, FuOH and SQ and corresponding rate of cell survival was noted. In addition,combination groups - Ax + SQ and FuOH + SQ- were also run. Cells treated with Ax, FuOH, SQ, Ax + SQ and FuOH + SQ were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and lipid hydroperoxides were estimated. Results showed that 5 μM Ax, 2 μM FuOH and 10 μM SQ supported cell survival. In presence of SQ, cell viability improved for higher concentrations of FuOH (5, 10 μM). Lipid hydroperoxides were supressed by Ax, FuOH, Ax + SQ and FUOH +SQ and were significantly lower in Ax + SQ, indicating the synergistic effect of Ax and SQ. To conclude, combination of Ax with SQ enhances its ability to supress lipid peroxidation while with FuOH, SQ attenuates the toxic effect at higher doses. Moreover, this is the first time that the combined effect of SQ and carotenoids has been studied and reported.

  8. Post treatment effect of Grewia asiatica against radiation-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Singh, Smita; Sharma, K V; Ahaskar, Muktika

    2008-01-01

    The increasing use of nuclear radiation for human welfare necessitates the search for new, safe, and cost-effective radioprotectors not only for the personnel charged with the responsibility of testing or working with radiation in laboratories, but also for the general public. With this view, the present study has been undertaken to find out the possible radioprotective potential of the Grewia asiatica fruit pulp extract (GAE). It is reported to have a high content of antioxidants such as vitamin C, anthocyanin, folate carotenoids, etc. that may play a possible role in radioprotection. In the present investigation, healthy Swiss albino mice were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups: (i) control (vehicle treated), (ii) only GAE treated (700 mg/Kg. body wt./day for 15 consecutive days), (iii) irradiated (5 Gy), and (iv) irradiated + GAE treated. Mice were sacrificed at different autopsy intervals posttreatment, viz., 1-30 days. Blood was collected and liver was removed for various biochemical estimations, viz., glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation. The results indicated that GAE posttreatment protects liver and blood against radiation-induced damage by inhibiting glutathione depletion and ameliorating lipid peroxidation levels that attended normal levels by day 30 posttreatment. Moreover, the magnitude of recovery from oxidative damage in terms of TBARS and GSH content was significantly higher (p<0.001) in the irradiated + GAE-treated group.

  9. Cardiac alterations in human African trypanosomiasis (T.b. gambiense with respect to the disease stage and antiparasitic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes A Blum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Human African Trypanosomiasis, neurological symptoms dominate and cardiac involvement has been suggested. Because of increasing resistance to the available drugs for HAT, new compounds are desperately needed. Evaluation of cardiotoxicity is one parameter of drug safety, but without knowledge of the baseline heart involvement in HAT, cardiologic findings and drug-induced alterations will be difficult to interpret. The aims of the study were to assess the frequency and characteristics of electrocardiographic findings in the first stage of HAT, to compare these findings to those of second stage patients and healthy controls and to assess any potential effects of different therapeutic antiparasitic compounds with respect to ECG changes after treatment. METHODS: Four hundred and six patients with first stage HAT were recruited in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola and Sudan between 2002 and 2007 in a series of clinical trials comparing the efficacy and safety of the experimental treatment DB289 to the standard first stage treatment, pentamidine. These ECGs were compared to the ECGs of healthy volunteers (n = 61 and to those of second stage HAT patients (n = 56. RESULTS: In first and second stage HAT, a prolonged QTc interval, repolarization changes and low voltage were significantly more frequent than in healthy controls. Treatment in first stage was associated with repolarization changes in both the DB289 and the pentamidine group to a similar extent. The QTc interval did not change during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac involvement in HAT, as demonstrated by ECG alterations, appears early in the evolution of the disease. The prolongation of the QTC interval comprises a risk of fatal arrhythmias if new drugs with an additional potential of QTC prolongation will be used. During treatment ECG abnormalities such as repolarization changes consistent with peri-myocarditis occur frequently and appear to be associated with the disease

  10. Natural antioxidants in the treatment and prevention of diabetic nephropathy; a potential approach that warrants clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Waili, Noori; Al-Waili, Hamza; Al-Waili, Thia; Salom, Khelod

    2017-05-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the major cause of end-stage renal disease and effective and new therapeutic approaches are needed in diabetic nephropathy and chronic kidney diseases. Oxidative stress and inflammatory process are important factors contributing to kidney damage by increasing production of oxidants. KEAP1/Nrf2/ARE pathway regulates the transcription of many antioxidant genes and modulation of the pathway up regulates antioxidants. NFB controls the expression of genes involved in the inflammatory response. Natural substances have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and have an impact on NFB and KEAP1/Nrf2/ARE pathways. The preclinical studies explored the effectiveness of whole herbs, plants or seeds and their active ingredients in established diabetic nephropathy. They ameliorate oxidative stress induced kidney damage, enhance antioxidant system, and decrease inflammatory process and fibrosis; most likely by activating KEAP1/Nrf2/ARE pathway and by deactivating NFB pathway. Whole natural products contain balanced antioxidants that might work synergistically to induce beneficial therapeutic outcome. In this context, more clinical studies involving whole plants or herbal products or mixtures of different herbs and plants and their active ingredients might change our strategies for the management of diabetic nephropathy. The natural products might be useful as preventive interventions and studies are required in this field.

  11. Exercise, oxidants, and antioxidants change the shape of the bell-shaped hormesis curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radak, Zsolt; Ishihara, Kazunari; Tekus, Eva; Varga, Csaba; Posa, Aniko; Balogh, Laszlo; Boldogh, Istvan; Koltai, Erika

    2017-03-03

    It is debated whether exercise-induced ROS production is obligatory to cause adaptive response. It is also claimed that antioxidant treatment could eliminate the adaptive response, which appears to be systemic and reportedly reduces the incidence of a wide range of diseases. Here we suggest that if the antioxidant treatment occurs before the physiological function-ROS dose-response curve reaches peak level, the antioxidants can attenuate function. On the other hand, if the antioxidant treatment takes place after the summit of the bell-shaped dose response curve, antioxidant treatment would have beneficial effects on function. We suggest that the effects of antioxidant treatment are dependent on the intensity of exercise, since the adaptive response, which is multi pathway dependent, is strongly influenced by exercise intensity. It is further suggested that levels of ROS concentration are associated with peak physiological function and can be extended by physical fitness level and this could be the basis for exercise pre-conditioning. Physical inactivity, aging or pathological disorders increase the sensitivity to oxidative stress by altering the bell-shaped dose response curve.

  12. Efficacy of HPA Lanolin® in treatment of lip alterations related to chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio da Silva Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The side effects of chemotherapy on the lips may cause esthetic and functional impact and increase the risk of infection. HPA Lanolin® is an option for supportive therapy because it has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and moisturizing properties. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of this product in the prevention of lip alterations in a population of patients undergoing chemotherapy. Material and Methods: Patients undergoing chemotherapy (n = 57 were examined and distributed into two groups: study (used HPA Lanolin® and control (without supportive therapy on the lips. We evaluated the patients two weeks after chemotherapy, registering oral alterations, symptoms of pain, discomfort, limitation of mouth opening and dehydration, classified according to a visual analogue scale. Results: Patients who used HPA Lanolin® had lower dehydration and experienced improvement of lip dryness (p<0.001. The main symptoms were dehydration, discomfort, limitation of mouth opening, pain. The main clinical signs were dry lips, mucositis, cheilitis, hematoma, swelling and cracking. We found no difference concerning the variables of pain, discomfort, and limitation of mouth opening between the study and control group. Conclusions: We suggest that HPA Lanolin® is effective in reducing the symptoms of dehydration and the signs of lip dryness resulting from toxicity of chemotherapy, proving to be an interesting alternative supportive therapy for cancer patients.

  13. Bone cell expression on titanium surfaces is altered by sterilization treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, C M; Keller, J C; Solursh, M

    1994-05-01

    Phenotypic responses of rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells (RCOB) were evaluated on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) surfaces when cultured at high density (5100 cells/mm2). These surfaces were prepared to three different clinically relevant surface preparations (1-micron, 600-grit, and 50-microns-grit sand-blast), followed by sterilization with either ultraviolet light, ethylene oxide, argon plasma-cleaning, or routine clinical autoclaving. Osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase, but not collagen expression, were significantly affected by surface roughness when these surfaces were altered by argon plasma-cleaning. In general, plasma-cleaned cpTi surfaces demonstrated an inverse relationship between surface roughness and phenotypic markers for a bone-like response. On a per-cell basis, levels of the bone-specific protein, osteocalcin, and the enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase were highest on the smooth 1-micron polished surface and lowest on the roughest surfaces for the plasma-cleaned cpTi. Detectable bone cell expression can be altered by clinically relevant surfaces prepared by standard dental implant preparation techniques.

  14. Varying responses of insect herbivores to altered plant chemistry under organic and conventional treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Joanna T; Stewart-Jones, Alex; Pope, Tom W; Wright, Denis J; Leather, Simon R; Hadley, Paul; Rossiter, John T; van Emden, Helmut F; Poppy, Guy M

    2010-03-07

    The hypothesis that plants supplied with organic fertilizers are better defended against insect herbivores than those supplied with synthetic fertilizers was tested over two field seasons. Organic and synthetic fertilizer treatments at two nitrogen concentrations were supplied to Brassica plants, and their effects on the abundance of herbivore species and plant chemistry were assessed. The organic treatments also differed in fertilizer type: a green manure was used for the low-nitrogen treatment, while the high-nitrogen treatment contained green and animal manures. Two aphid species showed different responses to fertilizers: the Brassica specialist Brevicoryne brassicae was more abundant on organically fertilized plants, while the generalist Myzus persicae had higher populations on synthetically fertilized plants. The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (a crucifer specialist) was more abundant on synthetically fertilized plants and preferred to oviposit on these plants. Glucosinolate concentrations were up to three times greater on plants grown in the organic treatments, while foliar nitrogen was maximized on plants under the higher of the synthetic fertilizer treatments. The varying response of herbivore species to these strong differences in plant chemistry demonstrates that hypotheses on defence in organically grown crops have over-simplified the response of phytophagous insects.

  15. Multiple Antenatal Dexamethasone Treatment Alters Brain Vessel Differentiation in Newborn Mouse Pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Neuhaus

    Full Text Available Antenatal steroid treatment decreases morbidity and mortality in premature infants through the maturation of lung tissue, which enables sufficient breathing performance. However, clinical and animal studies have shown that repeated doses of glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone and betamethasone lead to long-term adverse effects on brain development. Therefore, we established a mouse model for antenatal dexamethasone treatment to investigate the effects of dexamethasone on brain vessel differentiation towards the blood-brain barrier (BBB phenotype, focusing on molecular marker analysis. The major findings were that in total brains on postnatal day (PN 4 triple antenatal dexamethasone treatment significantly downregulated the tight junction protein claudin-5, the endothelial marker Pecam-1/CD31, the glucocorticoid receptor, the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and Abc transporters (Abcb1a, Abcg2 Abcc4. Less pronounced effects were found after single antenatal dexamethasone treatment and in PN10 samples. Comparisons of total brain samples with isolated brain endothelial cells together with the stainings for Pecam-1/CD31 and claudin-5 led to the assumption that the morphology of brain vessels is affected by antenatal dexamethasone treatment at PN4. On the mRNA level markers for angiogenesis, the sonic hedgehog and the Wnt pathway were downregulated in PN4 samples, suggesting fundamental changes in brain vascularization and/or differentiation. In conclusion, we provided a first comprehensive molecular basis for the adverse effects of multiple antenatal dexamethasone treatment on brain vessel differentiation.

  16. Effect of blanching treatments on antioxidant activity of frozen green capsicum (Capsicum annuum L. var bell pepper) using radical scavenging activity (DPPH) assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizzuddin, Norafida; Abdullah, Aminah

    2016-11-01

    Blanching treatments are needed to deactivate enzymes in frozen vegetables. Antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging activity assay were evaluated in steaming, boiling water, and microwave blanching at different temperature, time and microwave power level on frozen green capsicum. Green capsicum was chosen for frozen treatment compared to other capsicum with different maturity index because of the firm texture. The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant activity of frozen green capsicum between conventional and Oxi Count Kit® assay for DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results showed frozen green capsicum blanched using microwave at high level/90 seconds (sample J) contained higher level of DPPH in both conventional method and Oxi Count Kit® compared to other treatments. However, there were no significant differences between sample J and fresh sample (sample A). Overall, the sequences from highest to lowest in blanching treatments for both DPPH conventional method, and DPPH Oxi Count Kit® were J (microwave high level/90 seconds) > A (Fresh) > H (Microwave Medium Level/120 seconds) > D (Boiling Water 80°C/150 seconds) > K (Microwave High Level/120 seconds) > I (Microwave Medium Level/150 seconds) > F (Microwave Low Level/150 seconds)> B (Steam 100°C/150 seconds) > E (Boiling Water 100°C /120 seconds) > G (Microwave Low Level /180 seconds)> C (Steam 100°C/180 seconds). Almost all frozen green capsicum samples showed no significant differences for comparison between test using DPPH conventional method and Oxi Count Kit®. Frozen storage for 0, and 3rd months showed no significant differences which indicate no changes on antioxidant activity during frozen storage at -18°C.

  17. Alteration of myocardial metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake after treatment of phaeochromocytoma and neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Ogasawara, Nobuhiko; Ariga, Misako; Motoyama, Kazumi; Hara, Akiko; Kume, Norihiko; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    The relationships between changes in myocardial uptake of metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and those in circulating catecholamines and cardiac function after treatment of phaeochromocytoma and neuroblastoma were evaluated. Iodine-123 or iodine-131 MIBG scintigraphy was performed before and after surgical resection and/or chemotherapy for primary tumours in nine patients with phaeochromocytoma and 13 patients with neuroblastoma. Changes in myocardial MIBG uptake after treatment were estimated by the heart-to-upper mediastinum (H/M) uptake ratios on the images obtained 24 h after MIBG injection, which were compared with serum levels of noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A). Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography, with measurements of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Before treatment, eight patients with phaeochromocytoma and three with neuroblastoma showed poor myocardial MIBG uptake, with highly elevated circulating NA and A. Echocardiography, however, did not show cardiac dysfunction in these patients with the exception of two patients with phaeochromocytoma. With normalization of NA and A levels after treatment, all of these patients except for the two with persistent cardiac dysfunction showed restoration of myocardial MIBG uptake. The H/M ratios increased significantly after treatment in both patient groups, i.e. with phaeochromocytoma and with neuroblastoma (P<0.0001 and P<0.05, respectively), and these ratios correlated inversely with circulating NA and A before and after treatment. By contrast, there was no significant correlation between H/M ratios and LVEF in these two groups. These results indicate that suppression of myocardial MIBG uptake usually may not be related to cardiac dysfunction and may be reversible following normalization of excess catecholamine levels after treatment in patients with neuroadrenergic tumours. However, the suppression may persist in the presence of catecholamine-induced cardiac dysfunction. The assessment

  18. Effect of sulfite treatment on total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and total free sulfydryl groups contents in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herken, Emine Nur; Kocamaz, Erdogan; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Kucukatay, Vural

    2009-08-01

    Sulfites, which are commonly used as preservatives, are continuously formed in the body during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfite oxidase (SOX) is an essential enzyme in the pathway of the oxidative degradation of sulfite to sulfate protecting cells from sulfite toxicity. This article investigated the effect of sulfite on total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and total free sulfydryl groups (-SH) levels in normal and SOX-deficient male albino rat plasma. For this purpose, rats were divided into four groups: control, sulfite-treated, SOX-deficient, and sulfite-treated SOX-deficient groups. SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding to their drinking water 200 ppm tungsten. Sulfite (70 mg/kg) was administered to the animals via their drinking water. SOX deficiency together with sulfite treatment caused a significant increase in the plasma LOOH and total oxidant status levels. -SH content of rat plasma significantly decreased by both sulfite treatment and SOX deficiency compared to the control. There was also a significant decrease in plasma TAC level by sulfite treatment. In conclusion, sulfite treatment affects the antioxidant/oxidant balance of the plasma cells of the rats toward oxidants in SOX-deficient groups.

  19. Chronic exposure to MDMA (ecstasyinduces DNA damage, impairs functional antioxidant cellular defenses, enhances the lipid peroxidation process and alters testes histopathology in male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Gamal Zaki, ** Laila Abdel Kawy

    2013-04-01

    decreased testosterone secretion. The results suggested that graded doses of ecstasy elicit depletion of antioxidant defence system and induce oxidative stress in testis of rats. In conclusion: the adverse effect of ecstasy on male reproduction may be due to induction of oxidative stress

  20. Metagenomic analyses of alcohol induced pathogenic alterations in the intestinal microbiome and the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Bull-Otterson

    Full Text Available Enteric dysbiosis plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD. Detailed characterization of the alterations in the gut microbiome is needed for understanding their pathogenic role in ALD and developing effective therapeutic approaches using probiotic supplementation. Mice were fed liquid Lieber-DeCarli diet without or with alcohol (5% v/v for 6 weeks. A subset of mice were administered the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG from 6 to 8 weeks. Indicators of intestinal permeability, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and injury were evaluated. Metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiome was performed by analyzing the fecal DNA by amplification of the V3-V5 regions of the 16S rRNA gene and large-scale parallel pyrosequencing on the 454 FLX Titanium platform. Chronic ethanol feeding caused a decline in the abundance of both Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla, with a proportional increase in the gram negative Proteobacteria and gram positive Actinobacteria phyla; the bacterial genera that showed the biggest expansion were the gram negative alkaline tolerant Alcaligenes and gram positive Corynebacterium. Commensurate with the qualitative and quantitative alterations in the microbiome, ethanol caused an increase in plasma endotoxin, fecal pH, hepatic inflammation and injury. Notably, the ethanol-induced pathogenic changes in the microbiome and the liver were prevented by LGG supplementation. Overall, significant alterations in the gut microbiome over time occur in response to chronic alcohol exposure and correspond to increases in intestinal barrier dysfunction and development of ALD. Moreover, the altered bacterial communities of the gut may serve as significant therapeutic target for the prevention/treatment of chronic alcohol intake induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and liver disease.

  1. "You should be grateful to have medicines": continued dependence, altering stigma and the HIV treatment experience in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernays, Sarah; Rhodes, Tim; Janković Terźić, Katarina

    2010-01-01

    The expectation that universal HIV treatment access in resource-stretched settings will reduce stigma is a powerful aspiration that has been incorporated into a global rhetoric of hope around the HIV pandemic. Between 2005 and 2007, we undertook qualitative longitudinal research with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in Serbia. We draw here upon the thematic analysis of prospective interview accounts of 20 individuals to analyse PLHIV's perceptions of the influence of HIV treatment upon their quality of life. HIV is one of few conditions in Serbia where its treatment is fully funded by the state. Inconsistent treatment delivery means HIV treatment is experienced as insecure. Competitive claims for stretched national resources interplay with a moral economy which sees PLHIV as "undeserving" citizens. The guilt and anxiety felt by PLHIV intersect with severely curtailed employment opportunities, which weaken the anticipated restorative and empowering properties embedded within the promise of universal HIV treatment access. Rationed expectations of patient or system instigated change mean PLHIV's efforts are orientated towards short-term individualised self-care, drawing on bureaucratic technologies to mediate their uncertainty. These factors integrate to create a specific cultural and historical context for an altered but continuing stigma towards PLHIV in this era of treatment. This case study cautions against neglecting the underlying structural process of stigmatisation that constrains the capacity of PLHIV to participate in anti-stigma and community organising activities, indicating that in this setting HIV treatment is insufficient alone to reduce stigma or enable major social and economic change in the everyday lives of PLHIV.

  2. Effect of E-beam treatment on the chemistry and on the antioxidant activity of lycopene from dry tomato peel and tomato powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, M Carmen; Calvo, Marta M; Selgas, M Dolores; García, M Luisa; Erler, Katrin; Böhm, Volker; Catalano, Assunta; Simone, Rossella; Palozza, Paola

    2014-02-19

    Tomato powder (TP) and dry tomato peel (DTP) have been previously used in our laboratory as a source of lycopene to manufacture meat products ready-to-eat (RTE) submitted to E-beam irradiation with good technological and sensory results. Present work describes the studies performed in order to investigate the effect of radiation on chemical changes and antioxidant properties of lycopene. DTP and TP were irradiated (4 kGy). Changes on lycopene were analyzed by HPLC; inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS), possible modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) cascade, nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NP-κB) activation and expression of proteins involved in oxidation stress were analyzed in RAT-1 fibroblasts cell culture. Radiation reduced the content of all-E-lycopene and increased (Z)-lycopene, lycopene isomerization, and degradation being higher in DTP than in TP. E-Beam treatment increased the antioxidant ability of both DTP and TP in inhibiting spontaneous and H2O2-induced oxidative stress in cultured fibroblasts. Antioxidant activity was higher in DTP than in TP samples.

  3. Curcumin treatment alters ERK-1/2 signaling in vitro and inhibits nasopharyngeal carcinoma proliferation in mouse xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi-Qiang; Wu, Xian-Bo; Tang, Song-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, a plant phenol, has been used for centuries in traditional medicines for its anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic properties. The compound is believed to act on a range of proteins involved in cell cycle regulation. In this study, the effect of curcumin on ERK-1/2 pathway protein expression and on proliferation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells was investigated. CNE-2Z nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells were cultured with 10, 20, 40, or 80 μM curcumin for 24 h before proliferation was assessed by MTT colorimetry. Cell proliferation was increasingly inhibited as the concentration of curcumin increased (PERK-1/2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 was altered following curcumin treatment, also in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of p-ERK-1/2 and MMP-9 decreased, while expression of TIMP-1 increased (PERK-1/2 signaling pathway. Therefore, curcumin warrants further investigation as a potential treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer.

  4. Losartan Treatment Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells and Alters Scleral Remodeling in Experimental Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry A Quigley

    Full Text Available To determine if oral losartan treatment decreases the retinal ganglion cell (RGC death caused by experimental intraocular pressure (IOP elevation in mice.We produced IOP increase in CD1 mice and performed unilateral optic nerve crush. Mice received oral losartan, spironolactone, enalapril, or no drug to test effects of inhibiting angiotensin receptors. IOP was monitored by Tonolab, and blood pressure was monitored by tail cuff device. RGC loss was measured in masked axon counts and RGC bodies by β-tubulin labeling. Scleral changes that could modulate RGC injury were measured including axial length, scleral thickness, and retinal layer thicknesses, pressure-strain behavior in inflation testing, and study of angiotensin receptors and pathways by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry.Losartan treatment prevented significant RGC loss (median loss = 2.5%, p = 0.13, while median loss with water, spironolactone, and enalapril treatments were 26%, 28% and 43%; p < 0.0001. The lower RGC loss with losartan was significantly less than the loss with spironolactone or enalapril (regression model p = 0.001; drug treatment group term p = 0.01. Both losartan and enalapril significantly lowered blood pressure (p< 0.001, but losartan was protective, while enalapril led to worse than water-treated RGC loss. RGC loss after crush injury was unaffected by losartan treatment (difference from control p = 0.9. Survival of RGC in cell culture was not prolonged by sartan treatment. Axonal transport blockade after 3 day IOP elevations was less in losartan-treated than in control glaucoma eyes (p = 0.007. Losartan inhibited effects of glaucoma, including reduction in extracellular signal-related kinase activity and modification of glaucoma-related changes in scleral thickness and creep under controlled IOP.The neuroprotective effect of losartan in mouse glaucoma is associated with adaptive changes in the sclera expressed at

  5. Effects of conservation treatment and cooking on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Portuguese wild edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Lillian; Baptista, Paula; Correia, Daniela M; Morais, Jorge Sá; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2007-06-13

    The effects of processing and cooking practices on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Portuguese wild edible mushroom species (Lactarius deliciosus, Macrolepiota mastoidea, Macrolepiota procera, and Sarcodon imbricatus) were investigated. Dried, frozen, and cooked samples were analyzed for proximate constituents (moisture, fat, crude protein, ash, and carbohydrates) and nutritional value. Fatty acid and sugar profiles were also obtained by gas-liquid chromatography/flame ionization detection and high-performance liquid chromatography/refraction index, respectively. The antioxidant properties were evaluated by several biochemical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity, reducing power, inhibition of beta-carotene bleaching, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in brain tissue using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results of this study show that mushroom species and processing and cooking practices are all effective determinants for either chemical composition or antioxidant properties. Cooked samples proved to have lower nutrient concentrations and lower antioxidant activities than either dried or frozen samples. In what concerns fatty acids and sugar individual profiles, only cooking proved to be relevant: The cooked samples presented higher monounsaturated fatty acid and lower polyunsaturated fatty acid and sugars contents.

  6. Efficacy and safety evaluation of pentoxifylline associated with other antioxidants in medical treatment of Peyronie's disease: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulis G

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gianni Paulis,1,2 Davide Barletta,3 Paolo Turchi,4 Antonio Vitarelli,5 Giuseppe Dachille,6 Andrea Fabiani,7 Romano Gennaro8 1Regina Apostolorum Hospital, Andrology Center, Albano L, 2Castelfidardo Medical Team, Peyronie's Disease Care Center, Rome, 3Department of Urology, Andrology Center, San Matteo Hospital, Pavia, 4Azienda ASL 4 Prato – Andrology Service, Prato, 5Department of Urology, University of Bari, 6Department of Urology, S Giacomo Hospital, Monopoli, Bari, 7Department of Surgery, Section of Urology and Andrology, Macerata, 8Department of Urologic Oncology, Section of Avellino, Italian League Against Cancer, Avellino, Italy Abstract: Peyronie's disease (PD is a chronic disorder involving the tunica albuginea surrounding the corpora cavernosa of the penis. A conservative treatment is indicated in the first stage of disease. The aim of this study was to assess the therapeutic impact and possible side effects of treatment with pentoxifylline (PTX in combination with other antioxidants in 307 patients with early-stage PD. Patients were subdivided into three groups: A, B, and C. Both groups, A and B, comprising of 206 patients, underwent treatment, whereas Group C was the control group (n=101. Treatment lasted 6 months and included the following: Group A: PTX 400 mg twice a day + propolis 600 mg/d + blueberry 160 mg/d + vitamin E 600 mg/d + diclofenac 4% gel twice/a day + PTX 100 mg via perilesional penile injection/every other week (12 injections in all; Group B: the same treatment as Group A except for the penile PTX injections. After the 6-month treatment course, we obtained the following results: actual mean decrease in plaque volume -46.9% and -24.8% in Group A and B, respectively (P<0.0001; mean curvature reduction -10.1° and -4.8°, respectively (P<0.0001; resolution of pain in 67.6% and 67.2% of cases, respectively (P=0.961; recovery of normal penile rigidity in 56.09% and 23.5% of cases, respectively (P=0.005. After 6 months

  7. Dimethyl fumarate modulates antioxidant and lipid metabolism in oligodendrocytes

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    He Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress contributes to pathology associated with inflammatory brain disorders and therapies that upregulate antioxidant pathways may be neuroprotective in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Dimethyl fumarate, a small molecule therapeutic for multiple sclerosis, activates cellular antioxidant signaling pathways and may promote myelin preservation. However, it is still unclear what mechanisms may underlie this neuroprotection and whether dimethyl fumarate affects oligodendrocyte responses to oxidative stress. Here, we examine metabolic alterations in oligodendrocytes treated with dimethyl fumarate by using a global metabolomic platform that employs both hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and shotgun lipidomics. Prolonged treatment of oligodendrocytes with dimethyl fumarate induces changes in citric acid cycle intermediates, glutathione, and lipids, indicating that this compound can directly impact oligodendrocyte metabolism. These metabolic alterations are also associated with protection from oxidant challenge. This study provides insight into the mechanisms by which dimethyl fumarate could preserve myelin integrity in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  8. Antioxidant therapy for chronic hepatitis C after failure of interferon: Results of phase Ⅱ randomized, double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety and efficacy of antioxidant therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: One hundred chronic HCV infection patients failed in interferon treatment were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive combined intravenous and oral antioxidants or placebo, or oral treatment alone. Primary end points were liver enzymes, HCV-RNA levels and histology. RESULTS: Combined oral and intravenous antioxidant therapy was associated with a significant decline in ALT levels in 52% of patients who received antioxidant therapy vs 20% of patients who received placebo (P = 0.05). Histology activity index (HAI) score at the end of treatment was reduced in 48% of patients who received antioxidant therapy vs 26% of patients who received placebo (P = 0.21). HCV-RNA levels decreased by 1-log or more in 28% of patients who received antioxidant therapy vs 12% who received placebo (P = NS). In part Ⅱ of the trial, oral administration of antioxidants was not associated with significant alterations in any of the end points. CONCLUSION: Antioxidant therapy has a mild beneficial effect on the inflammatory response of chronic HCV infection patients who are non-responders to interferon. Combined antiviral and antioxidant therapy may be beneficial for these patients.

  9. Acute treatment with pentobarbital alters the kinetics of in vivo receptor binding in the mouse brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakiyama, Yojiro [Division of Clinical Research, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chibashi 263-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: yojiro.sakiyama@pfizer.com; Saito, Masao [Department of Medical Science, Institute of Medical Electronics, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Inoue, Osamu [Department of Medical Physics, School of Allied Health Science, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    The effect of pentobarbital, a sedative-hypnotic barbiturate, on the in vivo binding of benzodiazepine receptors in the mouse brain was investigated. Dose-related changes in the apparent binding of [{sup 3}H]Ro15-1788 ([{sup 3}H]flumazenil) in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and pons-medulla were observed by pretreatment with pentobarbital. For quantification of the kinetic properties of the in vivo binding of [{sup 3}H]Ro15-1788, time courses of radioactivity following its injection were examined, and kinetic analysis was performed using the compartment model. The time courses of radioactivity following injection of [{sup 3}H]Ro15-1788 with 3 mg/kg Ro15-1788 were used as input function. In all regions studied, rate constants between input compartment and specific binding compartment were significantly decreased by pentobarbital. However, no significant alterations in the binding potential (BP=K {sub 3}/K {sub 4}) of benzodiazepine receptors by pentobarbital were observed in any of the regions. A saturation experiment indicated that the decrease in the input rate constant (K {sub 3}), which includes both the association rate constant (k {sub on}) and the number of binding sites available (B {sub max}), was mainly due to decrease in k {sub on}. These results suggest that apparent increases in binding at 20 min after tracer injection were due to the decrease in the association and dissociation rates of binding in vivo.

  10. Caffeic acid treatment alters the extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis in platelets and lymphocytes of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Javed; Spanevello, Roselia Maria; Pimentel, Victor Camera; Gutierres, Jessié; Thomé, Gustavo; Cardoso, Andreia; Zanini, Daniela; Martins, Caroline; Palma, Heloisa Einloft; Bagatini, Margarete Dulce; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Schmatz, Roberta; Leal, Cláudio Alberto Martins; da Costa, Pauline; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of caffeic acid on ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase (nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase), Ecto-NPP (nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase), 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) in platelets and lymphocytes of rats, as well as in the profile of platelet aggregation. Animals were divided into five groups: I (control); II (oil); III (caffeic acid 10 mg/kg); IV (caffeic acid 50 mg/kg); and V (caffeic acid 100 mg/kg). Animals were treated with caffeic acid diluted in oil for 30 days. In platelets, caffeic acid decreased the ATP hydrolysis and increased ADP hydrolysis in groups III, IV and V when compared to control (P<0.05). The 5'-nucleotidase activity was decreased, while E-NPP and ADA activities were increased in platelets of rats of groups III, IV and V (P<0.05). Caffeic acid reduced significantly the platelet aggregation in the animals of groups III, IV and V in relation to group I (P<0.05). In lymphocytes, the NTPDase and ADA activities were increased in all groups treated with caffeic acid when compared to control (P<0.05). These findings demonstrated that the enzymes were altered in tissues by caffeic acid and this compound decreased the platelet aggregation suggesting that caffeic acid should be considered a potentially therapeutic agent in disorders related to the purinergic system.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of anti-oxidant vitamins plus zinc treatment to prevent the progression of intermediate age-related macular degeneration. A Singapore perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Nakul; George, Pradeep Paul; Heng, Bee Hoon; Lim, Tock Han; Yong, Shao Onn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if providing high dose anti-oxidant vitamins and zinc treatment age-related eye disease study (AREDS formulation) to patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) aged 40–79 years from Singapore is cost-effective in preventing progression to wet AMD. Methods: A hypothetical cohort of category 3 and 4 AMD patients from Singapore was followed for 5 calendar years to determine the number of patients who would progress to wet AMD given the following treat...

  12. Cost-effectiveness of anti-oxidant vitamins plus zinc treatment to prevent the progression of intermediate age-related macular degeneration. A Singapore perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nakul Saxena; Pradeep Paul George; Bee Hoon Heng; Tock Han Lim; Shao Onn Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if providing high dose anti-oxidant vitamins and zinc treatment age-related eye disease study (AREDS formulation) to patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) aged 40-79 years from Singapore is cost-effective in preventing progression to wet AMD. Methods: A hypothetical cohort of category 3 and 4 AMD patients from Singapore was followed for 5 calendar years to determine the number of patients who would progress to wet AMD given the following treat...

  13. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  14. Changes at an activated sludge sewage treatment plant alter the numbers of airborne aerobic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Nadeesha L; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2005-11-01

    In 1976, the activated sludge sewage treatment plant in Edmonton, Canada, was surveyed to determine the numbers of culturable airborne microorganisms. Many changes have been made at the plant to reduce odors and improve treatment efficiency, so in 2004 another survey was done to determine if these changes had reduced the bioaerosols. Covering the grit tanks and primary settling tanks greatly reduced the numbers of airborne microbes. Changing the design and operation of indoor automated sampling taps and sinks also reduced bioaerosols. The secondary was expanded and converted from a conventional activated sludge process using coarse bubble aeration to a biological nutrient removal system using fine bubble aeration. Although the surface area of the secondary more than doubled, the average number of airborne microorganisms in this part of the plant in 2004 was about 1% of that in 1976.

  15. Tissue damage and oxidant/antioxidant balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisaoglu, Abdullah; Borekci, Bunyamin; Yapca, O Erkan; Bilen, Habib; Suleyman, Halis

    2013-02-01

    The oxidant/antioxidant balance in healthy tissues is maintained with a predominance of antioxidants. Various factors that can lead to tissue damage disrupt the oxidant/antioxidant balance in favor of oxidants. In this study, disruptions of the oxidant/antioxidant balance in favor of oxidants were found to be a consequence of the over-consumption of antioxidants. For this reason, antioxidants are considered to be of importance in the prevention and treatment of various types of tissue damage that are aggravated by stress.

  16. Acute morphine treatment alters cellular immune function in the lungs of healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coussons-Read, M E; Giese, S

    2001-08-01

    Previous work has shown that morphine suppresses the pulmonary immune response to infection and reduces pulmonary inflammation. No published studies have addressed the impact of morphine on lymphocyte function in the lungs without infection. This study addressed this question by assessing the impact of acute morphine treatment on proliferation, cytokine production, and natural killer (NK) cell activity in resident pulmonary lymphocytes from healthy rats. Male Lewis rats received either a single 15 mg/kg morphine sulfate or vehicle injection 1 h prior to sacrifice. Lungs were minced and passed through wire mesh following collagenase digestion. The resulting cell preparations were pooled (2 rats/pool) to yield sufficient cell numbers for the functional assays, and a portion of these suspensions were separated using a density gradient. Crude and purified cell suspensions were used in assays of NK cell activity and mitogen-induced proliferation and cytokine production. Morphine significantly suppressed lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production in whole cell suspensions, but not in purified cultures. NK activity was enhanced by morphine treatment in purified treated cultures. Studies of nitrate/nitrite levels in crude and purified cultures suggest that macrophage-derived nitric oxide may be a mechanism of the suppression observed in whole cell suspensions following morphine treatment. These data are consistent with previous work showing that morphine suppresses mitogenic responsiveness and NK activity in the spleen and peripheral blood, and may do so through a macrophage-derived nitric oxide mechanism.

  17. 3-Bromopyruvate treatment induces alterations of metabolic and stress-related pathways in glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasserini, Davide; Davidescu, Magdalena; Orvietani, Pier Luigi; Susta, Federica; Macchioni, Lara; Petricciuolo, Maya; Castigli, Emilia; Roberti, Rita; Binaglia, Luciano; Corazzi, Lanfranco

    2017-01-30

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumour of adults. The metabolic phenotype of GBM cells is highly dependent on glycolysis; therefore, therapeutic strategies aimed at interfering with glycolytic pathways are under consideration. 3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) is a potent antiglycolytic agent, with a variety of targets and possible effects on global cell metabolism. Here we analyzed the changes in protein expression on a GBM cell line (GL15 cells) caused by 3BP treatment using a global proteomic approach. Validation of differential protein expression was performed with immunoblotting and enzyme activity assays in GL15 and U251 cell lines. The results show that treatment of GL15 cells with 3BP leads to extensive changes in the expression of glycolytic enzymes and stress related proteins. Importantly, other metabolisms were also affected, including pentose phosphate pathway, aminoacid synthesis, and glucose derivatives production. 3BP elicited the activation of stress response proteins, as shown by the phosphorylation of HSPB1 at serine 82, caused by the concomitant activation of the p38 pathway. Our results show that inhibition of glycolysis in GL15 cells by 3BP influences different but interconnected pathways. Proteome analysis may help in the molecular characterization of the glioblastoma response induced by pharmacological treatment with antiglycolytic agents.

  18. Effect of pectinase treatment on extraction of antioxidant phenols from pomace, for the production of puree-enriched cloudy apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmiański, Jan; Wojdyło, Aneta; Kolniak, Joanna

    2011-07-15

    Effects of pomace maceration on yield, turbidity, cloud stability, composition of phenolics, antioxidant activity and colour properties were studied, to evaluate the potential applicability of enzyme preparations in puree-enriched cloudy apple juice production. The yield of mixed juice and puree from pomace obtained in the enzymatic processing of apple ranged from 92.3% to 95.3%, significantly higher than the yield from the control without enzymatic pomace treatment (81.8%). Higher turbidity was obtained upon pomace treatment with Pectinex XXL and Pectinex Ultra SPL enzymes. The total content of phenolic compounds in apple pomace was higher than in raw juices (1520mg/kg and 441mg/L, respectively). The total polyphenol yields were higher in juices treated with Pectinex AFP L-4, Pectinex Yield Mash and Pectinex XXL, as compared to the control treatment. During 6months of storage, a significant change was observed in the content of polyphenols, especially in procyanidin fractions.

  19. In vivo induction of antioxidant response and oxidative stress associated with genotoxicity and histopathological alteration in two commercial fish species due to heavy metals exposure in northern India (Kali) river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Mahino; Usmani, Nazura; Firdaus, Fakiha; Zafeer, Mohammad Faraz; Ahmad, Shafeeque; Akhtar, Kafil; Dawar Husain, S M; Ahmad, Mir Hilal; Anis, Ehraz; Mobarak Hossain, M

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals can significantly bioaccumulate in fish tissues. The step wise mechanism of heavy metal toxicities on fish health is still limited. The present study assessed the tissue-specific antioxidant response and oxidative stress biomarkers of commercially important fish species namely, Channa striatus and Heteropneustes fossilis inhabiting Kali River of northern India where heavy-metal load is beyond the World Health Organisation - maximum permissible limits. Heavy metals chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were elevated in both fish species compared to recommended values of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), 1999 for edible fishes. Reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CATA) activities in all tissues (brachial, neural, renal and hepatic) were altered. Cellular lipid and protein compromisation in both fishes induced by heavy metals was determined by lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonylation (PC) assays. Micronucleus (MN) test of erythrocytes and comet assay of liver cells confirmed genotoxicity. Histopathology of the liver, kidney and brain of affected fishes was distorted significantly with its reference fishes thereby affecting the quality and quantity of these fish stocks. This raises a serious concern as these fishes are consumed by the local population which would ultimately affect human health.

  20. Obesity and oxidative stress: potential roles of melatonin as antioxidant and metabolic regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an oxidative stress status, defined as an excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared to the level of antioxidants acting in the natural defence systems. Several sources of ROS can be identified in obesity (e.g., mitochondrial respiratory chain, or NADPH oxidase) and could contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity. Indeed, these conditions favour the development of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome through deregulation of adipokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines, so that it could be of interest to associate antioxidant therapeutic strategies with strategies of weight loss. Among antioxidants, melatonin holds a special place, on the one hand for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and on the other hand for its role as a metabolic regulator. As melatonin modulates several processes involved in obesity and its related metabolic alterations, it could have a therapeutic interest in the treatment of obesity.

  1. Adolescent methylphenidate treatment differentially alters adult impulsivity and hyperactivity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat model of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuwar, S S; Kantak, K M; Bardo, M T; Dwoskin, L P

    2016-02-01

    Impulsivity and hyperactivity are two facets of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Impulsivity is expressed as reduced response inhibition capacity, an executive control mechanism that prevents premature execution of an intermittently reinforced behavior. During methylphenidate treatment, impulsivity and hyperactivity are decreased in adolescents with ADHD, but there is little information concerning levels of impulsivity and hyperactivity in adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment is discontinued. The current study evaluated impulsivity, hyperactivity as well as cocaine sensitization during adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment was discontinued in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Treatments consisted of oral methylphenidate (1.5mg/kg) or water vehicle provided Monday-Friday from postnatal days 28-55. During adulthood, impulsivity was measured in SHR and control strains (Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats) using differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) schedules. Locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization were measured using the open-field assay. Adult SHR exhibited decreased efficiency of reinforcement under the DRL30 schedule and greater levels of locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization compared to control strains. Compared to vehicle, methylphenidate treatment during adolescence reduced hyperactivity in adult SHR, maintained the lower efficiency of reinforcement, and increased burst responding under DRL30. Cocaine sensitization was not altered following adolescent methylphenidate in adult SHR. In conclusion, adolescent treatment with methylphenidate followed by discontinuation in adulthood had a positive benefit by reducing hyperactivity in adult SHR rats; however, increased burst responding under DRL compared to SHR given vehicle, i.e., elevated impulsivity, constituted an adverse consequence associated with increased risk for cocaine abuse liability.

  2. Alterations in leukocyte transcriptional control pathway activity associated with major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, S H; Wolkowitz, O M; Schonemann, M D; Epel, E S; Rosser, R; Burke, H B; Mahan, L; Reus, V I; Stamatiou, D; Liew, C-C; Cole, S W

    2016-05-24

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a significantly elevated risk of developing serious medical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, immune impairments, infection, dementia and premature death. Previous work has demonstrated immune dysregulation in subjects with MDD. Using genome-wide transcriptional profiling and promoter-based bioinformatic strategies, we assessed leukocyte transcription factor (TF) activity in leukocytes from 20 unmedicated MDD subjects versus 20 age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls, before initiation of antidepressant therapy, and in 17 of the MDD subjects after 8 weeks of sertraline treatment. In leukocytes from unmedicated MDD subjects, bioinformatic analysis of transcription control pathway activity indicated an increased transcriptional activity of cAMP response element-binding/activating TF (CREB/ATF) and increased activity of TFs associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2, NFE2l2 or NRF2). Eight weeks of antidepressant therapy was associated with significant reductions in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores and reduced activity of NRF2, but not in CREB/ATF activity. Several other transcriptional regulation pathways, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB), early growth response proteins 1-4 (EGR1-4) and interferon-responsive TFs, showed either no significant differences as a function of disease or treatment, or activities that were opposite to those previously hypothesized to be involved in the etiology of MDD or effective treatment. Our results suggest that CREB/ATF and NRF2 signaling may contribute to MDD by activating immune cell transcriptome dynamics that ultimately influence central nervous system (CNS) motivational and affective processes via circulating mediators.

  3. Intracranial structural alteration predicts treatment outcome in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hanna; Lee, Mi Ji; Choi, Hyun Ah; Cha, Jihoon; Chung, Chin-Sang

    2017-01-01

    Background Intracranial structural dislocation in spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) can be measured by various intracranial angles and distances. We aimed to identify the clinical significance of structural dislocation in relation to treatment outcome in patients with SIH. Methods In this retrospective analysis, we identified patients with SIH who received an epidural blood patch (EBP) at Samsung Medical Center from January 2005 to March 2015. Structural dislocation in pretreatment MRIs of SIH patients was assessed by measuring tonsillar herniation, mamillopontine distance, the angle between the vein of Galen and straight sinus (vG/SS angle), the pontomesencephalic angle, and the lateral ventricular angle. After the first EBP, poor response was defined as the persistence of symptoms that prompted a repeat EBP. Results Out of the 95 patients included, 31 (32.6%) showed poor response. Among the radiological markers of structural dislocation, the vG/SS angle was associated with poor response (49.82 ± 16.40° vs 66.58 ± 26.08°, p = 0.002). Among clinical variables, premorbid migraine ( p = 0.036) was related to poor response. In multivariate analysis, reduced vG/SS angle was independently associated with poor response (OR 1.04 [95% CI 1.01 - 1.07] per 1° decrease, p = 0.006). In 23 patients who underwent MRI after successful treatment, the vG/SS angle significantly increased after the EBP ( p < 0.001, by paired t-test), while two patients with aggravation or recurrence showed a further reduction of their vG/SS angles. Conclusions Intracranial structural dislocation, measured by the vG/SS angle, is associated with poor response to the first EBP in patients with SIH. Successful treatment can reverse the structural dislocation.

  4. Alterations in leukocyte transcriptional control pathway activity associated with major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, S H; Wolkowitz, O M; Schonemann, M D; Epel, E S; Rosser, R; Burke, H B; Mahan, L; Reus, V I; Stamatiou, D; Liew, C -C; Cole, S W

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a significantly elevated risk of developing serious medical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, immune impairments, infection, dementia and premature death. Previous work has demonstrated immune dysregulation in subjects with MDD. Using genome-wide transcriptional profiling and promoter-based bioinformatic strategies, we assessed leukocyte transcription factor (TF) activity in leukocytes from 20 unmedicated MDD subjects versus 20 age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls, before initiation of antidepressant therapy, and in 17 of the MDD subjects after 8 weeks of sertraline treatment. In leukocytes from unmedicated MDD subjects, bioinformatic analysis of transcription control pathway activity indicated an increased transcriptional activity of cAMP response element-binding/activating TF (CREB/ATF) and increased activity of TFs associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2, NFE2l2 or NRF2). Eight weeks of antidepressant therapy was associated with significant reductions in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores and reduced activity of NRF2, but not in CREB/ATF activity. Several other transcriptional regulation pathways, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB), early growth response proteins 1–4 (EGR1–4) and interferon-responsive TFs, showed either no significant differences as a function of disease or treatment, or activities that were opposite to those previously hypothesized to be involved in the etiology of MDD or effective treatment. Our results suggest that CREB/ATF and NRF2 signaling may contribute to MDD by activating immune cell transcriptome dynamics that ultimately influence central nervous system (CNS) motivational and affective processes via circulating mediators. PMID:27187237

  5. Global gene expression in the bovine corpus luteum is altered after stimulatory and superovulatory treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fátima, Luciana A; Baruselli, Pietro S; Gimenes, Lindsay U; Binelli, Mario; Rennó, Francisco P; Murphy, Bruce D; Papa, Paula C

    2013-01-01

    Equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) has been widely used in superovulation and artificial insemination programmes and usually promotes an increase in corpus luteum (CL) volume and stimulates progesterone production. Therefore, to identify eCG-regulated genes in the bovine CL, the transcriptome was evaluated by microarray analysis and the expression of selected genes was validated by qPCR and western blot. Eighteen Nelore crossbred cows were divided into control (n=5), stimulated (n=6) and superovulated groups (n=7). Ovulation was synchronised using a progesterone device-based protocol. Stimulated animals received 400 IU of eCG at device removal and superovulated animals received 2000 IU of eCG 4 days prior. Corpora lutea were collected 7 days after gonadotrophin-releasing hormone administration. Overall, 242 transcripts were upregulated and 111 transcripts were downregulated in stimulated cows (P ≤ 0.05) and 111 were upregulated and 113 downregulated in superovulated cows compared to the control animals (1.5-fold, P ≤ 0.05). Among the differentially expressed genes, many were involved in lipid biosynthesis and progesterone production, such as PPARG, STAR, prolactin receptors and follistatin. In conclusion, eCG modulates gene expression differently depending on the treatment, i.e. stimulatory or superovulatory. Our data contribute to the understanding of the pathways involved in increased progesterone levels observed after eCG treatment.

  6. Treatment implications of the altered cytokine-insulin axis in neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian A; Vissel, Bryce

    2013-10-01

    The disappointments of a series of large anti-amyloid trials have brought home the point that until the driving force behind Alzheimer's disease, and the way it causes harm, are firmly established and accepted, researchers will remain ill-equipped to find a way to treat patients successfully. The origin of inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases is still an open question. We champion and expand the argument that a shift in intracellular location of α-synuclein, thereby moving a key methylation enzyme from the nucleus, provides global hypomethylation of patients' cerebral DNA that, through being sensed by TLR9, initiates production of the cytokines that drive these cerebral inflammatory states. After providing a background on the relevant inflammatory cytokines, this commentary then discusses many of the known alternatives to the primary amyloid argument of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, and the treatment approaches they provide. A key point to appreciate is the weight of evidence that inflammatory cytokines, largely through increasing insulin resistance and thereby reducing the strength of the ubiquitously important signaling mediated by insulin, bring together most of these treatments under development for neurodegenerative disease under the one roof. Moreover, the principles involved apply to a wide range of inflammatory diseases on both sides of the blood brain barrier.

  7. [The significance of the antioxidant properties of emoxipin in the combined treatment of patients with chronic heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudyk, B I; Sabadyshin, R A

    1992-04-01

    It was found that emoxypin (40 mg daily) with nitrates of prolonged action and corinfar used in 87 patients with chronic cardiac insufficiency (CCI) reduces the concentration of primary and secondary products of lipid peroxidation to control levels which is not observed when only corinfar and nitrates of prolonged action were used. Simultaneous use of prazosin and emoxypin favoured balanced oxidant-antioxidant system of the body.

  8. Effects of different treatments of fly ash and mining soil on growth and antioxidant protection of Indian wild rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisoi, Sidhanta Sekhar; Mishra, Swati S; Barik, Jijnasa; Panda, Debabrata

    2017-05-04

    The aim of the present study was investigation of the effects of fly ash and mining soil on growth and antioxidant protection of two cultivars of Indian wild rice (Oryza nivara and Oryza rufipogon) for possible phytoremediation and restoration of metal-contaminated site. In this study, Indian wild rice showed significant changes in germination, growth, and biochemical parameters after exposure to different ratio of fly ash and mining soil with garden soil. There was significant reduction of germination, fresh weight, dry weight, leaf chlorophyll content, leaf area, Special Analysis Device Chlorophyll (SPAD) Index, proteins, and activities of antioxidant enzymes in both cultivars of the wild rice grown in 100% fly ash and mining soil compared to the plants grown in 100% garden soil. Results from this study showed that in both cultivars of wild rice, all growth and antioxidant parameters increased when grown in 50% fly ash and mining soil. Taken together, Indian wild rice has the capacity to tolerate 50% of fly ash and mining soil, and can be considered as a good candidate for possible phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  9. Genome-wide transcriptomic alterations induced by ethanol treatment in human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Khalid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs isolated from adult dental pulp are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells that can be directed to differentiate into osteogenic/odontogenic cells and also trans-differentiate into neuronal cells. The utility of DPSC has been explored in odontogenic differentiation for tooth regeneration. Alcohol abuse appears to lead to periodontal disease, tooth decay and mouth sores that are potentially precancerous. Persons who abuse alcohol are at high risk of having seriously deteriorated teeth, gums and compromised oral health in general. It is currently unknown if alcohol exposure has any impact on adult stem cell maintenance, stem cell fate determination and plasticity, and stem cell niche environment. Here we provide detailed experimental methods, analysis and information associated with our data deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO under GSE57255. Our data provide transcriptomic changes that are occurring by EtOH treatment of DPSCs at 24-hour and 48-hour time point.

  10. Anthelmintic treatment alters the parasite community in a wild mouse host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Amy B; Antonovics, Janis

    2013-08-23

    Individuals are often co-infected with several parasite species, yet the consequences of drug treatment on the dynamics of parasite communities in wild populations have rarely been measured. Here, we experimentally reduced nematode infection in a wild mouse population and measured the effects on other non-target parasites. A single oral dose of the anthelmintic, ivermectin, significantly reduced nematode infection, but resulted in a reciprocal increase in other gastrointestinal parasites, specifically coccidial protozoans and cestodes. These results highlight the possibility that drug therapy may have unintended consequences for non-target parasites and that host-parasite dynamics cannot always be fully understood in the framework of single host-parasite interactions.

  11. Persistence of ultrasound alterations after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin in patients with male accessory gland infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandro La Vignera; Rosita A Condorelli; Aldo E Calogero; Salvatore Bellanca; Mario Salmeri; Enzo Vicari

    2012-01-01

    No studies have evaluated the ultrasound features of the male sex accessory glands in infertile patients with bacterial male accessory gland infection (MAGI) according to the microbiological outcomes of bacterial cultures (absent,partial or complete) following antibiotic therapy administration.Therefore,the aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound characteristics of the prostate,seminal vesicles,and epididymal tracts after treatment with levofloxacin (a common quinolone antibiotic),in patients with infections caused by Escherichia coli (a Gram-negative bacterium) according to the Naber's classification,which includes the following categories:eradication,eradication with superinfection,persistence and persistence with superinfection.The study was conducted in 100 patients aged 25±8 years (range:20-40 years) with bacterial MAGI and bacterial cultures positive only for E.coli(colony forming units ≥ 106 per ml).Retrospective analysis was conducted only on patients treated with oral levofloxacin (500 mg) administered once daily for 28 days who were recruited over the last 5 years.Following antibiotic treatment,patients with microbiological persistence or persistence with superinfection had a significantly higher percentage of ultrasound abnormalities suggestive of prostato-vesiculitis (PV) (30.2% and 36.0%,respectively) or prostato-vesiculo-epididymitis (PVE) (60.2% and 70.0%,respectively) compared with patients with microbiological eradication (PV=10.2% and PVE=8.2%,respectively) or eradication with superinfection (PV=18.8%and PVE=21.2%,respectively).In conclusion,patients with microbiological persistence or persistence plus superinfection showed the highest prevalence of complicated forms of MAGI (PV and PVE),compared with patients with microbiological eradication or eradication with superinfection.

  12. Muscle cramp in Machado-Joseph disease: altered motor axonal excitability properties and mexiletine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Kazuaki; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Arai, Kimihito; Sung, Jia-Ying; Ogawara, Kazue; Hattori, Takamichi

    2003-04-01

    Machado-Joseph disease is one of the most common hereditary spinocerebellar degenerative disorders with a wide range of clinical manifestations. Pathology studies have shown mild to moderate loss of anterior horn cells and, in terms of spinal pathology, Machado-Joseph disease is regarded as a type of lower motoneuron disease. Muscle cramps are often associated with lower motoneuron disorders, but features of cramps in Machado-Joseph disease patients have never been studied. We investigated the incidence and nature of muscle cramps in Machado-Joseph disease patients, the excitability properties of motor axons [strength-duration time constant (tau(SD)), threshold electrotonus, refractoriness and supernormality] using threshold tracking and the effects of mexiletine hydrochloride on those cramps. Of 20 consecutive patients, 16 (80%) had frequent, severe muscle cramps in the legs, trunk or arms that disturbed their daily activities. The frequency of pathological muscle cramps was similar to that for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (68%) and higher than those for patients with spinal muscular atrophy (33%) or peripheral axonal neuropathy (24%). Threshold-tracking studies showed that tau(SD), which in part reflects Na(+) conductance at the resting membrane potential, was significantly greater in the Machado-Joseph disease patients than in normal subjects; severe muscle cramps were associated with a longer tau(SD). Threshold electrotonus, refractoriness and supernormality were not significantly different between Machado-Joseph disease patients and normal subjects. Eight Machado-Joseph disease patients with severe cramps, who received mexiletine treatment, experienced nearly complete relief with a partial normalization of tau(SD) (P = 0.08). Muscle cramps are a very frequent and disabling factor in Machado-Joseph disease. Pathological muscle cramps responded well to mexiletine treatment, and this is consistent with the hypothesis that they are caused by an

  13. Maternal treatment with picrotoxin in late pregnancy improved female sexual behavior but did not alter male sexual behavior of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Maria M; Scanzerla, Kayne K; Chamlian, Mayra; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Felicio, Luciano F

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory investigated the effects of picrotoxin (PT), a γ-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonist administered during several perinatal periods, on the sexual behavior of male and female rats. We observed that the time of perinatal exposure to PT is critical to determine either facilitation or impairment of sexual behavior. The present study evaluated the effects of prenatal administration of a single dose of PT on gestation day 18 of dams (the first critical period of male brain sexual differentiation) on sexual behavior of male and female offspring. Thus, female Wistar rats were mated with males and, on gestation day 18, received 0.6 mg/kg of PT or 0.9% saline solution subcutaneously. On postnatal day 1, the offspring were weighed and several measures of sexual development were assessed. The sexual behaviors and the general activity in the open field of adult male and ovariectomized, hormone-treated female rats were observed. On comparison with the control group, maternal PT treatment: (i) did not alter the maternal weight, pup weight, anogenital distance, or male and female general activity; (ii) increased female sexual behavior, that is, decreased the latencies to first mount, first lordosis, and tenth lordosis, and the percentage of females presenting lordosis; and (iii) did not alter male sexual behavior. It is suggested that prenatal PT exposure interfered with epigenetic mechanisms related to the development of sex differences in the brain, leading to the observed sexually dimorphic effects on sexual behavior.

  14. Alterations to prepulse inhibition magnitude and latency in adult rats following neonatal treatment with domoic acid and social isolation rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Amber L; Tasker, R Andrew; Ryan, Catherine L; Doucette, Tracy A

    2016-02-01

    Deficits in perceptual, informational, and attentional processing are consistently identified as a core feature in schizophrenia and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Neonatal injections of low doses of the AMPA/kainate agonist domoic acid (DOM) have previously been shown to alter various aspects of perceptual and attentional processing in adult rats. The current study investigated the effects of combined neonatal DOM treatment with isolation rearing on prepulse inhibition behaviour and relevant neurochemical measures, to assess the usefulness of these paradigms in modeling neurodevelopmental disorders. Daily subcutaneous injections of DOM (20 μg/kg) or saline were administered to male and female rat pups from postnatal days (PND) 8-14. After weaning, rats were either housed alone or in groups of 4. Both the magnitude and latency of prepulse inhibition were determined in adulthood (approximately 4.5 months of age) and post-mortem brain tissue was assayed using Western blot. Social isolation alone significantly lowered PPI magnitude in male (but not female) rats while DOM treatment appeared to make animals refractory to this effect. Combining social isolation and DOM treatment caused an additive decrease in PPI startle latency. No statistically significant differences were found in the expression of D1, D2, TH, GAD65 or GAD67 protein in either the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus, although some tendencies toward differences were noted. We conclude that both neonatal low-dose DOM and social isolation affect prepulse inhibition in rats but that each paradigm exerts these effects through different neuronal signalling systems.

  15. Maternal Dexamethasone Treatment Alters Tissue and Circulating Components of the Renin-Angiotensin System in the Pregnant Ewe and Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forhead, Alison J; Jellyman, Juanita K; De Blasio, Miles J; Johnson, Emma; Giussani, Dino A; Broughton Pipkin, Fiona; Fowden, Abigail L

    2015-08-01

    Antenatal synthetic glucocorticoids promote fetal maturation in pregnant women at risk of preterm delivery and their mechanism of action may involve other endocrine systems. This study investigated the effect of maternal dexamethasone treatment, at clinically relevant doses, on components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pregnant ewe and fetus. From 125 days of gestation (term, 145 ± 2 d), 10 ewes carrying single fetuses of mixed sex (3 female, 7 male) were injected twice im, at 10-11 pm, with dexamethasone (2 × 12 mg, n = 5) or saline (n = 5) at 24-hour intervals. At 10 hours after the second injection, maternal dexamethasone treatment increased angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mRNA levels in the fetal lungs, kidneys, and heart and ACE concentration in the circulation and lungs, but not kidneys, of the fetuses. Fetal cardiac mRNA abundance of angiotensin II (AII) type 2 receptor decreased after maternal dexamethasone treatment. Between the two groups of fetuses, there were no significant differences in plasma angiotensinogen or renin concentrations; in transcript levels of renal renin, or AII type 1 or 2 receptors in the lungs and kidneys; or in pulmonary, renal or cardiac protein content of the AII receptors. In the pregnant ewes, dexamethasone administration increased pulmonary ACE and plasma angiotensinogen, and decreased plasma renin, concentrations. Some of the effects of dexamethasone treatment on the maternal and fetal RAS were associated with altered insulin and thyroid hormone activity. Changes in the local and circulating RAS induced by dexamethasone exposure in utero may contribute to the maturational and tissue-specific actions of antenatal glucocorticoid treatment.

  16. Minocycline treatment inhibits microglial activation and alters spinal levels of endocannabinoids in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasti, Leonardo; Richardson, Denise; Jhaveri, Maulik; Eldeeb, Khalil; Barrett, David; Elphick, Maurice R; Alexander, Stephen P H; Kendall, David; Michael, Gregory J; Chapman, Victoria

    2009-07-01

    Activation of spinal microglia contributes to aberrant pain responses associated with neuropathic pain states. Endocannabinoids (ECs) are present in the spinal cord, and inhibit nociceptive processing; levels of ECs may be altered by microglia which modulate the turnover of endocannabinoids in vitro. Here, we investigate the effect of minocycline, an inhibitor of activated microglia, on levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and the related compound N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA), in neuropathic spinal cord. Selective spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats resulted in mechanical allodynia and the presence of activated microglia in the ipsilateral spinal cord. Chronic daily treatment with minocycline (30 mg/kg, ip for 14 days) significantly reduced the development of mechanical allodynia at days 5, 10 and 14 post-SNL surgery, compared to vehicle-treated SNL rats (P pain states.

  17. Risk of prenatal depression and stress treatment: alteration on serotonin system of offspring through exposure to Fluoxetine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Siran; Liu, Li; Zhong, Zhaomin; Wang, Han; Lin, Shuo; Shang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Fluoxetine is widely used to treat depression, including depression in pregnant and postpartum women. Studies suggest that fluoxetine may have adverse effects on offspring, presumably through its action on various serotonin receptors (HTRs). However, definitive evidence and the underlying mechanisms are largely unavailable. As initial steps towards establishing a human cellular and animal model, we analyzed the expression patterns of several HTRs through the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells into neuronal cells, and analyzed expression pattern in zebrafish embryos. Treatment of zebrafish embryos with fluoxetine significantly blocked the expression of multiple HTRs. Furthermore, fluoxetine gave rise to a change in neuropsychology. Embryos treated with fluoxetine continued to exhibit abnormal behavior upto 12 days post fertilization due to changes in HTRs. These findings support a possible long-term risk of serotonin pathway alteration, possibly resulting from the “placental drug transfer”. PMID:27703173

  18. Minocycline treatment inhibits microglial activation and alters spinal levels of endocannabinoids in a rat model of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elphick Maurice R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Activation of spinal microglia contributes to aberrant pain responses associated with neuropathic pain states. Endocannabinoids (ECs are present in the spinal cord, and inhibit nociceptive processing; levels of ECs may be altered by microglia which modulate the turnover of endocannabinoids in vitro. Here, we investigate the effect of minocycline, an inhibitor of activated microglia, on levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, and the related compound N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA, in neuropathic spinal cord. Selective spinal nerve ligation (SNL in rats resulted in mechanical allodynia and the presence of activated microglia in the ipsilateral spinal cord. Chronic daily treatment with minocycline (30 mg/kg, ip for 14 days significantly reduced the development of mechanical allodynia at days 5, 10 and 14 post-SNL surgery, compared to vehicle-treated SNL rats (P P P P P

  19. Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healing-associated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt C Danzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regeneration. Administration of post-surgical analgesics is an important consideration for animal welfare, but the actions of the analgesic must not interfere with the scientific goals of the experiment. In this study, we show that treatment with either buprenorphine or acetaminophen following a bilateral sciatic nerve crush surgery does not alter the expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neurons of a panel of genes associated with wound healing. These findings indicate that the post-operative use of buprenorphine or acetaminophen at doses commonly suggested by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees does not change the intrinsic gene expression response of DRG neurons to a sciatic nerve crush injury, for many wound healing-associated genes. Therefore, administration of post-operative analgesics may not confound the results of transcriptomic studies employing this injury model.

  20. Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healing-associated genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matt C Danzi; Dario Motti; Donna L Avison; John L Bixby; Vance P Lemmon

    2016-01-01

    Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regen-eration. Administration of post-surgical analgesics is an important consideration for animal welfare, but the actions of the analgesic must not interfere with the scientiifc goals of the experiment. In this study, we show that treatment with either buprenorphine or acetaminophen following a bilateral sciatic nerve crush surgery does not alter the expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons of a panel of genes associated with wound healing. These ifndings indicate that the post-operative use of buprenorphine or acetaminophen at doses commonly suggested by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees does not change the intrinsic gene expression response of DRG neurons to a sciatic nerve crush injury, for many wound healing-associated genes. Therefore, administration of post-operative analgesics may not confound the results of transcriptomic studies employing this injury model.

  1. Monitoring antioxidant defenses and free radical production in space-flight, aviation and railway engine operators, for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress, immunological impairment, and pre-mature cell aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, C; Deeva, I; Mariani, S; Maiani, G; Stancato, A; Korkina, L

    2009-01-01

    Degenerative diseases, immune impairment, and premature ageing commonly affect professional categories exposed to severe environmental and psychological stress. Among these, cosmonauts routinely experience extreme conditions due to microgravity, space radiation, altered oxygen supply, physical and mental fatigue during training, spaceflight, and post-flight. Long route aviation pilots display elevated oncogenic risk, connected with cosmic radiation overexposure, and high mortality rates for cardiovascular causes. Engine drivers, like pilots, are affected by health consequences of psycho-emotional stress, and burnout syndrome. The free radical (FR)/antioxidant (AO) imbalance is a common feature in all these pathological conditions. To assess the effective relevance of oxidative stress, we analyzed blood and urine reliable markers of FR production and AO defenses in 12 Russian cosmonauts, 55 airline pilots, 63 train engine drivers, and 50 age-matched controls by measuring the following: (a) lipophilic/hydrophilic low-molecular weight AO and AO enzyme activities, (b) nitric oxide, superoxide anion, hydroperoxide production, and (c) urinary catecholamine/serotonine metabolites and lipoperoxidation markers. Cosmonauts showed elevated granulocyte superoxide and nitric oxide production, increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione oxidation, and drastically decreased plasma/leucocyte lipophilic AO levels (P monitoring of clinical biochemistry laboratory markers of AO/FR status, to tailor individually specific AO supplementation and diet regimen, and monitor treatment outcomes.

  2. Annual glyphosate treatments alter growth of unaffected bentgrass (Agrostis) weeds and plant community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Collin W; Auer, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB) and redtop (RT), where the glyphosate resistance (GR) trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate application. Five field plots were studied in habitats commonly inhabited by weedy bentgrasses including an agricultural hayfield, natural meadow, and wasteland. Results showed that annual glyphosate treatment improved bentgrass survivorship, vegetative growth, and reproductive potential compared with bentgrass in unsprayed subplots. In the second year of growth, RT plants had an 86-fold increase in flower number in glyphosate-treated subplots versus controls, while CB plants had a 20-fold increase. At the end of the three year study, plant community composition had changed in glyphosate-treated subplots in hayfield and meadow plots compared to controls. Soils in subplots receiving glyphosate had higher nitrate concentrations than controls. This is the first study to mimic the GR trait in bentgrass plants with the goal of quantifying bentgrass response to glyphosate selection pressure and understanding the impacts on surrounding plant communities.

  3. Annual glyphosate treatments alter growth of unaffected bentgrass (Agrostis weeds and plant community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin W Ahrens

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB and redtop (RT, where the glyphosate resistance (GR trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate application. Five field plots were studied in habitats commonly inhabited by weedy bentgrasses including an agricultural hayfield, natural meadow, and wasteland. Results showed that annual glyphosate treatment improved bentgrass survivorship, vegetative growth, and reproductive potential compared with bentgrass in unsprayed subplots. In the second year of growth, RT plants had an 86-fold increase in flower number in glyphosate-treated subplots versus controls, while CB plants had a 20-fold increase. At the end of the three year study, plant community composition had changed in glyphosate-treated subplots in hayfield and meadow plots compared to controls. Soils in subplots receiving glyphosate had higher nitrate concentrations than controls. This is the first study to mimic the GR trait in bentgrass plants with the goal of quantifying bentgrass response to glyphosate selection pressure and understanding the impacts on surrounding plant communities.

  4. Treatment of Chronic Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis with Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate and Glatiramer Acetate Alters Expression of Heme-Oxygenase-1.

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    Antonia Janssen

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG synergizes with the immunomodulatory agent glatiramer acetate (GA in eliciting anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in the relapsing-remitting EAE model. Thus, we hypothesized that mice with chronic EAE may also benefit from this combination therapy. We first assessed how a treatment with a single dose of GA together with daily application of EGCG may modulate EAE. Although single therapies with a suboptimal dose of GA or EGCG led to disease amelioration and reduced CNS inflammation, the combination therapy had no effects. While EGCG appeared to preserve axons and myelin, the single GA dose did not improve axonal damage or demyelination. Interestingly, the neuroprotective effect of EGCG was abolished when GA was applied in combination. To elucidate how a single dose of GA may interfere with EGCG, we focused on the anti-inflammatory, iron chelating and anti-oxidant properties of EGCG. Surprisingly, we observed that while EGCG induced a downregulation of the gene expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 in affected CNS areas, the combined therapy of GA+EGCG seems to promote an increased HO-1 expression. These data suggest that upregulation of HO-1 may contribute to diminish the neuroprotective benefits of EGCG alone in this EAE model. Altogether, our data indicate that neuroprotection by EGCG in chronic EAE may involve regulation of oxidative processes, including downmodulation of HO-1. Further investigation of the re-dox balance in chronic neuroinflammation and in particular functional studies on HO-1 are warranted to understand its role in disease progression.

  5. High-fat diet and glucocorticoid treatment cause hyperglycemia associated with adiponectin receptor alterations

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    Oller do Nascimento Cláudia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is the most abundant plasma protein synthesized for the most part in adipose tissue, and it is an insulin-sensitive hormone, playing a central role in glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, it increases fatty acid oxidation in the muscle and potentiates insulin inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Two adiponectin receptors have been identified: AdipoR1 is the major receptor expressed in skeletal muscle, whereas AdipoR2 is mainly expressed in liver. Consumption of high levels of dietary fat is thought to be a major factor in the promotion of obesity and insulin resistance. Excessive levels of cortisol are characterized by the symptoms of abdominal obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance or diabetes and dyslipidemia; of note, all of these features are shared by the condition of insulin resistance. Although it has been shown that glucocorticoids inhibit adiponectin expression in vitro and in vivo, little is known about the regulation of adiponectin receptors. The link between glucocorticoids and insulin resistance may involve the adiponectin receptors and adrenalectomy might play a role not only in regulate expression and secretion of adiponectin, as well regulate the respective receptors in several tissues. Results Feeding of a high-fat diet increased serum glucose levels and decreased adiponectin and adipoR2 mRNA expression in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissues, respectively. Moreover, it increased both adipoR1 and adipoR2 mRNA levels in muscle and adipoR2 protein levels in liver. Adrenalectomy combined with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone treatment resulted in increased glucose and insulin levels, decreased serum adiponectin levels, reduced adiponectin mRNA in epididymal adipose tissue, reduction of adipoR2 mRNA by 7-fold in muscle and reduced adipoR1 and adipoR2 protein levels in muscle. Adrenalectomy alone increased adiponectin mRNA expression 3-fold in subcutaneous adipose

  6. Influence of subacute treatment of some plant growth regulators on serum marker enzymes and erythrocyte and tissue antioxidant defense and lipid peroxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ismail; Tuluce, Yasin; Isik, Ismail

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and 2,4-dichlorofenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)) on serum marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), antioxidant defense systems (reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and catalase (CAT)), and lipid peroxidation content (malondialdehyde = MDA) in various tissues of rats. 50 and 100 ppm of PGRs as drinking water were administered orally to rats (Sprague-Dawley albino) ad libitum for 25 days continuously. The PGRs treatment caused different effects on the serum marker enzymes, antioxidant defense systems, and the MDA content in experimented rats compared to controls. Results showed that TIBA caused a significant decrease in serum AST activity with both the dosage whereas serum CPK was significantly increased with 100 ppm dosage of TIBA. Meanwhile, serum AST, CPK, and LDH activities were significantly increased with both dosage of NAA and 2,4-D. The lipid peroxidation end-product MDA significantly increased in the all tissues treated with both dosages of PGRs without any change in the brain and erythrocyte of rats treated with both the dosages of 2,4-D. The GSH depletion in the kidney and brain tissues of rats treated with both dosages of PGRs was found to be significant. Furthermore, the GSH depletion in the erythrocyte of rats treated with both dosages of PGRs except 50 ppm dosage of 2,4-D was significant too. Also, the GSH level in the liver was significantly depleted with 50 ppm of 2,4-D and NAA, whereas the GSH depletion in the same tissue did not significantly change with the treatment. The activity of antioxidant enzymes was also seriously affected by PGRs; SOD significantly decreased in the liver, heart, kidney, and brain of rats treated with

  7. Antioxidant Potential of Plumieride against CCl4-Induced Peroxidative Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra Singh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In search of a new potent as an antioxidant from natural sources, plumieride—an iridoid isolated from the methanol extract of the bark of Plumeria bicolor (family Apocynaceae was evaluated for its antioxidant potential against CCl4-induced peroxidative damage in liver of rats. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by using hepatic tissue for SOD (superoxide dismutase, CAT (catalase, GSH (reduced glutathione, GPx (glutathione peroxidase, GR (glutathione reductase and LPO (lipid peroxidation alongwith the concomitant blood serum for AST & ALT (aspartate and alanine transaminases, GGT (gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, ALP (alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and total protein contents. All the biochemical parameters were significantly (p ≤ 0.001 altered by CCl4 (0.3 mL/kg body weight/twice a week, intra-peritoneally for 30 days. Simultaneously, oral treatment with plumieride (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days, restored all the parameters towards a normal level, remarkably. The histological findings of liver sections further corroborated the antioxidant potential of plumieride compared with standard drug-silymarin. In conclusion, plumieride consists of sugar molecules, which have alcoholic groups. Therefore, the alcoholic groups of sugar increase its antioxidant potential through intermolecular hydrogen bonding along with the thiol(SH group of non-protein thiols and enzymes resulting in the restoration of the antioxidant system. Therefore, it might be considered a natural antioxidant against peroxidative damage in rats.

  8. Antioxidant Activity and Ethno pharmacological Survey of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. in the Treatment of Dysmenorrhoea in Traditional Medicine of Golestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Mazandarani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Achillea biebersteinii Afan. has been used as antispasmodic and sedative agent to treat dysmenorrhoea in traditional medicine of Golestan province. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activity. It is also an ethno pharmacological survey of Achillea biebersteinii Afan., as antispasmodic and sedative agent in treating dysmenorrhoea in traditional medicine of Golestan province. Materials and Methods: Ethno pharmacological data was obtained as field observation among well-known indigenous rural healers (68-82 ages in southwest of Golestan province in August 2011. The data gathered evaluated the potential of Achillea biebersteinii in preventing or treating dysmenorrhoea. Flowers of the plant were collected in July 2012 at an altitude of 2600 meters, ethanol extract was obtained by Maceration and antioxidant capacity was obtained by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH. Results: Results showed that in traditional medicine of Golestan province, the flowers of Achillea biebersteinii has been used in combination with Peganum harmala, Mentha aquatica, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare and Nigella sativa as antispasmodic, anti-inflammation and sedative agent to treat stomach ache, dysmenorrhoea, facial flushing, cramps and menopause. Also the ethanol extract of the plant is a very good free radical scavenging with the highest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 1.27±0.1 μg/ml in dry weight. Conclusion: These finding not only confirm the use of the plant in the traditional medicine of Golestan province, but also can serve as a basis for phytochemical and pharmaceutical researches to identify and produce effective herbal drugs in prevention or treatment of common dysmenorrhoea.

  9. Alteration of MX-80 by hydrothermal treatment under high salt content conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden); Kasbohm, J. [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Geological Dep.

    2002-02-01

    If brammalit, i.e. sodium illite, is formed from smectite in Na-rich salt water at high temperature such conversion can also take place in the buffer clay that surrounds the canisters in a KBS-3 repository. The present study comprised two laboratory test series with MX-80 clay, one with compacted clay powder with a dry density of 1200 to 1300 kg/m{sup 3} and saturation with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions followed by heating to 110 deg C under closed conditions for 30 days. In the second series air-dry compacted clay powder in a cell was heated at 110 deg C for the same period of time and connected to vessels with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions. The first series represents the conditions in the buffer clay after saturation with Na-rich salt water while the second one corresponds to the conditions in the course of saturation with such water. All laboratory tests were made after short-term percolation with distilled water for making sure that the hydro-thermally treated samples were fully fluid-saturated. The results from the physical testing showed that the hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure of the hydrothermally treated clay samples were on the same order of magnitude as for untreated clay. Comparison with illitic clays shows that the latter are at least a hundred times more permeable than the hydrothermally treated salt clays in the present study, which hence indicates that conversion to illite was insignificant. This is obvious also from the fact that while illitic clays have very low swelling pressures the hydrothermally treated clays exhibited swelling pressures on the same order of magnitude as untreated MX-80. XRD analysis showed a clear difference in mineral constitution between the two test series. Thus, while no significant change from the typical mineralogy of untreated MX-80 was found for hydrothermal treatment of clay saturated with 10 and 20% NaCl solution, except for some very slight neoformation of illite-smectite mixed layers or irreversible

  10. Modification of antioxidative and antiapoptotic genes expression in irradiated K562 cells upon fullerenol C60(OH)24 nanoparticle treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Karmen; Borisev, Ivana; Kojic, Vesna; Rutonjski, Lazar; Bogdanovic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Recent data established the prospective applications for fullerenol (C60(OH)24) nanoparticle (FNP) in many fields, such as antioxidants, neuroprotective agents, and potential anti-radiation drugs. Leukemia cell sensitization to apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation is achieved by upregulation of ROS production and/or downregulation of antioxidative enzymes. Therefore, our aim was to analyze the potential role of fullerenol nanoparticle in modulation of the leukemic cellular response to irradiation. We used the qRT-PCR to analyze the expression level of mRNA for 11 genes in irradiated and FNP pre-treated irradiated K562 cells, and compared the gene expression level with the overall cell survival. Our results of the improved cell survival in FNP-treated irradiated cells and significant overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and cytoprotective genes such as GSTA4, MnSOD, NOS, CAT and HO-1 genes, may indicate that FNP exerts cytoprotective function in K562 leukemic cells, rendering K562 cells more tolerant to radiotherapy.

  11. Altered Circulating Inflammatory Cytokines Are Associated with Anovulatory Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Women Resistant to Clomiphene Citrate Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, LianLian; Qi, HongBo; Baker, Philip N.; Zhen, QianNa; Zeng, Qing; Shi, Rui; Tong, Chao; Ge, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common gynecological disease characterized by chronic oligoanovulation, clinical/biochemical hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and insulin resistance. Accumulating evidence has shown that PCOS-related ovarian dysfunction is the main cause of anovulatory infertility. Clomiphene citrate (CC) is the first-line therapy for PCOS patients; however, approximately 15–40% PCOS patients are resistant to CC treatment. It has been demonstrated that PCOS is a chronic pro-inflammatory state, as some pro-inflammatory cytokines were elevated in the peripheral circulation of PCOS patients, but whether altered inflammatory cytokines expression in PCOS patients is associated with blunted response to CC remains unknown. Material/Methods We recruited 44 CC-resistant PCOS patients, along with 55 age and body mass index (BMI)-matched CC-sensitive PCOS patients. Ovulation was induced by administrating 50–100 mg/day CC on days 5 to 9 of each menstrual cycle. The cytokine profiles were detected by cytokine antibody microarrays and further validated by ELISAs. Results CC-resistant patients had higher levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) than the CC-sensitive individuals. A growth factor, angiopoietin-2, was significantly reduced [1.64 (0.93–1.95) vs. 1.08 (0.85–1.34), pCirculating cytokines are disturbed in CC-resistant PCOS patients. Altered angiopoietin-2 and CXCL-16 levels might compromise the responsiveness of the ovary to CC through up-regulating angiogenesis and inflammation. PMID:28246376

  12. Quantification of local hemodynamic alterations caused by virtual implantation of three commercially available stents for the treatment of aortic coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sung; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Dholakia, Ronak J; Ladisa, John F

    2014-04-01

    Patients with coarctation of the aorta (CoA) are prone to morbidity including atherosclerotic plaque that has been shown to correlate with altered wall shear stress (WSS) in the descending thoracic aorta (dAo). We created the first patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a CoA patient treated by Palmaz stenting to date, and compared resulting WSS distributions to those from virtual implantation of Genesis XD and modified NuMED CP stents, also commonly used for CoA. CFD models were created from magnetic resonance imaging, fluoroscopy and blood pressure data. Simulations incorporated vessel deformation, downstream vascular resistance and compliance to match measured data and generate blood flow velocity and time-averaged WSS (TAWSS) results. TAWSS was quantified longitudinally and circumferentially in the stented region and dAo. While modest differences were seen in the distal portion of the stented region, marked differences were observed downstream along the posterior dAo and depended on stent type. The Genesis XD model had the least area of TAWSS values exceeding the threshold for platelet aggregation in vitro, followed by the Palmaz and NuMED CP stents. Alterations in local blood flow patterns and WSS imparted on the dAo appear to depend on the type of stent implanted for CoA. Following confirmation in larger studies, these findings may aid pediatric interventional cardiologists in selecting the most appropriate stent for each patient, and ultimately reduce long-term morbidity following treatment for CoA by stenting.

  13. Glucocorticoid treatment skews human monocyte differentiation into a hemoglobin-clearance phenotype with enhanced heme-iron recycling and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallelian, Florence; Schaer, Christian A; Kaempfer, Theresa; Gehrig, Peter; Duerst, Elena; Schoedon, Gabriele; Schaer, Dominik J

    2010-12-09

    Glucocorticoids are used extensively to treat autoimmune hemolytic anemias. Some beneficial effects of glucocorticoid pulse therapy have also been reported in sickle cell disease and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Based on established concepts of hemoglobin (Hb) toxicity and physiologic Hb scavenger systems, we evaluated whether glucocorticoids could support an adaptive response to extracellular Hb independently of their immunosuppressive activities. Using global proteome and transcriptome analysis with mass-spectrometry (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) and gene-array experiments, we found that glucocorticoid treatment in vitro and in patients on glucocorticoid-pulse therapy polarized monocytes into a M2/alternatively activated phenotype with high Hb-scavenger receptor (CD163) expression and enhanced Hb-clearance and detoxification capability. Monocytes concurrently exposed to the interactive activity of glucocorticoids and extracellular Hb were characterized by high expression of a group of antioxidant enzymes known to be regulated by the conserved oxidative response transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor. Further, suppressed transferrin receptor, together with high ferroportin expression, pointed to a shift in iron homeostasis directed toward an increased cellular export of heme-derived iron. Therefore, stimulating Hb-endocytosis by CD163 and enhancing antioxidative homeostasis and iron recycling may be an essential activity of glucocorticoids that helps alleviate the adverse effects of extracellular Hb.

  14. New tacrine-4-oxo-4H-chromene hybrids as multifunctional agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, with cholinergic, antioxidant, and β-amyloid-reducing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bachiller, María Isabel; Pérez, Concepción; Monjas, Leticia; Rademann, Jörg; Rodríguez-Franco, María Isabel

    2012-02-01

    By using fragments endowed with interesting and complementary properties for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a new family of tacrine-4-oxo-4H-chromene hybrids has been designed, synthesized, and evaluated biologically. The tacrine fragment was selected for its inhibition of cholinesterases, and the flavonoid scaffold derived from 4-oxo-4H -chromene was chosen for its radical capture and β-secretase 1 (BACE-1) inhibitory activities. At nano- and picomolar concentrations, the new tacrine-4-oxo-4H-chromene hybrids inhibit human acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase (h-AChE and h-BuChE), being more potent than the parent inhibitor, tacrine. They are also potent inhibitors of human BACE-1, better than the parent flavonoid, apigenin. They show interesting antioxidant properties and could be able to penetrate into the CNS according to the in vitro PAMPA-BBB assay. Among the hybrids investigated, 6-hydroxy-4-oxo- N-{10-[(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9-yl)amino]decyl}-4 H-chromene-2-carboxamide (19) shows potent combined inhibition of human BACE-1 and ChEs, as well as good antioxidant and CNS-permeable properties.

  15. Effect of hydrothermally ‘Hass” avocado about antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and coloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Tremocoldi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds and color in avocado ‘Hass’ hydrothermally treated. The fruits were hydrothermally treated at 45oC for 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. After treatment, fruit were stored at room temperature (21±1ºC and 70±5% relative humidity and cold (10°C±1 and 90±5% relative humidity. The fruits were analyzed for their antioxidant capacity by DPPH method and phenolic compounds at 0, 3, 9 and 12 days. The fruits color was measured at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days. The control fruits had higher antioxidant capacity and content of phenolic compounds during the storage period, compared to the fruits hydrothermally treated. The hydrothermally treatment altered the behavior as for the maintenance of the antioxidant activity in relation to the fruits control. In spite of superior values of antioxidant activity for the fruits maintained at 21±1ºC and 70±5% relative humidity, those refrigerated presented better aspect for commercialization. The refrigerated fruits presented better aspect for commercialization in relation to the maintained under room temperature. The brightness, color a * and b * values decreased with the storage days. Values color superiors were observed for the fruits control and those maintained under refrigeration. As it increased the irradiation dose reduced the fruits antioxidant activity and coloration.

  16. Wastewater treatment plant effluent alters pituitary gland gonadotropin mRNA levels in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Louisa B; Schultz, Irvin R; da Silva, Denis A M; Ylitalo, Gina M; Ragsdale, Dave; Harris, Stephanie I; Bailey, Stephanie; Pepich, Barry V; Swanson, Penny

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) present in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents interfere with reproduction in fish, including altered gonad development and induction of vitellogenin (Vtg), a female-specific egg yolk protein precursor produced in the liver. As a result, studies have focused on the effects of EDC exposure on the gonad and liver. However, impacts of environmental EDC exposure at higher levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis are less well understood. The pituitary gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) are involved in all aspects of gonad development and are subject to feedback from gonadal steroids making them a likely target of endocrine disruption. In this study, the effects of WWTP effluent exposure on pituitary gonadotropin mRNA expression were investigated to assess the utility of Lh beta-subunit (lhb) as a biomarker of estrogen exposure in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). First, a controlled 72-h exposure to 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 17β-trenbolone (TREN) was performed to evaluate the response of juvenile coho salmon to EDC exposure. Second, juvenile coho salmon were exposed to 0, 20 or 100% effluent from eight WWTPs from the Puget Sound, WA region for 72h. Juvenile coho salmon exposed to 2 and 10ng EE2L(-1) had 17-fold and 215-fold higher lhb mRNA levels relative to control fish. Hepatic vtg mRNA levels were dramatically increased 6670-fold, but only in response to 10ng EE2L(-1) and Fsh beta-subunit (fshb) mRNA levels were not altered by any of the treatments. In the WWTP effluent exposures, lhb mRNA levels were significantly elevated in fish exposed to five of the WWTP effluents. In contrast, transcript levels of vtg were not affected by any of the WWTP effluent exposures. Mean levels of natural and synthetic estrogens in fish bile were consistent with pituitary lhb expression, suggesting that the observed lhb induction may be due to

  17. Plant Food Supplements with Antioxidant Properties for the Treatment of Chronic and Neurodegenerative Diseases: Benefits or Risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piemontese, Luca

    2017-07-04

    Wine by-products, in particular grape pomace, can be an important source of polyphenols and dietary fibers and are increasingly being used as a starting material in the industrial production of plant food supplements, such as other matrices containing biomolecules, with antioxidant properties. The risk associated with the consumption of these products was recently analyzed through a study of potential genotoxic and carcinogenic compounds that can be found in the marketed products. In particular, occurrence data about contamination with the mycotoxin ochratoxin A were also reported. This short review aims at giving an overview about the quality and benefits of these kinds of food supplements, and also about risks of incorrect use, focusing on the emerging need for stricter European regulations.

  18. Inhibition of DNA virus: Herpes-1 (HSV-1 in cellular culture replication, through an antioxidant treatment extracted from rosemary spice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate antiviral properties in antioxidants from spices. Phenolic compounds extracted from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinallis, L by hot water, had their antioxidant activity determined by spectrophotometry using β carotene/linoleic acid system. The rosemary extract was evaluated by antiviral assay of Herpes Virus type-1 (HSV-1 replication in VERO cells, in the presence or absence of the spice. 10,000 TCID50/mL of the HSV-1 was kept for 3 h at 4º C, with 300 ppm of rosemary extract, and 100 ppm of butyl hydroxyl toluene (BHT. Then, these viruses were inoculated in VERO cells incubated at 37º C in CO2-5 %, for seven days. Daily, they were examined and the end point was based on 100% of CPE in virus control (without antioxidants. The HSV-1 replication inhibition percentage (IP measured the antiviral action from antioxidants, showing viral reductions of the 82.0, 82.5%, in the presence of rosemary and rosemary + BHT, respectively. As an extension, cell test corresponded to the similar viral decrease (IP = 85.0 and 86.3% in both aforementioned situations. Results lead to conclude that phenolic compounds from rosemary revealed an antiviral action on herpesvirus-1.Neste estudo foi avaliada a ação antiviral de antioxidantes de especiaria. Extrato aquoso de alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis, L, que apresentou atividade antioxidante através de espectrofotometria usando o sistema β caroteno/ácido linoléico, foi avaliado em ensaios com vírus herpes-1 na replicação em células VERO. Nestes ensaios foram utilizados 10.000 TCID50%/mL do vírus HSV-1, mantidos em contato com 300 ppm do extrato de alecrim e com 100 ppm de butil hidroxi tolueno (BHT, durante 3h a 4°C. Esses vírus, em seguida, foram inoculados em células VERO incubadas a 37 °C/5% de CO2 por sete dias. Pelo efeito citopático (ECP e o "end point" de ECP do controle de vírus (sem antioxidante, foi possível observar que houve reduções na replicação viral de 82

  19. Novel tacrine-8-hydroxyquinoline hybrids as multifunctional agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, with neuroprotective, cholinergic, antioxidant, and copper-complexing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bachiller, María Isabel; Pérez, Concepción; González-Muñoz, Gema C; Conde, Santiago; López, Manuela G; Villarroya, Mercedes; García, Antonio G; Rodríguez-Franco, María Isabel

    2010-07-01

    Tacrine and PBT2 (an 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative) are well-known drugs that inhibit cholinesterases and decrease beta-amyloid (Abeta) levels by complexation of redox-active metals, respectively. In this work, novel tacrine-8-hydroxyquinoline hybrids have been designed, synthesized, and evaluated as potential multifunctional drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. At nano- and subnanomolar concentrations they inhibit human acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase (AChE and BuChE), being more potent than tacrine. They also displace propidium iodide from the peripheral anionic site of AChE and thus could be able to inhibit Abeta aggregation promoted by AChE. They show better antioxidant properties than Trolox, the aromatic portion of vitamin E responsible for radical capture, and display neuroprotective properties against mitochondrial free radicals. In addition, they selectively complex Cu(II), show low cell toxicity, and could be able to penetrate the CNS, according to an in vitro blood-brain barrier model.

  20. Celecoxib treatment does not alter recruitment and activation of osteoclasts in the initial phase of experimental tooth movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Filho, E.P.; Stabile, A.C.; Ervolino, E.; Stuani, M.B.S.; Iyomasa, M.M.; Rocha, M.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study, we reported that the short-term treatment with celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) attenuates the activation of brain structures related to nociception and does not interfere with orthodontic incisor separation in rats. The conclusion was that celecoxib could possibly be prescribed for pain in orthodontic patients. However, we did not analyze the effects of this drug in periodontium. The aim of this follow-up study was to analyze effects of celecoxib treatment on recruitment and activation of osteoclasts and alveolar bone resorption after inserting an activated orthodontic appliance between the incisors in our rat model. Twenty rats (400–420 g) were pretreated through oral gavage with celecoxib (50 mg/kg) or vehicle (carboxymethyl-cellulose 0.4%). After 30 min, they received an activated (30 g) orthodontic appliance, set not to cause any palate disjunction. In sham animals, the appliance was immediately removed after introduction. All animals received ground food and, every 12 h, celecoxib or vehicle. After 48 h, they were anesthetized and transcardiacally perfused through the aorta with 4% formaldehyde. Subsequently, maxillae were removed, post-fixed and processed for histomorphometry or immunohistochemical analyses. As expected, incisor distalization induced an inflammatory response with certain histological changes, including an increase in the number of active osteoclasts at the compression side in group treated with vehicle (appliance:32.2±2.49 vs sham: 4.8±1.79, P<0.05) and celecoxib (appliance: 31.0±1.45 vs sham: 4.6±1.82, P<0.05). The treatment with celecoxib did not modify substantially the histological alterations and the number of active osteoclasts after activation of orthodontic appliance. Moreover, we did not see any difference between the groups with respect to percentage of bone resorption area. Taken together with our previous results we conclude that short-term treatment with celecoxib can indeed be

  1. Celecoxib treatment does not alter recruitment and activation of osteoclasts in the initial phase of experimental tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Carvalho-Filho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we reported that the short-term treatment with celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID attenuates the activation of brain structures related to nociception and does not interfere with orthodontic incisor separation in rats. The conclusion was that celecoxib could possibly be prescribed for pain in orthodontic patients. However, we did not analyze the effects of this drug in periodontium. The aim of this follow-up study was to analyze effects of celecoxib treatment on recruitment and activation of osteoclasts and alveolar bone resorption after inserting an activated orthodontic appliance between the incisors in our rat model. Twenty rats (400-420 g were pretreated through oral gavage with celecoxib (50 mg/kg or vehicle (carboxymethylcellulose 0.4%. After 30 min, they received an activated (30 g orthodontic appliance, set not to cause any palate disjunction. In sham animals, the appliance was immediately removed after introduction. All animals received ground food and, every 12 h, celecoxib or vehicle. After 48 h, they were anesthetized and transcardiacally perfused through the aorta with 4% formaldehyde. Subsequently, maxillae were removed, post-fixed and processed for histomorphometry or immunohistochemical analyses. As expected, incisor distalization induced an inflammatory response with certain histological changes, including an increase in the number of active osteoclasts at the compression side in group treated with vehicle (appliance: 32.2±2.49 vs sham: 4.8 ± 1.79, P<0.05 and celecoxib (appliance: 31.0±1.45 vs sham: 4.6±1.82, P<0.05. The treatment with celecoxib did not modify substantially the histological alterations and the number of active osteoclasts after activation of orthodontic appliance. Moreover, we did not see any difference between the groups with respect to percentage of bone resorption area. Taken together with our previous results we conclude that short-term treatment with celecoxib

  2. Alteration in Haematological and Liver Function Indices during Human Infection with Fasciola spp. Post Treatment with Triclabendazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Edalatzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease, caused by the liver fluke, Fasciola spp.. Human is occasional host when ingesting the metacercaria by eating contaminated aquatic vegetable. In the two past decades, human fasciolasis was emerging as a problem of public health in the Guilan province; in Anzali city. Triclabendazole is a novel anti-helmenthic that during recent years has been used for fascioliasis treatment in this region. The aim of the present work is to study alteration in haematological and liver function indices during human infection with Fasciola spp. pre and post treatment with triclabendazoleMaterials & Methods: The present work is a longitudinal clinical trail. In this regard, fifty confirmed fasciolasis patients, were chosen for parasitological, hematological and biochemical examinations pre-therapy as well as 1 and 6 months post-therapy. Formalin-ether and modified Telemann methods were used for stool examination. For Fasciola antibody detection ELISA technique was employed. Hematological and biochemical tests were performed by standard methods. Results: Results indicated that, triclabendazole efficacy was 74% after usage as one dose of 20mg/kg and reached to 88% after repeating in the next month. Before triclabebdazole therapy the Hb and HCT of the patients were slightly found lower than normal ranges, meanwhile the ESR and eosinophil percentages were higher. However following receiving the drug, in the cured individuals, the indices returned to the normal ranges but in the non-cured individuals were not shifted to the normal. On the other hand liver function indices of the patients mostly were at normal ranges before and following drug therapy.Conclusion: In conclusion haematological indices could be valuable indicator for successful therapy of patients treated with triclabendazole.

  3. Effect of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum treatment on restraint stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alteration in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Atish K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A stressful stimulus is a crucial determinant of health and disease. Antidepressants are used to manage stress and their related effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum in restraint stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alterations in mice. Methods Animals were immobilized for a period of 6 hr. St. John's Wort (50 and 100 mg/kg was administered 30 minutes before the animals were subjecting to acute immobilized stress. Various behavioral tests parameters for anxiety, locomotor activity and nociceptive threshold were assessed followed by biochemical assessments (malondialdehyde level, glutathione, catalase, nitrite and protein subsequently. Results 6-hr acute restraint stress caused severe anxiety like behavior, antinociception and impaired locomotor activity as compared to unstressed animals. Biochemical analyses revealed an increase in malondialdehyde, nitrites concentration, depletion of reduced glutathione and catalase activity as compared to unstressed animal brain. Five days St. John's Wort treatment in a dose of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg significantly attenuated restraint stress-induced behavioral (improved locomotor activity, reduced tail flick latency and antianxiety like effect and oxidative damage as compared to control (restraint stress. Conclusion Present study highlights the modest activity of St. John's Wort against acute restraint stress induced modification.

  4. Effect of sodium fluoride ingestion on malondialdehyde concentration and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-González, José A; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; García-Ortiz, Liliana; Del Carmen Chima-Galán, María; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Esquivel-Chirino, César; González-Rubio, Manuel García-Luna Y

    2010-06-11

    Fluoride intoxication has been shown to produce diverse deleterious metabolic alterations within the cell. To determine the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) treatment on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes, Male Wistar rats were treated with 50 ppm of NaF or were untreated as controls. Erythrocytes were obtained from rats sacrificed weekly for up to eight weeks and the concentration of MDA in erythrocyte membrane was determined. In addition, the activity of the enzymes superoxide, dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Treatment with NaF produces an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde in the erythrocyte membrane only after the eight weeks of treatment. On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme activity was observed to increase after the fourth week of NaF treatment. In conclusion, intake of NaF produces alterations in the erythrocyte of the male rat, which indicates induction of oxidative stress.

  5. Effect of Sodium Fluoride Ingestion on Malondialdehyde Concentration and the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-González, José A.; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; García-Ortiz, Liliana; del Carmen Chima-Galán, María; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Esquivel-Chirino, César; González-Rubio, Manuel García-Luna y

    2010-01-01

    Fluoride intoxication has been shown to produce diverse deleterious metabolic alterations within the cell. To determine the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) treatment on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes, Male Wistar rats were treated with 50 ppm of NaF or were untreated as controls. Erythrocytes were obtained from rats sacrificed weekly for up to eight weeks and the concentration of MDA in erythrocyte membrane was determined. In addition, the activity of the enzymes superoxide, dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Treatment with NaF produces an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde in the erythrocyte membrane only after the eight weeks of treatment. On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme activity was observed to increase after the fourth week of NaF treatment. In conclusion, intake of NaF produces alterations in the erythrocyte of the male rat, which indicates induction of oxidative stress. PMID:20640162

  6. Errantum: Treatment of human astrocytoma U87 cells with silicon dioxide nanoparticles lowers their survival and alters their expression of mitochondrial and cell signaling proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai JCK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lai JCK, Ananthakrishnan G, Jandhyam S, et al. Treatment of human astrocytoma U87 cells with silicon dioxide nanoparticles lowers their survival and alters their expression of mitochondrial and cell signaling proteins. Int J Nanomedicine. 2010;5:715–723.The wrong image was used in Figure 5 on page 719.

  7. Triiodothyronine and melatonin influence antioxidant defense mechanism in a teleost Anabas testudineus (Bloch): in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, P; Beyo, R S; Divya, L; Vijayasree, A S; Manju, M; Oommen, O V

    2007-06-01

    The effect of the hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and melatonin on antioxidant defense system was studied in 6-propyl thiouracil (6-PTU)-treated or photoperiod-exposed teleost Anabas testudineus. 6-PTU (2 microg/g) treatment or photoperiod exposure (24 h) increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD) concentrations, indicating increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the experimental conditions. T3 or melatonin (10(-6) M) treatment for 15 min in vitro in PTU-treated fish reversed the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione content. T3-treated group showed no change in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, whereas melatonin treatment decreased its activity. T3 inhibited glutathione reductase (GR) activity. Photoperiod exposure (physiological pinealotomy) induced a stressful situation in this teleost, as evidenced by LPO products and antioxidant enzyme activities. Melatonin and T3 treatment for 15 min in vitro also reversed the effect of photoperiod on peroxidation products and the SOD and catalase activities. GR activity decreased in photoperiod-exposed group and melatonin and T3 treatment reversed the activities. The antioxidant enzymes responded to the stress situation after 6-PTU treatment and photoperiod exposure by altering their activities. The study suggested an independent effect of T3 and melatonin on antioxidant defence mechanism in different physiological situations in fish.

  8. Impact of Polyphenol Antioxidants on Cycling Performance and Cardiovascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel D. Trinity

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation sought to determine if supplementation with polyphenol antioxidant (PA improves exercise performance in the heat (31.5 °C, 55% RH by altering the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise. Twelve endurance trained athletes ingested PA or placebo (PLAC for 7 days. Consecutive days of exercise testing were performed at the end of the supplementation periods. Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory measures were made during exercise. Performance, as measured by a 10 min time trial (TT following 50 min of moderate intensity cycling, was not different between treatments (PLAC: 292 ± 33 W and PA: 279 ± 38 W, p = 0.12. Gross efficiency, blood lactate, maximal neuromuscular power, and ratings of perceived exertion were also not different between treatments. Similarly, performance on the second day of testing, as assessed by time to fatigue at maximal oxygen consumption, was not different between treatments (PLAC; 377 ± 117 s vs. PA; 364 ± 128 s, p = 0.61. Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise were not different between treatments on either day of exercise testing. Polyphenol antioxidant supplementation had no impact on exercise performance and did not alter the cardiovascular or thermoregulatory responses to exercise in the heat.

  9. Study on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of turmeric clear liquid soap for wound treatment of HIV patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pechnoi Singchangchai

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract of turmeric [Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae] was investigated for its in vitro antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay and activities against six microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphyloccoccus aureus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Clear liquid soaps containing 0.5% w/v turmeric extract were formulated. The only one preparation with acceptable appearance, foam and viscosity was selected for antimicrobial activity and stability studies. It was found that turmeric extract had 50% radical scavenging ability (EC50 at concentration of 11.26 μg/ml against DPPH. Turmeric extract was showed no activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentration of turmeric extract against Bacillus subtilis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans were 16, 128, 128 and 256 μg/ml, respectively. The selected preparation was physically and chemically stable and the antimicrobial activity did not change (p<0.05 under the heating-cooling stability test. However, curcumin content and the antimicrobial activities against S. aureus and C. neoformans decreased significantly (p<0.05 under the accelerated test conditions (temperature 45oC, 75% RH for 4 months and after storage at room temperature for 12 months. The results of a clinical trial with HIV patients found that this liquid soap decreased itching symptom (100% and infectious wound and abscess became dryness scabs (78.6% within 2 weeks.

  10. Changes of rat plasma total low molecular weight antioxidant level after tabun exposure and consequent treatment by acetylcholinesterase reactivators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Jung, Young-Sik; Kassa, Jiri

    2011-02-01

    These experiments were performed on a rat model. The rats were divided into eight groups and consequently exposed to either a saline solution (control), atropine or a combination of atropine and tabun. The reactivation efficacy of the oximes was estimated on the rats exposed to tabun, atropine and a reactivator of AChE. The oximes HI-6, obidoxime, trimedoxime, K203 and KR-22836 were used as representative compounds of commonly available and new AChE reactivators. Besides the positive effect of the administered reactivators on blood AChE activity, the sizable modulation of low molecular weight antioxidant (LMWA) levels was also determined. The LMWA levels in the the animals treated with the oxime reactivators were decreased in comparison with the animals treated by atropine alone. It was found that the levels of LMWA returned to the level found in the control animals when either trimedoxime, K203 or KR-22836 were administered. The principle of oxime reactivator function and a novel insight into AChE activity regulation and oxidative stress is discussed.

  11. Antioxidants in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Ira T

    2012-05-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have high levels of oxidative stress throughout the lifespan. Mouse models of DS share some structural and functional abnormalities that parallel findings seen in the human phenotype. Several of the mouse models show evidence of cellular oxidative stress and have provided a platform for antioxidant intervention. Genes that are overexpressed on chromosome 21 are associated with oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis. The lack of balance in the metabolism of free radicals generated during processes related to oxidative stress may have a direct role in producing the neuropathology of DS including the tendency to Alzheimer disease (AD). Mitochondria are often a target for oxidative stress and are considered to be a trigger for the onset of the AD process in DS. Biomarkers for oxidative stress have been described in DS and in AD in the general population. However, intervention trials using standard antioxidant supplements or diets have failed to produce uniform therapeutic effect. This chapter will examine the biological role of oxidative stress in DS and its relationship to abnormalities in both development and aging within the disorder. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antioxidants and Antioxidant Treatment in Disease.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of anti-oxidant vitamins plus zinc treatment to prevent the progression of intermediate age-related macular degeneration. A Singapore perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakul Saxena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine if providing high dose anti-oxidant vitamins and zinc treatment age-related eye disease study (AREDS formulation to patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD aged 40-79 years from Singapore is cost-effective in preventing progression to wet AMD. Methods: A hypothetical cohort of category 3 and 4 AMD patients from Singapore was followed for 5 calendar years to determine the number of patients who would progress to wet AMD given the following treatment scenarios: (a AREDS formulation or placebo followed by ranibizumab (as needed for wet AMD. (b AREDS formulation or placebo followed by bevacizumab (monthly for wet AMD. (c AREDS formulation or placebo followed by aflibercept (VIEW I and II trial treatment regimen. Costs were estimated for the above scenarios from the providers′ perspective, and cost-effectiveness was measured by cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY averted with a disability weight of 0.22 for wet AMD. The costs were discounted at an annual rate of 3%. Results: Over 5400 patients could be prevented from progressing to wet AMD cumulatively if AREDS formulation were prescribed. AREDS formulation followed by ranibizumab was cost-effective compared to placebo-ranibizumab or placebo-aflibercept combinations (cost per DALY averted: SGD$23,662.3 and SGD$21,138.8, respectively. However, bevacizumab (monthly injections alone was more cost-effective compared to AREDS formulation followed by bevacizumab. Conclusion: Prophylactic treatment with AREDS formulation for intermediate AMD patients followed by ranibizumab or for patients who progressed to wet AMD was found to be cost-effective. These findings have implications for intermediate AMD screening, treatment and healthcare planning in Singapore.

  13. Increased LCAT activity and hyperglycaemia decrease the antioxidative functionality of HDL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; de Boer, Jan Freark; Perton, Frank G.; Annema, Wijtske; de Vries, Rindert; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Antioxidative properties of high density lipoprotein (HDL) are important for atheroprotection. This study investigated whether the antioxidative functionality of HDL is altered in type 2 diabetes mellit

  14. Alkyl chain length impacts the antioxidative effect of lipophilized ferulic acid in fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Lyneborg, Karina Sieron; Villeneuve, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Lipophilization of phenolics by esterification with fatty alcohols may alter their localization in an emulsion and thereby their antioxidant efficacy. In this study, synthesized unbranched alkyl ferulates were evaluated as antioxidants in fish oil enriched milk. Lipid oxidation was determined...

  15. Antioxidative defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  16. ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY

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    Giriraja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hyperglycemia and dislipidemia in DM induce increased lipid peroxdation and free radical formation. This is an important mechanism of microangiopathy. AIM To measure the antioxidant status in type 2 DM with nephropathy and compared with nondiabetic control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 type 2 DM patients aged between 50 to 70 years according to national diabetes data group criteria with nephropathy diagnosed on the basis of history, physical examination and biochemical parameters were included. 50 age and sex matched apparently healthy individuals with normal plasma glucose, normal renal parameters and with no symptoms suggestive of DM were taken as controls. RESULTS Antioxidant status was significantly less in patients with diabetic nephropathy. CONCLUSION Data suggests that alteration in antioxidant status may help predict the risk of diabetic nephropathy.

  17. Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015). This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1) those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2) those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) along four dimensions: (1) time; (2) ...

  18. Effects of Different Treatment Conditions on Antioxidant Activity of Peanut Anfioxidant Peptide%不同处理条件对花生抗氧化肽抗氧化活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于丽娜; 高俊安; 杨庆利; 孙杰; 毕洁; 张初署; 刘少芳

    2012-01-01

    Peanut antioxidant peptide was prepared by sequential hydrolysis of peanut protein powder with Viscozyme L followed by alcalase. The effects of heat, food additive, preservative, metal ion, sterilization, pH and low temperature treatment on antioxidant properties in vitro such as DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, ferrous ion chelating ability and antilipid peroxidation were investigated. The results indicated that heat treatment and food preservative treatment were beneficial for increasing the antioxidant activity of peanut antioxidant peptide. The addition of tartaric acid or citric acid had considerable impact on the antioxidant activity of peanut antioxidant peptide. Nevertheless, the antioxidant activity remained at a stable level in the presence of sodium chloride or sucrose. Copper ion also had an obvious effect on the antioxidant activity of peanut antioxidant peptide. Various sterilization processes were beneficial to the scavenging of DPPH free radicals, reducing power, ferrous ion chelating capacity, but could reduce the inhibitory rate of lipid peroxidation. The reducing power, ferrous ion chelating capacity and anti-lipid peroxidation could be enhanced under alkaline conditions, whereas acidic conditions could reduce the ferrous ion chelating capacity and anti-lipid peroxidation. Low temperature treatment could reduce the antioxidant activity of peanut antioxidant peptide.%以花生蛋白粉为原料,采用Viscozyme L预水解,Alcalase水解法制备花生抗氧化肽。通过7种不同的处理条件(加热、食品添加剂、防腐剂、金属离子、杀菌、调pH值、低温)对花生抗氧化肽的4种体外抗氧化指标(清除DPPH自由基、还原力、铁离子螯合力、抗脂质体过氧化能力)进行研究。结果显示:加热处理和添加食品防腐剂有利于提高抗氧化肽的抗氧化活性;添加酒石酸、柠檬酸对抗氧化活性有较大影响,而添加氯化钠和蔗糖后对抗氧

  19. Effect of enzymatic mash treatment and storage on phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and turbidity of cloudy apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmiański, Jan; Wojdylo, Aneta; Kolniak, Joanna

    2009-08-12

    The effects of different commercial enzymatic mash treatments on yield, turbidity, color, and polyphenolic and sediment of procyanidins content of cloudy apple juice were studied. Addition of pectolytic enzymes to mash treatment had positive effect on the production of cloud apple juices by improving polyphenolic contents, especially procyanidins and juice yields (68.3% in control samples to 77% after Pectinex Yield Mash). As summary of the effect of enzymatic mash treatment, polyphenol contents in cloudy apple juices significantly increased after Pectinex Yield Mash, Pectinex Smash XXL, and Pectinex XXL maceration were applied but no effect was observed after Pectinex Ultra-SPL I Panzym XXL use, compared to the control samples. The content of polymeric procyanidins represented 50-70% of total polyphenols, but in the present study, polymeric procyanidins were significantly lower in juices than in fruits and also affected by enzymatic treatment (Pectinex AFP L-4 and Panzym Yield Mash) compared to the control samples. The enzymatic treatment decreased procyanidin content in most sediment with the exception of Pectinex Smash XXL and Pectinex AFP L-4. Generally in samples that were treated by pectinase, radical scavenging activity of cloudy apple juices was increased compared to the untreated reference samples. The highest radical scavenging activity was associated with Pectinex Yield Mash, Pectinex Smash XXL, and Pectinex XXL enzyme and the lowest activity with Pectinex Ultra SP-L and Pectinex APFL-4. However, in the case of enzymatic mash treatment cloudy apple juices showed instability of turbidity and low viscosity. These results must be ascribed to the much higher hydrolysis of pectin by enzymatic preparation which is responsible for viscosity. During 6 months of storage at 4 degrees C small changes in analyzed parameters of apple juices were observed.

  20. Antioxidant treatment normalizes mitochondrial energetics and myocardial insulin sensitivity independently of changes in systemic metabolic homeostasis in a mouse model of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilkun, Olesya; Wilde, Nicole; Tuinei, Joseph; Pires, Karla M P; Zhu, Yi; Bugger, Heiko; Soto, Jamie; Wayment, Benjamin; Olsen, Curtis; Litwin, Sheldon E; Abel, E Dale

    2015-08-01

    Cardiac dysfunction in obesity is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and altered insulin sensitivity. Whether oxidative stress directly contributes to myocardial insulin resistance remains to be determined. This study tested the hypothesis that ROS scavenging will improve mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity in the hearts of rodent models with varying degrees of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. The catalytic antioxidant MnTBAP was administered to the uncoupling protein-diphtheria toxin A (UCP-DTA) mouse model of insulin resistance (IR) and obesity, at early and late time points in the evolution of IR, and to db/db mice with severe obesity and type-two diabetes. Mitochondrial function was measured in saponin-permeabilized cardiac fibers. Aconitase activity and hydrogen peroxide emission were measured in isolated mitochondria. Insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation, glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation rates were measured in isolated working hearts, and 2-deoxyglucose uptake was measured in isolated cardiomyocytes. Four weeks of MnTBAP attenuated glucose intolerance in 13-week-old UCP-DTA mice but was without effect in 24-week-old UCP-DTA mice and in db/db mice. Despite the absence of improvement in the systemic metabolic milieu, MnTBAP reversed cardiac mitochondrial oxidative stress and improved mitochondrial bioenergetics by increasing ATP generation and reducing mitochondrial uncoupling in all models. MnTBAP also improved myocardial insulin mediated glucose metabolism in 13 and 24-week-old UCP-DTA mice. Pharmacological ROS scavenging improves myocardial energy metabolism and insulin responsiveness in obesity and type 2 diabetes via direct effects that might be independent of changes in systemic metabolism.

  1. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by living organisms as a result of normal cellular metabolism and environmental factors, such as air pollutants or cigarette smoke. ROS are highly reactive molecules and can damage cell structures such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins and alter their functions. The shift in the balance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of oxidants is termed “oxidative stress.” Regulation of reducing and oxidizing (redox) state i...

  2. Early lingual frenectomy assisted by CO2 laser helps prevention and treatment of functional alterations caused by ankyloglossia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorotti, Renata C; Bertolini, Milene M; Nicola, Jorge H; Nicola, Ester M D

    2004-11-01

    Incorrectly produced speech sounds, the presence of dentofacial alterations and acquired functional adaptations may be due to a short and inadequate lingual frenum. When frenectomy is indicated, it should be performed as early as possible to prevent functional alterations. This study presents a literature review on correct lingual positioning in relation to orthodontic and phonetic function as well as an assessment of 15 patients who underwent frenectomy utilizing the carbon dioxide laser. The results demonstrated that this technique is safe, effective and perfect for use in young children and can be performed in an outpatient unit.

  3. Isomerization and increase in the antioxidant properties of lycopene from Momordica cochinchinensis (gac) by moderate heat treatment with UV-Vis spectra as a marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan-Thi, Hanh; Waché, Yves

    2014-08-01

    Momordica cochinchinensis (gac) is a plant rich in lycopene. This pigment tends to solubilize in oil and get damaged during extraction. The impact of heating on cis-isomerization of oil-free lycopene in hexane was studied at 50 and 80°C during 240min with UV-Vis spectrometry, DAD-HPLC and TEAC test. The initial all-trans-form isomerized to the 13-cis isomer more rapidly at 80°C. After this treatment, 16% of the lycopene compounds were in the 9-cis-form. This isomer triggered an increase in the antioxidant properties which was detectable from concentrations above 9% and resulted in a change from 2.4 to 3.7μmol Trolox equivalent. It is thus possible to increase the bioactivity of lycopene samples by controlling heating. The evolution of ratios calculated from the global UV-Vis spectrum was representative of cis-isomerization and spectrometry can thus be a simple way to evaluate the state of isomerization of lycopene solutions.

  4. The influence of antioxidant and post-synthetic treatment on the properties of biodegradable poly(butylene succinates modified with poly(propylene oxide

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    DRAGANA PEPIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Novel poly(ester–ethers based on poly(butylene succinate (PBS as the hard segments and 30 mass % of poly(propylene oxide (PPO as the soft segments were synthesized with varying amount of the antioxidant (N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine, DPPD. The influences of the addition of DPPD and the impact of post-synthetic treatment by precipitation on the molecular structure, thermal and physical properties, as well as on the storage stability of the biodegradable aliphatic copolyesters, were investigated. The structure and composition of the copolymers were determined by means of 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The molecular weight and polydispersity of the poly(ester–ethers were evaluated from solution viscosity and GPC measurements. The thermal properties and stability were evaluated, respecttively, by means of DSC and non-isothermal thermogravimetry in an inert nitrogen atmosphere. The biodegradability potential of the polymers was studied in hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation tests with Candida cylindracea lipase by monitoring the weight loss of polymer films after incubation. The weight losses of the samples increased with time and were in the range from 1 to 5 mass % after 4 weeks. GPC analysis confirmed that there were changes in the molecular weight of the copolyesters during both hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation tests, leading to the conclusion that the degradation mechanism of poly(butylenes succinate modified with PPO occurred through surface erosion and bulk degradation.

  5. Zfp148 deficiency causes lung maturation defects and lethality in newborn mice that are rescued by deletion of p53 or antioxidant treatment.

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    Volkan I Sayin

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Zfp148 (Zbp-89, BFCOL, BERF1, htβ interacts physically with the tumor suppressor p53 and is implicated in cell cycle control, but the physiological role of Zfp148 remains unknown. Here we show that Zfp148 deficiency leads to respiratory distress and lethality in newborn mice. Zfp148 deficiency prevented structural maturation of the prenatal lung without affecting type II cell differentiation or surfactant production. BrdU analyses revealed that Zfp148 deficiency caused proliferation arrest of pulmonary cells at E18.5-19.5. Similarly, Zfp148-deficient fibroblasts exhibited proliferative arrest that was dependent on p53, raising the possibility that cell stress is part of the underlying mechanism. Indeed, Zfp148 deficiency lowered the threshold for activation of p53 under oxidative conditions. Moreover, both in vivo and cellular phenotypes were rescued on Trp53(+/- or Trp53(-/- backgrounds and by antioxidant treatment. Thus, Zfp148 prevents respiratory distress and lethality in newborn mice by attenuating oxidative stress-dependent p53-activity during the saccular stage of lung development. Our results establish Zfp148 as a novel player in mammalian lung maturation and demonstrate that Zfp148 is critical for cell cycle progression in vivo.

  6. Stress hardening under long-term cadmium treatment is correlated with the activation of antioxidative defence and iron acquisition of chloroplasts in Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solti, Ádám; Sárvári, Éva; Szöllősi, Erzsébet; Tóth, Brigitta; Mészáros, Ilona; Fodor, Ferenc; Szigeti, Zoltán

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a highly toxic heavy metal affects growth and metabolic pathways in plants, including photosynthesis. Though Cd is a transition metal with no redox capacity, it generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) indirectly and causes oxidative stress. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved in long-term Cd tolerance of poplar, candidate for Cd phytoremediation, are not well known. Hydroponically cultured poplar (Populus jacquemontiana var. glauca cv. 'Kopeczkii') plants were treated with 10 μM Cd for 4 weeks. Following a period of functional decline, the plants performed acclimation to the Cd induced oxidative stress as indicated by the decreased leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the recovery of most photosynthetic parameters. The increased activity of peroxidases (PODs) could have a great impact on the elimination of hydrogen peroxide, and thus the recovery of photosynthesis, while the function of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms seemed to be less important. Re-distribution of the iron content of leaf mesophyll cells into the chloroplasts contributed to the biosynthesis of the photosynthetic apparatus and some antioxidative enzymes. The delayed increase in photosynthetic activity in relation to the decline in the level of lipid peroxidation indicates that elimination of oxidative stress damage by acclimation mechanisms is required for the restoration of the photosynthetic apparatus during long-term Cd treatment.

  7. Progress of Radioactive Waste Treatment Technology:Study on Alteration of Simulated HLW Glass under Simulated Geological Disposal Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA; Xiao-hui; WANG; Lei; YOU; Xin-feng; ZHENG; Wen-jun; YANG; Lin-yue; LI; Yu-song; ZHENG; Yu; LI; Teng; ZHANG; Zhen-tao

    2015-01-01

    1/200 scale simulated disposal experimental device was set up in 2013 and operated from 2014,in which ground water penetrated host rock,buffer materials,container materials and simulated HLW glass.The leaching velocity,alteration of HLW glass and corrosion of container materials were investigated.Moreover,temperature,host rock,

  8. Antioxidant Activity from Various Tomato Processing

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    Retno Sri Iswari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is one of the high antioxidant potential vegetables. Nowadays, there are many techniques of tomato processings instead of fresh consumption, i.e. boiled, steamed, juiced and sauteed. Every treatment of cooking will influence the chemical compound inside the fruits and the body's nutrition intake. It is important to conduct the research on antioxidant compound especially lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and its activity after processing. This research has been done using the experimental method. Tomatoes were cooked into six difference ways, and then it was extracted using the same procedure continued with antioxidant measurement. The research results showed that steaming had promoted the higher antioxidant numbers (lycopene. α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C and higher TCA and antioxidant activities in the tomatoes than other processings. It was indicated that steaming was the best way to enhance amount, capacity and activities of antioxidants of the tomatoes.

  9. Alterations to proteome and tissue recovery responses in fish liver caused by a short-term combination treatment with cadmium and benzo[a]pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, P.M., E-mail: pmcosta@fct.unl.p [IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Departamento de Ciencias e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Chicano-Galvez, E.; Lopez Barea, J. [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Severo Ochoa, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); DelValls, T.A. [UNESCO/UNITWIN/WiCop Chair-Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cadiz, Poligono rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Costa, M.H. [IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Departamento de Ciencias e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal)

    2010-10-15

    The livers of soles (Solea senegalensis) injected with subacute doses of cadmium (Cd), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), or their combination, were screened for alterations to cytosolic protein expression patterns, complemented by cytological and histological analyses. Cadmium and B[a]P, but not combined, induced hepatocyte apoptosis and Kupfer cell hyperplasia. Proteomics, however, suggested that apoptosis was triggered through distinct pathways. Cadmium and B[a]P caused upregulation of different anti-oxidative enzymes (peroxiredoxin and glutathione peroxidase, respectively) although co-exposure impaired induction. Similarly, apoptosis was inhibited by co-exposure, to which may have contributed a synergistic upregulation of tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor, {beta}-actin and a lipid transport protein. The regulation factors of nine out of eleven identified proteins of different types revealed antagonistic or synergistic effects between Cd and B[a]P at the prospected doses after 24 h of exposure. The results indicate that co-exposure to Cd and B[a]P may enhance toxicity by impairing specific responses and not through cumulative damage. - The interaction between cadmium and benzo[a]pyrene impairs specific responses to toxicity and tissue repair mechanisms.

  10. Influence of exposure time to saliva and antioxidant treatment on bond strength to enamel after tooth bleaching: an in situ study

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    Thais Aglaet Matos MIRANDA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study evaluated the influence of different exposure times to saliva in situ in comparison with an antioxidant treatment on composite resin bond strength to human enamel restored after tooth bleaching. Material and Methods: Forty human teeth specimens measuring 5x5 mm were prepared and randomly allocated into 5 groups with 8 specimens each: Gct (control group, restored on unbleached enamel; Gbl (restored immediately after bleaching; Gsa (bleached, treated with 10% sodium ascorbate gel for 60 min and restored; G7d (bleached, exposed to saliva in situ for 7 days and restored; and G14d (bleached, exposed to saliva in situ for 14 days and restored. Restored samples were cut into 0.8 mm2 sticks that were tested in microtensile. Specimens were microscopically analyzed and failure modes were classified as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed. Pretest and cohesive failures were not considered in the statistical analysis, which was performed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (α=0.05, with the dental specimen considered as the experimental unit. Results: Mean bond strength results found for Gbl in comparison with Gct indicated that bleaching significantly reduced enamel adhesiveness (P0.05. Bond strength found for G14d was significantly higher than for Gsa (P<0.01. Fractures modes were predominantly of a mixed type. Conclusions: Bonding strength to bleached enamel was immediately restored with the application of sodium ascorbate and exposure to human saliva in situ for at least 7 days. Best results were obtained with exposure to human saliva in situ for 14 days. Treatment with sodium ascorbate gel for 60 min may be recommended in cases patients cannot wait for at least 7 days for adhesive techniques to be performed.

  11. Developmental treatment with ethinyl estradiol, but not bisphenol A, causes alterations in sexually dimorphic behaviors in male and female Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sherry A; Law, Charles Delbert; Kissling, Grace E

    2014-08-01

    The developing central nervous system may be particularly sensitive to bisphenol A (BPA)-induced alterations. Here, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats (n = 11-12/group) were gavaged daily with vehicle, 2.5 or 25.0 μg/kg BPA, or 5.0 or 10.0 μg/kg ethinyl estradiol (EE2) on gestational days 6-21. The BPA doses were selected to be below the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg/day. On postnatal days 1-21, all offspring/litter were orally treated with the same dose. A naïve control group was not gavaged. Body weight, pubertal age, estrous cyclicity, and adult serum hormone levels were measured. Adolescent play, running wheel activity, flavored solution intake, female sex behavior, and manually elicited lordosis were assessed. No significant differences existed between the vehicle and naïve control groups. Vehicle controls exhibited significant sexual dimorphism for most behaviors, indicating these evaluations were sensitive to sex differences. However, only EE2 treatment caused significant effects. Relative to female controls, EE2-treated females were heavier, exhibited delayed vaginal opening, aberrant estrous cyclicity, increased play behavior, decreased running wheel activity, and increased aggression toward the stimulus male during sexual behavior assessments. Relative to male controls, EE2-treated males were older at testes descent and preputial separation and had lower testosterone levels. These results suggest EE2-induced masculinization/defeminization of females and are consistent with increased volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) at weaning in female siblings of these subjects (He, Z., Paule, M. G. and Ferguson, S. A. (2012) Low oral doses of bisphenol A increase volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in male, but not female, rats at postnatal day 21. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 34, 331-337). Although EE2 treatment caused pubertal delays and decreased testosterone levels in males, their

  12. Effect of long-term treatment with antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10 and selenium on arterial compliance, humoral factors and inflammatory markers in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors

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    Debby Ortal

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antioxidant supplementations have the potential to alleviate the atherosclerotic damage caused by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The present study evaluated the effects of prolonged antioxidant treatment on arterial elasticity, inflammatory and metabolic measures in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Methods Study participants were randomly assigned to two groups. Group 1 received oral supplementation with 2 capsules per day of Mid Life Guard, SupHerb, Israel. In each capsule vitamin C (500 mg vitamin E (200 iu, co-enzyme Q10 (60 mg and selenium (100 mcg, Group 2 received matching placebo(SupHerb for 6 months. Patients were evaluated for lipid profile, HbA1C, insulin, C-peptide, hs-CRP, endothelin, aldosterone, plasma renin activity and Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Arterial elasticity was evaluated using pulse wave contour analysis (HDI CR 2000, Eagan, Minnesota. Results Antioxidant-treated patients exhibited significant increases in large arterial elasticity index (LAEI as well as small arterial elasticity index (SAEI. A significant decline HbA1C and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol were also observed. In the placebo group, significant changes in LAEI, SAEI or metabolic measures were not observed. Conclusions Antioxidant supplementation significantly increased large and small artery elasticity in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. This beneficial vascular effect was associated with an improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism as well as decrease in blood pressure.

  13. Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research

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    Ruth A. Lanius

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015. This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1 those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2 those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC along four dimensions: (1 time; (2 thought; (3 body; and (4 emotion. Clinical applications and future research directions relevant to each dimension are discussed. Conceptualizing TRASC across the dimensions of time, thought, body, and emotion has transdiagnostic implications for trauma-related disorders described in both the Diagnostic Statistical Manual and the International Classifications of Diseases. The four-dimensional model provides a framework, guided by existing models of dissociation, for future research examining the phenomenological, neurobiological, and physiological underpinnings of trauma-related dissociation.

  14. Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanius, Ruth A

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015). This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1) those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2) those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) along four dimensions: (1) time; (2) thought; (3) body; and (4) emotion. Clinical applications and future research directions relevant to each dimension are discussed. Conceptualizing TRASC across the dimensions of time, thought, body, and emotion has transdiagnostic implications for trauma-related disorders described in both the Diagnostic Statistical Manual and the International Classifications of Diseases. The four-dimensional model provides a framework, guided by existing models of dissociation, for future research examining the phenomenological, neurobiological, and physiological underpinnings of trauma-related dissociation.

  15. In Vitro Protective Effect and Antioxidant Mechanism of Resveratrol Induced by Dapsone Hydroxylamine in Human Cells.

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    Rosyana V Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Dapsone (DDS hydroxylamine metabolites cause oxidative stress- linked adverse effects in patients, such as methemoglobin formation and DNA damage. This study evaluated the ameliorating effect of the antioxidant resveratrol (RSV on DDS hydroxylamine (DDS-NHOH mediated toxicity in vitro using human erythrocytes and lymphocytes. The antioxidant mechanism was also studied using in-silico methods. In addition, RSV provided intracellular protection by inhibiting DNA damage in human lymphocytes induced by DDS-NHOH. However, whilst pretreatment with RSV (10-1000 μM significantly attenuated DDS-NHOH-induced methemoglobinemia, but it was not only significantly less effective than methylene blue (MET, but also post-treatment with RSV did not reverse methemoglobin formation, contrarily to that observed with MET. DDS-NHOH inhibited catalase (CAT activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, but did not alter superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in erythrocytes. Pretreatment with RSV did not alter these antioxidant enzymes activities in erythrocytes treated with DDS-NHOH. Theoretical calculations using density functional theory methods showed that DDS-NHOH has a pro-oxidant effect, whereas RSV and MET have antioxidant effect on ROS. The effect on methemoglobinemia reversion for MET was significantly higher than that of RSV. These data suggest that the pretreatment with resveratrol may decrease heme-iron oxidation and DNA damage through reduction of ROS generated in cells during DDS therapy.

  16. Possible Potentiation by Certain Antioxidants of the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Diclofenac in Rats

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    Samah S. Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the potential beneficial impact of the addition of antioxidant supplements to diclofenac regimen in a model of carrageenan-induced paw. Rats were treated daily with antioxidants, that is, a-lipoic acid (50 mg/kg, selenium (2.5 mg/kg, vitamin C (1 g/kg, vitamin E (300 mg/kg, or zinc (25 mg/kg on seven successive days and then received a single treatment with diclofenac or saline before carrageenan was injected to induce paw inflammation. The results indicated that these combinations did not significantly affect the percentage inhibition of paw edema caused by diclofenac alone; however, some combination treatments ameliorated signs of concomitant oxidative stress (such as alterations in plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels, hemolysate reduced glutathione levels, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase enzyme activities imparted by diclofenac alone. In some cases, few tested antioxidants in combination with diclofenac resulted in increased plasma levels of interleukin- (IL- 6 and C-reactive protein (CRP. In conclusion, the results of these studies suggested to us that the added presence of natural antioxidants could be beneficial as standard anti-inflammatory therapeutics for a patient under diclofenac treatment, albeit that these effects do not appear to significantly build upon those that could be obtained from this common anti-inflammatory agent per se.

  17. Antioxidant and antidepressant-like activities of semi-synthetic α-phenylseleno citronellal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Francine Novack; Anversa, Roberta; Penteado, Filipe; Castro, Micheli; Lenardão, Eder João; Savegnago, Lucielli

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the antioxidant and antidepressant-like activities of the semi-synthetic compound α-phenylseleno citronellal (PhSeCIT) and the natural terpenoid R-citronellal (CIT) were evaluated. The biological potential of PhSeCIT and CIT was evaluated by antioxidant in vitro assays, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and linoleic acid oxidation. The compounds were also assessed by ex vivo tests to determine the acute toxicity, levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-Ala-D) and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activities. The antidepressant-like activity of compounds in the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) was also investigated. The results demonstrated that the addition of an organoselenium group to (R)-citronellal increased its antioxidant properties, since PhSeCIT showed better activity than CIT. The treatment of mice with both compounds did not cause death of any animals. The levels of TBARS were significantly reduced by PhSeCIT in liver and cortex of animals, whereas CIT did not alter these parameters. In the TST and FST, PhSeCIT showed promising antidepressant-like activity, while CIT was not active in this test. Taken together, these data demonstrate the role of selenium in the antioxidant and antidepressant-like activities of (R)-citronellal.

  18. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANTS AND LIPID PEROXIDATION STATUS AMONG STUDENTS

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    Anandh T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to estimate the changes in the plasma levels of lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA, non-enzymatic antioxidants: vitamin C and E and enzymatic antioxidant: superoxide dismutase (SOD. The population used were healthy students (100 male, 100 female; mean age 22.4 years, range 18- 25 years. The level of lipid peroxidation was found to be significantly increased among the students which were inversely related to the level of antioxidants (p<0.05. Increased antioxidant levels show a multiple link between fruit and vegetable intake among the study group. Diminished antioxidant status disturbed oxidant-antioxidant balance alleviating oxidative stress state in less fruit and vegetable intake group. Therefore, the alterations in the level of antioxidants in blood plasma could be used as biomarkers for nutritional tribulations.

  19. Regulation of growth and antioxidant enzyme activities by 28-homobrassinolide in seedlings of Raphanus sativus L. under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Indu; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2010-06-01

    28-Homobrassinolide (28-HBL), a brassinosteroid is reported to play significant role in diverse physiological processes. It induces a range of cellular and adaptive responses to a range of environmental stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential metal which alters various physiological processes and generates ROS, which can oxidize biological macromolecules and causes oxidative stress. This stress is generally overcome by the internal antioxidative defense system and stress shielding phytohormones. In this study, effect of 28-HBL was studied on growth and activities of antioxidant enzymes in known hyperaccumulator Raphanus sativus L. (radish) seedlings grown under cadmium (Cd) metal stress. To determine the influence of 28-HBL (0, 10-(11), 10-(9), 10-(7) M) in radish seedlings subjected to Cd (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mM) stress, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (APOX, CAT, GR, POD and SOD) were analyzed. In addition, length and biomass of radish seedlings was also recorded. Cd toxicity resulted in reduced length, biomass, protein content and activities of antioxidant enzymes. 28-HBL treatments lowered the Cd toxicity by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, biomass and seedling length. The present study thus suggests a possible role of 28-HBL in amelioration of metal stress by regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes in radish.

  20. Early postpartum pup preference is altered by gestational cocaine treatment: associations with infant cues and oxytocin expression in the MPOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippard, E T Cox; Jarrett, T M; McMurray, M S; Zeskind, P S; Garber, K A; Zoghby, C R; Glaze, K; Tate, W; Johns, J M

    2015-02-01

    Cross-fostering studies suggest cocaine-induced deficits in maternal behavior could be associated with altered behavior of offspring following prenatal cocaine-exposure. Neonatal vocalizations are an important offspring cue facilitating early interactions between dam and rodent pup offspring and have been shown to be altered following prenatal cocaine-exposure. It is unclear how variations in acoustic parameters of USVs impact maternal behavior and the mechanism(s) underlying these processes. The present study examined differences in cocaine-exposed and control rodent dam maternal preference of cocaine-exposed or untreated pups in a dual choice apparatus. Relationship of preference-like behavior with pup USVs and dam oxytocin expression was explored. Gestational cocaine-exposure interfered with preference-like behavior of dams on postpartum day 1 with cocaine-exposure associated with decreased time spent on the cocaine-exposed pup side compared to the control pup side, and decreases in preference-like behavior associated in part with decreased number of USVs being emitted by cocaine-exposed pups. On postpartum day 5, decreased oxytocin expression in the medial preoptic area was associated with altered preference-like behavior in cocaine-exposed dams, including frequency and latency to touch/sniff pups. Results indicate cocaine's effects on the mother-infant relationship is likely synergistic, in that cocaine influences mother and offspring both independently and concertedly and that variations within pup vocalizations and the oxytocin system may be potential mechanism(s) underlying this synergistic relationship during the postpartum period.

  1. Alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the mouse hippocampus following acute but not repeated benzodiazepine treatment.

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    Stephanie C Licata

    Full Text Available Benzodiazepines (BZs are safe drugs for treating anxiety, sleep, and seizure disorders, but their use also results in unwanted effects including memory impairment, abuse, and dependence. The present study aimed to reveal the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the effects of BZs in the hippocampus (HIP, an area involved in drug-related plasticity, by investigating the regulation of immediate early genes following BZ administration. Previous studies have demonstrated that both brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and c-Fos contribute to memory- and abuse-related processes that occur within the HIP, and their expression is altered in response to BZ exposure. In the current study, mice received acute or repeated administration of BZs and HIP tissue was analyzed for alterations in BDNF and c-Fos expression. Although no significant changes in BDNF or c-Fos were observed in response to twice-daily intraperitoneal (i.p. injections of diazepam (10 mg/kg + 5 mg/kg or zolpidem (ZP; 2.5 mg/kg + 2.5 mg/kg, acute i.p. administration of both triazolam (0.03 mg/kg and ZP (1.0 mg/kg decreased BDNF protein levels within the HIP relative to vehicle, without any effect on c-Fos. ZP specifically reduced exon IV-containing BDNF transcripts with a concomitant increase in the association of methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2 with BDNF promoter IV, suggesting that MeCP2 activity at this promoter may represent a ZP-specific mechanism for reducing BDNF expression. ZP also increased the association of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB with BDNF promoter I. Future work should examine the interaction between ZP and DNA as the cause for altered gene expression in the HIP, given that BZs can enter the nucleus and intercalate into DNA directly.

  2. Betaine Treatment Attenuates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Steatosis and Alterations to the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Proteome

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    Kusum K. Kharbanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mitochondrial damage and disruption in oxidative phosphorylation contributes to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that the hepatoprotective actions of betaine against alcoholic liver injury occur at the level of the mitochondrial proteome. Methods. Male Wister rats were pair-fed control or ethanol-containing liquid diets supplemented with or without betaine (10 mg/mL for 4-5 wks. Liver was examined for triglyceride accumulation, levels of methionine cycle metabolites, and alterations in mitochondrial proteins. Results. Chronic ethanol ingestion resulted in triglyceride accumulation which was attenuated in the ethanol plus betaine group. Blue native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE revealed significant decreases in the content of the intact oxidative phosphorylation complexes in mitochondria from ethanol-fed animals. The alcohol-dependent loss in many of the low molecular weight oxidative phosphorylation proteins was prevented by betaine supplementation. This protection by betaine was associated with normalization of SAM : S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH ratios and the attenuation of the ethanol-induced increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide generation in the liver. Discussion/Conclusion. In summary, betaine attenuates alcoholic steatosis and alterations to the oxidative phosphorylation system. Therefore, preservation of mitochondrial function may be another key molecular mechanism responsible for betaine hepatoprotection.

  3. Long-term artificial sweetener acesulfame potassium treatment alters neurometabolic functions in C57BL/6J mice.

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    Wei-na Cong

    Full Text Available With the prevalence of obesity, artificial, non-nutritive sweeteners have been widely used as dietary supplements that provide sweet taste without excessive caloric load. In order to better understand the overall actions of artificial sweeteners, especially when they are chronically used, we investigated the peripheral and central nervous system effects of protracted exposure to a widely used artificial sweetener, acesulfame K (ACK. We found that extended ACK exposure (40 weeks in normal C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a moderate and limited influence on metabolic homeostasis, including altering fasting insulin and leptin levels, pancreatic islet size and lipid levels, without affecting insulin sensitivity and bodyweight. Interestingly, impaired cognitive memory functions (evaluated by Morris Water Maze and Novel Objective Preference tests were found in ACK-treated C57BL/6J mice, while no differences in motor function and anxiety levels were detected. The generation of an ACK-induced neurological phenotype was associated with metabolic dysregulation (glycolysis inhibition and functional ATP depletion and neurosynaptic abnormalities (dysregulation of TrkB-mediated BDNF and Akt/Erk-mediated cell growth/survival pathway in hippocampal neurons. Our data suggest that chronic use of ACK could affect cognitive functions, potentially via altering neuro-metabolic functions in male C57BL/6J mice.

  4. Alterations in genes other thanEGFR/ALK/ROS1 in non-small cell lung cancer:trials and treatment options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arpita Desai; Smitha P Menon; Grace K Dy

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, we have seen tremendous progress in the therapy of lung cancer. Discovery of actionable mutations in EGFR and translocations inALK andROS1 have identified subsets of patients with excellent tumor response to oral targeted agents with manageable side effects. In this review, we highlight treatment options including corresponding clinical trials for oncogenic alterations affecting the receptor tyrosine kinases MET, FGFR, NTRK, RET, HER2, HER3, and HER4 as well as components of the RAS-RAF-MEK signaling pathway.

  5. Effect of Fe Deficiency on Antioxidant System in Leaves of Three Flax Cultivars

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    Zeinab Abd El-Rahman SALAMA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential role of antioxidant enzymes as well as antioxidant compounds in protecting plant from the deleterious effect of iron deficiency was examined in different flax Linum usitassimum L. cultivars. Three flax cultivars (Sakha 1, Sakha 2 and Giza 8 were grown in water culture with (Fe-sufficient plants, +Fe or without (Fe-deficient plants,-Fe iron supply for 40 days. The obtained results showed that, iron deficiency severely decreased dry weight and concentration of iron in all cultivars leaf tissue. Besides this, to verify whether iron deficiency could induce alteration in reactive oxygen species, high concentration of lipid peroxidation (TBARS and H2O2 content in leaves of flax cultivars were detected under (-Fe compared to (+Fe treatments. Iron deficiency can also modulate the content of glutathione (GSH level, which were significantly increased in Fe deficient treatment compared to Fe-sufficient treatment among cultivars. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD was increased under deficient treatment. In contrast, significant differences were observed between cultivars in the activity of Fe containing enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX, peroxidase (POD and catalase (CAT that was greater under Fe sufficient treatment, suggesting higher amounts of physiological iron in leaf tissue of all cultivars. In addition, some changes in POD isoenzyme profile was detected under iron stress.These results suggested that, these antioxidant compounds are the key compounds to protect cell from oxidative injury.

  6. Cutaneous delivery of natural antioxidants: the enhancement approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Hsu, Ching-Yun; Lin, Yin-Ku; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    Topically applied natural antioxidants can be an effective treatment for inhibiting oxidative damage and photoaging of the skin. Due to the barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC), it is necessary to use an enhancement approach to promote the cutaneous absorption of natural antioxidants. Some factors that should be considered when developing delivery systems for natural antioxidants include increased solubility, enhanced storage stability, improved permeability and bioavailability, skin targeting, and minimal side effects. This review describes the skin delivery systems for natural antioxidant permeation that have been developed during the last decade. The antioxidants introduced include vitamins, polyphenols, and carotenoids. Various types of formulations are employed to improve the skin penetration of the antioxidants, such as hydrogels, cyclodextrin, microemulsions, nanoparticles, liposomes and niosomes. This review focuses on the introduction of natural antioxidants used in skin protection, the mechanisms of antioxidant activity on the skin, and formulation designs for enhancing absorption and efficacy.

  7. Thermal post-treatment alters nutrient release from a controlled-release fertilizer coated with a waterborne polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zijun; Du, Changwen; Li, Ting; Shen, Yazhen; Zhou, Jianmin

    2015-09-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) use a controlled-release technology to enhance the nutrient use efficiency of crops. Many factors affect the release of nutrients from the waterborne polymer-coated CRF, but the effects of thermal post-treatments remain unclear. In this study, a waterborne polyacrylate-coated CRF was post-treated at different temperatures (30 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C) and durations (2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h) after being developed in the Wurster fluidized bed. To characterize the polyacrylate membrane, and hence to analyze the mechanism of nutrient release, Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed. The nutrient-release model of CRF post-treated at 30 °C was the inverse “L” curve, but an increased duration of the post-treatment had no effect. The nutrient-release model was “S” curve and nutrient-release period was enhanced at higher post-treatment temperatures, and increased post-treatment duration lengthened slowed nutrient release due to a more compact membrane and a smoother membrane surface as well as a promoted crosslinking action. CRF equipped with specified nutrient-release behaviors can be achieved by optimizing the thermal post-treatment parameters, which can contribute to the development and application of waterborne polymer-coated CRF and controlled-release technologies.

  8. Phloroglucinol: antioxidant properties and effects on cellular oxidative markers in human HepG2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéguineur, Benoît; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia; Martín, Maria Angeles; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

    2012-08-01

    Phloroglucinol is an ubiquitous secondary metabolite encountered in a free state or polymerised as phlorotannins in brown macroalgae, and present in higher plants. FRAP and TEAC assays measured the antioxidant properties of phloroglucinol in non-biological conditions. Additionally, the biological effects of phloroglucinol (4-400 μM) were scrutinised using cellular oxidative stress markers, such as the generation of ROS, antioxidant defences (concentration of GSH and activities of GPx, GR and GST), and levels of MDA as a marker for lipid peroxidation. The direct effect was assessed immediately after an incubation period, whereas for the protective effect, the incubation period was followed by 3-h treatment with the pro-oxidant t-BOOH. The results indicated that despite having a higher radical scavenging capacity than Trolox after 30 min, phloroglucinol was not a suitable antioxidant standard for phlorotannins. Regarding the biological effects, phloroglucinol had no impact on cell viability, reduced levels of ROS and increased antioxidant defences in the direct treatment for most concentrations. The results of the protective effect were mitigated as phloroglucinol failed to protect from ROS generation but evoked a significant recovery of the stress-altered cellular antioxidant defences to restful conditions. Additionally, MDA levels were greatly reduced, preventing a radical chain oxidation.

  9. Antioxidant treatment strategies for hyperphenylalaninemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzola, Priscila Nicolao; Karikas, George Albert; Schulpis, Kleopatra H; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo

    2013-01-01

    Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) leads to increased oxidative stress in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) and in animal models of PKU. Early diagnosis and immediate adherence to a phenylalanine-restricted diet prevents HPA and, consequently, severe brain damage. However, treated adolescent and adult PK

  10. Alternating treatment with didanosine and zidovudine versus either drug alone for the treatment of advanced HIV infection. The Alter Study. Nordic HIV Therapy Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstoft, J; Melander, H; Bruun, J N;

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of an alternating regime with zidovudine and didanosine versus treatment with either drug alone were investigated in a randomized, open, controlled trial, 552 patients with advanced HIV infection, 47% of whom had received prior treatment with zidovudine, were enrolled...

  11. Antioxidant-Induced Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Kross

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in the body is offset when either of these forces prevails. The available evidence on the harmful effects of antioxidants is analyzed in this review. In summary, a hypothesis is presented that “antioxidant-induced stress” results when antioxidants overwhelm the body’s free radicals.

  12. Chronic but not acute antidepresant treatment alters serum zinc/copper ratio under pathological/zinc-deficient conditions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlyniec, K; Ostachowicz, B; Krakowska, A; Reczynski, W; Opoka, W; Nowak, G

    2014-10-01

    Depression is the leading psychiatric disorder with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinical studies report lower serum zinc in depressed patients, suggesting a strong link between zinc and mood disorders. Also copper as an antagonistic element to zinc seems to play a role in depression, where elevated concentration is observed. In the present study we investigated serum copper and zinc concentration after acute or chronic antidepressant (AD) treatment under pathological/zinc-deficient conditions. Zinc deficiency in mice was induced by a special diet administered for 6 weeks (zinc adequate diet - ZnA, contains 33.5 mgZn/kg; zinc deficient diet - ZnD, contains 0.2 mgZn/kg). Animals received acute or chronically saline (control), imipramine, escitalopram, reboxetine or bupropion. To evaluate changes in serum copper and zinc concentrations the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was performed. In ZnD animals serum zinc level was reduced after acute ADs treatment (similarly to vehicle treatment), however, as demonstrated in the previous study after chronic ADs administration no differences between both ZnA and ZnD groups were observed. Acute ADs in ZnD animals caused different changes in serum copper concentration with no changes after chronic ADs treatment. The calculated serum Zn/Cu ratio is reduced in ZnD animals (compared to ZnA subjects) treated with saline (acutely or chronically) and in animals treated acutely with ADs. However, chronic treatment with ADs normalized (by escitalopram, reboxetine or bupropion) or increased (by imipramine) this Zn/Cu ratio. Observed in this study normalization of serum Zn/Cu ratio in depression-like conditions by chronic (but not acute) antidepressants suggest that this ratio may be consider as a marker of depression or treatment efficacy.

  13. Assessment of the effect of silicon on antioxidant enzymes in cotton plants by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto Moldes, Carlos; Fontão de Lima Filho, Oscar; Manuel Camiña, José; Gabriela Kiriachek, Soraya; Lia Molas, María; Mui Tsai, Siu

    2013-11-27

    Silicon has been extensively researched in relation to the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stress, as an element triggering defense mechanisms which activate the antioxidant system. Furthermore, in some species, adding silicon to unstressed plants modifies the activity of certain antioxidant enzymes participating in detoxifying processes. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves and roots of unstressed cotton plants fertilized with silicon (Si). Cotton plants were grown in hydroponic culture and added with increasing doses of potassium silicate; then, the enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Using multivariate analysis, we found that silicon altered the activity of GPOX, APX, and CAT in roots and leaves of unstressed cotton plants, whereas lipid peroxidation was not affected. The analysis of these four variables in concert showed a clear differentiation among Si treatments. We observed that enzymatic activities in leaves and roots changed as silicon concentration increased, to stabilize at 100 and 200 mg Si L(-1) treatments in leaves and roots, respectively. Those alterations would allow a new biochemical status that could be partially responsible for the beneficial effects of silicon. This study might contribute to adjust the silicon application doses for optimal fertilization, preventing potential toxic effects and unnecessary cost.

  14. The use of antioxidants in radiotherapy-induced skin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amber, Kyle T; Shiman, Michael I; Badiavas, Evangelos V

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced skin damage is one of the most common complications of radiotherapy. In order to combat these side effects, patients often turn to alternative therapies, which often include antioxidants. Antioxidants such as those in the polyphenol chemical class, xanthine derivatives, tocepherol, sucralfate, and ascorbate have been studied for their use in either preventing or treating radiotherapy-induced skin damage. Apart from their known role as free radical scavengers, some of these antioxidants appear to alter cytokine release affecting cutaneous and systemic changes. We review the role of antioxidants in treating and preventing radiation-induced skin damage as well as the possible complications of using such therapy.

  15. A yang-promoting Chinese herbal suppository preparation enhances the antioxidant status of red cells in male human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, D H F; Chiu, P Y; Poon, M K T; Ng, T T L; Chung, Y K; Lam, B Y H; Du, Y; Ko, K M

    2004-07-01

    In the 16-week pilot study, the effect of a Yang-promoting Chinese herbal suppository preparation (VI-28) on the red cell antioxidant status was examined in 31 healthy male subjects aged 41-66 years old. VI-28 treatment for 12 weeks (one suppository (0.3 g) daily for week 1-4; one every 2 days for week 5-8; one every 3 days for week 9-12) produced a time/dose-dependent alteration in red cell antioxidant status. The VI-28-induced change is characterized by a slight depletion in cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level and a decrease in susceptibility to peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation as well as increases in catalase (CAT) and Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. While a reversal trend of change was observed in cellular GSH level, the susceptibility to lipid peroxidation as well as the CAT activity after the cessation of treatment for 4 weeks, the SOD activity exhibited a protracted increase. The results indicate that VI-28 treatment enhances red cell antioxidant status in male subjects. The beneficial effect of VI-28 treatment on red cells may re fl ect a corresponding change in antioxidant status of peripheral tissues.

  16. The impact of zinc sulfate addition on the dynamic metabolic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to long term acetic acid stress treatment and identification of key metabolites involved in the antioxidant effect of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chun; Zhang, Mingming; Fang, Qing; Xiong, Liang; Zhao, Xinqing; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Bai, Fengwu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms of how zinc protects the cells against acetic acid toxicity and acts as an antioxidant are still not clear. Here we present results of the metabolic profiling of the eukaryotic model yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to long term high concentration acetic acid stress treatment in the presence and absence of zinc supplementation. Zinc addition decreased the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of chronic acetic acid stress. The dynamic changes in the accumulation of intermediates in central carbon metabolism were observed, and higher contents of intracellular alanine, valine and serine were observed by zinc supplementation. The most significant change was observed in alanine content, which is 3.51-fold of that of the control culture in cells in the stationary phase. Subsequently, it was found that 0.5 g L(-1) alanine addition resulted in faster glucose consumption in the presence of 5 g L(-1) acetic acid, and apparently decreased ROS accumulation in zinc-supplemented cells. This indicates that alanine exerted its antioxidant effect at least partially through the detoxification of acetic acid. In addition, intracellular glutathione (GSH) accumulation was enhanced by zinc addition, which is related to the protection of yeast cells from the oxidative injury caused by acetic acid. Our studies revealed for the first time that zinc modulates cellular amino acid metabolism and redox balance, especially biosynthesis of alanine and glutathione to exert its antioxidant effect.

  17. Lack of long-term behavioral alterations after early postnatal treatment with tropisetron: implications for developmental psychobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inta, Dragos; Vogt, Miriam A; Lima-Ojeda, Juan M; Pfeiffer, Natascha; Schneider, Miriam; Gass, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The early postnatal period represents a critical time window for brain development. Transient Cajal-Retzius cells in layer I of the cortex play an important role in cortical lamination by modulating neuronal migration and maturation. Recent data have demonstrated that the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist and alpha7 nicotinic receptor partial agonist tropisetron, acting via 5-HT(3) receptors expressed on Cajal-Retzius cells, can disturb the formation of cortical columns at perinatal stages. This process is thought to be involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we investigated the possible long-term behavioral effects of exposure to tropisetron at early postnatal stages in mice. We found that the administration of 1mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) tropisetron from postnatal days 2-12 (P2-P12) did not induce significant cognitive, schizophrenia-like or emotional alterations in tropisetron-treated animals as compared to controls, when tested in multiple behavioral assays. These results may be of relevance regarding the possible protracted deleterious neuropsychiatric effects of tropisetron during early life.

  18. Prenatal minocycline treatment alters synaptic protein expression, and rescues reduced mother call rate in oxytocin receptor-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Shinji; Hiraoka, Yuichi; Hidema, Shizu; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2016-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired communication, difficulty in companionship, repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Recent studies have shown amelioration of ASD symptoms by intranasal administration of oxytocin and demonstrated the association of polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) gene with ASD patients. Deficient pruning of synapses by microglial cells in the brain has been proposed as potential mechanism of ASD. Other researchers have shown specific activation of microglial cells in brain regions related to sociality in patients with ASD. Although the roles of Oxtr and microglia in ASD are in the spotlight, the relationship between them remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found abnormal activation of microglial cells and a reduction of postsynaptic density protein PSD95 expression in the Oxtr-deficient brain. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of microglia during development can alter the expression of PSD95 and ameliorate abnormal mother-infant communication in Oxtr-deficient mice. Our results suggest that microglial abnormality is a potential mechanism of the development of Oxt/Oxtr mediated ASD-like phenotypes.

  19. Long-term dexamethasone treatment alters the histomorphology of acinar cells in rat parotid and submandibular glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighetti, Bruna B; d Assis, Gerson F; Vieira, Danilo C; Violato, Natalia M; Cestari, Tania M; Taga, Rumio; Bosqueiro, José R; Rafacho, Alex

    2014-10-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) induce insulin resistance (IR), a condition known to alter oral homeostasis. This study investigated the effects of long-term dexamethasone administration on morphofunctional aspects of salivary glands. Male Wistar rats received daily injections of dexamethasone [0.1 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intraperitoneally] for 10 days (DEX), whereas control rats received saline. Subsequently, glycaemia, insulinaemia, insulin secretion and salivary flow were analysed. The parotid and submandibular glands were collected for histomorphometric evaluation and Western blot experiments. The DEX rats were found to be normoglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic, insulin resistant and glucose intolerant (P glands (P salivary flux rate. The hypotrophy in both glands observed in the DEX group was associated with marked reduction in the volume of the acinar cells in these glands of 50% and 26% respectively (P acinar cells was increased in the submandibular glands of the DEX rats (P glands. The levels of proteins related to insulin and survival signalling in both glands did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, the long-term administration of dexamethasone caused IR, which was associated with significant reductions in both mass and flux rate of the salivary glands. The parotid and submandibular glands exhibited reduced acinar cell volume; however, the submandibular glands displayed acinar hyperplasia, indicating a gland-specific response to GCs. Our data emphasize that GC-based therapies and insulin-resistant states have a negative impact on salivary gland homeostasis.

  20. Antiretroviral treatment initiation does not differentially alter neurocognitive functioning over time in youth with behaviorally acquired HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Bethel, James; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Li, Tiandong; Woods, Steven P.; Patton, E. Doyle; Ren, Weijia; Thornton, Sarah E.; Major-Wilson, Hanna O.; Puga, Ana M.; Sleasman, John W.; Rudy, Bret J; Craig M Wilson; Garvie, Patricia A.; ,

    2015-01-01

    Although youth living with behaviorally acquired HIV (YLWH) are at risk for cognitive impairments, the relationship of impairments to HIV and potential to improve with antiretroviral therapy (ART) are unclear. This prospective observational study was designed to examine the impact of initiation and timing of ART on neurocognitive functioning in YLWH in the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions. Treatment naïve YLWH age 18–24 completed baseline and four additional asses...

  1. An atypical presentation of ACAD9 deficiency: Diagnosis by whole exome sequencing broadens the phenotypic spectrum and alters treatment approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Aintablian

    2017-03-01

    There have been fewer than 25 reported cases of ACAD9 deficiency in the literature to date. We review these and compare them to the unique features of our patient. ACAD9 deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with lactic acidosis, seizures, and other symptoms of mitochondrial disease, including those with normal mitochondrial enzyme activities. This case demonstrates the utility of WES, in conjunction with biochemical testing, for the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of disorders of energy metabolism.

  2. Alteration of oxidative stress parameters in red blood cells of rats after chronic in vivo treatment with cisplatin and selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Snežana D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the possible protective effects of selenium (Se on hematological and oxidative stress parameters in rats chronically treated with cisplatin (cisPt. Four groups of Wistar albino rats were examined: a control, untreated rats (I, rats treated with Se (II, rats treated with cisPt (III, and rats treated with Se and cisPt (IV. All animals were treated for 5 days successively and killed 24 h after the last treatment. Hematological and oxidative stress parameters were followed in whole blood and red blood cells (RBC. Results showed that the chronic application of Se was followed by a higher number of reticulocytes and platelets, increased lipid peroxidation and GSH content in the RBC. Cisplatin treatment induced depletion of RBC and platelet numbers and an elevation of the superoxide anion, nitrites and glutathione levels. Se and cisPt co-treatment was followed by an elevation of the hematological parameters and the recovery of the glutathione status when compared to the control and cisPt-treated rats.

  3. Altered brain concentrations of citalopram and escitalopram in P-glycoprotein deficient mice after acute and chronic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Louise; Carlsson, Björn; Hiemke, Christoph; Ahlner, Johan; Bengtsson, Finn; Schmitt, Ulrich; Kugelberg, Fredrik C

    2013-11-01

    According to both in vitro and in vivo data P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may restrict the uptake of several antidepressants into the brain, thus contributing to the poor success rate of current antidepressant therapies. The therapeutic activity of citalopram resides in the S-enantiomer, whereas the R-enantiomer is practically devoid of serotonin reuptake potency. To date, no in vivo data are available that address whether the enantiomers of citalopram and its metabolites are substrates of P-gp. P-gp knockout (abcb1ab (-/-)) and wild-type (abcb1ab (+/+)) mice underwent acute (single-dose) and chronic (two daily doses for 10 days) treatment with citalopram (10mg/kg) or escitalopram (5mg/kg) Serum and brain samples were collected 1-6h after the first or last i.p. injection for subsequent drug analysis by an enantioselective HPLC method. In brain, 3-fold higher concentrations of S- and R-citalopram, and its metabolites, were found in abcb1ab (-/-) mice than in abcb1ab (+/+) mice after both acute and chronic citalopram treatments. After escitalopram treatment, the S-citalopram brain concentration was 3-5 times higher in the knockout mice than in controls. The results provide novel evidence that the enantiomers of citalopram are substrates of P-gp. Possible clinical and toxicological implications of this finding need to be further elucidated.

  4. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Miranda

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated with and without the extract at 37oC. The IC50 (concentration which causes a 50% reduction of oxidation of the extract in this system was 0.18 mg/ml. The in vivo antioxidant capacity was evaluated in plasma and liver of animals receiving a daily dose of 5 mg for 2 and 7 weeks. Plasma antioxidant capacity was measured in brain homogenate incubated for 1 h at 37oC. The production of oxidized compounds in liver after 2 h of incubation at 37oC was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS in control and experimental groups. Upon treatment, the antioxidant capacity of plasma was 71% for the experimental group and 54% for the control group. Data from liver spontaneous peroxidation studies were not significantly different between groups. The amounts of phenolic acids, a-tocopherol and ß-carotene were determined in Spirulina extracts. The results obtained indicate that Spirulina provides some antioxidant protection for both in vitro and in vivo systems.

  5. Antioxidants and vision health: facts and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Ashok K; Samson, Sue E

    2014-03-01

    A number of nutritional supplements containing antioxidants are advertised for better vision health. Do they benefit the average consumer? The literature was examined for the effectiveness of antioxidants for human eye health, and for the intricacies in collection of such evidence. The following diseases were considered: cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, eye infections, and uveitis. The literature indicates that antioxidant supplements plus lutein have a reasonable probability of retarding AMD. For glaucoma, such supplements were ineffectual in some studies but useful in others. In some studies, antioxidant rich fruits and vegetables were also useful for protection against glaucoma. For diabetic retinopathy, antioxidant supplements may have a small benefit, if any, but only as an adjunct to glycemic control. In very high-risk premature retinopathy and retinitis pigmentosa, antioxidant supplements may be beneficial but those with excess Vitamin E should be avoided. For cataract, there is no evidence for an advantage of such nutritional supplements. However, lubricant drops containing N-acetylcarnosine may be helpful in initial stages of the disease. For eye infections and other causes of uveitis, antioxidants have not been found useful. We recommend that a diet high in antioxidant rich foods should be developed as a habit from an early age. However, when initial signs of vision health deterioration are observed, the appropriate nutritional supplement products may be recommended but only to augment the primary medical treatments.

  6. Margarines fortified with α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, or docosahexaenoic acid alter the fatty acid composition of erythrocytes but do not affect the antioxidant status of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egert, Sarah; Lindenmeier, Michael; Harnack, Kerstin; Krome, Katharina; Erbersdobler, Helmut F; Wahrburg, Ursel; Somoza, Veronika

    2012-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of increased intake of α-linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, or DHA incorporated into a food matrix on the fatty acid composition of erythrocytes and on biomarkers of oxidant/antioxidant status. To this end, a controlled dietary study was conducted in 74 healthy men and women. The participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 interventions in which margarines fortified with either 10 weight percent ALA, EPA, or DHA ethyl esters replaced their normal spread for 6 wk. The total intakes of ALA, EPA, and DHA were 4.4, 2.2, and 2.3 g/d, respectively. Consuming EPA increased the erythrocyte proportion of EPA (394%) and the omega-3 index (sum of EPA and DHA, 38%). Consumption of DHA increased erythrocyte DHA (91%), the omega-3 index (98%), and EPA (137%). The omega-3 index increased to a significantly greater extent in the DHA group than in the EPA group. ALA did not increase erythrocyte EPA or the omega-3 index. We found no change in plasma uric acid or antioxidant capacity in any of the groups. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) increased with the EPA and DHA interventions. All 3 interventions decreased erythrocyte linoleic acid hydroperoxides but did not affect their MDA concentrations. In conclusion, the intake of both isolated EPA and DHA incorporated into margarine resulted in an enhanced incorporation of EPA and DHA into erythrocytes. Our findings indicate that DHA is quantitatively superior to EPA in view of the EPA+DHA tissue incorporation and also that 4 g/d ALA is not sufficient to increase the omega-3 index over a 6-wk period.

  7. Treatment of cholestatic fibrosis by altering gene expression of Cthrc1: Implications for autoimmune and non-autoimmune liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhaolian; Miao, Qi; Zhong, Wei; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Qixia; Peng, Yanshen; Chen, Xiaoyu; Guo, Canjie; Shen, Li; Yang, Fan; Xu, Jie; Qiu, Dekai; Fang, Jingyuan; Friedman, Scott; Tang, Ruqi; Gershwin, M Eric; Ma, Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 (Cthrc1) is a documented specific inhibitor of TGF-β signaling. Based on this observation, we developed the hypothesis that knocking in/knocking out the Cthrc1 gene in murine models of cholestasis would alter the natural history of cholestatic fibrosis. To study this thesis, we studied two murine models of fibrosis, first, common bile duct ligation (CBDL) and second, feeding of 3, 5-diethoxy-carbonyl-1, 4-dihydrocollidine (DDC). In both models, we administered well-defined adenoviral vectors that expressed either Cthrc1 or, alternatively, a short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-targeting Cthrc1 either before or after establishment of fibrosis. Importantly, when Cthrc1 gene expression was enhanced, we noted a significant improvement of hepatic fibrosis, both microscopically and by analysis of fibrotic gene expression. In contrast, when Cthrc1 gene expression was deleted, there was a significant exacerbation of fibrosis. To identify the mechanism of action of these significant effects produced by knocking in/knocking out Cthrc gene expression, we thence studied the interaction of Cthrc1 gene expression using hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and human LX-2 cells. Importantly, we demonstrate that Cthrc1 is induced by TGF-β1 via phospho-Smad3 binding to the promoter with subsequent transcription activation. In addition, we demonstrate that Cthrc1 inhibits TGF-β signaling by accelerating degradation of phospho-Smad3 through a proteosomal pathway. Importantly, the anti-fibrotic effects can be recapitulated with a truncated fragment of Cthrc1. In conclusion, our findings uncover a critical negative feedback regulatory loop in which TGF-β1 induces Cthrc1, which can attenuate fibrosis by accelerating degradation of phospho-Smad3.

  8. A preliminary analysis of association between plasma microRNA expression alteration and symptomatology improvement in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD patients before and after antidepressant treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qiao-li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Currently, there is a serious need to find practical biomarker(s for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD therapeutic target(s. This study aimed to investigate the association between microRNA (miRNA, miR expression level in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs and symptomatology improvement in MDD patients before and after six-week antidepressant treatment. Methods: By using an Affymetrix array that covers 723 human miRNAs, 26 miRNAs were identified with significantly altered expression in PBMCs in MDD patients, of which 10 miRNAs were selected for quantitative real-time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR study. Twenty out of all the 81 MDD patients were selected for miRNA expression levels testing and symptomatology assessments before and after six-week treatment. Results: Compared with the control group, the expression levels of miR-26b, miR-4743, miR-4498, miR-4485 and miR-1972 of the MDD group were significantly higher (P < 0.05; the changes of expression levels of miR-4743, miR-4498, miR-4485 and miR-1972 were positively related to retardation improvement (P < 0.05, and the change of expression level of miR-26b negatively to the improvement of day and night change (P < 0.05; regression analysis result demonstrated that the alteration of miR-4485 expression accounted for 28.8% of retardation improvement (P < 0.05. Conclusions: These five miRNAs (miR-4743, miR-4498, miR-4485, miR-1972 and miR-26b may serve as biomarker for MDD diagnosis and therapeutic targets for MDD treatment.

  9. 4D analysis of influence of patient movement and anatomy alteration on the quality of 3D U/S-based prostate HDR brachytherapy treatment delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milickovic, Natasa; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Tselis, Nikolaos; Nikolova, Iliyana; Katsilieri, Zaira; Kefala, Vasiliki; Zamboglou, Nikolaos; Baltas, Dimos [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Offenbach Clinic, Starkenburgring 66, 63069 Offenbach am Main (Germany); Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University (Sweden); Department of Radiation Oncology, Offenbach Clinic, Starkenburgring 66, 63069 Offenbach am Main (Germany); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Offenbach Clinic, Starkenburgring 66, 63069 Offenbach am Main (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Offenbach Clinic, Starkenburgring 66, 63069 Offenbach am Main (Germany); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Offenbach Clinic, Starkenburgring 66, 63069 Offenbach am Main, Germany and Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, 15771 Athens (Greece)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Modern HDR brachytherapy treatment for prostate cancer based on the 3D ultrasound (U/S) plays increasingly important role. The purpose of this study is to investigate possible patient movement and anatomy alteration between the clinical image set acquisition, made after the needle implantation, and the patient irradiation and their influence on the quality of treatment. Methods: The authors used 3D U/S image sets and the corresponding treatment plans based on a 4D-treatment planning procedure: plans of 25 patients are obtained right after the needle implantation (clinical plan is based on this 3D image set) and just before and after the treatment delivery. The authors notice the slight decrease of treatment quality with increase of time gap between the clinical image set acquisition and the patient irradiation. 4D analysis of dose-volume-histograms (DVHs) for prostate: CTV1 = PTV, and urethra, rectum, and bladder as organs at risk (OARs) and conformity index (COIN) is presented, demonstrating the effect of prostate, OARs, and needles displacement. Results: The authors show that in the case that the patient body movement/anatomy alteration takes place, this results in modification of DVHs and radiobiological parameters, hence the plan quality. The observed average displacement of needles (1 mm) and of prostate (0.57 mm) is quite small as compared with the average displacement noted in several other reports [A. A. Martinez et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 49(1), 61-69 (2001); S. J. Damore et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 46(5), 1205-1211 (2000); P. J. Hoskin et al., Radiotherm. Oncol. 68(3), 285-288 (2003); E. Mullokandov et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 58(4), 1063-1071 (2004)] in the literature. Conclusions: Although the decrease of quality of dosimetric and radiobiological parameters occurs, this does not cause clinically unacceptable changes to the 3D dose distribution, according to our clinical protocol.

  10. Antioxidants in dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Varadraj V Pai; Pankaj Shukla; Naveen Narayanshetty Kikkeri

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants neutralize free radicals produced by various environmental insults such as ultraviolet radiation, cigarette smoke and air pollutants, thereby preventing cellular damage. The role of oxidative stress and antioxidants is known in diseases like obesity, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer′s disease. Herein we discuss the effects of oxidative stress on the skin and role of antioxidants in dermatology.

  11. Antioxidants in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varadraj V Pai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants neutralize free radicals produced by various environmental insults such as ultraviolet radiation, cigarette smoke and air pollutants, thereby preventing cellular damage. The role of oxidative stress and antioxidants is known in diseases like obesity, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer′s disease. Herein we discuss the effects of oxidative stress on the skin and role of antioxidants in dermatology.

  12. Antioxidants in dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Pai, Varadraj V.; Pankaj Shukla; Naveen Narayanshetty Kikkeri

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants neutralize free radicals produced by various environmental insults such as ultraviolet radiation, cigarette smoke and air pollutants, thereby preventing cellular damage. The role of oxidative stress and antioxidants is known in diseases like obesity, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Herein we discuss the effects of oxidative stress on the skin and role of antioxidants in dermatology.

  13. Altered phosphorylation and distribution status of vimentin in rat seminiferous epithelium following 17β-estradiol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rahul; D'Souza, Ryan; Sonawane, Shobha; Gaonkar, Reshma; Pathak, Shilpa; Jhadav, Aditi; Balasinor, N H

    2011-11-01

    Vimentin, type III intermediate filament, has stage-specific localization in the Sertoli cell. In the rat, during stages I-V and XI-XIV of the seminiferous epithelium, vimentin is localized in the perinuclear area with filaments projecting into the apical region toward the developing germ cells. These filaments decrease in length at stages VI-VII with perinuclear staining in stages VIII-IX, when spermiation occurs. Our earlier studies following 17β-estradiol treatment to adult male rats demonstrated an increase in germ cell apoptosis, spermiation failure and disruption of Sertoli cell microfilaments and microtubules. The present study was undertaken to determine the stage-specific distribution of vimentin and its involvement in spermiation failure and germ cell apoptosis. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that in contrast to the perinuclear localization with small extensions in control stages VII-IX, long extensions radiating apically to the spermatids in deep recess were observed in the treated group. Immunoprecipitation studies showed marked absence of phosphorylated vimentin in stages VII-VIII in the treated group. Further, localization of plectin, cytoskeletal linker protein, showed decrease in all the stages of spermatogenesis following estradiol treatment. Interestingly, for the first time the localization of plectin in the tubulobulbar complex was observed. In conclusion, the study suggests that estradiol treatment leads to an effect on vimentin phosphorylation, which could have inhibited the disassembly of vimentin leading to retention of apical projection in stages VII-VIII. These effects could be presumably due to a decrease in plectin, affecting the reorganization of vimentin and therefore the apical movement of spermatids, leading to spermiation failure.

  14. Thermal post-treatment alters nutrient release from a controlled-release fertilizer coated with a waterborne polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Zijun Zhou; Changwen Du; Ting Li; Yazhen Shen; Jianmin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) use a controlled-release technology to enhance the nutrient use efficiency of crops. Many factors affect the release of nutrients from the waterborne polymer-coated CRF, but the effects of thermal post-treatments remain unclear. In this study, a waterborne polyacrylate-coated CRF was post-treated at different temperatures (30 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C) and durations (2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h) after being developed in the Wurster fluidized bed. To characterize the ...

  15. Alterations in plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation promoted by treatment with self-ligating and conventional orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio de Almeida Cardoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate, comparatively, the periodontal response during orthodontic treatment performed with self-ligating and conventional brackets. METHODS: Sixteen Caucasian individuals of both sexes, aged between 12 and 16 years old and in permanent dentition were selected. Eight individuals were treated with conventional brackets installed on the lower dental arch and self-ligating brackets on the upper arch. Another eight individuals received self-ligating brackets in the lower arch and conventional brackets in the upper arch. The subjects received material and instructions for oral hygiene. Visible plaque index (VPI, gingival bleeding index (GBI and clinical attachment level (CAL were evaluated just after installation of orthodontic appliances, and 30, 60 and 180 days later. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare differences between groups (self-ligating and conventional, two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test was used to assess CAL at each site of each tooth. Significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: No significant changes were found with regard to the assessed parameters (VPI, GBI and CAL in either one of the systems. CONCLUSION: No significant changes were found with regard to the periodontal response to orthodontic treatment for the variables assessed and between subjects receiving passive self-ligating and conventional brackets. All individuals had received oral hygiene instructions and had their periodontal conditions monitored.

  16. Does the Use of Telemental Health Alter the Treatment Experience? Inmates' Perceptions of Telemental Health versus Face-to-Face Treatment Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Robert D.; Patrick, Amber R.; Magaletta, Philip R.

    2008-01-01

    In corrections, where staffing limitations tax an overburdened mental health system, telemental health is an increasingly common mode of mental health service delivery. Although telemental health presents an efficient treatment modality for a spectrum of mental health services, it is imperative to study how this modality influences key elements of…

  17. Topical antioxidants in radiodermatitis: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T

    2015-09-01

    Radiation-induced skin toxicity is the most prevalent side effect of radiation therapy. Not only does it have a significant effect on patients' quality of life, but it also results in poor follow-up and early termination of radiotherapy treatment. Several skin care practices and topical applications have been studied in the field of radiodermatitis, including skin washing, topical steroids, and mechanical skin barriers. Aside from these methods, many patients turn to complementary and alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. Many of these alternative therapies are topically applied antioxidants. While the rationale behind the use of antioxidants in treating radiodermatitis is strong, clinical studies have been far less consistent. Even in large scale randomised controlled trials, findings have been limited by the inconsistent use of topical vehicles and placebos. In this article, the authors review the role of topical antioxidants to better help the practitioner navigate through different available skin directed antioxidants.

  18. Piroxicam attenuates 3-nitropropionic acid-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Jadiswami; H M, Megha; Dhadde, Shivsharan B; Durg, Sharanbasappa; Potadar, Pandharinath P; B S, Thippeswamy; V P, Veerapur

    2014-12-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is a fungal toxin that produces Huntington's disease like symptoms in both animals and humans. Piroxicam, a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, used as anti-inflammatory agent and also known to decrease free oxygen radical production. In this study, the effect of piroxicam was evaluated against 3-NP-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration in mice. Adult male Swiss albino mice were injected with vehicle/piroxicam (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before 3-NP challenge (15 mg/kg, i.p.) regularly for 14 days. Body weights of the mice were measured on alternative days of the experiment. At the end of the treatment schedule, mice were evaluated for behavioral alterations (movement analysis, locomotor test, beam walking test and hanging wire test) and brain homogenates were used for the estimation of oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and catalase). Administration of 3-NP significantly altered the behavioral activities and brain antioxidant status in mice. Piroxicam, at both the tested doses, caused a significant reversal of 3-NP-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative stress in mice. These findings suggest piroxicam protects the mice against 3-NP-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration. The antioxidant properties of piroxicam may be responsible for the observed beneficial actions.

  19. A Biofilm Pocket Model to Evaluate Different Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatment Modalities in Terms of Biofilm Removal and Reformation, Surface Alterations and Attachment of Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias T Hägi

    Full Text Available There is a lack of suitable in vitro models to evaluate various treatment modalities intending to remove subgingival bacterial biofilm. Consequently, the aims of this in vitro-study were: a to establish a pocket model enabling mechanical removal of biofilm and b to evaluate repeated non-surgical periodontal treatment with respect to biofilm removal and reformation, surface alterations, tooth hard-substance-loss, and attachment of periodontal ligament (PDL fibroblasts.Standardized human dentin specimens were colonized by multi-species biofilms for 3.5 days and subsequently placed into artificially created pockets. Non-surgical periodontal treatment was performed as follows: a hand-instrumentation with curettes (CUR, b ultrasonication (US, c subgingival air-polishing using erythritol (EAP and d subgingival air-polishing using erythritol combined with chlorhexidine digluconate (EAP-CHX. The reduction and recolonization of bacterial counts, surface roughness (Ra and Rz, the caused tooth substance-loss (thickness as well as the attachment of PDL fibroblasts were evaluated and statistically analyzed by means of ANOVA with Post-Hoc LSD.After 5 treatments, bacterial reduction in biofilms was highest when applying EAP-CHX (4 log10. The lowest reduction was found after CUR (2 log10. Additionally, substance-loss was the highest when using CUR (128±40 µm in comparison with US (14±12 µm, EAP (6±7 µm and EAP-CHX (11±10 µm. Surface was roughened when using CUR and US. Surfaces exposed to US and to EAP attracted the highest numbers of PDL fibroblasts.The established biofilm model simulating a periodontal pocket combined with interchangeable placements of test specimens with multi-species biofilms enables the evaluation of different non-surgical treatment modalities on biofilm removal and surface alterations. Compared to hand instrumentation the application of ultrasonication and of air-polishing with erythritol prevents from substance-loss and results

  20. Experiment Study of The Anti-Oxidative Treatment in Biliary Tract with Pancreaticobiliary Maljunction%胰胆管合流异常胆道损伤抗氧化治疗的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈风; 汤琳; 汪健; 黄顺根; 王兴东

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of anti-oxidative treatment in cats with pancreaticobiliary maljunction. Methods Thirteen healthy cats as control group were made a model that resembling the common channel of pancreaticobiliary maljunction as in humans, and were divided randomly into two groups: 7 cats in untreated group were not treated, 6 cats in anti-oxidative group were treated with melatonin, vitamin C, and vitamin E. Six months later, the gallbladders of these animals were removed and histopathological changes were evaluated by pathological and electron microscopic examination. The level of MDA, amylase concentration in the gallbladder bile, and percentage of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PNCA) positive cells were also test. Results All cats had survived for 6 months after operation. The wall of gallbladder and the bile became thicker in untreated group than that in normal control group, and there were no significant differences between untreated group and anti-oxidative group. The gallbladder epithelium became villous in appearance in untreated group, although the epithelium of that in normal control group was flat with few folds. The epithelial cells of gallbladder arranged tightly in normal control group, while a significant change such as endoplasmic reticulum expanding, intercellular space broadening, and cellular nucleus deforming were observed in untreated group. The things in anti-oxidative group were better than untreated group. The amylase concentration in the gallbladder bile was (203. 02 + 65. 04) U in normal control group, (9 368. 09+2 204. 42) U in untreated group, and (8 746. 25+2 077. 95) U in anti-oxidative group, respectively. The amylase concentration in untreated group and anti-oxidative group were higher than that in normal control group (P=0.003), and there was no significant difference between the untreated group and anti-oxidative group CP=0. 642) . The percentage of PNCA positive cells was (7. 29+2. 70) % in normal control

  1. Effects of Cooking Treatment on Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols in Jujube%烹饪方式对红枣多酚抗氧化活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毕妮; 樊明涛; 曹炜; 高慧; 程妮; 邓建军

    2011-01-01

    研究了不同烹饪方式(高压蒸、煮及常压蒸、煮)对红枣枣皮、枣肉中多酚粗提物及4种存在形式酚酸部分的总酚含量及抗氧化活性的影响。采用Folin-Ciocalteu比色法测定其总酚含量、DPPH法和FRAP法分别评价其抗氧化活性。结果表明:高压蒸煮较常压处理红枣中的总酚含量较高,尤其是枣肉;常压煮制红枣的枣皮和枣肉中酚酸类化合物的总酚含量均最高。常压蒸制处理的红枣枣皮的DPPH·清除能力和总抗氧化能力均较强,而高压蒸制处理的红枣枣肉的DPPH·清除能力较强,常压煮制的红枣枣肉总抗氧化能力较强。红枣中总酚尤其是酚酸类化合物对其抗氧化活性起了很大的作用。红枣若采用高压烹饪方式,蒸制处理能较好地保存红枣中的酚类化合物及抗氧化活性;若采用常压烹饪方式,则煮制较好。%The effects of different cooking methods(high-pressure cooking,steam and boiling under normal pressure) on the total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of the extracts from jujube were investigated.The total phenolic contents were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method,and the antioxidant activity were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assays.The results showed that the total phenolic content in jujube extracts treated by high-pressure cooking and steam is higher than that by pressure treatments,especially in the pulp of jujube.But the total phenolic acids contents in the peel and pulp of jujube treated by pressure cooking are higher.The peel of jujube treated by pressure steam exhibits the highest DPPH· scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity.The DPPH · scavenging activity of jujube pulp from high - pressure steam is stronger,while the total antioxidant activity of pulp from pressure cooking is higher.The total phenolics especially the phenolic acids play an important role in the antioxidant activity.If jujube is treated by high-pressure treatments

  2. Circadian Disruption Alters the Effects of Lipopolysaccharide Treatment on Circadian and Ultradian Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature Rhythms of Female Siberian Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Brian J; Cable, Erin J; Stevenson, Tyler J; Onishi, Kenneth G; Zucker, Irving; Kay, Leslie M

    2015-12-01

    The effect of circadian rhythm (CR) disruption on immune function depends on the method by which CRs are disrupted. Behavioral and thermoregulatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment were assessed in female Siberian hamsters in which circadian locomotor activity (LMA) rhythms were eliminated by exposure to a disruptive phase-shifting protocol (DPS) that sustains arrhythmicity even when hamsters are housed in a light-dark cycle. This noninvasive treatment avoids genome manipulations and neurological damage associated with other models of CR disruption. Circadian rhythmic (RHYTH) and arrhythmic (ARR) hamsters housed in a 16L:8D photocycle were injected with bacterial LPS near the onset of the light (zeitgeber time 1; ZT1) or dark (ZT16) phase. LPS injections at ZT16 and ZT1 elicited febrile responses in both RHYTH and ARR hamsters, but the effect was attenuated in the arrhythmic females. In ZT16, LPS inhibited LMA in the dark phase immediately after injection but not on subsequent nights in both chronotypes; in contrast, LPS at ZT1 elicited more enduring (~4 day) locomotor hypoactivity in ARR than in RHYTH hamsters. Power and period of dark-phase ultradian rhythms (URs) in LMA and Tb were markedly altered by LPS treatment, as was the power in the circadian waveform. Disrupted circadian rhythms in this model system attenuated responses to LPS in a trait- and ZT-specific manner; changes in UR period and power are novel components of the acute-phase response to infection that may affect energy conservation.

  3. Antioxidants in liver health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sael; Casas-Grajales; Pablo; Muriel

    2015-01-01

    Liver diseases are a worldwide medical problem because the liver is the principal detoxifying organ and maintains metabolic homeostasis. The liver metabolizes various compounds that produce free radicals(FR).However, antioxidants scavenge FR and maintain the oxidative/antioxidative balance in the liver. When the liver oxidative/antioxidative balance is disrupted, the state is termed oxidative stress. Oxidative stress leadsto deleterious processes in the liver and produces liver diseases. Therefore, restoring antioxidants is essential to maintain homeostasis. One method of restoring antioxidants is to consume natural compounds with antioxidant capacity. The objective of this review is to provide information pertaining to various antioxidants found in food that have demonstrated utility in improving liver diseases.

  4. Alteration of the exDNA profile in blood serum of LLC-bearing mice under the decrease of tumour invasion potential by bovine pancreatic DNase I treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Evgenyi V.; Kurilshikov, Alexander M.; Patutina, Olga A.; Zenkova, Marina A.

    2017-01-01

    Taking into account recently obtained data indicating the participation of circulating extracellular DNA (exDNA) in tumorigenesis, enzymes with deoxyribonucleic activity have again been considered as potential antitumour and antimetastatic drugs. Previously, using murine Lewis lung carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma A1 tumour models, we have shown the antimetastatic activity of bovine DNase I, which correlates with an increase of DNase activity and a decrease of exDNA concentration in the blood serum of tumour-bearing mice. In this work, using next-generation sequencing on the ABS SOLiD™ 5.500 platform, we performed a search for molecular targets of DNase I by comparing the exDNA profiles of healthy animals, untreated animals with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and those with LLC treated with DNase I. We found that upon DNase I treatment of LLC-bearing mice, together with inhibition of metastasis, a number of strong alterations in the patterns of exDNA were observed. The major differences in exDNA profiles between groups were: i) the level of GC-poor sequences increased during tumour development was reduced to that of healthy mice; ii) levels of sequences corresponding to tumour-associated genes Hmga2, Myc and Jun were reduced in the DNase I-treated group in comparison with non-treated mice; iii) 224 types of tandem repeat over-presented in untreated LLC-bearing mice were significantly reduced after DNase I treatment. The most important result obtained in the work is that DNase I decreased the level of B-subfamily repeats having homology to human ALU repeats, known as markers of carcinogenesis, to the level of healthy animals. Thus, the obtained data lead us to suppose that circulating exDNA plays a role in tumour dissemination, and alteration of multiple molecular targets in the bloodstream by DNase I reduces the invasive potential of tumours. PMID:28222152

  5. Attenuation of cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms in kidney of rats intoxicated with carbofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Bhupindervir; Khera, Alka; Sandhir, Rajat

    2012-10-01

    Carbofuran, an anticholinestrase carbamate, is commonly used as an insecticide. Its toxic effect on kidney is less established. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of carbofuran on kidneys and to understand the mechanism involved in its nephrotoxicity. Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups of eight animals each; control animals received sunflower oil (vehicle) and carbofuran exposed animals were treated with carbofuran (1 mg/kg body weight) orally for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, significant increase was observed in urea and creatinine levels in serum along with the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, suggesting nephrotoxicity. The antioxidant defense system of animals treated with carbofuran was altered in terms of increased lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and total thiols and decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase). The results indicate that carbofuran is nephrotoxic and increased oxidative stress appears to be involved in its nephrotoxic effects.

  6. Methionine and Choline Supply during the Periparturient Period Alter Plasma Amino Acid and One-Carbon Metabolism Profiles to Various Extents: Potential Role in Hepatic Metabolism and Antioxidant Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to profile plasma amino acids (AA and derivatives of their metabolism during the periparturient period in response to supplemental rumen-protected methionine (MET or rumen-protected choline (CHOL. Forty cows were fed from −21 through 30 days around parturition in a 2 × 2 factorial design a diet containing MET or CHOL. MET supply led to greater circulating methionine and proportion of methionine in the essential AA pool, total AA, and total sulfur-containing compounds. Lysine in total AA also was greater in these cows, indicating a better overall AA profile. Sulfur-containing compounds (cystathionine, cystine, homocystine, and taurine were greater in MET-fed cows, indicating an enriched sulfur-containing compound pool due to enhanced transsulfuration activity. Circulating essential AA and total AA concentrations were greater in cows supplied MET due to greater lysine, arginine, tryptophan, threonine, proline, asparagine, alanine, and citrulline. In contrast, CHOL supply had no effect on essential AA or total AA, and only tryptophan and cystine were greater. Plasma 3-methylhistidine concentration was lower in response to CHOL supply, suggesting less tissue protein mobilization in these cows. Overall, the data revealed that enhanced periparturient supply of MET has positive effects on plasma AA profiles and overall antioxidant status.

  7. Medium light and medium roast paper-filtered coffee increased antioxidant capacity in healthy volunteers: results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Telma Angelina Faraldo; Monteiro, Marcela Piedade; Mendes, Thaíse Maria Nogueira; Oliveira, Daniela Moura de; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Benites, Cibelem Iribarrem; Vinagre, Carmen Guilherme Christiano de Matos; Mioto, Bruno Mahler; Tarasoutchi, Daniela; Tuda, Vera Lúcia; César, Luiz Antonio Machado; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva

    2012-09-01

    We compared the effects of medium light roast (MLR) and medium roast (MR) paper-filtered coffee on antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in healthy volunteers. In a randomized crossover study, 20 volunteers consumed 482 ± 61 ml/day of MLR or MR for four weeks. Plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), oxidized LDL and 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activity were measured at baseline and after the interventions. MLR had higher chlorogenic acids-(CGA; 334 mg/150 mL) and less caffeine (231 mg/150 ml) than MR had (210 and 244 mg/150 ml, respectively). MLR also had fewer Maillard reaction products (MRP) than MR had. Compared with baseline, subjects had an increase of 21 and 26 % in TAS, 13 and 13 % in CAT, 52 and 75 % in SOD, and 62 and 49 % in GPx after MLR and MR consumption (P < 0.001), respectively. ORAC increased after MLR (P = 0.004). No significant alteration in lipid peroxidation biomarkers was observed. Both coffees had antioxidant effects. Although MLR contained more CGA, there were similar antioxidant effects between the treatments. MRP may have contributed as an antioxidant. These effects may be important in protecting biological systems and reducing the risk of diseases related to oxidative stress.

  8. Antioxidant protection of gallic acid against toxicity induced by Pb in blood, liver and kidney of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Reckziegel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the antioxidant gallic acid (GA on Pb toxicity in blood, liver and kidney was investigated in the present study. Rats Wistar received Pb nitrate (50 mg/Kg/day, i.p., 5 days followed by GA (13.5 mg/Kg, p.o., 3 days or a chelating agent (EDTA, 55 mg/Kg, i.p.. As result, Pb decreased body weight, hematocrit and blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D activity. In addition, high Pb levels were observed in blood and tissues, together with increased (1 lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes, plasma and tissues, (2 protein oxidation in tissues and (3 plasma aspartate transaminase (AST levels. These changes were accompanied by decreasing in antioxidant defenses, like superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in tissues and catalase (CAT activity and reduced glutathione (GSH in liver. GA was able to reverse Pb-induced decrease in body weight and ALA-D activity, as well as Pb-induced oxidative damages and most antioxidant alterations, however it did not decrease Pb bioaccumulation herein as EDTA did. Furthermore, EDTA did not show antioxidant protection in Pb-treated animals as GA did. In conclusion, GA decreased Pb-induced oxidative damages not by decreasing Pb bioaccumulation, but by improving antioxidant defenses, thus GA may be promising in the treatment of Pb intoxications.

  9. Melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in normal human melanocytes cultured in the presence of chlorpromazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otreba, Michał; Wrześniok, Dorota; Beberok, Artur; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-02-01

    Chlorpromazine is used in the treatment of schizophrenia and psychotic disorders and belongs to phenothiazine class of neuroleptic drugs. It shows severe side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms as well as ocular and skin disorders, but the mechanism is still not fully established. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chlorpromazine on cell viability, melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in normal human melanocytes. It has been demonstrated that chlorpromazine induces concentration dependent loss in cell viability. The value of EC(50) was calculated to be 2.53 μM. Chlorpromazine in lower concentrations (0.0001, 0.001 and 0.01 μM) increased the melanin and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) content and tyrosinase activity, while changes of antioxidant enzymes activity were not observed. It suggests that long-term chlorpromazine therapy, even with low drug doses, may lead to hyperpigmentation disorders in skin and/or eye. The use of the analyzed drug in higher concentrations (0.1 and 1.0 μM) caused significant alterations of antioxidant enzymes activity in normal melanocytes, what may explain a potential role of chlorpromazine in the depletion of cellular antioxidant status leading to other adverse effects associated with the high-dose and/or long-term therapy.

  10. Antitumor activity and antioxident role of Bauhinia racemosa against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malaya GUPTA; Upal Kanti MAZUMDER; Ramanathan Sambath KUMAR; Thangavel Siva KUMAR

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the antitumor effect and antioxidant role of Bauhinia racemosa. METHODS: Antitumor activity and antioxidant status of methanol extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) of Bauhinia racemosa stem bark was evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor in mice. Acute and short-term toxicity studies were performed initially in order to ascertain the safety of methanol extract of Bauhinia racemosa (MEBR). After 24 h of tumor inoculation, the extract was administered daily for 14 d. After administration of the last dose followed by 18 h fasting, mice were then sacrificed for observation of antitumor activity. The effect of MEBR on the growth of transplantable murine tumor, life span of EAC bearing hosts and simultaneous alterations in the hematological profile and liver biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes) were estimated. RESULTS: The MEBR showed decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count, and increased the nonviable cell count and mean survival time thereby increasing life span of EAC tumor bearing mice. Hematological profile reverted to more or less normal levels in extract treated mice. Treatment with MEBR decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase. CONCLUSION: The methanol extract of Bauhinia racemosa stem bark exhibited antitumor effect by modulating lipid peroxidation and augmenting antioxidant defense system in EAC bearing mice.

  11. Psoralen and Ultraviolet A Light Treatment Directly Affects Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Signal Transduction by Altering Plasma Membrane Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aelst, Britt; Devloo, Rosalie; Zachée, Pierre; t'Kindt, Ruben; Sandra, Koen; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Compernolle, Veerle; Feys, Hendrik B

    2016-11-18

    Psoralen and ultraviolet A light (PUVA) are used to kill pathogens in blood products and as a treatment of aberrant cell proliferation in dermatitis, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and graft-versus-host disease. DNA damage is well described, but the direct effects of PUVA on cell signal transduction are poorly understood. Because platelets are anucleate and contain archetypal signal transduction machinery, they are ideally suited to address this. Lipidomics on platelet membrane extracts showed that psoralen forms adducts with unsaturated carbon bonds of fatty acyls in all major phospholipid classes after PUVA. Such adducts increased lipid packing as measured by a blue shift of an environment-sensitive fluorescent probe in model liposomes. Furthermore, the interaction of these liposomes with lipid order-sensitive proteins like amphipathic lipid-packing sensor and α-synuclein was inhibited by PUVA. In platelets, PUVA caused poor membrane binding of Akt and Bruton's tyrosine kinase effectors following activation of the collagen glycoprotein VI and thrombin protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1. This resulted in defective Akt phosphorylation despite unaltered phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate levels. Downstream integrin activation was furthermore affected similarly by PUVA following PAR1 (effective half-maximal concentration (EC50), 8.4 ± 1.1 versus 4.3 ± 1.1 μm) and glycoprotein VI (EC50, 1.61 ± 0.85 versus 0.26 ± 0.21 μg/ml) but not PAR4 (EC50, 50 ± 1 versus 58 ± 1 μm) signal transduction. Our findings were confirmed in T-cells from graft-versus-host disease patients treated with extracorporeal photopheresis, a form of systemic PUVA. In conclusion, PUVA increases the order of lipid phases by covalent modification of phospholipids, thereby inhibiting membrane recruitment of effector kinases.

  12. Recombinant human erythropoietin treatment of chronic renal failure patients normalizes altered phenotype and proliferation of CD4-positive T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowska, Katarzyna A; Debska-Slizien, Alicja; Radzka, Monika; Witkowski, Jacek M; Rutkowski, Boleslaw; Bryl, Ewa

    2010-03-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) receive recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) for the correction of anemia. However, rhEPO also has an immunomodulatory effect. Detailed changes of phenotype and function of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in CRF patients receiving rhEPO have not been reported yet; their study may bring insight into understanding of this immunomodulatory action of rhEPO. Two groups of CRF patients were included into the study: those treated; and those not receiving rhEPO. The expression of activation markers on CD4(+) lymphocytes was measured with flow cytometry, both ex vivo and in vitro. The kinetics of CD4(+) T lymphocytes proliferation was calculated using a dividing cells tracing method and numerical approach. Significantly higher percentages of CD4(+)CD95(+), CD4(+)HLA-DR(+) cells, and lower percentages of CD4(+)CD69(+) and CD4(+)CD28(+) cells were observed in both rhEPO-treated and untreated patients when compared with healthy controls. Changes in the proportions of CD4(+)CD28(+) and CD4(+)HLA-DR(+) subpopulations were dependent on the type of rhEPO, being more pronounced for rhEPObeta. CD4(+) lymphocytes from untreated patients exhibited decreased expression of CD28 and CD69 after stimulation in vitro, whereas the expression of these antigens on lymphocytes of rhEPO-treated patients was similar to that observed in healthy controls. Fewer CD4(+)CD28(+) T lymphocytes of untreated patients proliferated in vitro; these cells had longer G0-->G1 time, which negatively correlated with surface expression of CD28. Our study confirms that rhEPO treatment normalizes activation parameters of CD4(+) T lymphocytes and their proliferative capacity, which could explain earlier described immunomodulatory effects of rhEPO in patients suffering from CRF.

  13. Patients undergoing long-term treatment with antihypertensive eye drops responded positively with respect to their ocular surface disorder to oral supplementation with antioxidants and essential fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbis-Estrada C

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carmen Galbis-Estrada,1,* Maria D Pinazo-Durán,1,* Jorge Cantú-Dibildox,2 Carla Marco-Ramírez,1 Manuel Díaz-Llópis,1,3 Javier Benítez-del-Castillo21Ophthalmic Research Unit Santiago Grisolia, Department of Surgery/Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital of Jerez, Jerez de la Frontera, Cádiz, Spain; 3University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Glaucoma and dry eye disorders (DEDs are frequent comorbidities. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied in relation to eye diseases.Objective: Our objective was to determine the effects of oral supplementation with a combined formulation of antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids on expression of cytokines and chemokines in tears from patients with DEDs or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG.Methods: Participants (n = 97 were distributed into three groups: (1 individuals with nonsevere DEDs (DEDG, (2 individuals with nonadvanced POAG (POAGG, and (3 healthy controls. These groups were randomized into two subgroups: one received a daily antioxidant and essential polyunsaturated fatty acid supplement (two pills for 3 months (+S, and the other did not (−NS. Participants were interviewed and ophthalmologically examined. Concentrations of specific cytokines and chemokines in reflex tears were determined by multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry. The data were analyzed statistically (SPSS version 15.0.Results: Comparison of the results from the DEDG and POAGG patients showed significant differences in tear expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (P = 0.008, tumor necrosis factor α (P = 0.005, vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.038, interleukin-4 (P = 0.030, and interleukin-6 (P = 0.044. The main signs and symptoms of dry eyes such

  14. Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment and the Phenylpropanoid Pathway Precursors Feeding Improve Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Quinoa Sprouts via an Induction of L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyases Activities

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    Michał Świeca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide treatment and the phenylpropanoid pathway precursors feeding affected the antioxidant capacity of quinoa sprouts. Compared to the control, total phenolics content was significantly increased by treatment of control sprouts with 50 mM and 200 mM H2O2—an elevation of about 24% and 28%, respectively. The highest increase of flavonoids content was found for the sprouts treated with 200 mM H2O2 obtained from seeds fed with shikimic acid. All the studied modifications increased the antioxidant potential of sprouts (at least by 50% compared to control. The highest reducing power was found for the sprouts treated with 200 mM H2O2 obtained by phenylalanine feeding (5.03 mg TE/g DW and those obtained from the seeds fed with tyrosine (5.26 mg TE/g DW. The activities of L-tyrosine (TAL and L-phenylalanine (PAL ammonia-lyases were strongly affected by germination time as well as the applied modification of sprouting. On the 3rd day the highest PAL activity was determined for both untreated and induced with 50 mM H2O2 sprouts obtained by phenylalanine feeding. H2O2 induced TAL activity; the highest TAL activity was determined for 3-day-old sprouts induced with 200 mM H2O2 obtained from seeds fed with phenylalanine.

  15. Altered protein markers related to neural plasticity and motor function following electro-acupuncture treatment in rat model of ischemic-hypoxic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Zhang; Liping Zou

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that acupuncture treatment could ameliorate impaired motor function, and these positive effects might be due to neural plasticity. OBJECTIVE: Myelin basic protein (MBP), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), and synaptophysin (SYN) were selected as markers of neural remodeling, and expression of these markers was evaluated with regard to altered motor function following brain injury and acupuncture treatment. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A completely randomized experiment was performed at the Central Laboratory of Peking University First Hospital from November 2006 to May 2007. MATERIALS: Twenty-four Sprague Dawley rat pups, aged 7 days, were selected for the present experiment. The left common carotid artery was ligated to establish a rat model of ischemic-hypoxic brain injury.METHODS: All animals were randomly divided into three groups: sham operation, model, and electro-acupuncture treatment, with 8 rats in each group. Rats in the model and electro-acupuncture treatment group underwent establishment of ischemic-hypoxic brain injury. Upon model established, rats underwent hypobaric oxygen intervention for 24 hours. Only the left common carotid artery was exposed in rats of the sham operation group, without model establishment or oxygen intervention. The rats in the electro-acupuncture treatment group were treated with electro-acupuncture. One acupuncture needle electrode was inserted into the subcutaneous layer at the Baihui and Dazhui acupoint. The stimulation condition of the electro-acupuncture simulator was set to an amplitude-modulated wave of 0-100% and alternative frequency of 100 cycles/second, as well as frequency-modulated wave of 2-100 Hz and an alternative frequency of 3 cycles/second. Maximal current through the two dectrodes was limited to 3-5 mA. The stimulation lasted for 30 minutes per day for 2 weeks. Rats in the sham operation and model groups were not treated

  16. Alterations of the Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are not General Characteristics of the Colonization Process by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Alteraciones de las Actividades de Enzimas Antioxidantes no son Características Generales del Proceso de Colonización por Hongos Micorrízicos Arbusculares

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    Yakelin Rodríguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant system is involved in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, but its role during the colonization process is still poorly understood. To gain new insights into the role of antioxidant system during root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the activities of key antioxidant enzymes were evaluated in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. roots inoculated with six strains of different genera and species: two Glomus mosseae, Glomus cubense, Glomus intraradices, Glomus sp. and Acaulospora scrobiculata. Glomus cubense and A. scrobiculata strains reached the highest infectivity levels with maximum values of colonization frequency and intensity of 29-10.88% and 18-9.20%, respectively; G. mosseae strains showed an intermediate infectivity, both with 15% of colonization frequency and maximum intensities of 7.647.06%, respectively; while the infectivity levels of Glomus sp. and G. intraradices strains were the lowest with colonization frequency- 13% and intensities- 5.07 and 5.41, respectively. Some activity patterns of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and polyphenol oxidase enzymes were not specific for early or late colonization stages neither for the colonization level and type of strain. However, a unique superoxide dismutase-band presents at early colonization and the low level of guaiacol-peroxidase activity at later stages presents in all inoculated roots indicate that these antioxidant responses are independent of colonization degree and strain. Taking together, our data suggest that alterations of the antioxidant enzyme activities are not general characteristics of the colonization process by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, probably having the key role on those responses the specific feature of each strain rather than colonization per se.El sistema antioxidante está involucrado en la simbiosis micorrízico-arbuscular, pero su rol durante el proceso de colonización es aún escasamente comprendido. Para esclarecer el papel del sistema

  17. Polyphenol-rich apple (Malus domestica L.) peel extract attenuates arsenic trioxide induced cardiotoxicity in H9c2 cells via its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineetha, Vadavanath Prabhakaran; Girija, Seetharaman; Soumya, Rema Sreenivasan; Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan

    2014-03-01

    Evidences suggest that apple peel has a wide range of polyphenols having antioxidant activity and its consumption has been linked with improved health benefits. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a very effective drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) but it leads to cardiotoxicity mediated through alterations in various cardiac ion channels and by increasing the intracellular calcium level and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of methanolic extract of apple peel (APME) and aqueous extract of apple peel (APAE) on ATO (5 μM) induced toxicity in the H9c2 cardiac myoblast cell line. We estimated the cellular status of innate antioxidant enzymes, level of ROS, mitochondrial superoxide, glutathione and intracellular calcium with ATO and apple peel extracts. Prior to the cell line based study, we had evaluated the antioxidant potential of apple peel extract by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total reducing power (TRP), superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, in addition to quantifying total phenolic and flavonoid content. Both the extracts showed considerable antioxidant activity in cell-free chemical assays. In addition, both APME and APAE prevented the alteration in antioxidant status induced by ATO in H9c2 cells. Significant differential alterations had been observed in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, xanthine oxidase, calcium overload and caspase 3 activity with ATO. The overall result revealed the protective property of polyphenol-rich apple peel extract against ATO induced cardiac toxicity via its antioxidant activity.

  18. The chronic treatment in vivo of salicylate or morphine alters excitatory effects of subsequent salicylate or morphine tests in vitro in hippocampus area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegh, Mehdi; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Semnanian, Saeed

    2013-12-05

    The current practical tests were designed to study in vitro interactions in the field potential between salicylate and morphine analgesics in the hippocampus area CA1 taken from morphine-(7 days) or salicylate (6 days)-treated rats. For this, morphine or salicylate was applied in vitro to the hippocampal slices derived from chronically drug-treated or saline-injected rats and drug-induced changes in evoked field potentials of area CA1 were evaluated. Chronic treatment in vivo of morphine or salicylate had no impact on baseline field EPSP and population spikes (PS) but a leftward shift in fEPSP/PS (E/S) curves and an increase in paired pulse ratio at 10 ms IPI were seen. Acute in vitro salicylate produced a durable PS potentiation in morphine-treated group, whereas an increase in PS of all groups was observed after long-term exposure to in vitro salicylate. Acute in vitro morphine caused a stable PS potentiation in control and salicylate treated groups, but not in morphine treated group. A potentiated fEPSP and a greater PS potentiation in salicylate treated group were observed after long-term exposure to in vitro morphine. It is concluded that the chronic treatment in vivo of salicylate or morphine incites lasting changes in the CA1 circuitry, which alters excitatory effects of subsequent salicylate or morphine tests in vitro in a way that an increase in reactivity or tolerance to the acute salicylate or morphine administration was observed.

  19. Lithium treatment of APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice leads to reduced hyperphosphorylated tau, increased amyloid deposition and altered inflammatory phenotype.

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    Tiffany L Sudduth

    Full Text Available Lithium is an anti-psychotic that has been shown to prevent the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein through the inhibition of glycogen-synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3β. We recently developed a mouse model that progresses from amyloid pathology to tau pathology and neurodegeneration due to the genetic deletion of NOS2 in an APP transgenic mouse; the APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mouse. Because this mouse develops tau pathology, amyloid pathology and neuronal loss we were interested in the effect anti-tau therapy would have on amyloid pathology, learning and memory. We administered lithium in the diets of APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice for a period of eight months, followed by water maze testing at 12 months of age, immediately prior to sacrifice. We found that lithium significantly lowered hyperphosphorylated tau levels as measured by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. However, we found no apparent neuroprotection, no effect on spatial memory deficits and an increase in histological amyloid deposition. Aβ levels measured biochemically were unaltered. We also found that lithium significantly altered the neuroinflammatory phenotype of the brain, resulting in enhanced alternative inflammatory response while concurrently lowering the classical inflammatory response. Our data suggest that lithium may be beneficial for the treatment of tauopathies but may not be beneficial for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Cryopreservation of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Alters Their Viability and Subpopulation Composition but Not Their Treatment Effects in a Rodent Stroke Model

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    Bing Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The systemic administration of autologous bone marrow (BM derived mononuclear cells (MNCs is under investigation as a novel therapeutic modality for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Autologous applications raise the possibility that MNCs could potentially be stored as a banked source. There have been no studies that investigate the effects of cryopreservation of BM-MNCs on their functional abilities in stroke models. In the present study, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo for 60 minutes and then divided into two treatment groups: fresh MNCs versus cryopreserved MNCs. BM-MNCs were collected at 22 hours after MCAo and were stored in liquid nitrogen for 12 months in cryopreserved MNCs group. BM-MNCs cellular viability, composition, and phenotype of the various subpopulations of mice BM-MNCs were evaluated by flow cytometry, and the behavioral recovery of stroke animals was tested with freshly harvested MNCs versus cryopreserved MNCs by corner test and ladder rung test. We found that long-term cryopreservation negatively impacts the cellular viability of bone marrow MNCs. Cryopreservation also alters the cellular composition of various subpopulations within the MNCs. However, despite the changes observed in cryopreserved cells, both fresh and frozen MNCs have similar beneficial effect on behavioral and histological outcomes.

  1. Antibiotic treatment of pregnant non-obese diabetic mice leads to altered gut microbiota and intestinal immunological changes in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormo-Badia, N; Håkansson, Å; Vasudevan, K; Molin, G; Ahrné, S; Cilio, C M

    2014-10-01

    The intestinal microbiota is important for tolerance induction through mucosal immunological responses. The composition of the gut microbiota of an infant is affected by environmental factors such as diet, disease and antibiotic treatment. However, already in utero, these environmental factors can affect the immunological development of the foetus and influence the future gut microbiota of the infant. To investigate the effects of antibiotic treatment of pregnant mothers on the offspring's gut microbiome and diabetes development, we treated non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice with a cocktail of antibiotics during gestation and the composition of the gut microbiota, diabetes incidence and major gut-related T lymphocyte populations were investigated in the offspring. We observed a persistent reduction in the general diversity of the gut microbiota in the offspring from NOD mothers treated with antibiotics during gestation compared with offspring from control mothers. In addition, by clustering the present bacterial taxa with principal component analysis, we found a differential clustering of gut microbiota in the offspring from NOD mothers treated with antibiotics during gestation compared with offspring from control mothers. Offspring from NOD mothers treated with antibiotics during gestation also showed some immunological alterations in the gut immune system, which could be related to the diversity of the gut microbiome and influence modulation of diabetes development at 20 weeks. Our data point out maternal derangement of the intestinal microbiota as a potential environmental risk factor for T1D development.

  2. Effect of lower doses of vanadate in combination with Azadirachta indica leaf extract on hepatic and renal antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Jaya; Ali, Shakir; Basir, Seemi Farhat

    2013-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate short-term (21 days) effects of oral administration of Azadirachta indica leaf extract and vanadate, separately and in combination, on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Vanadate is a remarkable antidiabetic agent and shows insulin mimetic effect. However, severe toxicity is associated with vanadate when used in high concentration while at lower concentration the hypoglycemic property of vanadate is reduced. So, we used a low dose of vanadate in combination with A. indica leaf extract and evaluated their effect on the antioxidant defense system. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were treated separately with insulin, vanadate (0.6 mg/ml), A. indica, and with combined dose of vanadate (0.2 mg/ml) and A. indica. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and serum glucose levels and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were determined in cytosolic fraction of liver and kidney. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemic condition and alteration in antioxidant enzyme activities. Treatment with antidiabetic compounds resulted in the reduction of glucose levels and restoration of enzyme activities to normal. Results showed that combined treatment of vanadate and A. indica leaf extract was the most effective in normalizing altered antioxidant enzyme system.

  3. Repeated morphine treatment alters polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule, glutamate decarboxylase-67 expression and cell proliferation in the adult rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Laëtitia; Alonso, Gérard; Normand, Elisabeth; Manzoni, Olivier J

    2005-01-01

    Altered synaptic transmission and plasticity in brain areas involved in reward and learning are thought to underlie the long-lasting effects of addictive drugs. In support of this idea, opiates reduce neurogenesis [A.J. Eisch et al. (2000) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 97, 7579-7584] and enhance long-term potentiation in adult rodent hippocampus [J.M. Harrison et al. (2002) Journal of Neurophysiology, 87, 2464-2470], a key structure of learning and memory processes. Here we studied how repeated morphine treatment and withdrawal affect cell proliferation and neuronal phenotypes in the dentate gyrus-CA3 region of the adult rat hippocampus. Our data showed a strong reduction of cellular proliferation in morphine-dependent animals (54% of control) that was followed by a rebound increase after 1 week withdrawal and a return to normal after 2 weeks withdrawal. Morphine dependence was also associated with a drastic reduction in the expression levels of the polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (68% of control), an adhesion molecule expressed by newly generated neurons and involved in cell migration and structural plasticity. Polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule levels quickly returned to normal following withdrawal. In morphine-dependent rats, we found a significant increase of glutamate decarboxylase-67 mRNA transcription (170% of control) in dentate gyrus granular cells which was followed by a marked rebound decrease after 1 week withdrawal and a return to normal after 4 weeks withdrawal. Together, the results show, for the first time, that, in addition to reducing cell proliferation and neurogenesis, chronic exposure to morphine dramatically alters neuronal phenotypes in the dentate gyrus-CA3 region of the adult rat hippocampus.

  4. Nanocarriers for skin delivery of cosmetic antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Montenegro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The demand of natural skin care products is steadily growing since consumers perceive them as safe. Currently, cosmetic manufacturers are focusing their efforts on developing innovative natural products to address skin-aging signs, thus meeting consumers’ needs of healthy appearance and well-being. To prevent or treat skin aging, topical supplementation with antioxidant is regarded as one of the most promising strategies. However, most antioxidants presently used in skin care formulations show unfavorable physicochemical properties such as excessive lipophilicity or hydrophilicity, chemical instability and poor skin penetration that actively limit their effectiveness after topical application. Therefore, nanocarriers such as liposomes, niosomes, microemulsions and nanoparticles have been widely investigated as delivery systems for antioxidants to improve their beneficial effects in the treatment of skin aging. In this article, the antioxidants most commonly used in anti-aging cosmetic products will be reviewed along with the nanocarriers designed to improve their safety and effectiveness.

  5. ANTIOXIDANT MUSHROOMS: A REVIEW

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    Aggarwal Preeti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of wild mushrooms have been extensively studied and many antioxidant compounds such as phenolic compounds, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, and carotenoids identified. The various antioxidant mechanisms of the mushroom species extracts may be attributed to strong hydrogen-donating ability, metal-chelating ability, and their effectiveness as good scavengers of superoxide and free radicals. This indicates the potential of mushrooms as panacea for many diseases and also reveals a novel potential to fight against tumors in man.

  6. Short-term quetiapine treatment alters the use of reinforcement signals during risky decision-making and promotes the choice of negative expected values in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Philippa L; Harmer, Catherine J; McTavish, Sarah F B; Goodwin, Guy M; Rogers, Robert D

    2013-09-25

    Effective decision-making can involve using environmental signals about the possible good and bad outcomes, and their probabilities, to select optimal actions. Problematic decision-making in psychiatric disorders, and particularly bipolar illness, may result from disrupted use of these reinforcement cues, leading to actions that reflect or precipitate pathological changes in mood. Previous experiments indicate that the processing of reinforcement cues while selecting between risky actions can be influenced by dopamine and serotonin activity. Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent with a complex pharmacology, including antagonist actions at 5-HT2A and, to a lesser extent, D2 receptors. Here, we investigated the effects of (short-term) treatment with quetiapine on the risky decision-making of healthy human adults. Twenty participants received 150 mg of quetiapine XL for 7 d, whereas 20 age- and IQ-matched participants received a placebo. On the eighth day, all participants completed a risky decision-making task that involved making a series of choices between two simultaneously presented gambles that differed in the magnitudes of their possible gains and losses, and the probabilities with which these outcomes were delivered. Quetiapine treatment was associated with a marked tendency to choose options with negative expected values compared with placebo treatment in male but not female participants. Our results demonstrate that antagonism of serotonin and dopamine receptor activity can alter the way individuals use information about gains and losses when selecting between risky actions, possibly reflecting gender-specific differences in risk attitudes. These effects may be beneficial by correcting decision-making biases that feature in mood disorders.

  7. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M; van Griensven, Leo

    2015-10-27

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  8. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  9. Anti-HMG-CoA Reductase, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Amaranthus viridis Leaf Extract as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia

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    Shamala Salvamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the pathology of several chronic diseases including hypercholesterolemia (elevated levels of cholesterol in blood and atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed as synthetic drugs, such as statins, which are known to cause adverse effects on the liver and muscles. Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis has been used from ancient times for its supposedly medically beneficial properties. In the current study, different parts of A. viridis (leaf, stem, and seed were evaluated for potential anti-HMG-CoA reductase, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The putative HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of A. viridis extracts at different concentrations was determined spectrophotometrically by NADPH oxidation, using HMG-CoA as substrate. A. viridis leaf extract revealed the highest HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect at about 71%, with noncompetitive inhibition in Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. The leaf extract showed good inhibition of hydroperoxides, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, nitric oxide (NO, and ferric ion radicals in various concentrations. A. viridis leaf extract was proven to be an effective inhibitor of hyaluronidase, lipoxygenase, and xanthine oxidase enzymes. The experimental data suggest that A. viridis leaf extract is a source of potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and may modulate cholesterol metabolism by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase.

  10. EVALUATION OF FREEZE DRIED ALOE VERA AND NOPAL CACTUS FOR POSSIBLE HEALTH TREATMENTS BY COMPARISON OF ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES AND FREE RADICAL INHIBITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Kenneth R; Jones, Anthony E; Belmont, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project was to characterize the antioxidant powers of lyophilized Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis) and Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) by quantifying the phenolics content and radical scavenging abilities of preparations derived from these plants. Extracts of these lyophylized succulents were assayed for phenolic compounds by the Folin Ciocalteau method and compared for free radical scavenging capability by the DPPH method. We found that even though the Aloe lyophilizate extract contained more phenolic content, the Nopal lyophilizate exhibited better free radical scavenging ability. Aloe Vera extract contained 0.278 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 11.1% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.177±0.015 min(-1). Nopal Cactus extract contained 0.174 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 13.2% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.155±0.009 min(-1). These results showed Nopal to have greater antioxidant potency than Aloe.

  11. Effect of pectin methyl esterase and Ca²⁺ ions treatment on antioxidant capacity, shelf-life and quality of minimally processed pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) arils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Ramesh; Nambi, V E

    2016-03-01

    Pomegranate fruits are difficult to peel and once peeled, extracted arils have very short shelf-life. Therefore, present investigation was carried out to extend the shelf life of minimally processed pomegranate arils using pectin methyl esterase (PME) and CaCl2 treatment during refrigerated storage. The arils of freshly harvested pomegranate fruits (Punica granatum L.) were treated with different concentrations of food-grade PME (50-300 units) and calcium ions (0.5-2.0% CaCl₂) for a period of 5-30 min using response surface methodology. Treated and untreated arils were then packed in low density polyethylene bags (25 μ) and maintained under low temperature (5°C; 90% RH) for evaluating the physical, biochemical and microbial quality of pomegranate arils at four day interval. Physiological loss in weight increased during storage but no food-borne pathogens were found during 28 day of cold storage in treated arils. Color and firmness of both treated and untreated arils decreased during storage but it was better maintained in treated arils. The firmness was found to be 0.630 N in treated samples compared to untreated one (0.511 N) after 20 d of storage. Total antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, polyphenol oxidase and lipoxygenase activities increased during storage. Treatment with 249.33 units of PME and 1.70% CaCl₂for an immersion time of 24.93 min was found to be most effective treatment for maintaining the quality of minimally processed arils for longer period. Sensory score was also higher in treated pomegranate arils that were quite acceptable even after 20 day of referigerated storage as against 12 day for untreated ones.

  12. Antioxidant defenses and metabolic depression. The hypothesis of preparation for oxidative stress in land snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes-Lima, M; Storey, J M; Storey, K B

    1998-07-01

    early minutes of recovery during reoxygenation or thawing. Thus, a wide range of stress tolerant animals display coordinated changes in antioxidant defenses that allow them to deal with oxidative stress that occurs as part of natural cycles of stress/recovery that alter oxygen levels in tissues. The molecular mechanisms that trigger and regulate changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in these species are still unknown but could prove to have key relevance for the development of new intervention strategies in the treatment of cardiovascular ischemia/reperfusion injuries in humans.

  13. 不同工艺酿造猕猴桃新酒抗氧化性的研究%Antioxidant Properties of Newly-produced Kiwi Fruit Wine Processed by Different Pre-treatment Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成宇峰; 岳泰新; 张振文

    2015-01-01

    以秦美猕猴桃为试材,对采用清汁发酵、去皮发酵和带皮浸渍3种发酵前处理工艺后进行发酵,对发酵猕猴桃新酒中的酚类物质和其抗氧化特性进行研究。结果表明,猕猴桃酒具有较强的抗氧化性,不同的发酵前处理可影响猕猴桃酒中酚类物质含量和铜离子的还原力。带皮浸渍处理猕猴桃酒与清汁发酵处理和去皮发酵处理相比,具有较高的pH值、总酚、总类黄酮和总黄烷醇含量,3个处理的DPPH清除力和羟自由基清除力无显著差异,而铜离子还原力差异显著,且处理3(带皮浸渍)>处理1(清汁发酵)>处理2(去皮发酵)。因此,带皮浸渍更有利于保持猕猴桃酒中酚类物质和抗氧化特性。%Three pre-treatment techniques (pure juice fermentation, peel-off fermentation, and steeping with peel) were adopted respectively be-fore the fermentation of kiwi fruit wine, and the antioxidant properties of and polyphenol in newly-produced kiwi fruit wine were investigated. The results suggested that the produced kiwi fruit wine had strong antioxidant properties, and different pre-treatment techniques might influ-ence polyphenols content and the reducing capability of copper ions in the wine. Compared with pure juice fermentation and peel-off fermenta-tion, the wine processed by steeping with peel had higher pH value, and higher content of total phenols, total flavonoid and total flavanols. There was no significant difference in DPPH scavenging capabilities and HRSA among the three pre-treatment techniques. However, there was significant difference in copper ion reducing capabilities (steeping with peel>pure juice fermentation>peel-off fermentation). Accordingly, steeping with peel was beneficial to maintaining phenols and antioxidant properties of kiwi fruit wine.

  14. Effectiveness and tolerability of dietary supplementation with a combination of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants in the treatment of dry eye symptoms: results of a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleñik A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrea OleñikOn behalf of the Dry Eye Clinical Study Group (DECSGOphthalmology Department, Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, SpainBackground: We assessed the effectiveness and tolerability of a dietary supplement based on the combination of omega-3 essential fatty acids and antioxidants on dry eye-related symptoms.Methods: A total of 905 patients (72% women, median age 60 years with dry eye syndrome and using artificial tears to relieve symptoms participated in an open-label prospective intervention study. They were recruited during a routine ophthalmological appointment. Patients were instructed to take three capsules/day of the nutraceutical formulation (Brudysec® 1.5 g for 12 weeks. Dry eye symptoms (categorized as 0, none; 1, mild; 2, moderate; and 3, severe included scratchy and stinging sensation in the eyes, eye redness, grittiness, painful eyes, tired eyes, grating sensation, and blurry vision.Results: The mean intensity of dry eye symptoms varied from 1.1 (± standard deviation [SD] 0.9 for painful eyes to 2.0 (0.9 for grittiness, with a mean value of 11.9 (4.8 for all symptoms together. At week 12, all individual symptoms improved significantly (P<0.001. The mean value for all symptoms together decreased from a mean value of 11.9 (± SD 4.8 at baseline to 6.8 (± SD 4.5 after 12 weeks of treatment (P<0.001. There was a decrease in the percentage of patients in which dry eye symptoms predominated nearly all the time (53.5% versus 34.1%. A total of 68.1% of patients reported better tolerance to contact lenses after treatment. The mean number of daily instillations of artificial tears also decreased significantly (3.8 [± SD 1.6] versus 3.3 [± SD 1.6], P<0.001. A total of 634 patients (70.1% did not report any adverse events. In the remaining patients with adverse events, the most frequent was fish-tasting regurgitation in 13.5% of cases, followed by nausea in 4.9%, diarrhea in 1.3%, and vomiting in 0.3%.Conclusion: Dietary

  15. Effect of Enlargement Treatment on Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activities of Red Globe Grape%膨大处理对红地球葡萄酚类物质及抗氧化活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金串; 孟江飞; 郭志君; 耿万刚; 乔玲; 张昂; 张振文; 房玉林

    2012-01-01

    以红地球葡萄为研究对象,对葡萄进行膨大处理后,定期采样,测定处理组和对照组的总酚、总黄酮、总黄烷醇以及铜离子还原力、铁氰化钾还原力、DPPH自由基清除率、金属螯合力、羟自由基(·OH)清除率,用DPS软件对处理组和对照组之间的差异及酚类物质与抗氧化活性之间的相关性进行分析。结果表明:膨大处理可增加红地球葡萄酚类物质含量并增强其抗氧化活性;膨大处理对红地球葡萄总酚、总黄酮、总黄烷醇、铜离子还原力、铁氰化钾还原力的影响较大,对DPPH自由基清除率、金属螯合力、·OH清除率的影响较小。铜离子还原力、铁氰化钾还原力与酚类物质(总酚、总黄酮、总黄烷醇)含量均呈极显著正相关;金属螯合力、DPPH自由基清除率与酚类物质含量均无显著相关性,·OH清除率与酚类物质含量呈极显著负相关。铜离子还原力与铁氰化钾还原力呈极显著正相关;与DPPH自由基清除率呈显著正相关。铜离子还原力与·OH清除率、铁氰化钾还原力与·OH清除率呈极显著负相关。%The effect of enlargement treatment on total phenols and antioxidant activities of red globe grapes were determined in this study. The phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were investigated during the berry growth and maturation after enlargement treatments. The difference between the treatment and the control, the correlation coefficients between phenolic compositions and antioxidant capacity, as well as the correlation coefficients among different methods for quantifying antioxi- dant capacity were analyzed based on DPS. The results showed that the content of total phenols and antioxidant activities of red globe grapes could be increased by enlargement treatments. The effect of enlargement treatment on total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols, cupric reducing power, potassium ferricyanide

  16. Biochemical Alterations in Semen of Varicocele Patients: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mancini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a mechanism underlying different kinds of infertility in human males. However, different results can be observed in relation to the method used for its evaluation. Varicocele patients show a number of biochemical abnormalities, including an altered distribution of coenzyme Q between seminal plasma and sperm cells and also an apparent defect in the utilization of antioxidants. Moreover, an influence of systemic hormones on seminal antioxidant system was observed too. Finally, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidativestress indexes and the possible usefulness of some medical therapies, like coenzyme Q supplementation, are discussed. In conclusion, published data show a role of oxidative stress in varicocele-related male infertility, but at present we do not know the precise molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena.

  17. Feeding bovine milks with low or high IgA levels is associated with altered re-establishment of murine intestinal microbiota after antibiotic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wayne; Cakebread, Julie A.; Haigh, Brendan J.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are a vital and commonly used therapeutic tool, but their use also results in profound changes in the intestinal microbiota that can, in turn, have significant health consequences. Understanding how the microbiota recovers after antibiotic treatment will help to devise strategies for mitigating the adverse effects of antibiotics. Using a mouse model, we have characterized the changes occurring in the intestinal microbiota immediately after five days exposure to ampicillin, and then at three and fourteen days thereafter. During the fourteen day period of antibiotic recovery, groups of mice were fed either water, cows’ milk containing high levels of IgA, or cows’ milk containing low levels of IgA as their sole source of liquid. Effects on microbiota of feeding milks for 14 days were also assessed in groups of mice that had no ampicillin exposure. Changes in microbiota were measured by high throughput sequencing of the V4 to V6 variable regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. As expected, exposure to ampicillin led to profound changes to the types and abundance of bacteria present, along with a loss of diversity. At 14 days following antibiotic exposure, mice fed water had recovered microbiota compositions similar to that prior to antibiotics. However, feeding High-IgA milk to mice that has been exposed to antibiotics was associated with altered microbiota compositions, including increased relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Barnesiella compared to the start of the study. Mice exposed to antibiotics then fed Low-IgA milk also showed increased Barnesiella at day 14. Mice without antibiotic perturbation, showed no change in their microbiota after 14 days of milk feeding. Overall, these findings add to a knowledge platform for optimizing intestinal function after treatment with antibiotics in the human population. PMID:27703861

  18. Feeding bovine milks with low or high IgA levels is associated with altered re-establishment of murine intestinal microbiota after antibiotic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Hodgkinson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are a vital and commonly used therapeutic tool, but their use also results in profound changes in the intestinal microbiota that can, in turn, have significant health consequences. Understanding how the microbiota recovers after antibiotic treatment will help to devise strategies for mitigating the adverse effects of antibiotics. Using a mouse model, we have characterized the changes occurring in the intestinal microbiota immediately after five days exposure to ampicillin, and then at three and fourteen days thereafter. During the fourteen day period of antibiotic recovery, groups of mice were fed either water, cows’ milk containing high levels of IgA, or cows’ milk containing low levels of IgA as their sole source of liquid. Effects on microbiota of feeding milks for 14 days were also assessed in groups of mice that had no ampicillin exposure. Changes in microbiota were measured by high throughput sequencing of the V4 to V6 variable regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. As expected, exposure to ampicillin led to profound changes to the types and abundance of bacteria present, along with a loss of diversity. At 14 days following antibiotic exposure, mice fed water had recovered microbiota compositions similar to that prior to antibiotics. However, feeding High-IgA milk to mice that has been exposed to antibiotics was associated with altered microbiota compositions, including increased relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Barnesiella compared to the start of the study. Mice exposed to antibiotics then fed Low-IgA milk also showed increased Barnesiella at day 14. Mice without antibiotic perturbation, showed no change in their microbiota after 14 days of milk feeding. Overall, these findings add to a knowledge platform for optimizing intestinal function after treatment with antibiotics in the human population.

  19. In vitro antioxidant activities of antioxidant-enriched toothpastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, M; Ferreiro, M S; Armeni, T; Politi, A; Bompadre, S; Massoli, A; Bullon, P

    2005-03-01

    Several forms of periodontal diseases (PD) are often associated with modified phagocytosing leukocytes and contemporary free radical production. Host antioxidant defenses could benefit from toothpastes used as adjuncts to counteract plaque-associated bacteria. The aim of the present study was to determine possible antioxidant activity (AA) of 12 differently antioxidant-enriched toothpastes, regardless of their efficacy as antimicrobial agents. Toothpastes were enriched alternatively with sodium ascorbyl phosphate, alpha-tocopherol acetate, pycnogenol, allantoin and methyl salycilate or a mixture of these. AA was tested in a cell-free system with a ABTS-decolorization assay improved by means of a flow injection analysis device. Comet assay, using NCTC 2544 keratinocytes, was performed to test if it was possible to identify any protection against in vitro DNA fragmentation provoked by a challenge with H(2)O(2) in cultures pre-incubated with toothpaste extracts. Only toothpastes containing sodium ascorbyl phosphate displayed clear AA with I(50) values ranging between 50 and 80 mg of toothpaste/ml water. COMET analysis of cells challenged with H(2)O(2) in presence of toothpaste extracts revealed a limited protection exerted by sodium ascorbyl phosphate. The results described herein indicate that toothpastes containing sodium ascorbyl phosphate possess AA. All the data were obtained in systems in vitro and the demonstration of in vivo AA is desirable. These findings could be useful in the treatment and maintenance of some forms of PD and should be considered when arranging new toothpaste formulations.

  20. Estudo das alterações do ponto B durante o tratamento ortodôntico Study of the point B alterations during orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Soares Marques

    2007-06-01

    exame inicial.AIM: The authors of this study evaluated and compared if alterations in point B region could occur as a result of orthodontic treatment conducted with or without the extraction of the four first premolars. METHODS: Thirty young females, dolicofacials, with Class II, division 1 maloclusion, mean age of 12,3 years in the beginning of the treatment were evaluated cephalometrically. Fifteen of the young females were submitted to extractions of the four first premolars while the remaining fifteen were not. Four cephalometric measurements (IMPA, 1-ND, B-ND and Bperp-GoMe were evaluated and data was analyzed by the Kruskall-Wallis test, Friedman test and Pearson's correlation. RESULTS: The IMPA measurement had a tendency to increase within the group without extractions, but in contrast was significantly decreased within the group with extractions. The 1-ND measurement exhibited a decrease in the group with extractions and a small increase in the other group. The B-ND measurement was slightly decreased in the group with extractions, was not altered in the other group, and significant differences were not observed between these two groups. The Bperp-GoMe measurement was increased in both groups. A positive correlation was observed between IMPA, 1-ND and B-ND in the extraction group, since a decrease of the IMPA implied in a decrease of the 1-ND and a lingual localization of the point B. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results showed that the orthodontic treatment lead to alterations in point B, towards an anteroposterior position, and a tendency of lingual movement in the extraction group. The vertical evaluation revealed significant alterations in point B in both groups since measurement at the end of the treatment was significantly higher than the one in the beginning.

  1. Metabolic syndrome-associated sperm alterations in an experimental rabbit model: relation with metabolic profile, testis and epididymis gene expression and effect of tamoxifen treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiani, Sara; Vignozzi, Linda; Filippi, Sandra; Gurrieri, Bruna; Comeglio, Paolo; Morelli, Annamaria; Danza, Giovanna; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Maggi, Mario; Baldi, Elisabetta

    2015-02-05

    The influence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on sperm quality and function is debated. Using a well-established high fat diet (HFD) rabbit model resembling human MetS, including development of hypogonadism, we demonstrate that HFD decreased sperm motility, morphology and acrosome reaction in response to progesterone and increased sperm cholesterol content. All the above parameters were associated with most MetS features, its severity and plasma testosterone (T) at univariate analysis. After T adjustment, sperm morphology and motility retained a significant association, respectively, with mean arterial pressure and circulating cholesterol levels. MetS modified the expression of inflammatory and tissue remodelling genes in the testis and of aquaporins in the epididymis. In a multivariate analysis, sperm morphology resulted associated with testis expression of fibronectin and collagen type 1 genes, whereas motility with epididymis aquaporin 1 gene. Administration of tamoxifen, used in the treatment of idiopathic male infertility, to HFD rabbits partially restored motility, but further decreased morphology and increased spontaneous acrosome reaction, without restoring responsiveness to progesterone. Overall our results indicate that development of MetS produces detrimental effects on sperm quality and functionality by inducing metabolic disorders leading to alterations in testis and epididymis functions and evidence a role of hypertension as a new determinant of abnormal sperm morphology, in line with a previous human study from our group.

  2. Changes of Proline Content,Activity,and Active Isoforms of Antioxidative Enzymes in Two Alfalfa Cultivars Under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-shan; HAN Jian-guo

    2009-01-01

    The plants of two alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.)cultivars differing in salt tolerance were subjected to three salt treatments,70,140,and 210 mM NaCl for 7 days.Root,shoot,and leaf growths were inhibited by increased salt treatments in both cultivars,and at 140 and 210 mM salt treatments,Zhongmu 1 had significantly higher root,shoot,and leaf dry weights per plant than Defi.The malondialdehyde(MDA)accumulation in Defi was considerably greater than in Zhongmu 1,indicating a higher degree of lipid peroxidation at 140 and 210 mM salt treatments.The changes in the activity and active isoforms of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase(SOD,EC 1.15.1.1),catalase(CAT,EC 1.11.1.6),peroxidase(POD,EC 1.11.1.7),and ascorbate peroxidase(APOX,EC 1.11.1.11),accumulation of free proline,and rate of lipid peroxidation in leaves of two alfalfa cultivars were also investigated.After stress,the activity and active isoforms of antioxidative enzymes were altered and the extent of alteration varied between the cultivar Deft and Zhongmu 1.The proline accumulation in Defi was considerably greater than in Zhongmu 1 at 210 mM salt treatment.This indicated that proline accumulation may be the result,instead of the cause,of salt tolerance.

  3. Antioxidants of edible mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M.; Griensven, Van Leo

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic

  4. Cyclodextrins and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Nicolás, José Manuel; Rodríguez-Bonilla, Pilar; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the growth of the functional foods industry has increased research into new compounds with high added value for use in the fortification of traditional products. One of the most promising functional food groups is those enriched in antioxidant compounds of a lipophilic nature. In spite of the numerous advantages reported for such antioxidant molecules, they may also have disadvantages that impede their use in functional foods, although these problems may well avoided by the use of encapsulant agents such as cyclodextrins. This explains the recent increase in the number of research papers dealing with the complexation of different guest molecules possesing important antioxidant properties using natural and modified cyclodextrins. This paper presents a review of the most recent studies on the complexes formed between several important types of antioxidant compounds and cyclodextrins, focusing on the contradictory data reported in the literature concerning to the antioxidant activity of the host/guest molecule complexes, the different complexation constants reported for identical complexes, the bioavailability of the antioxidant compound in the presence of cyclodextrins and recommendation concerning the use of natural or modified cyclodextrins. Moreover, the use of cyclodextrins as antibrowning agents to prevent enzymatic browning in different foods is revised. Finally, we look at studies which suggest that cyclodextrins act as ''secondary antioxidants," enhancing the ability of traditional antioxidants to prevent enzymatic browning.

  5. Evolution of dietary antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzie, Iris F F

    2003-09-01

    Oxygen is vital for most organisms but, paradoxically, damages key biological sites. Oxygenic threat is met by antioxidants that evolved in parallel with our oxygenic atmosphere. Plants employ antioxidants to defend their structures against reactive oxygen species (ROS; oxidants) produced during photosynthesis. The human body is exposed to these same oxidants, and we have also evolved an effective antioxidant system. However, this is not infallible. ROS breach defences, oxidative damage ensues, accumulates with age, and causes a variety of pathological changes. Plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods traditionally formed the major part of the human diet, and plant-based dietary antioxidants are hypothesized to have an important role in maintaining human health. This hypothesis is logical in evolutionary terms, especially when we consider the relatively hypoxic environment in which humans may have evolved. In this paper, the human diet is discussed briefly in terms of its evolutionary development, different strategies of antioxidant defence are outlined, and evolution of dietary antioxidants is discussed from the perspectives of plant need and our current dietary requirements. Finally, possibilities in regard to dietary antioxidants, evolution, and human health are presented, and an evolutionary cost-benefit analysis is presented in relation to why we lost the ability to make ascorbic acid (vitamin C) although we retained an absolute requirement for it.

  6. Alterações pulmonares em um modelo de diabetes mellitus em ratos: o efeito da terapia antioxidante Lung alterations in a rat model of diabetes mellitus: effects of antioxidant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Forgiarini Junior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações estruturais no pulmão de ratos com diabetes mellitus (DM através da quantificação do estresse oxidativo e do dano ao DNA, assim como determinar os efeitos de superóxido dismutase (SOD exógena nessas alterações. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental controlado com 40 ratos Wistar, divididos em quatro grupos (10 animais cada: grupo controle, grupo SOD (sem DM e tratados com SOD, grupo DM (com DM induzido por estreptozotocina, e grupo DM+SOD (com DM induzido por estreptozotocina e tratados com SOD. Os animais foram avaliados por um período de 60 dias, iniciado a partir do dia em que os animais com diabetes induzido por estreptozotocina apresentaram glicemia > 250 mg/dL. Nos últimos 7 dias do período, os animais nos grupos tratados receberam SOD. Ao final do tempo de estudo, amostras de tecido pulmonar foram coletadas para análise histopatológica e avaliação do estresse oxidativo e do dano ao DNA. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos em relação ao dano ao DNA. Houve um aumento significativo na matriz extracelular e hiperplasia do endotélio capilar no grupo DM quando comparado com os grupos controle e SOD. Também houve mudanças significativas em pneumócitos tipo II e macrófagos intravasculares, sugerindo um processo inflamatório no grupo DM. Entretanto, uma redução na matriz extracelular, endotélio capilar normal e pneumócitos tipo II normais foram encontrados no grupo com DM+SOD. CONCLUSÕES: A administração exógena de SOD pode reverter alterações nos pulmões de animais com DM induzido.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate structural alterations of the lung in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM, by quantifying oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as to determine the effects that exogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD has on such alterations. METHODS: A controlled experimental study involving 40 male Wistar rats, divided into four groups (10 animals each: control; SOD

  7. Antioxidant assay using genetically engineered bioluminescent Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolome, Amelita; Macalino, Bernadette; Pastoral, Ian Lemuel; Sevilla, Fortunato, III

    2006-02-01

    A new antioxidant activity assay based on the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inducible bacterial strain (E. coli DPD2511) is described. The strain harbors the plasmid pKatG::luxCDABE and responds to hydrogen peroxide treatment by increasing light emission at 490 nm. Antioxidant capacity is evaluated through the ability of an agent to inhibit the hydrogen peroxide-induced bioluminescence of E. coli DPD2511. Applicability of the developed assay in detecting levels of antioxidants in various aqueous plant extracts is demonstrated. The assay was validated against 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, a known antioxidant assay.

  8. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDYSLIPIDEMIC PROPERTIES OF HEMIDESMUS INDICUS ROOT EXTRACT STUDIED IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Subramanian et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia. Hemidesmus indicus is employed as an indigenous medicine for a variety of ailments from earlier days. The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of Hemidesmus indicus in alloxan-induced experimental diabetic rats. The effect of oral administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract (400 mg/kg b.w. on glucose tolerance, the levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, protein, lipid peroxides, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, lipid profile, muscle glycogen content were determined in control and experimental groups of rats. The altered levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, and protein in the diabetic rats were significantly reverted back to near basal values by the administration of ethanol extract of Hemidesmus indicus root to diabetic rats for 30 days. The levels of lipid peroxides in the plasma and pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats were elevated significantly and were normalized by the administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The activities of pancreatic enzymic antioxidants and the levels of plasma non-enzymic antioxidants were markedly declined in the diabetic rats. Upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract to diabetic rats, these decreased levels were elevated to near normal values. The reduced level of glycogen content in muscle tissues of diabetic rats was significantly improved upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The altered levels of lipid profile were reverted back to near normalcy upon the extract treatment. The results of the study indicate that Hemidesmus indicus root extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antidyslipidemic activity. The results are comparable with glyclazide, an oral standard hypoglycemic drug. The phytochemicals present in the Hemidesmus indicus root extract may

  9. Biopersistence of PEGylated Carbon Nanotubes Promotes a Delayed Antioxidant Response after Infusion into the Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bosco, Lidiane; Weber, Gisele E; Parfitt, Gustavo M; Cordeiro, Arthur P; Sahoo, Sangram K; Fantini, Cristiano; Klosterhoff, Marta C; Romano, Luis Alberto; Furtado, Clascídia A; Santos, Adelina P; Monserrat, José M; Barros, Daniela M

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are promising nanomaterials for the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders. However, the ability of these nanomaterials to cross cell membranes and interact with neural cells brings the need for the assessment of their potential adverse effects on the nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the biopersistence of single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with polyethylene glycol (SWCNT-PEG) directly infused into the rat hippocampus. Contextual fear conditioning, Y-maze and open field tasks were performed to evaluate the effects of SWCNT-PEG on memory and locomotor activity. The effects of SWCNT-PEG on oxidative stress and morphology of the hippocampus were assessed 1 and 7 days after infusion of the dispersions at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.1 mg/mL. Raman analysis of the hippocampal homogenates indicates the biopersistence of SWCNT-PEG in the hippocampus 7 days post-injection. The infusion of the dispersions had no effect on the acquisition or persistence of the contextual fear memory; likewise, the spatial recognition memory and locomotor activity were not affected by SWCNT-PEG. Histological examination revealed no remarkable morphological alterations after nanomaterial exposure. One day after the infusion, SWCNT-PEG dispersions at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL were able to decrease total antioxidant capacity without modifying the levels of reactive oxygen species or lipid hydroperoxides in the hippocampus. Moreover, SWCNT-PEG dispersions at all concentrations induced antioxidant defenses and reduced reactive oxygen species production in the hippocampus at 7 days post-injection. In this work, we found a time-dependent change in antioxidant defenses after the exposure to SWCNT-PEG. We hypothesized that the persistence of the nanomaterial in the tissue can induce an antioxidant response that might have provided resistance to an initial insult. Such antioxidant delayed response may constitute an adaptive response to the biopersistence of SWCNT-PEG in the

  10. Biopersistence of PEGylated Carbon Nanotubes Promotes a Delayed Antioxidant Response after Infusion into the Rat Hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Dal Bosco

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are promising nanomaterials for the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders. However, the ability of these nanomaterials to cross cell membranes and interact with neural cells brings the need for the assessment of their potential adverse effects on the nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the biopersistence of single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with polyethylene glycol (SWCNT-PEG directly infused into the rat hippocampus. Contextual fear conditioning, Y-maze and open field tasks were performed to evaluate the effects of SWCNT-PEG on memory and locomotor activity. The effects of SWCNT-PEG on oxidative stress and morphology of the hippocampus were assessed 1 and 7 days after infusion of the dispersions at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.1 mg/mL. Raman analysis of the hippocampal homogenates indicates the biopersistence of SWCNT-PEG in the hippocampus 7 days post-injection. The infusion of the dispersions had no effect on the acquisition or persistence of the contextual fear memory; likewise, the spatial recognition memory and locomotor activity were not affected by SWCNT-PEG. Histological examination revealed no remarkable morphological alterations after nanomaterial exposure. One day after the infusion, SWCNT-PEG dispersions at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL were able to decrease total antioxidant capacity without modifying the levels of reactive oxygen species or lipid hydroperoxides in the hippocampus. Moreover, SWCNT-PEG dispersions at all concentrations induced antioxidant defenses and reduced reactive oxygen species production in the hippocampus at 7 days post-injection. In this work, we found a time-dependent change in antioxidant defenses after the exposure to SWCNT-PEG. We hypothesized that the persistence of the nanomaterial in the tissue can induce an antioxidant response that might have provided resistance to an initial insult. Such antioxidant delayed response may constitute an adaptive response to the biopersistence of

  11. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Black Garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Sook Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Black garlic (BG is a processed garlic product prepared by heat treatment of whole garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L. at high temperature under high humidity for several days, resulting in black cloves with a sweet taste. BG has recently been introduced to the Korean market as a product beneficial to health. To clarify how BG changes during the 35 day aging period, the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant contents, and antioxidant activities were evaluated under controlled conditions of 70 °C and 90% relative humidity. Reducing sugar and total acidity of BG increased during the aging period, whereas pH decreased from pH 6.33 to 3.74. Lightness and yellowness values of BG radically decreased during the aging period, whereas redness values increased significantly. Antioxidant components, including the total polyphenol and total flavonoids contents of BG, increased significantly until the 21st day of aging (p < 0.05 and correspondingly, the antioxidant activities of BG, measured by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and reducing power assays, were highest on the 21st day of aging. These results indicate that BG can be considered to not only possess antioxidant properties during the aging period, but also to reach its optimal antioxidant properties at the 21st day of aging.

  12. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahim Noor

    2012-11-01

    dismutase in the treated cells could alter the antioxidant defense system, potentially contributing towards the anti-proliferative effect. There is great potential for the ethyl acetate extract of P. betle leaf as a source of natural antioxidants and to be developed as therapeutics in cancer treatment.

  13. The antioxidant paradox: what are antioxidants and how should they be used in a therapeutic context for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Michael Y; Arbiser, Jack L

    2014-01-01

    So-called antioxidants have yet to make a clinical impact on the treatment of human cancer. The reasons for this failure are several. First, many agents that are called antioxidants are truly antioxidants at a given dose, but this dose may not have been given in clinical trials. Second, many agents are not antioxidants at all. Third, not all tumors use reactive oxygen as a signaling mechanism. Finally, reactive oxygen inhibition is often insufficient to kill or regress a tumor cell by itself, but requires sequential introduction of a therapeutic agent for maximal effect. We hope to provide a framework for the logical use of these agents in cancer.

  14. Alterative application of five anticonvulsants according to the half life for the treatment of status epilepticus in children with severe viral encephalitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional subhibernation therapy may easily cause complications, such as respiratory depression and hyportension because of application of chlorpromazine hydrochloride and promethazine in a large dosage.OBJECTIVE: To observe therapeutic effect of modified subhibernation therapy (alterative application of five anticonvulsants according to the half life) on status epilepticus in children with severe viral encephalitis (VE).DESIGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Department of Pediatrics, the First Hospital of Jilin University.PARTICIPANTS: The participants in present study were 96 patients withsevere viral encephalitis including 52 boys and 44 girls who received treatment in the Department of Pediatrics, the First Hospital of Jilin University from February 2000 to March 2006. All children met the diagnostic criteria of Zhufutong Practice Pediatrics (the seventh edition). Two weeks ago, they ever got upper respiratory infection or enteronitis and so on before the onset, spirit abnormal, behavior disorder, limbs act disorder, vomit, headache, convulsion,nervous system masculine signs such as limbs act disord, autonomic nerve damage manifestation, brain nerve palsy, dysreflexia, meningeal irritation sign, cerebrospinal fluid and electroencephalography (EEG)abnormity. All parents provided the confirmed consent. The patients were randomly divided into control group (n =40) and experimental group (n =56).METHODS: Patients in the control group received anticonvulsion, ice compress and routine treatment. The convulsion was treated with five drugs: 0.5 mg/kg wintermin and phenergan, respectively, 100 g/L chlorpromazine hydrochloride (0.5 mL/kg), 5 mg/kg luminal, 0.3 mg/kg ansiolin. When convulsion attacked,those five drugs were given alternatively; however, those were not given if the convulsion did not attack.Children in the experimental group were treated with improved subhibernation therapy based on routine treatment. The dosages of anticonvulsants were as the

  15. Altered gene expression and functional activity of opioid receptors in the cerebellum of CB1 cannabinoid receptor knockout mice after acute treatments with cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páldyová, Estera; Bereczki, E; Sántha, M; Wenger, T; Borsodi, Anna; Benyhe, S

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown functional links between the cannabinoid and opioid systems. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether acute treatments by endogenous cannabinoid agonist, selective CB1 or CB2 receptor antagonists modulate the expression of mu- (MOR) and delta- (DOR) opioid receptor mRNA levels and functional activity in the cerebellum of transgenic mice deficient in the CB1 type of cannabis receptors. We examined the effect of noladin ether (endogenous cannabinoid agonist) pretreatment on MOR and DOR mRNA expression by using reverse transcription and real-time polimerase chain reaction (PCR) and the ability of subsequent application of the opioid agonists to activate G-proteins, as measured by [35S]GTPgammaS binding, in wild-type (CB1+/+) and CB1 cannabinoid receptor deficient (CB1-/-, 'knockout', K.O.) mice. The acute administration of noladin ether markedly reduced MOR-mediated G-protein activation and caused a significant increase in the level of MOR mRNAs in the cerebella of wildtype, but not in the CB1-/- mice. No significant differences were observed in DOR functional activity and mRNA expression in wild-type animals. In CB1-/- mice the expression of DOR mRNA increased after noladin ether treatment, but no changes were found in DOR functional activity. In addition, Rimonabant (selective central cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist) and SR144528 (selective peripheral cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist) caused significant potentiation in MOR functional activity in the wild-type animals, whereas DOR mediated G-protein activation was increased in the CB1-/- mice. In contrast, Rimonabant and SR144528 decreased the MOR and DOR mRNA expressions in both CB1+/+ and CB1-/- mice. Taken together, these results indicate that acute treatment with cannabinoids causes alterations in MOR and DOR mRNA expression and functional activity in the cerebella of wild-type and CB1 knockout mice indicating indirect interactions between these two signaling systems.

  16. Piperine, a natural bioenhancer, nullifies the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of curcumin in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Arcaro

    Full Text Available Knowing that curcumin has low bioavailability when administered orally, and that piperine has bioenhancer activity by inhibition of hepatic and intestinal biotransformation processes, the aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of curcumin (90 mg/kg and piperine (20 or 40 mg/kg, alone or co-administered, incorporated in yoghurt, in streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic rats. The treatment for 45 days of STZ-diabetic rats with curcumin-enriched yoghurt improved all parameters altered in this experimental model of diabetes: the body weight was increased in association with the weight of skeletal muscles and white adipose tissues; the progressive increase in the glycemia levels was avoided, as well as in the glycosuria, urinary urea, dyslipidemia, and markers of liver (alanine and aspartate aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase and kidney (urinary protein dysfunction; the hepatic oxidative stress was decreased, since the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and gluthatione peroxidase were increased, and the levels of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl groups were reduced. The dose of 20 mg/kg piperine also showed antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. The treatment of STZ-diabetic rats with both curcumin and 20 mg/kg piperine in yoghurt did not change the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of curcumin; notably, the treatment with both curcumin and 40 mg/kg piperine abrogated the beneficial effects of curcumin. In addition, the alanine aminotransferase levels were further increased in diabetic rats treated with curcumin and 40 mg/kg piperine in comparison with untreated diabetic rats. These findings support that the co-administration of curcumin with a bioenhancer did not bring any advantage to the curcumin effects, at least about the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities, which could be related to changes on its biotransformation.

  17. Application of KRL test to assess total antioxidant activity in pigs: sensitivity to dietary antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Raffaella; Pastorelli, Grazia; Corino, Carlo

    2013-04-01

    The application of Kit Radicaux Libres (KRL) test to assess total blood antioxidant activity in pigs was evaluated. The KRL has been validated and is widely used in humans for assessing the effectiveness of natural or pharmaceutical treatments, and in vitro to evaluate the antioxidant activities of natural or synthetic antioxidants. In this study the sensitivity of the KRL test in assessing the effectiveness of dietary antioxidant supplementation (vitamin E and plant extract) was evaluated in two different phases of pig breeding. The first trial, in post-weaned piglets (40 piglets/group) fed dietary vitamin E supplementation for 60 days, indicated that there was a higher total antioxidant activity (P=0.032) of whole blood and of red blood cells (P=0.001) than for control pigs. The second trial indicated that long-term supplementation of water soluble plant extract (20 pigs/group) from the leaves of Verbenaceae (Lippia spp.) tended (P=0.091) to increase antioxidant activity in the whole blood of treated, rather than control pigs. These results indicate that the KRL might be recommended as one of efficient means for evaluating antioxidant activity of dietary ingredients fed to pigs.

  18. Anthocyanin, phenolics and antioxidant activity changes in purple waxy corn as affected by traditional cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidant components, including anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and their changes during traditional cooking of fresh purple waxy corn were investigated. As compared to the raw corn, thermal treatment caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in each antioxidant compound a...

  19. Honey: A Novel Antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cancer and Alzheimer's disease is on the rise. These diseases, which constitute the major causes of death globally, are associated with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is defined as an “imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the oxidants, potentially leading to damage”. Individuals with chronic diseases are more susceptible to oxidative stress and damage because they have elevated levels of oxidants and/or reduced antioxidants. This, therefore, necessitates supplementation with antioxidants so as to delay, prevent or remove oxidative damage. Honey is a natural substance with many medicinal effects such as antibacterial, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, reproductive, antihypertensive and antioxidant effects. This review presents findings that indicate honey may ameliorate oxidative stress in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, liver, pancreas, kidney, reproductive organs and plasma/serum. Besides, the review highlights data that demonstrate the synergistic antioxidant effect of honey and antidiabetic drugs in the pancreas, kidney and serum of diabetic rats. These data suggest that honey, administered alone or in combination with conventional therapy, might be a novel antioxidant in the management of chronic diseases commonly associated with oxidative stress. In view of the fact that the majority of these data emanate from animal studies, there is an urgent need to investigate this antioxidant effect of honey in human subjects with chronic or degenerative diseases.

  20. Single-dose and chronic corticosterone treatment alters c-Fos or FosB immunoreactivity in the rat cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakács, Réka; Fazekas, Ildikó; Mihály, András; Krisztin-Péva, Beáta; Juhász, Anna; Janka, Zoltán

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of single-dose and chronic corticosterone treatment on the inducible transcription factor c-Fos and FosB, and thereby to estimate the effects of high-doses of corticosterone on calcium-dependent neuronal responses in the rat cerebral cortex. At the same time we investigated the distribution of interneurons containing calretinin (CR), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in chronically treated animals in order to collect data on the involvement of inhibitory neurons in this process. Adult male rats were injected subcutaneously with 10mg corticosterone, whereas controls received the vehicle (sesame oil). The animals were fixed by transcardial perfusion 12 and 24h following single corticosterone injection, and the brains were processed for c-Fos and FosB immunohistochemistry. To investigate the effects of repeated corticosterone administration, rats were daily treated with the same amount of corticosterone (10mg/animal, subcutaneously) for 21 days. Controls were injected with vehicle. At the end of the experiment, the rats were perfused and immunohistochemistry was used to detect the presence of the FosB protein, CR, VIP and NPY. Quantitative evaluation of immunolabelled cells was performed in the neocortex and the hippocampus. The number of immunoreactive nuclei per unit area was used as a quantitative measure of the effects of corticosterone. It was found that a single-dose administration of corticosterone resulted in a significant, time-dependent increase of c-Fos protein immunoreactivity in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, as well as in regions CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus 12 and 24h post-injection with respect to control animals. Significant enhancement of c-Fos immunoreactivity was also observed in the neocortex at 12 and 24h post-injection. Single-dose treatment did not significantly alter FosB immunolabelling. Repeated administration of corticosterone produced a complex

  1. Expression of antioxidant genes in renal cortex of PTU-induced hypothyroid rats: effect of vitamin E and curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Srikanta; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda; Dandapat, Jagneshwar

    2012-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of vitamin E and curcumin on the expression of antioxidant genes in 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroid rat renal cortex. The levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation were increased in hypothyroid rat kidney. Co-administration of vitamin E and curcumin to hypothyroid rats resulted in amelioration of lipid peroxidation level, whereas curcumin alone alleviated the protein carbonylation level. The mRNA levels of SOD1 and SOD2 were decreased in hypothyroid rats. Decreased level of SOD1 transcripts was observed in hypothyroid rats supplemented with curcumin alone or co-administrated with vitamin E. Translated products of SOD1 and SOD2 in hypothyroid rats was elevated in response to supplementation of both the antioxidants. Decreased SOD1 and SOD2 activities in hypothyroid rats compared to control were either unaltered or further decreased in response to the antioxidants. Expressions of CAT at transcript and translate level along with its activity were down regulated in hypothyroid rats. Administration of vitamin E to hypothyroid rats resulted in elevated CAT mRNA level. In contrast, expression of CAT protein was elevated in response to both the antioxidants. However, CAT activity was unaltered in response to vitamin E and curcumin. GPx1 and GR mRNA level and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were not affected in response to induced hypothyroidism. The activity of GPx was increased in response to vitamin E treatment, whereas decreased GR activity in hypothyroid rats was further declined by the administration of antioxidants. The over all results suggest that vitamin E and curcumin differentially modulate the altered antioxidant defence mechanism of rat kidney cortex under experimental hypothyroidism.

  2. Protein alterations induced by long-term agonist treatment of HEK293 cells expressing thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor and G11alpha protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drastichova, Zdenka; Bourova, Lenka; Hejnova, Lucie; Jedelsky, Petr; Svoboda, Petr; Novotny, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether sustained stimulation with thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), a peptide with important physiological functions, can possibly affect expression of plasma membrane proteins in HEK293 cells expressing high levels of TRH receptor and G(11)alpha protein. Our previous experiments using silver-stained two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoretograms did not reveal any significant changes in an overall composition of membrane microdomain proteins after long-term treatment with TRH of these cells (Matousek et al. 2005 Cell Biochem Biophys 42: 21-40). Here we used a purified plasma membrane fraction prepared by Percoll gradient centrifugation and proteins resolved by 2D electrophoresis were stained with SYPRO Ruby gel stain. The high enrichment in plasma membrane proteins of this preparation was confirmed by a multifold increase in the number of TRH receptors and agonist stimulated G-protein activity, compared to postnuclear supernatant. By a combination of these approaches we were able to determine a number of clearly discernible protein changes in the plasma membrane-enriched fraction isolated from cells treated with TRH (1 x 10(-5) M, 16 h): 4 proteins disappeared, the level of 18 proteins decreased and the level of 39 proteins increased. Our concomitant immunochemical determinations also indicated a clear down-regulation of G(q/11)alpha proteins in preparations from hormone-treated cells. In parallel, we observed decrease in caspase 3 and alterations in some other apoptotic marker proteins, which were in line with the presumed antiapoptotic effect of TRH.

  3. Time course of altered sensitivity to inhibitory and excitatory agonist responses in the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus and analgesia in the guinea pig after chronic morphine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dane M Barrett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance that develops after chronic morphine exposure has been proposed to be an adaptive response that develops and decays over a defined time course. The present study examined the development of tolerance to the acute hypothermic and analgesic effects of morphine and correlated the time course for the desensitization in vivo with the reduced responsiveness to DAMGO and 2-CADO and increased responsiveness to nicotine of the longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus (LM/MP preparation in vitro. Assessment was performed at various times after morphine or placebo pellet implantation. Morphine produced a modest hypothermic response to which no tolerance developed. However, the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine, the inhibitory effect of DAMGO and CADO on neurogenic twitches of the LM/MP and hypersensitivity to the contractile response to nicotine was observed to occur in a time-dependent manner. The alterations in sensitivity to DAMGO, nicotine and responsiveness to morphine analgesia occurred between days 4 and 10 and returned to normal by day 14 post-implantation. In contrast, sensitivity of LM/MP preparations to 2-CADO displayed a similar time-dependent onset but the tolerance persisted beyond 14 days after implantation. These data suggest that the heterologous tolerance that develops after chronic morphine treatment is time-dependent and persistent but, ultimately returns to normal in the absence of any intervention. Furthermore, the data suggest that the basis of the adaptive phenomenon may involve multiple cellular mechanisms including the modulation of cell excitability and normal physiology but the consequences of the adaptation extend to all effects of the agonist.

  4. Mitochondrial dysfunction in psychiatric and neurological diseases: cause(s), consequence(s), and implications of antioxidant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasote, Deepak M; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V; Katyare, Surendra S

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is at the base of development and progression of several psychiatric and neurologic diseases with different etiologies. MtDNA/nDNA mutational damage, failure of endogenous antioxidant defenses, hormonal malfunction, altered membrane permeability, metabolic dysregulation, disruption of calcium buffering capacity and ageing have been found to be the root causes of mitochondrial dysfunction in psychatric and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the overall consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction are only limited to increase in oxidative/nitrosative stress and cellular energy crises. Thus far, extensive efforts have been made to improve mitochondrial function through specific cause-dependent antioxidant therapy. However, owing to complex genetic and interlinked causes of mitochondrial dysfunction, it has not been possible to achieve any common, unique supportive antioxidant therapeutic strategy for the treatment of psychiatric and neurologic diseases. Hence, we propose an antioxidant therapeutic strategy for management of consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction in psychiatric and neurologic diseases. It is expected that this will not only reduces oxidative stress, but also promote anaerobic energy production.

  5. Nitroaryl-1,4-dihydropyridines as antioxidants against rat liver microsomes oxidation induced by iron/ascorbate, nitrofurantoin and naphthalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letelier, María Eugenia; Entrala, Paz; López-Alarcón, Camilo; González-Lira, Víctor; Molina-Berríos, Alfredo; Cortés-Troncoso, Juan; Jara-Sandoval, José; Santander, Paola; Núñez-Vergara, Luis

    2007-12-01

    1,4-Dihydropyridines (DHPs) used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, are calcium channel antagonists and also antioxidant agents. These drugs are metabolized through cytochrome P(450) oxidative system, majority localized in the hepatic endoplasmic reticulum. Several lipophilic drugs generate oxidative stress to be metabolized by this cellular system. Thus, DHP antioxidant properties may prevent the oxidative stress associated with hepatic biotransformation of drugs. In this work, we tested the antioxidant capacity of several synthetic nitro-phenyl-DHPs. These compounds (I-IV) inhibited the microsomal lipid peroxidation, UDPGT oxidative activation and microsomal thiols oxidation; all phenomena induced by Fe(3+)/ascorbate, a generator system of oxygen free radicals. As the same manner, these compounds inhibited the oxygen consumption induced by Cu(2+)/ascorbate in the absence of microsomes. Furthermore, compound III (2,6-dimethyl-4-(4-nitrophenyl)-1,4-dihydropyridin-3,5-ethyl-dicarboxylate) and compound V (N-ethyl-2,6-dimethyl-4-(4-nitrophenyl)-1,4-dihydropyridin-3,5-methyl-dicarboxylate) inhibited the microsomal lipid peroxidation induced by Nitrofurantoin and naphthalene in the presence of NADPH. Oxidative stress induced on endoplasmic reticulum may alter the biotransformation of drugs, so, modifying their plasmatic concentrations and therapeutic effects. When drugs which are activated by biotransformation are administered together with antioxidant drugs, such as DHPs, oxidative stress induced in situ may be prevented.

  6. Antioxidative properties of flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowedes, T.C.F.; Luttikhold, J.; Stijn, van M.F.M.; Visser, M.; Norren, van K.; Vermeulen, M.A.R.; Leeuwen, P.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence accumulates that a family of plant compounds, known as flavonoids, can prevent or slow down the progression of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Flavonoids are considered beneficial, this is often attributed to their powerful antioxidant propertie

  7. Atmospheric oxidation and antioxidants

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    1993-01-01

    Volume I reviews current understanding of autoxidation, largely on the basis of the reactions of oxygen with characterised chemicals. From this flows the modern mechanism of antioxidant actions and their application in stabilisation technology.

  8. Evaluation of total phenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity of the leaves crude extracts of locally grown pigeon pea traditionally used in Sultanate of Oman for the treatment of jaundice and diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asma Hamood Al-Saeedi; Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the total phenols, total flavonoids and evaluate the antioxidant activity of crude extracts from the leaves of pigeon pea native to Sultanate of Oman by a popular method. Methods: The powdered leaves samples from pigeon pea were used for extraction by maceration method with methanol solvent. The methanol free crude extract by maceration method was suspended in water and successively extracted with different polarities of solvents. The obtained crude extracts with different polarities were used for the determination of total phenols and flavonoids contents by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride methods. The antioxidant activity of six crude extracts from pigeon pea was determined byα,αα-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl method. Results: The different polarities leaves crude extracts showed a significant amount of total phenols content ranging from 97.80 to 256.00 mg of GAE/g of crude extract. The same leaves crude extracts also showed good amount of total flavonoids content ranging from 1.38 to 8.51 mg QE/g plant material. The six crude extracts from the leaves displayed significant α,αα-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity with highest value in chloroform extract followed by methanol, butanol, ethyl acetate, hexane and water crude extracts (98.13%, 89.26%, 88.82%, 86.41%, 79.95% and 69.44%, respectively). Conclusions: Leaves crude extracts from pigeon pea have high contents of total phenols and flavonoids. In this regards, it could be used as a medicine for the treatment of different diseases.

  9. Evaluation of total phenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity of the leaves crude extracts of locally grown pigeon pea traditionally used in Sultanate of Oman for the treatment of jaundice and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Hamood Al-Saeedi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the total phenols, total flavonoids and evaluate the antioxidant activity of crude extracts from the leaves of pigeon pea native to Sultanate of Oman by a popular method. Methods: The powdered leaves samples from pigeon pea were used for extraction by maceration method with methanol solvent. The methanol free crude extract by maceration method was suspended in water and successively extracted with different polarities of solvents. The obtained crude extracts with different polarities were used for the determination of total phenols and flavonoids contents by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride methods. The antioxidant activity of six crude extracts from pigeon pea was determined by α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl method. Results: The different polarities leaves crude extracts showed a significant amount of total phenols content ranging from 97.80 to 256.00 mg of GAE/g of crude extract. The same leaves crude extracts also showed good amount of total flavonoids content ranging from 1.38 to 8.51 mg QE/g plant material. The six crude extracts from the leaves displayed significant α, α- diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity with highest value in chloroform extract followed by methanol, butanol, ethyl acetate, hexane and water crude extracts (98.13%, 89.26%, 88.82%, 86.41%, 79.95% and 69.44%, respectively. Conclusions: Leaves crude extracts from pigeon pea have high contents of total phenols and flavonoids. In this regards, it could be used as a medicine for the treatment of different diseases.

  10. Antioxidant supplements and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of a...... of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging....

  11. The Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A complex antioxidant system has been developed in mammals to relieve oxidative stress. However, excessive reactive species derived from oxygen and nitrogen may still lead to oxidative damage to tissue and organs. Oxidative stress has been considered as a conjoint pathological mechanism, and it contributes to initiation and progression of liver injury. A lot of risk factors, including alcohol, drugs, environmental pollutants and irradiation, may induce oxidative stress in liver, which in turn results in severe liver diseases, such as alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Application of antioxidants signifies a rational curative strategy to prevent and cure liver diseases involving oxidative stress. Although conclusions drawn from clinical studies remain uncertain, animal studies have revealed the promising in vivo therapeutic effect of antioxidants on liver diseases. Natural antioxidants contained in edible or medicinal plants often possess strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities as well as anti-inflammatory action, which are also supposed to be the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits. In this review, PubMed was extensively searched for literature research. The keywords for searching oxidative stress were free radicals, reactive oxygen, nitrogen species, anti-oxidative therapy, Chinese medicines, natural products, antioxidants and liver diseases. The literature, including ours, with studies on oxidative stress and anti-oxidative therapy in liver diseases were the focus. Various factors that cause oxidative stress in liver and effects of antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases were summarized, questioned, and discussed.

  12. Erdosteine prevents colonic inflammation through its antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Göksel; Aksoy, Halil; Sehirli, Ozer; Yüksel, Meral; Aral, Cenk; Gedik, Nursal; Cetinel, Sule; Yeğen, Berrak C

    2007-09-01

    After intracolonic administration of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS), Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally either with saline or erdosteine (100 mg/kg per day), a sulfhydryl-containing antioxidant, for 3 days. On the 4th day, rats were decapitated and distal colon was removed for the macroscopic and microscopic damage scoring, for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and collagen levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, luminol and lucigenin chemiluminescence (CL) and DNA fragmentation. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and antioxidant capacity were assayed in blood samples. Colitis caused significant increases in the colonic CL values, macroscopic and microscopic damage scores, MDA and collagen levels, MPO activity and DNA fragmentation, along with a significant decrease in tissue GSH level. Similarly, serum cytokines and LDH were elevated in the saline-treated colitis group as compared with the control group. On the other hand, erdosteine treatment reversed all these biochemical indices, and histopathologic alterations induced by TNBS, suggesting that erdosteine protects the colonic tissue via its radical scavenging and antioxidant activities.

  13. Radioprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Resveratrol in Hippocampus by Activating Sirt1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species can lead to functional alterations in lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, and an accumulation of ROS (Reactive oxygen species is considered to be one factor that contributes to neurodegenerative changes. An increase in ROS production occurs following irradiation. Neuronal tissue is susceptible to oxidative stress because of its high oxygen consumption and modest antioxidant defenses. As a polyphenolic compound, resveratrol is frequently used as an activator of Sirt1 (Sirtuin 1. The present study was designed to explore the radioprotective and antioxidant effect of resveratrol on Sirt1 expression and activity induced by radiation and to provide a new target for the development of radiation protection drugs. Our results demonstrate that resveratrol inhibits apoptosis induced by radiation via the activation of Sirt1. We demonstrated an increase in Sirt1 mRNA that was present on 21 days of resveratrol treatment following irradiation in a concentration-dependent manner. Such mRNA increase was accompanied by an increase of Sirt1 protein and activity. Resveratrol effectively antagonized oxidation induced by irradiation, supporting its cellular ROS-scavenging effect. These results provide evidence that the mitochondrial protection and the antioxidant effect of resveratrol contribute to metabolic activity. These data suggest that Sirt1 may play an important role to protect neurons from oxidative stress.

  14. Therapeutic effects of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera) in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumour activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Aly, Salah M; Ali, Habeeb; Babiker, Ali Y; Srikar, Sauda; Khan, Amjad A

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment of various diseases based on synthetic drugs is expensive, alters genetic and metabolic pathways and also shows adverse side effects. Thus, safe and effective approach is needed to prevent the diseases development and progression. In this vista, Natural products are good remedy in the treatment/management of diseases and they are affordable and effective without any adverse effects. Dates are main fruit in the Arabian Peninsula and are considered to be one of the most significant commercial crops and also have been documented in Holy Quran and modern scientific literatures. Earlier studies have shown that constituents of dates act as potent antioxidant, anti-tumour as well as anti-inflammatory, provide a suitable alternative therapy in various diseases cure. In this review, dates fruits has medicinal value are summarized in terms of therapeutic implications in the diseases control through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour and ant-diabetic effect.

  15. Comparative evaluation of co-enzyme Q10 and Melaleuca alternifolia as antioxidant gels in treatment of chronic periodontitis: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Chetan Purushottam Raut; Kunal S Sethi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Conventional nonsurgical periodontal therapy has been proven to be an effective treatment for patients with chronic periodontitis. Coenzyme Q10 and tea tree oil (TTO) are known to have potential therapeutic benefits in chronic periodontitis. Aims: The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of Coenzyme Q10 (Perio Q® ) and tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Patient...

  16. Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activities and stress protein (HSP72/73, GRP94) expression in kidney and liver of rats under lithium treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Riadh; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Bourogaa, Ezzedine; Saoudi, Monji; Murat, Jean-Claude; Croute, Françoise; Elfeki, Abdelfettah

    2012-03-01

    The present work was aimed at studying the effects of a subchronic lithium treatment on rat liver and kidneys, paying attention to the relationship between lithium toxicity, oxidative stress, and stress protein expression. Male rats were submitted to lithium treatment by adding 2 g of lithium carbonate/kg of food for different durations up to 1 month. This treatment led to serum concentrations ranging from 0.5 mM (day 7) to 1.34 mM (day 28) and renal insufficiency highlighted by an increase of blood creatinine and urea levels and a decrease of urea excretion. Lithium treatment was found to trigger an oxidative stress both in kidney and liver, leading to an increase of lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Conversely, glutathione peroxidase activity was reduced. Constitutive HSP73 (heat shock protein 73) expression was not modified by lithium treatment, whereas inducible HSP72 was down-regulated in kidney. GRP94 (glucose regulated protein 94) appeared as two isoforms of 92 and 98 kDa: the 98-kDa protein being overexpressed in kidney by lithium treatment whereas 92-kDa protein was underexpressed both in kidney and liver.

  17. Dietary melatonin alters uterine artery hemodynamics in pregnant Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockus, K E; Hart, C G; Gilfeather, C L; Fleming, B O; Lemley, C O

    2016-04-01

    The objective was to examine uterine artery hemodynamics and maternal serum profiles in pregnant heifers supplemented with dietary melatonin (MEL) or no supplementation (CON). In addition, melatonin receptor-mediated responses in steroid metabolism were examined using a bovine endometrial epithelial culture system. Twenty singleton pregnant Holstein heifers were supplemented with 20 mg of melatonin (n = 10) or no melatonin supplementation (control; n = 10) from days 190 to 262 of gestation. Maternal measurements were recorded on days 180 (baseline), 210, 240, and 262 of gestation. Total uterine blood flow was increased by 25% in the MEL-treated heifers compared with the CON. Concentrations of progesterone were decreased in MEL vs CON heifers. Total serum antioxidant capacity was increased by 43% in MEL-treated heifers when compared with CON. Activity of cytochrome P450 1A, 2C, and superoxide dismutase was increased in bovine endometrial epithelial cells treated with melatonin, whereas the melatonin receptor antagonist, luzindole, negated the increase in cytochrome P450 2C activity. Moreover, estradiol or progesterone treatment altered bovine uterine melatonin receptor expression, which could potentiate the melatonin-mediated responses during late gestation. The observed increase in total uterine blood flow during melatonin supplementation could be related to its antioxidant properties. Compromised pregnancies are typically accompanied by increased oxidative stress; therefore, melatonin could serve as a therapeutic supplementation strategy. This could lead to further fetal programming implications in conjunction with offspring growth and development postnatally.

  18. Altering Knee Abduction Angular Impulse Using Wedged Insoles for Treatment of Patellofemoral Pain in Runners: A Six-Week Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan T Lewinson

    Full Text Available Determine if a change in internal knee abduction angular impulse (KAAI is related to pain reduction for runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP by comparing lateral and medial wedge insole interventions, and increased KAAI and decreased KAAI groups.Randomized controlled clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov ID# NCT01332110.Biomechanics laboratory and community.Thirty-six runners with physician-diagnosed PFP enrolled in the trial, and 27 were analyzed.Runners with PFP were randomly assigned to either an experimental 3 mm lateral wedge or control 6 mm medial wedge group. Participants completed a biomechanical gait analysis to quantify KAAIs with their assigned insole, and then used their assigned insole for six-weeks during their regular runs. Usual pain during running was measured at baseline and at six-week follow-up using a visual analog scale. Statistical tests were performed to identify differences between wedge types, differences between biomechanical response types (i.e. increase or decrease KAAI, as well as predictors of pain reduction.Percent change in KAAI relative to neutral, and % change in pain over six weeks.Clinically meaningful reductions in pain (>33% were measured for both footwear groups; however, no significant differences between footwear groups were found (p = 0.697. When participants were regrouped based on KAAI change (i.e., increase or decrease, again, no significant differences in pain reduction were noted (p = 0.146. Interestingly, when evaluating absolute change in KAAI, a significant relationship between absolute % change in KAAI and % pain reduction was observed (R2 = 0.21; p = 0.030, after adjusting for baseline pain levels.The greater the absolute % change in KAAI during running, the greater the % reduction in pain over six weeks, regardless of wedge type, and whether KAAIs increased or decreased. Lateral and medial wedge insoles were similar in effectiveness for treatment of PFP.Altering KAAI should be a focus of future

  19. Antioxidants for Preventing Preeclampsia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Magalhaes Ribeiro Salles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the efficacy of antioxidants for preventing preeclampsia and other maternal and fetal complications among pregnant women with low, moderate, or high risk of preeclampsia. Methods. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, mRCT, and other databases, with no language or publication restrictions. Two independent reviewers selected randomized controlled trials that evaluated the use of antioxidants versus placebo and extracted the relevant data. Relative risks (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated. The data were compiled through the random effects model. Main Results. Fifteen studies were included (21,012 women and 21,647 fetuses. No statistically significant difference was found between women who received antioxidant treatment and women who received placebo for preeclampsia (RR =0.92; 95% CI: 0.82–1.04, severe preeclampsia (RR =1.03; 95% CI: 0.87–1.22, preterm birth (RR =1.03; 95% CI: 0.94–1.14, and small for gestational age <10th centile (RR =0.92; 95% CI: 0.80–1.05. Side effects were numerically more frequent in the antioxidants group compared to placebo, but without significant statistical difference (RR =1.24; 95% CI: 0.85–1.80. Conclusions. The available evidence reviewed does not support the use of antioxidants during pregnancy for the prevention of preeclampsia and other outcomes.

  20. Pro-oxidant and antioxidant effects of N-acetylcysteine regulate doxorubicin-induced NF-kappa B activity in leukemic cells†

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Nnenna Adimora; Kemp, Melissa Lambeth

    2011-01-01

    Clinical debate has arisen over the consequences of antioxidant supplementation during cancer chemotherapy. While antioxidants may impede the efficacy of chemotherapy by scavenging reactive oxygen species and free radicals, it is also possible that antioxidants alleviate unwanted chemotherapy-induced toxicity, thus allowing for increased chemotherapy doses. These contradictory assertions suggest that antioxidant supplementation during chemotherapy treatment can have varied outcomes depending ...

  1. Assessment of effect of hydroalcoholic and decoction methods on extraction of antioxidants from selected Indian medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mital Kaneria; Bhavana Kanani; Sumitra Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant activities of selected Indian medicinal flora. Methods: Different parts of plants were extracted by hydroalcoholic and decoction methods using water and various concentrations of methanol (ME) viz. 75%, 50% and 25% ME. The antioxidant activity of all the different extracts was evaluated using two different antioxidant assays viz. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and superoxide anion radical scavenging assay. Total phenol and flavonoid content was also estimated. Results: The results showed that the extracting solvent significantly altered the antioxidant property estimations of screened p