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  1. Physical activity alters antioxidant status in exercising elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Anne-Sophie; Margaritis, Irène; Arnaud, Josiane; Faure, Henri; Roussel, Anne-Marie

    2006-07-01

    Nutritional adequacy and physical activity are two aspects of a health-promoting lifestyle. Not much is known about antioxidant nutrient requirements for exercising elderly (EE) subjects. The question of whether exercise training alters the status of antioxidant vitamins as well as trace elements in elderly subjects and fails to balance the age-related increase in oxidative stress is addressed in this study. There were 18 EE (68.1+/-3.1 years), 7 sedentary elderly (SE; 70.4+/-5.0 years), 17 exercising young (EY; 31.2+/-7.1 years) and 8 sedentary young (SY; 27.1+/-5.8 years) subjects who completed 7-day food and activity records. Each subject's blood was sampled on Day 8. A similar selenium (Se) status but a higher erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were found in EE subjects as compared with EY and SE subjects. Blood oxidized glutathione was higher and plasma total thiol was lower in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. Mean vitamin C (167 vs. 106 mg/day), vitamin E (11.7 vs. 8.3 mg/day) and beta-carotene (4 vs. 2.4 mg/day) intakes were higher in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. However, EE subjects exhibited the lowest plasma carotenoid concentrations, especially in beta-carotene, which was not related to intakes. Despite high intakes of antioxidant micronutrients, no adaptive mechanism able to counteract the increased oxidative stress in aging was found in EE subjects. Results on GSH-Px activity illustrate that the nature of the regulation of this biomarker of Se status is different in response to training and aging. These data also strongly suggest specific antioxidant requirements for athletes with advancing age, with a special attention to carotenoids.

  2. Current Antioxidant Treatments in Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shaojun; Xue, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the key mechanisms affecting the outcome throughout the course of organ transplantation. It is widely believed that the redox balance is dysregulated during ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) and causes subsequent oxidative injury, resulting from the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, in order to alleviate organ shortage, increasing number of grafts is retrieved from fatty, older, and even non-heart-beating donors that are particularly vulnerable to the accumulation of ROS. To improve the viability of grafts and reduce the risk of posttransplant dysfunction, a large number of studies have been done focusing on the antioxidant treatments for the purpose of maintaining the redox balance and thereby protecting the grafts. This review provides an overview of these emerging antioxidant treatments, targeting donor, graft preservation, and recipient as well.

  3. Antioxidant supplementation does not alter endurance training adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yfanti, Christina; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Nielsen, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a considerable commercial market, especially within the sports community, claiming the need for antioxidant supplementation. One argument for antioxidant supplementation in sports is that physical exercise is associated with increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS......) production, which may cause cell damage. However, RONS production may also activate redox sensitive signaling pathways and transcription factors, which subsequently may promote training adaptation. PURPOSE: Our aim was to investigate the effects of combined vitamin C and E supplementation to healthy...... individuals on different measures of exercise performance after endurance training. METHODS:: Using a double-blinded placebo-controlled design, moderately trained young men received either oral supplementation with vitamins C and E (n=11) or placebo (n=10) before and during 12 weeks of supervised, strenuous...

  4. Alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华明; 胡岳华; 杨武国; 敖伟琴; 邱冠周

    2004-01-01

    Diaspore (α-AlOOH) was heated at various temperatures from 300 to 1000 ℃ for 2 h. The alteration of diaspore by thermal treatment was investigated by differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The mechanism of thermal decomposition of diaspore was discussed according to the Coats-Redfern equation. It is found that after thermal treatment at 500 ℃, diaspore is transformed entirely to corundum (α-Al2O3). Combined with the mass loss ratio obtained from the thermogravimetric analysis data, the activation energies for the thermal treatment of diaspore are calculated as Ea=10.4 kJ/mol below 400 ℃ and Eb=47.5 kJ/mol above 400 ℃, respectively, which is directly related to the structural alteration of diaspore during the thermal treatment. The results indicate that the thermal decomposition of diaspore is conducted primarily by means of an interfacial reaction.

  5. Efficacy and Interaction of Antioxidant Supplements as Adjuvant Therapy in Cancer Treatment: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasueda, Asuka; Urushima, Hayato; Ito, Toshinori

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress is a key component in carcinogenesis. Although radiation produces reactive oxygen species, some anticancer agents such as alkylating agents, platinum and antitumor antibiotics exert cytotoxicity by generating free radicals. Nonenzymatic exogenous antioxidants such as vitamins, minerals, and polyphenols can quench ROS activity. However, whether antioxidants alter antitumor effects during radiotherapy and some types of chemotherapy remains unclear. In the present study, we reviewed antioxidants as an adjuvant therapy for cancer patients during chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Electronic literature searches were performed to select all randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) in which antioxidants were administered to cancer patients along with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Articles or abstracts written in English were included. In total, 399 reports received primary screening. Duplicated articles and those meeting the exclusion criteria (not RCT, not human, and no oral administration) were excluded. Finally, 49 reports matching the inclusion criteria were included. It was difficult to determine whether antioxidants affect treatment outcomes or whether antioxidants ameliorate adverse effects induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It is desirable to use an evidence-based method to select supplements best suited to cancer patients. Although there are many opinions about risks or benefits of antioxidant supplementation, we could mostly conclude that the harm caused by antioxidant supplementation remains unclear for patients during cancer therapy, except for smokers undergoing radiotherapy. PMID:26503419

  6. Altered Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Vávrová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, an increase of oxidative stress could play an important role which is closely linked with insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and chronic inflammation. The aim of our study was to assess several parameters of the antioxidant status in MetS. Methods: 40 subjects with MetS and 40 age- and sex-matched volunteers without MetS were examined for activities of superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1, glutathione reductase (GR, paraoxonase1 (PON1, concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH, and conjugated dienes in low-density lipoprotein (CD-LDL. Results: Subjects with MetS had higher activities of CuZnSOD (p Conclusions: Our results implicated an increased oxidative stress in MetS and a decreased antioxidative defense that correlated with some laboratory (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and clinical (waist circumference, blood pressure components of MetS.

  7. Alterations in aortic antioxidant components in an experimental model of atherosclerosis: a time-course study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, David V; Nichols, Cathleen R; Hoekstra, Kenneth A; Garnett, Maureen E; Cheng, Kimberly M

    2003-10-01

    Antioxidant component alterations in the aorta during atherogenesis were examined in atherosclerosis-susceptible (SUS) Japanese quail fed a cholesterol-supplemented (0.5% w/w) diet. Birds fed a non-supplemented diet provided information on the effects of aging on endogenous antioxidants. One hundred adult SUS males were used. Birds were sacrificed after 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks on the diets and were examined for plaque development and corresponding antioxidant component alterations in aorta and myocardium. With aging, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased in both tissues, whereas aortic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and myocardial glutathione reductase (GRd) activity decreased. Myocardial ascorbate levels increased with aging, with a reciprocal decrease in myocardial tocopherol levels. Following 4 weeks of cholesterol supplementation, aortic GRd decreased, SOD activity increased, but activities of GPx and catalase were unchanged. This same qualitative pattern of antioxidant enzyme changes was also found in myocardium. Thus, although aortic antioxidant enzyme changes produced by cholesterol feeding and aging showed some similarities, the early phase of atherogenesis does not simply reflect accelerated aging. In the late stages of atherogenesis, SOD activity returned to baseline, but other antioxidant enzymes remained unaltered from levels characterizing the early phase of lesion development. There was no detectable functional coupling between changes in GPx and GRd, nor between SOD (which produces hydrogen peroxide) and GPx or catalase (which utilize hydrogen peroxide as substrate). Previously reported alterations in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme components during atherogenesis in quail were not predictive of changes in the corresponding enzymes in the aorta and myocardium. PMID:14577593

  8. Adaptive radiation-induced epigenetic alterations mitigated by antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Autumn J.; Dolinoy, Dana C; Huang, Dale; Skaar, David A.; Weinhouse, Caren; Jirtle, Randy L

    2013-01-01

    Humans are exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) from a number of environmental and medical sources. In addition to inducing genetic mutations, there is concern that LDIR may also alter the epigenome. Such heritable effects early in life can either be positively adaptive or result in the enhanced formation of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Herein, we show that LDIR significantly increased DNA methylation at the viable yellow agouti (Avy) locus in a sex-specific man...

  9. Antioxidant vitamins and cytokines are altered in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abranches, Monise Viana; Mendes, Maria Carolina Santos; Pena, Georgia das Graças; Maia, Yara Cristina de Paiva; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; de Paula, Sérgio Oliveira; de Freitas, Renata Nascimento; Peluzio, Maria Carmo Gouveia

    2011-09-01

    A case-control study was conducted to assess the levels of α-tocopherol, retinol, and β-carotene in different tissues and the genetic expression of inflammatory mediators in women with breast cancer. The study included 51 women divided into two groups: case (n = 25) and benign breast disease (n = 26). We evaluated the dietary intake of α-tocopherol, retinol, and β-carotene and measured plasma and tissue concentrations of these compounds and the inflammatory mediators IL-8, IL-10, and IFNγ. The benign breast disease group showed greater ingestion of α-tocopherol (P = 0.04) and β-carotene (P = 0.011). The concentration of tissue α-tocopherol was reduced in the case group (P = 0.005). The expression of IL-10, IL-8, and IFNγ increased by 231.0, 49.1, and 57.5%, respectively in the case group. The results show that antioxidant nutrients possibly exert biological effects in preventing breast cancer and the immune response is activated in the course of the disease, given the increased expression of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory compounds with the aid of food.

  10. Mitomycin C induced alterations in antioxidant enzyme levels in a model insect species, Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcabe, J P; MacGill, R S; Zaman, K; Ahmad, S; Pardini, R S

    1994-05-01

    1. An insect species, the southern armyworm Spodoptera eridania, was used as an in vivo model to examine mitomycin C's (MMC) pro-oxidant effect reflected in alterations of antioxidant enzymes. 2. Following a 2-day exposure to 0.01 and 0.05% w/w dietary concentrations, MMC only induced superoxide dismutase activity. All other enzyme activities were not affected, indicating oxidative stress was mild. 3. Following a 5-day exposure to 0.05% w/w dietary MMC, the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase and its peroxidase activity and DT-diaphorase were induced. GR activity was not altered. The high constitutive catalase activity was also not affected. These responses of S. eridania's antioxidant enzymes are analogous to those of mammalian systems in alleviating MMC-induced oxidative stress. 4. S. eridania emerges as an appropriate non-mammalian model for initial and cost-effective screening of drug-induced oxidative stress. PMID:7926607

  11. Radiofrequency treatment alters cancer cell phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Matthew J.; Tinger, Sophia; Colbert, Kevin L.; Corr, Stuart J.; Rees, Paul; Koshkina, Nadezhda; Curley, Steven; Summers, H. D.; Godin, Biana

    2015-07-01

    The importance of evaluating physical cues in cancer research is gradually being realized. Assessment of cancer cell physical appearance, or phenotype, may provide information on changes in cellular behavior, including migratory or communicative changes. These characteristics are intrinsically different between malignant and non-malignant cells and change in response to therapy or in the progression of the disease. Here, we report that pancreatic cancer cell phenotype was altered in response to a physical method for cancer therapy, a non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) treatment, which is currently being developed for human trials. We provide a battery of tests to explore these phenotype characteristics. Our data show that cell topography, morphology, motility, adhesion and division change as a result of the treatment. These may have consequences for tissue architecture, for diffusion of anti-cancer therapeutics and cancer cell susceptibility within the tumor. Clear phenotypical differences were observed between cancerous and normal cells in both their untreated states and in their response to RF therapy. We also report, for the first time, a transfer of microsized particles through tunneling nanotubes, which were produced by cancer cells in response to RF therapy. Additionally, we provide evidence that various sub-populations of cancer cells heterogeneously respond to RF treatment.

  12. Amelioration of altered antioxidant status and membrane linked functions by vanadium and Trigonella in alloxan diabetic rat brains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Rizwan Siddiqui; Asia Taha; K Moorthy; Mohd Ejaz Hussain; S F Basir; Najma Zaheer Baquer

    2005-09-01

    Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder (TSP) and sodium orthovanadate (SOV) have been reported to have antidiabetic effects. However, SOV exerts hypoglycemic effects at relatively high doses with several toxic effects. We used low doses of vanadate in combination with TSP and evaluated their antidiabetic effects on antioxidant enzymes and membrane-linked functions in diabetic rat brains. In rats, diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (15 mg/100 g body wt.) and they were treated with 2 IU insulin, 0.6 mg/ml SOV, 5% TSP and a combination of 0.2 mg/ml SOV with 5% TSP for 21 days. Blood glucose levels, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Na+/K+ ATPase, membrane lipid peroxidation and fluidity were determined in different fractions of whole brain after 21 days of treatment. Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose ( < 0.001), decreased activities of SOD, catalase and Na+/K+ ATPase ( < 0.01, < 0.001 and < 0.01), increased levels of GPx and MDA ( < 0.01 and < 0.001) and decreased membrane fluidity ( < 0.01). Treatment with different antidiabetic compounds restored the above-altered parameters. Combined dose of Trigonella and vanadate was found to be the most effective treatment in normalizing these alterations. Lower doses of vanadate could be used in combination with TSP to effectively counter diabetic alterations without any toxic effects.

  13. Modulation of radiation induced alteration in the antioxidant status of mice by naringin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alteration of antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation by naringin, a citrus flavoglycoside, was investigated in Swiss albino mice treated with 2 mg/kg b. wt. naringin before exposure to 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 Gy gamma radiation. Lipid peroxidation, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined in the liver and small intestine of mice treated or not with naringin at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 h post-irradiation. Whole-body irradiation of mice caused a dose dependent elevation in the lipid peroxidation while a dose dependent depletion was observed for glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in both liver as well as small intestine. The study demonstrates that naringin protects mouse liver and intestine against the radiation-induced damage by elevating the antioxidant status and reducing the lipid peroxidation

  14. The role of antioxidants in skin cancer prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godic, Aleksandar; Poljšak, Borut; Adamic, Metka; Dahmane, Raja

    2014-01-01

    Skin cells are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress from exogenous and endogenous sources. UV radiation is the most important environmental factor in the development of skin cancer and skin aging. The primary products caused by UV exposure are generally direct DNA oxidation or generation of free radicals which form and decompose extremely quickly but can produce effects that can last for hours, days, or even years. UV-induced generation of ROS in the skin develops oxidative stress when their formation exceeds the antioxidant defense ability. The reduction of oxidative stress can be achieved on two levels: by lowering exposure to UVR and/or by increasing levels of antioxidant defense in order to scavenge ROS. The only endogenous protection of our skin is melanin and enzymatic antioxidants. Melanin, the pigment deposited by melanocytes, is the first line of defense against DNA damage at the surface of the skin, but it cannot totally prevent skin damage. A second category of defense is repair processes, which remove the damaged biomolecules before they can accumulate and before their presence results in altered cell metabolism. Additional UV protection includes avoidance of sun exposure, usage of sunscreens, protective clothes, and antioxidant supplements.

  15. Efficacy of lower doses of vanadium in restoring altered glucose metabolism and antioxidant status in diabetic rat lenses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anju Preet; Bihari L Gupta; Gupta Pramod K Yadava; Najma Z Baquer

    2005-03-01

    Vanadium compounds are potent in controlling elevated blood glucose levels in experimentally induced diabetes. However the toxicity associated with vanadium limits its role as therapeutic agent for diabetic treatment. A vanadium compound sodium orthovanadate (SOV) was given to alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats in lower doses in combination with Trigonella foenum graecum, a well-known hypoglycemic agent used in traditional Indian medicines. The effect of this combination was studied on lens morphology and glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. Lens, an insulin-independent tissue, was found severely affected in diabetes showing visual signs of cataract. Alterations in the activities of glucose metabolizing enzymes (hexokinase, aldose reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase) besides the levels of related metabolites, [sorbitol, fructose, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH)] were observed in the lenses from diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated with insulin (2 IU/day), SOV (0.6 mg/ml), T. f. graecum seed powder (TSP, 5%) and TSP (5%) in combination with lowered dose of vanadium SOV (0.2 mg/ml), for a period of 3 weeks. The activity of the enzymes, hexokinase, aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase was significantly increased whereas the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase decreased significantly in lenses from 3 week diabetic rats. Significant increase in accumulation of metabolites, sorbitol, fructose, glucose was found in diabetic lenses. TBARS measure of peroxidation increased whereas the levels of antioxidant GSH decreased significantly in diabetic condition. Insulin restored the levels of altered enzyme activities and metabolites almost to control levels. Sodium orthovanadate (0.6 mg/ml) and Trigonella administered separately to diabetic animals could

  16. Chronic ozone exposure alters the secondary metabolite profile, antioxidant potential, anti-inflammatory property, and quality of red pepper fruit from Capsicum baccatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Divan Junior, Armando Molina; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moresco, Karla Suzana; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro; de Oliveira Salvi, Aguisson; Ortmann, Caroline Flach; de Carvalho, Pâmela; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Fonseca Moreira, José Cláudio

    2016-07-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) background concentrations have increased since pre-industrial times, reaching phytotoxic concentrations in many regions globally. However, the effect of high O3 concentrations on quality of fruit and vegetables remains unknown. Here, we evaluated whether O3 pollution alters the quality of Capsicum baccatum peppers by changing the secondary compound profiles and biological activity of the fruit. C. baccatum pepper plants were exposed to ozone for 62 days in an open-top chamber at a mean O3 concentration of 171.6µg/m(3). Capsaicin levels decreased by 50% in the pericarp, but remained unchanged in the seeds. In contrast, the total carotenoid content increased by 52.8% in the pericarp. The content of total phenolic compounds increased by 17% in the pericarp. The total antioxidant potential decreased by 87% in seeds of O3-treated plants. The seeds contributed more than the pericarp to the total radical-trapping antioxidant potential and total antioxidant reactivity. O3 treatment impaired the ferric-reducing antioxidant power of the seeds and reduced NO(•)-scavenging activity in the pericarp. However, O3 treatment increased ferrous ion-chelating activity and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the pericarp. Our results confirm that O3 alters the secondary metabolite profile of C. baccatum pepper fruits and, consequently, their biological activity profile. PMID:26970882

  17. Antioxidant Phytochemicals for the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jie Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Overproduction of oxidants (reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in the human body is responsible for the pathogenesis of some diseases. The scavenging of these oxidants is thought to be an effective measure to depress the level of oxidative stress of organisms. It has been reported that intake of vegetables and fruits is inversely associated with the risk of many chronic diseases, and antioxidant phytochemicals in vegetables and fruits are considered to be responsible for these health benefits. Antioxidant phytochemicals can be found in many foods and medicinal plants, and play an important role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases caused by oxidative stress. They often possess strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities, as well as anti-inflammatory action, which are also the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits, such as anticancer, anti-aging, and protective action for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, obesity and neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes recent progress on the health benefits of antioxidant phytochemicals, and discusses their potential mechanisms in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases.

  18. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  19. Food restriction during pregnancy alters brain's antioxidant network in dams and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Vinícius; August, Pauline M; Stocher, Daniela P; Klein, Caroline P; Couto, Pablo R G; Silva, Yasmini D; Sagini, João P; Salomon, Tiago B; Benfato, Mara S; Matté, Cristiane

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction increases life span and protects distinct organisms against a series of diseases, among which, those related to oxidative stress, like neurodegenerative diseases. Interferences in the maternal environment are known to reprogram the offspring metabolism response, impacting in the risk of chronic diseases development in adulthood. We aimed to assess the effects of 40% food restriction on reactive species levels, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses, and oxidative damage parameters in the cerebellum and total cerebral cortex of pregnant rats and their offspring. Dams and pups showed oxidative modulation caused by food restriction in both structures. Dichlorofluorescein oxidation, reflecting reactive species levels, was reduced in the cerebellum of dams and offspring, while the cerebral cortex was not affected. Decreased mitochondrial superoxide levels were found in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex of pups, while nitric oxide was increased in the cortex. We also measured the activities of important antioxidant enzymes responsible by reactive oxygen species elimination. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased in the cerebellum of dams and in both structures of pups, while it was decreased in dams' cerebral cortex. Both brain structures were affected concerning to catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutaredoxin activities, which were reduced in pups and dams. Non-enzymatic defenses were decreased in pups, while dams showed an adaptive pattern in the cerebellum and no alteration in the cerebral cortex. Even though the results suggest increased oxidative status, lipids and proteins were not oxidatively affected. Our data suggest that intrauterine food restriction may disrupt oxidative status, impairing the antioxidant network. PMID:26857011

  20. Subclinical mastitis causes alterations in nitric oxide, total oxidant and antioxidant capacity in cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakisi, Onur; Oral, Hasan; Atakisi, Emine; Merhan, Oguz; Metin Pancarci, S; Ozcan, Ayla; Marasli, Saban; Polat, Bulent; Colak, Armagan; Kaya, Semra

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate total antioxidant (TAC), and oxidant capacity (TOC) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in milk of cows with subclinical mastitis. Brown Swiss and Holstein breed cows were screened with California Mastitis Test (CMT) to determine mammary glands with subclinical mastitis. Moreover, somatic cell counts (SCC) were determined electronically in all milk samples. Mammary quarters were classified as healthy (n=25) or subclinical mastitis (n=35) based on CMT scores and somatic cell count (SCC: 200,000/ml) in milk. Nitric oxide, TOC and SCC levels were significantly higher (pmastitis compared to those from healthy mammary quarters. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis results in higher NO concentrations, TOC and SCC, and NO and TOC were positively correlated with SCC. Moreover, alterations in NO levels and TOC in milk could be used as an alternative diagnostic tool to screen for subclinical mastitis. PMID:20132956

  1. Sodium tungstate induced neurological alterations in rat brain regions and their response to antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Sherry; Pant, Satish C; Kushwaha, Pramod; Bhargava, Rakesh; Flora, Swaran J S

    2015-08-01

    Tungsten, recognized recently as an environmental contaminant, is being used in arms and ammunitions as substitute to depleted uranium. We studied the effects of sodium tungstate on oxidative stress, few selected neurological variables like acetylcholinesterase, biogenic amines in rat brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) and their prevention following co-administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), naringenin and quercetin. Animals were sub-chronically exposed to sodium tungstate (100 ppm in drinking water) and orally co-supplemented with different antioxidants (0.30 mM) for three months. Sodium tungstate significantly decreased the activity of acetylcholinesterase, dopamine, nor-epinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels while it increased monoamine oxidase activity in different brain regions. Tungstate exposure produced a significant increase in biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress while, neurological alterations were more pronounced in the cerebral cortex compared to other regions. Co-administration of NAC and flavonoids with sodium tungstate significantly restored glutathione, prevented changes in the brain biogenic amines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TBARS levels in the different brain regions. The protection was more prominent in the animals co-administered with NAC. We can thus conclude that sodium tungstate induced brain oxidative stress and the alterations in some neurological variables can effectively be reduced by co-supplementation of NAC. PMID:25983264

  2. Radiation recall dermatitis after docetaxel chemotherapy. Treatment by antioxidant ointment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is an acute skin toxicity caused by different anticancer or antibiotic drugs within a former completely healed irradiation field. Predictive factors for RRD are not known and its mechanisms are not completely understood. A case of RRD induced by docetaxel and successfully treated by an antioxidant ointment (Mapisal registered) is presented here. Such an ointment might be useful not only in RRD therapy, but also in the treatment of high-grade dermatitis induced by radiotherapy and thus may contribute to the improvement of patients' quality of life and to the scheduled completion of cancer therapies. (orig.)

  3. Congenital malformations in experimental diabetic pregnancy: aetiology and antioxidative treatment. Minireview based on a doctoral thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simán, M

    1997-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy causes congenital malformations in the offspring. The aim of this work was to characterize biochemical and morphologic anomalies in the conceptus of an animal model of diabetic pregnancy. In addition, a preventive treatment against diabetes-induced dysmorphogenesis was developed. Congenital cataract was often found in the offspring of diabetic rats. The fetal lenses had increased water accumulation, sorbitol concentration and aldose reductase activity compared to control lenses. The results suggest that the cataracts form via osmotic attraction of water due to sorbitol accumulation in the fetal lens. Another set of malformations, with possible neural crest cell origin, occurred frequently in offspring of diabetic rats. These included low set ears, micrognathia, hypoplasia of the thymus, thyroid and parathyroid glands, as well as anomalies of the heart and great vessels. Furthermore, diabetes caused intrauterine death and resorptions more frequently in the late part of gestation. When the pregnant diabetic rats were treated with the antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene, vitamin E or vitamin C, the occurrence of gross malformations was reduced from approximately 25% to less than 8%, and late resorptions from 17% to 7%. This suggests that an abnormal handling of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in diabetes-induced dysmorphogenesis in vivo. Indeed, an increased concentration of lipid peroxides, indicating damage caused by ROS, was found in fetuses of diabetes rats. In addition, embryos of diabetic rats had low concentrations of the antioxidant vitamin E compared to control embryos. These biochemical alterations were normalized by vitamin E treatment of the pregnant diabetic rats. The antioxidants are likely to have prevented ROS injury in the embryos of the diabetic rats, in particular in the neural crest cells, thereby normalizing embryonic development. These results provide a rationale for developing new anti

  4. Findings on sperm alterations and DNA fragmentation, nutritional, hormonal and antioxidant status in an elite triathlete. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vaamonde

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: In this high-intensity endurance athlete, sperm parameters, mainly sperm morphology and DNA fragmentation, are altered. Further knowledge is needed with regards nutritional antioxidant intake and other dietetic strategies oriented toward avoiding oxidative damage in semen of high-performance triathletes. Moreover, adequate nutritional strategies must be found and nutritional advice given to athletes so as to palliate or dampen the effects of exercise on semen quality.

  5. Alterations in seedling vigour and antioxidant enzyme activities in Catharanthus roseus under seed priming with native diazotrophs

    OpenAIRE

    B.Karthikeyan; Jaleel, C.A.; Gopi, R.; Deiveekasundaram, M.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on Catharanthus roseus to study the effect of seed treatments with native diazotrophs on its seedling growth and antioxidant enzyme activities. The treatments had significant influence on various seedling parameters. There is no significant influence on dry matter production with the diazotrophs, Azospirillum and Azotobacter. However, the vital seedling parameters such as germination percentage and vigour index were improved. Azotobacter treatment influenced maximu...

  6. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content in Olive Leaf Tisane as Affected by Boiling Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Fathia AOUIDI; Hamdi, Moktar

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated the effect of preparation method on the quality of olive leaf tisane. Secondly, it aimed at evaluating and understanding the effect of boiling treatment on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves. The Phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by ABTS+ method. The Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity depended on extraction procedure of olive leaf tisane. It ...

  7. Quercus infectoria galls possess antioxidant activity and abrogates oxidative stress-induced functional alterations in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Athar, Mohammad; Alam, M Sarwar

    2008-02-15

    The present study reports the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Quercus infectoria galls. The antioxidant potency of galls was investigated employing several established in vitro model systems. Their protective efficacy on oxidative modulation of murine macrophages was also explored. Gall extract was found to contain a large amount of polyphenols and possess a potent reducing power. HPTLC analysis of the extract suggested it to contain 19.925% tannic acid (TA) and 8.75% gallic acid (GA). The extract potently scavenged free radicals including DPPH (IC(50)~0.5 microg/ml), ABTS (IC(50)~1 microg/ml), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (IC(50)~2.6 microg/ml) and hydroxyl (*OH) radicals (IC(50)~6 microg/ml). Gall extract also chelated metal ions and inhibited Fe(3+) -ascorbate-induced oxidation of protein and peroxidation of lipids. Exposure of rat peritoneal macrophages to tertiary butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH) induced oxidative stress in them and altered their phagocytic functions. These macrophages showed elevated secretion of lysosomal hydrolases, and attenuated phagocytosis and respiratory burst. Activity of macrophage mannose receptor (MR) also diminished following oxidant exposure. Pretreatment of macrophages with gall extract preserved antioxidant armory near to control values and significantly protected against all the investigated functional mutilations. MTT assay revealed gall extract to enhance percent survival of tBOOH exposed macrophages. These results indicate that Q. infectoria galls possess potent antioxidant activity, when tested both in chemical as well as biological models. PMID:18076871

  8. Alterations in seedling vigour and antioxidant enzyme activities in Catharanthus roseus under seed priming with native diazotrophs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, B.; Jaleel, C.A.; Gopi, R.; Deiveekasundaram, M.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on Catharanthus roseus to study the effect of seed treatments with native diazotrophs on its seedling growth and antioxidant enzyme activities. The treatments had significant influence on various seedling parameters. There is no significant influence on dry matter production with the diazotrophs, Azospirillum and Azotobacter. However, the vital seedling parameters such as germination percentage and vigour index were improved. Azotobacter treatment influenced maximum of 50% germination, whereas Azospirillum and Azotobacter were on par with C. roseus with respect to their vigour index. There was significant difference in the population of total diazotrophs. Azospirillum and Azotobacter between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of C. roseus had the same trend and were observed at various locations of the study. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) were increased to a significant extent due to the treatment with diazotrophs. PMID:17610323

  9. Alterations in seedling vigour and antioxidant enzyme activities in Catharanthus roseus under seed priming with native diazotrophs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KARTHIKEYAN B.; JALEEL C.A.; GOPI R.; DEIVEEKASUNDARAM M.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on Catharanthus roseus to study the effect of seed treatments with native diazotrophs on its seedling growth and antioxidant enzyme activities. The treatments had significant influence on various seedling parameters.There is no significant influence on dry matter production with the diazotrophs, Azospirillum and Azotobacter. However, the vital seedling parameters such as germination percentage and vigour index were improved. Azotobacter treatment influenced maximum of 50% germination, whereas Azospirillum and Azotobacter were on par with C. roseus with respect to their vigour index. There was significant difference in the population of total diazotrophs. Azospirillum and Azotobacter between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of C. roseus had the same trend and were observed at various locations of the study. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) were increased to a significant extent due to the treatment with diazotrophs.

  10. Prenatal hormones alter antioxidant enzymes and lung histology in rats with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. IJsselstijn (Hanneke); B.A. Pacheco; A. Albert; W. Sluiter (Wim); P.K. Donahoe; J.C. de Jongste (Johan); J.J. Schnitzer; D. Tibboel (Dick)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal administration of dexamethasone (Dex) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) synergistically enhances lung maturity, but TRH suppresses the antioxidant enzyme activity. Prenatal hormonal therapy improves alveolar surfactant content and lung compliance in rat

  11. Processing strawberries to different products alters contents of vitamin C, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Otto, Konrad; Böhm, Volker

    2005-07-13

    Strawberries were processed to juice, nectar, wine, and puree. For investigation of the antioxidant capacity as well as the contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, samples were taken after different stages of production to determine the effects of processing. The content of vitamin C was measured spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic content was analyzed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the amount of total anthocyanins was determined by using the pH-differential method. Two different methods-the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test-were used to determine the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity. This study showed the decrease of all investigated parameters within processing strawberries to different products. The content of ascorbic acid decreased with production time and processing steps, especially during heat treatment. The investigations on total phenolics in strawberry products proved fining to be a mild method to clarify berry juices and wines without removing high amounts of total phenolics. Fermentation did not lead to heavy losses of total phenolics, probably due to polymerization and condensation of monomer phenolics such as anthocyanins. Total anthocyanins and the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity decreased while using high temperatures. Anthocyanins also decreased considerably during the processing of wines, mainly caused by fermentation and pasteurization. PMID:15998127

  12. Processing strawberries to different products alters contents of vitamin C, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopotek, Yvonne; Otto, Konrad; Böhm, Volker

    2005-07-13

    Strawberries were processed to juice, nectar, wine, and puree. For investigation of the antioxidant capacity as well as the contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, samples were taken after different stages of production to determine the effects of processing. The content of vitamin C was measured spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic content was analyzed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the amount of total anthocyanins was determined by using the pH-differential method. Two different methods-the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power test-were used to determine the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity. This study showed the decrease of all investigated parameters within processing strawberries to different products. The content of ascorbic acid decreased with production time and processing steps, especially during heat treatment. The investigations on total phenolics in strawberry products proved fining to be a mild method to clarify berry juices and wines without removing high amounts of total phenolics. Fermentation did not lead to heavy losses of total phenolics, probably due to polymerization and condensation of monomer phenolics such as anthocyanins. Total anthocyanins and the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity decreased while using high temperatures. Anthocyanins also decreased considerably during the processing of wines, mainly caused by fermentation and pasteurization.

  13. Radiation recall dermatitis after docetaxel chemotherapy. Treatment by antioxidant ointment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncker-Rohr, Viola; Freund, Ulrich; Momm, Felix [Ortenau-Klinikum Offenburg-Gengenbach Lehrkrankenhaus der Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg i. Br., Radio-Onkologie, Offenburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is an acute skin toxicity caused by different anticancer or antibiotic drugs within a former completely healed irradiation field. Predictive factors for RRD are not known and its mechanisms are not completely understood. A case of RRD induced by docetaxel and successfully treated by an antioxidant ointment (Mapisal {sup registered}) is presented here. Such an ointment might be useful not only in RRD therapy, but also in the treatment of high-grade dermatitis induced by radiotherapy and thus may contribute to the improvement of patients' quality of life and to the scheduled completion of cancer therapies. (orig.) [German] Die Strahlen-Recall-Dermatitis (RRD) ist eine akute Hauttoxizitaet, die durch verschiedene Chemotherapeutika oder Antibiotika innerhalb eines frueheren, komplett abgeheilten Bestrahlungsfelds hervorgerufen wird. Praediktive Faktoren fuer die RRD sind nicht bekannt und ihr Mechanismus ist nicht vollstaendig geklaert. Es wird ein Fallbericht einer durch Docetaxel induzierten RRD dargestellt, die erfolgreich mit einer antioxidativen Salbe (Mapisal {sup registered}) behandelt wurde. Solche Salben koennten nicht nur zur Therapie der RRD, sondern auch bei der Behandlung einer akuten Dermatitis waehrend der Strahlentherapie nuetzlich sein und damit zur Verbesserung der Lebensqualitaet der Patienten und zur planmaessigen Durchfuehrung der Tumortherapie beitragen. (orig.)

  14. ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION IN THE TREATMENT OF AGING-ASSOCIATED DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria eConti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is generally considered an imbalance between pro- and antioxidants species, which often results into indiscriminate and global damage at the organismal level. Elderly people are more susceptible to oxidative stress and this depends, almost in part, from a decreased performance of their endogenous antioxidant system. As many studies reported an inverse correlation between systemic levels of antioxidants and several diseases, primarily cardiovascular diseases, but also diabetes and neurological disorders, antioxidant supplementation has been foreseen as an effective preventive and therapeutic intervention for aging-associated pathologies. However, the expectations of this therapeutic approach have often been partially disappointed by clinical trials. The interplay of both endogenous and exogenous antioxidants with the systemic redox system is very complex and represents an issue that is still under debate. In this review a selection of recent clinical studies concerning antioxidants supplementation and the evaluation of their influence in aging-related diseases is analyzed. The controversial outcomes of the antioxidants supplementation therapy that might partially depend, among others, from an underestimation of the patient specific metabolic demand and genetic background, are presented.

  15. Dietary pollutants induce oxidative stress, altering maternal antioxidant provisioning and reproductive output in the temperate sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Kathryn N; Lamare, Miles D; Burritt, David J

    2016-08-01

    Evidence is growing to suggest that the capacity to withstand oxidative stress may play an important role in shaping life-history trade-offs, although little is known on the relationship in broadcast spawning marine invertebrates. In this group, variation in gamete quantity and quality are important drivers of offspring survival and successful recruitment. Therefore the provisioning of eggs with antioxidants may be an important driver of life history strategies because they play a critical role in preventing damage from reactive oxygen species to macromolecules. In this study, a suite of oxidative stress biomarkers was measured in the gonads and eggs of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Links between oxidative stress markers and core components of fitness including fecundity, gamete quality and maternal transfer of antioxidants were assessed. Experimental induction of oxidative stress was achieved via exposure to a mix of four PAHs over a 21-day period. In PAH exposed individuals, we observed a significant upregulation of the antioxidant defence and detoxification enzymes SOD, CAT, GR, GPx and GST, as well as a greater pool of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione in gonad tissue and eggs. In contrast, glutathione redox status was not affected by PAH exposure, with the percentage of reduced glutathione remaining at approximately 80% in both gonad tissue and released eggs. PAH-exposed adults experienced greater than three- and five-fold increases in oxidative protein and lipid damage, respectively, in gonad tissue. In contrast, eggs maintained low levels of damage, not differing from baseline levels found in eggs released from PAH-naïve mothers. PAH exposure also resulted in a 2-fold reduction in fecundity of reproductively mature females but no significant alteration to egg diameter. Although PAH-exposed females released fewer eggs, successful fertilisation of those eggs was slightly enhanced with average

  16. Iron and exercise induced alterations in antioxidant status. Protection by dietary milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunquin, Gautier; Rouleau, Vincent; Bouhallab, Said; Bureau, Francois; Theunynck, Denis; Rousselot, Pierre; Arhan, Pierre; Bougle, Dominique

    2006-05-01

    Lipid peroxidation stress induced by iron supplementation can contribute to the induction of gut lesions. Intensive sports lead to ischemia reperfusion, which increases free radical production. Athletes frequently use heavy iron supplementation, whose effects are unknown. On the other hand, milk proteins have in vitro antioxidant properties, which could counteract these potential side effects. The main aims of the study were: (1) to demonstrate the effects of combined exercise training (ET) and iron overload on antioxidant status; (2) to assess the protective properties of casein in vivo; (3) to study the mechanisms involved in an in vitro model. Antioxidant status was assessed by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD); glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)), and on the onset of aberrant crypts (AC) in colon, which can be induced by lipid peroxidation. At day 30, all ET animals showed an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, in iron concentration in colon mucosa and liver and in the number of AC compared to untrained rats. It was found that Casein's milk protein supplementation significantly reduced these parameters. Additional information on protective effect of casein was provided by measuring the extent of TBARS formation during iron/ascorbate-induced oxidation of liposomes. Free casein and casein bound to iron were found to significantly reduce iron-induced lipid peroxidation. The results of the overall study suggest that Iron supplementation during intensive sport training would decrease anti-oxidant status. Dietary milk protein supplementation could at least partly prevent occurrence of deleterious effects to tissue induced by iron overload. PMID:17390518

  17. Effect of UV treatment on antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzyme activity and decay in strawberry fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The changes in antioxidant capacity, enzyme activity and decay inhibition in strawberry fruit (Fragaria x ananassa) illuminated with different UV-C dosages were investigated. Three UV-C illumination durations and dosages, 1 min, 5 min and 10 min, (0.43, 2.15 and 4.30 kJ m-2) tested promoted the anti...

  18. An altered antioxidant balance occurs in Down syndrome fetal organs: implications for the "gene dosage effect" hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, J B; Susil, B; Pritchard, M; Kola, I

    2003-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the congenital birth defect responsible for the greatest number of individuals with mental retardation. It arises due to trisomy of human chromosome 21 (HSA21) or part thereof. To date there have been limited studies of HSA21 gene expression in trisomy 21 conceptuses. In this study we investigate the expression of the HSA21 antioxidant gene, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) in various organs of control and DS aborted conceptuses. We show that SOD1 mRNA levels are elevated in DS brain, lung, heart and thymus. DS livers show decreased SOD1 mRNA expression compared with controls. Since non-HSA21 antioxidant genes are reported to be concomitantly upregulated in certain DS tissues, we examined the expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) in control and DS fetal organs. Interestingly, GPX1 expression was unchanged in the majority of DS organs and decreased in DS livers. We examined the SOD1 to GPX1 mRNA ratio in individual organs, as both enzymes form part of the body's defense against oxidative stress, and because a disproportionate increase of SOD1 to GPX1 results in noxious hydroxyl radical damage. All organs investigated show an approximately 2-fold increase in the SOD1 to GPX1 mRNA ratio. We propose that it is the altered antioxidant ratio that contributes to certain aspects of the DS phenotype.

  19. Antioxidant-rich leaf extract of Barringtonia racemosa significantly alters the in vitro expression of genes encoding enzymes that are involved in methylglyoxal degradation III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kin Weng; Abdul Aziz, Azlina; Razali, Nurhanani; Aminuddin, Norhaniza

    2016-01-01

    Background Barringtonia racemosa is a medicinal plant belonging to the Lecythidaceae family. The water extract of B. racemosa leaf (BLE) has been shown to be rich in polyphenols. Despite the diverse medicinal properties of B. racemosa, information on its major biological effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still lacking. Methods In this study, the effect of the antioxidant-rich BLE on gene expression in HepG2 cells was investigated using microarray analysis in order to shed more light on the molecular mechanism associated with the medicinal properties of the plant. Results Microarray analysis showed that a total of 138 genes were significantly altered in response to BLE treatment (p compound. Conclusions BLE has the potential to be developed into a novel chemopreventive agent provided that the cytotoxic effects related to methylglyoxal accumulation are minimized in normal cells that rely on aerobic glycolysis for energy supply. PMID:27635343

  20. Influence of sonication treatments and extraction solvents on the phenolics and antioxidants in star fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annegowda, H V; Bhat, Rajeev; Min-Tze, Liong; Karim, A A; Mansor, S M

    2012-08-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of sonication treatments (time intervals of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min.) on phenolics and other antioxidant compounds in starfruits extracted in methanol and water. Overall, methanolic extracts exhibited significantly higher extractability, percentage inhibition of DPPH radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) value, antioxidant capacity, flavonoids, total phenolics and tannins (p < 0.05) compared to control (0 min) and aqueous extracts. Methanolic extract obtained after 30 min of sonication proved to be the best treatment with regard to various parameters evaluated. Results of the present study clearly indicated sonication treatments to be effective in enhancing the antioxidant compounds in starfruit extracts and could be further explored for commercial purposes to benefit the consumers. PMID:23904662

  1. A Methionine Deficient Diet Enhances Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism and Alters Anti-Oxidant Pathways in Young Growing Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Castellano

    Full Text Available Methionine is a rate-limiting amino-acid for protein synthesis but non-proteinogenic roles on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress have been demonstrated. Contrary to rodents where a dietary methionine deficiency led to a lower adiposity, an increased lipid accretion rate has been reported in growing pigs fed a methionine deficient diet. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a dietary methionine deficiency on different aspects of tissue lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant pathways in young pigs. Post-weaned pigs (9.8 kg initial body weight were restrictively-fed diets providing either an adequate (CTRL or a deficient methionine supply (MD during 10 days (n=6 per group. At the end of the feeding trial, pigs fed the MD diet had higher lipid content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake, lipogenesis but also lipolysis, and activities of NADPH enzyme suppliers were generally higher in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of MD pigs, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in those pigs. Activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in adipose tissues and muscle of MD pigs. Expression level and activity of the glutathione peroxidase were also higher in liver of MD pigs, but hepatic contents in the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and glutathione reductase activity were lower compared with control pigs. In plasma, superoxide dismutase activity was higher but total anti-oxidant power was lower in MD pigs. These results show that a dietary methionine deficiency resulted in increased levels of lipogenesis and lipolytic indicators in porcine adipose tissues. Decreased glutathione content in the liver and coordinated increase of enzymatic antioxidant activities in adipose tissues altered the cellular redox status of young pigs fed a methionine-deficient diet. These findings illustrate that a rapidly growing animal differently

  2. A Methionine Deficient Diet Enhances Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism and Alters Anti-Oxidant Pathways in Young Growing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Rosa; Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Conde-Aguilera, José Alberto; van Milgen, Jaap; Collin, Anne; Tesseraud, Sophie; Mercier, Yves; Gondret, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Methionine is a rate-limiting amino-acid for protein synthesis but non-proteinogenic roles on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress have been demonstrated. Contrary to rodents where a dietary methionine deficiency led to a lower adiposity, an increased lipid accretion rate has been reported in growing pigs fed a methionine deficient diet. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a dietary methionine deficiency on different aspects of tissue lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant pathways in young pigs. Post-weaned pigs (9.8 kg initial body weight) were restrictively-fed diets providing either an adequate (CTRL) or a deficient methionine supply (MD) during 10 days (n=6 per group). At the end of the feeding trial, pigs fed the MD diet had higher lipid content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake, lipogenesis but also lipolysis, and activities of NADPH enzyme suppliers were generally higher in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of MD pigs, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in those pigs. Activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in adipose tissues and muscle of MD pigs. Expression level and activity of the glutathione peroxidase were also higher in liver of MD pigs, but hepatic contents in the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and glutathione reductase activity were lower compared with control pigs. In plasma, superoxide dismutase activity was higher but total anti-oxidant power was lower in MD pigs. These results show that a dietary methionine deficiency resulted in increased levels of lipogenesis and lipolytic indicators in porcine adipose tissues. Decreased glutathione content in the liver and coordinated increase of enzymatic antioxidant activities in adipose tissues altered the cellular redox status of young pigs fed a methionine-deficient diet. These findings illustrate that a rapidly growing animal differently adapts tissue

  3. Influence of drying treatments on antioxidant capacity of forage legume leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Saw Yei; Jamharee, Fazrina; Prasad, K Nagendra; Azlan, Azrina; Maliki, Nurzillah

    2014-05-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant capacities of four common forage legume leaves namely, Arachis pintoi (Pintoi), Calapogonium mucunoides (Calapo), Centrosema pubescens (Centro), and Stylosanthes guanensis (Stylo). Two different drying methods (oven-drying and freeze-drying) were employed and antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and β-carotene bleaching assays. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Freeze-dried extract showed the highest antioxidant activities by DPPH (EC50 values 1.17-2.13 mg/ml), FRAP (147.08-246.42 μM of Fe(2+)/g), and β-carotene bleaching (57.11-78.60%) compared to oven drying. Hence, freeze drying treatment could be considered useful in retention of antioxidant activity and phenolic content. PMID:24803709

  4. Antioxidant capacity of amaranth products: effects of thermal and enzymatic treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Pazinatto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different process -defatting, protein concentration, thermal treatment, hydrolysis with Alcalase and in vitro digestion- on the antioxidant capacity of amaranth seeds was studied. The antioxidant capacity of the products was determined in methanolic and aqueous extracts and varied from 1.00 to 21.22 and 4.97 to 369.18 µ mol TE/g sample for DPPH and ORAC assays, respectively. The combination of protein concentration and hydrolysis with Alcalase led to products with higher antioxidant activity. However, after in vitro digestion, protein concentrate and its hydrolysate showed similar antioxidant capacity. A high correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacity and the total phenolic content for methanolic extracts, with r² values ranging from 0.6133 to 0.9352.

  5. Altered DNA repair, oxidative stress and antioxidant status in coronary artery disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Supriya Simon; V Chithra; Anoop Vijayan; Roy D Dinesh; T Vijayakumar

    2013-06-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disease caused by the interplay of environmental risk factors with multiple predisposing genes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of DNA repair efficiency and oxidative stress and antioxidant status in CAD patients. Malonaldehyde (MDA), which is an indicator of oxidative stress, and mean break per cell (b/c) values, which is an indicator of decreased DNA repair efficiency, were found to be significantly increased in patients compared to normal controls ( < 0.05) whereas ascorbic acid and GSH were found to be lower among patients than the control group. It has been found that elevated oxidative stress decreased antioxidant level and decreased DNA repair efficiency can contribute to the development of CAD. This study also showed that high MDA, low ascorbic acid and GSH were significantly associated with high b/c value.

  6. Acute effects of tetracycline exposure in the freshwater fish Gambusia holbrooki: antioxidant effects, neurotoxicity and histological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, B; Antunes, S C; Gomes, R; Campos, J C; Braga, M R; Ramos, A S; Correia, A T

    2015-02-01

    A large body of evidence was compiled in the recent decades showing a noteworthy increase in the detection of pharmaceutical drugs in aquatic ecosystems. Due to its ubiquitous presence, chemical nature, and practical purpose, this type of contaminant can exert toxic effects in nontarget organisms. Exposure to pharmaceutical drugs can result in adaptive alterations, such as changes in tissues, or in key homeostatic mechanisms, such as antioxidant mechanisms, biochemical/physiological pathways, and cellular damage. These alterations can be monitored to determine the impact of these compounds on exposed aquatic organisms. Among pharmaceutical drugs in the environment, antibiotics are particularly important because they include a variety of substances widely used in medical and veterinary practice, livestock production, and aquaculture. This wide use constitutes a decisive factor contributing for their frequent detection in the aquatic environment. Tetracyclines are the individual antibiotic subclass with the second highest frequency of detection in environmental matrices. The characterization of the potential ecotoxicological effects of tetracycline is a much-required task; to attain this objective, the present study assessed the acute toxic effects of tetracycline in the freshwater fish species Gambusia holbrooki by the determination of histological changes in the gills and liver, changes in antioxidant defense [glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), and lipoperoxidative damage] as well as potential neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity). The obtained results suggest the existence of a cause-and-effect relationship between the exposure to tetracycline and histological alterations (more specifically in gills) and enzymatic activity (particularly the enzyme CAT in liver and GST in gills) indicating that this compound can exert a pro-oxidative activity. PMID:25475590

  7. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanely, R Andrew; Nieman, David C; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Henson, Dru A; Meaney, Mary P; Knab, Amy M; Cialdell-Kam, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM) contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years) participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p 0.05), however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05). WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05), but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine), antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function. PMID:27556488

  8. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Andrew Shanely

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p < 0.0125. Exercise performance did not differ between WM puree or carbohydrate beverage trials (p > 0.05, however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05. WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05, but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine, antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function.

  9. THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY POSTHARVEST TREATMENTS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF STRAWBERRY FRUITS DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivna Štolfa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Proper postharvest storage is an effective way to maintain the quality and nutritional values of fruits. The aim of this study was to determine how environmentally friendly postharvest treatments with salicylic acid solution, colloidal silver solution and ozone, affect the antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. Albion during 7 days of storage at 4°C. The content of ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits were determined spec-trophotometrically. After 7 days of storage in strawberry fruits treated with all three treatments separately, the contents of ascorbic acid were higher than in the control fruits, supporting the usefulness of these treatments for preserving fruit quality and nutritional value during storage. The treatment with salicylic acid solution showed the most beneficial effect during storage causing a significant increase in the content of ascorbic acid, phenols and antioxidant activity at the end of the storage period.

  10. Effect of hot treatment by antioxidants on the shelf life and quality of sweet pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Прісс, Олеся Петрівна; Калитка, Валентина Василівна

    2014-01-01

    In order to prolong shelf life of sweet pepper and maintain its high quality heat treatment solution by integrated antioxidant is proposed in the article.This treatment involves dipping the fruit in a solution of antioxidant complex with ionol, lecithin and horseradish root extract at a temperature of 45 .C for 15 min. The use of this treatment allows to extend the duration of pepper fruits storage for 2 weeks. The level of chilling injury can be reduced in 7 ... 9 times, the chilling severit...

  11. Role of Antioxidants in the Treatment of Burn Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jawad, F.H.; Sahib, A.S.; Al-Kaisy, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Burns are a major health problem worldwide, with high mortality and morbidity in addition to causing changes in the quality of life of burn patients. Utilizing antioxidant therapeutic strategies depending on new mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of burns-related "oxidative stress" may be considered a promising step in burns management. This study involved 180 burn patients of varying age and either sex and with varying burns percentages. The patients were subdivided into six groups (A, ...

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of mango after formalin treatment during preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Masud Parvez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals are producing continuously inside the living cell as a part of normal metabolic process and responsible for the generation of various types of disease such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurological disease, pulmonary disease, rheumatoid arthritis, nephropathy, ocular disease etc. Antioxidants are continuously counterbalancing the oxidative radical by breakdown or neutralizing the free radical. Various fruits and plant parts possesses antioxidant activity for example our studied sample mango has antioxidant property but when it treated with formalin it markedly reduces antioxidant potential of it. In phosphomolybdate assay it is found that normal mango peel contains more antioxidant activity than mango flesh, but treatment with formalin, antioxidant potential decreases in both peels and fleshes. Similar result was found in iron reducing power assay and DPPH radical scavenging assay where it is found that normal mango peel has almost similar scavenging property as compared to standard BHT. Normal mango peel (NP exhibits very high radical scavenging activity (IC50 is 4.2. At 100 μg/ml radical scavenging activity of normal mango peel (NP is 93.79%, but formalin treated mango peel (FP at same concentration possess scavenging property 76.36%, where as standard antioxidant scavenges about 93.95%. Scavenging power of normal mango flesh (NF is 39.57% and in formalin treated mango flesh (FF scavenging potential is only 7.12% at 100 μg/ml.

  13. [Alterations of prooxidant-antioxidant system of rat liver at ethanol and tetracycline action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedoshytko, Kh Iu

    2013-01-01

    The state of antioxidant system and fatty acid composition of lipids in the liver tissues of rats of different sex at the ethanol and tetracycline action and at the influence of biologically active additives (BAA) "Alpha + Omega" at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. per os was investigated. It was found that the contet of lipid peroxidation products in the liver was increased at the action of 40% ethanol at a dose of 7 ml/kg b.w. per os and tetracycline--500 mg/kg and more profound at their joint using. However, the content of diene conjugates was stronger increased in the liver of females at the action of ethanol, while in the liver of males at the action of tetracycline (P tetracycline and more profound at their joint usage (P tetracycline unidirectionally changed fatty acid composition of total lipids of rat liver, but at the ethanol action the changes were more expressed in females while at the tetracycline action in males. The application during 14 days of BAA "Alpha + Omega" to male and female rats with an acute tetracycline damage at subacute ethanol action led to partial normalization of prooxidant-antioxidant system and the relative content of total lipids fatty acids of the liver of both sexes animals. PMID:24479333

  14. Sulforaphane ameliorates the insulin responsiveness and the lipid profile but does not alter the antioxidant response in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Carolina Guerini; da Motta, Leonardo Lisbôa; de Assis, Adriano Martimbianco; Rech, Anderson; Bruch, Ricardo; Klamt, Fábio; Souza, Diogo Onofre

    2016-04-20

    Diabetes is one of the most prevalent chronic non-communicable diseases and is characterized by hyperglycemia and increased oxidative stress. These two alterations are also responsible for the main diabetic complications: cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy and peripheral neuropathy. Diabetes progression is governed by pancreatic β-cell failure, and recent studies showed that sulforaphane (SFN) might be able to prevent this change, preserving insulin production. Consequently, our goal was to test the effects of SFN on metabolic parameters related to diabetic complications and antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase, catalase and sulfhydryl groups) in the pancreas, liver and kidney of non-diabetic and diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with water or 0.5 mg kg(-1) SFN i.p. for 21 days after diabetes induction. In diabetic animals treated with SFN, the serum levels of total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols were similar to those of non-diabetic animals, and the insulin responsiveness was higher than that of the diabetic animals that did not receive the compound. No effect of SFN on the superoxide dismutase and catalase activity or sulfhydryl groups was observed in the pancreas, liver or kidney of the treated animals. We conclude that SFN ameliorates some features of clinical diabetic complications particularly the lipid profile and insulin responsiveness, but it does not modulate the antioxidant response induced by superoxide dismutase, catalase and sulfhydryl groups in the evaluated organs. PMID:27025193

  15. Mycophenolate mofetil alters the antioxidant status in duodenum of rats: Implication for silymarin usage in mycophenolate mofetil induced gastrointestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Sheikhzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF as an immunosuppressive agent is used to prevent graftrejection. One of the adverse effects of long time administration of MMF is the gastrointestinaldisorder. This study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective effect of silymarin (SMN onMMF-induced gastrointestinal (GI disorders. Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats wereassigned into three groups including the control and test groups. The control animals receivedsaline(5 mL kg-1andthe test animals were treated with MMF (40 mg kg-1, orally and saline,MMF and silymarin (SMN, 50 mg kg-1, orally for 14 consecutive days, respectively. To evaluatethe GI disorders due to the MMF-induced oxidative stress and subsequently the protective effectof SMN, malondialdehyde (MDA,total thiol molecules(TTM levels and total anti-oxidantcapacity (TAC were determined. Additionally, histopathological examinations in the duodenalregion of small intestine were performed. The MMF-increased level of MDA was reduced bySMN administration, while the MMF-reduced level of TTM increased significantly (p< 0.05 bySMN administration. Histopathological examinations showed the goblet cell reduction andcongestion in the MMF-received animals; while SMN was able to improve the MMF-inducedgoblet cell reduction and congestion. Our data suggest that the MMF-induced GI disorders arecharacterized by changes in antioxidant status, which presented by the elevation of MDA leveland reduction of TTM concentration. Moreover, the improved biochemical alterations andhistopathologic damages by SMN indicating its gastroprotective and antioxidant effects

  16. Induction of Cell Death through Alteration of Oxidants and Antioxidants in Epithelial Cells Exposed to High Energy Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Govindarajan; Wu, Honglu

    2012-01-01

    Radiation affects several cellular and molecular processes including double strand breakage, modifications of sugar moieties and bases. In outer space, protons are the primary radiation source which poses a range of potential health risks to astronauts. On the other hand, the use of proton radiation for tumor radiation therapy is increasing as it largely spares healthy tissues while killing tumor tissues. Although radiation related research has been conducted extensively, the molecular toxicology and cellular mechanisms affected by proton radiation remain poorly understood. Therefore, in the present study, we irradiated rat epithelial cells (LE) with different doses of protons and investigated their effects on cell proliferation and cell death. Our data showed an inhibition of cell proliferation in proton irradiated cells with a significant dose dependent activation and repression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, glutathione and superoxide dismutase respectively as compared to control cells. In addition, apoptotic related genes such as caspase-3 and -8 activities were induced in a dose dependent manner with corresponding increased levels of DNA fragmentation in proton irradiated cells than control cells. Together, our results show that proton radiation alters oxidant and antioxidant levels in the cells to activate apoptotic pathway for cell death.

  17. Passiflora incarnata treatment during gestation and lactation: toxicological and antioxidant evaluation in wistar dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Maria Boll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora incarnata is marketed in many countries as a phytomedicine. Even though the directions of most marketed phytomedicines recommend them to be used under medical supervision, reproductive and developmental studies are sparse and not mandatory for regulatory purposes. In this study, a reproductive toxicity evaluation of P. incarnata was conducted in Wistar rats gavaged (30 or 300 mg/kg during pregnancy and lactation. Moreover, considering that antioxidant properties have been attributed to flavonoids present in the genus Passiflora, it was also evaluated the antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance in the plasma of these dams and the antioxidant potential in an in vitro test. P. incarnata treatment did not influence dams´ body weight as well as reproductive (gestation length, post-implantation loss, litter size, litter weight and hepatic (albumin, AST, ALT, GGT parameters. The antioxidant property of P. incarnata was evidenced both in vivo (increase in the total antioxidant plasmatic potential and in vitro (decrease in neutrophil-induced respiratory burst. The results from the present study indicate that under the experimental conditions evaluated, P. incarnata treatment during gestation and lactation presented antioxidant activity in the absence of maternal reproductive toxicity.

  18. Suitability of antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and phenolic acids for floral authentication of honey. Impact of industrial thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriche, Isabel; Kadar, Melinda; Juan-Borrás, Marisol; Domenech, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Total antioxidant activity, physicochemical parameters, and the profile of flavonoids and phenolic acid compounds were evaluated for: their ability to distinguish between the botanical origins of four types of Spanish honey, the impact of industrial thermal treatment, and the effect of the year of collection. Citrus honey had the lowest levels of all the analysed variables, then rosemary and polyfloral, and honeydew the highest ones. Botanical origin affects the profile of flavonoids and phenolic compounds sufficiently to permit discrimination thanks to the predominance of particular compounds such as: hesperetin (in citrus honey); kaempferol, chrysin, pinocembrin, caffeic acid and naringenin (in rosemary honey) and myricetin, quercetin, galangin and particularly p-coumaric acid (in honeydew honey). The impact of industrial thermal treatments is lower than the expected variability as a consequence of the year of collection, though neither factor has enough influence to alter these constituent compounds to the point of affecting the discrimination of honey by botanical origin. PMID:24001823

  19. Antioxidant treatment promotes prostate epithelial proliferation in Nkx3.1 mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Martinez

    Full Text Available Discordant results in preclinical and clinical trials have raised questions over the effectiveness of antioxidants in prostate cancer chemoprevention. Results from the large-scale Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT showed that antioxidants failed to prevent, and in some cases promoted, prostate cancer formation in men without a history of the disease. One possible explanation for these alarming results is the notion that the effects of antioxidant treatment on the prostate are modified by specific, intrinsic genetic risk factors, causing some men to respond negatively to antioxidant treatment. Loss of expression of the homeobox transcription factor NKX3.1 in the prostate is frequently associated with human prostate cancer. Nkx3.1 mutant mice display prostatic hyperplasia and dysplasia and are used as a model of the early stages of prostate cancer initiation. While the mechanisms by which Nkx3.1 loss promotes prostate tumorigenicity are not completely understood, published data have suggested that elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS associated with Nkx3.1 loss may be a causative factor. Here we have tested this hypothesis by treating Nkx3.1 mutant mice with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC for 13 weeks post-weaning. Surprisingly, while NAC treatment decreased ROS levels in Nkx3.1 mutant mouse prostates, it failed to reduce prostatic epithelial hyperplasia/dysplasia. Rather, NAC treatment increased epithelial cell proliferation and promoted the expression of a pro-proliferative gene signature. These results show that ROS do not promote proliferation in the Nkx3.1-null prostate, but instead inhibit proliferation, suggesting that antioxidant treatment may encourage prostate epithelial cell proliferation early in prostate tumorigenesis. Our findings provide new insight that may help explain the increased prostate cancer risk observed with vitamin E treatment in the SELECT trial and emphasize the need for preclinical studies

  20. Ferulic acid chronic treatment exerts antidepressant-like effect: role of antioxidant defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Juliana; Rodrigues, Andre Felipe; Rós, Adriana de Sousa; de Castro, Amanda Blanski; de Castro, Bianca Blanski; de Lima, Daniela Delwing; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been claimed a place in pathophysiology of depression; however, the details of the neurobiology of this condition remains incompletely understood. Recently, treatments employing antioxidants have been thoroughly researched. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound with antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Herein, we investigated the involvement of the antioxidant activity of chronic oral FA treatment in its antidepressant-like effect using the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. The modulation of antioxidant system in blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex was assessed after stress induction through TST and FST. Our results show that FA at the dose of 1 mg/kg has antidepressant-like effect without affecting locomotor activity. The stress induced by despair tests was able to decrease significantly the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood, catalase (CAT) in the blood and cerebral cortex and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the cerebral cortex. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) levels were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the results show that FA was capable to increase SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities and decrease TBA-RS levels in the blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These findings demonstrated that FA treatment in low doses is capable to exert antidepressant-like effect with the involvement of the antioxidant defense system modulation.

  1. Role of antioxidants in treatment of male infertility: an overview of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Nallella, Kiran P; Allamaneni, Shyam S R; Said, Tamer M

    2004-06-01

    Seminal oxidative stress in the male reproductive tract is known to result in peroxidative damage of the sperm plasma membrane and loss of its DNA integrity. Normally, a balance exists between concentrations of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant scavenging systems. One of the rational strategies to counteract the oxidative stress is to increase the scavenging capacity of seminal plasma. Numerous studies have evaluated the efficacy of antioxidants in male infertility. In this review, the results of different studies conducted have been analysed, and the evidence available to date is provided. It was found that although many clinical trials have demonstrated the beneficial effects of antioxidants in selected cases of male infertility, some studies failed to demonstrate the same benefit. The majority of the studies suffer from a lack of placebo-controlled, double-blind design, making it difficult to reach a definite conclusion. In addition, investigators have used different antioxidants in different combinations and dosages for varying durations. Pregnancy, the most relevant outcome parameter of fertility, was reported in only a few studies. Most studies failed to examine the effect of antioxidants on a specific group of infertile patients with high oxidative stress. Multicentre, double-blind studies with statistically accepted sample size are still needed to provide conclusive evidence on the benefit of antioxidants as a treatment modality for patients with male infertility. PMID:15169573

  2. Protective effects of niacin against methylmercury-induced genotoxicity and alterations in antioxidant status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva de Paula, Eloisa; Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Grotto, Denise; Hernandes, Lívia Cristina; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Barbosa, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the potential beneficial effects of niacin (NA; vitamin B3) supplementation in rats chronically exposed to methylmercury (MeHg). Animals were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups (n = 6): Group I, control, received distilled water by gavage; Group II, received MeHg (100 µg/kg/d) by gavage; Group III, received NA (50 mg/kg/d) in drinking water; Group IV, received MeHg (100 µg/kg/d) by gavage + NA (50 mg/kg/d) in drinking water. Biochemical parameters levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions, and enzyme activities aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were determined. Further, oxidative stress markers activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activity, as well as levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide, were examined, and the comet assay was performed, using blood/plasma. Hg levels were measured in blood, brain, and kidneys of animals. Our results demonstrated that NA reduced adverse effects produced by MeHg. The mechanism underlying these effects appears to be related to the intrinsic antioxidant potential of NA. Considering the beneficial effects attributed to NA following MeHg exposure and that fish are the main source of both NA and MeHg, future studies need to evaluate the potential counteractive effect of NA against the adverse consequences of MeHg exposure in fish-eating populations.

  3. Protective effects of niacin against methylmercury-induced genotoxicity and alterations in antioxidant status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva de Paula, Eloisa; Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Grotto, Denise; Hernandes, Lívia Cristina; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Barbosa, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the potential beneficial effects of niacin (NA; vitamin B3) supplementation in rats chronically exposed to methylmercury (MeHg). Animals were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups (n = 6): Group I, control, received distilled water by gavage; Group II, received MeHg (100 µg/kg/d) by gavage; Group III, received NA (50 mg/kg/d) in drinking water; Group IV, received MeHg (100 µg/kg/d) by gavage + NA (50 mg/kg/d) in drinking water. Biochemical parameters levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions, and enzyme activities aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were determined. Further, oxidative stress markers activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activity, as well as levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide, were examined, and the comet assay was performed, using blood/plasma. Hg levels were measured in blood, brain, and kidneys of animals. Our results demonstrated that NA reduced adverse effects produced by MeHg. The mechanism underlying these effects appears to be related to the intrinsic antioxidant potential of NA. Considering the beneficial effects attributed to NA following MeHg exposure and that fish are the main source of both NA and MeHg, future studies need to evaluate the potential counteractive effect of NA against the adverse consequences of MeHg exposure in fish-eating populations. PMID:26914397

  4. Influence of Sulfur Fertilization on the Antioxidant Activities of Onion Juices Prepared by Thermal Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eunmi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2016-06-01

    Two onions (Sulfur-1 and Sulfur-4) cultivated with different sulfur applications were thermally processed to elucidate the effects of heat treatment on browning index and antioxidant activity. Sulfur-4 onion had higher sulfur content compared with the Sulfur-1 onion. After thermal processing, browning intensity was different between the two onions juices, with lower values observed for Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that sulfur inhibits the Maillard browning reaction. The total reducing capacity of the juices increased at higher thermal processing temperatures; however, it was also lower in the Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that the heat treatment of onions enhanced their antioxidant activity, but the effect was offset in the Sulfur-4 onion juice presumably due to higher sulfur content. This study indicates that sulfur, a core element for the functionality of onions, can decrease the antioxidant activity of thermally processed onions because of its potential as a Maillard reaction inhibitor. PMID:27390734

  5. Influence of Sulfur Fertilization on the Antioxidant Activities of Onion Juices Prepared by Thermal Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eunmi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2016-01-01

    Two onions (Sulfur-1 and Sulfur-4) cultivated with different sulfur applications were thermally processed to elucidate the effects of heat treatment on browning index and antioxidant activity. Sulfur-4 onion had higher sulfur content compared with the Sulfur-1 onion. After thermal processing, browning intensity was different between the two onions juices, with lower values observed for Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that sulfur inhibits the Maillard browning reaction. The total reducing capacity of the juices increased at higher thermal processing temperatures; however, it was also lower in the Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that the heat treatment of onions enhanced their antioxidant activity, but the effect was offset in the Sulfur-4 onion juice presumably due to higher sulfur content. This study indicates that sulfur, a core element for the functionality of onions, can decrease the antioxidant activity of thermally processed onions because of its potential as a Maillard reaction inhibitor. PMID:27390734

  6. Altered Plasma Profile of Antioxidant Proteins as an Early Correlate of Pancreatic β Cell Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Taiyi; Kim-Muller, Ja Young; McGraw, Timothy E; Accili, Domenico

    2016-04-29

    Insulin resistance and β cell dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Unlike insulin resistance, β cell dysfunction remains difficult to predict and monitor, because of the inaccessibility of the endocrine pancreas, the integrated relationship with insulin sensitivity, and the paracrine effects of incretins. The goal of our study was to survey the plasma response to a metabolic challenge in order to identify factors predictive of β cell dysfunction. To this end, we combined (i) the power of unbiased iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification) mass spectrometry with (ii) direct sampling of the portal vein following an intravenous glucose/arginine challenge (IVGATT) in (iii) mice with a genetic β cell defect. By so doing, we excluded the effects of peripheral insulin sensitivity as well as those of incretins on β cells, and focused on the first phase of insulin secretion to capture the early pathophysiology of β cell dysfunction. We compared plasma protein profiles with ex vivo islet secretome and transcriptome analyses. We detected changes to 418 plasma proteins in vivo, and detected changes to 262 proteins ex vivo The impairment of insulin secretion was associated with greater overall changes in the plasma response to IVGATT, possibly reflecting metabolic instability. Reduced levels of proteins regulating redox state and neuronal stress markers, as well as increased levels of coagulation factors, antedated the loss of insulin secretion in diabetic mice. These results suggest that a reduced complement of antioxidants in response to a mixed secretagogue challenge is an early correlate of future β cell failure. PMID:26917725

  7. Antioxidant Protection against Pathological Mycotoxins Alterations on Proximal Tubules in Rat Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Abdu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ochratoxin A (OTA was one of the mycotoxins and received attention worldwide because of the hazard it posed to human and animal health, where the kidney was the primary target organ for OTA toxicity. In the other hand, dates served as a good source of natural antioxidants and could potentially be considered as a functional food.Methods: The study was performed in the department of biology in King Abdulaziz University. Animals were gavage administrated and divided into four groups: first group received (sodium bicarbonate, second group received (289 µg OTA /kg B.W. /day, third group received (1mg Ajwa/kg B.W. / day and fourth group received (289 µg OTA /kg B.W./day+ 1mg Ajwa /kg B.W. / day. Serum (creatinine - urea levels were measured in each group at the time of tissue collection , some biopsies were fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution for light microscopy processing stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H& E., Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS and Masson´s Trichrome (M.T..Other biopsies were immediately collected into electron microscopy processing. Results: After 28 days, a significant decrease in body weight, kidney weight and relative weight was detected in OTA treated group. Also, Serum (creatinine - urea level were elevated .The normal cyto-architecture of proximal tubules were lost exhibiting damaged bruch border, degenerated, binucleated and karyomegalic cells. The most destructed ultra-structure was the mitochondria which severely swollen with disintegrated membranes. In Ajwa Date extract-group the proximal tubules were normal, whereas in Ajwa date extract + OTA -group the severity of the lesions was significantly reduced. Conclusion: The present results indicated that, Ajwa date have protective effects and ameliorated the lesions of Ochratoxin nepherotoxicity which might lead to kidney failure.

  8. Antioxidant capacity of amaranth products: effects of thermal and enzymatic treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Pazinatto; Luciana Gomes Malta; Gláucia Maria Pastore; Flavia Maria Netto

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different process -defatting, protein concentration, thermal treatment, hydrolysis with Alcalase and in vitro digestion- on the antioxidant capacity of amaranth seeds was studied. The antioxidant capacity of the products was determined in methanolic and aqueous extracts and varied from 1.00 to 21.22 and 4.97 to 369.18 µ mol TE/g sample for DPPH and ORAC assays, respectively. The combination of protein concentration and hydrolysis with Alcalase led to products with higher antioxi...

  9. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers. PMID:24799232

  10. Antioxidant therapy as monotherapy or as an adjunct to treatment of periodontal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Aditi; Mathur, Lalit; Manohar, Balaji; Mathur, Hemant; Shankarapillai, Rajesh; Shetty, Neema; Bhatia, Aman

    2013-01-01

    Background: Treatment of periodontal diseases by nonsurgical debridement has been considered as a gold standard procedure. Various other treatment modalities have been tried and tested to treat periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of antioxidant therapy on the progression of periodontal disease as monotherapy and/or as an adjunct to nonsurgical debridement. Materials and Methods: 70 subjects were divided into three groups, i.e. clinically healthy, gingivit...

  11. Effect of Antioxidant Mineral Elements Supplementation in the Treatment of Hypertension in Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, S. A.; Bilbis, L. S.; Saidu, Y.; Adamu, Y

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. The current work was designed with the aim of investigating the potentials of antioxidants copper, manganese, and zinc in the treatment of hypertension in Wistar rats. The rats were fed 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and treatment with supplements in the presence of the challenging agent for additional 4 weeks. The supplementation significantly decreased the blo...

  12. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content in Olive Leaf Tisane as Affected by Boiling Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia AOUIDI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of preparation method on the quality of olive leaf tisane. Secondly, it aimed at evaluating and understanding the effect of boiling treatment on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves. The Phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by ABTS+ method. The Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity depended on extraction procedure of olive leaf tisane. It was found that boiling leads to a decrease in the phenolic content and a rise of antioxidant capacity of aqueous extract from olive leaves. The mass molecular distribution of the polymeric aromatic fraction was analyzed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G50. Results suggested the hydrolysis of phenolic polymers following boiling. Moreover, HPLC analyses showed an increase in rutin, oleuropein and caffeic acid levels in treated sample. As a conclusion, thermal processing could be useful for enhancing the antioxidant capacity and the extractability of phenolic compounds in olive leaf tisane.

  13. Antioxidant response of Stevia rebaudiana B. to polyethylene glycol and paclobutrazol treatments under in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajihashemi, Shokoofeh; Ehsanpour, Ali Akbar

    2014-04-01

    This investigation was carried out with the aim of determining the effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ) (0 and 2 mg l(-1)) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) (0, 2, 4 and 6 % w/v of PEG 6000) treatments on antioxidant system of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni under in vitro condition. Analysis of data showed that PEG treatment significantly increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and phenolic contents, while PBZ treatment limited the effect of PEG on them. Our data revealed that PEG treatment significantly increased total antioxidant capacity, catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity, while it inversely decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was not affected by PEG treatment. PBZ treatment induced significantly higher levels of CAT and GR activity and lower levels of SOD activity in PEG-treated plants. PBZ in combination with PEG resulted in no significant difference on APX activity with PEG treatment alone. PBZ treatment prevented the effect of PEG on the PPO activity. PEG (with or without PBZ) treatment increased the ascorbate pool, whereas total glutathione level was not affected by PEG. Our finding indicated that PBZ reduced the negative effect of PEG treatment by quenching H2O2 accumulation and increasing the CAT activity. Collectively, the antioxidant capacity of S. rebaudiana in PEG treatment condition was associated with active enzymatic and non-enzymatic defence systems which partly could be improved by the PBZ treatment. In addition, a higher accumulation of phenolic compounds leads to a more potent reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in S. rebaudiana. PMID:24604127

  14. Antioxidant response of Stevia rebaudiana B. to polyethylene glycol and paclobutrazol treatments under in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajihashemi, Shokoofeh; Ehsanpour, Ali Akbar

    2014-04-01

    This investigation was carried out with the aim of determining the effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ) (0 and 2 mg l(-1)) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) (0, 2, 4 and 6 % w/v of PEG 6000) treatments on antioxidant system of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni under in vitro condition. Analysis of data showed that PEG treatment significantly increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and phenolic contents, while PBZ treatment limited the effect of PEG on them. Our data revealed that PEG treatment significantly increased total antioxidant capacity, catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity, while it inversely decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was not affected by PEG treatment. PBZ treatment induced significantly higher levels of CAT and GR activity and lower levels of SOD activity in PEG-treated plants. PBZ in combination with PEG resulted in no significant difference on APX activity with PEG treatment alone. PBZ treatment prevented the effect of PEG on the PPO activity. PEG (with or without PBZ) treatment increased the ascorbate pool, whereas total glutathione level was not affected by PEG. Our finding indicated that PBZ reduced the negative effect of PEG treatment by quenching H2O2 accumulation and increasing the CAT activity. Collectively, the antioxidant capacity of S. rebaudiana in PEG treatment condition was associated with active enzymatic and non-enzymatic defence systems which partly could be improved by the PBZ treatment. In addition, a higher accumulation of phenolic compounds leads to a more potent reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in S. rebaudiana.

  15. Influence of heat treatment on antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of selected vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juániz, Isabel; Ludwig, Iziar A; Huarte, Estibaliz; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Moreno-Rojas, Jose Manuel; Cid, Concepción; De Peña, María-Paz

    2016-04-15

    The impact of cooking heat treatments (frying in olive oil, frying in sunflower oil and griddled) on the antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of onion, green pepper and cardoon, was evaluated. The main compounds were quercetin and isorhamnetin derivates in onion, quercetin and luteolin derivates in green pepper samples, and chlorogenic acids in cardoon. All heat treatments tended to increase the concentration of phenolic compounds in vegetables suggesting a thermal destruction of cell walls and sub cellular compartments during the cooking process that favor the release of these compounds. This increase, specially that observed for chlorogenic acids, was significantly correlated with an increase in the antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH (r=0.70). Griddled vegetables, because of the higher temperature applied during treatment in comparison with frying processes, showed the highest amounts of phenolic compounds with increments of 57.35%, 25.55% and 203.06% compared to raw onion, pepper and cardoon, respectively.

  16. Treatment of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning with a Combination of Intravenous Glucagon, Digoxin and Antioxidant Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghabian, Zohreh; Mehrpour, Omid

    2016-08-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is used to protect stored grains from rodents. It produces phosphine gas (PH3), a mitochondrial poison thought to cause toxicity by blocking the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme and inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation, which results in cell death. AlP poisoning has a high mortality rate among humans due to the rapid onset of cardiogenic shock and metabolic acidosis, despite aggressive treatment. We report a 21-year-old male who was referred to the Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran, in 2015 after having intentionally ingested a 3 g AlP tablet. He was successfully treated with crystalloid fluids, vasopressors, sodium bicarbonate, digoxin, glucagon and antioxidant agents and was discharged from the hospital six days after admission in good clinical condition. For the treatment of AlP poisoning, the combination of glucagon and digoxin with antioxidant agents should be considered. However, evaluation of further cases is necessary to optimise treatment protocols. PMID:27606117

  17. Influence of heat treatment on antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of selected vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juániz, Isabel; Ludwig, Iziar A; Huarte, Estibaliz; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Moreno-Rojas, Jose Manuel; Cid, Concepción; De Peña, María-Paz

    2016-04-15

    The impact of cooking heat treatments (frying in olive oil, frying in sunflower oil and griddled) on the antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of onion, green pepper and cardoon, was evaluated. The main compounds were quercetin and isorhamnetin derivates in onion, quercetin and luteolin derivates in green pepper samples, and chlorogenic acids in cardoon. All heat treatments tended to increase the concentration of phenolic compounds in vegetables suggesting a thermal destruction of cell walls and sub cellular compartments during the cooking process that favor the release of these compounds. This increase, specially that observed for chlorogenic acids, was significantly correlated with an increase in the antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH (r=0.70). Griddled vegetables, because of the higher temperature applied during treatment in comparison with frying processes, showed the highest amounts of phenolic compounds with increments of 57.35%, 25.55% and 203.06% compared to raw onion, pepper and cardoon, respectively. PMID:26616976

  18. Treatment of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning with a Combination of Intravenous Glucagon, Digoxin and Antioxidant Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Oghabian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is used to protect stored grains from rodents. It produces phosphine gas (PH3, a mitochondrial poison thought to cause toxicity by blocking the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme and inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation, which results in cell death. AlP poisoning has a high mortality rate among humans due to the rapid onset of cardiogenic shock and metabolic acidosis, despite aggressive treatment. We report a 21-yearold male who was referred to the Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran, in 2015 after having intentionally ingested a 3 g AlP tablet. He was successfully treated with crystalloid fluids, vasopressors, sodium bicarbonate, digoxin, glucagon and antioxidant agents and was discharged from the hospital six days after admission in good clinical condition. For the treatment of AlP poisoning, the combination of glucagon and digoxin with antioxidant agents should be considered. However, evaluation of further cases is necessary to optimise treatment protocols.

  19. On the modification of the postradiation ultra-structure alterations in the lungs of rats with the synthetic antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known from literature that the morphofunctional unit in lungs preventing the death of animals from radiation pneumonite is an azynus while both the pneumocytes type 2 producing surfactant and the endothelial cells taking part in the exchange of angiotensin and many other metabolites equally pretend to the role of cell-target. The damage of the former stimulates the arise of the radiation pneumonite whereas the damage of the capillaries break bond up of blood to, albumin and interstitial fibrin accumulation, correspondingly and later to the increase of the biosynthesis and to collagen accumulation resulting in the fibrosis. The investigation with the electron microscopy shows the relatively early development of the destruction processes in epithelial and endothelial cells - the components of the haematoalveolar barrier even at the doses less than the pathogen ones (approximately 6-7Gy). The acute radiation pneumonite with the latent period about 4 weeks with the doses more than 8 Gy and the development of with pneumonite the doses more than 10 Gy are linked with these reactions. The reactions of the pneumocytes the type 2 are of special importance. In the pathogenesis of the interstitial pneumonite the great importance is the early inflammatory reaction with the quantitative and qualitative alterations of the pulmonary tissue cell compound which correlates with the intensification of the lipid peroxidation processes and the increase of antioxidation ferment activity. It is established that the isolation of the surface-active lipids by cells increases in just 5-7 minutes after irradiation and may be responsible for the increase of permeability of the haematoalveolar barrier. The break of the ultrastructure of endothelial and epithelial cells reveals itself just as soon as in a week, and one of the macrophages - during a month. Therefore we may consider that the preventive stabilization of cytomembranes with the help of radioprotectors in the latent period can

  20. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on postharvest quality, antioxidant activities, and free polyamines of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunxiao; Liu, Zhenfeng; Su, Yujing; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2011-03-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the quality and antioxidant activity of asparagus stored at 18 ± 2 °C were investigated by analyzing the color, chlorophyll, shear force, and the activity of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and polyamines (PAs). The results showed that SA improved the color and maintained the chlorophyll, phenolic, flavonoid, and ascorbic acid content of asparagus. High concentrations of SA caused a deterioration in asparagus would harm to color and had no effect on shear force within 6 d. SA induced the maximum concentration of phenolics in postharvest asparagus, promoted the increase in total flavonoids before 6 to 9 d, affected the antioxidant activity positively as indicated by the resultant increase in FRAP concentration; however, SA was only active with regard to DPPH scavenging activity within 6 d of treatment. Spermidine (Spd) is the most common form of PA in asparagus, and free putrescine (Put) contents increased over the first 3 d following harvest and then decreased. Spd and Spm concentrations evolved in a similar way and decreased during storage. Higher Spd and Spm contents in the SA pre-treatment Put was inhabited and its peaks appeared later.

  1. Effect of Antioxidant Mineral Elements Supplementation in the Treatment of Hypertension in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. The current work was designed with the aim of investigating the potentials of antioxidants copper, manganese, and zinc in the treatment of hypertension in Wistar rats. The rats were fed 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and treatment with supplements in the presence of the challenging agent for additional 4 weeks. The supplementation significantly decreased the blood pressure as compared with hypertensive control. The result also indicated significant decreased in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, insulin and increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total antioxidant activities, and nitric oxide of the supplemented groups relative to the hypertensive control. The average percentage protection against atherogenesis indicated 47.13 ± 9.60% for all the supplemented groups. The mean arterial blood pressure showed significant positive correlation with glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, insulin resistance and malondialdehyde while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total antioxidant activities showed negative correlation. The result therefore indicated strong relationship between oxidative stress and hypertension and underscores the role of antioxidant minerals in reducing oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance associated with hypertension.

  2. Continuous light increases growth, daily carbon gain, antioxidants, and alters carbohydrate metabolism in a cultivated and a wild tomato species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mohammad S; Kjaer, Katrine H; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    Cultivated tomato species develop leaf injury while grown in continuous light (CL). Growth, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidative enzyme activities of a cultivated (Solanum lycopersicum L. 'Aromata') and a wild tomato species (Solanum pimpinellifolium L.) were compared in this study aiming to analyze the species-specific differences and thermoperiod effects in responses to CL. The species were subjected to three photoperiodic treatments for 12 days in climate chambers: 16-h photoperiod with a light/dark temperature of 26/16°C (P16D10 or control); CL with a constant temperature of 23°C (P24D0); CL with a variable temperature of 26/16°C (P24D10). The results showed that both species grown in CL had higher dry matter production due to the continuous photosynthesis and a subsequent increase in carbon gain. In S. lycopersicum, the rate of photosynthesis and the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II declined in CL with the development of leaf chlorosis, reduction in the leaf chlorophyll content and a higher activity of antioxidative enzymes. The normal diurnal patterns of starch and sugar were only present under control conditions. The results demonstrated that CL conditions mainly affected the photosynthetic apparatus of a cultivated species (S. lycopersicum), and to a less degree to the wild species (S. pimpinellifolium). The negative effects of the CL could be alleviated by diurnal temperature variations, but the physiological mechanisms behind these are less clear. The results also show that the genetic potential for reducing the negative effects of CL does exist in the tomato germplasm. PMID:26217371

  3. Continuous light increases growth, daily carbon gain, antioxidants and alters carbohydrate metabolism in a cultivated and a wild tomato species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sabibul Haque

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultivated tomato species develop leaf injury while grown in continuous light (CL. Growth, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidative enzyme activities of a cultivated (Solanum lycopersicum L. ‘Aromata’ and a wild tomato species (Solanum pimpinellifolium L. were compared in this study aiming to analyse the species-specific differences and thermoperiod effects in responses to CL. The species were subjected to three photoperiodic treatments for 12 days in climate chambers: 16-h photoperiod with a light/dark temperature of 26/16ºC (P16D10 or control; CL with a constant temperature of 23ºC (P24D0; CL with a variable temperature of 26/16ºC (P24D10. The results showed that both species grown in CL had higher dry matter production due to the continuous photosynthesis and a subsequent increase in carbon gain. In S. lycopersicum, the rate of photosynthesis and the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II declined in CL with the development of leaf chlorosis, reduction in the leaf chlorophyll content and a higher activity of antioxidative enzymes. The normal diurnal patterns of starch and sugar were only present under control conditions. The results demonstrated that CL conditions mainly affected the photosynthetic apparatus of a cultivated species (S. lycopersicum, and to a less degree to the wild species (S. pimpinellifolium. The negative effects of the CL could be alleviated by diurnal temperature variations, but the physiological mechanisms behind these are less clear. The results also show that the genetic potential for reducing the negative effects of CL does exist in the tomato germplasm.

  4. Ultrasound treatment on phenolic metabolism and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut pineapple during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, Wei Keat; Ali, Asgar

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasound treatment at different power output (0, 25 and 29W) and exposure time (10 and 15min) was used to investigate its effect on the phenolic metabolism enzymes, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut pineapple. Following ultrasound treatment at 25 and 29W, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) was increased significantly (P<0.05) by 2.0 and 1.9-fold, when compared to control. Meanwhile, both the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and polyphenol peroxidase (POD) in fresh-cut pineapple was significantly (P<0.05) lower than control upon subjected to ultrasound treatment. In the present study, induction of PAL was found to significantly (P<0.001) correlate with higher total phenolic content and thus higher antioxidant capacity in fresh-cut pineapple. Results suggest that hormetic dosage of ultrasound treatment can enhance the activity of PAL and total phenolic content and hence the total antioxidant capacity to encounter with oxidative stress. PMID:27596416

  5. [Comparative experimental study of antioxidant efficiency in treatment of acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliuĭko, D A; Korik, V E; Zhidkov, S A

    2011-01-01

    The aims of our experiments on animals were (i) to evaluate by direct oximery the efficiency of various antioxidant drugs in a complex treatment of acute pancreatitis and (ii) to determine the diagnostic value of the direct oximetry method for estimation of the efficiency of medical treatment. The article presents data obtained in a group 75 outbred Guinea with a model acute pancreatitis, which were treated with mexibel (group 1), emoxipin (group 2), end cytoflavin (group 3), with subsequent investigation of the pancreatic tissues by the direct oximetry method. The obtained results confirmed that the intraperitoneal injection of cytoflavin to animals stimulates tissue respiration, improves metabolism, promotes pancreas recovery, and also improves the prognosis and reduces the lethal outcome. The efficiency of cytoflavin within the complex therapy exceeds the effect of other antioxidants (mexibel and emoxipin) under otherwise equal conditions.

  6. Disorders induced by chromium to health and the use of antioxidants in the prevention or treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio L. Becerra-Torres

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cell maintains a constant balance of redox processes, thus preserving regulating the balance between pro-oxidant production and antioxidant defense systems. Disruption of this balance leads to oxidative stress state which is characterized by increased levels of free radicals, leading to damage or cell death. Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of various diseases. In this regard, the evidence shows the oxidizing capacity of heavy metals, including chromium. However, this event can be regulated by nucleophilic nature substances which prevent or reverse the respective disorders. In this context, when the capacity of cellular response against the action of reactive oxygen species is suppressed, the intake of products that help keep the respective functional integrity is indispensable. Already reported some beneficial effects of antioxidants on the functional alterations promoted by heavy metals. The intent of this review is to summarize the scientific ability of chromium to induce pathology in different organ systems and the ability of some antioxidants to prevent or reverse this quality.

  7. Influence of Sulfur Fertilization on the Antioxidant Activities of Onion Juices Prepared by Thermal Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Eunmi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2016-01-01

    Two onions (Sulfur-1 and Sulfur-4) cultivated with different sulfur applications were thermally processed to elucidate the effects of heat treatment on browning index and antioxidant activity. Sulfur-4 onion had higher sulfur content compared with the Sulfur-1 onion. After thermal processing, browning intensity was different between the two onions juices, with lower values observed for Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that sulfur inhibits the Maillard browning reaction. The total reducing ...

  8. Antioxidant phenolic extracts obtained from secondary Tunisian date varieties (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by hydrothermal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrabet, Abdessalem; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; Rubio-Senent, Fátima; Lama-Muñoz, Antonio; Sindic, Marianne; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Three common non-commercial Tunisian date varieties were treated by two thermal systems, obtaining a liquid fraction which was characterized and its antioxidant capacity determined. The concentration of total phenols in the three varieties (Smeti, Garen Gazel, and Eguwa) was increased by steam explosion treatment up to 5311, 4680, and 3832 mg/kg of fresh dates, and their antioxidant activity up to 62.5, 46.5 and 43.1 mmol Trolox/kg of fresh date, respectively. Both thermal treatments increased the content of phenolic acids. Additionally, a long scale study was carried out in a pilot plant, with steam treatment at 140 °C and 160 °C for 30 min. The liquid phase was extracted and fractionated chromatographically using adsorbent or ionic resins. The phenolic profiles were determined for each fraction, yielding fractions with interesting antioxidant activities with EC50 values of up to 0.08 mg/L or values of TEAC of 0.67 mmol Trolox/g of extract.

  9. Alterations in the fatty acid profile, antioxidant enzymes and protein pattern of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to the pesticides diazinon and profenfos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Fayez A; El-Hommossany, Karem; Abd El-Atti, Mahmoud; Ismail, Somaya M

    2016-04-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in agricultural activities. These pesticides may contaminate the irrigation and drainage systems during agriculture activities and pests' control and then negatively affect the biotic and a biotic component of the polluted water courses. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the pesticides diazinon and profenfos on some biological activities of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails such as fatty acid profile, some antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) as well as glutathione reductase (GR) and lipid peroxidation (LP)) and protein patterns in snails' tissues exposed for 4 weeks to LC10 of diazinon and profenfos. The results showed that the two pesticides caused considerable reduction in survival rates and egg production of treated snails. Identification of fatty acid composition in snail tissues treated with diazinon and profenfos pesticides was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The results declared alteration in fatty acid profile, fluctuation in percentage of long chain and short chain fatty acid contributions either saturated or unsaturated ones, and a decrease in total lipid content in tissues of snails treated with these pesticides. The data demonstrate that there was a significant inhibition in the activities of tissues SOD, CAT, glutathione reductase (GR), TrxR, and SDH in tissues of treated snails, while a significant elevation was detected in LP as compared to the normal control. On the other hand, the electrophoretic pattern of total protein showed differences in number and molecular weights of protein bands due to the treatment of snails. It was concluded that the residues of diazinon and profenfos pesticides in aquatic environments have toxic effects onB. alexandrina snails. PMID:24215063

  10. Alterations in the fatty acid profile, antioxidant enzymes and protein pattern of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to the pesticides diazinon and profenfos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Fayez A; El-Hommossany, Karem; Abd El-Atti, Mahmoud; Ismail, Somaya M

    2016-04-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in agricultural activities. These pesticides may contaminate the irrigation and drainage systems during agriculture activities and pests' control and then negatively affect the biotic and a biotic component of the polluted water courses. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the pesticides diazinon and profenfos on some biological activities of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails such as fatty acid profile, some antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) as well as glutathione reductase (GR) and lipid peroxidation (LP)) and protein patterns in snails' tissues exposed for 4 weeks to LC10 of diazinon and profenfos. The results showed that the two pesticides caused considerable reduction in survival rates and egg production of treated snails. Identification of fatty acid composition in snail tissues treated with diazinon and profenfos pesticides was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The results declared alteration in fatty acid profile, fluctuation in percentage of long chain and short chain fatty acid contributions either saturated or unsaturated ones, and a decrease in total lipid content in tissues of snails treated with these pesticides. The data demonstrate that there was a significant inhibition in the activities of tissues SOD, CAT, glutathione reductase (GR), TrxR, and SDH in tissues of treated snails, while a significant elevation was detected in LP as compared to the normal control. On the other hand, the electrophoretic pattern of total protein showed differences in number and molecular weights of protein bands due to the treatment of snails. It was concluded that the residues of diazinon and profenfos pesticides in aquatic environments have toxic effects onB. alexandrina snails.

  11. Arsenite treatment induces oxidative stress, upregulates antioxidant system, and causes phytochelatin synthesis in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shruti; Jha, A B; Dubey, R S

    2011-07-01

    The effects of arsenite treatment on generation of reactive oxygen species, induction of oxidative stress, response of antioxidative system, and synthesis of phytochelatins were investigated in two indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cvs. Malviya-36 and Pant-12 grown in sand cultures for a period of 5-20 days. Arsenite (As(2)O(3); 25 and 50 μM) treatment resulted in increased formation of superoxide anion (O (2) (.-) ), elevated levels of H(2)O(2) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, showing enhanced lipid peroxidation. An enhanced level of ascorbate (AA) and glutathione (GSH) was observed irrespective of the variation in the level of dehydroascorbate (DHA) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) which in turn influenced redox ratios AA/DHA and GSH/GSSG. With progressive arsenite treatment, synthesis of total acid soluble thiols and phytochelatins (PC) increased in the seedlings. Among antioxidative enzymes, the activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), total ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7), monodehydroascorbate reductase (EC 1.6.5.4), and glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) increased in arsenite treated seedlings, while dehyroascorbate reductase (EC 1.8.5.1) activity declined initially during 5-10 days and increased thereafter. Results suggest that arsenite treatment causes oxidative stress in rice seedlings, increases the levels of many enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and induces synthesis of thiols and PCs, which may serve as important components in mitigating arsenite-induced oxidative damage.

  12. Ultrasound treatment: effect on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Sabeera; Ahmad, Mudasir; Wani, S M; Gani, Adil; Baba, Waqas N; Shah, Umar; Khan, Asma Ashraf; Masoodi, F A; Gani, Asir; Wani, Touseef Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The cherry was treated with ultrasonic waves (33 kHz, 60 W) at different time intervals (10, 20, 30, 40, 60 min) and study was carried out to analyze the change in physico-chemical properties (TSS, pH, color, acidity and firmness), antioxidant potential and microbial load of the fruit during the storage period of 15 days at 4 °C. It was observed that ultrasound treatment (US) between 30 and 40 min showed better retention of color of the fruit during the storage period. The antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS and TPC) also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) up to 40 min, however the firmness of the fruit was affected and it showed a significant decrease beyond 20 min of US treatment. The sample with 40 min US treatment showed significantly less microbial load than other samples. The 20-40 min US treatment time (33 kHz, 60 W) was suggested for preservation of cherry during the storage at 4 °C. PMID:27478231

  13. Sperm quality improvement after natural anti-oxidant treatment of asthenoteratospermic men with leukocytospermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paola Piomboni; Laura Gambera; Francesca Serafini; Giovanna Campanella; Giuseppe Morgante; Vincenzo De Leo

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the immune-modulating and anti-oxidant effects of beta-glucan, papaya, lactoferrin, and vitamins C and E on sperm characteristics of patients with asthenoteratozoospermia associated with leucocytosis. Methods:Fifty-one patients referred to our Sterility Center for semen analysis were selected. Sperm parameters were assessed before and after patient's treatment with beta-glucan, lactoferrin, papaya, and vitamins C and E. DNA damage was assessed by the acridine orange test and sperm structural characteristics were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Results: After 90 days of treatment, an increase in the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (17.0±5.2 vs. 29.8±6.5) and total progressive motility (19.0±7.8 vs. 34.8±6.8) were detected. Structural sperm characteristics as well as chromatin integrity were also improved after treatment. In terms of leukocyte concentration in seminal fluid, a significant reduction was recorded (2.2±0.9 vs. 0.9±0.2). Conclusion: The treatment of an inflammatory process by the synergic action of immune modulators and anti-oxidants could protect sperm during maturation and migration, leading to improved sperm function.

  14. Medico-legal aspects of altered sensation following endodontic treatment: a retrospective case series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givol, Navot; Rosen, Eyal; Bjørndal, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze cases of liability claims related to persistent altered sensation following endodontic treatments so as to characterize the medico-legal aspects of this complication....

  15. Antioxidants: Friends or foe in prevention or treatment of cancer: The debate of the century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh [Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417614411 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417614411 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    There are a number of intrinsic (e.g. oncogenes) and extrinsic (e.g. radiation and inflammation) factors, which may arise in reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in DNA instability and then cancer. In this situation, initial cancerous cells would balance the harmful effects of ROS by switching on the protective effects in a longstanding manner. In normal conditions, ROS have an important role in signal transduction and gene transcription, nevertheless, ROS may act as a trigger for carcinogenesis via persistent DNA injuries as well as mutations in p53 such as conditions observed in skin, hepatocellular, and colon cancers. Some compounds like paclitaxel are able to attack cancer cells through generation of ROS or interfering with ROS metabolism, while there are a few anti-angiogenesis compounds without toxicity such as endostatin, which act as anti-neoplastic only together with another chemotherapeutic drug. Furthermore, some anti-cancer agents like piperlongumine bind to the active sites of several key cellular antioxidants including glutathione S transferase and carbonyl reductase 1 only in the cancer cells. Although the natural antioxidants can alone or in combination with the diet provide some benefits for chemoprevention, their position in cancer therapy, especially initial stages of carcinogenesis is breaking down. On the other hand antioxidants can promote the survival of detached cells from extra cellular medium playing dual activities with respect to tumorigenesis through inhibition of tumorigenesis by preventing oxidative injuries to DNA and otherwise maintenance of tumor by promoting cell survival via metabolic rescue. Hopefully, more details of antioxidant and anti-neoplastic mechanisms become clear day by day, which have made researchers renew the strategy for designing cancer prevention or treatment.

  16. Antioxidants: Friends or foe in prevention or treatment of cancer: The debate of the century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of intrinsic (e.g. oncogenes) and extrinsic (e.g. radiation and inflammation) factors, which may arise in reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in DNA instability and then cancer. In this situation, initial cancerous cells would balance the harmful effects of ROS by switching on the protective effects in a longstanding manner. In normal conditions, ROS have an important role in signal transduction and gene transcription, nevertheless, ROS may act as a trigger for carcinogenesis via persistent DNA injuries as well as mutations in p53 such as conditions observed in skin, hepatocellular, and colon cancers. Some compounds like paclitaxel are able to attack cancer cells through generation of ROS or interfering with ROS metabolism, while there are a few anti-angiogenesis compounds without toxicity such as endostatin, which act as anti-neoplastic only together with another chemotherapeutic drug. Furthermore, some anti-cancer agents like piperlongumine bind to the active sites of several key cellular antioxidants including glutathione S transferase and carbonyl reductase 1 only in the cancer cells. Although the natural antioxidants can alone or in combination with the diet provide some benefits for chemoprevention, their position in cancer therapy, especially initial stages of carcinogenesis is breaking down. On the other hand antioxidants can promote the survival of detached cells from extra cellular medium playing dual activities with respect to tumorigenesis through inhibition of tumorigenesis by preventing oxidative injuries to DNA and otherwise maintenance of tumor by promoting cell survival via metabolic rescue. Hopefully, more details of antioxidant and anti-neoplastic mechanisms become clear day by day, which have made researchers renew the strategy for designing cancer prevention or treatment

  17. Antioxidants: friends or foe in prevention or treatment of cancer: the debate of the century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-08-15

    There are a number of intrinsic (e.g. oncogenes) and extrinsic (e.g. radiation and inflammation) factors, which may arise in reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in DNA instability and then cancer. In this situation, initial cancerous cells would balance the harmful effects of ROS by switching on the protective effects in a longstanding manner. In normal conditions, ROS have an important role in signal transduction and gene transcription, nevertheless, ROS may act as a trigger for carcinogenesis via persistent DNA injuries as well as mutations in p53 such as conditions observed in skin, hepatocellular, and colon cancers. Some compounds like paclitaxel are able to attack cancer cells through generation of ROS or interfering with ROS metabolism, while there are a few anti-angiogenesis compounds without toxicity such as endostatin, which act as anti-neoplastic only together with another chemotherapeutic drug. Furthermore, some anti-cancer agents like piperlongumine bind to the active sites of several key cellular antioxidants including glutathione S transferase and carbonyl reductase 1 only in the cancer cells. Although the natural antioxidants can alone or in combination with the diet provide some benefits for chemoprevention, their position in cancer therapy, especially initial stages of carcinogenesis is breaking down. On the other hand antioxidants can promote the survival of detached cells from extra cellular medium playing dual activities with respect to tumorigenesis through inhibition of tumorigenesis by preventing oxidative injuries to DNA and otherwise maintenance of tumor by promoting cell survival via metabolic rescue. Hopefully, more details of antioxidant and anti-neoplastic mechanisms become clear day by day, which have made researchers renew the strategy for designing cancer prevention or treatment. PMID:23680455

  18. Alterations in the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene in syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells pretreated with phenolic antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strniste, G.F.; Okinaka, R.T.; Chen, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Inhibition of chemical- or raddiation-induced neoplasia has been observed in animals whose diets were supplemented with antioxidants commonly used as food additives. Inhibition of the carcinogenicity of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) or of 7,12-dimenthylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) - in rats has been achieved by the addition of the phenolic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) to the diet. Our data suggest that in SHE cells antioxidants inhibit the overall metabolism of BaP to its various oxidized moieties including 7,8-diol- and 7,8,9,10-tetrol-BaP. A plausible explanation for our results with SHE cells is that the antioxidants interact directly with AHH, thus inhibiting AHH metabolic capacity. From analysis of nuclear material from SHE cells (+- antioxidants) incubated for 36 hours with BaP at 1 ..mu..g/ml, it is calculated that 4.6, 2.4 and 2.9 pmol BaP are bound to the DNA isolated from 10/sup 7/ nuclei of control, BHA-(20 ..mu..g/ml) and p-MP-(10 ..mu..g/ml) treated cultures, respectively.

  19. Alemtuzumab treatment alters circulating innate immune cells in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetspahic, Diana; Ruck, Tobias; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Andreas; Schwarte, Kathrin; Jörgens, Silke; Scheu, Stefanie; Windhagen, Susanne; Graefe, Bettina; Melzer, Nico; Klotz, Luisa; Arolt, Volker; Wiendl, Heinz; Meuth, Sven G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To characterize changes in myeloid and lymphoid innate immune cells in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) during a 6-month follow-up after alemtuzumab treatment. Methods: Circulating innate immune cells including myeloid cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were analyzed before and 6 and 12 months after onset of alemtuzumab treatment. Furthermore, a potential effect on granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)–23 production by myeloid cells and natural killer (NK) cell cytolytic activity was determined. Results: In comparison to CD4+ T lymphocytes, myeloid and lymphoid innate cell subsets of patients with MS expressed significantly lower amounts of CD52 on their cell surface. Six months after CD52 depletion, numbers of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) and conventional DCs were reduced compared to baseline. GM-CSF and IL-23 production in DCs remained unchanged. Within the ILC compartment, the subset of CD56bright NK cells specifically expanded under alemtuzumab treatment, but their cytolytic activity did not change. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that 6 months after alemtuzumab treatment, specific DC subsets are reduced, while CD56bright NK cells expanded in patients with MS. Thus, alemtuzumab specifically restricts the DC compartment and expands the CD56bright NK cell subset with potential immunoregulatory properties in MS. We suggest that remodeling of the innate immune compartment may promote long-term efficacy of alemtuzumab and preserve immunocompetence in patients with MS. PMID:27766281

  20. Prophylaxis of radiation (chemoradiation) complexes using antioxidant complexes in combined and multimodality treatment of oncologic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate the efficiency of radiation and chemoprotective effects of an antioxidant complex of C, E, A vitamins (AC) in combined and multimodality treatment, randomized study of 419 patients with malignant tumors of different localization is carried out. The results of the study have confirmed the recently obtained experimental data on acute chemoprotective AC properties. It is shown that AC application considerably improves resistance of the organism against injuries of ionizing radiation and cytostatics without reduction of their antitumoral effect. It is noted that AC is simple in application and there is no toxic effect on the organism. 4 refs.; 1 tab

  1. Ecstasy-Induced Caspase Expression Alters Following Ginger Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Asl, Sara Soleimani; Pourheydar, Bagher; Dabaghian, Fataneh; Nezhadi, Akram; ROOINTAN, AMIR; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to 3-4, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) leads to cell death. Herein, we studied the protective effects of ginger on MDMA- induced apoptosis. Methods 15 Sprague dawley male rats were administrated with 0, 10 mg/kg MDMA, or MDMA along with 100mg/kg ginger, IP for 7 days. Brains were removed to study the caspase 3, 8, and 9 expressions in the hippocampus by RT-PCR. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using the one-way ANOVA test. Results MDMA treatment resulted in a ...

  2. TREATMENT OF METABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Păvăleanu, Ioana; Gafiţanu, D; Popovici, Diana; Duceac, Letiţia Doina; Păvăleanu, Maricica

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy characterized by oligo ovulation or anovulation, signs of androgen excess and multiple small ovarian cysts. It includes various metabolic abnormalities: insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, visceral obesity, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, hypertension and dyslipidemia. All these metabolic abnormalities have long-term implications. Treatment should be individualized and must not address a single sign or symptom. Studies are still needed to determine the benefits and the associated risks of the medication now available to practitioners. PMID:27483702

  3. Improvement of the antioxidative status of pig ovaries by selenopyran treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Vasileva Abadjieva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential micro-element in animal diet due to its high antioxidative properties. As a part of selenocystein it is an important constituent of the glutathione peroxidase (GPx enzyme, which has a big importance for cell protection from oxidative damage. The aim of the present work was the investigation of the selenopyran effect on the antioxidative state of the pig ovary. The experiment was conducted with 18 gilts of Danube white breed randomly divided into two groups between 120 - 228 days of age. The animals received equal basal diets without selenium additives. The experimental gilts were injected once per month intramuscularly with oil solution of preparation selenopyran (9-phenylsymmetrical octahydroselenoxanthene ensured 0.1 mgSe/kg live weight. After slaughtering, the ovaries were used for histological analysis and estimation of the selenium content in ovarian tissue by the atomic absorption spectroscopy method. The GPx activity in ovary homogenates using the colorimetric assay kit (BioVision was measured. The expression of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT in ovaries by immunochistochemical method was estimated. The selenopyran treatment leads to significant (P0.05 in ovarian tissue. Enhancement of GPx activity in the ovaries of experimental group was observed (142.61±6.6 versus 122.28±3.4U/gP, P<0.05. The GGT expression in the ovarian cortex cells, follicular fluid and in the erythrocytes of ovarian blood vessels in treated gilts was an evidence of active transport of glutathione from blood to the ovary tissue. The selenopyran treatment promotes the increase of the GPx dependent antioxidative defense in ovary of growing gilts.

  4. Dietary antioxidants for chronic periodontitis prevention and its treatment: a review on current evidences from animal and human studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Given the relationship between chronic periodontitis and high levels of oxidative stress, this review aims to clarify what role can played the dietary intake of different antioxidants in maintaining a healthy periodontium and in reducing chronic periodontitis risk, as well as possible use of dietary therapies based on them for this disease treatment. Methods: The database of the National Library of Medicine, Washington, DC (MEDLINE PubMed was used and all the studies in animals and humans are on the subject of interest in English writing online available from inception of the database until May 2015 were collected. Results: Antioxidants analyzed in this regard include vitamin C, vitamin A, carotenoids and some polyphenols, and coenzyme Q; as well as minerals iron, copper and zinc that are constituents of antioxidant enzymes. Still, there is a paucity of studies with few human studies, mostly observational. Among the various antioxidants, vitamin E and polyphenols seem to have more evidence for its beneficial effect, but in general the studies are insufficient to rule out or establish what antioxidants are useful and which are not. Conclusions: Overall, the data presented indicate that dietary antioxidants are beneficial for periodontal health, at least under certain circumstances. However more studies are needed to establish the relationship between chronic periodontitis and each specific antioxidant and to design useful dietary interventions for this disease management.

  5. Soil applied cobalt alters the nodulation, leg-haemoglobin content and antioxidant status of Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayakumar, Kaliyamoorthy; Vijayarengan, Packirisamy; Changxing, Zhao; Gomathinayagam, M.; Jaleel, Cheruth Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation has been carried out to estimate the effect of cobalt on the nodulation leg-haemoglobin content and antioxidant enzyme activities of soybean plants. The experiments were conducted in earthen pots containing 3 kg of air dried soil. The inner surface of pots was lined with po

  6. Combined conventional/antioxidant "Astaxanthin" treatment for male infertility: a double blind, randomized trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. H. Comhaire; Y. El Garem; A. Mahmoud; F. Eertmans; F. Schoonjans

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the treatment of male infertility with a strong natural antioxidant, in addition to conventional treatment.Methods: Using a double blind, randomized trial design, 30 men with infertility of ≥12 months and female partners with no demonstrable cause of infertility received conventional treatment according to the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO), and either a strong antioxidant Astaxanthin 16 mg/day (AstaCarox(R), AstaReal AB,Gustavsberg, Sweden) or placebo for 3 months. The effects of treatment on semen parameters, reactive oxygen species (ROS), zona-free hamster oocyte test, serum hormones including testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH),follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Inhibin B, and spontaneous or intrauterine insemination (IUI)-induced pregnancies were evaluated. Results: ROS and Inhibin B decreased significantly and sperm linear velocity increased in the Astaxanthin group (n = 11), but not in the placebo group (n = 19). The results of the zona-free hamster oocyte test tended to improve in the Astaxanthin group in contrast with the placebo group, though not reaching statistical significance.The total and per cycle pregnancy rates among the placebo cases (10.5 % and 3.6 %) were lower compared with 54.5 % and 23.1% respectively in the Astaxanthin group (P = 0.028; P = 0.036). Conclusion: Although the present study suggests a positive effect of Astaxanthin on sperm parameters and fertility, the results need to be confirmed in a larger trial before recommending Astaxanthin for the complementary treatment of infertile men.

  7. In Vitro Antioxidant Treatment of Semen Samples in Assisted Reproductive Technology: Effects of Myo-Inositol on Nemaspermic Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Mariangela; Papale, Palma; Della Ragione, Antonietta; Quaranta, Giuseppa; Russo, Giovanni; Russo, Sabatino

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility and the poor quality of sperm seem to be influenced by oxidative stress. In particular, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) mainly produced by morphologically altered spermatozoa affect sperm motility, morphology, and integrity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Myo-Inositol (Myo-Ins) on a number of parameters such as viscosity and total and progressive motility of spermatozoa, in order to better validate its possible practical application in vitro, in order to improve the capacitation protocols commonly used in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). A total of 100 fresh and 25 thawed semen samples were analyzed in vitro prior to and after addition of Myo-Ins. Treatment of samples with Myo-Ins showed an increase in the sperm total and progressive motility in both fresh and thawed samples. Furthermore, Myo-Ins proved to be well tolerated by spermatozoa in vitro, demonstrating that it can be efficiently and safely used as antioxidant in the laboratory practice and for preparation of semen samples in ART. PMID:27672392

  8. Alteration of starch hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory properties, antioxidant activities, and phenolic profile of clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum L.) by cooking duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefegha, Stephen A; Oboh, Ganiyu; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Osunmo, Kolawole

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the effect of cooking duration on starch hydrolyzing enzyme (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) activities, antioxidant (1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl [DPPH*], hydroxyl [OH*] radicals scavenging abilities and reducing power) properties, and phenolic profile of clove buds. Clove buds (raw) were cooked for 10 (SC 10) and 20 min (SC 20) and subsequently, their effects were assessed on enzyme activities, antioxidant properties, and phenolic profile. Inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities and radicals scavenging abilities were altered by cooking in the trend; raw SC 20, with IC 50 values ranging from 0.25 to 0.52 mg/mL and 0.10 to 1.50 mg/mL respectively. HPLC phenolic profile of the clove buds revealed significant (P < 0.05) changes in the amount of chlorogenic acid, quercitrin, quercetin, and kaempferol at different cooking duration. Thus, cooking duration may alter the phenolic compositions and nutraceutical potentials of clove bud by activation and/or deactivation of redox-active metabolites. PMID:27004114

  9. Potential of the Dietary Antioxidants Resveratrol and Curcumin in Prevention and Treatment of Hematologic Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Diederich

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable improvements in the tolerance and efficacy of novel chemotherapeutic agents, the mortality of hematological malignancies is still high due to therapy relapse, which is associated with bad prognosis. Dietary polyphenolic compounds are of growing interest as an alternative approach, especially in cancer treatment, as they have been proven to be safe and display strong antioxidant properties. Here, we provide evidence that both resveratrol and curcumin possess huge potential for application as both chemopreventive agents and anticancer drugs and might represent promising candidates for future treatment of leukemia. Both polyphenols are currently being tested in clinical trials. We describe the underlying mechanisms, but also focus on possible limitations and how they might be overcome in future clinical use – either by chemically synthesized derivatives or special formulations that improve bioavailability and pharmacokinetics.

  10. Lethrinas nebulosus fish as a biomarker for petroleum hydrocarbons pollution in Red Sea : Alterations in antioxidants mRNA expression

    OpenAIRE

    Afifi, Mohamed; Ali, Haytham A.; Saber, Taghred M.; El-Murr, Abd elhakeem

    2016-01-01

    Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) are environmental contaminants that are released into the marine water via oil spills and industrial activities. The mRNA expression profile of some antioxidant genes in livers, gills, skin and muscles of Lethrinas nebulosus was used as biomarker of TPHs pollution in six areas at Jeddah and Yanbu coasts in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). TPHs were determined in Red Sea water and sediments collected from the studied areas. Ten fish of similar sizes were colle...

  11. Influence of heat stress on the cortisol and oxidant-antioxidants balance during oestrous phase in buffalo-cows (Bubalus bubalis): thermo-protective role of antioxidant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, G A; Anwar, M M; Wasfy, S I; Hammadeh, M E

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of heat stress, which is commonly observed in the animals of Upper Egypt area in summer, as well as the effect of antioxidant treatment as a thermo-protective was examined. In this study, the animals (n = 120) were divided into winter group (n = 40, bred during winter) and summer group (n = 80, bred during summer) as well as, animals in the summer group were divided into first subgroup animals (n = 40) and injected with Viteselen intramuscularly (15 ml) twice weekly for 10 weeks and second subgroup animals (n = 40) were not treated (as control). Serum levels of progesterone (P4), oestradiol (E2), cortisol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidase (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. The pregnancy rate of all animals was detected rectally. The levels of oestradiol and the activity of the antioxidant SOD were decreased in serum of animals in behavioural oestrus during summer as compared with those in winter. During the same time period the levels of oxidants such as LPO and NO were increased in the serum of animals again in the phase of oestrus. In another group of animals treated by intramuscular injection with 15 ml viteselen (antioxidant) twice weekly for 6 weeks during hot months, the activities of serum SOD showed an increase and the levels of oxidants and cortisol decreased. Moreover, the levels of oestradiol were increased during the oestrous behaviour. The pregnancy rate was decreased in animals under heat stress and the pregnancy rate was enhanced dramatically when these animals received antioxidants during the heat stress. This means that the heat-stress in Upper Egypt may affect the fertility of animals and pregnancy rate and this effect may be through an increased production of free radicals and decreased production of antioxidants as well as increased levels of cortisol. Treatment of animals or supplementation with antioxidants before the beginning of months of heat-stress and also during the stress period may

  12. Topical treatment with coenzyme Q10-containing formulas improves skin's Q10 level and provides antioxidative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Anja; Achterberg, Volker; Smuda, Christoph; Mielke, Heiko; Sperling, Gabi; Dunckelmann, Katja; Vogelsang, Alexandra; Krüger, Andrea; Schwengler, Helge; Behtash, Mojgan; Kristof, Sonja; Diekmann, Heike; Eisenberg, Tanya; Berroth, Andreas; Hildebrand, Janosch; Siegner, Ralf; Winnefeld, Marc; Teuber, Frank; Fey, Sven; Möbius, Janne; Retzer, Dana; Burkhardt, Thorsten; Lüttke, Juliane; Blatt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10, Q10) represents an endogenously synthesized lipid-soluble antioxidant which is crucial for cellular energy production but is diminished with age and under the influence of external stress factors in human skin. Here, it is shown that topical Q10 treatment is beneficial with regard to effective Q10 replenishment, augmentation of cellular energy metabolism, and antioxidant effects. Application of Q10-containing formulas significantly increased the levels of this quinone on the skin surface. In the deeper layers of the epidermis the ubiquinone level was significantly augmented indicating effective supplementation. Concurrent elevation of ubiquinol levels suggested metabolic transformation of ubiquinone resulting from increased energy metabolism. Incubation of cultured human keratinocytes with Q10 concentrations equivalent to treated skin showed a significant augmentation of energy metabolism. Moreover, the results demonstrated that stressed skin benefits from the topical Q10 treatment by reduction of free radicals and an increase in antioxidant capacity.

  13. Serum Oxidative Stress Markers and Lipidomic Profile to Detect NASH Patients Responsive to an Antioxidant Treatment: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Stiuso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver steatosis can evolve to steatohepatitis (NASH through a series of biochemical steps related to oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Antioxidants, such as silybin, have been proposed as a treatment of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and NASH. In this study, we evaluated, in patients with histologically documented NASH, the oxidant/antioxidant status and lipid “fingerprint” in the serum of NASH patients, both in basal conditions and after 12 months of treatment with silybin-based food integrator Realsil (RA. The oxidant/antioxidant status analysis showed the presence of a group of patients with higher basal severity of disease (NAS scores 4.67 ± 2.5 and a second group corresponding to borderline NASH (NAS scores = 3.8 ± 1.5. The chronic treatment with RA changed the NAS score in both groups that reached the statistical significance only in group 2, in which there was also a significant decrease of serum lipid peroxidation. The lipidomic profile showed a lipid composition similar to that of healthy subjects with a restoration of the values of free cholesterol, lysoPC, SM, and PC only in group 2 of patients after treatment with RA. Conclusion. These data suggest that lipidomic and/or oxidative status of serum from patients with NASH could be useful as prognostic markers of response to an antioxidant treatment.

  14. Status of plasma nitric oxide and non-enzymatic antioxidants before and after antipsychotic treatment in Nigerian patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Olatubosun Arinola

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Recently, it is proposed that oxidant-antioxidant imbalance may have a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The present study was performed to assess differences in plasma levels of nitric oxide (as oxidant, caeruloplasmin (secondary antioxidant, and antioxidant trace metals (Zn, Se, Mn, Cu and Fe in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls. Our secondary aim was to further evaluate the impact of psychopharmacologic treatment on these parameters.
    • METHODS: Plasma levels of nitric oxides (NO, caeruloplasmin, zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, manganese (Mn, copper (Cu and iron (Fe in patients with schizophrenia before (n = 15 and after antipsychotic drug treatment (n = 20 were compared with those of healthy controls (n = 20. Convenient sampling method was used for the selection of subjects. NO was estimated by the use of Griess method, caeruloplasmin was estimated by the use of immunodiffusion method and antioxidant trace metals was estimated by the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
    • RESULTS: The levels of Cu and caeruloplasmin were not significantly different while Fe and Se were significantly reduced in both groups of schizophrenic patients compared with the controls. Zn was significantly elevated in medicated
    • schizophrenics compared with drug-free patients or controls. NO was significantly elevated in drug free patients with schizophrenia compared with controls or treated patients.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the application of management strategies that will reduce NO but will increase antioxidant trace metals in patients with schizophrenia.
    • KEYWORDS: Schizophrenia, antioxidant defense system, antioxidant status, oxidative Stress.

  15. Root endophyte Piriformospora indica DSM 11827 alters plant morphology, enhances biomass and antioxidant activity of medicinal plant Bacopa monniera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ram; Kamal, Shwet; Sharma, Pradeep K; Oelmüller, Ralf; Varma, Ajit

    2013-12-01

    Unorganized collections and over exploitation of naturally occurring medicinal plant Bacopa monniera is leading to rapid depletion of germplasm and is posing a great threat to its survival in natural habitats. The species has already been listed in the list of highly threatened plants of India. This calls for micropropagation based multiplication of potential accessions and understanding of their mycorrhizal associations for obtaining plants with enhanced secondary metabolite contents. The co-cultivation of B. monniera with axenically cultivated root endophyte Piriformospora indica resulted in growth promotion, increase in bacoside content, antioxidant activity and nuclear hypertrophy of this medicinal plant.

  16. Antitumoral, antioxidant, and antimelanogenesis potencies of Hawthorn, a potential natural agent in the treatment of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Nadia; Mokdad-Bzéouich, Imèn; Maatouk, Mouna; Ghedira, Kamel; Hennebelle, Thierry; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2016-06-01

    The lack of an efficient agent that does not have the disadvantage of low activity (kojic acid), high cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity (hydroquinone), poor skin penetration (arbutin), or low stability in formulation (glabridin) led us to continue our research on new antipigmentation/skin-lightening agents. Therefore, research of natural products that can modulate the metabolism of pigmentation is of great interest. Otherwise, malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of skin cancer, with high metastatic potential, and currently, there is no effective chemotherapy against invasive melanoma. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new drugs with potent activity and weak side effects against melanoma. The in-vitro anticancer effect of hawthorn was analyzed against B16F10 melanoma cells using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The effect of isolated compounds from hawthorn on melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells was investigated by measuring the amounts of melanin and tyrosinase spectrophotometrically at 475 nm. Balb/c mice models inoculated with B16F10 mouse tumor cells were used to evaluate the in-vivo antitumoral potential of hawthorn by assessing its effect on the growth of transplanted tumors. The antioxidant potential of tested samples was evaluated in B16F10 and primary human keratinocyte cells using a cellular antioxidant activity assay. Hawthorn tested samples inhibited effectively the growth of melanoma cells in vitro. Furthermore, it appears that tested samples from hawthorn reduced melanogenesis by inhibiting the tyrosinase activity of B16F10 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In-vivo studies showed that hawthorn total oligomer flavonoids extract treatment at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight for 21 days in implanted tumor mice resulted in significant inhibition of the tumor growth volume and weight. In addition, tested samples showed significant cellular antioxidant capacity against the reactive oxygen species

  17. Changes in non Protein Thiols, some Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Ultrastructural Alteration in Radish Plant (Raphanus sativus L. Grown under Lead Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Saad EL-BELTAGI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty days old radish plants (Raphanus sativus L. were exposed to different regimes of lead stress as Pb(NO32 at the following concentrations 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 250 and 500 ppm. The possible generation of oxidative stress, antioxidant metabolism and changes in the chloroplast and cell membrane ultrastructure were investigated. Greater loss of the photosynthetic pigments (Chl. a, Chl. b and total carotenoids were observed especially under 500 ppm lead (Pb. The accumulation of lead in roots and leaves of plant were measured and the results showed that lead accumulation increased with increasing of the metal treatment concentration. An increasing trend was observed in levels of ascorbate and decreasing trend in glutathione. Also, the antioxidant enzymes, viz., guaiacol peroxidase (GPX ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and glutathione S-transferase (GST showed significant variation with the increase in lead stress compared to control (untreated plants. The rapid inducibility of some of these enzymes is useful early and sensitive indicators of heavy metal toxicity. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed an increase in the isoenzymes profile of CAT in both leaves and roots. While POD isoenzymes bands prominently increased in leaves and slightly decreased in roots at the higher Pb concentration in the growth media. The ultrastructural studies at selected concentrations; 100 and 500 ppm of Pb showed distortion of the structure and cell membranes in roots. Therefore, the changes in the levels of some antioxidants may play an important role against oxidative injury.

  18. Interaction of epibrassinolide and selenium ameliorates the excess copper in Brassica juncea through altered proline metabolism and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohammad; Khan, Tanveer A; Fariduddin, Qazi

    2016-07-01

    24-Epibrassinolide (EBL) and Selenium (Se) individually confer tolerance to various abiotic stresses, but their interactive effect in the regulation of copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants exposed to toxic levels of Cu is poorly investigated. This study provides an insight into the effects of EBL (foliar) and/or Se (through sand) on Brassica juncea plants exposed to toxic levels of Cu. The combined effect of EBL and Se on compartmentalization of Cu, oxidative stress markers, photosynthetic machinery and biochemical traits in B. juncea were analyzed. Application of EBL and Se through different mode modulated the compartmentalization of Cu in different parts of plants, enhanced the photosynthetic traits, and activities of various antioxidant enzymes and proline accumulation in B. juncea under excess copper levels. These enhanced levels of antioxidant enzymes, proline (osmolyte) accumulation triggered by combination of EBL and Se could have conferred tolerance to the B. juncea plants under toxic level of copper and also maintained Cu homeostasis in various parts of plants. This study indicates that combination of EBL and Se through different mode is an operative approach for Cu detoxification in plants and could be exploited for removal of excess copper from polluted soil. PMID:26974871

  19. Effect of antioxidants treatments to control hazard of radiation exposure and food aflatoxin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective role of diadezin and/or lycopene (prolonged administration) against biochemical and histopathological changes in male rats exposed to gamma radiation and / or aflatoxin B1.Irradiated rats were whole body exposed to fractionated 8 Gy γradiations (4 x 2 Gy, every other day). Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)exposed rats were received 10μg/kg body weight for 7 consecutive days. Daidzein delivered to rats via stomach tube at a concentration of 63 mg/kg body weight/day. Whereas lycopene was ingested at a concentration of 10 mg/kg body weight/day. Animals were sacrificed on the 1st day post the last irradiation dose. The results obtained showed that irradiation and/or AFB1 induced significant change in blood enzymes (alanine aminotransferase; ALT and aspartate aminotransferase; AST) activity as well as in the level of serum cholesterol. triglycerides, phospholipids, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total proteins and albumin. These changes were accompanied with a significant alteration in the antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase; SOD, catalase; CAT activity and glutathione concentration; GSH) and a significant increase in the peroxidation processes (TBARS). In addition , the histological investigation displayed remarkable changes in liver photomicrographs compared to the sections of liver in control rats.

  20. Consumo de antioxidantes durante tratamento quimioterápico Antioxidants consumption during chemotherapy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cavali Rohenkohl

    2011-06-01

    inadequate diet. The stages of initiation, promotion and progression of carcinogenesis have often been related to oxidative stress. AIM: To assess the consumption of antioxidants in cancer patients during the different cycles of chemotherapy. METHODS: A descriptive exploratory study, including patients undergoing outpatient chemotherapy. To investigate the consumption of antioxidants, was prepared a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (sqFFQ and an anamnesis clinic-nutrition chart. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 30 patients with mean age of 56.4 ± 2.3 years. According to the daily consumption represented by cycles, there was an adequate intake of vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc and inadequate intake of vitamin A and selenium. By dividing the study in the four quartiles of intake of antioxidants, there was adequate intake of vitamin A with 25% and inadequate amounts of vitamin C, vitamin E, Zinc in 25% of the sample and also selenium in all quartiles. Among the studied food sources considered rich in antioxidants, the most used were carrot, spinach, papaya, orange, soybean oil, sunflower oil, red meat, cheese and chicken. CONCLUSION: The studied population reached the recommended daily intake for antioxidants when it was analyzed in cycles of treatment, but there was high percentage of inadequate intake when divided into quartiles. Thus, the nutritional advice is an indispensable factor to help prevent and control cancer.

  1. Treatment of a multiple sclerosis animal model by a novel nanodrop formulation of a natural antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binyamin O

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Orli Binyamin,1,* Liraz Larush,2,* Kati Frid,1 Guy Keller,1 Yael Friedman-Levi,1 Haim Ovadia,1 Oded Abramsky,1 Shlomo Magdassi,2 Ruth Gabizon1 1Department of Neurology, The Agnes Ginges Center of Human Neurogenetics, Hadassah University Hospital, 2Casali Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and is associated with demyelination, neurodegeneration, and sensitivity to oxidative stress. In this work, we administered a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil (PSO, denominated Nano-PSO, to mice induced for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an established model of MS. PSO comprises high levels of punicic acid, a unique polyunsaturated fatty acid considered as one of the strongest natural antioxidants. We show here that while EAE-induced mice treated with natural PSO presented some reduction in disease burden, this beneficial effect increased significantly when EAE mice were treated with Nano-PSO of specific size nanodroplets at much lower concentrations of the oil. Pathological examinations revealed that Nano-PSO administration dramatically reduced demyelination and oxidation of lipids in the brains of the affected animals, which are hallmarks of this severe neurological disease. We propose that novel formulations of natural antioxidants such as Nano-PSO may be considered for the treatment of patients suffering from demyelinating diseases. On the mechanistic side, our results demonstrate that lipid oxidation may be a seminal feature in both demyelination and neurodegeneration. Keywords: nanodrops, PSO, EAE, oxidative stress, neurodegeneration

  2. Serum oxidant and antioxidant status of patients with chronic tension-type headache: possible effects of medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe Çokal, Burcu; Aytaç, Bilal; Durak, Zahide Esra; Güneş, Hafize Nalan; Öztürk, Bahadır; Keskin Güler, Selda; Durak, İlker; Yoldaş, Tahir Kurtuluş

    2015-10-01

    Tension-type headache (TTH) is one of the most common and costly primary types of headache in clinical practice, with an unknown etiology. This study assessed to investigate oxidative and antioxidative status in patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH), and to evaluate possible effect of medical treatment. The study included 41 CTTH patients and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects without headache as controls. The CTTH group comprised 20 patients receiving treatment and 21 untreated patients. We evaluated oxidant/antioxidant status by measuring serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes, namely glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT). Comparison of oxidative parameters in the patient and control groups revealed significantly lower CAT activities and higher MDA level and GSH-Px activities in the patient group. In the CTTH group, serum CAT activities were found to be significantly decreased in patient groups, while serum MDA levels and GSH-Px activities were found to be higher in the untreated CTTH patients. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is increased in the patients with CTTH, and medical treatment abolishes the stress in part. It has been concluded that antioxidant support might be helpful for the patients with CTTH to prevent oxidant stress and peroxidation damages further.

  3. Novel Therapeutic Targets in Depression and Anxiety: Antioxidants as a Candidate Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ying; Wang, Chuang; Klabnik, Jonathan J; O’Donnell, James M

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the imbalance between oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system may be associated with the development neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Major depression and anxiety are presently correlated with a lowered total antioxidant state and by an activated oxidative stress (OS) pathway. The classical antidepressants may produce therapeutic effects other than regulation of monoamines by increasing the antioxidant levels and normalizin...

  4. Tank waste remediation system optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility

  5. Tank waste remediation system optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility.

  6. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the total phenolic and antioxidant activity of extracts from citrus peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y-Q; Chen, J-C; Liu, D-H; Ye, X-Q

    2008-10-01

    Application of ultrasound to extract a variety of biologically active compounds from plant materials has been widely investigated. However, there are few reports on the local effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the yields of these compounds. In the present article, the local effect of ultrasonic treatment on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities (ATT) of extracts from citrus peels was investigated. To optimize the extraction process, a response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effects of ultrasonic variables including ultrasonic power, ultrasonic time, and extraction temperature on extracts from penggan (Citrus reticulata) peel. The results showed that TPC and ATT increased on increasing ultrasonic time and temperature. The maximum of TPC and ATT by ultrasonic treatment was observed in near ultrasonic irradiation surface, in which ultrasonic power appeared to be positive effect. Furthermore, when the effect of the 3 independent variables was evaluated simultaneously using RSM, the optimal ultrasonic conditions for responses were determined as: 42 to 45 W, 23 to 25 min, 31 to 34 degrees C. The results presented here emphasized that application of ultrasound should be considered both the optimization of ultrasonic variables and available ultrasonic device. PMID:19019132

  7. Decreased Total Antioxidant Activity in Major Depressive Disorder Patients Non-Responsive to Antidepressant Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Song-Eun; Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Rho, Dae-Young; Kim, Do-Hoon; Huh, Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity (TAA) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and the effect of antidepressants on TAA using a novel potentiometric method. Methods Twenty-eight patients with MDD and thirty-one healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The control group comprised 31 healthy individuals matched for gender, drinking and smoking status. We assessed symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We measured TAA using potentiometry. All measurements were made at baseline and four and eight weeks later. Results There was a significant negative correlation between BDI scores and TAA. TAA was significantly lower in the MDD group than in controls. When the MDD group was subdivided into those who showed clinical response to antidepressant therapy (response group) and those who did not (non-response group), only the non-response group showed lower TAA, while the response group showed no significant difference to controls at baseline. After eight weeks of antidepressant treatment, TAA in both the response and non-response groups was similar, and there was no significant difference among the three groups. Conclusion These results suggest that the response to antidepressant treatment in MDD patients might be predicted by measuring TAA. PMID:27081384

  8. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles enhance production of superoxide anion and alter the antioxidant system in human osteoblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niska K

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Karolina Niska,1 Katarzyna Pyszka,1 Cecylia Tukaj,2 Michal Wozniak,1 Marek Witold Radomski,3–5 Iwona Inkielewicz-Stepniak1 1Department of Medical Chemistry, 2Department of Electron Microscopy, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland; 3School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, The University of Dublin Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland; 4Kardio-Med Silesia, 5Silesian Medical University, Zabrze, Poland Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs are manufactured worldwide for a variety of engineering and bioengineering applications. TiO2NPs are frequently used as a material for orthopedic implants. However, to the best of our knowledge, the biocompatibility of TiO2NPs and their effects on osteoblast cells, which are responsible for the growth and remodeling of the human skeleton, have not been thoroughly investigated. In the research reported here, we studied the effects of exposing hFOB 1.19 human osteoblast cells to TiO2NPs (5–15 nm for 24 and 48 hours. Cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, cellular uptake of NPs, cell morphology, superoxide anion (O2•- generation, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and protein level, sirtuin 3 (SIR3 protein level, correlation between manganese (Mn SOD and SIR, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde were measured following exposure of hFOB 1.19 cells to TiO2NPs. Exposure of hFOB 1.19 cells to TiO2NPs resulted in: (1 cellular uptake of NPs; (2 increased cytotoxicity and cell death in a time- and concentration-dependent manner; (3 ultrastructure changes; (4 decreased SOD and ALP activity; (5 decreased protein levels of SOD1, SOD2, and SIR3; (6 decreased total antioxidant capacity; (7 increased O2•- generation; and (8 enhanced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde level. The linear relationship between the protein level of MnSOD and SIR3 and between O2•- content and SIR3 protein level was observed. Importantly, the cytotoxic

  9. Alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content in pea leaves under long-term drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Ilhami; Öztürk, Lokman; Demir, Yavuz; Unlükara, Ali; Kurunç, Ahmet; Düzdemir, Oral

    2014-09-01

    The effects of long-term drought stress on chlorophyll, proline, protein and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents, malondialdehyde (MDA) in terms of lipid peroxidation and on the changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POX; EC 1.11.1.7) in the leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were studied in field conditions. Chlorophyll and protein contents in leaves decreased significantly with increased drought stress. The proline content increased markedly under water deficit. MDA amounts were elevated as a result of water shortage, whereas H(2)O(2) content changed slightly in pea leaves exposed to drought stress. Drought stress markedly enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POX but slightly changed the activity of APX. We conclude that in field conditions, long-term water shortage increased the susceptibility to drought in peas.

  10. Curcumin pretreatment and post-treatment both improve the antioxidative ability of neurons with oxygen-glucose deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-xian Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that induced expression of endogenous antioxidative enzymes thr-ough activation of the antioxidant response element/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 pathway may be a neuroprotective strategy. In this study, rat cerebral cortical neurons cultured in vitro were pretreated with 10 μM curcumin or post-treated with 5 μM curcumin, respectively before or after being subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation for 24 hours. Both pretreatment and post-treatment resulted in a significant decrease of cell injury as indicated by propidium iodide/Hoechst 33258 staining, a prominent increase of Nrf2 protein expression as indicated by western blot analysis, and a remarkable increase of protein expression and enzyme activity in whole cell lysates of thioredoxin before ischemia, after ischemia, and after reoxygenation. In addition, post-treatment with curcumin inhibited early DNA/RNA oxidation as indicated by immunocytochemistry and increased nuclear Nrf2 protein by inducing nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. These findings suggest that curcumin activates the expression of thioredoxin, an antioxidant protein in the Nrf2 pathway, and protects neurons from death caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation in an in vitro model of ischemia/reperfusion. We speculate that pharmacologic stimulation of antioxidant gene expression may be a promising approach to neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia.

  11. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use. PMID:20645769

  12. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use.

  13. The therapeutic potential of antioxidants, ER chaperones, NO and H2S donors, and statins for treatment of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza eCindrova-Davies

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a complex multifactorial disease. Placental oxidative stress, a result of deficient spiral artery remodeling, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Antiangiogenic factors secreted from malperfused placenta are instrumental in mediating maternal endothelial dysfunction and consequent symptoms of preeclampsia; the mechanism is likely to involve increased ET-1 secretion and reduced NO bioavailability. Therapeutic interventions so far remain only experimental and there is no established remedy for the treatment of preeclampsia. This review concentrates on the evidence for the therapeutic potential of antioxidants, ER chaperones, NO and H2S donors, and statins. These compounds display pleitropic antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-angiogenic effects in animal and in vitro studies. Although clinical trials on the use of antioxidant vitamins in pregnancy proved largely unsuccessful, the scope for their use still exists given the beneficial cardioprotective effects of antioxidant-rich Mediterranean diet, periconceptual vitamin use and the synergistic effect of vitamin C and l-arginine. Encouraging clinical evidence exists for the use of NO donors, and a clinical trial is underway testing the effect of statins in treatment of preeclampsia. H2S recently emerged as a novel therapeutic agent for cardiovascular disease, and its beneficial effects were also tested in animal models of preeclampsia. It is risky to prescribe any medication to pregnant women on a large scale, and any future therapeutic intervention has to be well tested and safe. Many of the compounds discussed could be potential candidates.

  14. Curcumin pretreatment and post-treatment both improve the antioxidative ability of neurons with oxygen-glucose deprivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-xian Wu; Lu-yu Zhang; Yan-lin Chen; Shan-shan Yu; Yong Zhao; Jing Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that induced expression of endogenous antioxidative enzymes thr-ough activation of the antioxidant response element/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway may be a neuroprotective strategy. In this study, rat cerebral cortical neurons culturedin vitrowere pretreated with 10 µM curcumin or post-treated with 5 µM curcumin, respectively before or after being subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation for 24 hours. Both pretreatment and post-treatment resulted in a signiifcant decrease of cell injury as indicated by propidium iodide/Hoechst 33258 staining, a prominent increase of Nrf2 protein expression as indicated by western blot analysis, and a remarkable increase of protein expression and enzyme activity in whole cell lysates of thioredoxin before ischemia, after ischemia, and after reoxygenation. In addition, post-treatment with curcumin inhibited early DNA/RNA oxidation as indicated by immunocytochemistry and increased nuclear Nrf2 protein by inducing nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. These findings suggest that curcumin activates the expression of thi-oredoxin, an antioxidant protein in the Nrf2 pathway, and protects neurons from death caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation in anin vitro model of ischemia/reperfusion. We speculate that pharmacologic stimulation of antioxidant gene expression may be a promising approach to neu-roprotection after cerebral ischemia.

  15. Shelf life, physicochemical, microbiological and antioxidant properties of purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) juice after thermoultrasound treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly del Socorro; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; León-Rivera, Jesús Ernesto; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Manríquez-Torres, José de Jesús; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in color, betalain content, browning index, viscosity, physical stability, microbiological growth, antioxidant content and antioxidant activity of purple cactus pear juice during storage after thermoultrasonication at 80% amplitude level for 15 and 25 min in comparison with pasteurized juice. Thermoultrasound treatment for 25 min increased color stability and viscosity compared to treatment for 15 min (6.83 and 6.72 MPa, respectively), but this last parameter was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the control and pasteurized juices (22.47 and 26.32 MPa, respectively). Experimental treatment reduced significantly (p<0.05) sediment solids in juices. Total plate counts decreased from the first day of storage exhibiting values of 1.38 and 1.43 logCFU/mL, for 15 and 25 min treatment, respectively. Compared to the control, both treatments reduced enterobacteria counts (1.54 logCFU/mL), and compared to pasteurized juice decreased pectinmethylesterase activity (3.76 and 3.82 UPE/mL), maintained high values of ascorbic acid (252.05 and 257.18 mg AA/L) and antioxidant activity (by ABTS: 124.8 and 115.6 mg VCEAC/100 mL; and DPPH: 3114.2 and 2757.1 μmol TE/L). During storage thermoultrasonicated juices had a minimum increase in pectinmethylesterase activity (from day 14), and exhibited similar total plate counts to pasteurized juice. An increase of phenolic content was observed after 14 days of storage, particularly for treatment at 80%, 25 min, and an increase in antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH) by the end of storage. PMID:26186846

  16. Shelf life, physicochemical, microbiological and antioxidant properties of purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) juice after thermoultrasound treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly del Socorro; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; León-Rivera, Jesús Ernesto; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Manríquez-Torres, José de Jesús; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in color, betalain content, browning index, viscosity, physical stability, microbiological growth, antioxidant content and antioxidant activity of purple cactus pear juice during storage after thermoultrasonication at 80% amplitude level for 15 and 25 min in comparison with pasteurized juice. Thermoultrasound treatment for 25 min increased color stability and viscosity compared to treatment for 15 min (6.83 and 6.72 MPa, respectively), but this last parameter was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the control and pasteurized juices (22.47 and 26.32 MPa, respectively). Experimental treatment reduced significantly (p<0.05) sediment solids in juices. Total plate counts decreased from the first day of storage exhibiting values of 1.38 and 1.43 logCFU/mL, for 15 and 25 min treatment, respectively. Compared to the control, both treatments reduced enterobacteria counts (1.54 logCFU/mL), and compared to pasteurized juice decreased pectinmethylesterase activity (3.76 and 3.82 UPE/mL), maintained high values of ascorbic acid (252.05 and 257.18 mg AA/L) and antioxidant activity (by ABTS: 124.8 and 115.6 mg VCEAC/100 mL; and DPPH: 3114.2 and 2757.1 μmol TE/L). During storage thermoultrasonicated juices had a minimum increase in pectinmethylesterase activity (from day 14), and exhibited similar total plate counts to pasteurized juice. An increase of phenolic content was observed after 14 days of storage, particularly for treatment at 80%, 25 min, and an increase in antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH) by the end of storage.

  17. Antioxidants as a treatment for acute pancreatitis : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, S. M.; Nijs, M. M.; Prins, H. A B; Greving, J. P.; Siersema, P. D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of antioxidants in acute (AP) pancreatitis. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane library for all randomized controlled trials (RCT) involving administration of antioxidants in the therapy of AP until February 2012. AP studies were pooled to analyze the

  18. Antioxidants as a treatment for acute pancreatitis: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, S.M.; Nijs, M.M.; Prins, H.A.; Greving, J.P.; Siersema, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of antioxidants in acute (AP) pancreatitis. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane library for all randomized controlled trials (RCT) involving administration of antioxidants in the therapy of AP until February 2012. AP studies were pooled to analyze t

  19. Pre-symptomatic activation of antioxidant responses and alterations in glucose and pyruvate metabolism in Niemann-Pick Type C1-deficient murine brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry E Kennedy

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused in most cases by mutations in the NPC1 gene. NPC1-deficiency is characterized by late endosomal accumulation of cholesterol, impaired cholesterol homeostasis, and a broad range of other cellular abnormalities. Although neuronal abnormalities and glial activation are observed in nearly all areas of the brain, the most severe consequence of NPC1-deficiency is a near complete loss of Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum. The link between cholesterol trafficking and NPC pathogenesis is not yet clear; however, increased oxidative stress in symptomatic NPC disease, increases in mitochondrial cholesterol, and alterations in autophagy/mitophagy suggest that mitochondria play a role in NPC disease pathology. Alterations in mitochondrial function affect energy and neurotransmitter metabolism, and are particularly harmful to the central nervous system. To investigate early metabolic alterations that could affect NPC disease progression, we performed metabolomics analyses of different brain regions from age-matched wildtype and Npc1 (-/- mice at pre-symptomatic, early symptomatic and late stage disease by (1H-NMR spectroscopy. Metabolic profiling revealed markedly increased lactate and decreased acetate/acetyl-CoA levels in Npc1 (-/- cerebellum and cerebral cortex at all ages. Protein and gene expression analyses indicated a pre-symptomatic deficiency in the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, and an upregulation of glycolytic gene expression at the early symptomatic stage. We also observed a pre-symptomatic increase in several indicators of oxidative stress and antioxidant response systems in Npc1 (-/- cerebellum. Our findings suggest that energy metabolism and oxidative stress may present additional therapeutic targets in NPC disease, especially if intervention can be started at an early stage of the disease.

  20. Global DNA methylation is altered by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer and may predict response to treatment - A pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tsang, J S

    2014-07-28

    In rectal cancer, not all tumours display a response to neoadjuvant treatment. An accurate predictor of response does not exist to guide patient-specific treatment. DNA methylation is a distinctive molecular pathway in colorectal carcinogenesis. Whether DNA methylation is altered by neoadjuvant treatment and a potential response predictor is unknown. We aimed to determine whether DNA methylation is altered by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and to determine its role in predicting response to treatment.

  1. Shelf life extension and antioxidant activity of 'Hayward' kiwi fruit as a result of prestorage conditioning and 1-methylcyclopropene treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Seo; Im, Myeng He; Gorinstein, Shela

    2015-05-01

    Kiwi fruits (Actinidia deliciosa C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson) were treated by prestorage conditioning (20 °C for 2 days), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, 1 ppm for 16 h) and conditioning plus 1-MCP. After the treatment the fruits were immediately stored at 0 °C during 24 weeks. Flesh firmness gradually decreased with storage time and the rate of its loss was lower in 1-MCP and conditioning plus 1-MCP treatments than those of control or conditioning. However, SSC, acidity and pH did not change among treatments. Starch content decreased during the storage time regardless of treatments. Oppositely the amount of reducing sugars increased at the same duration of the treatments. Rate and incidence of fruit decay was the lowest in fruit treated with conditioning plus 1-MCP treatment. Fruit decay mainly caused pathogen Botrytis cinerea and its rate significantly decreased with conditioning plus 1-MCP treatment. Ethylene and respiration abruptly increased after 8 weeks of storage, but their contents were lower in 1-MCP and conditioning plus 1-MCP. Total soluble phenolics, flavonoids, and total antioxidant capacities were much higher than in other treatments. Kiwi fruits treated with conditioning plus 1-MCP extended the shelf life by reducing the rate of fruit decay and softening during the storage. The bioactive compounds and total antioxidant status of fruits increased during the treatment. PMID:25892768

  2. Alterations in oxidant/antioxidant balance, high-mobility group box 1 protein and acute phase response in cross-bred suckling piglets suffering from rotaviral enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar De, Ujjwal; Mukherjee, Reena; Nandi, Sukdeb; Patel, Bhimnere Hanumatnagouda Manjunatha; Dimri, Umesh; Ravishankar, Chintu; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Rotaviral enteritis has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in piglets during their post-natal life. The present study was carried out to examine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, acute phase response and oxidative stress indices in the serum of suckling piglets suffering from enteritis with or without association of porcine group A rotavirus infection. The present investigation utilized 23 clinical cases with signs of acute enteritis and 12 more healthy piglets of a similar age group as control animals. Out of 23 enteritis cases, 12 cases were found to be positive for porcine group A rotavirus infection as confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers for group A rotavirus, and the rest were found negative. The acute enteritis cases in piglets were associated with an elevated level of HMGB1 protein and serum haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin suggestive of an acute phase response. Among the oxidative stress indices, the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in serum were significantly increased. A pronounced drop of total antioxidant capacity and the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase in the serum of piglets suffering from acute enteritis compared to healthy ones were also noticed. The alterations in HMGB1 protein, acute phase response and oxidative stress indices were more pronounced in cases with the involvement of porcine rotavirus as compared to rotavirus-negative cases. It is concluded that HMGB1 protein, markers of oxidative stress and acute phase proteins might play an important role in the aetiopathogenesis of porcine diarrhoea caused by rotavirus and might be true markers in diagnosing the conditions leading to the extension of the prompt and effective therapeutic care.

  3. Toxicological effects of particulate matter (PM2.5) on rats: Bioaccumulation, antioxidant alterations, lipid damage, and ABC transporter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Joaquim de Paula; Kalb, Ana Cristina; Campos, Paula Peixoto; Cruz, Alex Rubén Huaman De La; Martinez, Pablo Elias; Gioda, Adriana; Souza, Marta Marques de; Gioda, Carolina Rosa

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the harmful effects of atmospheric pollutants on cardiac systems because of the presence of particulate matter (PM), a complex mixture of numerous substances including trace metals. In this study, the toxicity of PM2.5 from two regions, rural (PM2.5 level of 8.5 ± 4.0 μg m(-3)) and industrial (PM2.5 level of 14.4 ± 4.1 μg m(-3)) in Brazil, was investigated through in vivo experiments in rats. Metal accumulation and biochemical responses were evaluated after rats were exposed to three different concentrations of PM2.5 in saline extract (10× dilution, 5× dilution, and concentrated). The experimental data showed the bioaccumulation of diverse trace metals in the hearts of groups exposed to PM2.5 from both regions. Furthermore, mobilization of the antioxidant defenses and an increase in lipid peroxidation of the cardiac tissue was observed in response to the industrial and rural area PM2.5. Glutathione-S-transferase activity was increased in groups exposed to the 5× and concentrated rural PM2.5. Additionally, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter activity in the cardiac tissue exposed to PM2.5 was reduced in response to the 5× dilution of the rural and industrial region PM2.5. Histological analysis showed a decrease in the percentage of cardiac cells in the heart at all tested concentrations. The results indicate that exposure to different concentrations of PM2.5 from both sources causes biochemical and histological changes in the heart with consequent damage to biological structures; these factors can favor the development of cardiac diseases. PMID:27567156

  4. Increasing bioavailability of (R)-alpha-lipoic acid to boost antioxidant activity in the treatment of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Emilia; Marrese, Cinzia; Migliaro, Elisa; Marcuccio, Fortuna; Panico, Claudia; Salvati, Carmine; Citro, Giuseppe; Quercio, Marco; Roncagliolo, Federico; Torello, Carlo; Brufani, Mario

    2015-01-01

    a-lipoic acid (a-LA) is a potent natural antioxidant because it has a broad spectrum of action towards a great many free radical species and boosts the endogenous antioxidant systems.Although it is a multi-functional molecule, its pharmacokinetic characteristics pose restrictions to its use in the treatment of oxidative stress-dependent illnesses. Formulations that increase the bioavailability of a-LA have a better potential efficacy as adjuvants for the treatment of these conditions.This objective was achieved with a liquid formulation for oral use containing only R-aLA, the natural enantiomeric and most active form of a-lipoic acid.For the first time, the effects of this formulation were evaluated on neuropathic pain, a symptom caused by an increase in oxidative stress, regardless of the underlying cause. Neuropathic patients who have used this dietary supplement noticed an improvement in their quality of life and a significant reduction was observed in a number of certain descriptive pain parameters (intensity, burning, unpleasantness, superficial pain).Undoubtedly further, more in-depth, studies need to be conducted; however, this first investigation confirms the role of R-aLA as an anti-oxidant for the aetiological treatment of peripheral neuropathy. Increasing its plasma bioavailability even after a non-invasive administration through the oral route is a good starting point for proposing a valid adjuvant for the treatment of pain symptoms. PMID:26694149

  5. Surfactant alterations and treatment of lung transplant ischemia-reperfusion injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kaaij, Niels; Lachmann, Robert; Bogers, Ad; Lachmann, Burkhard

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis review addresses surfactant alterations and treatment in lung transplant ischemia-reperfusion injury. Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury damages the endogenous surfactant system as a result of the production of reactive oxygen species, proteolytic enzymes and (phospho)lipases. Surfactant is composed of phospholipids and proteins and its main function is to reduce the surface tension inside the alveolus. Impairment of surfactant will cause atelectasis, influx of serum proteins, ...

  6. Plantago major treatment enhanced innate antioxidant activity in experimental acetaminophen toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farida Hussan; Rina Haryani Osman Basah; Mohd Rafizul Mohd Yusof; Nur Aqilah Kamaruddin; Faizah Othman

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of Plantago major (P. major) extract on the liver injury following acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. Methods: The male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 38) were randomly divided into normal control (n= 6) and experiment (n = 32) groups. The latter was subdivided into four groups and induced with APAP (1000 mg/kg) per oral, followed by P. major extract and N-acetylcysteine orally to the respective groups for six days. Results: On the seventh day, the serum bilirubin, liver enzymes and tissue malondialdehyde were increased in APAP groups whereas the total protein in serum, tissue superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels were reduced. The plant extract treatment reduced the histological deteriorations such as aggregation of hepatocellular cords, formation of binucleated cells and vacuolisation of the cells with scanty cytoplasm. It also revealed significant reduction of malondialdehyde and increased level of superoxide dismutase and glutathione. The findings in the extract treated groups were comparable to the group treated with N-acetylcysteine. Conclusions: In conclusion, P. major can enhance innate antioxidant activity and ameliorate the APAP-induced liver injury.

  7. Plantago major treatment enhanced innate antioxidant activity in experimental acetaminophen toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farida; Hussan; Rina; Haryani; Osman; Basah; Mohd; Rai; zul; Mohd; Yusof; Nur; Aqilah; Kamaruddin; Faizah; Othman

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the ef ect of Plantago major(P. major) extract on the liver injury following acetaminophen(APAP) toxicity. Methods: The male Sprague Dawley rats(n = 38) were randomly divided into normal control(n = 6) and experiment(n = 32) groups. The latter was subdivided into four groups and induced with APAP(1 000 mg/kg) per oral, followed by P. major extract and N-acetylcysteine orally to the respective groups for six days. Results: On the seventh day, the serum bilirubin, liver enzymes and tissue malondialdehyde were increased in APAP groups whereas the total protein in serum, tissue superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels were reduced. The plant extract treatment reduced the histological deteriorations such as aggregation of hepatocellular cords, formation of binucleated cells and vacuolisation of the cells with scanty cytoplasm. It also revealed signii cant reduction of malondialdehyde and increased level of superoxide dismutase and glutathione. The i ndings in the extract treated groups were comparable to the group treated with N-acetylcysteine. Conclusions: In conclusion, P. major can enhance innate antioxidant activity and ameliorate the APAP-induced liver injury.

  8. Chronic hyperbaric oxygen treatment elicits an anti-oxidant response and attenuates atherosclerosis in apoE knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudchodkar, Bhalchandra J; Pierce, Anson; Dory, Ladislav

    2007-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment inhibits diet-induced atherosclerosis in New Zealand White rabbits. In the present study we investigate the mechanisms that might be involved in the athero-protective effect of HBO treatment in a well-accepted model of atherosclerosis, the apoE knockout (KO) mouse. We examine the effects of daily HBO treatment (for 5 and 10 weeks) on the components of the anti-oxidant defense mechanism and the redox state in blood, liver and aortic tissues and compare them to those of untreated apoE KO mice. HBO treatment results in a significant reduction of aortic cholesterol content and decreased fatty streak formation. These changes are accompanied by a significant reduction of autoantibodies against oxidatively modified LDL and profound changes in the redox state of the liver and aortic tissues. A 10-week treatment significantly reduces hepatic levels of TBARS and oxidized glutathione, while significantly increases the levels of reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase (GR), transferase, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase and catalase (CAT). The effects of HBO treatment are similar in the aortic tissues. These observations provide evidence that HBO treatment has a powerful effect on the redox state of relevant tissues and produces an environment that inhibits oxidation. The anti-oxidant response may be the key to the anti-atherogenic effect of HBO treatment. PMID:16973170

  9. Antioxidant activity of olive oil mill wastewater obtained from different thermal treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuffrè, A. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In food industry, Olive Oil Mill Wastewater (OOMWW is considered a by-product because of the presence of biostatic compounds with a high polluting rate, in particular phenols. Moreover, during olive oil processing, a large amount of this by-product constitutes an ecological and economical problem for the producers. To reevaluate this by-product, the reuse of this wastewater to obtain useful compounds appears to be very important. In order to purify the wastewater, the development of operations that modify its organic content seems necessary for obtaining of eventual fertilizing agents and/or to recover substances with a high added value such as phenolic compounds, which are currently recognized scientifically as molecules with a high antioxidant activity. A chromatographic analysis of these compounds was conducted to characterize different concentrations of wastewater and the reducing power of the extracts was measured. The thermal treatment of olive oil mill wastewater in a rotary evaporator and in an oven involved an increase in radical scavenging efficiency. These results could be correlated with the possibility of recovering and reusing this type of waste for its antioxidant properties.

    En la industria alimentaria, el alpechín se considera un subproducto debido a la presencia de compuestos bioestáticos, con una alta tasa de contaminación, particularmente los fenoles. Además, durante el procesado de la aceituna, la generación de una gran cantidad de este subproducto supone un problema ecológico y económico para los productores. Es importante la reutilización de este agua de desecho para obtener compuestos útiles. Para purificar el agua de desecho es necesario el desarrollo de operaciones que modifiquen su contenido orgánico, para poder obtener agentes fertilizantes y/o recuperar sustancias con un alto valor añadido como los compuestos fenólicos, que actualmente están reconocidos científicamente como moléculas con una

  10. Influence of thermal treatment on color, enzyme activities, and antioxidant capacity of innovative pastelike parsley products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andrea; Brinkmann, Maike; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2012-03-28

    Conventional spice powders are often characterized by low sensory quality and high microbial loads. Furthermore, genuine enzymes are only inhibited but not entirely inactivated upon drying, so that they may regain their activity upon rehydration of dried foods. To overcome these problems, initial heating was applied in the present study as the first process step for the production of innovative pastelike parsley products. For this purpose, fresh parsley was blanched (80, 90, and 100 °C for 1-10 min) and subsequently comminuted to form a paste. Alternatively, mincing was carried out prior to heat treatment. Regardless of temperature, the color of the latter product did not show any change after heating for 1 min. With progressing exposure time the green color turned to olive hues due to marked pheophytin formation. Inactivation of genuine peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was achieved at all temperature-time regimes applied. In contrast, the parsley products obtained after immediate water-blanching were characterized by brighter green colors and enhanced pigment retention. With the exception of the variants water-blanched at 80 °C, POD and PPO were completely inactivated at any of the thermal treatments. Furthermore, in water-blanched samples, antioxidant capacities as determined by the TEAC and FRAP assays were even enhanced compared to unheated parsley, whereas a decrease of phenolic contents could not be prevented. Consequently, the innovative process presented in this study allows the production of novel herb and spice products characterized by improved sensory quality as compared to conventional spice products. PMID:22375822

  11. Dietary antioxidants for chronic periodontitis prevention and its treatment: a review on current evidences from animal and human studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Varela-López; Maurizio Battino; Pedro Bullón; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Given the relationship between chronic periodontitis and high levels of oxidative stress, this review aims to clarify what role can played the dietary intake of different antioxidants in maintaining a healthy periodontium and in reducing chronic periodontitis risk, as well as possible use of dietary therapies based on them for this disease treatment. Methods: The database of the National Library of Medicine, Washington, DC (MEDLINE PubMed) was used and all the studies in animals a...

  12. Enhancing stress growth traits as well as phytochemical and antioxidant contents of Spiraea and Pittosporum under seaweed extract treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elansary, Hosam O; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; King, Ian W

    2016-08-01

    Seaweed extracts (SWE) might play an important role in enhancing growth and phytochemical composition of medicinal shrubs. In this study, we investigate the morphological, physiological and biochemical effects of irrigation levels (100% and 50% of the evapotranspiration rate) coupled with a weekly treatment of SWE of Ascophyllum nodosum at 5 and 7 mL L(-1) as a soil drench or foliar spray on Spiraea nipponica "Snowmound" and Pittosporum eugenioides "Variegatum" grown in containers under controlled greenhouse conditions. In addition, the phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in both plant species was largely enhanced while the proline accumulation was reduced. After 8 weeks of treatments, drought condition reduced plant vegetative growth and gas exchange, as well as leaf water potential, but increased the phenolic and flavonoid contents in leaves, their antioxidant capacities and proline content. The application of SWE enhanced the performance of both species during mild drought conditions by means of increasing leaf number and area, dry weights, plant height, gas exchange and leaf water potential. The maximum vegetative growth, physiological performance and phytochemical composition of both species was achieved using the drench SWE treatments (5 and 7 mL L(-1)) in moderate drought conditions, which improved the plant water status, stomatal conductance, and photosynthetic rate. SWE enhanced plant growth and the phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of plant leaves of both species during moderate drought conditions. PMID:27336837

  13. Antioxidant therapy in the treatment of vitiligo%白癜风的抗氧化治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范英姬; 刘志军

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been identified as an important process in the pathogenesis of vitiligo in re-cent years. Antioxidant therapy has become a research focus and many antioxidants have proven to be effec-tive in the treatment of vitiligo. This article aims to review the efficacy of antioxidants in the treatment of viti-ligo and provide reference for the relevant research and treatment in the future.%近年来氧化应激被认为是白癜风发病与病情发展的重要机制,因而抗氧化治疗白癜风成为研究热点,部分抗氧化治疗药物已经应用于临床治疗并取得满意效果,本文将对抗氧化治疗药物做一综述,为今后抗氧化相关研究及治疗提供参考。

  14. 白癜风的抗氧化治疗%Antioxidant therapy in the treatment of vitiligo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范英姬; 刘志军

    2015-01-01

    近年来氧化应激被认为是白癜风发病与病情发展的重要机制,因而抗氧化治疗白癜风成为研究热点,部分抗氧化治疗药物已经应用于临床治疗并取得满意效果,本文将对抗氧化治疗药物做一综述,为今后抗氧化相关研究及治疗提供参考。%Oxidative stress has been identified as an important process in the pathogenesis of vitiligo in re-cent years. Antioxidant therapy has become a research focus and many antioxidants have proven to be effec-tive in the treatment of vitiligo. This article aims to review the efficacy of antioxidants in the treatment of viti-ligo and provide reference for the relevant research and treatment in the future.

  15. Scaling-Stimulated Salivary Antioxidant Changes and Oral-Health Behavior in an Evaluation of Periodontal Treatment Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Sheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Our goal was to investigate associations among scaling-stimulated changes in salivary antioxidants, oral-health-related behaviors and attitudes, and periodontal treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods. Thirty periodontitis patients with at least 6 pockets with pocket depths of >5 mm and more than 16 functional teeth were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into three groups: an abandoned group (AB group, a nonprogress outcome group (NP group, and an effective treatment group (ET group. Nonstimulated saliva was collected before and after scaling were received to determine superoxide dismutase (SOD and the total antioxidant capacity (TAOC. Results. Salivary SOD following scaling significantly increased from 83.09 to 194.30 U/g protein in patients who had irregular dental visit patterns (<1 visit per year. After scaling, the TAOC was significantly higher in patients who had regular dental visits than in patients who had irregular dental visits (3.52 versus 0.70 mmole/g protein, P<0.01. The scaling-stimulated increase in SOD was related to a higher severity of periodontitis in the NP group, while the scaling-stimulated increase in the TAOC was inversely related to the severity of periodontitis in the AB group. Conclusions. These results demonstrate the importance of scaling-stimulated salivary antioxidants as prognostic biomarkers of periodontal treatment.

  16. Yields, Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activities of Ziziphus jujube Mill. in Response to Different Fertilization Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for more jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill. production requires understanding the specific fertilization needs of jujube trees. This study was conducted to compare fruit yields, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of jujube in response to different fertilizers. Application of organic fertilizer appeared to enhance the phenolics and antioxidant activity accumulation of jujubes, compared to conventional fertilized jujubes. Amongst inorganic fertilizers, supplemental potassium as an individual nutrient improved the accumulation of phenolics in jujubes. Our results demonstrate that phenolics levels and antioxidant activity of jujube can be manipulated through fertilizer management and tracked by following proanthocyanidin concentrations. In a practical production context, the combination of organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers such as more supplemental individual potassium, and less supplemental individual nitrogen and phosphorus, might be the best management combination for achieving higher phenolic concentration, stronger antioxidant activity and a good harvest.

  17. Blanching as a Treatment Process: Effect on Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity of Cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen; Jaiswal, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Cabbage is considered an excellent source ofpolyphenolswith substantial antioxidant properties associated with the alleviation of oxidative stress and the prevention of free-radical mediated diseases. Many cabbage varieties are typically blanched prior to consumption mainly to enhance associated sensory attributes. Conventional hot water (80-100°C) or steam blanching are the most industrially applied methods. Blanching causes adverse losses in the antioxidant capacity of cabbage with over 70%...

  18. Impact of DNA mismatch repair system alterations on human fertility and related treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min-hao; Liu, Shu-yuan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Yan; Jin, Fan

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is one of the biological pathways, which plays a critical role in DNA homeostasis, primarily by repairing base-pair mismatches and insertion/deletion loops that occur during DNA replication. MMR also takes part in other metabolic pathways and regulates cell cycle arrest. Defects in MMR are associated with genomic instability, predisposition to certain types of cancers and resistance to certain therapeutic drugs. Moreover, genetic and epigenetic alterations in the MMR system demonstrate a significant relationship with human fertility and related treatments, which helps us to understand the etiology and susceptibility of human infertility. Alterations in the MMR system may also influence the health of offspring conceived by assisted reproductive technology in humans. However, further studies are needed to explore the specific mechanisms by which the MMR system may affect human infertility. This review addresses the physiological mechanisms of the MMR system and associations between alterations of the MMR system and human fertility and related treatments, and potential effects on the next generation.

  19. Antioxidant defence-related genetic variants are not associated with higher risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodusek Ana Lina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. Thyroid gland is very sensitive to the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation, especially in children. Imbalance between pro- and anti-oxidant factors may play a role in thyroid carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between genetic variability of antioxidant defence-related genes and the risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence.

  20. Tribulus terrestris (Linn.) Attenuates Cellular Alterations Induced by Ischemia in H9c2 Cells Via Antioxidant Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshma, P L; Lekshmi, V S; Sankar, Vandana; Raghu, K G

    2015-06-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. was evaluated for its cardioprotective property against myocardial ischemia in a cell line model. Initially, methanolic extract was prepared and subjected to sequential extraction with various solvents. The extract with high phenolic content (T. terrestris L. ethyl acetate extract-TTME) was further characterized for its chemical constituents and taken forward for evaluation against cardiac ischemia. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds like caffeic acid (12.41 ± 0.22 mg g(-1)), chlorogenic acid (0.52 ± 0.06 mg g(-1)) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (0.60 ± 0.08 mg g(-1)). H9c2 cells were pretreated with TTME (10, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml) for 24 h before the induction of ischemia. Then ischemia was induced by exposing cells to ischemia buffer, in a hypoxic chamber, maintained at 0.1% O2, 95% N2 and 5% CO2, for 1 h. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in reactive oxygen species generation (56%), superoxide production (18%), loss of plasma membrane integrity, dissipation of transmembrane potential, permeability transition pore opening and apoptosis had been observed during ischemia. However, pretreatment with TTME was found to significantly (p ≤ 0.05) attenuate the alterations caused by ischemia. The overall results of this study partially reveal the scientific basis of the use of T. terrestris L. in the traditional system of medicine for heart diseases. PMID:25858861

  1. Reduced arsenic accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) shoot involves sulfur mediated improved thiol metabolism, antioxidant system and altered arsenic transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Kumar, Smita; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination in rice is at alarming level as majority of rice growing regions are As contaminated such as South East Asia. Restricting the As in aerial parts of rice plant may be an effective strategy to reduce As contamination in food chain. Sulfur (S), an essential element for plant growth and development, plays a crucial role in diminishing heavy metal toxicity. Current study is designed to investigate the role of S to mitigate As toxicity in rice under different S regimes. High S (5 mM) treatment resulted in enhanced root As accumulation as well as prevented its entry in to shoot. Results of thiol metabolism indicate that As was complexed in plant roots through enhanced synthesis of phytochelatins. High S treatment also reduced the expression of OsLsi1 and OsLsi2, the potent transporters of As in rice. High S treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and mitigated the As induced oxidative stress. Thus from present study it is evident that proper supply of S nutrition may be helpful in prevention of As accumulation in aerial parts of plant as well as As induced toxicity.

  2. Reduced arsenic accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) shoot involves sulfur mediated improved thiol metabolism, antioxidant system and altered arsenic transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Kumar, Smita; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination in rice is at alarming level as majority of rice growing regions are As contaminated such as South East Asia. Restricting the As in aerial parts of rice plant may be an effective strategy to reduce As contamination in food chain. Sulfur (S), an essential element for plant growth and development, plays a crucial role in diminishing heavy metal toxicity. Current study is designed to investigate the role of S to mitigate As toxicity in rice under different S regimes. High S (5 mM) treatment resulted in enhanced root As accumulation as well as prevented its entry in to shoot. Results of thiol metabolism indicate that As was complexed in plant roots through enhanced synthesis of phytochelatins. High S treatment also reduced the expression of OsLsi1 and OsLsi2, the potent transporters of As in rice. High S treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and mitigated the As induced oxidative stress. Thus from present study it is evident that proper supply of S nutrition may be helpful in prevention of As accumulation in aerial parts of plant as well as As induced toxicity. PMID:26741538

  3. Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Heart Disease: Do Antioxidants Have a Role in Treatment and/or Prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredric J. Pashkow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation triggered by oxidative stress is the cause of much, perhaps even most, chronic human disease including human aging. The oxidative stress originates mainly in mitochondria from reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS and can be identified in most of the key steps in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and the consequential clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease. In addition to the formation of atherosclerosis, it involves lipid metabolism, plaque rupture, thrombosis, myocardial injury, apoptosis, fibrosis and failure. The recognition of the critical importance of oxidative stress has led to the enthusiastic use of antioxidants in the treatment and prevention of heart disease, but the results of prospective, randomized clinical trials have been overall disappointing. Can this contradiction be explained and what are its implications for the discovery/development of future antioxidant therapeutics?

  4. Influence of hydrothermal treatment on dietary fiber and phenolic compounds content as well as antioxidative activity of legumes seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Filipiak-Florkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dry legumes seeds are food of high nutrient density. Besides the biologically precious protein they contain essential unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins of group B, dietary fiber and antioxidants. The aim of the research was to assess the influence of different soaking and cooking methods on dietary fiber and phe- nolic compounds content, as well as antioxidative activity of selected legumes’seeds. Material and methods. The experimental material was dry kidney bean originating from collection of Krakow’s Plants and Seeds Horticulture POLAN LTD, and soya bean seeds bought at the market store. The technological treatment of seeds was performed in two stages: 1 soaking in cold and hot water, 2 cook- ing with three different kinds of equipment – electrical stove, induction stove and microwave oven. In the above described ways prepared material was examined for the dietary fiber and phenolic compounds content, as well as antioxidative activity. Results. The highest amount of dietary fiber was found in soya bean seeds cooked on an induction stove (27.4 g·100 g-1 d.m. and electric stove (27.3 g·100 g-1 d.m. after previous soaking in hot water. The dry soya bean and kidney bean seeds were characterised by a high content of phenolic compounds 163.2 mg GAE·100 g-1d.m. and 173.1 mg GAE·100 g-1d.m. respectively. The dry matter of cooked (on induction and electric stove kidney bean and soya seeds was characterised by a higher phenolic compounds level (232.7-311.6 mg GAE·100 g-1and 224.4-315.6 respectively than raw material. Antioxidative activity of untreated seeds of kidney bean and soya bean was 4.5 and 4.1 μmol Tx·g-1d.m. respectively. The high ability of free radicals scavenging was observed in kidney bean i.e. 8.7 μmol Tx·g-1  d.m. after traditional soaking and 9.5 μmol Tx·g-1d.m. after “hot” soaking. Conclusions. Soaking and cooking of seeds (despite the species influenced growth of phenolic compounds content in dry

  5. The effect of postharvest 1-MCP treatment and storage atmosphere on 'Cripps Pink' apple phenolics and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Nga T T; Golding, John B; Wilkes, Meredith A

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of a postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment, controlled atmosphere and storage time on the total antioxidant activity (TAA) and phenolic compounds in the peel and flesh of 'Cripps Pink' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Preclimacteric apples were harvested and treated with 1-MCP then stored in normal atmosphere (NA) or controlled atmosphere (CA) at 0°C for up to 160days. In general, the level of phenolics decreased by 9% in the peel and significantly increased twofold in the flesh during cold storage, regardless of storage atmosphere or 1-MCP treatment. However, treatment with 1-MCP resulted in significantly lower concentrations of chlorogenic acid and procyanidin B2 in apple flesh, and catechin and epicatechin in the peel compared to the control fruits. There was no significant effect of CA on the phenolic compounds during long-term storage, except for quercetin 3-galactoside and quercetin 3-glucoside, which both significantly increased under CA storage. Total antioxidant activity (TAA) is an important nutritional attribute of apples in the human diet. The results showed that TAA in the peel tissue was about eight times higher than that of the flesh, with mean values of 4.75gTE/kgFW and 0.56TE/kgFW, respectively. The TAA in both the peel and flesh tissue increased significantly during storage by 40% and 70%, respectively. The storage atmosphere did not significantly affect TAA in either the peel or flesh, whilst the 1-MCP treatment significantly reduced the TAA in the peel tissue only. These results show the beneficial combined effects of pre-storage 1-MCP treatment and CA on 'Cripps Pink' apple phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity during long term storage.

  6. Antioxidative effects of berberine pre-treatment on hydrogen peroxide-induced PC12 cell toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daohua Xu; Chenhui Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.Oxidative damage could be prevented by augmenting the endogenous defense capacity against oxidative stress by antioxidant intake.As an effective alkaloid component of Chinese herbal medicine Rhizoma coptidis extract,berberine exhibits antioxidative properties and ameliorates memory impairment in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.The present study investigated the protective effects of berberine on H2O2-induced PC12 cell toxicity.Results demonstrated that berbedne protects PC12 cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis and increases PC12 cell viability.Lactate dehydrogenase release,reactive oxygen content,and malonyl dialdehyde levels were significantly decreased(P < 0.01).The protective effects of berberine on H2O2-induced PC12 cell toxicity were achieved via the antioxidative effects of berberine.

  7. Enhancement of antioxidant effects of naringin after atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Jang, Soo Jeung; Chung, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yong, Hae In; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-03-15

    Naringin is the natural chief bitter flavonoid found in Citrus species. Herein, bitter naringin was treated with atmospheric pressure plasma to afford two new converted flavonoids, narinplasmins A (2) and B (3), along with the known compound, 2R-naringin. The structures of the two new naringin derivatives were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant activity of all isolates was evaluated based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) scavenging assays. The new flavanone glycoside 2 containing a methoxyalkyl group exhibited significantly improved antioxidant properties in these assays relative to the parent naringin.

  8. Oxidative stress and Parkinson's disease: New hopes in treatment with herbal antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafchi, Amir; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder due to dopamine deficit in substatia nigra. PD is mainly a sporadic disease with unestablished etiology. However, exposure to environmental toxins, head trauma, inflammation, and free radicals are potential reasons. Recently, the role of oxidative stress in neurological abnormalities, including PD, has been particularly addressed. Antioxidant remedies, particularly herbal antioxidants, have revealed new perspectives of research and therapy as possible preventive and therapeutic approaches for PD. In this paper, we reviewed the recently published papers on the effects of herbal medicines on PD alongside the pathogenesis of PD with regard to oxidative stress. PMID:26561062

  9. Use of Genetically Altered Stem Cells for the Treatment of Huntington’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Crane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of stem cells for the treatment of Huntington’s disease (HD garnered much attention prior to the turn of the century. Several studies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have indicated that these cells have enormous therapeutic potential in HD and other disorders. Advantages of using MSCs for cell therapies include their ease of isolation, rapid propagation in culture, and favorable immunomodulatory profiles. However, the lack of consistent neuronal differentiation of transplanted MSCs has limited their therapeutic efficacy to slowing the progression of HD-like symptoms in animal models of HD. The use of MSCs which have been genetically altered to overexpress brain derived neurotrophic factor to enhance support of surviving cells in a rodent model of HD provides proof-of-principle that these cells may provide such prophylactic benefits. New techniques that may prove useful for cell replacement therapies in HD include the use of genetically altering fate-restricted cells to produce induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. These iPSCs appear to have certain advantages over the use of embryonic stem cells, including being readily available, easy to obtain, less evidence of tumor formation, and a reduced immune response following their transplantation. Recently, transplants of iPSCs have shown to differentiate into region-specific neurons in an animal model of HD. The overall successes of using genetically altered stem cells for reducing neuropathological and behavioral deficits in rodent models of HD suggest that these approaches have considerable potential for clinical use. However, the choice of what type of genetically altered stem cell to use for transplantation is dependent on the stage of HD and whether the end-goal is preserving endogenous neurons in early-stage HD, or replacing the lost neurons in late-stage HD. This review will discuss the current state of stem cell technology for treating the different stages of HD and

  10. Regulation of the antioxidant system in cells of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe after combined treatment with patulin and citrinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Gábor; Máté, Gábor; Mike, Nóra; Gazdag, Zoltán; Pesti, Miklós

    2016-03-01

    The effects of combined treatment with patulin (PAT) and citrinin (CTN) on Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells were investigated in acute toxicity tests. In comparison with the controls the exposure of fission yeast cells (10(7) cells ml(-1)) to PAT + CTN (250 μM each) for 1 h at a survival rate of 66.6% significantly elevated the concentration of total reactive oxygen species (ROS) via increased levels of peroxides without affecting the concentrations of superoxides or the hydroxyl radical. This treatment induced a 3.08-fold increase in the specific concentration of glutathione and elevated specific activities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase, while at the same time the activity of glutathione reductase decreased. The pattern of the ROS was the same as that induced by CTN (Máté et al., 2014), while the presence of PAT in the PAT + CTN combination treatment modified the activities of the antioxidant system (Papp et al., 2012) in comparison with the individual PAT or CTN treatment, suggesting toxin-specific regulation of glutathione and the enzymes of the antioxidant system and the possibility that the transcription factor (pap1 and atf1) -regulated processes might be influenced directly by ROS. PMID:26752674

  11. Fluoxetine Treatment Rescues Energy Metabolism Pathway Alterations in a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chi-Ya; He, Zhisong; Henes, Kathrin; Asara, John M; Webhofer, Christian; Filiou, Michaela D; Khaitovich, Philipp; Wotjak, Carsten T; Turck, Christoph W

    2016-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder. Several studies have attempted to characterize molecular alterations associated with PTSD, but most findings were limited to the investigation of specific cellular markers in the periphery or defined brain regions. In the current study, we aimed to unravel affected molecular pathways/mechanisms in the fear circuitry associated with PTSD. We interrogated a foot shock-induced PTSD mouse model by integrating proteomics and metabolomics profiling data. Alterations at the proteome level were analyzed using in vivo (15)N metabolic labeling combined with mass spectrometry in the prelimbic cortex (PrL), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), basolateral amygdala, central nucleus of the amygdala and CA1 of the hippocampus between shocked and nonshocked (control) mice, with and without fluoxetine treatment. In silico pathway analyses revealed an upregulation of the citric acid cycle pathway in PrL, and downregulation in ACC and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Chronic fluoxetine treatment prevented decreased citric acid cycle activity in NAc and ACC and ameliorated conditioned fear response in shocked mice. Our results shed light on the role of energy metabolism in PTSD pathogenesis and suggest potential therapy through mitochondrial targeting. PMID:27606320

  12. Comprehensive Study of Mediterranean (Croatian) Propolis Peculiarity: Headspace, Volatiles, Anti-Varroa-Treatment Residue, Phenolics, and Antioxidant Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Kuś, Piotr M; Tuberoso, Carlo I G

    2016-02-01

    Eight propolis samples from Croatia were analyzed in detail, to study the headspace, volatiles, anti-Varroa-treatment residue, phenolics, and antioxidant properties. The samples exhibited high qualitative/quantitative variability of the chemical profiles, total phenolic content (1,589.3-14,398.3 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalent)/l EtOH extract), and antioxidant activity (11.1-133.5 mmol Fe(2+) /l extract and 6.2-65.3 mmol TEAC (Trolox® equivalent antioxidant capacity)/l extract). The main phenolics quantified by HPLC-DAD at 280 and 360 nm were vanillin, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, chrysin, galangin, and caffeic acid phenethyl ester. The major compounds identified by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), and subsequent GC-FID and GC/MS analyses were α-eudesmol (up to 19.9%), β-eudesmol (up to 12.6%), γ-eudesmol (up to 10.5%), benzyl benzoate (up to 28.5%), and 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol (up to 18.1%). Vanillin was determined as minor constituent by SDE/GC-FID/MS and HPLC-DAD. The identified acaricide residue thymol was ca. three times more abundant by HS-SPME/GC-FID/MS than by SDE/GC-FID/MS and was not detected by HPLC-DAD. PMID:26880433

  13. Non-Nutrient, Naturally Occurring Phenolic Compounds with Antioxidant Activity for the Prevention and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main factors able to explain the pathophysiological mechanism of inflammatory conditions that occur in periodontal disease is oxidative stress. Given the emerging understanding of this relationship, host-modulatory therapies using antioxidants could be interesting to prevent or slow the breakdown of soft and hard periodontal tissues. In this context, non-nutrient phenolic compounds of various foods and plants have received considerable attention in the last decade. Here, studies focusing on the relationship between different compounds of this type with periodontal disease have been collected. Among them, thymoquinone, coenzyme Q (CoQ, mangiferin, resveratrol, verbascoside and some flavonoids have shown to prevent or ameliorate periodontal tissues damage in animal models. However evidence regarding this effect in humans is poor and only limited to topical treatments with CoQ and catechins. Along with animal experiments, in vitro studies indicate that possible mechanisms by which these compounds might exert their protective effects include antioxidative properties, oxygen and nitrogen scavenging abilities, and also inhibitory effects on cell signaling cascades related to inflammatory processes which have an effect on RNS or ROS production as well as on antioxidant defense systems.

  14. Chronic exposure to low levels of inorganic arsenic causes alterations in locomotor activity and in the expression of dopaminergic and antioxidant systems in the albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Verónica Mireya; Limón-Pacheco, Jorge Humberto; Carrizales, Leticia; Mendoza-Trejo, María Soledad; Giordano, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have associated chronic arsenicism with decreases in IQ and sensory and motor alterations in humans. Likewise, studies of rodents exposed to inorganic arsenic ((i)As) have found changes in locomotor activity, brain neurochemistry, behavioral tasks, oxidative stress, and in sensory and motor nerves. In the current study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of (i)As (0.05, 0.5 mg (i)As/L) and to a high dose (50 mg (i)As/L) in drinking water for one year. Hypoactivity and increases in the striatal dopamine content were found in the group treated with 50 mg (i)As/L. Exposure to 0.5 and 50 mg (i)As/L increased the total brain content of As. Furthermore, (i)As exposure produced a dose-dependent up-regulation of mRNA for Mn-SOD and Trx-1 and a down-regulation of DAR-D₂ mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens. DAR-D₁ and Nrf2 mRNA expression were down-regulated in nucleus accumbens in the group exposed to 50 mg (i)As/L. Trx-1 mRNA levels were up-regulated in the cortex in an (i)As dose-dependent manner, while DAR-D₁ mRNA expression was increased in striatum in the 0.5 mg (i)As/L group. These results show that chronic exposure to low levels of arsenic causes subtle but region-specific changes in the nervous system, especially in antioxidant systems and dopaminergic elements. These changes became behaviorally evident only in the group exposed to 50 mg (i)As/L.

  15. The role of antioxidant therapy in the treatment of male infertility: an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Lombardo; Andrea Sansone; Francesco Romanelli; Donatella Paoli; Loredana Gandini; Andrea Lenzi

    2011-01-01

    @@ In recent years,many studies have focused on the effect of oxidative stress,reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants on the male eproductive system.Under physiological conditions,sperm produces small amounts of ROS,which are needed for fertilisation,acrosome reaction and capacitation.However,if an increased production of ROS is not associated with a similar increase in scavenging systems,peroxidative damage of the sperm plasma membrane and loss of DNA integrity typically occur,which leads to cell death and reduced fertility.Furthermore,since there is no linear correlation between sperm quality and pregnancy rates,an improvement in semen parameters should not be the sole outcome considered in studies of antioxidant therapies.A definitive conclusion regarding the benefit of these therapies is difficult to obtain,as most of the previous studies lacked control groups,considered different antioxidants in different combinations and doses,or did not evaluate pregnancy rates in previously infertile couples.Even if beneficial effects were reported in a few cases of male infertility,more multicentre,double-blind studies performed with the same criteria are necessary for an increased understanding of the effects of various antioxidants on fertility.

  16. Subcritical extraction as sample treatment method for antioxidant screening of various plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hohnová, B. (Barbora); Šťavíková, L. (Lenka); Karásek, P. (Pavel); Roth, M

    2014-01-01

    Pressurized Hot Water Extraction performed in both static and dynamic modes followed by HPLC with UV-ViS detection was employed for fast and efficient determination of rutin and quercetin from various berries. Moreover, the antioxidant power of subcritical extracts applying •DPPH was evaluated.

  17. The curative and antioxidative efficiency of ivermectin and ivermectin + vitamin E-selenium treatment on canine Sarcoptes scabiei infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Suvendu Kumar; Dimri, Umesh; Singh, Shanker Kumar; Mohanta, Ranjan Kumar

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the curative and antioxidative efficacy of ivermectin and ivermectin + vitamin E-selenium, and the influence of these agents on oxidative stress parameters in canines infested by Sarcoptes scabiei. Twenty two sarcoptic mites infested dogs and nine healthy dogs of 6 months to 2 years of age were divided into three groups. Group I comprised of healthy dogs (n=9) whereas animals in group II (n=11) and III (n=11) were positive for scabies. Group II animals were treated with only 1% ivermectin @ 0.2 mg/kg SC whereas group III were additionally treated with Vitamin E and selenium (tocopherol 50 mg + Se 1.5 mg/ml) @ 0.5 ml/20 kg IM at weekly intervals for three times. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and 28 post therapy. The values for hemato-biochemical parameters and activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased (Pdogs in comparison to the healthy dogs on day 0 which approached normalcy by day 28 post therapy. The dogs of group III showed better clinical recovery in comparison to group II at the end of therapy. Thus, administration of vitamin E and selenium in addition to standard therapy can alleviate these alterations hastening the clinical recovery of diseased dogs and can be recommended as an adjunct therapy with miticides for canine sarcoptic mange.

  18. Antioxidant effect of parsley and panax ginseng extract standardized with ginsenosides Rg3 against alteration induced in reproductivefunctions in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza M. Hassan1 and Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab2

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the antigcidant effects of parsley oil and panax ginseng have been evaluated against the clastogenecity of ZEN. One hundred and eight mature male mice were distributed into nine treatment groups, including the control group and the groups treated with parsley oil (0.6 ml/kg b.w, panax ginseng extract (40 mg/kg b.w or parsley oil plus panax ginseng extract with or without ZEN (10 µg/kg b.w. Animals within different treatment groups were divided into two subgroups (A and B. Subgroup A were used for the determination of serum testosterone levels and chromosomal aberrations and received their respective doses for two weeks whereas, subgroup B were used for sperm abnormality and received their respective doses twice a day for one week and sacrificed after 30 days. The results indicated that ZEN treatment resulted in a significant decrease in testosterone concentration, sperm count and sperm motility. Whereas it caused a significant increase in abnormal sperms counts and total chromosomal aberrations in germ cells. Animals treated with parsley oil or panax ginseng extract alone or in combination were comparable to the controls regarding all the tested parameters. The combined treatment with ZEN and parsley oil, panax ginseng or parsley oil plus panax ginseng extract resulted in a significant improvement in all tested parameters. Moreover, parsley oil was found to be effective than panax ginseng extract and the combined treatment was more effective than the single treatment. It could be concluded that both parsley oil and panax ginseng extract induced a protective action against ZEN-induced alteration in the reproductive performance and the combined treatment may be useful than the single treatment.

  19. [Mucolytics in acute and chronic respiratory tract disorders. II. Uses for treatment and antioxidant properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczyk, Maciej; Kuna, Piotr

    2002-03-01

    In the first part of our editorial we reviewed the possible factors responsible for mucus hypersecretion in acute and chronic pulmonary diseases. The present paper presents the results of studies proving, that mucolytics are useful in adjunctive therapy of respiratory tract disorders. Mucolytic agents such as Ambroxol and N-acetylcysteine are able to alter the secretion of mucus and its physical properties which results in improvement of mucociliary clearance. Current evidence indicate, that these drugs are effective, especially in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and acute bronchitis. They produce a modest improvement in symptom control and lung function. It has been demonstrated that there is a synergism between mucolytics and antibiotics in the treatment of exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. Moreover, they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. Ambroxol is able to inhibit mediator release involved in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. As mucolytics are cheap and well-tolerated they are beneficial in the therapy of patients suffering from respiratory tract disorders. PMID:12053601

  20. Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Alters Cancer-associated Transcriptional Signatures in Circulating Leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Sina A.; Seiger, Ashley N.; Hayes, Amanda L.; Mehra, Reena; Patel, Sanjay R.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with a number of chronic disorders that may improve with effective therapy. However, the molecular pathways affected by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment are largely unknown. We sought to assess the system-wide consequences of CPAP therapy by transcriptionally profiling peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). Methods: Subjects in whom severe OSA was diagnosed were treated with CPAP, and whole-genome expression measurement of PBLs was performed at baseline and following therapy. We used gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to identify pathways that were differentially enriched. Network analysis was then applied to highlight key drivers of processes influenced by CPAP. Results: Eighteen subjects with significant OSA underwent CPAP therapy and microarray analysis of their PBLs. Treatment with CPAP improved apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), daytime sleepiness, and blood pressure, but did not affect anthropometric measures. GSEA revealed a number of enriched gene sets, many of which were involved in neoplastic processes and displayed downregulated expression patterns in response to CPAP. Network analysis identified several densely connected genes that are important modulators of cancer and tumor growth. Conclusions: Effective therapy of OSA with CPAP is associated with alterations in circulating leukocyte gene expression. Functional enrichment and network analyses highlighted transcriptional suppression in cancer-related pathways, suggesting potentially novel mechanisms linking OSA with neoplastic signatures. Citation: Gharib SA; Seiger AN; Hayes AL; Mehra R; Patel SR. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea alters cancer-associated transcriptional signatures in circulating leukocytes. SLEEP 2014;37(4):709-714. PMID:24688164

  1. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid. The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain, with an optimum condition of: (1 ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2 concentration of substrate, 4%; (3 reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4 pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01 under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen.

  2. Alteration of brain viscoelasticity after shunt treatment in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freimann, Florian Baptist; Sprung, Christian [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Neurosurgical Department, Berlin (Germany); Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Klatt, Dieter; Sack, Ingolf [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Lin, Kui; McLaughlin, Joyce [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Mathematics Department, Troy, NY (United States); Braun, Juergen [Charite - University Medicine Campus Benjamin Franklin, Institute of Medical Informatics, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) represents a chronic neurological disorder with increasing incidence. The symptoms of NPH may be relieved by surgically implanting a ventriculoperitoneal shunt to drain excess cerebrospinal fluid. However, the pathogenesis of NPH is not yet fully elucidated, and the clinical response of shunt treatment is hard to predict. According to current theories of NPH, altered mechanical properties of brain tissue seem to play an important role. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a unique method for measuring in vivo brain mechanics. In this study cerebral MRE was applied to test the viscoelastic properties of the brain in 20 patients with primary (N = 14) and secondary (N = 6) NPH prior and after (91 {+-} 16 days) shunt placement. Viscoelastic parameters were derived from the complex modulus according to the rheological springpot model. This model provided two independent parameters {mu} and {alpha}, related to the inherent rigidity and topology of the mechanical network of brain tissue. The viscoelastic parameters {mu} and {alpha} were found to be decreased with -25% and -10%, respectively, compared to age-matched controls (P < 0.001). Interestingly, {alpha} increased after shunt placement (P < 0.001) to almost normal values whereas {mu} remained symptomatically low. The results indicate the fundamental role of altered viscoelastic properties of brain tissue during disease progression and tissue repair in NPH. Clinical improvement in NPH is associated with an increasing complexity of the mechanical network whose inherent strength, however, remains degraded. (orig.)

  3. Antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine during adult respiratory distress syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, S; Herlevsen, P; Knudsen, P;

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine could ameliorate the course of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in man. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SETTING: Medical and surgical ICU in a regional hospital. PATIENTS: Sixty-six ICU patients...... with ARDS. INTERVENTIONS: Patients with ARDS (PaO2/FiO2 ratio less than 250 torr) were treated with either the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine 150 mg/kg as a loading dose and then 20 mg/kg/hr, or with placebo for 6 days. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: No improvement could be demonstrated in the PaO2/FiO2 ratio...... radiograph or on survival rate. We documented that N-acetylcysteine acts as an anticoagulant and perhaps decreases pulmonary fibrin uptake during ARDS. CONCLUSIONS: N-acetylcysteine might be of benefit in ARDS. Before further clinical studies are started, problems with N-acetylcysteine and coagulation have...

  4. Cocaine treatment alters oxytocin receptor binding but not mRNA production in postpartum rat dams☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, T.M.; McMurray, M.S.; Walker, C.H.; Johns, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Gestational cocaine treatment in rat dams results in decreased oxytocin (OT) levels, up-regulated oxytocin receptor (OTR) binding density and decreased receptor affinity in the whole amygdala, all concomitant with a significant increase in maternal aggression on postpartum day six. Rat dams with no gestational drug treatment that received an infusion of an OT antagonist directly into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) exhibited similarly high levels of maternal aggression towards intruders. Additionally, studies indicate that decreased OT release from the hypothalamic division of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is coincident with heightened maternal aggression in rats. Thus, it appears that cocaine-induced alterations in OT system dynamics (levels, receptors, production, and/or release) may mediate heightened maternal aggression following cocaine treatment, but the exact mechanisms through which cocaine impacts the OT system have not yet been determined. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that two likely mechanisms of cocaine’s action would be, increased OTR binding specifically in the CeA, and decreased OT mRNA production in the PVN. Autoradiography and in situ hybridization assays were performed on targeted nuclei in brain regions of rat dams on postpartum day six, following gestational treatment twice daily with cocaine (15 mg/kg) or normal saline (1 ml/kg). We now report cocaine-induced reductions in OTR binding density in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), but not the CeA. There was no significant change in OT mRNA production in the PVN following cocaine treatment. PMID:16677710

  5. Delayed Posthypoxic Leukoencephalopathy: Improvement with Antioxidant Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    King, Franklin; Morris, Nicholas A.; Schmahmann, Jeremy D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Delayed posthypoxic leukoencephalopathy (DPHL) may result from a variety of hypoxic insults, including respiratory depression from an opiate overdose. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism of DPHL remains uncertain. We describe a patient with a typical case of DPHL who responded clinically to antioxidant treatment. Methods Clinical, serological, and radiographic investigations were undertaken in the evaluation of the patient. Results A 63-year-old man developed altered ment...

  6. Delayed Posthypoxic Leukoencephalopathy: Improvement with Antioxidant Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    King, Franklin; Morris, Nicholas A.; Schmahmann, Jeremy D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Delayed posthypoxic leukoencephalopathy (DPHL) may result from a variety of hypoxic insults, including respiratory depression from an opiate overdose. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism of DPHL remains uncertain. We describe a patient with a typical case of DPHL who responded clinically to antioxidant treatment. Methods: Clinical, serological, and radiographic investigations were undertaken in the evaluation of the patient. Results: A 63-year-old man developed altered m...

  7. Exercise training combined with antioxidant supplementation prevents the antiproliferative activity of their single treatment in prostate cancer through inhibition of redox adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueritat, Jordan; Lefeuvre-Orfila, Luz; Vincent, Sophie; Cretual, Armel; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette; Rannou-Bekono, Françoise; Rebillard, Amélie

    2014-12-01

    In preclinical models, exercise training (ET) or pomegranate juice (PJ) prevents prostate cancer progression. Here, we hypothesized that physical exercise combined with antioxidants could induce synergistic effects through oxidative stress modulation. Forty male Copenhagen rats with prostate tumors were divided into four groups: control, PJ, ET, and PJ+ET. Rats from the PJ group consumed 750 µl of PJ daily, rats from the ET group ran on a treadmill 5 days per week, and PJ+ET rats received the combined treatment. Each week, tumor growth was evaluated. After 4 weeks of treatment, the rats were euthanized and blood, muscles, and tumors were collected. Tumor Ki67, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, Bcl-2 expression, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant defenses, as well as oxidative stress markers (oxidized base, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation), were measured. PJ or ET significantly decreased prostate tumor proliferation (Ki67 staining, pcancer progression. PJ significantly reduced Bcl-2 expression in tumors (peffect. PJ or ET increased enzymatic antioxidant defenses in muscle, PJ increased nonenzymatic antioxidant defenses in plasma and whole blood. In addition, PJ reduced TBARS and 8-oxodGuo levels in tumors as well as ET (pcancer cells with antioxidants blunts the positive effects of ET and interferes with important reactive oxygen species-mediated physiological processes such as antioxidant adaptations. PMID:25236740

  8. Comprehensive analysis of temporal alterations in cellular proteome of Bacillus subtilis under curcumin treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panga Jaipal Reddy

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a natural dietary compound with antimicrobial activity against various gram positive and negative bacteria. This study aims to investigate the proteome level alterations in Bacillus subtilis due to curcumin treatment and identification of its molecular/cellular targets to understand the mechanism of action. We have performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of B. subtilis AH75 strain at different time intervals of curcumin treatment (20, 60 and 120 min after the drug exposure, three replicates to compare the protein expression profiles using two complementary quantitative proteomic techniques, 2D-DIGE and iTRAQ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive longitudinal investigation describing the effect of curcumin treatment on B. subtilis proteome. The proteomics analysis revealed several interesting targets such UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase 1, putative septation protein SpoVG and ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit. Further, in silico pathway analysis using DAVID and KOBAS has revealed modulation of pathways related to the fatty acid metabolism and cell wall synthesis, which are crucial for cell viability. Our findings revealed that curcumin treatment lead to inhibition of the cell wall and fatty acid synthesis in addition to differential expression of many crucial proteins involved in modulation of bacterial metabolism. Findings obtained from proteomics analysis were further validated using 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC assay for respiratory activity, resazurin assay for metabolic activity and membrane integrity assay by potassium and inorganic phosphate leakage measurement. The gene expression analysis of selected cell wall biosynthesis enzymes has strengthened the proteomics findings and indicated the major effect of curcumin on cell division.

  9. Treatment of β-Thalassemia/Hemoglobin E with Antioxidant Cocktails Results in Decreased Oxidative Stress, Increased Hemoglobin Concentration, and Improvement of the Hypercoagulable State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orn-uma Yanpanitch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the antioxidant treatment for thalassemia have reported variable outcomes. However, treatment of thalassemia with a combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic antioxidants and an iron chelator has not been studied. This study investigated the effects of antioxidant cocktails for the treatment of β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E (HbE, which is the most common form of β-thalassemia in Southeast Asia. Sixty patients were divided into two groups receiving N-acetylcysteine, deferiprone, and either curcuminoids (CUR or vitamin E (Vit-E, and their hematological parameters, iron load, oxidative stress, and blood coagulation potential were evaluated. Patients were classified as responders if they showed the improvements of the markers of iron load and oxidative stress, otherwise as nonresponders. During treatment, the responders in both groups had significantly decreased iron load, oxidative stress, and coagulation potential and significantly increased antioxidant capacity and hemoglobin concentration. The significantly maximum increase (P<0.01 in hemoglobin concentration was 11% at month 4 in CUR group responders and 10% at month 10 in Vit-E group responders. In conclusion, the two antioxidant cocktails can improve anemia, iron overload, oxidative stress, and hypercoagulable state in β-thalassemia/HbE.

  10. Reversible alteration of CO2 adsorption upon photochemical or thermal treatment in a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhee; Yuan, Daqiang; Pham, Khanh T; Li, Jian-Rong; Yakovenko, Andrey; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-01-11

    A metal-organic framework (MOF) for reversible alteration of guest molecule adsorption, here carbon dioxide, upon photochemical or thermal treatment has been discovered. An azobenzene functional group, which can switch its conformation upon light irradiation or heat treatment, has been introduced to the organic linker of a MOF. The resulting MOF adsorbs different amount of CO(2) after UV or heat treatment. This remarkable stimuli-responsive adsorption effect has been demonstrated through experiments.

  11. Reversible Alteration of CO2 Adsorption upon Photochemical or Thermal Treatment in a Metal-Organic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinhee; Yuan, Daqiang; Pham, Khanh T.; Li, Jian-Rong; Yakovenko, Andrey A; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-01-11

    A metal–organic framework (MOF) for reversible alteration of guest molecule adsorption, here carbon dioxide, upon photochemical or thermal treatment has been discovered. An azobenzene functional group, which can switch its conformation upon light irradiation or heat treatment, has been introduced to the organic linker of a MOF. The resulting MOF adsorbs different amount of CO₂ after UV or heat treatment. This remarkable stimuli-responsive adsorption effect has been demonstrated through experiments.

  12. Treatment with Benznidazole during the Chronic Phase of Experimental Chagas' Disease Decreases Cardiac Alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Simone; Ramos, Carolina O.; Senra, Juliana F. V.; Vilas-Boas, Fabio; Rodrigues, Maurício M.; Campos-de-Carvalho, Antonio C.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ricardo; Soares, Milena B. P.

    2005-01-01

    Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is one of the main causes of death due to heart failure in Latin American countries. Benznidazole, the chemotherapeutic agent most often used for the treatment of chagasic patients, is highly toxic and has limited efficacy, especially in the chronic phase of the disease. In the present study we used a mouse model of chronic Chagas' disease to investigate the effects of benznidazole treatment during the chronic phase on disease progression. The hearts of benznidazole-treated mice had decreased parasitism and myocarditis compared to the hearts of untreated chagasic mice. Both groups of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice had significant alterations in their electrocardiograms compared to those of the healthy mice. However, untreated mice had significantly higher cardiac conduction disturbances than benznidazole-treated mice, including intraventricular conduction disturbances, atrioventricular blocks, and extrasystoles. The levels of antibodies against T. cruzi antigens (epimastigote extract, P2β, and trans-sialidase) as well as antibodies against peptides of the second extracellular loops of β1-adrenergic and M2-muscarinic cardiac receptors were also lower in the sera from benznidazole-treated mice than in the sera from untreated mice. These results demonstrate that treatment with benznidazole in the chronic phase of infection prevents the development of severe chronic cardiomyopathy, despite the lack of complete parasite eradication. In addition, our data highlight the role of parasite persistence in the development of chronic Chagas' disease and reinforce the importance of T. cruzi elimination in order to decrease or prevent the development of severe chagasic cardiomyopathy. PMID:15793134

  13. Does Scoliosis-Specific Exercise Treatment in Adolescence Alter Adult Quality of Life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Płaszewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Health-related quality of life in adults, who in adolescence participated in a scoliosis-specific exercise program, was not previously studied. Design. Cross-sectional study, with retrospective data collection. Material and Methods. Homogenous groups of 68 persons (43 women aged 30.10 (25–39 years, with mild or moderate scoliosis, and 76 (38 women able-bodied persons, aged 30.11 (24–38 years, who 16.5 (12–26 years earlier had completed scoliosis-specific exercise or observation regimes, participated. Their respiratory characteristics did not differ from predicted values. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, and pain scale (VAS were applied. Results. The transformed WHOQOL-BREF scores ranged from 54.6 ± 11.19 in the physical domain in the mild scoliotic subgroup to 77.1 ± 16.05 in the social domain in the able-bodied subgroup. The ODQ values did not generally exceed 5.3 ± 7.53. Inter- and intragroup differences were nonsignificant. Age, marital status, education, and gender were significantly associated with the ODQ scores. Significant association between the ODQ and WHOQOL-BREF social relationships domain scores with the participation in exercise treatment was found. Conclusions. Participants with the history of exercise treatment generally did not differ significantly from their peers who were only under observation. This study cannot conclude that scoliosis-specific exercise treatment in adolescence alters quality of life in adulthood.

  14. Effects of Heat Treatment on Flavonoids Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaert) Flour Ethanolic Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Geng; Romeo T Toledo; CHEN Zong-dao

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition, total flavonoids and antioxidant capacity of 50% ethanolic extracts from raw and cooked buckwheat flour from southwest of China were determined. The heat treatment used to gelatinize the flour starch significantly reduced the total flavonoids in the extract from 83.52 to 67.36 mg 100 g-1 of dry matter in the raw and cooked flour, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated using autooxidation in a β-carotene-linoleate model system (AA or AAC), DPPH radical scavenging assay (IP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Values for raw buckwheat flour extract were 97.84, 874.31, 76.45 and 94.92% for AA, AAC, ORAC and IP, respectively, while values in cooked buckwheat flour were 86.14, 842.88, 63.93 and 94.74% for AA, AAC, ORAC and IP, respectively. Values before cooked and raw buckwheat flour extracts were significantly different (P<0.05) for AA, AAC, and ORAC.

  15. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of extracts from ultrasonic treatment of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ya-Qin; Ye, Xing-Qian; Fang, Zhong-Xiang; Chen, Jian-Chu; Xu, Gui-Hua; Liu, Dong-Hong

    2008-07-23

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract phenolic compounds from Satsuma mandarin ( Citrus unshiu Marc.) peels (SMP), and maceration extraction (ME) was used as a control. The effects of ultrasonic time (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min), temperature (15, 30, and 40 degrees C), and ultrasonic power (3.2, 8, 30, and 56 W) on phenolic compounds were investigated. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array (PDA) detector was used for the analysis of phenolic acids after alkaline hydrolysis (bound phenolic acids) and flavanone glycosides. The contents of seven phenolic acids (caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and vanillic acid) and two flavanone glycosides (narirutin and hesperidin) in extracts obtained by ultrasonic treatment were significantly higher than in extracts obtained by the maceration method. Moreover, the contents of extracts increased as both treatment time and temperature increased. Ultrasonic power had a positive effect on the contents of extracts. However, the phenolic acids may be degraded by ultrasound at higher temperature for a long time. For example, after ultrasonic treatment at 40 degrees C for 20 min, the contents of caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid decreased by 48.90, 44.20, 48.23, and 35.33%, respectively. The interaction of ultrasonic parameters probably has a complex effect on the extracts. A linear relationship was observed between Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values and total phenolic contents (TPC); the correlation coefficient, R(2), is 0.8288 at 15 degrees C, 0.7706 at 30 degrees C, and 0.8626 at 40 degrees C, respectively. The data indicated that SMPs were rich sources of antioxidants. Furthermore, UAE techniques should be carefully used to enhance the yields of phenolic acids from SMPs. PMID:18572916

  16. Antioxidant enzymes as potential targets in cardioprotection and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Enzyme antioxidants: the next stage of pharmacological counterwork to the oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vavaev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus in antioxidant research is on enzyme derivative investigations. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD is of particular interest, as it demonstrates in vivo the protective action against development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus. The reliable association of coronary artery disease with decreased level of heparin-released EC-SOD was established in clinical research. To create a base for and to develop antioxidant therapy, various SOD isozymes, catalase (CAT, methods of gene therapy, and combined applications of enzymes are used. Covalent bienzyme SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate (CHS, chondroitin sulphate showed high efficacy and safety as the drug candidate. There is an evident trend to use the components of glycocalyx and extracellular matrix for target delivery of medical substances. Development of new enzyme antioxidants for therapeutic application is closely connected with progress in medical biotechnology, pharmaceutical industry, and bioeconomy.

  17. Effect of heat treatment with biologically active substances on the functioning of low-molecular antioxidant system during the storage of sweet bell pepper fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Priss, Olesia; Zahorko, Nadiya

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact, that combination of heat treatment and treatment with exogenous biologically active substances increases shelf life of sweet bell pepper fruits and facilitates decreasing of metabolism, influence of such treatment on functioning of low-molecular antioxidant system was not studied. Used in this research hybrids of sweet bell pepper Hercules and Nikita were grown in the open-field conditions. Fruits were dipped for 15 min. into the prepared composition of biologically active s...

  18. Oxidants, antioxidants and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gibanananda; Husain, Syed Akhtar

    2002-11-01

    nitrosamine formation and an alteration of metabolic activations of carcinogens. They can prevent genetic changes by inhibiting DNA damage induced by the ROMs. Therefore, these antioxidants may be helpful in the treatment of human cancer. However, detailed studies are required to draw a definite conclusion.

  19. Histologic and ultrastructural alterations of a xenografted human colon adenocarcinoma after treatment with titanocene dichloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köpf-Maier, P

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the antitumor agent titanocene dichloride on the morphologic appearance of a heterotransplanted human colon adenocarcinoma was investigated. The first alterations in tumor cells manifested 12 h after administration of a single dose (40 mg/kg) and consisted of nuclear changes, such as chromatin condensation, enlargement of the nuclear envelope, structural changes of the nucleoli, and formation of segmented nuclei 12 h later; bundles of microfilaments, lipid droplets and inclusion bodies, often containing cellular debris, occurred in the cytoplasm. Intracytoplasmic virus particles of type A were detectable. They were obviously extruded into the extracellular space by a budding process and became extracellular virus particles of type C. Within 24 h after treatment, the mitotic index decreased from 2.5% to 0.3%. Whereas after administration of a single dose, recovery phenomena took place between 2 and 4 days, the severe destruction induced by 3-fold doses of titanocene dichloride (3 X 30 mg/kg), was apparently not reversible. These results confirm the tumor-inhibiting potency of titanocene dichloride against human colon adenocarcinoma and underline the discriminatory power of morphologic studies in the preclinical evaluation of cytostatic drugs against heterotransplanted human tumors. PMID:3384842

  20. Phosphorus availability from the solid fraction of pig slurry is altered by composting or thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel, Wibke; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-10-01

    The alteration of easily available phosphorus (P) from the separated solid fraction of pig slurry by composting and thermal processing (pyrolysis or combustion at 300-1000 °C) was investigated by water and acidic extractions and the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Temporal changes in P availability were monitored by repeated DGT application in three amended temperate soils over 16 weeks. P availability was found to decrease in the order: drying>composting>pyrolysis>combustion with increasing degree of processing. Water extractions suggested that no P would be available after pyrolysis above 700 °C or combustion above 400 °C, respectively, but during soil incubation, even char and ash, processed at 800 °C, increased P availability. Low-temperature pyrolysis vs. combustion was found to favor P availability as did application to acidic vs. neutral soil. Composting and thermal treatment produced a slow-release P fertilizer, with P availability being governed by abiotic and biotic mechanisms. PMID:25089896

  1. Phosphorus availability from the solid fraction of pig slurry is altered by composting or thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel, Wibke; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-10-01

    The alteration of easily available phosphorus (P) from the separated solid fraction of pig slurry by composting and thermal processing (pyrolysis or combustion at 300-1000 °C) was investigated by water and acidic extractions and the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Temporal changes in P availability were monitored by repeated DGT application in three amended temperate soils over 16 weeks. P availability was found to decrease in the order: drying>composting>pyrolysis>combustion with increasing degree of processing. Water extractions suggested that no P would be available after pyrolysis above 700 °C or combustion above 400 °C, respectively, but during soil incubation, even char and ash, processed at 800 °C, increased P availability. Low-temperature pyrolysis vs. combustion was found to favor P availability as did application to acidic vs. neutral soil. Composting and thermal treatment produced a slow-release P fertilizer, with P availability being governed by abiotic and biotic mechanisms.

  2. Studies on the effect of antioxidant Selenium-ACE after treatment with Praziquantel and Mirazid in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hamdy Emam*; Mona Abd El-Rahman **; Irene Sameh Gamil** and Marwa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study deals with the evaluation of parasitological, histopathological and biochemical effect of Praziquantel (PZQ and Mirazid (MZ with or without Selenium-ACE (Se-ACE on male albino mice infected with S.mansoni and trying to evaluate the antioxidant effect of Se-ACE and its role in reducing the severity of the infection. Results: The obtained results indicated that treatment with PZQ produced more reduction in worm burden and ova count/gm liver than MZ compared to the infected control group. PZQ showed the highest reduction in liver granuloma number and diameter when compared to MZ group while both drugs showed a significant effect in restoration of the liver transaminases and protein fractions towards their normal levels indicating the safety of both drugs as anti S. mansoni chemotherapeutics, Se-ACE showed a high efficacy as a co-treatment, potentiating the effect of PZQ and MZ in reducing the worm burden, ova count/gm liver, number and diameter of liver granuloma and restoration of liver transaminases and protein fractions to their normal levels during treatment of S. mansoni infection. Conclusion: the rank order of potency in protection against liver cell damage was PZQ 500 mg/kg > MZ 600 mg/kg where Se-ACE showed a couraging criterion as a co- treatment potentiating the effect of the antischistosomal medications through its anti- oxidant activity.

  3. Antioxidant Treatment and Induction of Autophagy Cooperate to Reduce Desmin Aggregation in a Cellular Model of Desminopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Cabet

    Full Text Available Desminopathies, a subgroup of myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs, the progressive muscular diseases characterized by the accumulation of granulofilamentous desmin-positive aggregates, result from mutations in the desmin gene (DES, encoding a muscle-specific intermediate filament. Desminopathies often lead to severe disability and premature death from cardiac and/or respiratory failure; no specific treatment is currently available. To identify drug-targetable pathophysiological pathways, we performed pharmacological studies in C2C12 myoblastic cells expressing mutant DES. We found that inhibition of the Rac1 pathway (a G protein signaling pathway involved in diverse cellular processes, antioxidant treatment, and stimulation of macroautophagy reduced protein aggregation by up to 75% in this model. Further, a combination of two or three of these treatments was more effective than any of them alone. These results pave the way towards the development of the first treatments for desminopathies and are potentially applicable to other muscle or brain diseases associated with abnormal protein aggregation.

  4. Changes in pulmonary antioxidant defence mechanisms during separate and combined treatment with paraquat and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-hundred-fifty white male Wistar rats were poisoned with a daily dose of 1/100 LD50 paraquat water solution, five days weekly, over a period of 4 months. Immediately after that the animals were exposed to a single whole-body irradiation with a dose rate of 2 and 4 Gy on a linear accelerator with photon energy 9 MeV and radiation power 2 Gy/min. The biological effects of the isolated and combined two factors on the pulmonary antioxidant defence mechanisms were studied from the 1st up to the 60th post-irradiation days. It was established that paraquat and ionizing radiation inhibited the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and decreased the content of non-protein weight groups in lung homogenate at an early stage. The combined application of both factors had a significant synergic effect

  5. Screening for Antioxidant and Antibacterial potential of common medicinal plants in the treatment of Acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nand Pratibha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, sequential extracts of Camellia sinensis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Calendula officinalis and Linum usitatissimum were analyzed for their antioxidant activity in different test systems. Phytochemical analysis indicated that amongst twelve test extracts, methanolic extract of Camellia sinensis was found to have the highest total phenolic content (104.93 ± 1.630 mg GAE /g and FRAP value (1046.330±1.948 mg TE/g. Flavonoid content (115.503±2.984 mg RuE /g dry extract of methanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra was found to be superior among all the extracts. Highest DPPH scavenging (IC50=44.03 ±1.784 μg/ml effect was also observed in methanolic extracts of Camellia sinensis. In vitro antimicrobial screening indicated that methanolic extracts showed promising antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes.

  6. Investigation of Comparative Regulation on Antioxidant Enzyme System under Copper Treatment and Drought Stress in Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice CETİNKYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to present the responses of drought-sensitive ‘Shemal’ and drought-tolerant ‘71MAY69’ maize cultivars under drought condition (20% Polyethylene glycol, -0.40 MPa and three different copper concentrations (0.5 mM, 1 mM, 1.5 mM uSO4.5H2O for 5 days to determine the enzymatic responses of copper treatment in maize leaves. Copper treatments alone did not change stomatal conductance, relative water content, malondialdehyde, proline, hydrogen peroxide content and abscisic acid level according to control groups.  Combined treatment (drought and copper alleviated the damage of PEG- induced drought stress in maize leaves. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutatione reductase (GR activity increased and glutathione -S transferase (GST activity decreased, while ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity did not change under drought stress in the tolerant cultivar. SOD, CAT and APX were decreased and GST activities were increased while GR did not change in ‘Shemal’. Also SOD, APX and CAT activity increased by copper treatment alone in both cultivars. Otherwise combined treatment increased SOD, APX and CAT activity at all concentrations, but GR and GST activity increased only by (PEG+1.5 mM treatment when compared with PEG treatment alone in sensitive ones. As a result, exogenous copper alleviated drought stress, while it induced an oxidative damage by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities differently from drought tolerance. Copper tolerance in maize is not a common response of its defense mechanism because of different response to copper and drought in the same cultivar. 

  7. Chronic treatment with glucocorticoids alters rat hippocampal and prefrontal cortical morphology in parallel with endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng-Yang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Huang, Jingjing; Regunathan, Soundar

    2007-12-01

    In the present study, we examined the possible effect of chronic treatment with glucocorticoids on the morphology of the rat brain and levels of endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase (ADC) protein, the enzyme essential for agmatine synthesis. Seven-day treatment with dexamethasone, at a dose (10 and 50 mug/kg/day) associated to stress effects contributed by glucocorticoids, did not result in obvious morphologic changes in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as measured by immunocytochemical staining with beta-tubulin III. However, 21-day treatment (50 mug/kg/day) produced noticeable structural changes such as the diminution and disarrangement of dendrites and neurons in these areas. Simultaneous treatment with agmatine (50 mg/kg/day) prevented these morphological changes. Further measurement with HPLC showed that endogenous agmatine levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were significantly increased after 7-day treatments with dexamethasone in a dose-dependent manner. On the contrary, 21-day treatment with glucocorticoids robustly reduced agmatine levels in these regions. The treatment-caused biphasic alterations of endogenous agmatine levels were also seen in the striatum and hypothalamus. Interestingly, treatment with glucocorticoids resulted in a similar change of ADC protein levels in most brain areas to endogenous agmatine levels: an increase after 7-day treatment versus a reduction after 21-day treatment. These results demonstrated that agmatine has neuroprotective effects against structural alterations caused by glucocorticoids in vivo. The parallel alterations in the endogenous agmatine levels and ADC expression in the brain after treatment with glucocorticoids indicate the possible regulatory effect of these stress hormones on the synthesis and metabolism of agmatine in vivo.

  8. Chronic insulin treatment of diabetes does not fully normalize alterations in the retinal transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimball Scot R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a leading cause of blindness in working age adults. Approximately 95% of patients with Type 1 diabetes develop some degree of retinopathy within 25 years of diagnosis despite normalization of blood glucose by insulin therapy. The goal of this study was to identify molecular changes in the rodent retina induced by diabetes that are not normalized by insulin replacement and restoration of euglycemia. Methods The retina transcriptome (22,523 genes and transcript variants was examined after three months of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male Sprague Dawley rats with and without insulin replacement for the later one and a half months of diabetes. Selected gene expression changes were confirmed by qPCR, and also examined in independent control and diabetic rats at a one month time-point. Results Transcriptomic alterations in response to diabetes (1376 probes were clustered according to insulin responsiveness. More than half (57% of diabetes-induced mRNA changes (789 probes observed at three months were fully normalized to control levels with insulin therapy, while 37% of probes (514 were only partially normalized. A small set of genes (5%, 65 probes was significantly dysregulated in the insulin-treated diabetic rats. qPCR confirmation of findings and examination of a one month time point allowed genes to be further categorized as prevented or rescued with insulin therapy. A subset of genes (Ccr5, Jak3, Litaf was confirmed at the level of protein expression, with protein levels recapitulating changes in mRNA expression. Conclusions These results provide the first genome-wide examination of the effects of insulin therapy on retinal gene expression changes with diabetes. While insulin clearly normalizes the majority of genes dysregulated in response to diabetes, a number of genes related to inflammatory processes, microvascular integrity, and neuronal function are still altered in expression in

  9. Juvenile antioxidant treatment prevents adult deficits in a developmental model of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Cabungcal, Jan Harry; Counotte, Danielle S.; Lewis, Eastman; Tejeda, Hugo A.; Piantadosi, Patrick; Pollock, Cameron; Calhoon, Gwendolyn G.; Sullivan, Elyse; Presgraves, Echo; Kil, Jonathan; Hong, L. Elliot; Cuenod, Michel; Kim Q Do; O'Donnell, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal development can lead to deficits in adult brain function, a trajectory likely underlying adolescent-onset psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia. Developmental manipulations yielding adult deficits in rodents provide an opportunity to explore mechanisms involved in a delayed emergence of anomalies driven by developmental alterations. Here we assessed whether oxidative stress during presymptomatic stages causes adult anomalies in rats with a neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion, ...

  10. Cysteamine treatment ameliorates alterations in GAD67 expression and spatial memory in heterozygous reeler mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutiyanawalla, Ammar; Promsote, Wanwisa; Terry, Alvin; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2012-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling through its receptor, TrkB is known to regulate GABAergic function and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 expression in neurons. Alterations in BDNF signalling have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and as a result, they are a potential therapeutic target. Interestingly, heterozygous reeler mice (HRM) have decreased GAD67 expression in the frontal cortex and hippocampus and they exhibit many behavioural and neurochemical abnormalities similar to schizophrenia. In this study, we evaluated the potential of cysteamine, a neuroprotective compound to improve the deficits in GAD67 expression and cognitive function in HRM. We found that cysteamine administration (150 mg/kg.d, through drinking water) for 30 d significantly ameliorated the decreases in GAD67, mature BDNF and full-length TrkB protein levels found in frontal cortex and hippocampus of HRM. A significant attenuation of the increased levels of truncated BDNF in frontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as truncated TrkB in frontal cortex of HRM was also observed following cysteamine treatment. In behavioural studies, HRM were impaired in a Y-maze spatial recognition memory task, but not in a spontaneous alternation task or a sensorimotor, prepulse inhibition (PPI) procedure. Cysteamine improved Y-maze spatial recognition in HRM to the level of wide-type controls and it improved PPI in both wild-type and HRM. Finally, mice deficient in TrkB, showed a reduced response to cysteamine in GAD67 expression suggesting that TrkB signalling plays an important role in GAD67 regulation by cysteamine.

  11. Postharvest treatments with salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid or oxalic acid delayed ripening and enhanced bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Daniel; Díaz-Mula, Huertas M; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Castillo, Salvador; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María

    2011-05-25

    Sweet cherry cultivars ('Cristalina' and 'Prime Giant') harvested at commercial ripening stage were treated with salicylic acid (SA), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or oxalic acid (OA) at 1 mM and then stored for 20 days under cold temperature. Results showed that all treatments delayed the postharvest ripening process, manifested by lower acidity, color changes and firmness losses, and maintained quality attributes for longer periods than controls. In addition, total phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity increased in untreated fruit during the first 10 days of storage and then decreased, while in fruits of all treatments, these parameters increased continuously during storage without significant differences among treatments. Thus, postharvest treatments with natural compounds, such as SA, ASA or OA, could be innovative tools to extend the storability of sweet cherry with higher content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity as compared with control fruits. PMID:21506518

  12. Aronia melanocarpa Treatment and Antioxidant Status in Selected Tissues in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Francik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aronia juice is considered to be a source of compounds with high antioxidative potential. We conducted a study on the impact of compounds in the Aronia juice on oxidative stress in plasma and brain tissues. The influence of Aronia juice on oxidative stress parameters was tested with the use of a model with a high content of fructose and nonsaturated fats. Therefore, the activity of enzymatic (catalase, CAT, and paraoxonase, PON and nonenzymatic (thiol groups, SH, and protein carbonyl groups, PCG oxidative stress markers, which indicate changes in the carbohydrate and protein profiles, was marked in brain tissue homogenates. Adding Aronia caused statistically significant increase in the CAT activity in plasma in all tested diets, while the PON activity showed a statistically significant increase only in case of high fat diet. In animals fed with Aronia juice supplemented with carbohydrates or fat, statistically significant increase in the PON activity and the decrease in the CAT activity in brain tissue were observed. In case of the high fat diet, an increase in the number of SH groups and a decrease in the number of PCG groups in brain tissue were observed.

  13. Antioxidant and Metal Chelation-Based Therapies in the Treatment of Prion Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, Marcus W; Wedd, Anthony G; Collins, Steven J

    2014-04-21

    Many neurodegenerative disorders involve the accumulation of multimeric assemblies and amyloid derived from misfolded conformers of constitutively expressed proteins. In addition, the brains of patients and experimental animals afflicted with prion disease display evidence of heightened oxidative stress and damage, as well as disturbances to transition metal homeostasis. Utilising a variety of disease model paradigms, many laboratories have demonstrated that copper can act as a cofactor in the antioxidant activity displayed by the prion protein while manganese has been implicated in the generation and stabilisation of disease-associated conformers. This and other evidence has led several groups to test dietary and chelation therapy-based regimens to manipulate brain metal concentrations in attempts to influence the progression of prion disease in experimental mice. Results have been inconsistent. This review examines published data on transition metal dyshomeostasis, free radical generation and subsequent oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of prion disease. It also comments on the efficacy of trialed therapeutics chosen to combat such deleterious changes.

  14. Antioxidant and Metal Chelation-Based Therapies in the Treatment of Prion Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus W. Brazier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative disorders involve the accumulation of multimeric assemblies and amyloid derived from misfolded conformers of constitutively expressed proteins. In addition, the brains of patients and experimental animals afflicted with prion disease display evidence of heightened oxidative stress and damage, as well as disturbances to transition metal homeostasis. Utilising a variety of disease model paradigms, many laboratories have demonstrated that copper can act as a cofactor in the antioxidant activity displayed by the prion protein while manganese has been implicated in the generation and stabilisation of disease-associated conformers. This and other evidence has led several groups to test dietary and chelation therapy-based regimens to manipulate brain metal concentrations in attempts to influence the progression of prion disease in experimental mice. Results have been inconsistent. This review examines published data on transition metal dyshomeostasis, free radical generation and subsequent oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of prion disease. It also comments on the efficacy of trialed therapeutics chosen to combat such deleterious changes.

  15. Ex-situ and in-situ investigations of thermal anti-oxidation treatments of stainless steels by reflection mode EXAFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Wulff, D.; Wagner, R.; Holländer, U.; Maier, HJ; Frahm, R.

    2016-05-01

    Different thermal treatments were performed for the anti-oxidation of steel surfaces, and the processes were investigated ex-situ and in-situ by surface sensitive reflection mode EXAFS experiments at the Cr and Fe K-edges. While the samples for the ex-situ studies were heat-treated in a conveyor belt furnace at temperatures between 600 and 900 °C in inert carrier gases (N2 or Ar) using different additives such as hydrogen (H2) and monosilane (SiH4), the in- situ anti-oxidation treatments have been performed in a high vacuum environment (p steel to a metallic state, the in-vacuum treatments appear successful for temperatures above approx. 900 °C.

  16. Antioxidant Carbocysteine Treatment in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Wu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of carbocysteine in OSAS patients.A total of 40 patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS were randomly divided into two groups. One group was treated with 1500 mg carbocysteine daily, and the other was treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP at night. Before treatment and after 6 weeks of treatment, all patients underwent polysomnography and completed questionnaires. Treatment compliance was compared between the two groups. Plasma was collected for various biochemical analyses. Endothelial function was assessed with ultrasound in the carbocysteine group.The proportion of patients who fulfilled the criteria for good compliance was higher in the carbocysteine group (n = 17 than in the CPAP group (n = 11; 100% vs. 64.7%. Compared with baseline values, the carbocysteine group showed significant improvement in their Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (10.18 ± 4.28 vs. 6.82 ± 3.66; P ≤ 0.01, apnea-hypopnea index (55.34 ± 25.03 vs. 47.56 ± 27.32; P ≤ 0.01, time and percentage of 90% oxygen desaturation (12.66 (2.81; 50.01 vs. 8.9 (1.41; 39.71; P ≤ 0.01, and lowest oxygen saturation level (65.88 ± 14.86 vs. 70.41 ± 14.34; P ≤ 0.01. Similar changes were also observed in the CPAP group. The CPAP group also showed a decreased oxygen desaturation index and a significant increase in the mean oxygen saturation after treatment, but these increases were not observed in the carbocysteine group. Snoring volume parameters, such as the power spectral density, were significantly reduced in both groups after the treatments. The plasma malondialdehyde level decreased and the superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide levels increased in both groups. The endothelin-1 level decreased in the CPAP group but did not significantly change in the carbocysteine group. Ultrasonography showed that the intima-media thickness decreased (0.71 ± 0.15 vs. 0.66 ± 0.15; P ≤ 0.05 but that flow

  17. Whole-body cryostimulation--potential beneficial treatment for improving antioxidant capacity in healthy men--significance of the number of sessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lubkowska

    Full Text Available It is claimed that WBC (whole-body cryotherapy enhances the resistance of the human body, also thanks to the beneficial effect on the antioxidant system. Accordingly, this research aimed to evaluate the effect of a series of whole-body cryostimulations on the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in healthy men. The study was carried out on 30 young and healthy men aged 27.8±6.1 years with average body mass index and peak oxygen consumption (46.34±6.15 ml kg(-1 •min(-1. The participants were daily exposed for 3 minutes to cryogenic temperatures (-130°C. Blood samples were obtained in the morning before cryostimulation, again 30 min after exposure and the following day in the morning, during the 1(st, 10(th and 20(th session. Analysis concerned changes in plasma concentrations of total protein, albumin, glucose, uric acid and ceruloplasmin, and the most important components of the antioxidant system in red blood cells: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, reduced and oxidized glutathione. To assess the oxidative stress level the 8-isoprostane concentration in plasma was measured. The obtained results indicate that cryogenic temperatures in repeated daily treatments result in changes in the peroxidant and antioxidant status. These changes seem to depend on the number of cryostimulations. After 20 daily treatments there was an increase in SOD, SOD:CAT ratio, a decrease in the concentration of reduced and oxidized glutathione and in the activity of GPx. It could be possible that differences in the activity of GSSG-R after 20 treatments depended on the body mass index of participants.

  18. Artificial neural network modelling of the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of bananas submitted to different drying treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiné, Raquel P F; Barroca, Maria João; Gonçalves, Fernando J; Alves, Mariana; Oliveira, Solange; Mendes, Mateus

    2015-02-01

    Bananas (cv. Musa nana and Musa cavendishii) fresh and dried by hot air at 50 and 70°C and lyophilisation were analysed for phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. All samples were subject to six extractions (three with methanol followed by three with acetone/water solution). The experimental data served to train a neural network adequate to describe the experimental observations for both output variables studied: total phenols and antioxidant activity. The results show that both bananas are similar and air drying decreased total phenols and antioxidant activity for both temperatures, whereas lyophilisation decreased the phenolic content in a lesser extent. Neural network experiments showed that antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds can be predicted accurately from the input variables: banana variety, dryness state and type and order of extract. Drying state and extract order were found to have larger impact in the values of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds.

  19. Age-related learning and memory deficits in rats: role of altered brain neurotransmitters, acetylcholinesterase activity and changes in antioxidant defense system

    OpenAIRE

    Haider, Saida; Saleem, Sadia; Perveen, Tahira; Tabassum, Saiqa; Batool, Zehra; Sadir, Sadia; Liaquat, Laraib; Madiha, Syeda

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress from generation of increased reactive oxygen species or free radicals of oxygen has been reported to play an important role in the aging. To investigate the relationship between the oxidative stress and memory decline during aging, we have determined the level of lipid peroxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and activity of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) in brain and plasma as well as biogenic amine levels in brain from Albino–Wistar rats at age of 4 and 24 months. Th...

  20. Chronic arsenic poisoning in the rat: treatment with combined administration of succimers and an antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Gurusamy M; Flora, Swaran J S

    2004-05-01

    The influence of the coadministration of vitamin C or vitamin E on the efficacy of two thiol chelators, meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) or monoisoamyl DMSA, in counteracting chronic arsenic toxicity was investigated in rats. Vitamin C and vitamin E were only mildly effective when given alone or in combination with the above chelators in mobilizing arsenic from the target tissues. However, combined administration of vitamin C plus DMSA and vitamin E plus MiADMSA led to a more pronounced depletion of brain arsenic. The supplementation of vitamins was significantly effective in restoring inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) oxidative stress in liver, kidneys, and brain as reflected by reduced levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and oxidized and reduced glutathione levels. The results thus lead us to suggest that coadministration of vitamin E or vitamin C may be useful in the restoration of altered biochemical variables (particularly the effects on heme biosynthesis and oxidative injury) although it has only a limited role in depleting arsenic burden.

  1. Bisphenol A alters n-6 fatty acid composition and decreases antioxidant enzyme levels in rat testes: a LC-QTOF-based metabolomics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjian Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male reproductive toxicity induced by exposure to bisphenol A (BPA has been widely reported. The testes have proven to be a major target organ of BPA toxicity, so studying testicular metabolite variation holds promise for the discovery of mechanisms linked to the toxic effects of BPA on reproduction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered doses of BPA at the levels of 0, 50 mg/kg/d for 8 weeks. We used an unbiased liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF-based metabolomics approach to discover, identify, and analyze the variation of testicular metabolites. Two n-6 fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA and arachidonic acid (AA were identified as potential testicular biomarkers. Decreased levels of LA and increased levels of AA as well as AA/LA ratio were observed in the testes of the exposed group. According to these suggestions, testicular antioxidant enzyme levels were detected. Testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD declined significantly in the exposed group compared with that in the non-exposed group, and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px as well as catalase (CAT also showed a decreasing trend in BPA treated group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BPA caused testicular n-6 fatty acid composition variation and decreased antioxidant enzyme levels. This study emphasizes that metabolomics brings the promise of biomarkers identification for the discovery of mechanisms underlying reproductive toxicity.

  2. Hemostatic alterations in liver disease : A review on pathophysiology, clinical consequences, and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisman, Ton; Leebeek, Frank W. G.

    2007-01-01

    In most patients with acute or chronic liver failure, extensive changes in all pathways contributing to hemostasis are found. These hemostatic alterations concern both pro- and antihemostatic pathways, and therefore the net result of the hemostatic dysbalance is unclear. Although it is generally bel

  3. Region-selective effects of neuroinflammation and antioxidant treatment on peripheral benzodiazepine receptors and NMDA receptors in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biegon, A.; Alvarado, M.; Budinger, T.F.; Grossman, R.; Hensley, K.; West, M.S.; Kotake, Y.; Ono, M.; Floyd, R.A.

    2001-12-10

    Following induction of acute neuroinflammation by intracisternal injection of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) in rats, quantitative autoradiography was used to assess the regional level of microglial activation and glutamate (NMDA) receptor binding. The possible protective action of the antioxidant phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone in this model was tested by administering the drug in the drinking water for 6 days starting 24 hours after endotoxin injection. Animals were killed 7 days post-injection and consecutive cryostat brain sections labeled with [3H]PK11195 as a marker of activated microglia and [125I]iodoMK801 as a marker of the open-channel, activated state of NMDA receptors. Lipopolysaccharide increased [3H]PK11195 binding in the brain, with the largest increases (2-3 fold) in temporal and entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and substantia innominata. A significant (>50 percent) decrease in [125I]iodoMK801 binding was found in the same brain regions. Phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone treatment resulted in a partial inhibition ({approx}25 percent decrease) of the lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in [3H]PK11195 binding but completely reversed the lipopolysaccharide-induced decrease in [125I]iodoMK80 binding in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and substantia innominata. Loss of NMDA receptor function in cortical and hippocampal regions may contribute to the cognitive deficits observed in diseases with a neuroinflammatory component, such as meningitis or Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Effect of oocyte selection, estradiol and antioxidant treatment on in vitro maturation of oocytes collected from prepubertal Boer goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Smith

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of improved procedures for in vitro maturation of oocytes collected from prepubertal goats has applications for in vitro embryo production and accompanying strategies for genetic improvement. The objective of described studies was to determine the effects of oocyte grade, in vitro maturation time, antioxidant supplementation and concentrations of estradiol in the maturation medium on in vitro maturation of oocytes harvested from 1-6 mm follicles present on the ovaries (obtained from an abattoir of 1-6 month-old prepubertal Boer goats. Rates of progression to metaphase II were greater for grade 1 oocytes (>3 compact layers of cumulus cells and evenly granulated cytoplasm than grade 2 oocytes (in vitro maturation in the presence of high concentrations of estradiol (10 and 100 mg/mL on progression to metaphase II was observed, and no effect was observed in response to 1 mg/mL estradiol treatment as compared with control. Results suggest that oocyte selection and beta-mercaptoethanol supplementation can positively influence progression to metaphase II of oocytes harvested from ovaries of prepubertal goats, whereas high concentrations of estradiol are inhibitory to in vitro maturation.

  5. Acute melatonin treatment alters dendritic morphology and circadian clock gene expression in the hippocampus of Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Tomoko; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-02-01

    In the hippocampus of Siberian hamsters, dendritic length and dendritic complexity increase in the CA1 region whereas dendritic spine density decreases in the dentate gyrus region at night. However, the underlying mechanism of the diurnal rhythmicity in hippocampal neuronal remodeling is unknown. In mammals, most daily rhythms in physiology and behaviors are regulated by a network of circadian clocks. The central clock, located in the hypothalamus, controls melatonin secretion at night and melatonin modifies peripheral clocks by altering expression of circadian clock genes. In this study, we examined the effects of acute melatonin treatment on the circadian clock system as well as on morphological changes of hippocampal neurons. Male Siberian hamsters were injected with melatonin in the afternoon; 4 h later, mRNA levels of hypothalamic and hippocampal circadian clock genes and hippocampal neuron dendritic morphology were assessed. In the hypothalamus, melatonin treatment did not alter Period1 and Bmal1 expression. However, melatonin treatment increased both Period1 and Bmal1 expression in the hippocampus, suggesting that melatonin affected molecular oscillations in the hippocampus. Melatonin treatment also induced rapid remodeling of hippocampal neurons; melatonin increased apical dendritic length and dendritic complexity in the CA1 region and reduced the dendritic spine density in the dentate gyrus region. These data suggest that structural changes in hippocampal neurons are regulated by a circadian clock and that melatonin functions as a nighttime signal to coordinate the diurnal rhythm in neuronal remodeling.

  6. Efficacy of HPA Lanolin® in treatment of lip alterations related to chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Sergio da Silva Santos; Jose Endrigo Tinoco-Araujo; Lucas Monteiro de Vasconcelos Alves de Souza; Rafael Ferreira; Maura Rosane Valerio Ikoma; Ana Paula Ribeiro Razera; Marcia Mirolde Magno de Carvalho Santos

    2013-01-01

    The side effects of chemotherapy on the lips may cause esthetic and functional impact and increase the risk of infection. HPA Lanolin® is an option for supportive therapy because it has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and moisturizing properties. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of this product in the prevention of lip alterations in a population of patients undergoing chemotherapy. Material and Methods: Patients undergoing chemotherapy (n = 57) were examined and distributed into two g...

  7. Cardiac alterations in human African trypanosomiasis (T.b. gambiense with respect to the disease stage and antiparasitic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes A Blum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Human African Trypanosomiasis, neurological symptoms dominate and cardiac involvement has been suggested. Because of increasing resistance to the available drugs for HAT, new compounds are desperately needed. Evaluation of cardiotoxicity is one parameter of drug safety, but without knowledge of the baseline heart involvement in HAT, cardiologic findings and drug-induced alterations will be difficult to interpret. The aims of the study were to assess the frequency and characteristics of electrocardiographic findings in the first stage of HAT, to compare these findings to those of second stage patients and healthy controls and to assess any potential effects of different therapeutic antiparasitic compounds with respect to ECG changes after treatment. METHODS: Four hundred and six patients with first stage HAT were recruited in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola and Sudan between 2002 and 2007 in a series of clinical trials comparing the efficacy and safety of the experimental treatment DB289 to the standard first stage treatment, pentamidine. These ECGs were compared to the ECGs of healthy volunteers (n = 61 and to those of second stage HAT patients (n = 56. RESULTS: In first and second stage HAT, a prolonged QTc interval, repolarization changes and low voltage were significantly more frequent than in healthy controls. Treatment in first stage was associated with repolarization changes in both the DB289 and the pentamidine group to a similar extent. The QTc interval did not change during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac involvement in HAT, as demonstrated by ECG alterations, appears early in the evolution of the disease. The prolongation of the QTC interval comprises a risk of fatal arrhythmias if new drugs with an additional potential of QTC prolongation will be used. During treatment ECG abnormalities such as repolarization changes consistent with peri-myocarditis occur frequently and appear to be associated with the disease

  8. [Efficacy of disinfection treatments using essential oils and ultrasound on tomato fruits inoculated with Escherichia coli and impact on antioxidant activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Guevara, María L; Luna Guevara, Juan J; Ruiz Espinosa, Héctor; Leyva Abascal, Lucero; Díaz González, Carolina B

    2015-01-01

    Fresh produce often harbors a great number of microorganisms; hence, its growing demand may constitute a risk for consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of several disinfection procedures against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) inoculated on tomato fruits and the conservation of the antioxidant properties of these disinfected fruits. Fruits were immersed for 5 or 10min in oregano or thyme essential oil dispersions (5, 10ppm), with or without ultrasound treatment. Antioxidant activity of disinfected fruits was determined as the ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-pricrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and was reported as percentage of inhibition (%I). The most efficient disinfectant treatments showing significant differences (p≤.05) between the reductions log10 CFU/g (S) of ETEC were those using 10ppm oregano for 10min, with S=3.05 in individual treatments and S=4.03 in mixed treatments. The highest %I was obtained with individual sonication treatments (69.52 and 72.48), while in combined treatments the %I values increased with thyme oil 5ppm and ultrasound for 5min (51.27%) and 10min (53.31%).

  9. Gestational treatment with cocaine and fluoxetine alters oxytocin receptor number and binding affinity in lactating rat dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Josephine M; Lubin, Deborah A; Walker, Cheryl H; Joyner, Paul; Middleton, Christopher; Hofler, Vivian; McMurray, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Cocaine administered chronically throughout gestation has been correlated with deficits in maternal behavior, increased maternal aggressive behavior and decreased oxytocin levels in rats. In addition to its effects on oxytocin levels, cocaine is a potent serotonergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor. Alterations in the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems have been suggested as possibly having a role in cocaine-induced maternal aggression. This study was in part, an attempt to understand some of the mechanisms by which cocaine increases postpartum aggression, particularly as they relate to changes in the oxytocin system. Oxytocin receptor number and binding affinity in the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus, ventral tegmental area, hippocampus and amygdala were determined for lactating rat dams on postpartum day 6 (PPD 6) that were gestationally treated with cocaine, fluoxetine, saline or an amfonelic acid/fluoxetine drug combination. Cocaine and fluoxetine treatment both resulted in a significant up-regulation of oxytocin receptor number and lower receptor affinity in the amygdala of lactating rat dams compared to saline controls and the amfonelic acid/fluoxetine combination treatment group. Cocaine treatment also resulted in a significant down-regulation of oxytocin receptors in the medial preoptic area and both cocaine and fluoxetine treated dams had the highest affinity for oxytocin receptors in this brain region. Results of the present study support previous data indicating that alterations in oxytocinergic and perhaps serotonergic system dynamics in the amygdala may play a role in cocaine-induced postpartum aggression. PMID:15380831

  10. Gestational treatment with cocaine and fluoxetine alters oxytocin receptor number and binding affinity in lactating rat dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Josephine M.; Lubin, Deborah A.; Walker, Cheryl H.; Joyner, Paul; Middleton, Christopher; Hofler, Vivian; McMurray, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Cocaine administered chronically throughout gestation has been correlated with deficits in maternal behavior, increased maternal aggressive behavior and decreased oxytocin levels in rats. In addition to its effects on oxytocin levels, cocaine is a potent serotonergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor. Alterations in the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems have been suggested as possibly having a role in cocaine-induced maternal aggression. This study was in part, an attempt to understand some of the mechanisms by which cocaine increases postpartum aggression, particularly as they relate to changes in the oxytocin system. Oxytocin receptor number and binding affinity in the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus, ventral tegmental area, hippocampus and amygdala were determined for lactating rat dams on postpartum day 6 (PPD 6) that were gestationally treated with cocaine, fluoxetine, saline or an amfonelic acid/fluoxetine drug combination. Cocaine and fluoxetine treatment both resulted in a significant up-regulation of oxytocin receptor number and lower receptor affinity in the amygdala of lactating rat dams compared to saline controls and the amfonelic acid/fluoxetine combination treatment group. Cocaine treatment also resulted in a significant down-regulation of oxytocin receptors in the medial preoptic area and both cocaine and fluoxetine treated dams had the highest affinity for oxytocin receptors in this brain region. Results of the present study support previous data indicating that alterations in oxytocinergic and perhaps serotonergic system dynamics in the amygdala may play a role in cocaine-induced postpartum aggression. PMID:15380831

  11. Computational Study of Porous Treatment for Altering Flap Side-Edge Flowfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Meelan; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2003-01-01

    Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculations are used to investigate porous side-edge treatment as a passive means for flap noise reduction. Steady-state simulations are used to infer effects of the treatment on acoustically relevant features of the mean flow near the flap side edge. Application of the porous treatment over a miniscule fraction of the wetted flap area (scaling with the flap thickness) results in significantly weaker side-edge vortex structures via modification of the vortex initiation and roll-up processes. At high flap deflections, the region of axial flow reversal associated with the breakdown of the side-edge vortex is also eliminated, indicating an absence of vortex bursting in the presence of the treatment. Potential ramifications of the mean-flow modifications for flap-noise reduction are examined in the light of lessons learned from recent studies on flap noise. Computations confirm that any noise reduction benefit via the porous treatment would be achieved without compromising the aerodynamic effectiveness of the flap. Results of the parameter study contribute additional insight into the measured data from the 7x10 wind tunnel at NASA Ames and provide preliminary guidance for specifying optimal treatment characteristics in terms of treatment location, spatial extent, and flow resistance of the porous skin.

  12. Efficacy of HPA Lanolin® in treatment of lip alterations related to chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio da Silva Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The side effects of chemotherapy on the lips may cause esthetic and functional impact and increase the risk of infection. HPA Lanolin® is an option for supportive therapy because it has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and moisturizing properties. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of this product in the prevention of lip alterations in a population of patients undergoing chemotherapy. Material and Methods: Patients undergoing chemotherapy (n = 57 were examined and distributed into two groups: study (used HPA Lanolin® and control (without supportive therapy on the lips. We evaluated the patients two weeks after chemotherapy, registering oral alterations, symptoms of pain, discomfort, limitation of mouth opening and dehydration, classified according to a visual analogue scale. Results: Patients who used HPA Lanolin® had lower dehydration and experienced improvement of lip dryness (p<0.001. The main symptoms were dehydration, discomfort, limitation of mouth opening, pain. The main clinical signs were dry lips, mucositis, cheilitis, hematoma, swelling and cracking. We found no difference concerning the variables of pain, discomfort, and limitation of mouth opening between the study and control group. Conclusions: We suggest that HPA Lanolin® is effective in reducing the symptoms of dehydration and the signs of lip dryness resulting from toxicity of chemotherapy, proving to be an interesting alternative supportive therapy for cancer patients.

  13. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on arsenic induced alteration in blood biochemical profile, oxidant/antioxidant status, serum cortisol level and retention of arsenic and selenium in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Ranjan Kumar; Garg, Anil Kumar; Dass, Ram Sharan

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exerts oxidative stress with depletion of body selenium in monogastric animals. But in ruminants this fact is not yet verified. Vitamin E is an effective dietary antioxidant. Thus, in this experiment, the protective effect of vitamin E against arsenic toxicity induced by sodium arsenite (60mg As/kg diet) was investigated in goat kids. For this, 21 male kids were divided into three equal groups and fed either basal diet as such (control), or supplemented with 60mg As/kg diet and 60mg As/kg diet+250IU vitamin E/kg diet for 180 days. Vitamin E supplementation alleviated the toxic effects caused by arsenic on serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and lipid peroxidation. It also prevented the depletion of reduced glutathione content and reduction in activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-s-transferase in erythrocytes resulted from arsenic intoxication. The elevated levels of arsenic and reduced levels of selenium in the serum and tissues in arsenic treated animals were attenuated by vitamin E supplementation, though not completely. However, serum cortisol level was not affected by arsenic. It was concluded that arsenic exerts cortisol independent stressor mechanism and supplementation of vitamin E at a level of 250IU/kg diet was partially effective in reducing tissue accumulation of arsenic in the body and protect the kids from oxidative stress induced by arsenic.

  14. Does squalene alter the antioxidant potential of astaxanthin and fucoxanthinol? In vitro evidence in RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, Sangeetha; Narayan, Bhaskar; Kizawa, Yuki; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Astaxanthin (Ax) and fucoxanthin/fucoxanthinol (FuOH) are marine xanthophylls exhibiting anti-oxidant effects. Squalene (SQ) is a triterpenoid and is a precursor of sterols. This study aimed to determine if SQ can improve the effect of Ax/FuOH on lipid peroxidation. RAW 264.7 cells were treated with different concentrations of Ax, FuOH and SQ and corresponding rate of cell survival was noted. In addition,combination groups - Ax + SQ and FuOH + SQ- were also run. Cells treated with Ax, FuOH, SQ, Ax + SQ and FuOH + SQ were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and lipid hydroperoxides were estimated. Results showed that 5 μM Ax, 2 μM FuOH and 10 μM SQ supported cell survival. In presence of SQ, cell viability improved for higher concentrations of FuOH (5, 10 μM). Lipid hydroperoxides were supressed by Ax, FuOH, Ax + SQ and FUOH +SQ and were significantly lower in Ax + SQ, indicating the synergistic effect of Ax and SQ. To conclude, combination of Ax with SQ enhances its ability to supress lipid peroxidation while with FuOH, SQ attenuates the toxic effect at higher doses. Moreover, this is the first time that the combined effect of SQ and carotenoids has been studied and reported. PMID:27413244

  15. Multiple Antenatal Dexamethasone Treatment Alters Brain Vessel Differentiation in Newborn Mouse Pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Winfried; Schlundt, Marian; Fehrholz, Markus; Ehrke, Alexander; Kunzmann, Steffen; Liebner, Stefan; Speer, Christian P; Förster, Carola Y

    2015-01-01

    Antenatal steroid treatment decreases morbidity and mortality in premature infants through the maturation of lung tissue, which enables sufficient breathing performance. However, clinical and animal studies have shown that repeated doses of glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone and betamethasone lead to long-term adverse effects on brain development. Therefore, we established a mouse model for antenatal dexamethasone treatment to investigate the effects of dexamethasone on brain vessel differentiation towards the blood-brain barrier (BBB) phenotype, focusing on molecular marker analysis. The major findings were that in total brains on postnatal day (PN) 4 triple antenatal dexamethasone treatment significantly downregulated the tight junction protein claudin-5, the endothelial marker Pecam-1/CD31, the glucocorticoid receptor, the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and Abc transporters (Abcb1a, Abcg2 Abcc4). Less pronounced effects were found after single antenatal dexamethasone treatment and in PN10 samples. Comparisons of total brain samples with isolated brain endothelial cells together with the stainings for Pecam-1/CD31 and claudin-5 led to the assumption that the morphology of brain vessels is affected by antenatal dexamethasone treatment at PN4. On the mRNA level markers for angiogenesis, the sonic hedgehog and the Wnt pathway were downregulated in PN4 samples, suggesting fundamental changes in brain vascularization and/or differentiation. In conclusion, we provided a first comprehensive molecular basis for the adverse effects of multiple antenatal dexamethasone treatment on brain vessel differentiation. PMID:26274818

  16. Multiple Antenatal Dexamethasone Treatment Alters Brain Vessel Differentiation in Newborn Mouse Pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Neuhaus

    Full Text Available Antenatal steroid treatment decreases morbidity and mortality in premature infants through the maturation of lung tissue, which enables sufficient breathing performance. However, clinical and animal studies have shown that repeated doses of glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone and betamethasone lead to long-term adverse effects on brain development. Therefore, we established a mouse model for antenatal dexamethasone treatment to investigate the effects of dexamethasone on brain vessel differentiation towards the blood-brain barrier (BBB phenotype, focusing on molecular marker analysis. The major findings were that in total brains on postnatal day (PN 4 triple antenatal dexamethasone treatment significantly downregulated the tight junction protein claudin-5, the endothelial marker Pecam-1/CD31, the glucocorticoid receptor, the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and Abc transporters (Abcb1a, Abcg2 Abcc4. Less pronounced effects were found after single antenatal dexamethasone treatment and in PN10 samples. Comparisons of total brain samples with isolated brain endothelial cells together with the stainings for Pecam-1/CD31 and claudin-5 led to the assumption that the morphology of brain vessels is affected by antenatal dexamethasone treatment at PN4. On the mRNA level markers for angiogenesis, the sonic hedgehog and the Wnt pathway were downregulated in PN4 samples, suggesting fundamental changes in brain vascularization and/or differentiation. In conclusion, we provided a first comprehensive molecular basis for the adverse effects of multiple antenatal dexamethasone treatment on brain vessel differentiation.

  17. Alteration of myocardial metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake after treatment of phaeochromocytoma and neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Ogasawara, Nobuhiko; Ariga, Misako; Motoyama, Kazumi; Hara, Akiko; Kume, Norihiko; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    The relationships between changes in myocardial uptake of metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and those in circulating catecholamines and cardiac function after treatment of phaeochromocytoma and neuroblastoma were evaluated. Iodine-123 or iodine-131 MIBG scintigraphy was performed before and after surgical resection and/or chemotherapy for primary tumours in nine patients with phaeochromocytoma and 13 patients with neuroblastoma. Changes in myocardial MIBG uptake after treatment were estimated by the heart-to-upper mediastinum (H/M) uptake ratios on the images obtained 24 h after MIBG injection, which were compared with serum levels of noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A). Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography, with measurements of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Before treatment, eight patients with phaeochromocytoma and three with neuroblastoma showed poor myocardial MIBG uptake, with highly elevated circulating NA and A. Echocardiography, however, did not show cardiac dysfunction in these patients with the exception of two patients with phaeochromocytoma. With normalization of NA and A levels after treatment, all of these patients except for the two with persistent cardiac dysfunction showed restoration of myocardial MIBG uptake. The H/M ratios increased significantly after treatment in both patient groups, i.e. with phaeochromocytoma and with neuroblastoma (P<0.0001 and P<0.05, respectively), and these ratios correlated inversely with circulating NA and A before and after treatment. By contrast, there was no significant correlation between H/M ratios and LVEF in these two groups. These results indicate that suppression of myocardial MIBG uptake usually may not be related to cardiac dysfunction and may be reversible following normalization of excess catecholamine levels after treatment in patients with neuroadrenergic tumours. However, the suppression may persist in the presence of catecholamine-induced cardiac dysfunction. The assessment

  18. Effects of in vitro UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment on membrane fatty acids and activities of antioxidant enzymes in human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human Keratinocytes (NCTC 2544) in culture were exposed to either plain ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation or to 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA (PUVA) treatment. Lipid peroxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and percentage amounts of 14C-arachidonic acid in various cellular lipid subclasses and in the culture medium were measured. Both UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment induced significant changes in the distribution of arachidonic acid and increased the liberation of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. At 24 h after either UVA irradiation or PUVA treatment the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive material was significantly increased, whereas the amount of conjugated dienes was unaffected. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase, were already significantly decreased at 0.5 h after UVA irradiation or PUVA treatment. The enzyme activities were partially restored during the following 24 h incubation. From the present study, we suggest that in keratinocytes both plain UVA irradiation and PUVA treatment induce changes in the distribution of membrane fatty acids and cause an impairment in the enzymic defense system against oxidative stress

  19. Phosphorus availability from the solid fraction of pig slurry is altered by composting or thermal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christel, Wibke; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    The alteration of easily available phosphorus (P) from the separated solid fraction of pig slurry by composting and thermal processing (pyrolysis or combustion at 300-1000. °C) was investigated by water and acidic extractions and the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Temporal...... changes in P availability were monitored by repeated DGT application in three amended temperate soils over 16. weeks. P availability was found to decrease in the order: drying. >. composting. >. pyrolysis. >. combustion with increasing degree of processing. Water extractions suggested that no P would...... be available after pyrolysis above 700. °C or combustion above 400. °C, respectively, but during soil incubation, even char and ash, processed at 800. °C, increased P availability. Low-temperature pyrolysis vs. combustion was found to favor P availability as did application to acidic vs. neutral soil...

  20. The responsive amygdala: treatment-induced alterations in functional connectivity in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, L E; Pielech, M; Erpelding, N; Linnman, C; Moulton, E; Sava, S; Lebel, A; Serrano, P; Sethna, N; Berde, C; Becerra, L; Borsook, D

    2014-09-01

    The amygdala is a key brain region with efferent and afferent neural connections that involve complex behaviors such as pain, reward, fear, and anxiety. This study evaluated resting state functional connectivity of the amygdala with cortical and subcortical regions in a group of chronic pain patients (pediatric complex regional pain syndrome) with age-sex matched control subjects before and after intensive physical-biobehavioral pain treatment. Our main findings include (1) enhanced functional connectivity from the amygdala to multiple cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions in patients compared with control subjects, with differences predominantly in the left amygdala in the pretreated condition (disease state); (2) dampened hyperconnectivity from the left amygdala to the motor cortex, parietal lobe, and cingulate cortex after intensive pain rehabilitation treatment within patients with nominal differences observed among healthy control subjects from time 1 to time 2 (treatment effects); (3) functional connectivity to several regions key to fear circuitry (prefrontal cortex, bilateral middle temporal lobe, bilateral cingulate, hippocampus) correlated with higher pain-related fear scores; and (4) decreases in pain-related fear associated with decreased connectivity between the amygdala and the motor and somatosensory cortex, cingulate, and frontal areas. Our data suggest that there are rapid changes in amygdala connectivity after an aggressive treatment program in children with chronic pain and intrinsic amygdala functional connectivity activity serving as a potential indicator of treatment response. PMID:24861582

  1. Metagenomic analyses of alcohol induced pathogenic alterations in the intestinal microbiome and the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Bull-Otterson

    Full Text Available Enteric dysbiosis plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD. Detailed characterization of the alterations in the gut microbiome is needed for understanding their pathogenic role in ALD and developing effective therapeutic approaches using probiotic supplementation. Mice were fed liquid Lieber-DeCarli diet without or with alcohol (5% v/v for 6 weeks. A subset of mice were administered the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG from 6 to 8 weeks. Indicators of intestinal permeability, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and injury were evaluated. Metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiome was performed by analyzing the fecal DNA by amplification of the V3-V5 regions of the 16S rRNA gene and large-scale parallel pyrosequencing on the 454 FLX Titanium platform. Chronic ethanol feeding caused a decline in the abundance of both Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla, with a proportional increase in the gram negative Proteobacteria and gram positive Actinobacteria phyla; the bacterial genera that showed the biggest expansion were the gram negative alkaline tolerant Alcaligenes and gram positive Corynebacterium. Commensurate with the qualitative and quantitative alterations in the microbiome, ethanol caused an increase in plasma endotoxin, fecal pH, hepatic inflammation and injury. Notably, the ethanol-induced pathogenic changes in the microbiome and the liver were prevented by LGG supplementation. Overall, significant alterations in the gut microbiome over time occur in response to chronic alcohol exposure and correspond to increases in intestinal barrier dysfunction and development of ALD. Moreover, the altered bacterial communities of the gut may serve as significant therapeutic target for the prevention/treatment of chronic alcohol intake induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and liver disease.

  2. Curcumin treatment alters ERK-1/2 signaling in vitro and inhibits nasopharyngeal carcinoma proliferation in mouse xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi-Qiang; Wu, Xian-Bo; Tang, Song-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, a plant phenol, has been used for centuries in traditional medicines for its anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic properties. The compound is believed to act on a range of proteins involved in cell cycle regulation. In this study, the effect of curcumin on ERK-1/2 pathway protein expression and on proliferation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells was investigated. CNE-2Z nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells were cultured with 10, 20, 40, or 80 μM curcumin for 24 h before proliferation was assessed by MTT colorimetry. Cell proliferation was increasingly inhibited as the concentration of curcumin increased (PERK-1/2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 was altered following curcumin treatment, also in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of p-ERK-1/2 and MMP-9 decreased, while expression of TIMP-1 increased (PERK-1/2 signaling pathway. Therefore, curcumin warrants further investigation as a potential treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer.

  3. Losartan Treatment Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells and Alters Scleral Remodeling in Experimental Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry A Quigley

    Full Text Available To determine if oral losartan treatment decreases the retinal ganglion cell (RGC death caused by experimental intraocular pressure (IOP elevation in mice.We produced IOP increase in CD1 mice and performed unilateral optic nerve crush. Mice received oral losartan, spironolactone, enalapril, or no drug to test effects of inhibiting angiotensin receptors. IOP was monitored by Tonolab, and blood pressure was monitored by tail cuff device. RGC loss was measured in masked axon counts and RGC bodies by β-tubulin labeling. Scleral changes that could modulate RGC injury were measured including axial length, scleral thickness, and retinal layer thicknesses, pressure-strain behavior in inflation testing, and study of angiotensin receptors and pathways by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry.Losartan treatment prevented significant RGC loss (median loss = 2.5%, p = 0.13, while median loss with water, spironolactone, and enalapril treatments were 26%, 28% and 43%; p < 0.0001. The lower RGC loss with losartan was significantly less than the loss with spironolactone or enalapril (regression model p = 0.001; drug treatment group term p = 0.01. Both losartan and enalapril significantly lowered blood pressure (p< 0.001, but losartan was protective, while enalapril led to worse than water-treated RGC loss. RGC loss after crush injury was unaffected by losartan treatment (difference from control p = 0.9. Survival of RGC in cell culture was not prolonged by sartan treatment. Axonal transport blockade after 3 day IOP elevations was less in losartan-treated than in control glaucoma eyes (p = 0.007. Losartan inhibited effects of glaucoma, including reduction in extracellular signal-related kinase activity and modification of glaucoma-related changes in scleral thickness and creep under controlled IOP.The neuroprotective effect of losartan in mouse glaucoma is associated with adaptive changes in the sclera expressed at

  4. [DOXORUBICIN-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN PRO-AND ANTIOXIDANT BALANCE AND THEIR CORRECTION BY CURCUMIN IN THE NEONATAL RAT CARDIOMYOCYTES CULTURE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnik, O O; Drevytska, T I; Gonchar, O O; Chornyy, S A; Kovalyov, O M; Mankovska, I M

    2015-01-01

    It was studied the effect of doxorubicin on the HIF system and the pro-antioxidant balance of neonatal cardiomyocytes as well as the possibility of the oxidative stress correcting using curcumin. It has been revealed that the expression of mRNA HIF-1α using doxorubicin at a dose of 0.5 μM was 2.9 ± 0.8 cu, so it decreased by 20% compared to control--3.6 ± 0.7 cu (P level of expression of the HIF target gene PDK-1 also significantly decreased (4 times). During the incubation with doxorubicin, the number of live cells decreased by 50.4% relative to control. And after using doxorubicin and curcumin together, the percentage of dead cells decreased by 7,7 compared to doxorubicin only. Doxorubicin intoxication led to a significant increase in the secondary products of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in cardiomyocytes by 3.6 times and hydrogen peroxide by 64%. Prolonged incubation with doxorubicin reduced the enzymatic activity of Mn-SOD by 32%, while catalase activity increased by 72% compared to control. Adding of curcumin to the cardiomyocyte cell culture contributed to increasing of the Mn-SOD activity by 14%, catalase--by 23%. The level of TBARS increased by 1,4 times compared with the control, and the level of H2O2 increased by 20%. The joint use of doxorubicin and curcumin resulted in a significant reduction of free radical oxidation unlike effect of doxorubicin per se. Specifically, there was lessening of TBARS and H2O2 (at 56.7 and 18.4% respectively), while decreasing of the catalase hyperactivation (19%) and rising of the Mn-SOD activity (35%). PMID:26845849

  5. Inhibition of DNA virus: Herpes-1 (HSV-1) in cellular culture replication, through an antioxidant treatment extracted from rosemary spice

    OpenAIRE

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini; Rosângela Pavan Torres; José Ricardo Pinto; Jorge Mancini-Filho

    2009-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate antiviral properties in antioxidants from spices. Phenolic compounds extracted from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinallis, L) by hot water, had their antioxidant activity determined by spectrophotometry using β carotene/linoleic acid system. The rosemary extract was evaluated by antiviral assay of Herpes Virus type-1 (HSV-1) replication in VERO cells, in the presence or absence of the spice. 10,000 TCID50/mL of the HSV-1 was kept for 3 h at 4º C, with 300 ppm of r...

  6. Caffeic acid treatment alters the extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis in platelets and lymphocytes of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Javed; Spanevello, Roselia Maria; Pimentel, Victor Camera; Gutierres, Jessié; Thomé, Gustavo; Cardoso, Andreia; Zanini, Daniela; Martins, Caroline; Palma, Heloisa Einloft; Bagatini, Margarete Dulce; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Schmatz, Roberta; Leal, Cláudio Alberto Martins; da Costa, Pauline; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of caffeic acid on ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase (nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase), Ecto-NPP (nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase), 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) in platelets and lymphocytes of rats, as well as in the profile of platelet aggregation. Animals were divided into five groups: I (control); II (oil); III (caffeic acid 10 mg/kg); IV (caffeic acid 50 mg/kg); and V (caffeic acid 100 mg/kg). Animals were treated with caffeic acid diluted in oil for 30 days. In platelets, caffeic acid decreased the ATP hydrolysis and increased ADP hydrolysis in groups III, IV and V when compared to control (P<0.05). The 5'-nucleotidase activity was decreased, while E-NPP and ADA activities were increased in platelets of rats of groups III, IV and V (P<0.05). Caffeic acid reduced significantly the platelet aggregation in the animals of groups III, IV and V in relation to group I (P<0.05). In lymphocytes, the NTPDase and ADA activities were increased in all groups treated with caffeic acid when compared to control (P<0.05). These findings demonstrated that the enzymes were altered in tissues by caffeic acid and this compound decreased the platelet aggregation suggesting that caffeic acid should be considered a potentially therapeutic agent in disorders related to the purinergic system.

  7. Changes at an activated sludge sewage treatment plant alter the numbers of airborne aerobic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Nadeesha L; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2005-11-01

    In 1976, the activated sludge sewage treatment plant in Edmonton, Canada, was surveyed to determine the numbers of culturable airborne microorganisms. Many changes have been made at the plant to reduce odors and improve treatment efficiency, so in 2004 another survey was done to determine if these changes had reduced the bioaerosols. Covering the grit tanks and primary settling tanks greatly reduced the numbers of airborne microbes. Changing the design and operation of indoor automated sampling taps and sinks also reduced bioaerosols. The secondary was expanded and converted from a conventional activated sludge process using coarse bubble aeration to a biological nutrient removal system using fine bubble aeration. Although the surface area of the secondary more than doubled, the average number of airborne microorganisms in this part of the plant in 2004 was about 1% of that in 1976.

  8. Tyrosinemia type I and not treatment with NTBC causes slower learning and altered behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillgartner, Megan A; Coker, Sarah B; Koenig, Ashton E; Moore, Marissa E; Barnby, Elizabeth; MacGregor, Gordon G

    2016-09-01

    Tyrosinemia type I is a recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) gene, coding for the final enzyme in the metabolism of tyrosine. This renders FAH nonfunctional and without treatment, toxic metabolites accumulate causing liver and kidney damage. Introduction of the drug NTBC in 2002 offered a treatment which inhibits an upstream enzyme, preventing the production of the toxic metabolites. There is now a long-term survival rate of greater than 90 % in children, but there are reports of lower cognitive function and IQ as well as schooling and behavioral problems in these children. We studied a mouse model of tyrosinemia type I to gain insight into the effects of tyrosinemia type I and treatment with NTBC on mouse learning, memory, and behavior. In the Barnes maze, visual and spatial cues can be used by mice to remember the location of a dark escape box. The primary time, distance, and strategy taken by the mice to locate the escape box is a measure of learning and memory. Our findings show that mice with tyrosinemia type I were slower to learn than wild-type mice treated with NTBC and made more mistakes, but were capable of learning and storing long-term memory. After learning the location of the target hole, mice with tyrosinemia type I respond differently to a change in location and were less flexible in learning the new target hole location. Our findings suggest that this slower learning and cognitive difference is caused by tyrosinemia type I and not by the treatment with NTBC. PMID:27271696

  9. The Responsive Amygdala: Treatment-induced Alterations in Functional Connectivity in Pediatric Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, LE; Pielech, M; Erpelding, N; Linnman, C; Moulton, E; Sava, S; Lebel, A.; Serrano, P.; Sethna, N; Berde, C; Becerra, L.; Borsook, D.

    2014-01-01

    The amygdala is a key brain region with efferent and afferent neural connections that involve complex behaviors such as pain, reward, fear and anxiety. This study evaluated resting state functional connectivity of the amygdala with cortical and subcortical regions in a group of chronic pain patients (pediatric complex regional pain syndrome) with age-gender matched controls before and after intensive physical-biobehavioral pain treatment. Our main findings include (1) enhanced ...

  10. Anthelmintic treatment alters the parasite community in a wild mouse host

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Amy B.; Antonovics, Janis

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are often co-infected with several parasite species, yet the consequences of drug treatment on the dynamics of parasite communities in wild populations have rarely been measured. Here, we experimentally reduced nematode infection in a wild mouse population and measured the effects on other non-target parasites. A single oral dose of the anthelmintic, ivermectin, significantly reduced nematode infection, but resulted in a reciprocal increase in other gastrointestinal parasites, spe...

  11. Altered Sexuality and Body Image after Gynecological Cancer Treatment: How Can Psychologists Help?

    OpenAIRE

    Sacerdoti, Rebecca Caldwell; Lagana’, Luciana; Koopman, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Once medical treatment for gynecological cancer is completed, what happens to patients’ sexuality and body image? Due to the delicate nature of the cancer site, treating this cancer typically affects sexual functioning and body image adversely, making it critical to identify the concerns of these patients and do so in a manner less restrictive than paper-and-pencil assessment. To gain a deeper understanding of the phenomenological experiences in question, we interviewed nine gynecological can...

  12. Metabolic Alterations of the Zebrafish Brain after Acute Alcohol Treatment by 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Cheol Woo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the metabolic alterations associated with acute alcohol treatment in zebrafish by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS. The brain metabolism of zebrafish was investigated after acute alcohol treatment (one-hour long exposure of adult fish to 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, or 1.00% ethyl alcohol with whole brain extraction. The results of this study showed that glutamate (Glu was significantly decreased, scyllo-inositol (sIns showed a small apparent increase only in the highest acute treatment dose group, and myoinositol (mIns showed a significant decrease. [Glu]/[tCr] and [mIns]/[tCr] levels were significantly reduced regardless of the alcohol dose, and [sIns]/[tCr] was increased in the highest alcohol treatment dose group. The present NMR study revealed that specific metabolites, such as Glu and mIns, were substantially decreased in case of acute alcohol exposed zebrafish brain.

  13. Effect of E-beam treatment on the chemistry and on the antioxidant activity of lycopene from dry tomato peel and tomato powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, M Carmen; Calvo, Marta M; Selgas, M Dolores; García, M Luisa; Erler, Katrin; Böhm, Volker; Catalano, Assunta; Simone, Rossella; Palozza, Paola

    2014-02-19

    Tomato powder (TP) and dry tomato peel (DTP) have been previously used in our laboratory as a source of lycopene to manufacture meat products ready-to-eat (RTE) submitted to E-beam irradiation with good technological and sensory results. Present work describes the studies performed in order to investigate the effect of radiation on chemical changes and antioxidant properties of lycopene. DTP and TP were irradiated (4 kGy). Changes on lycopene were analyzed by HPLC; inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS), possible modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) cascade, nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NP-κB) activation and expression of proteins involved in oxidation stress were analyzed in RAT-1 fibroblasts cell culture. Radiation reduced the content of all-E-lycopene and increased (Z)-lycopene, lycopene isomerization, and degradation being higher in DTP than in TP. E-Beam treatment increased the antioxidant ability of both DTP and TP in inhibiting spontaneous and H2O2-induced oxidative stress in cultured fibroblasts. Antioxidant activity was higher in DTP than in TP samples.

  14. Efficacy and safety evaluation of pentoxifylline associated with other antioxidants in medical treatment of Peyronie's disease: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulis G

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gianni Paulis,1,2 Davide Barletta,3 Paolo Turchi,4 Antonio Vitarelli,5 Giuseppe Dachille,6 Andrea Fabiani,7 Romano Gennaro8 1Regina Apostolorum Hospital, Andrology Center, Albano L, 2Castelfidardo Medical Team, Peyronie's Disease Care Center, Rome, 3Department of Urology, Andrology Center, San Matteo Hospital, Pavia, 4Azienda ASL 4 Prato – Andrology Service, Prato, 5Department of Urology, University of Bari, 6Department of Urology, S Giacomo Hospital, Monopoli, Bari, 7Department of Surgery, Section of Urology and Andrology, Macerata, 8Department of Urologic Oncology, Section of Avellino, Italian League Against Cancer, Avellino, Italy Abstract: Peyronie's disease (PD is a chronic disorder involving the tunica albuginea surrounding the corpora cavernosa of the penis. A conservative treatment is indicated in the first stage of disease. The aim of this study was to assess the therapeutic impact and possible side effects of treatment with pentoxifylline (PTX in combination with other antioxidants in 307 patients with early-stage PD. Patients were subdivided into three groups: A, B, and C. Both groups, A and B, comprising of 206 patients, underwent treatment, whereas Group C was the control group (n=101. Treatment lasted 6 months and included the following: Group A: PTX 400 mg twice a day + propolis 600 mg/d + blueberry 160 mg/d + vitamin E 600 mg/d + diclofenac 4% gel twice/a day + PTX 100 mg via perilesional penile injection/every other week (12 injections in all; Group B: the same treatment as Group A except for the penile PTX injections. After the 6-month treatment course, we obtained the following results: actual mean decrease in plaque volume -46.9% and -24.8% in Group A and B, respectively (P<0.0001; mean curvature reduction -10.1° and -4.8°, respectively (P<0.0001; resolution of pain in 67.6% and 67.2% of cases, respectively (P=0.961; recovery of normal penile rigidity in 56.09% and 23.5% of cases, respectively (P=0.005. After 6 months

  15. Effects of conservation treatment and cooking on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Portuguese wild edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Lillian; Baptista, Paula; Correia, Daniela M; Morais, Jorge Sá; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2007-06-13

    The effects of processing and cooking practices on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Portuguese wild edible mushroom species (Lactarius deliciosus, Macrolepiota mastoidea, Macrolepiota procera, and Sarcodon imbricatus) were investigated. Dried, frozen, and cooked samples were analyzed for proximate constituents (moisture, fat, crude protein, ash, and carbohydrates) and nutritional value. Fatty acid and sugar profiles were also obtained by gas-liquid chromatography/flame ionization detection and high-performance liquid chromatography/refraction index, respectively. The antioxidant properties were evaluated by several biochemical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity, reducing power, inhibition of beta-carotene bleaching, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in brain tissue using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results of this study show that mushroom species and processing and cooking practices are all effective determinants for either chemical composition or antioxidant properties. Cooked samples proved to have lower nutrient concentrations and lower antioxidant activities than either dried or frozen samples. In what concerns fatty acids and sugar individual profiles, only cooking proved to be relevant: The cooked samples presented higher monounsaturated fatty acid and lower polyunsaturated fatty acid and sugars contents.

  16. Dimethyl fumarate modulates antioxidant and lipid metabolism in oligodendrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress contributes to pathology associated with inflammatory brain disorders and therapies that upregulate antioxidant pathways may be neuroprotective in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Dimethyl fumarate, a small molecule therapeutic for multiple sclerosis, activates cellular antioxidant signaling pathways and may promote myelin preservation. However, it is still unclear what mechanisms may underlie this neuroprotection and whether dimethyl fumarate affects oligodendrocyte responses to oxidative stress. Here, we examine metabolic alterations in oligodendrocytes treated with dimethyl fumarate by using a global metabolomic platform that employs both hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and shotgun lipidomics. Prolonged treatment of oligodendrocytes with dimethyl fumarate induces changes in citric acid cycle intermediates, glutathione, and lipids, indicating that this compound can directly impact oligodendrocyte metabolism. These metabolic alterations are also associated with protection from oxidant challenge. This study provides insight into the mechanisms by which dimethyl fumarate could preserve myelin integrity in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  17. Antioxidant therapy for chronic hepatitis C after failure of interferon: Results of phase Ⅱ randomized, double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety and efficacy of antioxidant therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: One hundred chronic HCV infection patients failed in interferon treatment were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive combined intravenous and oral antioxidants or placebo, or oral treatment alone. Primary end points were liver enzymes, HCV-RNA levels and histology. RESULTS: Combined oral and intravenous antioxidant therapy was associated with a significant decline in ALT levels in 52% of patients who received antioxidant therapy vs 20% of patients who received placebo (P = 0.05). Histology activity index (HAI) score at the end of treatment was reduced in 48% of patients who received antioxidant therapy vs 26% of patients who received placebo (P = 0.21). HCV-RNA levels decreased by 1-log or more in 28% of patients who received antioxidant therapy vs 12% who received placebo (P = NS). In part Ⅱ of the trial, oral administration of antioxidants was not associated with significant alterations in any of the end points. CONCLUSION: Antioxidant therapy has a mild beneficial effect on the inflammatory response of chronic HCV infection patients who are non-responders to interferon. Combined antiviral and antioxidant therapy may be beneficial for these patients.

  18. Adolescent methylphenidate treatment differentially alters adult impulsivity and hyperactivity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat model of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuwar, S S; Kantak, K M; Bardo, M T; Dwoskin, L P

    2016-02-01

    Impulsivity and hyperactivity are two facets of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Impulsivity is expressed as reduced response inhibition capacity, an executive control mechanism that prevents premature execution of an intermittently reinforced behavior. During methylphenidate treatment, impulsivity and hyperactivity are decreased in adolescents with ADHD, but there is little information concerning levels of impulsivity and hyperactivity in adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment is discontinued. The current study evaluated impulsivity, hyperactivity as well as cocaine sensitization during adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment was discontinued in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Treatments consisted of oral methylphenidate (1.5mg/kg) or water vehicle provided Monday-Friday from postnatal days 28-55. During adulthood, impulsivity was measured in SHR and control strains (Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats) using differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) schedules. Locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization were measured using the open-field assay. Adult SHR exhibited decreased efficiency of reinforcement under the DRL30 schedule and greater levels of locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization compared to control strains. Compared to vehicle, methylphenidate treatment during adolescence reduced hyperactivity in adult SHR, maintained the lower efficiency of reinforcement, and increased burst responding under DRL30. Cocaine sensitization was not altered following adolescent methylphenidate in adult SHR. In conclusion, adolescent treatment with methylphenidate followed by discontinuation in adulthood had a positive benefit by reducing hyperactivity in adult SHR rats; however, increased burst responding under DRL compared to SHR given vehicle, i.e., elevated impulsivity, constituted an adverse consequence associated with increased risk for cocaine abuse liability.

  19. Alterations in leukocyte transcriptional control pathway activity associated with major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, S H; Wolkowitz, O M; Schonemann, M D; Epel, E S; Rosser, R; Burke, H B; Mahan, L; Reus, V I; Stamatiou, D; Liew, C-C; Cole, S W

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a significantly elevated risk of developing serious medical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, immune impairments, infection, dementia and premature death. Previous work has demonstrated immune dysregulation in subjects with MDD. Using genome-wide transcriptional profiling and promoter-based bioinformatic strategies, we assessed leukocyte transcription factor (TF) activity in leukocytes from 20 unmedicated MDD subjects versus 20 age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls, before initiation of antidepressant therapy, and in 17 of the MDD subjects after 8 weeks of sertraline treatment. In leukocytes from unmedicated MDD subjects, bioinformatic analysis of transcription control pathway activity indicated an increased transcriptional activity of cAMP response element-binding/activating TF (CREB/ATF) and increased activity of TFs associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2, NFE2l2 or NRF2). Eight weeks of antidepressant therapy was associated with significant reductions in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores and reduced activity of NRF2, but not in CREB/ATF activity. Several other transcriptional regulation pathways, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB), early growth response proteins 1-4 (EGR1-4) and interferon-responsive TFs, showed either no significant differences as a function of disease or treatment, or activities that were opposite to those previously hypothesized to be involved in the etiology of MDD or effective treatment. Our results suggest that CREB/ATF and NRF2 signaling may contribute to MDD by activating immune cell transcriptome dynamics that ultimately influence central nervous system (CNS) motivational and affective processes via circulating mediators. PMID:27219347

  20. Alterations in leukocyte transcriptional control pathway activity associated with major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, S H; Wolkowitz, O M; Schonemann, M D; Epel, E S; Rosser, R; Burke, H B; Mahan, L; Reus, V I; Stamatiou, D; Liew, C -C; Cole, S W

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a significantly elevated risk of developing serious medical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, immune impairments, infection, dementia and premature death. Previous work has demonstrated immune dysregulation in subjects with MDD. Using genome-wide transcriptional profiling and promoter-based bioinformatic strategies, we assessed leukocyte transcription factor (TF) activity in leukocytes from 20 unmedicated MDD subjects versus 20 age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls, before initiation of antidepressant therapy, and in 17 of the MDD subjects after 8 weeks of sertraline treatment. In leukocytes from unmedicated MDD subjects, bioinformatic analysis of transcription control pathway activity indicated an increased transcriptional activity of cAMP response element-binding/activating TF (CREB/ATF) and increased activity of TFs associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2, NFE2l2 or NRF2). Eight weeks of antidepressant therapy was associated with significant reductions in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores and reduced activity of NRF2, but not in CREB/ATF activity. Several other transcriptional regulation pathways, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB), early growth response proteins 1–4 (EGR1–4) and interferon-responsive TFs, showed either no significant differences as a function of disease or treatment, or activities that were opposite to those previously hypothesized to be involved in the etiology of MDD or effective treatment. Our results suggest that CREB/ATF and NRF2 signaling may contribute to MDD by activating immune cell transcriptome dynamics that ultimately influence central nervous system (CNS) motivational and affective processes via circulating mediators. PMID:27187237

  1. Levels of serum immunomodulators and alterations with electroconvulsive therapy in treatment-resistant major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zincir, Serkan; Öztürk, Pelin; Bilgen, Ali Emrah; İzci, Filiz; Yükselir, Cihad

    2016-01-01

    Studies in recent years have indicated that neuroimmunological events and immune activation may have a place in the etiology of depression. It has been suggested from data that there is a causal relationship between activation of the immune system and excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and the etiology of depression. Although the mechanism of action of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is unclear, there is evidence that it can reduce cytokines and immune system changes. In our study, we aimed to determine how levels of serum immunomodulators were affected by ECT in major depression patients. This study was conducted on 50 patients with treatment-resistant major depression. The data of the patients were compared with 30 healthy individuals with similar demographic characteristics. A clinical response occurred in the patients and at the end of therapy, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-4, and interferon-gamma levels were measured. The disease severity was assessed with the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 15. Significant differences were determined between the patients with major depression and control group with respect to basal serum IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-4, and interferon-gamma levels. ECT treatment was shown to reduce these differences. ECT may cause significant changes in the activity of the immune system. The consideration of the relationship between the immune endocrine neurotransmitter systems could contribute to new theories regarding the mechanism of antidepressant treatment and biology of depression. PMID:27366071

  2. Anthelmintic treatment alters the parasite community in a wild mouse host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Amy B; Antonovics, Janis

    2013-08-23

    Individuals are often co-infected with several parasite species, yet the consequences of drug treatment on the dynamics of parasite communities in wild populations have rarely been measured. Here, we experimentally reduced nematode infection in a wild mouse population and measured the effects on other non-target parasites. A single oral dose of the anthelmintic, ivermectin, significantly reduced nematode infection, but resulted in a reciprocal increase in other gastrointestinal parasites, specifically coccidial protozoans and cestodes. These results highlight the possibility that drug therapy may have unintended consequences for non-target parasites and that host-parasite dynamics cannot always be fully understood in the framework of single host-parasite interactions.

  3. A systematic review of the effectiveness of treatments in altering the natural history of intermittent exotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Kerry E; Beyer, Fiona; Thomson, Richard G; Clarke, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    Evidence of effectiveness of interventions for treatment of childhood intermittent exotropia, X(T), is unclear. We conducted a systematic review to locate, appraise and synthesise evidence of effectiveness, including twelve electronic databases, supplemented with hand searches and expert contact. We included randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and cohort studies with a comparison group examining interventions for divergence excess, simulated divergence excess or basic type X(T) in children, up to and including 18 years of age, followed for at least 6 months. Dual data extraction and critical appraisal were conducted and a narrative synthesis undertaken. Eleven studies satisfied the eligibility criteria. Seven examined the comparative effectiveness of two surgical procedures; four compared surgery with other interventions, including botulinum toxin A therapy, orthoptic exercises, occlusion, binocular vision training and watchful waiting. The evidence retrieved was of limited extent and quality with differences across studies in terms of outcome assessment and most appropriate time-point for measuring long-term outcomes. There were mixed outcomes when comparing unilateral recession/resection (R&R) with bilateral lateral rectus recession (BLR) on improving angle of deviation, which makes it difficult to recommend either surgical option with confidence. While non-surgical interventions appear less effective in terms of improving angle of deviation, they are rarely associated with adverse outcomes. Given the limited evidence base, better designed studies are required to address the question of the most effective management for treatment of childhood X(T). Importantly, consensus is required on what constitutes a successful outcome as well as agreement on how this should be measured. PMID:25001323

  4. Alterations to prepulse inhibition magnitude and latency in adult rats following neonatal treatment with domoic acid and social isolation rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Amber L; Tasker, R Andrew; Ryan, Catherine L; Doucette, Tracy A

    2016-02-01

    Deficits in perceptual, informational, and attentional processing are consistently identified as a core feature in schizophrenia and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Neonatal injections of low doses of the AMPA/kainate agonist domoic acid (DOM) have previously been shown to alter various aspects of perceptual and attentional processing in adult rats. The current study investigated the effects of combined neonatal DOM treatment with isolation rearing on prepulse inhibition behaviour and relevant neurochemical measures, to assess the usefulness of these paradigms in modeling neurodevelopmental disorders. Daily subcutaneous injections of DOM (20 μg/kg) or saline were administered to male and female rat pups from postnatal days (PND) 8-14. After weaning, rats were either housed alone or in groups of 4. Both the magnitude and latency of prepulse inhibition were determined in adulthood (approximately 4.5 months of age) and post-mortem brain tissue was assayed using Western blot. Social isolation alone significantly lowered PPI magnitude in male (but not female) rats while DOM treatment appeared to make animals refractory to this effect. Combining social isolation and DOM treatment caused an additive decrease in PPI startle latency. No statistically significant differences were found in the expression of D1, D2, TH, GAD65 or GAD67 protein in either the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus, although some tendencies toward differences were noted. We conclude that both neonatal low-dose DOM and social isolation affect prepulse inhibition in rats but that each paradigm exerts these effects through different neuronal signalling systems.

  5. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented. PMID:26593569

  6. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  7. Risk of prenatal depression and stress treatment: alteration on serotonin system of offspring through exposure to Fluoxetine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Siran; Liu, Li; Zhong, Zhaomin; Wang, Han; Lin, Shuo; Shang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Fluoxetine is widely used to treat depression, including depression in pregnant and postpartum women. Studies suggest that fluoxetine may have adverse effects on offspring, presumably through its action on various serotonin receptors (HTRs). However, definitive evidence and the underlying mechanisms are largely unavailable. As initial steps towards establishing a human cellular and animal model, we analyzed the expression patterns of several HTRs through the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells into neuronal cells, and analyzed expression pattern in zebrafish embryos. Treatment of zebrafish embryos with fluoxetine significantly blocked the expression of multiple HTRs. Furthermore, fluoxetine gave rise to a change in neuropsychology. Embryos treated with fluoxetine continued to exhibit abnormal behavior upto 12 days post fertilization due to changes in HTRs. These findings support a possible long-term risk of serotonin pathway alteration, possibly resulting from the “placental drug transfer”. PMID:27703173

  8. Minocycline treatment inhibits microglial activation and alters spinal levels of endocannabinoids in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasti, Leonardo; Richardson, Denise; Jhaveri, Maulik; Eldeeb, Khalil; Barrett, David; Elphick, Maurice R; Alexander, Stephen P H; Kendall, David; Michael, Gregory J; Chapman, Victoria

    2009-07-01

    Activation of spinal microglia contributes to aberrant pain responses associated with neuropathic pain states. Endocannabinoids (ECs) are present in the spinal cord, and inhibit nociceptive processing; levels of ECs may be altered by microglia which modulate the turnover of endocannabinoids in vitro. Here, we investigate the effect of minocycline, an inhibitor of activated microglia, on levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and the related compound N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA), in neuropathic spinal cord. Selective spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats resulted in mechanical allodynia and the presence of activated microglia in the ipsilateral spinal cord. Chronic daily treatment with minocycline (30 mg/kg, ip for 14 days) significantly reduced the development of mechanical allodynia at days 5, 10 and 14 post-SNL surgery, compared to vehicle-treated SNL rats (P pain states.

  9. Minocycline treatment inhibits microglial activation and alters spinal levels of endocannabinoids in a rat model of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elphick Maurice R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Activation of spinal microglia contributes to aberrant pain responses associated with neuropathic pain states. Endocannabinoids (ECs are present in the spinal cord, and inhibit nociceptive processing; levels of ECs may be altered by microglia which modulate the turnover of endocannabinoids in vitro. Here, we investigate the effect of minocycline, an inhibitor of activated microglia, on levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, and the related compound N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA, in neuropathic spinal cord. Selective spinal nerve ligation (SNL in rats resulted in mechanical allodynia and the presence of activated microglia in the ipsilateral spinal cord. Chronic daily treatment with minocycline (30 mg/kg, ip for 14 days significantly reduced the development of mechanical allodynia at days 5, 10 and 14 post-SNL surgery, compared to vehicle-treated SNL rats (P P P P P

  10. Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healing-associated genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matt C Danzi; Dario Motti; Donna L Avison; John L Bixby; Vance P Lemmon

    2016-01-01

    Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regen-eration. Administration of post-surgical analgesics is an important consideration for animal welfare, but the actions of the analgesic must not interfere with the scientiifc goals of the experiment. In this study, we show that treatment with either buprenorphine or acetaminophen following a bilateral sciatic nerve crush surgery does not alter the expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons of a panel of genes associated with wound healing. These ifndings indicate that the post-operative use of buprenorphine or acetaminophen at doses commonly suggested by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees does not change the intrinsic gene expression response of DRG neurons to a sciatic nerve crush injury, for many wound healing-associated genes. Therefore, administration of post-operative analgesics may not confound the results of transcriptomic studies employing this injury model.

  11. Azithromycin treatment alters gene expression in inflammatory, lipid metabolism, and cell cycle pathways in well-differentiated human airway epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria P Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Prolonged macrolide antibiotic therapy at low doses improves clinical outcome in patients affected with diffuse panbronchiolitis and cystic fibrosis. Consensus is building that the therapeutic effects are due to anti-inflammatory, rather than anti-microbial activities, but the mode of action is likely complex. To gain insights into how the macrolide azithromycin (AZT modulates inflammatory responses in airways, well-differentiated primary cultures of human airway epithelia were exposed to AZT alone, an inflammatory stimulus consisting of soluble factors from cystic fibrosis airways, or AZT followed by the inflammatory stimulus. RNA microarrays were conducted to identify global and specific gene expression changes. Analysis of gene expression changes revealed that the AZT treatment alone altered the gene profile of the cells, primarily by significantly increasing the expression of lipid/cholesterol genes and decreasing the expression of cell cycle/mitosis genes. The increase in cholesterol biosynthetic genes was confirmed by increased filipin staining, an index of free cholesterol, after AZT treatment. AZT also affected genes with inflammatory annotations, but the effect was variable (both up- and down-regulation and gene specific. AZT pretreatment prevented the up-regulation of some genes, such as MUC5AC and MMP9, triggered by the inflammatory stimulus, but the up-regulation of other inflammatory genes, e.g., cytokines and chemokines, such as interleukin-8, was not affected. On the other hand, HLA genes were increased by AZT. Notably, secreted IL-8 protein levels did not reflect mRNA levels, and were, in fact, higher after AZT pretreatment in cultures exposed to the inflammatory stimulus, suggesting that AZT can affect inflammatory pathways other than by altering gene expression. These findings suggest that the specific effects of AZT on inflamed and non-inflamed airway epithelia are likely relevant to its clinical activity, and their apparent

  12. Annual glyphosate treatments alter growth of unaffected bentgrass (Agrostis) weeds and plant community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Collin W; Auer, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB) and redtop (RT), where the glyphosate resistance (GR) trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate application. Five field plots were studied in habitats commonly inhabited by weedy bentgrasses including an agricultural hayfield, natural meadow, and wasteland. Results showed that annual glyphosate treatment improved bentgrass survivorship, vegetative growth, and reproductive potential compared with bentgrass in unsprayed subplots. In the second year of growth, RT plants had an 86-fold increase in flower number in glyphosate-treated subplots versus controls, while CB plants had a 20-fold increase. At the end of the three year study, plant community composition had changed in glyphosate-treated subplots in hayfield and meadow plots compared to controls. Soils in subplots receiving glyphosate had higher nitrate concentrations than controls. This is the first study to mimic the GR trait in bentgrass plants with the goal of quantifying bentgrass response to glyphosate selection pressure and understanding the impacts on surrounding plant communities.

  13. Annual glyphosate treatments alter growth of unaffected bentgrass (Agrostis weeds and plant community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin W Ahrens

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB and redtop (RT, where the glyphosate resistance (GR trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate application. Five field plots were studied in habitats commonly inhabited by weedy bentgrasses including an agricultural hayfield, natural meadow, and wasteland. Results showed that annual glyphosate treatment improved bentgrass survivorship, vegetative growth, and reproductive potential compared with bentgrass in unsprayed subplots. In the second year of growth, RT plants had an 86-fold increase in flower number in glyphosate-treated subplots versus controls, while CB plants had a 20-fold increase. At the end of the three year study, plant community composition had changed in glyphosate-treated subplots in hayfield and meadow plots compared to controls. Soils in subplots receiving glyphosate had higher nitrate concentrations than controls. This is the first study to mimic the GR trait in bentgrass plants with the goal of quantifying bentgrass response to glyphosate selection pressure and understanding the impacts on surrounding plant communities.

  14. Treatment of Chronic Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis with Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate and Glatiramer Acetate Alters Expression of Heme-Oxygenase-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Janssen

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG synergizes with the immunomodulatory agent glatiramer acetate (GA in eliciting anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in the relapsing-remitting EAE model. Thus, we hypothesized that mice with chronic EAE may also benefit from this combination therapy. We first assessed how a treatment with a single dose of GA together with daily application of EGCG may modulate EAE. Although single therapies with a suboptimal dose of GA or EGCG led to disease amelioration and reduced CNS inflammation, the combination therapy had no effects. While EGCG appeared to preserve axons and myelin, the single GA dose did not improve axonal damage or demyelination. Interestingly, the neuroprotective effect of EGCG was abolished when GA was applied in combination. To elucidate how a single dose of GA may interfere with EGCG, we focused on the anti-inflammatory, iron chelating and anti-oxidant properties of EGCG. Surprisingly, we observed that while EGCG induced a downregulation of the gene expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 in affected CNS areas, the combined therapy of GA+EGCG seems to promote an increased HO-1 expression. These data suggest that upregulation of HO-1 may contribute to diminish the neuroprotective benefits of EGCG alone in this EAE model. Altogether, our data indicate that neuroprotection by EGCG in chronic EAE may involve regulation of oxidative processes, including downmodulation of HO-1. Further investigation of the re-dox balance in chronic neuroinflammation and in particular functional studies on HO-1 are warranted to understand its role in disease progression.

  15. Combined treatment with antioxidants and immunosuppressants on cytokine release by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells - chemically injured keratocyte reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Kayoung; Chung, Tae Young; Hyon, Joon Young; Koh, Jae Woong; Wee, Won Ryang; Shin, Young Joo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of antioxidants and immunosuppresants on mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) - chemically injured keratocytes reaction (MLKR). Methods The PBMC stimulation assay was performed using chemically injured keratocytes treated with 0.05 N NaOH for 90 s (MLKR). MLKR were treated with various drugs including rapamycin, dexamethasone, mycophenoleic acid (MPA), alpha lipoic acid (ALA), and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9), transform...

  16. Altered reproductive behaviours in male mosquitofish living downstream from a sewage treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaristo, Minna; Myers, Jackie; Jacques-Hamilton, Rowan; Allinson, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Allinson, Graeme; Pettigrove, Vincent; Wong, Bob B M

    2014-04-01

    Freshwater environments are common repositories for the discharge of large volumes of domestic and industrial waste, particularly through wastewater effluent. One common group of chemical pollutants present in wastewater are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which can induce morphological and behavioural changes in aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to compare the reproductive behaviour and morphology of a freshwater fish, the mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), collected from two sites (wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and a putative pristine site). The mosquitofish is a sexually dimorphic livebearer with a coercive mating system. Males inseminate females using their modified anal fin as an intromittent organ. Despite this, females are able to exert some control over the success of male mating attempts by selectively associating with, or avoiding, certain males over others. Using standard laboratory assays of reproductive behaviour, we found that mosquitofish males living in close proximity to WWTP showed increased mating activity compared to those inhabiting a pristine site. More specifically, during behavioural trials in which males were allowed to interact with females separated by a transparent divider, we found that WWTP-males spent more time associating with females. Concordant with this, when males and females were subsequently allowed to interact freely, WWTP-males also spent more time chasing and orienting towards the females. As a result, females from both sites showed more interest towards the WWTP-site males. Male anal fin morphology, however, did not differ between sites. Our study illustrates that lifetime exposure to WWTP-effluents can greatly affect male behaviour. The results underscore the importance of behaviour as a potential tool for investigating unknown contaminants in the environment. PMID:24569133

  17. Dexamethasone treatment alters insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels in male mice as observed in DIO but does not lead to alterations of metabolic phenotypes in the offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Bönisch, Clemens; Irmler, Martin; Brachthäuser, Laura; Neff, Frauke; Bamberger, Mareike T.; Marschall, Susan; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Beckers, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic inheritance (EI) of metabolic phenotypes via the paternal lineage has been shown in rodent models of diet-induced obesity (DIO). However, the factors involved in soma-to-germline information transfer remain elusive. Here, we address the role of alterations in insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels for EI of metabolic phenotypes by treating C57BL/6NTac male mice (F0) with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone and generating offspring (F1) either by in vitro fertilization or by...

  18. High-fat diet and glucocorticoid treatment cause hyperglycemia associated with adiponectin receptor alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oller do Nascimento Cláudia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is the most abundant plasma protein synthesized for the most part in adipose tissue, and it is an insulin-sensitive hormone, playing a central role in glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, it increases fatty acid oxidation in the muscle and potentiates insulin inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Two adiponectin receptors have been identified: AdipoR1 is the major receptor expressed in skeletal muscle, whereas AdipoR2 is mainly expressed in liver. Consumption of high levels of dietary fat is thought to be a major factor in the promotion of obesity and insulin resistance. Excessive levels of cortisol are characterized by the symptoms of abdominal obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance or diabetes and dyslipidemia; of note, all of these features are shared by the condition of insulin resistance. Although it has been shown that glucocorticoids inhibit adiponectin expression in vitro and in vivo, little is known about the regulation of adiponectin receptors. The link between glucocorticoids and insulin resistance may involve the adiponectin receptors and adrenalectomy might play a role not only in regulate expression and secretion of adiponectin, as well regulate the respective receptors in several tissues. Results Feeding of a high-fat diet increased serum glucose levels and decreased adiponectin and adipoR2 mRNA expression in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissues, respectively. Moreover, it increased both adipoR1 and adipoR2 mRNA levels in muscle and adipoR2 protein levels in liver. Adrenalectomy combined with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone treatment resulted in increased glucose and insulin levels, decreased serum adiponectin levels, reduced adiponectin mRNA in epididymal adipose tissue, reduction of adipoR2 mRNA by 7-fold in muscle and reduced adipoR1 and adipoR2 protein levels in muscle. Adrenalectomy alone increased adiponectin mRNA expression 3-fold in subcutaneous adipose

  19. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of extract from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Birch, Edward John

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of ultrasonic extraction of phenolics and flavonoids from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes was compared to the conventional extraction method. Ultrasonic treatment at room temperature showed increased polyphenol extraction yield and antioxidant capacity by two-fold over the conventional extraction method. Different combinations of ultrasonic treatment parameters consisting of solvent volume (25, 50, 75 and 100 mL), extraction time (20, 30 and 40 min) and temperature (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C) were selected for polyphenol extractions from the seed cakes. The chosen parameters had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the polyphenol extraction yield and subsequent antioxidant capacity from the seed cakes. Application of heat during ultrasonic extraction yielded higher polyphenol content in extracts compared to the non-heated extraction. From an orthogonal design test, the best combination of parameters was 50 mL of solvent volume, 20 min of extraction time and 70 °C of ultrasonic temperature.

  20. Alteration of MX-80 by hydrothermal treatment under high salt content conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden); Kasbohm, J. [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Geological Dep.

    2002-02-01

    If brammalit, i.e. sodium illite, is formed from smectite in Na-rich salt water at high temperature such conversion can also take place in the buffer clay that surrounds the canisters in a KBS-3 repository. The present study comprised two laboratory test series with MX-80 clay, one with compacted clay powder with a dry density of 1200 to 1300 kg/m{sup 3} and saturation with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions followed by heating to 110 deg C under closed conditions for 30 days. In the second series air-dry compacted clay powder in a cell was heated at 110 deg C for the same period of time and connected to vessels with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions. The first series represents the conditions in the buffer clay after saturation with Na-rich salt water while the second one corresponds to the conditions in the course of saturation with such water. All laboratory tests were made after short-term percolation with distilled water for making sure that the hydro-thermally treated samples were fully fluid-saturated. The results from the physical testing showed that the hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure of the hydrothermally treated clay samples were on the same order of magnitude as for untreated clay. Comparison with illitic clays shows that the latter are at least a hundred times more permeable than the hydrothermally treated salt clays in the present study, which hence indicates that conversion to illite was insignificant. This is obvious also from the fact that while illitic clays have very low swelling pressures the hydrothermally treated clays exhibited swelling pressures on the same order of magnitude as untreated MX-80. XRD analysis showed a clear difference in mineral constitution between the two test series. Thus, while no significant change from the typical mineralogy of untreated MX-80 was found for hydrothermal treatment of clay saturated with 10 and 20% NaCl solution, except for some very slight neoformation of illite-smectite mixed layers or irreversible

  1. Antioxidants and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Doldo, Elena; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-12-15

    Oxygen free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of normal aerobic cellular metabolism, but high levels of ROS lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage. Increased production of ROS favors vascular dysfunction, inducing altered vascular permeability and inflammation, accompanied by the loss of vascular modulatory function, the imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction, and the aberrant expression of inflammatory adhesion molecules. Inflammatory stimuli promote oxidative stress generated from the increased activity of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, particularly of the Nox4 isoform, with the consequent impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation. Vascular dysfunction due to the increase in Nox4 activity and ROS overproduction leads to the progression of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurological disorders. Considerable research into the development of effective antioxidant therapies using natural derivatives or new synthetic molecules has been conducted. Antioxidants may prevent cellular damage by reducing ROS overproduction or interfering in reactions that involve ROS. Vitamin E and ascorbic acid are well known as natural antioxidants that counteract lipid peroxidative damage by scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals, thus restoring vascular function. Recently, preliminary studies on natural antioxidants such as goji berries, thymus, rosemary, green tea ginseng, and garlic have been conducted for their efficacy in preventing vascular damage. N-acetyl-cysteine and propionyl-L-carnitine are synthetic compounds that regulate ROS production by replacing endogenous antioxidants in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction as well as the beneficial effects of antioxidant therapies. PMID:26585821

  2. Quantification of local hemodynamic alterations caused by virtual implantation of three commercially available stents for the treatment of aortic coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sung; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Dholakia, Ronak J; Ladisa, John F

    2014-04-01

    Patients with coarctation of the aorta (CoA) are prone to morbidity including atherosclerotic plaque that has been shown to correlate with altered wall shear stress (WSS) in the descending thoracic aorta (dAo). We created the first patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a CoA patient treated by Palmaz stenting to date, and compared resulting WSS distributions to those from virtual implantation of Genesis XD and modified NuMED CP stents, also commonly used for CoA. CFD models were created from magnetic resonance imaging, fluoroscopy and blood pressure data. Simulations incorporated vessel deformation, downstream vascular resistance and compliance to match measured data and generate blood flow velocity and time-averaged WSS (TAWSS) results. TAWSS was quantified longitudinally and circumferentially in the stented region and dAo. While modest differences were seen in the distal portion of the stented region, marked differences were observed downstream along the posterior dAo and depended on stent type. The Genesis XD model had the least area of TAWSS values exceeding the threshold for platelet aggregation in vitro, followed by the Palmaz and NuMED CP stents. Alterations in local blood flow patterns and WSS imparted on the dAo appear to depend on the type of stent implanted for CoA. Following confirmation in larger studies, these findings may aid pediatric interventional cardiologists in selecting the most appropriate stent for each patient, and ultimately reduce long-term morbidity following treatment for CoA by stenting.

  3. Influence of subacute treatment of some plant growth regulators on serum marker enzymes and erythrocyte and tissue antioxidant defense and lipid peroxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ismail; Tuluce, Yasin; Isik, Ismail

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and 2,4-dichlorofenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)) on serum marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), antioxidant defense systems (reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and catalase (CAT)), and lipid peroxidation content (malondialdehyde = MDA) in various tissues of rats. 50 and 100 ppm of PGRs as drinking water were administered orally to rats (Sprague-Dawley albino) ad libitum for 25 days continuously. The PGRs treatment caused different effects on the serum marker enzymes, antioxidant defense systems, and the MDA content in experimented rats compared to controls. Results showed that TIBA caused a significant decrease in serum AST activity with both the dosage whereas serum CPK was significantly increased with 100 ppm dosage of TIBA. Meanwhile, serum AST, CPK, and LDH activities were significantly increased with both dosage of NAA and 2,4-D. The lipid peroxidation end-product MDA significantly increased in the all tissues treated with both dosages of PGRs without any change in the brain and erythrocyte of rats treated with both the dosages of 2,4-D. The GSH depletion in the kidney and brain tissues of rats treated with both dosages of PGRs was found to be significant. Furthermore, the GSH depletion in the erythrocyte of rats treated with both dosages of PGRs except 50 ppm dosage of 2,4-D was significant too. Also, the GSH level in the liver was significantly depleted with 50 ppm of 2,4-D and NAA, whereas the GSH depletion in the same tissue did not significantly change with the treatment. The activity of antioxidant enzymes was also seriously affected by PGRs; SOD significantly decreased in the liver, heart, kidney, and brain of rats treated with

  4. Antioxidant Potential of Plumieride against CCl4-Induced Peroxidative Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra Singh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In search of a new potent as an antioxidant from natural sources, plumieride—an iridoid isolated from the methanol extract of the bark of Plumeria bicolor (family Apocynaceae was evaluated for its antioxidant potential against CCl4-induced peroxidative damage in liver of rats. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by using hepatic tissue for SOD (superoxide dismutase, CAT (catalase, GSH (reduced glutathione, GPx (glutathione peroxidase, GR (glutathione reductase and LPO (lipid peroxidation alongwith the concomitant blood serum for AST & ALT (aspartate and alanine transaminases, GGT (gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, ALP (alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and total protein contents. All the biochemical parameters were significantly (p ≤ 0.001 altered by CCl4 (0.3 mL/kg body weight/twice a week, intra-peritoneally for 30 days. Simultaneously, oral treatment with plumieride (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days, restored all the parameters towards a normal level, remarkably. The histological findings of liver sections further corroborated the antioxidant potential of plumieride compared with standard drug-silymarin. In conclusion, plumieride consists of sugar molecules, which have alcoholic groups. Therefore, the alcoholic groups of sugar increase its antioxidant potential through intermolecular hydrogen bonding along with the thiol(SH group of non-protein thiols and enzymes resulting in the restoration of the antioxidant system. Therefore, it might be considered a natural antioxidant against peroxidative damage in rats.

  5. Functionally altered neurocircuits in a rat model of treatment-resistant depression show prominent role of the habenula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Natalia; Cleppien, Dirk; Zheng, Lei; Schwarz, Adam James; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Vollmayr, Barbara; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Sartorius, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) remains a pressing clinical problem. Optimizing treatment requires better definition of the function and specificity of the brain circuits involved. To investigate disease-related alterations of brain function we used a genetic animal model of TRD, congenital learned helplessness (cLH), and functional magnetic resonance imaging as a translational tool. High-resolution regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and resting-state functional connectivity measurements were acquired at 9.4T to determine regional dysfunction and interactions that could serve as vulnerability markers for TRD. Effects of cLH on rCBV were determined by statistical parametric mapping using 35 atlas-based regions of interest. Effects of cLH on functional connectivity were assessed by seed region analyses. Significant bilateral rCBV reductions were observed in the lateral habenula, dentate gyrus and subiculum of cLH rats. In contrast, focal bilateral increase in rCBV was observed in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), a component of the habenular neurocircuitry. Functional connectivity was primarily enhanced in cLH rats, most notably with respect to serotonergic projections from the dorsal raphe nucleus to the forebrain, within the hippocampal-prefrontal network and between the BNST and lateral frontal regions. Dysregulation of neurocircuitry similar to that observed in depressed patients was detected in cLH rats, supporting the validity of the TRD model and suitability of high-field fMRI as a translational technology to detect and monitor vulnerability markers. Our findings also define neurocircuits that can be studied for TRD treatment in patients, and could be employed for translational research in rodent models. PMID:24370074

  6. Wastewater treatment plant effluent alters pituitary gland gonadotropin mRNA levels in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Louisa B; Schultz, Irvin R; da Silva, Denis A M; Ylitalo, Gina M; Ragsdale, Dave; Harris, Stephanie I; Bailey, Stephanie; Pepich, Barry V; Swanson, Penny

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) present in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents interfere with reproduction in fish, including altered gonad development and induction of vitellogenin (Vtg), a female-specific egg yolk protein precursor produced in the liver. As a result, studies have focused on the effects of EDC exposure on the gonad and liver. However, impacts of environmental EDC exposure at higher levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis are less well understood. The pituitary gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) are involved in all aspects of gonad development and are subject to feedback from gonadal steroids making them a likely target of endocrine disruption. In this study, the effects of WWTP effluent exposure on pituitary gonadotropin mRNA expression were investigated to assess the utility of Lh beta-subunit (lhb) as a biomarker of estrogen exposure in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). First, a controlled 72-h exposure to 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 17β-trenbolone (TREN) was performed to evaluate the response of juvenile coho salmon to EDC exposure. Second, juvenile coho salmon were exposed to 0, 20 or 100% effluent from eight WWTPs from the Puget Sound, WA region for 72h. Juvenile coho salmon exposed to 2 and 10ng EE2L(-1) had 17-fold and 215-fold higher lhb mRNA levels relative to control fish. Hepatic vtg mRNA levels were dramatically increased 6670-fold, but only in response to 10ng EE2L(-1) and Fsh beta-subunit (fshb) mRNA levels were not altered by any of the treatments. In the WWTP effluent exposures, lhb mRNA levels were significantly elevated in fish exposed to five of the WWTP effluents. In contrast, transcript levels of vtg were not affected by any of the WWTP effluent exposures. Mean levels of natural and synthetic estrogens in fish bile were consistent with pituitary lhb expression, suggesting that the observed lhb induction may be due to

  7. Modification of antioxidative and antiapoptotic genes expression in irradiated K562 cells upon fullerenol C60(OH)24 nanoparticle treatment.

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    Stankov, Karmen; Borisev, Ivana; Kojic, Vesna; Rutonjski, Lazar; Bogdanovic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Recent data established the prospective applications for fullerenol (C60(OH)24) nanoparticle (FNP) in many fields, such as antioxidants, neuroprotective agents, and potential anti-radiation drugs. Leukemia cell sensitization to apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation is achieved by upregulation of ROS production and/or downregulation of antioxidative enzymes. Therefore, our aim was to analyze the potential role of fullerenol nanoparticle in modulation of the leukemic cellular response to irradiation. We used the qRT-PCR to analyze the expression level of mRNA for 11 genes in irradiated and FNP pre-treated irradiated K562 cells, and compared the gene expression level with the overall cell survival. Our results of the improved cell survival in FNP-treated irradiated cells and significant overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and cytoprotective genes such as GSTA4, MnSOD, NOS, CAT and HO-1 genes, may indicate that FNP exerts cytoprotective function in K562 leukemic cells, rendering K562 cells more tolerant to radiotherapy.

  8. Evaluation of the antiaggregant activity of ascorbyl phenolic esters with antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Esther; del Carmen Ortega-Liébana, María; Salido, Sofía; Salido, Ginés M; Altarejos, Joaquín; Rosado, Juan A; Redondo, Pedro C

    2015-09-01

    Beneficial effects of the antioxidant L-ascorbic acid (Asc) in human health are well known. Its particular role in hemostasis deserves further consideration, since it has been described a dose-dependent effect of Asc in platelet activity. Contrary, it has been demonstrated that phenolic compounds have inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation stimulated by the physiological agonist thrombin (Thr). Here, we have evaluated the actions of three synthetic phenolic esters of Asc: L-ascorbyl 6-protocatechuate (Prot Asc), L-ascorbyl 6-gallate (Gal Asc), and L-ascorbyl 6-caffeate (Caf Asc). All these Asc derivatives exhibited greater radical scavenging activity than Asc, and in experiments using human platelets from healthy subjects, they do not evoke changes in platelet viability upon their administration. Nevertheless, these compounds altered platelet calcium homeostasis in response to Thr, although Prot Asc induced a smaller effect than Gal Asc, Caf Asc, and Asc. As a consequence, platelet aggregation was also impaired by these compounds, reporting Prot Asc and Caf Asc a weaker antiaggregant action than Gal Asc and Asc. Treatments with Gal Asc and Caf Asc altered in larger extent the phosphorylation pattern of pp60(Src) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) evoked by stimulating human platelets with Thr. Summarizing, Prot Asc is the ascorbyl phenolic ester with the strongest antioxidant properties and weakest antiaggregant actions, and its use as antioxidant may be safer than the rest of derivatives in order to prevent thrombotic alteration in patients that need treatment with antioxidant therapies. PMID:26081024

  9. New tacrine-4-oxo-4H-chromene hybrids as multifunctional agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, with cholinergic, antioxidant, and β-amyloid-reducing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bachiller, María Isabel; Pérez, Concepción; Monjas, Leticia; Rademann, Jörg; Rodríguez-Franco, María Isabel

    2012-02-01

    By using fragments endowed with interesting and complementary properties for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a new family of tacrine-4-oxo-4H-chromene hybrids has been designed, synthesized, and evaluated biologically. The tacrine fragment was selected for its inhibition of cholinesterases, and the flavonoid scaffold derived from 4-oxo-4H -chromene was chosen for its radical capture and β-secretase 1 (BACE-1) inhibitory activities. At nano- and picomolar concentrations, the new tacrine-4-oxo-4H-chromene hybrids inhibit human acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase (h-AChE and h-BuChE), being more potent than the parent inhibitor, tacrine. They are also potent inhibitors of human BACE-1, better than the parent flavonoid, apigenin. They show interesting antioxidant properties and could be able to penetrate into the CNS according to the in vitro PAMPA-BBB assay. Among the hybrids investigated, 6-hydroxy-4-oxo- N-{10-[(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9-yl)amino]decyl}-4 H-chromene-2-carboxamide (19) shows potent combined inhibition of human BACE-1 and ChEs, as well as good antioxidant and CNS-permeable properties.

  10. Effect of hydrothermally ‘Hass” avocado about antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and coloration

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    Maria Augusta Tremocoldi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds and color in avocado ‘Hass’ hydrothermally treated. The fruits were hydrothermally treated at 45oC for 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. After treatment, fruit were stored at room temperature (21±1ºC and 70±5% relative humidity and cold (10°C±1 and 90±5% relative humidity. The fruits were analyzed for their antioxidant capacity by DPPH method and phenolic compounds at 0, 3, 9 and 12 days. The fruits color was measured at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days. The control fruits had higher antioxidant capacity and content of phenolic compounds during the storage period, compared to the fruits hydrothermally treated. The hydrothermally treatment altered the behavior as for the maintenance of the antioxidant activity in relation to the fruits control. In spite of superior values of antioxidant activity for the fruits maintained at 21±1ºC and 70±5% relative humidity, those refrigerated presented better aspect for commercialization. The refrigerated fruits presented better aspect for commercialization in relation to the maintained under room temperature. The brightness, color a * and b * values decreased with the storage days. Values color superiors were observed for the fruits control and those maintained under refrigeration. As it increased the irradiation dose reduced the fruits antioxidant activity and coloration.

  11. Celecoxib treatment does not alter recruitment and activation of osteoclasts in the initial phase of experimental tooth movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Filho, E.P.; Stabile, A.C.; Ervolino, E.; Stuani, M.B.S.; Iyomasa, M.M.; Rocha, M.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study, we reported that the short-term treatment with celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) attenuates the activation of brain structures related to nociception and does not interfere with orthodontic incisor separation in rats. The conclusion was that celecoxib could possibly be prescribed for pain in orthodontic patients. However, we did not analyze the effects of this drug in periodontium. The aim of this follow-up study was to analyze effects of celecoxib treatment on recruitment and activation of osteoclasts and alveolar bone resorption after inserting an activated orthodontic appliance between the incisors in our rat model. Twenty rats (400–420 g) were pretreated through oral gavage with celecoxib (50 mg/kg) or vehicle (carboxymethyl-cellulose 0.4%). After 30 min, they received an activated (30 g) orthodontic appliance, set not to cause any palate disjunction. In sham animals, the appliance was immediately removed after introduction. All animals received ground food and, every 12 h, celecoxib or vehicle. After 48 h, they were anesthetized and transcardiacally perfused through the aorta with 4% formaldehyde. Subsequently, maxillae were removed, post-fixed and processed for histomorphometry or immunohistochemical analyses. As expected, incisor distalization induced an inflammatory response with certain histological changes, including an increase in the number of active osteoclasts at the compression side in group treated with vehicle (appliance:32.2±2.49 vs sham: 4.8±1.79, P<0.05) and celecoxib (appliance: 31.0±1.45 vs sham: 4.6±1.82, P<0.05). The treatment with celecoxib did not modify substantially the histological alterations and the number of active osteoclasts after activation of orthodontic appliance. Moreover, we did not see any difference between the groups with respect to percentage of bone resorption area. Taken together with our previous results we conclude that short-term treatment with celecoxib can indeed be

  12. Alteration in Haematological and Liver Function Indices during Human Infection with Fasciola spp. Post Treatment with Triclabendazole

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    M.I. Edalatzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease, caused by the liver fluke, Fasciola spp.. Human is occasional host when ingesting the metacercaria by eating contaminated aquatic vegetable. In the two past decades, human fasciolasis was emerging as a problem of public health in the Guilan province; in Anzali city. Triclabendazole is a novel anti-helmenthic that during recent years has been used for fascioliasis treatment in this region. The aim of the present work is to study alteration in haematological and liver function indices during human infection with Fasciola spp. pre and post treatment with triclabendazoleMaterials & Methods: The present work is a longitudinal clinical trail. In this regard, fifty confirmed fasciolasis patients, were chosen for parasitological, hematological and biochemical examinations pre-therapy as well as 1 and 6 months post-therapy. Formalin-ether and modified Telemann methods were used for stool examination. For Fasciola antibody detection ELISA technique was employed. Hematological and biochemical tests were performed by standard methods. Results: Results indicated that, triclabendazole efficacy was 74% after usage as one dose of 20mg/kg and reached to 88% after repeating in the next month. Before triclabebdazole therapy the Hb and HCT of the patients were slightly found lower than normal ranges, meanwhile the ESR and eosinophil percentages were higher. However following receiving the drug, in the cured individuals, the indices returned to the normal ranges but in the non-cured individuals were not shifted to the normal. On the other hand liver function indices of the patients mostly were at normal ranges before and following drug therapy.Conclusion: In conclusion haematological indices could be valuable indicator for successful therapy of patients treated with triclabendazole.

  13. Differences in gene expression and alterations in cell cycle of acute myeloid leukemia cell lines after treatment with JAK inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunerka, Pawel; Dymek, Barbara; Stanczak, Aleksandra; Bujak, Anna; Grygielewicz, Paulina; Turowski, Pawel; Dzwonek, Karolina; Lamparska-Przybysz, Monika; Pietrucha, Tadeusz; Wieczorek, Maciej

    2015-10-15

    Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors are a promising treatment strategy in several hematological malignancies and autoimmune diseases. A number of inhibitors are in clinical development, and two have already reached the market. Unfortunately, all of them are burdened with different toxicity profiles. To check if the JAK inhibitors of different selectivity evoke different responses on JAK2-dependent and independent cells, we have used three acute myeloid leukemia cell lines with confirmed JAK2 mutation status. We have found that JAK inhibitors exert distinct effect on the expression of BCLXL, CCND1 and c-MYC genes, regulated by JAK pathway, in JAK2 wild type cells in comparison to JAK2 V617F-positive cell lines. Moreover, cell cycle analysis showed that inhibitors alter the cycle by arresting cells in different phases. Our results suggest that observed effect of JAK2 inhibitors on transcription and cell cycle level in different cell lines are associated not with activity within JAK family, but presumably with other off-target activities. PMID:26300391

  14. Precocious alterations of brain oscillatory activity in Alzheimer’s disease: A window of opportunity for early diagnosis and treatment

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    Valentine eHAMM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common form of neurodegenerative dementia accounting for 50% to 80% of all age-related dementia. This pathology is characterized by the progressive and irreversible alteration of cognitive functions, such as memory, leading inexorably to the loss of autonomy for patients with AD. The pathology is linked with aging and occurs most commonly around 65 years old. Its prevalence (5% over 65 years of age and 20% after 80 years constitutes an economic and social burden for AD patients and their family. At the present, there is still no cure for AD, actual treatments being moderately effective only in early stages of the pathology. A lot of efforts have been deployed with the aim of defining new AD biomarkers. Successful early detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI linked to AD requires the identification of biomarkers capable of distinguishing individuals with early stages of AD from other pathologies impacting cognition such as depression. In this article, we will review recent evidence suggesting that electroencephalographic (EEG recordings, coupled with behavioral assessments, could be a useful approach and easily implementable for a precocious detection of AD.

  15. Inhibition of DNA virus: Herpes-1 (HSV-1 in cellular culture replication, through an antioxidant treatment extracted from rosemary spice

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    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate antiviral properties in antioxidants from spices. Phenolic compounds extracted from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinallis, L by hot water, had their antioxidant activity determined by spectrophotometry using β carotene/linoleic acid system. The rosemary extract was evaluated by antiviral assay of Herpes Virus type-1 (HSV-1 replication in VERO cells, in the presence or absence of the spice. 10,000 TCID50/mL of the HSV-1 was kept for 3 h at 4º C, with 300 ppm of rosemary extract, and 100 ppm of butyl hydroxyl toluene (BHT. Then, these viruses were inoculated in VERO cells incubated at 37º C in CO2-5 %, for seven days. Daily, they were examined and the end point was based on 100% of CPE in virus control (without antioxidants. The HSV-1 replication inhibition percentage (IP measured the antiviral action from antioxidants, showing viral reductions of the 82.0, 82.5%, in the presence of rosemary and rosemary + BHT, respectively. As an extension, cell test corresponded to the similar viral decrease (IP = 85.0 and 86.3% in both aforementioned situations. Results lead to conclude that phenolic compounds from rosemary revealed an antiviral action on herpesvirus-1.Neste estudo foi avaliada a ação antiviral de antioxidantes de especiaria. Extrato aquoso de alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis, L, que apresentou atividade antioxidante através de espectrofotometria usando o sistema β caroteno/ácido linoléico, foi avaliado em ensaios com vírus herpes-1 na replicação em células VERO. Nestes ensaios foram utilizados 10.000 TCID50%/mL do vírus HSV-1, mantidos em contato com 300 ppm do extrato de alecrim e com 100 ppm de butil hidroxi tolueno (BHT, durante 3h a 4°C. Esses vírus, em seguida, foram inoculados em células VERO incubadas a 37 °C/5% de CO2 por sete dias. Pelo efeito citopático (ECP e o "end point" de ECP do controle de vírus (sem antioxidante, foi possível observar que houve reduções na replicação viral de 82

  16. Errantum: Treatment of human astrocytoma U87 cells with silicon dioxide nanoparticles lowers their survival and alters their expression of mitochondrial and cell signaling proteins

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    Lai JCK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lai JCK, Ananthakrishnan G, Jandhyam S, et al. Treatment of human astrocytoma U87 cells with silicon dioxide nanoparticles lowers their survival and alters their expression of mitochondrial and cell signaling proteins. Int J Nanomedicine. 2010;5:715–723.The wrong image was used in Figure 5 on page 719.

  17. Novel tacrine-8-hydroxyquinoline hybrids as multifunctional agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, with neuroprotective, cholinergic, antioxidant, and copper-complexing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bachiller, María Isabel; Pérez, Concepción; González-Muñoz, Gema C; Conde, Santiago; López, Manuela G; Villarroya, Mercedes; García, Antonio G; Rodríguez-Franco, María Isabel

    2010-07-01

    Tacrine and PBT2 (an 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative) are well-known drugs that inhibit cholinesterases and decrease beta-amyloid (Abeta) levels by complexation of redox-active metals, respectively. In this work, novel tacrine-8-hydroxyquinoline hybrids have been designed, synthesized, and evaluated as potential multifunctional drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. At nano- and subnanomolar concentrations they inhibit human acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase (AChE and BuChE), being more potent than tacrine. They also displace propidium iodide from the peripheral anionic site of AChE and thus could be able to inhibit Abeta aggregation promoted by AChE. They show better antioxidant properties than Trolox, the aromatic portion of vitamin E responsible for radical capture, and display neuroprotective properties against mitochondrial free radicals. In addition, they selectively complex Cu(II), show low cell toxicity, and could be able to penetrate the CNS, according to an in vitro blood-brain barrier model.

  18. Effect of sodium fluoride ingestion on malondialdehyde concentration and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-González, José A; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; García-Ortiz, Liliana; Del Carmen Chima-Galán, María; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Esquivel-Chirino, César; González-Rubio, Manuel García-Luna Y

    2010-06-11

    Fluoride intoxication has been shown to produce diverse deleterious metabolic alterations within the cell. To determine the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) treatment on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes, Male Wistar rats were treated with 50 ppm of NaF or were untreated as controls. Erythrocytes were obtained from rats sacrificed weekly for up to eight weeks and the concentration of MDA in erythrocyte membrane was determined. In addition, the activity of the enzymes superoxide, dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Treatment with NaF produces an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde in the erythrocyte membrane only after the eight weeks of treatment. On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme activity was observed to increase after the fourth week of NaF treatment. In conclusion, intake of NaF produces alterations in the erythrocyte of the male rat, which indicates induction of oxidative stress.

  19. Impact of Polyphenol Antioxidants on Cycling Performance and Cardiovascular Function

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    Joel D. Trinity

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation sought to determine if supplementation with polyphenol antioxidant (PA improves exercise performance in the heat (31.5 °C, 55% RH by altering the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise. Twelve endurance trained athletes ingested PA or placebo (PLAC for 7 days. Consecutive days of exercise testing were performed at the end of the supplementation periods. Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory measures were made during exercise. Performance, as measured by a 10 min time trial (TT following 50 min of moderate intensity cycling, was not different between treatments (PLAC: 292 ± 33 W and PA: 279 ± 38 W, p = 0.12. Gross efficiency, blood lactate, maximal neuromuscular power, and ratings of perceived exertion were also not different between treatments. Similarly, performance on the second day of testing, as assessed by time to fatigue at maximal oxygen consumption, was not different between treatments (PLAC; 377 ± 117 s vs. PA; 364 ± 128 s, p = 0.61. Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise were not different between treatments on either day of exercise testing. Polyphenol antioxidant supplementation had no impact on exercise performance and did not alter the cardiovascular or thermoregulatory responses to exercise in the heat.

  20. Study on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of turmeric clear liquid soap for wound treatment of HIV patients

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    Pechnoi Singchangchai

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract of turmeric [Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae] was investigated for its in vitro antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay and activities against six microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphyloccoccus aureus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Clear liquid soaps containing 0.5% w/v turmeric extract were formulated. The only one preparation with acceptable appearance, foam and viscosity was selected for antimicrobial activity and stability studies. It was found that turmeric extract had 50% radical scavenging ability (EC50 at concentration of 11.26 μg/ml against DPPH. Turmeric extract was showed no activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentration of turmeric extract against Bacillus subtilis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans were 16, 128, 128 and 256 μg/ml, respectively. The selected preparation was physically and chemically stable and the antimicrobial activity did not change (p<0.05 under the heating-cooling stability test. However, curcumin content and the antimicrobial activities against S. aureus and C. neoformans decreased significantly (p<0.05 under the accelerated test conditions (temperature 45oC, 75% RH for 4 months and after storage at room temperature for 12 months. The results of a clinical trial with HIV patients found that this liquid soap decreased itching symptom (100% and infectious wound and abscess became dryness scabs (78.6% within 2 weeks.

  1. Antioxidants in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Ira T

    2012-05-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have high levels of oxidative stress throughout the lifespan. Mouse models of DS share some structural and functional abnormalities that parallel findings seen in the human phenotype. Several of the mouse models show evidence of cellular oxidative stress and have provided a platform for antioxidant intervention. Genes that are overexpressed on chromosome 21 are associated with oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis. The lack of balance in the metabolism of free radicals generated during processes related to oxidative stress may have a direct role in producing the neuropathology of DS including the tendency to Alzheimer disease (AD). Mitochondria are often a target for oxidative stress and are considered to be a trigger for the onset of the AD process in DS. Biomarkers for oxidative stress have been described in DS and in AD in the general population. However, intervention trials using standard antioxidant supplements or diets have failed to produce uniform therapeutic effect. This chapter will examine the biological role of oxidative stress in DS and its relationship to abnormalities in both development and aging within the disorder. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antioxidants and Antioxidant Treatment in Disease.

  2. The molecular mechanisms of OPA1-mediated optic atrophy in Drosophila model and prospects for antioxidant treatment.

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    Will Yarosh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in optic atrophy 1 (OPA1, a nuclear gene encoding a mitochondrial protein, is the most common cause for autosomal dominant optic atrophy (DOA. The condition is characterized by gradual loss of vision, color vision defects, and temporal optic pallor. To understand the molecular mechanism by which OPA1 mutations cause optic atrophy and to facilitate the development of an effective therapeutic agent for optic atrophies, we analyzed phenotypes in the developing and adult Drosophila eyes produced by mutant dOpa1 (CG8479, a Drosophila ortholog of human OPA1. Heterozygous mutation of dOpa1 by a P-element or transposon insertions causes no discernable eye phenotype, whereas the homozygous mutation results in embryonic lethality. Using powerful Drosophila genetic techniques, we created eye-specific somatic clones. The somatic homozygous mutation of dOpa1 in the eyes caused rough (mispatterning and glossy (decreased lens and pigment deposition eye phenotypes in adult flies; this phenotype was reversible by precise excision of the inserted P-element. Furthermore, we show the rough eye phenotype is caused by the loss of hexagonal lattice cells in developing eyes, suggesting an increase in lattice cell apoptosis. In adult flies, the dOpa1 mutation caused an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS production as well as mitochondrial fragmentation associated with loss and damage of the cone and pigment cells. We show that superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1, Vitamin E, and genetically overexpressed human SOD1 (hSOD1 is able to reverse the glossy eye phenotype of dOPA1 mutant large clones, further suggesting that ROS play an important role in cone and pigment cell death. Our results show dOpa1 mutations cause cell loss by two distinct pathogenic pathways. This study provides novel insights into the pathogenesis of optic atrophy and demonstrates the promise of antioxidants as therapeutic agents for this condition.

  3. Resistance to the Beneficial Metabolic Effects and Hepatic Antioxidant Defense Actions of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Treatment in Growth Hormone-Overexpressing Transgenic Mice

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    Ravneet K. Boparai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 modulates a diverse range of biological functions, including glucose and lipid metabolism, adaptive starvation response, and energy homeostasis, but with limited mechanistic insight. FGF21 treatment has been shown to inhibit hepatic growth hormone (GH intracellular signaling. To evaluate GH axis involvement in FGF21 actions, transgenic mice overexpressing bovine GH were used. Expectedly, in response to FGF21 treatment control littermates showed metabolic improvements whereas GH transgenic mice resisted most of the beneficial effects of FGF21, except an attenuation of the innate hyperinsulinemia. Since FGF21 is believed to exert its effects mostly at the transcriptional level, we analyzed and observed significant upregulation in expression of various genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, energy homeostasis, and antioxidant defense in FGF21-treated controls, but not in GH transgenics. The resistance of GH transgenic mice to FGF21-induced changes underlines the necessity of normal GH signaling for the beneficial effects of FGF21.

  4. Effects of Different Treatment Conditions on Antioxidant Activity of Peanut Anfioxidant Peptide%不同处理条件对花生抗氧化肽抗氧化活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于丽娜; 高俊安; 杨庆利; 孙杰; 毕洁; 张初署; 刘少芳

    2012-01-01

    Peanut antioxidant peptide was prepared by sequential hydrolysis of peanut protein powder with Viscozyme L followed by alcalase. The effects of heat, food additive, preservative, metal ion, sterilization, pH and low temperature treatment on antioxidant properties in vitro such as DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, ferrous ion chelating ability and antilipid peroxidation were investigated. The results indicated that heat treatment and food preservative treatment were beneficial for increasing the antioxidant activity of peanut antioxidant peptide. The addition of tartaric acid or citric acid had considerable impact on the antioxidant activity of peanut antioxidant peptide. Nevertheless, the antioxidant activity remained at a stable level in the presence of sodium chloride or sucrose. Copper ion also had an obvious effect on the antioxidant activity of peanut antioxidant peptide. Various sterilization processes were beneficial to the scavenging of DPPH free radicals, reducing power, ferrous ion chelating capacity, but could reduce the inhibitory rate of lipid peroxidation. The reducing power, ferrous ion chelating capacity and anti-lipid peroxidation could be enhanced under alkaline conditions, whereas acidic conditions could reduce the ferrous ion chelating capacity and anti-lipid peroxidation. Low temperature treatment could reduce the antioxidant activity of peanut antioxidant peptide.%以花生蛋白粉为原料,采用Viscozyme L预水解,Alcalase水解法制备花生抗氧化肽。通过7种不同的处理条件(加热、食品添加剂、防腐剂、金属离子、杀菌、调pH值、低温)对花生抗氧化肽的4种体外抗氧化指标(清除DPPH自由基、还原力、铁离子螯合力、抗脂质体过氧化能力)进行研究。结果显示:加热处理和添加食品防腐剂有利于提高抗氧化肽的抗氧化活性;添加酒石酸、柠檬酸对抗氧化活性有较大影响,而添加氯化钠和蔗糖后对抗氧

  5. ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY

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    Giriraja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hyperglycemia and dislipidemia in DM induce increased lipid peroxdation and free radical formation. This is an important mechanism of microangiopathy. AIM To measure the antioxidant status in type 2 DM with nephropathy and compared with nondiabetic control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 type 2 DM patients aged between 50 to 70 years according to national diabetes data group criteria with nephropathy diagnosed on the basis of history, physical examination and biochemical parameters were included. 50 age and sex matched apparently healthy individuals with normal plasma glucose, normal renal parameters and with no symptoms suggestive of DM were taken as controls. RESULTS Antioxidant status was significantly less in patients with diabetic nephropathy. CONCLUSION Data suggests that alteration in antioxidant status may help predict the risk of diabetic nephropathy.

  6. Antioxidative defense

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    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  7. Alterations to proteome and tissue recovery responses in fish liver caused by a short-term combination treatment with cadmium and benzo[a]pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, P.M., E-mail: pmcosta@fct.unl.p [IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Departamento de Ciencias e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Chicano-Galvez, E.; Lopez Barea, J. [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Severo Ochoa, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); DelValls, T.A. [UNESCO/UNITWIN/WiCop Chair-Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cadiz, Poligono rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Costa, M.H. [IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Departamento de Ciencias e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal)

    2010-10-15

    The livers of soles (Solea senegalensis) injected with subacute doses of cadmium (Cd), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), or their combination, were screened for alterations to cytosolic protein expression patterns, complemented by cytological and histological analyses. Cadmium and B[a]P, but not combined, induced hepatocyte apoptosis and Kupfer cell hyperplasia. Proteomics, however, suggested that apoptosis was triggered through distinct pathways. Cadmium and B[a]P caused upregulation of different anti-oxidative enzymes (peroxiredoxin and glutathione peroxidase, respectively) although co-exposure impaired induction. Similarly, apoptosis was inhibited by co-exposure, to which may have contributed a synergistic upregulation of tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor, {beta}-actin and a lipid transport protein. The regulation factors of nine out of eleven identified proteins of different types revealed antagonistic or synergistic effects between Cd and B[a]P at the prospected doses after 24 h of exposure. The results indicate that co-exposure to Cd and B[a]P may enhance toxicity by impairing specific responses and not through cumulative damage. - The interaction between cadmium and benzo[a]pyrene impairs specific responses to toxicity and tissue repair mechanisms.

  8. The Role of Antioxidants in Biochemical Disorders Induced by Arsenic in Adult male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).

  9. Zfp148 deficiency causes lung maturation defects and lethality in newborn mice that are rescued by deletion of p53 or antioxidant treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan I Sayin

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Zfp148 (Zbp-89, BFCOL, BERF1, htβ interacts physically with the tumor suppressor p53 and is implicated in cell cycle control, but the physiological role of Zfp148 remains unknown. Here we show that Zfp148 deficiency leads to respiratory distress and lethality in newborn mice. Zfp148 deficiency prevented structural maturation of the prenatal lung without affecting type II cell differentiation or surfactant production. BrdU analyses revealed that Zfp148 deficiency caused proliferation arrest of pulmonary cells at E18.5-19.5. Similarly, Zfp148-deficient fibroblasts exhibited proliferative arrest that was dependent on p53, raising the possibility that cell stress is part of the underlying mechanism. Indeed, Zfp148 deficiency lowered the threshold for activation of p53 under oxidative conditions. Moreover, both in vivo and cellular phenotypes were rescued on Trp53(+/- or Trp53(-/- backgrounds and by antioxidant treatment. Thus, Zfp148 prevents respiratory distress and lethality in newborn mice by attenuating oxidative stress-dependent p53-activity during the saccular stage of lung development. Our results establish Zfp148 as a novel player in mammalian lung maturation and demonstrate that Zfp148 is critical for cell cycle progression in vivo.

  10. The influence of antioxidant and post-synthetic treatment on the properties of biodegradable poly(butylene succinates modified with poly(propylene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGANA PEPIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Novel poly(ester–ethers based on poly(butylene succinate (PBS as the hard segments and 30 mass % of poly(propylene oxide (PPO as the soft segments were synthesized with varying amount of the antioxidant (N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine, DPPD. The influences of the addition of DPPD and the impact of post-synthetic treatment by precipitation on the molecular structure, thermal and physical properties, as well as on the storage stability of the biodegradable aliphatic copolyesters, were investigated. The structure and composition of the copolymers were determined by means of 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The molecular weight and polydispersity of the poly(ester–ethers were evaluated from solution viscosity and GPC measurements. The thermal properties and stability were evaluated, respecttively, by means of DSC and non-isothermal thermogravimetry in an inert nitrogen atmosphere. The biodegradability potential of the polymers was studied in hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation tests with Candida cylindracea lipase by monitoring the weight loss of polymer films after incubation. The weight losses of the samples increased with time and were in the range from 1 to 5 mass % after 4 weeks. GPC analysis confirmed that there were changes in the molecular weight of the copolyesters during both hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation tests, leading to the conclusion that the degradation mechanism of poly(butylenes succinate modified with PPO occurred through surface erosion and bulk degradation.

  11. Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Lanius

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015. This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1 those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2 those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC along four dimensions: (1 time; (2 thought; (3 body; and (4 emotion. Clinical applications and future research directions relevant to each dimension are discussed. Conceptualizing TRASC across the dimensions of time, thought, body, and emotion has transdiagnostic implications for trauma-related disorders described in both the Diagnostic Statistical Manual and the International Classifications of Diseases. The four-dimensional model provides a framework, guided by existing models of dissociation, for future research examining the phenomenological, neurobiological, and physiological underpinnings of trauma-related dissociation.

  12. Sebusuppressive efficacy of the antioxidant bis-ethylhexyl hydroxydimethoxy benzylmalonate in the treatment of oily and blemished skin

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Nicole Gerlach,1 Ruediger Graf,2 Gabriele Witte,2 Marina Lefort,2 Frank Pfluecker,2 Ulrike Heinrich,1 Hagen Tronnier11DermaTronnier, University of Witten-Herdecke, Witten, Germany; 2Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, GermanyAbstract: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 2% bis-ethylhexyl hydroxydimethoxy benzylmalonate (HDBM; RonaCare® AP) as an active ingredient in the treatment of oily and blemished skin. This study was carried out as a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind ...

  13. Gestational treatment with cocaine and fluoxetine alters oxytocin receptor number and binding affinity in lactating rat dams

    OpenAIRE

    Johns, Josephine M.; Lubin, Deborah A.; Walker, Cheryl H.; Joyner, Paul; Middleton, Christopher; Hofler, Vivian; McMurray, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Cocaine administered chronically throughout gestation has been correlated with deficits in maternal behavior, increased maternal aggressive behavior and decreased oxytocin levels in rats. In addition to its effects on oxytocin levels, cocaine is a potent serotonergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor. Alterations in the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems have been suggested as possibly having a role in cocaine-induced maternal aggression. This study was in part, an attempt...

  14. Influence of exposure time to saliva and antioxidant treatment on bond strength to enamel after tooth bleaching: an in situ study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Aglaet Matos MIRANDA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study evaluated the influence of different exposure times to saliva in situ in comparison with an antioxidant treatment on composite resin bond strength to human enamel restored after tooth bleaching. Material and Methods: Forty human teeth specimens measuring 5x5 mm were prepared and randomly allocated into 5 groups with 8 specimens each: Gct (control group, restored on unbleached enamel; Gbl (restored immediately after bleaching; Gsa (bleached, treated with 10% sodium ascorbate gel for 60 min and restored; G7d (bleached, exposed to saliva in situ for 7 days and restored; and G14d (bleached, exposed to saliva in situ for 14 days and restored. Restored samples were cut into 0.8 mm2 sticks that were tested in microtensile. Specimens were microscopically analyzed and failure modes were classified as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed. Pretest and cohesive failures were not considered in the statistical analysis, which was performed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (α=0.05, with the dental specimen considered as the experimental unit. Results: Mean bond strength results found for Gbl in comparison with Gct indicated that bleaching significantly reduced enamel adhesiveness (P0.05. Bond strength found for G14d was significantly higher than for Gsa (P<0.01. Fractures modes were predominantly of a mixed type. Conclusions: Bonding strength to bleached enamel was immediately restored with the application of sodium ascorbate and exposure to human saliva in situ for at least 7 days. Best results were obtained with exposure to human saliva in situ for 14 days. Treatment with sodium ascorbate gel for 60 min may be recommended in cases patients cannot wait for at least 7 days for adhesive techniques to be performed.

  15. Effect of long-term treatment with antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10 and selenium on arterial compliance, humoral factors and inflammatory markers in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debby Ortal

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antioxidant supplementations have the potential to alleviate the atherosclerotic damage caused by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The present study evaluated the effects of prolonged antioxidant treatment on arterial elasticity, inflammatory and metabolic measures in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Methods Study participants were randomly assigned to two groups. Group 1 received oral supplementation with 2 capsules per day of Mid Life Guard, SupHerb, Israel. In each capsule vitamin C (500 mg vitamin E (200 iu, co-enzyme Q10 (60 mg and selenium (100 mcg, Group 2 received matching placebo(SupHerb for 6 months. Patients were evaluated for lipid profile, HbA1C, insulin, C-peptide, hs-CRP, endothelin, aldosterone, plasma renin activity and Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Arterial elasticity was evaluated using pulse wave contour analysis (HDI CR 2000, Eagan, Minnesota. Results Antioxidant-treated patients exhibited significant increases in large arterial elasticity index (LAEI as well as small arterial elasticity index (SAEI. A significant decline HbA1C and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol were also observed. In the placebo group, significant changes in LAEI, SAEI or metabolic measures were not observed. Conclusions Antioxidant supplementation significantly increased large and small artery elasticity in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. This beneficial vascular effect was associated with an improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism as well as decrease in blood pressure.

  16. In Vitro Protective Effect and Antioxidant Mechanism of Resveratrol Induced by Dapsone Hydroxylamine in Human Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosyana V Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Dapsone (DDS hydroxylamine metabolites cause oxidative stress- linked adverse effects in patients, such as methemoglobin formation and DNA damage. This study evaluated the ameliorating effect of the antioxidant resveratrol (RSV on DDS hydroxylamine (DDS-NHOH mediated toxicity in vitro using human erythrocytes and lymphocytes. The antioxidant mechanism was also studied using in-silico methods. In addition, RSV provided intracellular protection by inhibiting DNA damage in human lymphocytes induced by DDS-NHOH. However, whilst pretreatment with RSV (10-1000 μM significantly attenuated DDS-NHOH-induced methemoglobinemia, but it was not only significantly less effective than methylene blue (MET, but also post-treatment with RSV did not reverse methemoglobin formation, contrarily to that observed with MET. DDS-NHOH inhibited catalase (CAT activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, but did not alter superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in erythrocytes. Pretreatment with RSV did not alter these antioxidant enzymes activities in erythrocytes treated with DDS-NHOH. Theoretical calculations using density functional theory methods showed that DDS-NHOH has a pro-oxidant effect, whereas RSV and MET have antioxidant effect on ROS. The effect on methemoglobinemia reversion for MET was significantly higher than that of RSV. These data suggest that the pretreatment with resveratrol may decrease heme-iron oxidation and DNA damage through reduction of ROS generated in cells during DDS therapy.

  17. Possible Potentiation by Certain Antioxidants of the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Diclofenac in Rats

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    Samah S. Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the potential beneficial impact of the addition of antioxidant supplements to diclofenac regimen in a model of carrageenan-induced paw. Rats were treated daily with antioxidants, that is, a-lipoic acid (50 mg/kg, selenium (2.5 mg/kg, vitamin C (1 g/kg, vitamin E (300 mg/kg, or zinc (25 mg/kg on seven successive days and then received a single treatment with diclofenac or saline before carrageenan was injected to induce paw inflammation. The results indicated that these combinations did not significantly affect the percentage inhibition of paw edema caused by diclofenac alone; however, some combination treatments ameliorated signs of concomitant oxidative stress (such as alterations in plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels, hemolysate reduced glutathione levels, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase enzyme activities imparted by diclofenac alone. In some cases, few tested antioxidants in combination with diclofenac resulted in increased plasma levels of interleukin- (IL- 6 and C-reactive protein (CRP. In conclusion, the results of these studies suggested to us that the added presence of natural antioxidants could be beneficial as standard anti-inflammatory therapeutics for a patient under diclofenac treatment, albeit that these effects do not appear to significantly build upon those that could be obtained from this common anti-inflammatory agent per se.

  18. Early postpartum pup preference is altered by gestational cocaine treatment: associations with infant cues and oxytocin expression in the MPOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox Lippard, E.T.; Jarett, T.M.; McMurray, M.S.; Zeskind, P.S.; Garber, K.A.; Zoghby, C.R.; Glaze, K.; Tate, W.; Johns, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-fostering studies suggest cocaine-induced deficits in maternal behavior could be associated with altered behavior of offspring following prenatal cocaine-exposure. Neonatal vocalizations are an important offspring cue facilitating early interactions between dam and rodent pup offspring and have been shown to be altered following prenatal cocaine-exposure. It is unclear how variations in acoustic parameters of USVs impact maternal behavior and the mechanism(s) underlying these processes. The present study examined differences in cocaine-exposed and control rodent dam maternal preference of cocaine-exposed or untreated pups in a dual choice apparatus. Relationship of preference-like behavior with pup USVs and dam oxytocin expression was explored. Gestational cocaine-exposure interfered with preference-like behavior of dams on postpartum day 1 with cocaine-exposure associated with decreased time spent on the cocaine-exposed pup side compared to the control pup side, and decreases in preference-like behavior associated in part with decreased number of USVs being emitted by cocaine-exposed pups. On postpartum day 5, decreased oxytocin expression in the medial preoptic area was associated with altered preference-like behavior in cocaine-exposed dams, including frequency and latency to touch/sniff pups. Results indicate cocaine’s effects on the mother-infant relationship is likely synergistic, in that cocaine influences mother and offspring both independently and concertedly and that variations within pup vocalizations and the oxytocin system may be potential mechanism(s) underlying this synergistic relationship during the postpartum period. PMID:25300467

  19. Antioxidant and antidepressant-like activities of semi-synthetic α-phenylseleno citronellal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Francine Novack; Anversa, Roberta; Penteado, Filipe; Castro, Micheli; Lenardão, Eder João; Savegnago, Lucielli

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the antioxidant and antidepressant-like activities of the semi-synthetic compound α-phenylseleno citronellal (PhSeCIT) and the natural terpenoid R-citronellal (CIT) were evaluated. The biological potential of PhSeCIT and CIT was evaluated by antioxidant in vitro assays, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and linoleic acid oxidation. The compounds were also assessed by ex vivo tests to determine the acute toxicity, levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-Ala-D) and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activities. The antidepressant-like activity of compounds in the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) was also investigated. The results demonstrated that the addition of an organoselenium group to (R)-citronellal increased its antioxidant properties, since PhSeCIT showed better activity than CIT. The treatment of mice with both compounds did not cause death of any animals. The levels of TBARS were significantly reduced by PhSeCIT in liver and cortex of animals, whereas CIT did not alter these parameters. In the TST and FST, PhSeCIT showed promising antidepressant-like activity, while CIT was not active in this test. Taken together, these data demonstrate the role of selenium in the antioxidant and antidepressant-like activities of (R)-citronellal.

  20. Long-term artificial sweetener acesulfame potassium treatment alters neurometabolic functions in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wei-na; Wang, Rui; Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Turkin, Rebecca; Wood, William H; Becker, Kevin G; Moaddel, Ruin; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2013-01-01

    With the prevalence of obesity, artificial, non-nutritive sweeteners have been widely used as dietary supplements that provide sweet taste without excessive caloric load. In order to better understand the overall actions of artificial sweeteners, especially when they are chronically used, we investigated the peripheral and central nervous system effects of protracted exposure to a widely used artificial sweetener, acesulfame K (ACK). We found that extended ACK exposure (40 weeks) in normal C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a moderate and limited influence on metabolic homeostasis, including altering fasting insulin and leptin levels, pancreatic islet size and lipid levels, without affecting insulin sensitivity and bodyweight. Interestingly, impaired cognitive memory functions (evaluated by Morris Water Maze and Novel Objective Preference tests) were found in ACK-treated C57BL/6J mice, while no differences in motor function and anxiety levels were detected. The generation of an ACK-induced neurological phenotype was associated with metabolic dysregulation (glycolysis inhibition and functional ATP depletion) and neurosynaptic abnormalities (dysregulation of TrkB-mediated BDNF and Akt/Erk-mediated cell growth/survival pathway) in hippocampal neurons. Our data suggest that chronic use of ACK could affect cognitive functions, potentially via altering neuro-metabolic functions in male C57BL/6J mice. PMID:23950916

  1. Long-term artificial sweetener acesulfame potassium treatment alters neurometabolic functions in C57BL/6J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-na Cong

    Full Text Available With the prevalence of obesity, artificial, non-nutritive sweeteners have been widely used as dietary supplements that provide sweet taste without excessive caloric load. In order to better understand the overall actions of artificial sweeteners, especially when they are chronically used, we investigated the peripheral and central nervous system effects of protracted exposure to a widely used artificial sweetener, acesulfame K (ACK. We found that extended ACK exposure (40 weeks in normal C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a moderate and limited influence on metabolic homeostasis, including altering fasting insulin and leptin levels, pancreatic islet size and lipid levels, without affecting insulin sensitivity and bodyweight. Interestingly, impaired cognitive memory functions (evaluated by Morris Water Maze and Novel Objective Preference tests were found in ACK-treated C57BL/6J mice, while no differences in motor function and anxiety levels were detected. The generation of an ACK-induced neurological phenotype was associated with metabolic dysregulation (glycolysis inhibition and functional ATP depletion and neurosynaptic abnormalities (dysregulation of TrkB-mediated BDNF and Akt/Erk-mediated cell growth/survival pathway in hippocampal neurons. Our data suggest that chronic use of ACK could affect cognitive functions, potentially via altering neuro-metabolic functions in male C57BL/6J mice.

  2. Prophylactic treatment with coenzyme Q10 in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: could an antioxidant reduce complications? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frutos, Fernando; Gea, Alfredo; Hernandez-Estefania, Rafael; Rabago, Gregorio

    2015-02-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a lipid-soluble antioxidant that could have beneficial effects in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. There is no clear evidence about its clinical effects or a systematic review published yet. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to elucidate the role of coenzyme Q10 in preventing complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. We searched the PubMed Database using the following keywords: Coenzyme Q10, ubiquinone, ubiquinol, CoQ10, Heart Surgery, Cardiac surgery. Articles were systematically retrieved, selected, assessed and summarized for this review. We performed separate meta-analyses for different outcomes (inotropic drug requirements after surgery, incidence of ventricular arrhythmias and atrial fibrillation, cardiac index 24 h after surgery and hospital stay), estimating pooled odds ratios (ORs) or mean differences of the association of CoQ10 administration with the risk of these outcomes. Eight clinical trials met our inclusion criteria. Patients with CoQ10 treatment were significantly less likely to require inotropic drugs after surgery {OR [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 (0.27-0.81)]}, and to develop ventricular arrhythmias after surgery [OR (95% CI) 0.05 (0.01-0.31)]. However, CoQ10 treatment was not associated with Cardiac index 24 h after surgery [mean difference (95% CI) 0.06 (-0.30 to 0.43)], hospital stay (days) [mean difference (95% CI) -0.61 (-4.61 to 3.39)] and incidence of atrial fibrillation [OR (95% CI) 1.06 (0.19-6.04)]. Since none of the clinical trials included in this review report any adverse effects associated to CoQ10 administration, and coenzyme Q10 has been demonstrated to be safe even at much higher doses in other studies, we conclude that CoQ10 should be considered as a prophylactic treatment for preventing complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. However, better

  3. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANTS AND LIPID PEROXIDATION STATUS AMONG STUDENTS

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    Anandh T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to estimate the changes in the plasma levels of lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA, non-enzymatic antioxidants: vitamin C and E and enzymatic antioxidant: superoxide dismutase (SOD. The population used were healthy students (100 male, 100 female; mean age 22.4 years, range 18- 25 years. The level of lipid peroxidation was found to be significantly increased among the students which were inversely related to the level of antioxidants (p<0.05. Increased antioxidant levels show a multiple link between fruit and vegetable intake among the study group. Diminished antioxidant status disturbed oxidant-antioxidant balance alleviating oxidative stress state in less fruit and vegetable intake group. Therefore, the alterations in the level of antioxidants in blood plasma could be used as biomarkers for nutritional tribulations.

  4. The Antioxidant Potential of Azadirachta indica Ameliorates Cardioprotection Following Diabetic Mellitus-Induced Microangiopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Naveen Kumar; Srivastva, Nidhi; Bubber, Parvesh; Puri, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiac complications associated with diabetes mellitus have become major cause of concern. Antidiabetic drugs, with varied mode of action, are although available, apprehensions exist for their limited action or side effects upon prolonged use. Efforts are therefore inclined toward finding other alternatives. The present study was, thus, undertaken to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of Azadirachta indica (AI) on microangiopathic changes in rat model of diabetes. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in male rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight). Seven days after glucose levels are stabilized, aqueous leaf extract of AI (ALE) (600 mg/kg1 body weight) was administered orally to diabetic animals every day for 7 days. Results: High blood glucose characterizing diabetes in these animals was found to show increased lipid peroxidation (LPO), altered antioxidant biomarkers together with microangiopathic alterations. The treatment of diabetic rats with ALE reduced the levels of blood glucose, LPO, and restored the activities of antioxidant enzyme. Light and transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed reduced necrotic areas and inflammation in tissue architecture of ALE treated heart in comparison to untreated diabetic group. Conclusion: AI provides cardioprotection by ameliorating oxidative stress in rat model of diabetic mellitus. SUMMARY The streptozotocin (STZ) treatment (60 mg/kg body weight) to animals induced diabetic changes such as elevated blood glucose levels, decreased body weight, altered lipid profiles together with development of proxidant state evidenced by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), depletion in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and altered antioxidant enzymes with consequent microangiopathic alterations in heart tissue evinced by localization of necrotic and inflamed areas in heart tissueThe treatment of animals with Azadirachta indica leaf extract (ALE) (600 mg

  5. Alterations of gene profiles in Leydig-cell-regenerating adult rat testis after ethane dimethane sulfonate-treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fei Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Only occupying about 1%-5% of total testicular cells, the adult Leydig cell (ALC is a unique endocrine cell that produces androgens. Rat Leydig cells regenerate after these cells in the testis are eliminated with ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS. In this study, we have characterized Leydig cell regeneration and messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNA profiles of EDS treated rat testes. Serum testosterone, testicular gene profiling and some steroidogenesis-related proteins were analyzed at 7, 21, 35 and 90 days after EDS treatment. Testicular testosterone levels declined to undetectable levels until 7 days after treatment and then started to recover. Seven days after treatment, 81 mRNAs were down-regulated greater than or equal to two-fold, with 48 becoming undetectable. These genes increased their expression 21 days and completely returned to normal levels 90 days after treatment. The undetectable genes include steroidogenic pathway proteins: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, Scarb1, Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp1b1 and Cyp2a1. Seven days after treatment, there were 89 mRNAs up-regulated two-fold or more including Pkib. These up-regulated mRNAs returned to normal 90 days after treatment. Cyp2a1 did not start to recover until 35 days after treatment, indicating that this gene is only expressed in ALCs not in the precursor cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and semi-quantitative immunohistochemical staining using tissue array confirmed the changes of several randomly picked genes and their proteins.

  6. Thermal post-treatment alters nutrient release from a controlled-release fertilizer coated with a waterborne polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zijun; Du, Changwen; Li, Ting; Shen, Yazhen; Zhou, Jianmin

    2015-09-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) use a controlled-release technology to enhance the nutrient use efficiency of crops. Many factors affect the release of nutrients from the waterborne polymer-coated CRF, but the effects of thermal post-treatments remain unclear. In this study, a waterborne polyacrylate-coated CRF was post-treated at different temperatures (30 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C) and durations (2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h) after being developed in the Wurster fluidized bed. To characterize the polyacrylate membrane, and hence to analyze the mechanism of nutrient release, Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed. The nutrient-release model of CRF post-treated at 30 °C was the inverse “L” curve, but an increased duration of the post-treatment had no effect. The nutrient-release model was “S” curve and nutrient-release period was enhanced at higher post-treatment temperatures, and increased post-treatment duration lengthened slowed nutrient release due to a more compact membrane and a smoother membrane surface as well as a promoted crosslinking action. CRF equipped with specified nutrient-release behaviors can be achieved by optimizing the thermal post-treatment parameters, which can contribute to the development and application of waterborne polymer-coated CRF and controlled-release technologies.

  7. Alternating treatment with didanosine and zidovudine versus either drug alone for the treatment of advanced HIV infection. The Alter Study. Nordic HIV Therapy Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstoft, J; Melander, H; Bruun, J N;

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of an alternating regime with zidovudine and didanosine versus treatment with either drug alone were investigated in a randomized, open, controlled trial, 552 patients with advanced HIV infection, 47% of whom had received prior treatment with zidovudine, were enrolled...

  8. Study of the stress proteins secreted by Leishmania donovani after treatment with edelfosine, mitelfosine and ilmofosine, and morphological alterations analyzed by electronic microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzouz S.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the stress proteins induced in protozoa Leishmania donovani after treatment with edelfosine, miltefosine and ilmofosine. We studied the morphological and structural modifications caused in the promastigote forms of the parasite after treatment with the three alkyl-lysophospholipids (ALPs. A resistant strain of L. donovani to miltefosine was obtained and the morphological modifications were observed. The stress proteins induction was studied in promastigote forms and also in amastigote-like forms obtained in vitro. The proteins synthesized with the three alkyl-lysophospholipids were compared to those obtained by heat shock. The axenic amastigote forms synthesized a pattern of different proteins for those observed in the promastigote forms. The morphological alterations were observed under electronic microscopy. The membrane and mitochondria were the organs most affected by the three ALPs. We noted an apparition of vacuoles and vesicles in the treated promastigotes. In the resistant strain, we noted myelin bodies in the treated and untreated parasites.

  9. The etiology of altered sensation in the inferior alveolar, lingual, and mental nerves as a result of dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrel, M A; Thamby, S

    1999-07-01

    In a review of 163 consecutive patients referred with trigeminal nerve (inferior alveolar or lingual nerve) involvement following dental treatment, the most common etiology was third-molar removal (87 patients). The second most common cause was an inferior alveolar nerve block injection (34 patients), with a smaller number of endodontic and periodontal complications. Female patients outnumbered male 3.3 to 1. Twenty-seven patients were offered surgical exploration and possible nerve repair surgery; of them, 14 underwent surgery. Forty percent of the patients admitted to being involved in litigation during the time they were undergoing treatment. PMID:10530111

  10. Immobilized tannase treatment alters polyphenolic composition in teas and their potential anti-obesity and hypoglycemic activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Bruna Sampaio; Macedo, Gabriela Alves; Macedo, Juliana Alves; Martins, Isabela Mateus; Nakajima, Vânia Mayumi; Allwood, J William; Stewart, Derek; McDougall, Gordon J

    2016-09-14

    The aim of this work was to assess the effect of immobilized-tannase treatment on black, green, white and mate tea components and on their bioactivities relevant to obesity. Tannase treatment caused predictable changes in polyphenol composition with substantial reduction in galloylated catechins in green, white and black tea. Mate tea, which is rich in chlorogenic acids, was much less affected by tannase treatment although some degradation of caffeoyl quinic acid derivatives was noted. The original tea samples were effective in inhibiting digestive enzymes in vitro. They inhibited amylase activity, some with IC50 values ∼70 μg mL(-1), but were much less effective against α-glucosidase. They also inhibited lipase activity in vitro and caused dose-dependent reductions in lipid accumulation in cultured adipocytes. The bio-transformed tea samples generally matched the effectiveness of the original samples but in some cases they were markedly improved. In particular, tannase treatment reduced the IC50 value for amylase inhibition for green tea and white tea by 15- and 6-fold respectively. In addition, the bio-transformed samples were more effective than the original samples in preventing lipid accumulation in adipocytes. These in vitro studies indicate that bio-transformed tea polyphenols could assist in the management of obesity through improvement in energy uptake and lipid metabolism and also indicate that biotechnological modification of natural food molecules can improve the benefits of a common beverage such as tea. PMID:27528497

  11. Effect of Fe Deficiency on Antioxidant System in Leaves of Three Flax Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Abd El-Rahman SALAMA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential role of antioxidant enzymes as well as antioxidant compounds in protecting plant from the deleterious effect of iron deficiency was examined in different flax Linum usitassimum L. cultivars. Three flax cultivars (Sakha 1, Sakha 2 and Giza 8 were grown in water culture with (Fe-sufficient plants, +Fe or without (Fe-deficient plants,-Fe iron supply for 40 days. The obtained results showed that, iron deficiency severely decreased dry weight and concentration of iron in all cultivars leaf tissue. Besides this, to verify whether iron deficiency could induce alteration in reactive oxygen species, high concentration of lipid peroxidation (TBARS and H2O2 content in leaves of flax cultivars were detected under (-Fe compared to (+Fe treatments. Iron deficiency can also modulate the content of glutathione (GSH level, which were significantly increased in Fe deficient treatment compared to Fe-sufficient treatment among cultivars. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD was increased under deficient treatment. In contrast, significant differences were observed between cultivars in the activity of Fe containing enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX, peroxidase (POD and catalase (CAT that was greater under Fe sufficient treatment, suggesting higher amounts of physiological iron in leaf tissue of all cultivars. In addition, some changes in POD isoenzyme profile was detected under iron stress.These results suggested that, these antioxidant compounds are the key compounds to protect cell from oxidative injury.

  12. Lack of long-term behavioral alterations after early postnatal treatment with tropisetron: implications for developmental psychobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inta, Dragos; Vogt, Miriam A; Lima-Ojeda, Juan M; Pfeiffer, Natascha; Schneider, Miriam; Gass, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The early postnatal period represents a critical time window for brain development. Transient Cajal-Retzius cells in layer I of the cortex play an important role in cortical lamination by modulating neuronal migration and maturation. Recent data have demonstrated that the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist and alpha7 nicotinic receptor partial agonist tropisetron, acting via 5-HT(3) receptors expressed on Cajal-Retzius cells, can disturb the formation of cortical columns at perinatal stages. This process is thought to be involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we investigated the possible long-term behavioral effects of exposure to tropisetron at early postnatal stages in mice. We found that the administration of 1mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) tropisetron from postnatal days 2-12 (P2-P12) did not induce significant cognitive, schizophrenia-like or emotional alterations in tropisetron-treated animals as compared to controls, when tested in multiple behavioral assays. These results may be of relevance regarding the possible protracted deleterious neuropsychiatric effects of tropisetron during early life.

  13. Long-term dexamethasone treatment alters the histomorphology of acinar cells in rat parotid and submandibular glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighetti, Bruna B; d Assis, Gerson F; Vieira, Danilo C; Violato, Natalia M; Cestari, Tania M; Taga, Rumio; Bosqueiro, José R; Rafacho, Alex

    2014-10-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) induce insulin resistance (IR), a condition known to alter oral homeostasis. This study investigated the effects of long-term dexamethasone administration on morphofunctional aspects of salivary glands. Male Wistar rats received daily injections of dexamethasone [0.1 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intraperitoneally] for 10 days (DEX), whereas control rats received saline. Subsequently, glycaemia, insulinaemia, insulin secretion and salivary flow were analysed. The parotid and submandibular glands were collected for histomorphometric evaluation and Western blot experiments. The DEX rats were found to be normoglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic, insulin resistant and glucose intolerant (P glands (P salivary flux rate. The hypotrophy in both glands observed in the DEX group was associated with marked reduction in the volume of the acinar cells in these glands of 50% and 26% respectively (P acinar cells was increased in the submandibular glands of the DEX rats (P glands. The levels of proteins related to insulin and survival signalling in both glands did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, the long-term administration of dexamethasone caused IR, which was associated with significant reductions in both mass and flux rate of the salivary glands. The parotid and submandibular glands exhibited reduced acinar cell volume; however, the submandibular glands displayed acinar hyperplasia, indicating a gland-specific response to GCs. Our data emphasize that GC-based therapies and insulin-resistant states have a negative impact on salivary gland homeostasis.

  14. Prenatal minocycline treatment alters synaptic protein expression, and rescues reduced mother call rate in oxytocin receptor-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Shinji; Hiraoka, Yuichi; Hidema, Shizu; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2016-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired communication, difficulty in companionship, repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Recent studies have shown amelioration of ASD symptoms by intranasal administration of oxytocin and demonstrated the association of polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) gene with ASD patients. Deficient pruning of synapses by microglial cells in the brain has been proposed as potential mechanism of ASD. Other researchers have shown specific activation of microglial cells in brain regions related to sociality in patients with ASD. Although the roles of Oxtr and microglia in ASD are in the spotlight, the relationship between them remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found abnormal activation of microglial cells and a reduction of postsynaptic density protein PSD95 expression in the Oxtr-deficient brain. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of microglia during development can alter the expression of PSD95 and ameliorate abnormal mother-infant communication in Oxtr-deficient mice. Our results suggest that microglial abnormality is a potential mechanism of the development of Oxt/Oxtr mediated ASD-like phenotypes. PMID:26926566

  15. Cutaneous delivery of natural antioxidants: the enhancement approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Hsu, Ching-Yun; Lin, Yin-Ku; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    Topically applied natural antioxidants can be an effective treatment for inhibiting oxidative damage and photoaging of the skin. Due to the barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC), it is necessary to use an enhancement approach to promote the cutaneous absorption of natural antioxidants. Some factors that should be considered when developing delivery systems for natural antioxidants include increased solubility, enhanced storage stability, improved permeability and bioavailability, skin targeting, and minimal side effects. This review describes the skin delivery systems for natural antioxidant permeation that have been developed during the last decade. The antioxidants introduced include vitamins, polyphenols, and carotenoids. Various types of formulations are employed to improve the skin penetration of the antioxidants, such as hydrogels, cyclodextrin, microemulsions, nanoparticles, liposomes and niosomes. This review focuses on the introduction of natural antioxidants used in skin protection, the mechanisms of antioxidant activity on the skin, and formulation designs for enhancing absorption and efficacy.

  16. Cutaneous delivery of natural antioxidants: the enhancement approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Hsu, Ching-Yun; Lin, Yin-Ku; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    Topically applied natural antioxidants can be an effective treatment for inhibiting oxidative damage and photoaging of the skin. Due to the barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC), it is necessary to use an enhancement approach to promote the cutaneous absorption of natural antioxidants. Some factors that should be considered when developing delivery systems for natural antioxidants include increased solubility, enhanced storage stability, improved permeability and bioavailability, skin targeting, and minimal side effects. This review describes the skin delivery systems for natural antioxidant permeation that have been developed during the last decade. The antioxidants introduced include vitamins, polyphenols, and carotenoids. Various types of formulations are employed to improve the skin penetration of the antioxidants, such as hydrogels, cyclodextrin, microemulsions, nanoparticles, liposomes and niosomes. This review focuses on the introduction of natural antioxidants used in skin protection, the mechanisms of antioxidant activity on the skin, and formulation designs for enhancing absorption and efficacy. PMID:25925121

  17. Celecoxib Treatment Alters p53 and MDM2 Expression via COX-2 Crosstalk in A549 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharghabi, Mehdi; Rezaei, Farhang; Mir Mohammadrezaei, Fereshteh; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of the lung cancer. It is known that COX-2 negatively regulates the activity of a number of tumor suppressors, including p53. Consequently, inhibition of COX-2 signaling is anticipated to be a promising approach to stabilize p53 functionality. In this regard, we investigated the effect of COX-2 signaling blockade on p53 and COX-2expression in A549 cells. Cell viability was assessed using MTT and protein expression was measured using Western Blot assay. Results revealed that Celecoxib dose-dependently induced growth inhibition within 24 h. However, prolonged exposure to the drug up to 48 h led to increase cell viability compared to the corresponding control. Western blot analysis demonstrated that Celecoxib could augment p53 expression within 24 h, independently of COX-2 inhibition. In contrast, Celecoxib treatment not only returned p53 to the control level, but also strikingly induced COX-2 expression within 48 h. Of further relevance, Celecoxib exposure could significantly result in MDM2 elevation at 48 h. These findings represent p53 as a molecular target being interconnected with COX-2 signaling axis upon Celecoxib treatment. Moreover, our data point toward the possibility that Celecoxib treatment may not be a proper therapeutic strategy in lung cancer cells owing to its potential role in the activation of oncogenes, including COX-2 and MDM2 which seemingly confers a chemoresistance circumstance to the cell. Consequently, these results underscore intensive preclinical assessment prior to applying COX-2 inhibitors in the treatment of lung tumors. PMID:27642319

  18. Effects of Hg(II) exposure on MAPK phosphorylation and antioxidant system in D. melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, M T; Zemolin, A P; Vargas, A P; Golombieski, R M; Loreto, E L S; Saidelles, A P; Picoloto, R S; Flores, E M M; Pereira, A B; Rocha, J B T; Merritt, T J S; Franco, J L; Posser, T

    2014-06-01

    The heavy metal mercury is a known toxin, but while the mechanisms involved in mercury toxicity have been well demonstrated in vertebrates, little is known about toxicological effects of this metal in invertebrates. Here, we present the results of our study investigating the effects associated with exposure of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to inorganic mercury (HgCl2 ). We quantify survival and locomotor performance as well as a variety of biochemical parameters including antioxidant status, MAPK phosphorylation and gene expression following mercury treatment. Our results demonstrate that exposure to Hg(II) through diet induced mortality and affected locomotor performance as evaluated by negative geotaxis, in D. melanogaster. We also saw a significant impact on the antioxidant system including an inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (Ache), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. We found no significant alteration in the levels of mRNA of antioxidant enzymes or NRF-2 transcriptional factor, but did detect a significant up regulation of the HSP83 gene. Mercury exposure also induced the phosphorylation of JNK and ERK, without altering p38(MAPK) and the concentration of these kinases. In parallel, Hg(II) induced PARP cleavage in a 89 kDa fragment, suggesting the triggering of apoptotic cell death in response to the treatment. Taken together, this data clarifies and extends our understanding of the molecular mechanisms mediating Hg(II) toxicity in an invertebrate model. PMID:22700419

  19. Assessment of the effect of silicon on antioxidant enzymes in cotton plants by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto Moldes, Carlos; Fontão de Lima Filho, Oscar; Manuel Camiña, José; Gabriela Kiriachek, Soraya; Lia Molas, María; Mui Tsai, Siu

    2013-11-27

    Silicon has been extensively researched in relation to the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stress, as an element triggering defense mechanisms which activate the antioxidant system. Furthermore, in some species, adding silicon to unstressed plants modifies the activity of certain antioxidant enzymes participating in detoxifying processes. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves and roots of unstressed cotton plants fertilized with silicon (Si). Cotton plants were grown in hydroponic culture and added with increasing doses of potassium silicate; then, the enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Using multivariate analysis, we found that silicon altered the activity of GPOX, APX, and CAT in roots and leaves of unstressed cotton plants, whereas lipid peroxidation was not affected. The analysis of these four variables in concert showed a clear differentiation among Si treatments. We observed that enzymatic activities in leaves and roots changed as silicon concentration increased, to stabilize at 100 and 200 mg Si L(-1) treatments in leaves and roots, respectively. Those alterations would allow a new biochemical status that could be partially responsible for the beneficial effects of silicon. This study might contribute to adjust the silicon application doses for optimal fertilization, preventing potential toxic effects and unnecessary cost.

  20. Antioxidant treatment strategies for hyperphenylalaninemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzola, Priscila Nicolao; Karikas, George Albert; Schulpis, Kleopatra H; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo

    2013-01-01

    Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) leads to increased oxidative stress in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) and in animal models of PKU. Early diagnosis and immediate adherence to a phenylalanine-restricted diet prevents HPA and, consequently, severe brain damage. However, treated adolescent and adult PK

  1. Efficacy of the natural antioxidant astaxanthin in the treatment of functional dyspepsia in patients with or without Helicobacter pylori infection: a prospective, randomized, double blind, and placebo-controlled study5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupcinskas, L.; Lafolie, P.; Lignell, A.;

    2008-01-01

    OUTCOME: The primary objective was to test the hypothesis that the antioxidant astaxanthin at two doses regimens compared to placebo should ameliorate gastrointestinal discomfort measured as GSRS in patients with functional dyspepsia, who were either positive or negative for Helicobacter pylori, after 4...... weeks of treatment. RESULTS: At the end of therapy (week 4) no difference between the three treatment groups was observed regarding mean Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) scores of abdominal pain, indigestion and reflux syndromes. The same results were observed at the end of follow......-up. However reduction of reflux syndrome before treatment to week 4 was significantly pronounced in the higher (40mg) dose compared to the other treatment groups (16mg and placebo, p=0.04). CONCLUSION: In general, no curative effect of astaxanthin was found in functional dyspepsia patients. Significantly...

  2. The use of antioxidants in radiotherapy-induced skin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amber, Kyle T; Shiman, Michael I; Badiavas, Evangelos V

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced skin damage is one of the most common complications of radiotherapy. In order to combat these side effects, patients often turn to alternative therapies, which often include antioxidants. Antioxidants such as those in the polyphenol chemical class, xanthine derivatives, tocepherol, sucralfate, and ascorbate have been studied for their use in either preventing or treating radiotherapy-induced skin damage. Apart from their known role as free radical scavengers, some of these antioxidants appear to alter cytokine release affecting cutaneous and systemic changes. We review the role of antioxidants in treating and preventing radiation-induced skin damage as well as the possible complications of using such therapy.

  3. A preliminary analysis of association between plasma microRNA expression alteration and symptomatology improvement in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD patients before and after antidepressant treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qiao-li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Currently, there is a serious need to find practical biomarker(s for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD therapeutic target(s. This study aimed to investigate the association between microRNA (miRNA, miR expression level in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs and symptomatology improvement in MDD patients before and after six-week antidepressant treatment. Methods: By using an Affymetrix array that covers 723 human miRNAs, 26 miRNAs were identified with significantly altered expression in PBMCs in MDD patients, of which 10 miRNAs were selected for quantitative real-time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR study. Twenty out of all the 81 MDD patients were selected for miRNA expression levels testing and symptomatology assessments before and after six-week treatment. Results: Compared with the control group, the expression levels of miR-26b, miR-4743, miR-4498, miR-4485 and miR-1972 of the MDD group were significantly higher (P < 0.05; the changes of expression levels of miR-4743, miR-4498, miR-4485 and miR-1972 were positively related to retardation improvement (P < 0.05, and the change of expression level of miR-26b negatively to the improvement of day and night change (P < 0.05; regression analysis result demonstrated that the alteration of miR-4485 expression accounted for 28.8% of retardation improvement (P < 0.05. Conclusions: These five miRNAs (miR-4743, miR-4498, miR-4485, miR-1972 and miR-26b may serve as biomarker for MDD diagnosis and therapeutic targets for MDD treatment.

  4. Thermal post-treatment alters nutrient release from a controlled-release fertilizer coated with a waterborne polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Zijun Zhou; Changwen Du; Ting Li; Yazhen Shen; Jianmin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) use a controlled-release technology to enhance the nutrient use efficiency of crops. Many factors affect the release of nutrients from the waterborne polymer-coated CRF, but the effects of thermal post-treatments remain unclear. In this study, a waterborne polyacrylate-coated CRF was post-treated at different temperatures (30 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C) and durations (2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h) after being developed in the Wurster fluidized bed. To characterize the ...

  5. Altered efficacy of AT1R-targeted treatment after spontaneous cancer cell-AT1R upregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targeting of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) reduces tumour growth in experimental models of cancer. We aimed to establish if combined targeting of the 'classical' and 'alternative' arms of the RAS could result in synergistic inhibition of colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases. Immediately following induction of CRC liver metastases through intrasplenic injection of murine CRC cells, treatment with irbesartan (AT1R blocker; 50 mg/kg/day s.c.), captopril (ACE inhibitor; 750 mg/kg/day i.p.), CGP42112A (AT2R agonist; 0.6 μg/kg/hr i.p.), and/or ANG-(1-7) (24 μg/kg/hr i.p.) began and continued for 21 days. Liver to body weight ratio and/or stereology were used as a measure of tumour burden. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine AT1R and VEGF expression as well as proliferation (Ki67), apoptosis (active caspase 3) and angiogenesis (CD34). Combined RAS therapies failed to improve upon single arm therapies. However, while irbesartan previously inhibited tumour growth in this model, in the current experiments irbesartan failed to affect tumour burden. Subsequent analysis showed a cancer-cell specific upregulation of the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) in irbesartan-insensitive compared to irbesartan-sensitive tumours. The upregulation of AT1R was associated with an increase in proliferation and VEGF expression by cancer cells. While animals bearing irbesartan-sensitive tumours showed a marked decrease in the number of proliferating cells in the liver and VEGF-expressing infiltrating cells in the tumour following AT1R treatment, these were unchanged by treatment in animals bearing irbesartan-insensitive (high AT1R expressing) tumours. Although the results do not support increased efficacy of combined treatment, they provide intriguing evidence of the importance of RAS expression in determining patient response and tumour growth potential and suggest that components of the RAS could be used as biomarkers to aid in patient selection

  6. Antioxidant-Induced Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Kross

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in the body is offset when either of these forces prevails. The available evidence on the harmful effects of antioxidants is analyzed in this review. In summary, a hypothesis is presented that “antioxidant-induced stress” results when antioxidants overwhelm the body’s free radicals.

  7. Progress in study of antioxidant effects of Coptis chinensis and its major contributions to diabetes treatment/therapy%黄连抗氧化作用与糖尿病的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩; 梁晓春

    2015-01-01

    Coptis chinensis,a traditional Chinese medicine,has been found to have multiple pharmacological effects recently.Some research showed that C.chinensis has antioxidant effects,including scavenging oxygen free radicals,alleviating lipid peroxidation,enhancing activity of antioxidant enzymes,et al.C.chinensis may inhibit several classical pathological pathways in diabetes.C.chinensis is a potential medicine to prevent and treat diabetes mellitus and its complications.This review focuses on the recent research progress in the study of antioxidant effects of C.chinensis and its major contributions to diabetes treatment/therapy.%黄连为我国传统中药,现代研究发现黄连具有多种药理作用.黄连具有抗氧化作用,可能通过清除氧自由基、减轻脂质过氧化反应、增强抗氧化酶活性等途径对抗高糖诱导的氧化应激损伤,同时可以抑制糖尿病多个经典病理途径的损伤,对于防治糖尿病及慢性并发症具有良好的应用前景.该文对黄连及其主要成分的抗氧化作用与糖尿病的相关研究进展进行综述.

  8. Alterations in plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation promoted by treatment with self-ligating and conventional orthodontic brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida; Saraiva, Patrícia Pinto; Maltagliati, Liliana Ávila; Rhoden, Fernando Kleinübing; Costa, Carla Cristina Alvarenga; Normando, David; Capelozza, Leopoldino

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate, comparatively, the periodontal response during orthodontic treatment performed with self-ligating and conventional brackets. METHODS: Sixteen Caucasian individuals of both sexes, aged between 12 and 16 years old and in permanent dentition were selected. Eight individuals were treated with conventional brackets installed on the lower dental arch and self-ligating brackets on the upper arch. Another eight individuals received self-ligating brackets in the lower arch and conventional brackets in the upper arch. The subjects received material and instructions for oral hygiene. Visible plaque index (VPI), gingival bleeding index (GBI) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were evaluated just after installation of orthodontic appliances, and 30, 60 and 180 days later. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare differences between groups (self-ligating and conventional), two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test was used to assess CAL at each site of each tooth. Significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: No significant changes were found with regard to the assessed parameters (VPI, GBI and CAL) in either one of the systems. CONCLUSION: No significant changes were found with regard to the periodontal response to orthodontic treatment for the variables assessed and between subjects receiving passive self-ligating and conventional brackets. All individuals had received oral hygiene instructions and had their periodontal conditions monitored. PMID:25992985

  9. Altered expression of sphingosine kinase 1 and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 in mouse hippocampus after kainic acid treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Jeong, Eun Ae [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Health Sciences, Medical Research Center for Neural Dysfunction, Biomedical Center (BK21), Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon Soo; Cho, Yong Woon [Department of Neurosurgery, Masan Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Masan, Gyeongnam 630-723 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Joon; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Health Sciences, Medical Research Center for Neural Dysfunction, Biomedical Center (BK21), Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Gu Seob, E-mail: anaroh@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Health Sciences, Medical Research Center for Neural Dysfunction, Biomedical Center (BK21), Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-12

    Kainic acid (KA) induces hippocampal cell death and astrocyte proliferation. There are reports that sphingosine kinase (SPHK)1 and sphingosine-1- phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1P{sub 1}) signaling axis controls astrocyte proliferation. Here we examined the temporal changes of SPHK1/S1P{sub 1} in mouse hippocampus during KA-induced hippocampal cell death. Mice were killed at 2, 6, 24, or 48 h after KA (30 mg/kg) injection. There was an increase in Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells in the hippocampus of KA-treated mice with temporal changes of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. The lowest level of SPHK1 protein expression was found 2 h after KA treatment. Six hours after KA treatment, the expression of SPHK1 and S1P{sub 1} proteins steadily increased in the hippocampus. In immunohistochemical analysis, SPHK1 and S1P{sub 1} are more immunoreactive in astrocytes within the hippocampus of KA-treated mice than in hippocampus of control mice. These results indicate that SPHK1/S1P{sub 1} signaling axis may play an important role in astrocytes proliferation during KA-induced excitotoxicity.

  10. Alterations of blood flow pattern after triple stent endovascular treatment of saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm: a porcine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAHIR RICHARD DE OLIVEIRA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to determine the blood flow pattern changes after endovascular treatment of saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm with triple stent. Methods: we conducted a hemodynamic study of seven Landrace and Large White pigs with saccular aneurysms of the infrarenal abdominal aorta artificially produced according to the technique described. The animals were subjected to triple stenting for endovascular aneurysm. We evaluated the pattern of blood flow by duplex scan before and after stent implantation. We used the non-paired Mann-Whitney test for statistical analysis. Results: there was a significant decrease in the average systolic velocity, from 127.4cm/s in the pre-stent period to 69.81cm/s in the post-stent phase. There was also change in the flow pattern from turbulent in the aneurysmal sac to laminate intra-stent. Conclusion: there were changes in the blood flow pattern of saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm after endovascular treatment with triple stent.

  11. Altered expression of sphingosine kinase 1 and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 in mouse hippocampus after kainic acid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainic acid (KA) induces hippocampal cell death and astrocyte proliferation. There are reports that sphingosine kinase (SPHK)1 and sphingosine-1- phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1P1) signaling axis controls astrocyte proliferation. Here we examined the temporal changes of SPHK1/S1P1 in mouse hippocampus during KA-induced hippocampal cell death. Mice were killed at 2, 6, 24, or 48 h after KA (30 mg/kg) injection. There was an increase in Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells in the hippocampus of KA-treated mice with temporal changes of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. The lowest level of SPHK1 protein expression was found 2 h after KA treatment. Six hours after KA treatment, the expression of SPHK1 and S1P1 proteins steadily increased in the hippocampus. In immunohistochemical analysis, SPHK1 and S1P1 are more immunoreactive in astrocytes within the hippocampus of KA-treated mice than in hippocampus of control mice. These results indicate that SPHK1/S1P1 signaling axis may play an important role in astrocytes proliferation during KA-induced excitotoxicity.

  12. Alterations in plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation promoted by treatment with self-ligating and conventional orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio de Almeida Cardoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate, comparatively, the periodontal response during orthodontic treatment performed with self-ligating and conventional brackets. METHODS: Sixteen Caucasian individuals of both sexes, aged between 12 and 16 years old and in permanent dentition were selected. Eight individuals were treated with conventional brackets installed on the lower dental arch and self-ligating brackets on the upper arch. Another eight individuals received self-ligating brackets in the lower arch and conventional brackets in the upper arch. The subjects received material and instructions for oral hygiene. Visible plaque index (VPI, gingival bleeding index (GBI and clinical attachment level (CAL were evaluated just after installation of orthodontic appliances, and 30, 60 and 180 days later. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare differences between groups (self-ligating and conventional, two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test was used to assess CAL at each site of each tooth. Significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: No significant changes were found with regard to the assessed parameters (VPI, GBI and CAL in either one of the systems. CONCLUSION: No significant changes were found with regard to the periodontal response to orthodontic treatment for the variables assessed and between subjects receiving passive self-ligating and conventional brackets. All individuals had received oral hygiene instructions and had their periodontal conditions monitored.

  13. Does the Use of Telemental Health Alter the Treatment Experience? Inmates' Perceptions of Telemental Health versus Face-to-Face Treatment Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Robert D.; Patrick, Amber R.; Magaletta, Philip R.

    2008-01-01

    In corrections, where staffing limitations tax an overburdened mental health system, telemental health is an increasingly common mode of mental health service delivery. Although telemental health presents an efficient treatment modality for a spectrum of mental health services, it is imperative to study how this modality influences key elements of…

  14. Treatment with rhDNase in patients with cystic fibrosis alters in-vitro CHIT-1 activity of isolated leucocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckmann, M; Schultheiss, C; Hollaender, A; Bobis, I; Rupp, J; Kopp, M V

    2016-09-01

    Recent data suggest a possible relationship between cystic fibrosis (CF) pharmacotherapy, Aspergillus fumigatus colonization (AC) and/or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The aim of this study was to determine if anti-fungal defence mechanisms are influenced by CF pharmacotherapy, i.e. if (1) neutrophils form CF and non-CF donors differ in their ability to produce chitotriosidase (CHIT-1); (2) if incubation of isolated neutrophils with azithromycin, salbutamol, prednisolone or rhDNase might influence the CHIT-1 activity; and (3) if NETosis and neutrophil killing efficiency is influenced by rhDNase. Neutrophils were isolated from the blood of CF patients (n = 19; mean age 26·8 years or healthy, non-CF donors (n = 20; 38·7 years) and stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), azithromycin, salbutamol, prednisolone or rhDNase. CHIT-1 enzyme activity was measured with a fluorescent substrate. NETosis was induced by PMA and neutrophil killing efficiency was assessed by a hyphae recovery assay. Neutrophil CHIT-1 activity was comparable in the presence or absence of PMA stimulation in both CF and non-CF donors. PMA stimulation and preincubation with rhDNase increased CHIT-1 activity in culture supernatants from non-CF and CF donors. However, this increase was significant in non-CF donors but not in CF patients (P < 0·05). RhDNase reduced the number of NETs in PMA-stimulated neutrophils and decreased the killing efficiency of leucocytes in our in-vitro model. Azithromycin, salbutamol or prednisolone had no effect on CHIT-1 activity. Stimulation of isolated leucocytes with PMA and treatment with rhDNase interfered with anti-fungal defence mechanisms. However, the impact of our findings for treatment in CF patients needs to be proved in a clinical cohort. PMID:27324468

  15. Use of antioxidants in urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allameh, Zahra; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Pyelonephritis is an inflammatory process, and oxidative stress plays a major role in it. Anti-inflammatory or antioxidant therapy given concomitantly with antibiotics should lower the risk of postpyelonephritic scarring. As the lack of review studies in the use of antioxidants in urinary tract infections was detected, this study was designed. We conducted a review of available articles in PubMed and Google Scholar with a simple review, using keywords of "antioxidant" and "pyelonephritis" with all their possible synonyms and combinations. Only interventional studies were collected. There were neither limitations on time, nor the location of the study, type of subjects, administration rout of the antioxidant drug, and the antioxidant drug used. After studying the abstracts or in some cases the full text of articles, they were categorized based on the type of antioxidant, type and number of subjects, rout of administration, dosing, duration of treatment, year of publication of the paper, and the results. A total of 66 articles published from 1991 to 2015 were found by studying just the title of the papers. Studying the abstracts reduced this number to 51 studies. Antioxidants used for this condition were Vitamins A, E, and C, cytoflavin, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, ebselen, allopurinol, melatonin, N-acetylcysteine, oleuropein, montelukast, oxytocin, ozon, dapsone, pentoxifyllin, tadalafil, bilirubin, cranberry, meloxicam, L-carnitine, colchicine, perfluoran, methylprednisolone, and dexamethasone. Studies show that antioxidants are capable of reducing oxidative stress and can be used effectively along with antibiotics to reduce the scar formation. PMID:27162800

  16. Circadian Disruption Alters the Effects of Lipopolysaccharide Treatment on Circadian and Ultradian Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature Rhythms of Female Siberian Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Brian J; Cable, Erin J; Stevenson, Tyler J; Onishi, Kenneth G; Zucker, Irving; Kay, Leslie M

    2015-12-01

    The effect of circadian rhythm (CR) disruption on immune function depends on the method by which CRs are disrupted. Behavioral and thermoregulatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment were assessed in female Siberian hamsters in which circadian locomotor activity (LMA) rhythms were eliminated by exposure to a disruptive phase-shifting protocol (DPS) that sustains arrhythmicity even when hamsters are housed in a light-dark cycle. This noninvasive treatment avoids genome manipulations and neurological damage associated with other models of CR disruption. Circadian rhythmic (RHYTH) and arrhythmic (ARR) hamsters housed in a 16L:8D photocycle were injected with bacterial LPS near the onset of the light (zeitgeber time 1; ZT1) or dark (ZT16) phase. LPS injections at ZT16 and ZT1 elicited febrile responses in both RHYTH and ARR hamsters, but the effect was attenuated in the arrhythmic females. In ZT16, LPS inhibited LMA in the dark phase immediately after injection but not on subsequent nights in both chronotypes; in contrast, LPS at ZT1 elicited more enduring (~4 day) locomotor hypoactivity in ARR than in RHYTH hamsters. Power and period of dark-phase ultradian rhythms (URs) in LMA and Tb were markedly altered by LPS treatment, as was the power in the circadian waveform. Disrupted circadian rhythms in this model system attenuated responses to LPS in a trait- and ZT-specific manner; changes in UR period and power are novel components of the acute-phase response to infection that may affect energy conservation.

  17. Antioxidant-Induced Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Robert D. Kross; Cleva Villanueva

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in the body is offset when either of these forces prevails. The available evidence on the harmful effects of antioxidants is analyzed in this review. In summary, a hypothesis is presented that...

  18. Antioxidants in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varadraj V Pai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants neutralize free radicals produced by various environmental insults such as ultraviolet radiation, cigarette smoke and air pollutants, thereby preventing cellular damage. The role of oxidative stress and antioxidants is known in diseases like obesity, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer′s disease. Herein we discuss the effects of oxidative stress on the skin and role of antioxidants in dermatology.

  19. Antioxidants in dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Varadraj V Pai; Pankaj Shukla; Naveen Narayanshetty Kikkeri

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants neutralize free radicals produced by various environmental insults such as ultraviolet radiation, cigarette smoke and air pollutants, thereby preventing cellular damage. The role of oxidative stress and antioxidants is known in diseases like obesity, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer′s disease. Herein we discuss the effects of oxidative stress on the skin and role of antioxidants in dermatology.

  20. Experiment Study of The Anti-Oxidative Treatment in Biliary Tract with Pancreaticobiliary Maljunction%胰胆管合流异常胆道损伤抗氧化治疗的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈风; 汤琳; 汪健; 黄顺根; 王兴东

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of anti-oxidative treatment in cats with pancreaticobiliary maljunction. Methods Thirteen healthy cats as control group were made a model that resembling the common channel of pancreaticobiliary maljunction as in humans, and were divided randomly into two groups: 7 cats in untreated group were not treated, 6 cats in anti-oxidative group were treated with melatonin, vitamin C, and vitamin E. Six months later, the gallbladders of these animals were removed and histopathological changes were evaluated by pathological and electron microscopic examination. The level of MDA, amylase concentration in the gallbladder bile, and percentage of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PNCA) positive cells were also test. Results All cats had survived for 6 months after operation. The wall of gallbladder and the bile became thicker in untreated group than that in normal control group, and there were no significant differences between untreated group and anti-oxidative group. The gallbladder epithelium became villous in appearance in untreated group, although the epithelium of that in normal control group was flat with few folds. The epithelial cells of gallbladder arranged tightly in normal control group, while a significant change such as endoplasmic reticulum expanding, intercellular space broadening, and cellular nucleus deforming were observed in untreated group. The things in anti-oxidative group were better than untreated group. The amylase concentration in the gallbladder bile was (203. 02 + 65. 04) U in normal control group, (9 368. 09+2 204. 42) U in untreated group, and (8 746. 25+2 077. 95) U in anti-oxidative group, respectively. The amylase concentration in untreated group and anti-oxidative group were higher than that in normal control group (P=0.003), and there was no significant difference between the untreated group and anti-oxidative group CP=0. 642) . The percentage of PNCA positive cells was (7. 29+2. 70) % in normal control

  1. Topical antioxidants in radiodermatitis: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T

    2015-09-01

    Radiation-induced skin toxicity is the most prevalent side effect of radiation therapy. Not only does it have a significant effect on patients' quality of life, but it also results in poor follow-up and early termination of radiotherapy treatment. Several skin care practices and topical applications have been studied in the field of radiodermatitis, including skin washing, topical steroids, and mechanical skin barriers. Aside from these methods, many patients turn to complementary and alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. Many of these alternative therapies are topically applied antioxidants. While the rationale behind the use of antioxidants in treating radiodermatitis is strong, clinical studies have been far less consistent. Even in large scale randomised controlled trials, findings have been limited by the inconsistent use of topical vehicles and placebos. In this article, the authors review the role of topical antioxidants to better help the practitioner navigate through different available skin directed antioxidants.

  2. Effects of Cooking Treatment on Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols in Jujube%烹饪方式对红枣多酚抗氧化活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毕妮; 樊明涛; 曹炜; 高慧; 程妮; 邓建军

    2011-01-01

    研究了不同烹饪方式(高压蒸、煮及常压蒸、煮)对红枣枣皮、枣肉中多酚粗提物及4种存在形式酚酸部分的总酚含量及抗氧化活性的影响。采用Folin-Ciocalteu比色法测定其总酚含量、DPPH法和FRAP法分别评价其抗氧化活性。结果表明:高压蒸煮较常压处理红枣中的总酚含量较高,尤其是枣肉;常压煮制红枣的枣皮和枣肉中酚酸类化合物的总酚含量均最高。常压蒸制处理的红枣枣皮的DPPH·清除能力和总抗氧化能力均较强,而高压蒸制处理的红枣枣肉的DPPH·清除能力较强,常压煮制的红枣枣肉总抗氧化能力较强。红枣中总酚尤其是酚酸类化合物对其抗氧化活性起了很大的作用。红枣若采用高压烹饪方式,蒸制处理能较好地保存红枣中的酚类化合物及抗氧化活性;若采用常压烹饪方式,则煮制较好。%The effects of different cooking methods(high-pressure cooking,steam and boiling under normal pressure) on the total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of the extracts from jujube were investigated.The total phenolic contents were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method,and the antioxidant activity were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assays.The results showed that the total phenolic content in jujube extracts treated by high-pressure cooking and steam is higher than that by pressure treatments,especially in the pulp of jujube.But the total phenolic acids contents in the peel and pulp of jujube treated by pressure cooking are higher.The peel of jujube treated by pressure steam exhibits the highest DPPH· scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity.The DPPH · scavenging activity of jujube pulp from high - pressure steam is stronger,while the total antioxidant activity of pulp from pressure cooking is higher.The total phenolics especially the phenolic acids play an important role in the antioxidant activity.If jujube is treated by high-pressure treatments

  3. Bound Phenolics of Quinoa Seeds Released by Acid, Alkaline, and Enzymatic Treatments and Their Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase and Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Zhang, Bing; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2016-03-01

    Unextractable phenolics from plant foods and their role in health benefits have become increasingly important. Meal residues of three quinoa seeds free of fat and extractable phenolics were subjected to acid, alkaline, and enzymatic hydrolyses. The total and individual phenolic compounds released were analyzed, and 19 phenolics, predominantly phenolic acids and several flavonoids, were identified. The concentration of bound phenolics was highest in black quinoa followed by red and white, regardless of the hydrolysis method. Higher phenolic contents also showed stronger antioxidant activities and inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase activities. Carbohydrases, that is, pectinase, xylanase and feruloyl esterase, which effectively liberated bound phenolics are known to be secreted by colonic bacteria, suggesting potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by these compounds in the large intestine during colonic fermentation. These results can also be applied to treat foods high in bound phenolics to enhance bioaccessibility. PMID:26853559

  4. Altered protein markers related to neural plasticity and motor function following electro-acupuncture treatment in rat model of ischemic-hypoxic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Zhang; Liping Zou

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that acupuncture treatment could ameliorate impaired motor function, and these positive effects might be due to neural plasticity. OBJECTIVE: Myelin basic protein (MBP), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), and synaptophysin (SYN) were selected as markers of neural remodeling, and expression of these markers was evaluated with regard to altered motor function following brain injury and acupuncture treatment. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A completely randomized experiment was performed at the Central Laboratory of Peking University First Hospital from November 2006 to May 2007. MATERIALS: Twenty-four Sprague Dawley rat pups, aged 7 days, were selected for the present experiment. The left common carotid artery was ligated to establish a rat model of ischemic-hypoxic brain injury.METHODS: All animals were randomly divided into three groups: sham operation, model, and electro-acupuncture treatment, with 8 rats in each group. Rats in the model and electro-acupuncture treatment group underwent establishment of ischemic-hypoxic brain injury. Upon model established, rats underwent hypobaric oxygen intervention for 24 hours. Only the left common carotid artery was exposed in rats of the sham operation group, without model establishment or oxygen intervention. The rats in the electro-acupuncture treatment group were treated with electro-acupuncture. One acupuncture needle electrode was inserted into the subcutaneous layer at the Baihui and Dazhui acupoint. The stimulation condition of the electro-acupuncture simulator was set to an amplitude-modulated wave of 0-100% and alternative frequency of 100 cycles/second, as well as frequency-modulated wave of 2-100 Hz and an alternative frequency of 3 cycles/second. Maximal current through the two dectrodes was limited to 3-5 mA. The stimulation lasted for 30 minutes per day for 2 weeks. Rats in the sham operation and model groups were not treated

  5. Attenuation of cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms in kidney of rats intoxicated with carbofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Bhupindervir; Khera, Alka; Sandhir, Rajat

    2012-10-01

    Carbofuran, an anticholinestrase carbamate, is commonly used as an insecticide. Its toxic effect on kidney is less established. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of carbofuran on kidneys and to understand the mechanism involved in its nephrotoxicity. Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups of eight animals each; control animals received sunflower oil (vehicle) and carbofuran exposed animals were treated with carbofuran (1 mg/kg body weight) orally for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, significant increase was observed in urea and creatinine levels in serum along with the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, suggesting nephrotoxicity. The antioxidant defense system of animals treated with carbofuran was altered in terms of increased lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and total thiols and decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase). The results indicate that carbofuran is nephrotoxic and increased oxidative stress appears to be involved in its nephrotoxic effects.

  6. Medium light and medium roast paper-filtered coffee increased antioxidant capacity in healthy volunteers: results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Telma Angelina Faraldo; Monteiro, Marcela Piedade; Mendes, Thaíse Maria Nogueira; Oliveira, Daniela Moura de; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Benites, Cibelem Iribarrem; Vinagre, Carmen Guilherme Christiano de Matos; Mioto, Bruno Mahler; Tarasoutchi, Daniela; Tuda, Vera Lúcia; César, Luiz Antonio Machado; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva

    2012-09-01

    We compared the effects of medium light roast (MLR) and medium roast (MR) paper-filtered coffee on antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in healthy volunteers. In a randomized crossover study, 20 volunteers consumed 482 ± 61 ml/day of MLR or MR for four weeks. Plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), oxidized LDL and 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activity were measured at baseline and after the interventions. MLR had higher chlorogenic acids-(CGA; 334 mg/150 mL) and less caffeine (231 mg/150 ml) than MR had (210 and 244 mg/150 ml, respectively). MLR also had fewer Maillard reaction products (MRP) than MR had. Compared with baseline, subjects had an increase of 21 and 26 % in TAS, 13 and 13 % in CAT, 52 and 75 % in SOD, and 62 and 49 % in GPx after MLR and MR consumption (P < 0.001), respectively. ORAC increased after MLR (P = 0.004). No significant alteration in lipid peroxidation biomarkers was observed. Both coffees had antioxidant effects. Although MLR contained more CGA, there were similar antioxidant effects between the treatments. MRP may have contributed as an antioxidant. These effects may be important in protecting biological systems and reducing the risk of diseases related to oxidative stress. PMID:22766993

  7. Antitumor activity and antioxident role of Bauhinia racemosa against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malaya GUPTA; Upal Kanti MAZUMDER; Ramanathan Sambath KUMAR; Thangavel Siva KUMAR

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the antitumor effect and antioxidant role of Bauhinia racemosa. METHODS: Antitumor activity and antioxidant status of methanol extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) of Bauhinia racemosa stem bark was evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor in mice. Acute and short-term toxicity studies were performed initially in order to ascertain the safety of methanol extract of Bauhinia racemosa (MEBR). After 24 h of tumor inoculation, the extract was administered daily for 14 d. After administration of the last dose followed by 18 h fasting, mice were then sacrificed for observation of antitumor activity. The effect of MEBR on the growth of transplantable murine tumor, life span of EAC bearing hosts and simultaneous alterations in the hematological profile and liver biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes) were estimated. RESULTS: The MEBR showed decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count, and increased the nonviable cell count and mean survival time thereby increasing life span of EAC tumor bearing mice. Hematological profile reverted to more or less normal levels in extract treated mice. Treatment with MEBR decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase. CONCLUSION: The methanol extract of Bauhinia racemosa stem bark exhibited antitumor effect by modulating lipid peroxidation and augmenting antioxidant defense system in EAC bearing mice.

  8. Cryopreservation of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Alters Their Viability and Subpopulation Composition but Not Their Treatment Effects in a Rodent Stroke Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The systemic administration of autologous bone marrow (BM derived mononuclear cells (MNCs is under investigation as a novel therapeutic modality for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Autologous applications raise the possibility that MNCs could potentially be stored as a banked source. There have been no studies that investigate the effects of cryopreservation of BM-MNCs on their functional abilities in stroke models. In the present study, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo for 60 minutes and then divided into two treatment groups: fresh MNCs versus cryopreserved MNCs. BM-MNCs were collected at 22 hours after MCAo and were stored in liquid nitrogen for 12 months in cryopreserved MNCs group. BM-MNCs cellular viability, composition, and phenotype of the various subpopulations of mice BM-MNCs were evaluated by flow cytometry, and the behavioral recovery of stroke animals was tested with freshly harvested MNCs versus cryopreserved MNCs by corner test and ladder rung test. We found that long-term cryopreservation negatively impacts the cellular viability of bone marrow MNCs. Cryopreservation also alters the cellular composition of various subpopulations within the MNCs. However, despite the changes observed in cryopreserved cells, both fresh and frozen MNCs have similar beneficial effect on behavioral and histological outcomes.

  9. Lithium treatment of APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice leads to reduced hyperphosphorylated tau, increased amyloid deposition and altered inflammatory phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L Sudduth

    Full Text Available Lithium is an anti-psychotic that has been shown to prevent the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein through the inhibition of glycogen-synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3β. We recently developed a mouse model that progresses from amyloid pathology to tau pathology and neurodegeneration due to the genetic deletion of NOS2 in an APP transgenic mouse; the APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mouse. Because this mouse develops tau pathology, amyloid pathology and neuronal loss we were interested in the effect anti-tau therapy would have on amyloid pathology, learning and memory. We administered lithium in the diets of APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice for a period of eight months, followed by water maze testing at 12 months of age, immediately prior to sacrifice. We found that lithium significantly lowered hyperphosphorylated tau levels as measured by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. However, we found no apparent neuroprotection, no effect on spatial memory deficits and an increase in histological amyloid deposition. Aβ levels measured biochemically were unaltered. We also found that lithium significantly altered the neuroinflammatory phenotype of the brain, resulting in enhanced alternative inflammatory response while concurrently lowering the classical inflammatory response. Our data suggest that lithium may be beneficial for the treatment of tauopathies but may not be beneficial for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment and the Phenylpropanoid Pathway Precursors Feeding Improve Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Quinoa Sprouts via an Induction of L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyases Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Świeca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide treatment and the phenylpropanoid pathway precursors feeding affected the antioxidant capacity of quinoa sprouts. Compared to the control, total phenolics content was significantly increased by treatment of control sprouts with 50 mM and 200 mM H2O2—an elevation of about 24% and 28%, respectively. The highest increase of flavonoids content was found for the sprouts treated with 200 mM H2O2 obtained from seeds fed with shikimic acid. All the studied modifications increased the antioxidant potential of sprouts (at least by 50% compared to control. The highest reducing power was found for the sprouts treated with 200 mM H2O2 obtained by phenylalanine feeding (5.03 mg TE/g DW and those obtained from the seeds fed with tyrosine (5.26 mg TE/g DW. The activities of L-tyrosine (TAL and L-phenylalanine (PAL ammonia-lyases were strongly affected by germination time as well as the applied modification of sprouting. On the 3rd day the highest PAL activity was determined for both untreated and induced with 50 mM H2O2 sprouts obtained by phenylalanine feeding. H2O2 induced TAL activity; the highest TAL activity was determined for 3-day-old sprouts induced with 200 mM H2O2 obtained from seeds fed with phenylalanine.

  11. Patients undergoing long-term treatment with antihypertensive eye drops responded positively with respect to their ocular surface disorder to oral supplementation with antioxidants and essential fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbis-Estrada C

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carmen Galbis-Estrada,1,* Maria D Pinazo-Durán,1,* Jorge Cantú-Dibildox,2 Carla Marco-Ramírez,1 Manuel Díaz-Llópis,1,3 Javier Benítez-del-Castillo21Ophthalmic Research Unit Santiago Grisolia, Department of Surgery/Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital of Jerez, Jerez de la Frontera, Cádiz, Spain; 3University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Glaucoma and dry eye disorders (DEDs are frequent comorbidities. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied in relation to eye diseases.Objective: Our objective was to determine the effects of oral supplementation with a combined formulation of antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids on expression of cytokines and chemokines in tears from patients with DEDs or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG.Methods: Participants (n = 97 were distributed into three groups: (1 individuals with nonsevere DEDs (DEDG, (2 individuals with nonadvanced POAG (POAGG, and (3 healthy controls. These groups were randomized into two subgroups: one received a daily antioxidant and essential polyunsaturated fatty acid supplement (two pills for 3 months (+S, and the other did not (−NS. Participants were interviewed and ophthalmologically examined. Concentrations of specific cytokines and chemokines in reflex tears were determined by multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry. The data were analyzed statistically (SPSS version 15.0.Results: Comparison of the results from the DEDG and POAGG patients showed significant differences in tear expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (P = 0.008, tumor necrosis factor α (P = 0.005, vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.038, interleukin-4 (P = 0.030, and interleukin-6 (P = 0.044. The main signs and symptoms of dry eyes such

  12. Peppermint antioxidants revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riachi, Liza G; De Maria, Carlos A B

    2015-06-01

    This review discusses the relationship between the chemical composition and antioxidant property of peppermint tisane and essential oil. Phenolic acids (e.g. rosmarinic and caffeic acids), flavones (e.g. luteolin derivatives) and flavanones (e.g. eriocitrin derivatives) are possibly the major infusion antioxidants. Vitamin antioxidants (e.g. ascorbic acid and carotenoids) are minor contributors to the overall antioxidant potential. Unsaturated terpenes having a cyclohexadiene structure (e.g. terpinene) and minor cyclic oxygenated terpenes (e.g. thymol), may contribute to antioxidant potential whilst acyclic unsaturated oxygenated monoterpenes (e.g. linalool) may act as pro-oxidants in essential oil. Findings on the antioxidant potential of major cyclic oxygenated terpenes (menthol and menthone) are conflicting. Antioxidant behaviour of aqueous/organic solvent extracts and essential oil as well as the effect of environmental stresses on essential oil and phenolic composition are briefly discussed. PMID:25624208

  13. Antioxidants in liver health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sael; Casas-Grajales; Pablo; Muriel

    2015-01-01

    Liver diseases are a worldwide medical problem because the liver is the principal detoxifying organ and maintains metabolic homeostasis. The liver metabolizes various compounds that produce free radicals(FR).However, antioxidants scavenge FR and maintain the oxidative/antioxidative balance in the liver. When the liver oxidative/antioxidative balance is disrupted, the state is termed oxidative stress. Oxidative stress leadsto deleterious processes in the liver and produces liver diseases. Therefore, restoring antioxidants is essential to maintain homeostasis. One method of restoring antioxidants is to consume natural compounds with antioxidant capacity. The objective of this review is to provide information pertaining to various antioxidants found in food that have demonstrated utility in improving liver diseases.

  14. Short-term quetiapine treatment alters the use of reinforcement signals during risky decision-making and promotes the choice of negative expected values in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Philippa L; Harmer, Catherine J; McTavish, Sarah F B; Goodwin, Guy M; Rogers, Robert D

    2013-09-25

    Effective decision-making can involve using environmental signals about the possible good and bad outcomes, and their probabilities, to select optimal actions. Problematic decision-making in psychiatric disorders, and particularly bipolar illness, may result from disrupted use of these reinforcement cues, leading to actions that reflect or precipitate pathological changes in mood. Previous experiments indicate that the processing of reinforcement cues while selecting between risky actions can be influenced by dopamine and serotonin activity. Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent with a complex pharmacology, including antagonist actions at 5-HT2A and, to a lesser extent, D2 receptors. Here, we investigated the effects of (short-term) treatment with quetiapine on the risky decision-making of healthy human adults. Twenty participants received 150 mg of quetiapine XL for 7 d, whereas 20 age- and IQ-matched participants received a placebo. On the eighth day, all participants completed a risky decision-making task that involved making a series of choices between two simultaneously presented gambles that differed in the magnitudes of their possible gains and losses, and the probabilities with which these outcomes were delivered. Quetiapine treatment was associated with a marked tendency to choose options with negative expected values compared with placebo treatment in male but not female participants. Our results demonstrate that antagonism of serotonin and dopamine receptor activity can alter the way individuals use information about gains and losses when selecting between risky actions, possibly reflecting gender-specific differences in risk attitudes. These effects may be beneficial by correcting decision-making biases that feature in mood disorders.

  15. Immuno-physiological alterations from AFB1 in rats counteracted by treatments with Lactobacillus paracasei BEJ01 and montmorillonite clay mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Jebali, Rania; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz; Oueslati, Ridha; Abbès, Samir

    2016-09-01

    High contamination by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been detected in Beja province (Tunisia) in many dairy products and animal feed, which has resulted in many tons of cereals and cereals being removed from the market, causing economic loss. While removal represents a means of reducing risk, exposures still occur. Studies have increasingly focused on means of AFB1 biodegradation/elimination using lactic acid bacteria and clay mineral. In the study here, Lactobacillus paracasei BEJ01 (LP) and montmorilonite clay (MT) were used to reduce the physio-/immunotoxicologic disorders that could develop in rats that underwent AFB1 exposures for a total of 7 consecutive days. The results indicated that rats treated with AFB1 (80 μg/kg BW) alone had significant decreases in lymphocytes in their blood (including B-lymphocytes, CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) T-lymphocyte subtypes, and NK cells), immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG) and pro-inflammatory cytokines; these rats also had altered oxidative stress status. In contrast, in rats treated with LP + MT (2 × 10(9) cfu/ml [∼ 2 mg/kg] + 0.5 mg MT/kg BW) for a total of 7 days before, concurrent with or after AFB1 treatment, there was a significant blockade/mitigation of each AFB1-impacted parameter. Moreover, treatment with the mixture at any point in relation to AFB1 treatment expectedly caused enhanced TNFα and IL-1β expression relative to control values; all other parameters were comparable to values noted in control rats. Alone, the mixture had no impact on host parameters. From the results here it may be concluded the the LP + MT mixture was effective in protecting these hosts against AFB1-induced immunologic/physiologic disorders and that LP + MT could prevent and/or mitigate AFB1 toxicities in vivo. PMID:27294391

  16. Prolonged running, not fluoxetine treatment, increases neurogenesis, but does not alter neuropathology, in the 3xTg mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlatt, Michael W; Potter, Michelle C; Bayer, Thomas A; van Praag, Henriette; Lucassen, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Reductions in adult neurogenesis have been documented in the original 3xTg mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), notably occurring at the same age when spatial memory deficits and amyloid plaque pathology appeared. As this suggested reduced neurogenesis was associated with behavioral deficits, we tested whether activity and pharmacological stimulation could prevent memory deficits and modify neurogenesis and/or neuropathology in the 3xTg model backcrossed to the C57Bl/6 strain. We chronically administered the antidepressant fluoxetine to one group of mice, allowed access to a running wheel in another, and combined both treatments in a third cohort. All treatments lasted for 11 months. The female 3xTg mice failed to exhibit any deficits in spatial learning and memory as measured in the Morris water maze, indicating that when backcrossed to the C57Bl/6 strain, the 3xTg mice lost the behavioral phenotype that was present in the original 3xTg mouse maintained on a hybrid background. Despite this, the backcrossed 3xTg mice expressed prominent intraneuronal amyloid beta (Aβ) levels in the cortex and amygdala, with lower levels in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. In the combined cohort, fluoxetine treatment interfered with exercise and reduced the total distance run. The extent of Aβ neuropathology, the tau accumulations, or BDNF levels, were not altered by prolonged exercise. Thus, neuropathology was present but not paralleled by spatial memory deficits in the backcrossed 3xTg mouse model of AD. Prolonged exercise for 11 months did improve the long-term survival of newborn neurons generated during middle-age, whereas fluoxetine had no effect. We further review and discuss the relevant literature in this respect. PMID:23670818

  17. Polyphenol-rich apple (Malus domestica L.) peel extract attenuates arsenic trioxide induced cardiotoxicity in H9c2 cells via its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineetha, Vadavanath Prabhakaran; Girija, Seetharaman; Soumya, Rema Sreenivasan; Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan

    2014-03-01

    Evidences suggest that apple peel has a wide range of polyphenols having antioxidant activity and its consumption has been linked with improved health benefits. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a very effective drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) but it leads to cardiotoxicity mediated through alterations in various cardiac ion channels and by increasing the intracellular calcium level and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of methanolic extract of apple peel (APME) and aqueous extract of apple peel (APAE) on ATO (5 μM) induced toxicity in the H9c2 cardiac myoblast cell line. We estimated the cellular status of innate antioxidant enzymes, level of ROS, mitochondrial superoxide, glutathione and intracellular calcium with ATO and apple peel extracts. Prior to the cell line based study, we had evaluated the antioxidant potential of apple peel extract by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total reducing power (TRP), superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, in addition to quantifying total phenolic and flavonoid content. Both the extracts showed considerable antioxidant activity in cell-free chemical assays. In addition, both APME and APAE prevented the alteration in antioxidant status induced by ATO in H9c2 cells. Significant differential alterations had been observed in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, xanthine oxidase, calcium overload and caspase 3 activity with ATO. The overall result revealed the protective property of polyphenol-rich apple peel extract against ATO induced cardiac toxicity via its antioxidant activity.

  18. Alterations of the Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are not General Characteristics of the Colonization Process by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Alteraciones de las Actividades de Enzimas Antioxidantes no son Características Generales del Proceso de Colonización por Hongos Micorrízicos Arbusculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakelin Rodríguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant system is involved in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, but its role during the colonization process is still poorly understood. To gain new insights into the role of antioxidant system during root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the activities of key antioxidant enzymes were evaluated in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. roots inoculated with six strains of different genera and species: two Glomus mosseae, Glomus cubense, Glomus intraradices, Glomus sp. and Acaulospora scrobiculata. Glomus cubense and A. scrobiculata strains reached the highest infectivity levels with maximum values of colonization frequency and intensity of 29-10.88% and 18-9.20%, respectively; G. mosseae strains showed an intermediate infectivity, both with 15% of colonization frequency and maximum intensities of 7.647.06%, respectively; while the infectivity levels of Glomus sp. and G. intraradices strains were the lowest with colonization frequency- 13% and intensities- 5.07 and 5.41, respectively. Some activity patterns of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and polyphenol oxidase enzymes were not specific for early or late colonization stages neither for the colonization level and type of strain. However, a unique superoxide dismutase-band presents at early colonization and the low level of guaiacol-peroxidase activity at later stages presents in all inoculated roots indicate that these antioxidant responses are independent of colonization degree and strain. Taking together, our data suggest that alterations of the antioxidant enzyme activities are not general characteristics of the colonization process by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, probably having the key role on those responses the specific feature of each strain rather than colonization per se.El sistema antioxidante está involucrado en la simbiosis micorrízico-arbuscular, pero su rol durante el proceso de colonización es aún escasamente comprendido. Para esclarecer el papel del sistema

  19. Treatment of green tea polyphenols in hydrophilic cream prevents UVB-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins, depletion of antioxidant enzymes and phosphorylation of MAPK proteins in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayalil, Praveen K; Elmets, Craig A; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2003-05-01

    The use of botanical supplements has received immense interest in recent years to protect human skin from adverse biological effects of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The polyphenols from green tea are one of them and have been shown to prevent photocarcinogenesis in animal models but their mechanism of photoprotection is not well understood. To determine the mechanism of photoprotection in in vivo mouse model, topical treatment of polyphenols from green tea (GTP) or its most chemopreventive constituent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (1 mg/cm(2) skin area) in hydrophilic ointment USP before single (180 mJ/cm(2)) or multiple UVB exposures (180 mJ/cm(2), daily for 10 days) resulted in significant prevention of UVB-induced depletion of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (78-100%, P 0.001). Further, to delineate the inhibition of UVB-induced oxidative stress with cell signaling pathways, treatment of EGCG to mouse skin resulted in marked inhibition of a single UVB irradiation-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (16-95%), JNK (46-100%) and p38 (100%) proteins of MAPK family in a time-dependent manner. Identical photoprotective effects of EGCG or GTP were also observed against multiple UVB irradiation-induced phosphorylation of the proteins of MAPK family in vivo mouse skin. Photoprotective efficacy of GTP given in drinking water (d.w.) (0.2%, w/v) was also determined and compared with that of topical treatment of EGCG and GTP. Treatment of GTP in d.w. also significantly prevented single or multiple UVB irradiation-induced depletion of antioxidant enzymes (44-61%, P the possibility of its use for the humans, and the data obtained from this in vivo study further suggest that GTP could be useful in attenuation of solar UVB light-induced oxidative stress-mediated and MAPK-caused skin disorders in humans. PMID:12771038

  20. Effect of lower doses of vanadate in combination with Azadirachta indica leaf extract on hepatic and renal antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Jaya; Ali, Shakir; Basir, Seemi Farhat

    2013-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate short-term (21 days) effects of oral administration of Azadirachta indica leaf extract and vanadate, separately and in combination, on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Vanadate is a remarkable antidiabetic agent and shows insulin mimetic effect. However, severe toxicity is associated with vanadate when used in high concentration while at lower concentration the hypoglycemic property of vanadate is reduced. So, we used a low dose of vanadate in combination with A. indica leaf extract and evaluated their effect on the antioxidant defense system. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were treated separately with insulin, vanadate (0.6 mg/ml), A. indica, and with combined dose of vanadate (0.2 mg/ml) and A. indica. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and serum glucose levels and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were determined in cytosolic fraction of liver and kidney. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemic condition and alteration in antioxidant enzyme activities. Treatment with antidiabetic compounds resulted in the reduction of glucose levels and restoration of enzyme activities to normal. Results showed that combined treatment of vanadate and A. indica leaf extract was the most effective in normalizing altered antioxidant enzyme system.

  1. The advances in mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants on the treatment of neuropathic pain%线粒体靶向抗氧化剂治疗神经病理性疼痛的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹利; 李锐; 张野

    2016-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain (NP) is a kind of pain syndrome induced by injuries or diseases in central or peripheral nervous system.The pathomechanism and symptoms of NP are complicated and variform.NP is the one of the most challenging syndrome to treat in clinical pain management.Objective This article aims to review the current research findings concerning the use of mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant in the management of NP.Content The article reviews studies on the correlation of mitochondrial dysfunctions,mitochondrial oxidative stresses and NP,as well as studies on the treatments of NP with mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant.Trend Mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants are promising candidates for treating NP patients.%背景 神经病理性疼痛(neuropathic pain,NP)是由中枢或外周神经系统损伤或疾病引起的疼痛综合征,其病理机制复杂,症状多样,是临床疼痛治疗的难点之一. 目的 综述线粒体靶向抗氧化剂治疗NP的研究现状. 内容 主要对线粒体功能障碍、线粒体氧化应激与NP的关系及近年来有关线粒体靶向抗氧化剂治疗NP的研究进展进行综述. 趋向 线粒体靶向抗氧化剂治疗NP的实验研究为临床NP提供新的治疗策略.

  2. Preparation of bovine whey protein antioxidant peptides using combined high pressure treatment and Alcalase digestion%超高压与Alcalase协同作用制备牛乳清蛋白抗氧化肽

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛小波; 木泰华

    2012-01-01

    为探讨超高压与碱性蛋白酶Alcalase协同作用下乳清蛋白抗氧化肽的制备,以牛乳清分离蛋白(WPI)为原料,采用Alcalase分别对100~600MPa的超高压处理中和超高压处理后的WPI进行水解,并采用邻苯三酚自氧化法对其水解产物的超氧阴离子自由基清除能力进行测定。结果表明,超高压与Alcalase协同作用显著地促进了WPI的水解,其水解产物的抗氧化活性也显著提高;分子量小于3ku的组分具有最强的超氧阴离子自由基清除能力,其半抑制浓度IC50值最小,为411.62μg/mL。因此,超高压与Alcalase协同作用于乳清蛋白可用于开发新型天然抗氧化剂。%To study the preparation of whey protein antioxidant peptides from whey protein isolate by the combination of high pressure treatment and Alcalase digestion,the proteolysis of WPI was conducted with Alcalase during or after the treatment at 100~600MPa.Pyrogallol autoxidation method was used to assess the superoxide anion radical scavenging ability.The results showed that the degree of hydrolysis for WPI was significantly enhanced by high pressure treatment,as well as the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates.In addition,the fraction of molecular weight below 3ku had a maximum superoxide anion radical scavenging ability,with the half maximal inhibitory concentration(IC50) of 411.62μg/mL.Therefore,the combination of high pressure treatment and Alcalase digestion could be used to develop new natural antioxidants.

  3. Vitamins, trace elements, and antioxidant status in dementia disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tabet, N.; Mantle, D; WALKER, Z.; Orrell, M.

    2001-01-01

    Antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E, have been proposed for the treatment of dementia disorders. Although other vitamins and trace elements may also have antioxidant-enhancing activities, it is not known whether the overall antioxidant status in dementia patients is associated with the intake level of these vitamins and trace elements. In this study, we assessed the levels of vitamins and trace elements in the diet of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and dem...

  4. Nanocarriers for skin delivery of cosmetic antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Montenegro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The demand of natural skin care products is steadily growing since consumers perceive them as safe. Currently, cosmetic manufacturers are focusing their efforts on developing innovative natural products to address skin-aging signs, thus meeting consumers’ needs of healthy appearance and well-being. To prevent or treat skin aging, topical supplementation with antioxidant is regarded as one of the most promising strategies. However, most antioxidants presently used in skin care formulations show unfavorable physicochemical properties such as excessive lipophilicity or hydrophilicity, chemical instability and poor skin penetration that actively limit their effectiveness after topical application. Therefore, nanocarriers such as liposomes, niosomes, microemulsions and nanoparticles have been widely investigated as delivery systems for antioxidants to improve their beneficial effects in the treatment of skin aging. In this article, the antioxidants most commonly used in anti-aging cosmetic products will be reviewed along with the nanocarriers designed to improve their safety and effectiveness.

  5. Antioxidant Vitamins and Their Use in Psychiatry

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    Betul Mazlum

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress can be defined as imbalance between prooxidant molecules produced during body metabolism and members of antioxidant system for favor of former. Oxidative stress, which is included in the pathogenesis of cancer, aging, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, is also considered for pathogenetic mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, mood disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Due to important role of antioxidant vitamins in antioxidant defense mechanisms, vitamin supplementation therapies are considered in addition to conventional treatment choices for psychiatric disorders. This paper will attempt to review the biochemical, molecular and genetic data on biological processes related to vitamins A, C and E. Besides, the circumstances under which the antioxidant vitamin supplementation could be used in psychiatry and the factors that should be taken into consideration during these therapies will be discussed.

  6. Feeding bovine milks with low or high IgA levels is associated with altered re-establishment of murine intestinal microbiota after antibiotic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wayne; Cakebread, Julie A.; Haigh, Brendan J.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are a vital and commonly used therapeutic tool, but their use also results in profound changes in the intestinal microbiota that can, in turn, have significant health consequences. Understanding how the microbiota recovers after antibiotic treatment will help to devise strategies for mitigating the adverse effects of antibiotics. Using a mouse model, we have characterized the changes occurring in the intestinal microbiota immediately after five days exposure to ampicillin, and then at three and fourteen days thereafter. During the fourteen day period of antibiotic recovery, groups of mice were fed either water, cows’ milk containing high levels of IgA, or cows’ milk containing low levels of IgA as their sole source of liquid. Effects on microbiota of feeding milks for 14 days were also assessed in groups of mice that had no ampicillin exposure. Changes in microbiota were measured by high throughput sequencing of the V4 to V6 variable regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. As expected, exposure to ampicillin led to profound changes to the types and abundance of bacteria present, along with a loss of diversity. At 14 days following antibiotic exposure, mice fed water had recovered microbiota compositions similar to that prior to antibiotics. However, feeding High-IgA milk to mice that has been exposed to antibiotics was associated with altered microbiota compositions, including increased relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Barnesiella compared to the start of the study. Mice exposed to antibiotics then fed Low-IgA milk also showed increased Barnesiella at day 14. Mice without antibiotic perturbation, showed no change in their microbiota after 14 days of milk feeding. Overall, these findings add to a knowledge platform for optimizing intestinal function after treatment with antibiotics in the human population. PMID:27703861

  7. 卒中诱导的免疫变化及相应治疗策略%Stroke-induced immunological alterations and relevant treatment strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕婷; 徐运

    2009-01-01

    卒中后免疫系统的变化主要包括脑组织局部炎症反应和全身性免疫变化.前者可加重卒中后脑损伤,后者加重感染易感性,继而影响脑功能恢复和预后.卒中干扰神经系统与免疫系统之间正常平衡关系的机制尚不清楚.文章就卒中诱导的免疫改变及其机制,以及临床可采取的相应治疗策略进行了综述.%The changes of immune system following stroke mainly includes the local inflammatory responses of brain tissue and the systemic immunological changes, The former may exacerbate brain damage following stroke, the latter may increase the susceptibility to infection, and thus impact on brain function recovery and prognosis. Stroke interferes with the normal balance between the nervous system and the immune system, and its mechanism remains unclear. This article reviews the stroke-indnced immunological alterations and their mechanisms,as well as the corresponding treatment strategies in clinical practice.

  8. Estudo das alterações do ponto B durante o tratamento ortodôntico Study of the point B alterations during orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Soares Marques

    2007-06-01

    exame inicial.AIM: The authors of this study evaluated and compared if alterations in point B region could occur as a result of orthodontic treatment conducted with or without the extraction of the four first premolars. METHODS: Thirty young females, dolicofacials, with Class II, division 1 maloclusion, mean age of 12,3 years in the beginning of the treatment were evaluated cephalometrically. Fifteen of the young females were submitted to extractions of the four first premolars while the remaining fifteen were not. Four cephalometric measurements (IMPA, 1-ND, B-ND and Bperp-GoMe were evaluated and data was analyzed by the Kruskall-Wallis test, Friedman test and Pearson's correlation. RESULTS: The IMPA measurement had a tendency to increase within the group without extractions, but in contrast was significantly decreased within the group with extractions. The 1-ND measurement exhibited a decrease in the group with extractions and a small increase in the other group. The B-ND measurement was slightly decreased in the group with extractions, was not altered in the other group, and significant differences were not observed between these two groups. The Bperp-GoMe measurement was increased in both groups. A positive correlation was observed between IMPA, 1-ND and B-ND in the extraction group, since a decrease of the IMPA implied in a decrease of the 1-ND and a lingual localization of the point B. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results showed that the orthodontic treatment lead to alterations in point B, towards an anteroposterior position, and a tendency of lingual movement in the extraction group. The vertical evaluation revealed significant alterations in point B in both groups since measurement at the end of the treatment was significantly higher than the one in the beginning.

  9. Biochemical Alterations in Semen of Varicocele Patients: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mancini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a mechanism underlying different kinds of infertility in human males. However, different results can be observed in relation to the method used for its evaluation. Varicocele patients show a number of biochemical abnormalities, including an altered distribution of coenzyme Q between seminal plasma and sperm cells and also an apparent defect in the utilization of antioxidants. Moreover, an influence of systemic hormones on seminal antioxidant system was observed too. Finally, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidativestress indexes and the possible usefulness of some medical therapies, like coenzyme Q supplementation, are discussed. In conclusion, published data show a role of oxidative stress in varicocele-related male infertility, but at present we do not know the precise molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena.

  10. Anti-HMG-CoA Reductase, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Amaranthus viridis Leaf Extract as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvamani, Shamala; Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shukor, Mohd Yunus; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Sabullah, Mohd Khalizan; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the pathology of several chronic diseases including hypercholesterolemia (elevated levels of cholesterol in blood) and atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed as synthetic drugs, such as statins, which are known to cause adverse effects on the liver and muscles. Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis) has been used from ancient times for its supposedly medically beneficial properties. In the current study, different parts of A. viridis (leaf, stem, and seed) were evaluated for potential anti-HMG-CoA reductase, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The putative HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of A. viridis extracts at different concentrations was determined spectrophotometrically by NADPH oxidation, using HMG-CoA as substrate. A. viridis leaf extract revealed the highest HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect at about 71%, with noncompetitive inhibition in Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. The leaf extract showed good inhibition of hydroperoxides, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), and ferric ion radicals in various concentrations. A. viridis leaf extract was proven to be an effective inhibitor of hyaluronidase, lipoxygenase, and xanthine oxidase enzymes. The experimental data suggest that A. viridis leaf extract is a source of potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and may modulate cholesterol metabolism by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:27051453

  11. Anti-HMG-CoA Reductase, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Amaranthus viridis Leaf Extract as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamala Salvamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the pathology of several chronic diseases including hypercholesterolemia (elevated levels of cholesterol in blood and atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed as synthetic drugs, such as statins, which are known to cause adverse effects on the liver and muscles. Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis has been used from ancient times for its supposedly medically beneficial properties. In the current study, different parts of A. viridis (leaf, stem, and seed were evaluated for potential anti-HMG-CoA reductase, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The putative HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of A. viridis extracts at different concentrations was determined spectrophotometrically by NADPH oxidation, using HMG-CoA as substrate. A. viridis leaf extract revealed the highest HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect at about 71%, with noncompetitive inhibition in Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. The leaf extract showed good inhibition of hydroperoxides, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, nitric oxide (NO, and ferric ion radicals in various concentrations. A. viridis leaf extract was proven to be an effective inhibitor of hyaluronidase, lipoxygenase, and xanthine oxidase enzymes. The experimental data suggest that A. viridis leaf extract is a source of potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and may modulate cholesterol metabolism by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase.

  12. ANTIOXIDANT MUSHROOMS: A REVIEW

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    Aggarwal Preeti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of wild mushrooms have been extensively studied and many antioxidant compounds such as phenolic compounds, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, and carotenoids identified. The various antioxidant mechanisms of the mushroom species extracts may be attributed to strong hydrogen-donating ability, metal-chelating ability, and their effectiveness as good scavengers of superoxide and free radicals. This indicates the potential of mushrooms as panacea for many diseases and also reveals a novel potential to fight against tumors in man.

  13. Effect of pectin methyl esterase and Ca²⁺ ions treatment on antioxidant capacity, shelf-life and quality of minimally processed pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) arils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Ramesh; Nambi, V E

    2016-03-01

    Pomegranate fruits are difficult to peel and once peeled, extracted arils have very short shelf-life. Therefore, present investigation was carried out to extend the shelf life of minimally processed pomegranate arils using pectin methyl esterase (PME) and CaCl2 treatment during refrigerated storage. The arils of freshly harvested pomegranate fruits (Punica granatum L.) were treated with different concentrations of food-grade PME (50-300 units) and calcium ions (0.5-2.0% CaCl₂) for a period of 5-30 min using response surface methodology. Treated and untreated arils were then packed in low density polyethylene bags (25 μ) and maintained under low temperature (5°C; 90% RH) for evaluating the physical, biochemical and microbial quality of pomegranate arils at four day interval. Physiological loss in weight increased during storage but no food-borne pathogens were found during 28 day of cold storage in treated arils. Color and firmness of both treated and untreated arils decreased during storage but it was better maintained in treated arils. The firmness was found to be 0.630 N in treated samples compared to untreated one (0.511 N) after 20 d of storage. Total antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, polyphenol oxidase and lipoxygenase activities increased during storage. Treatment with 249.33 units of PME and 1.70% CaCl₂for an immersion time of 24.93 min was found to be most effective treatment for maintaining the quality of minimally processed arils for longer period. Sensory score was also higher in treated pomegranate arils that were quite acceptable even after 20 day of referigerated storage as against 12 day for untreated ones. PMID:27097437

  14. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

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    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  15. Antioxidant defenses and metabolic depression. The hypothesis of preparation for oxidative stress in land snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes-Lima, M; Storey, J M; Storey, K B

    1998-07-01

    early minutes of recovery during reoxygenation or thawing. Thus, a wide range of stress tolerant animals display coordinated changes in antioxidant defenses that allow them to deal with oxidative stress that occurs as part of natural cycles of stress/recovery that alter oxygen levels in tissues. The molecular mechanisms that trigger and regulate changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in these species are still unknown but could prove to have key relevance for the development of new intervention strategies in the treatment of cardiovascular ischemia/reperfusion injuries in humans.

  16. Chiral Antioxidant-based Gold Nanoclusters Reprogram DNA Epigenetic Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Fu, Hualin; Zhang, Chunlei; Cheng, Shangli; Gao, Jie; Wang, Zhen; Jin, Weilin; Conde, João; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications sit 'on top of' the genome and influence DNA transcription, which can force a significant impact on cellular behavior and phenotype and, consequently human development and disease. Conventional methods for evaluating epigenetic modifications have inherent limitations and, hence, new methods based on nanoscale devices are needed. Here, we found that antioxidant (glutathione) chiral gold nanoclusters induce a decrease of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which is an important epigenetic marker that associates with gene transcription regulation. This epigenetic change was triggered partially through ROS activation and oxidation generated by the treatment with glutathione chiral gold nanoclusters, which may inhibit the activity of TET proteins catalyzing the conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5hmC. In addition, these chiral gold nanoclusters can downregulate TET1 and TET2 mRNA expression. Alteration of TET-5hmC signaling will then affect several downstream targets and be involved in many aspects of cell behavior. We demonstrate for the first time that antioxidant-based chiral gold nanomaterials have a direct effect on epigenetic process of TET-5hmC pathways and reveal critical DNA demethylation patterns. PMID:27633378

  17. Chiral Antioxidant-based Gold Nanoclusters Reprogram DNA Epigenetic Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Fu, Hualin; Zhang, Chunlei; Cheng, Shangli; Gao, Jie; Wang, Zhen; Jin, Weilin; Conde, João; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications sit ‘on top of’ the genome and influence DNA transcription, which can force a significant impact on cellular behavior and phenotype and, consequently human development and disease. Conventional methods for evaluating epigenetic modifications have inherent limitations and, hence, new methods based on nanoscale devices are needed. Here, we found that antioxidant (glutathione) chiral gold nanoclusters induce a decrease of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which is an important epigenetic marker that associates with gene transcription regulation. This epigenetic change was triggered partially through ROS activation and oxidation generated by the treatment with glutathione chiral gold nanoclusters, which may inhibit the activity of TET proteins catalyzing the conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5hmC. In addition, these chiral gold nanoclusters can downregulate TET1 and TET2 mRNA expression. Alteration of TET-5hmC signaling will then affect several downstream targets and be involved in many aspects of cell behavior. We demonstrate for the first time that antioxidant-based chiral gold nanomaterials have a direct effect on epigenetic process of TET-5hmC pathways and reveal critical DNA demethylation patterns. PMID:27633378

  18. Effect of Enlargement Treatment on Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activities of Red Globe Grape%膨大处理对红地球葡萄酚类物质及抗氧化活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金串; 孟江飞; 郭志君; 耿万刚; 乔玲; 张昂; 张振文; 房玉林

    2012-01-01

    以红地球葡萄为研究对象,对葡萄进行膨大处理后,定期采样,测定处理组和对照组的总酚、总黄酮、总黄烷醇以及铜离子还原力、铁氰化钾还原力、DPPH自由基清除率、金属螯合力、羟自由基(·OH)清除率,用DPS软件对处理组和对照组之间的差异及酚类物质与抗氧化活性之间的相关性进行分析。结果表明:膨大处理可增加红地球葡萄酚类物质含量并增强其抗氧化活性;膨大处理对红地球葡萄总酚、总黄酮、总黄烷醇、铜离子还原力、铁氰化钾还原力的影响较大,对DPPH自由基清除率、金属螯合力、·OH清除率的影响较小。铜离子还原力、铁氰化钾还原力与酚类物质(总酚、总黄酮、总黄烷醇)含量均呈极显著正相关;金属螯合力、DPPH自由基清除率与酚类物质含量均无显著相关性,·OH清除率与酚类物质含量呈极显著负相关。铜离子还原力与铁氰化钾还原力呈极显著正相关;与DPPH自由基清除率呈显著正相关。铜离子还原力与·OH清除率、铁氰化钾还原力与·OH清除率呈极显著负相关。%The effect of enlargement treatment on total phenols and antioxidant activities of red globe grapes were determined in this study. The phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were investigated during the berry growth and maturation after enlargement treatments. The difference between the treatment and the control, the correlation coefficients between phenolic compositions and antioxidant capacity, as well as the correlation coefficients among different methods for quantifying antioxi- dant capacity were analyzed based on DPS. The results showed that the content of total phenols and antioxidant activities of red globe grapes could be increased by enlargement treatments. The effect of enlargement treatment on total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols, cupric reducing power, potassium ferricyanide

  19. Alterative application of five anticonvulsants according to the half life for the treatment of status epilepticus in children with severe viral encephalitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional subhibernation therapy may easily cause complications, such as respiratory depression and hyportension because of application of chlorpromazine hydrochloride and promethazine in a large dosage.OBJECTIVE: To observe therapeutic effect of modified subhibernation therapy (alterative application of five anticonvulsants according to the half life) on status epilepticus in children with severe viral encephalitis (VE).DESIGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Department of Pediatrics, the First Hospital of Jilin University.PARTICIPANTS: The participants in present study were 96 patients withsevere viral encephalitis including 52 boys and 44 girls who received treatment in the Department of Pediatrics, the First Hospital of Jilin University from February 2000 to March 2006. All children met the diagnostic criteria of Zhufutong Practice Pediatrics (the seventh edition). Two weeks ago, they ever got upper respiratory infection or enteronitis and so on before the onset, spirit abnormal, behavior disorder, limbs act disorder, vomit, headache, convulsion,nervous system masculine signs such as limbs act disord, autonomic nerve damage manifestation, brain nerve palsy, dysreflexia, meningeal irritation sign, cerebrospinal fluid and electroencephalography (EEG)abnormity. All parents provided the confirmed consent. The patients were randomly divided into control group (n =40) and experimental group (n =56).METHODS: Patients in the control group received anticonvulsion, ice compress and routine treatment. The convulsion was treated with five drugs: 0.5 mg/kg wintermin and phenergan, respectively, 100 g/L chlorpromazine hydrochloride (0.5 mL/kg), 5 mg/kg luminal, 0.3 mg/kg ansiolin. When convulsion attacked,those five drugs were given alternatively; however, those were not given if the convulsion did not attack.Children in the experimental group were treated with improved subhibernation therapy based on routine treatment. The dosages of anticonvulsants were as the

  20. Changes of Proline Content,Activity,and Active Isoforms of Antioxidative Enzymes in Two Alfalfa Cultivars Under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-shan; HAN Jian-guo

    2009-01-01

    The plants of two alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.)cultivars differing in salt tolerance were subjected to three salt treatments,70,140,and 210 mM NaCl for 7 days.Root,shoot,and leaf growths were inhibited by increased salt treatments in both cultivars,and at 140 and 210 mM salt treatments,Zhongmu 1 had significantly higher root,shoot,and leaf dry weights per plant than Defi.The malondialdehyde(MDA)accumulation in Defi was considerably greater than in Zhongmu 1,indicating a higher degree of lipid peroxidation at 140 and 210 mM salt treatments.The changes in the activity and active isoforms of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase(SOD,EC 1.15.1.1),catalase(CAT,EC 1.11.1.6),peroxidase(POD,EC 1.11.1.7),and ascorbate peroxidase(APOX,EC 1.11.1.11),accumulation of free proline,and rate of lipid peroxidation in leaves of two alfalfa cultivars were also investigated.After stress,the activity and active isoforms of antioxidative enzymes were altered and the extent of alteration varied between the cultivar Deft and Zhongmu 1.The proline accumulation in Defi was considerably greater than in Zhongmu 1 at 210 mM salt treatment.This indicated that proline accumulation may be the result,instead of the cause,of salt tolerance.

  1. Dietary antioxidants enhance immunocompetence in larval amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuroczki, Dorina; Koprivnikar, Janet; Baker, Robert L

    2016-11-01

    Dietary antioxidants have been shown to confer a variety of benefits through their ability to counter oxidative stress, including increased immunocompetence and reduced susceptibility to both infectious and non-infectious diseases. However, little is known about the effects of dietary antioxidants on immune function in larval amphibians, a group experiencing worldwide declines driven by factors that likely involve altered immunocompetence. We investigated the effects of dietary antioxidants (quercetin, vitamin E, and β-carotene) on two components of the immune system, as well as development and growth. Lithobates pipiens tadpoles fed diets with supplemental β-carotene or vitamin E exhibited an enhanced swelling response as measured with a phytohemagglutinin assay (PHA), but there was no induced antibody response. Effects were often dose-dependent, with higher antioxidant levels generally conferring stronger swelling that possibly corresponds to the innate immune response. Our results indicate that the antioxidant content of the larval amphibian diets not only had a detectable effect on their immune response capability, but also promoted tadpole growth (mass gain), although developmental stage was not affected. Given that many environmental perturbations may cause oxidative stress or reduce immunocompetence, it is critical to understand how nutrition may counter these effects. PMID:27475300

  2. 外源NO处理对韭菜抗氧化酶活性的影响%Effects of Nitrogen Oxide Treatment on Antioxidant Enzymes in Chinese Chives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春丽; 苏虎; 李玉萍; 范鸿冰; 吕玲琴; 钟贤武; 林彤

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] In order to study Chinese chives storage capacity, using external sources nitrogen oxide dealing with Chinese chives, the antioxidant enzyme activities were detected to speculate from Chinese chives freshness. [ Method] Different concentrations of exogenous NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) solution were used to treat fresh-cut Chinese Chives, four kinds of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT, POD and SOD activities were measured. [Result] The results showed that at a concentration of 0. 05 mmol/LSNP closed immersion 2 h, 7 days storage, fresh-cut Chinese Chives APX, CAT, POD activities were higher than those of control, SOD activity showed a downward trend. So the suitable concentration of NO could extend the storage life of fresh-cut Chinese Chives, slow the aging process, which had a good role in promoting the preservation of fresh-cut Chinese Chives. [ Conclusion] The right amount extraneous source NO can effectively enhance the antioxidant enzyme activities, extend shelf life preservation, and enhance effectiveness, providea theoretical basis for exploration of the fruit and vegetable preservation methods.%[目的]为了研究韭菜的耐贮能力,采用外源NO处理韭菜,通过韭菜体内抗氧化酶活性的检测,推断韭菜的新鲜度.[方法]用不同浓度外源NO供体硝普钠(SNP)溶液处理韭菜,分别测定4种抗氧化酶抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、过氧化物酶(POD)和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的活性.[结果]用浓度0.05 mmol/L SNP密闭浸泡2h,贮藏7d左右,韭菜中APX、CAT、POD活性均比对照组高,SOD活性呈现缓慢下降的趋势.这说明适宜浓度外源NO处理能够延长韭菜的贮藏期,延缓衰老进程,对韭菜的保鲜有较好的促进作用.[结论]适量外源NO处理,能有效地提高贮藏过程中抗氧化酶活性,延长贮藏期,增强保鲜效果,可为果蔬保鲜方法的探索提供理论基础.

  3. Alterações pulmonares em um modelo de diabetes mellitus em ratos: o efeito da terapia antioxidante Lung alterations in a rat model of diabetes mellitus: effects of antioxidant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Forgiarini Junior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações estruturais no pulmão de ratos com diabetes mellitus (DM através da quantificação do estresse oxidativo e do dano ao DNA, assim como determinar os efeitos de superóxido dismutase (SOD exógena nessas alterações. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental controlado com 40 ratos Wistar, divididos em quatro grupos (10 animais cada: grupo controle, grupo SOD (sem DM e tratados com SOD, grupo DM (com DM induzido por estreptozotocina, e grupo DM+SOD (com DM induzido por estreptozotocina e tratados com SOD. Os animais foram avaliados por um período de 60 dias, iniciado a partir do dia em que os animais com diabetes induzido por estreptozotocina apresentaram glicemia > 250 mg/dL. Nos últimos 7 dias do período, os animais nos grupos tratados receberam SOD. Ao final do tempo de estudo, amostras de tecido pulmonar foram coletadas para análise histopatológica e avaliação do estresse oxidativo e do dano ao DNA. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos em relação ao dano ao DNA. Houve um aumento significativo na matriz extracelular e hiperplasia do endotélio capilar no grupo DM quando comparado com os grupos controle e SOD. Também houve mudanças significativas em pneumócitos tipo II e macrófagos intravasculares, sugerindo um processo inflamatório no grupo DM. Entretanto, uma redução na matriz extracelular, endotélio capilar normal e pneumócitos tipo II normais foram encontrados no grupo com DM+SOD. CONCLUSÕES: A administração exógena de SOD pode reverter alterações nos pulmões de animais com DM induzido.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate structural alterations of the lung in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM, by quantifying oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as to determine the effects that exogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD has on such alterations. METHODS: A controlled experimental study involving 40 male Wistar rats, divided into four groups (10 animals each: control; SOD

  4. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDYSLIPIDEMIC PROPERTIES OF HEMIDESMUS INDICUS ROOT EXTRACT STUDIED IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Subramanian et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia. Hemidesmus indicus is employed as an indigenous medicine for a variety of ailments from earlier days. The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of Hemidesmus indicus in alloxan-induced experimental diabetic rats. The effect of oral administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract (400 mg/kg b.w. on glucose tolerance, the levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, protein, lipid peroxides, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, lipid profile, muscle glycogen content were determined in control and experimental groups of rats. The altered levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, and protein in the diabetic rats were significantly reverted back to near basal values by the administration of ethanol extract of Hemidesmus indicus root to diabetic rats for 30 days. The levels of lipid peroxides in the plasma and pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats were elevated significantly and were normalized by the administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The activities of pancreatic enzymic antioxidants and the levels of plasma non-enzymic antioxidants were markedly declined in the diabetic rats. Upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract to diabetic rats, these decreased levels were elevated to near normal values. The reduced level of glycogen content in muscle tissues of diabetic rats was significantly improved upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The altered levels of lipid profile were reverted back to near normalcy upon the extract treatment. The results of the study indicate that Hemidesmus indicus root extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antidyslipidemic activity. The results are comparable with glyclazide, an oral standard hypoglycemic drug. The phytochemicals present in the Hemidesmus indicus root extract may

  5. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahim Noor

    2012-11-01

    dismutase in the treated cells could alter the antioxidant defense system, potentially contributing towards the anti-proliferative effect. There is great potential for the ethyl acetate extract of P. betle leaf as a source of natural antioxidants and to be developed as therapeutics in cancer treatment.

  6. Biopersistence of PEGylated Carbon Nanotubes Promotes a Delayed Antioxidant Response after Infusion into the Rat Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bosco, Lidiane; Weber, Gisele E.; Parfitt, Gustavo M.; Cordeiro, Arthur P.; Sahoo, Sangram K.; Fantini, Cristiano; Klosterhoff, Marta C.; Romano, Luis Alberto; Furtado, Clascídia A.; Santos, Adelina P.; Monserrat, José M.; Barros, Daniela M.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are promising nanomaterials for the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders. However, the ability of these nanomaterials to cross cell membranes and interact with neural cells brings the need for the assessment of their potential adverse effects on the nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the biopersistence of single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with polyethylene glycol (SWCNT-PEG) directly infused into the rat hippocampus. Contextual fear conditioning, Y-maze and open field tasks were performed to evaluate the effects of SWCNT-PEG on memory and locomotor activity. The effects of SWCNT-PEG on oxidative stress and morphology of the hippocampus were assessed 1 and 7 days after infusion of the dispersions at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.1 mg/mL. Raman analysis of the hippocampal homogenates indicates the biopersistence of SWCNT-PEG in the hippocampus 7 days post-injection. The infusion of the dispersions had no effect on the acquisition or persistence of the contextual fear memory; likewise, the spatial recognition memory and locomotor activity were not affected by SWCNT-PEG. Histological examination revealed no remarkable morphological alterations after nanomaterial exposure. One day after the infusion, SWCNT-PEG dispersions at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL were able to decrease total antioxidant capacity without modifying the levels of reactive oxygen species or lipid hydroperoxides in the hippocampus. Moreover, SWCNT-PEG dispersions at all concentrations induced antioxidant defenses and reduced reactive oxygen species production in the hippocampus at 7 days post-injection. In this work, we found a time-dependent change in antioxidant defenses after the exposure to SWCNT-PEG. We hypothesized that the persistence of the nanomaterial in the tissue can induce an antioxidant response that might have provided resistance to an initial insult. Such antioxidant delayed response may constitute an adaptive response to the biopersistence of SWCNT-PEG in the

  7. Cyclodextrins and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Nicolás, José Manuel; Rodríguez-Bonilla, Pilar; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the growth of the functional foods industry has increased research into new compounds with high added value for use in the fortification of traditional products. One of the most promising functional food groups is those enriched in antioxidant compounds of a lipophilic nature. In spite of the numerous advantages reported for such antioxidant molecules, they may also have disadvantages that impede their use in functional foods, although these problems may well avoided by the use of encapsulant agents such as cyclodextrins. This explains the recent increase in the number of research papers dealing with the complexation of different guest molecules possesing important antioxidant properties using natural and modified cyclodextrins. This paper presents a review of the most recent studies on the complexes formed between several important types of antioxidant compounds and cyclodextrins, focusing on the contradictory data reported in the literature concerning to the antioxidant activity of the host/guest molecule complexes, the different complexation constants reported for identical complexes, the bioavailability of the antioxidant compound in the presence of cyclodextrins and recommendation concerning the use of natural or modified cyclodextrins. Moreover, the use of cyclodextrins as antibrowning agents to prevent enzymatic browning in different foods is revised. Finally, we look at studies which suggest that cyclodextrins act as ''secondary antioxidants," enhancing the ability of traditional antioxidants to prevent enzymatic browning.

  8. Antioxidants of edible mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M.; Griensven, Van Leo

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic

  9. Subchronic treatment with phencyclidine in adolescence leads to impaired exploratory behavior in adult rats without altering social interaction or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor binding levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxas, A; Willems, R; Kooijman, E J M; Renjaän, V A; Klein, P J; Windhorst, A D; Donck, L Ver; Leysen, J E; Berckel, B N M van

    2014-11-01

    Although both the onset of schizophrenia and human phencyclidine (PCP) abuse typically present within the interval from adolescence to early adulthood, the majority of preclinical research employing the PCP model of schizophrenia has been conducted on neonatal or adult animals. The present study was designed to evaluate the behavioral and neurochemical sequelae of subchronic exposure to PCP in adolescence. Male 35-42-day-old Sprague Dawley rats were subcutaneously administered either saline (10 ml · kg(-1) ) or PCP hydrochloride (10 mg · kg(-1) ) once daily for a period of 14 days (n = 6/group). The animals were allowed to withdraw from treatment for 2 weeks, and their social and exploratory behaviors were subsequently assessed in adulthood by using the social interaction test. To examine the effects of adolescent PCP administration on the regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), quantitative autoradiography was performed on brain sections of adult, control and PCP-withdrawn rats by using 20 nM (3) H-MK-801. Prior subchronic exposure to PCP in adolescence had no enduring effects on the reciprocal contact and noncontact social behavior of adult rats. Spontaneous rearing in response to the novel testing arena and time spent investigating its walls and floor were reduced in PCP-withdrawn animals compared with control. The long-term behavioral effects of PCP occurred in the absence of persistent deficits in spontaneous locomotion or self-grooming activity and were not mediated by altered NMDAR density. Our results document differential effects of adolescent PCP administration on the social and exploratory behaviors of adult rats, suggesting that distinct neurobiological mechanisms are involved in mediating these behaviors. PMID:24953757

  10. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  11. Evaluation of the permeability and morphological alteration of the dental surface after apicoectomy, treatment and preparation with Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Group I samples, meanwhile, did not present statistically significantly better results than the control group. Group II presented statistically significantly less infiltration than the other experimental groups. This result is compatible with the morphological and structural alterations evidenced by scanning electron microscopy: the group I samples (Er:YAG) presented clean, irregular surfaces with the presence of some cratering, without a smear layer and with the dental tubules exposed. The group II samples (Er:YAG and Nd:YAG) presented smoother, clean surfaces, without a smear layer, with fusion and resolidification of the dentin which sealed the dental tubules. Under the conditions of the study, apicoectomy with the Er:YAG laser followed by subsequent treatment of the cut surface and resulting cavity with a Nd:YAG laser, have shown as an option capable of reducing the permeability of the dentin to methylene blue dye. (author)

  12. Anthocyanin, phenolics and antioxidant activity changes in purple waxy corn as affected by traditional cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidant components, including anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and their changes during traditional cooking of fresh purple waxy corn were investigated. As compared to the raw corn, thermal treatment caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in each antioxidant compound a...

  13. Application of KRL test to assess total antioxidant activity in pigs: sensitivity to dietary antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Raffaella; Pastorelli, Grazia; Corino, Carlo

    2013-04-01

    The application of Kit Radicaux Libres (KRL) test to assess total blood antioxidant activity in pigs was evaluated. The KRL has been validated and is widely used in humans for assessing the effectiveness of natural or pharmaceutical treatments, and in vitro to evaluate the antioxidant activities of natural or synthetic antioxidants. In this study the sensitivity of the KRL test in assessing the effectiveness of dietary antioxidant supplementation (vitamin E and plant extract) was evaluated in two different phases of pig breeding. The first trial, in post-weaned piglets (40 piglets/group) fed dietary vitamin E supplementation for 60 days, indicated that there was a higher total antioxidant activity (P=0.032) of whole blood and of red blood cells (P=0.001) than for control pigs. The second trial indicated that long-term supplementation of water soluble plant extract (20 pigs/group) from the leaves of Verbenaceae (Lippia spp.) tended (P=0.091) to increase antioxidant activity in the whole blood of treated, rather than control pigs. These results indicate that the KRL might be recommended as one of efficient means for evaluating antioxidant activity of dietary ingredients fed to pigs.

  14. Noninvasive quantification of human brain antioxidant concentrations after an intravenous bolus of vitamin C

    OpenAIRE

    Terpstra, Melissa; Torkelson, Carolyn; Emir, Uzay; Hodges, James S.; Raatz, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Until now, the lack of a means to detect a deficiency or to measure the pharmacologic effect in the human brain in situ has been a hindrance to the development of antioxidant-based prevention and treatment of dementia. In this study, a recently developed 1H MRS approach was applied to quantify key human brain antioxidant concentrations throughout the course of an aggressive antioxidant-based intervention. The concentrations of the two most abundant central nervous system chemical antioxidants...

  15. Protective effect of dietary antioxidants and plant extracts on acute inflammation and hepatotoxicity in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    El-Saadany, Mohamed Abdel Meged Marawan

    2009-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants are believed to play an important role in the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases associated with oxidative stress. Although there is a wide range of dietary antioxidants, the bulk of the research to date has been focused on the nutrient antioxidants vitamin C, E, and carotenoids. Certain relatively uncommon antioxidants such as lipoic acid (LA), and phenolic compounds such as (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), a...

  16. Honey: A Novel Antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cancer and Alzheimer's disease is on the rise. These diseases, which constitute the major causes of death globally, are associated with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is defined as an “imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the oxidants, potentially leading to damage”. Individuals with chronic diseases are more susceptible to oxidative stress and damage because they have elevated levels of oxidants and/or reduced antioxidants. This, therefore, necessitates supplementation with antioxidants so as to delay, prevent or remove oxidative damage. Honey is a natural substance with many medicinal effects such as antibacterial, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, reproductive, antihypertensive and antioxidant effects. This review presents findings that indicate honey may ameliorate oxidative stress in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, liver, pancreas, kidney, reproductive organs and plasma/serum. Besides, the review highlights data that demonstrate the synergistic antioxidant effect of honey and antidiabetic drugs in the pancreas, kidney and serum of diabetic rats. These data suggest that honey, administered alone or in combination with conventional therapy, might be a novel antioxidant in the management of chronic diseases commonly associated with oxidative stress. In view of the fact that the majority of these data emanate from animal studies, there is an urgent need to investigate this antioxidant effect of honey in human subjects with chronic or degenerative diseases.

  17. The endothelium-dependent relaxation of rabbit aorta: effects of antioxidants and hydroxylated eicosatetraenoic acids.

    OpenAIRE

    Förstermann, U.; Neufang, B.

    1984-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) induced concentration-dependent relaxations of rabbit aortic strips precontracted with noradrenaline. The relaxations were abolished if the endothelium of the strips was disrupted. Three different antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene, dithiothreitol and alpha-tocopherol) reversed the endothelium-dependent vasodilation in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the antioxidant ascorbic acid did not alter the vasodilatation. The hydroxylated eicosatetraenoic acids 5-HET...

  18. Antioxidant Stabilisation of Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyapnikov, Yurii A.

    1981-06-01

    Physicochemical aspects of the stabilisation of polymers are discussed. Attention is paid mainly to the aging and stabilisation of polymers under processing conditions. Topics considered are the kinetics and mechanism of the high-temperature oxidation of polymers, critical phenomena in the inhibited oxidation of polymers, the theory of synergism and antagonism among antioxidants, the reasons for differences in efficiency of antioxidants, and certain aspects of the relation between the efficiency of antioxidants and their molecular structure. A list of 132 references is included.

  19. Evaluation of total phenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity of the leaves crude extracts of locally grown pigeon pea traditionally used in Sultanate of Oman for the treatment of jaundice and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Hamood Al-Saeedi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the total phenols, total flavonoids and evaluate the antioxidant activity of crude extracts from the leaves of pigeon pea native to Sultanate of Oman by a popular method. Methods: The powdered leaves samples from pigeon pea were used for extraction by maceration method with methanol solvent. The methanol free crude extract by maceration method was suspended in water and successively extracted with different polarities of solvents. The obtained crude extracts with different polarities were used for the determination of total phenols and flavonoids contents by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride methods. The antioxidant activity of six crude extracts from pigeon pea was determined by α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl method. Results: The different polarities leaves crude extracts showed a significant amount of total phenols content ranging from 97.80 to 256.00 mg of GAE/g of crude extract. The same leaves crude extracts also showed good amount of total flavonoids content ranging from 1.38 to 8.51 mg QE/g plant material. The six crude extracts from the leaves displayed significant α, α- diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity with highest value in chloroform extract followed by methanol, butanol, ethyl acetate, hexane and water crude extracts (98.13%, 89.26%, 88.82%, 86.41%, 79.95% and 69.44%, respectively. Conclusions: Leaves crude extracts from pigeon pea have high contents of total phenols and flavonoids. In this regards, it could be used as a medicine for the treatment of different diseases.

  20. Evaluation of total phenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity of the leaves crude extracts of locally grown pigeon pea traditionally used in Sultanate of Oman for the treatment of jaundice and diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asma Hamood Al-Saeedi; Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the total phenols, total flavonoids and evaluate the antioxidant activity of crude extracts from the leaves of pigeon pea native to Sultanate of Oman by a popular method. Methods: The powdered leaves samples from pigeon pea were used for extraction by maceration method with methanol solvent. The methanol free crude extract by maceration method was suspended in water and successively extracted with different polarities of solvents. The obtained crude extracts with different polarities were used for the determination of total phenols and flavonoids contents by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride methods. The antioxidant activity of six crude extracts from pigeon pea was determined byα,αα-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl method. Results: The different polarities leaves crude extracts showed a significant amount of total phenols content ranging from 97.80 to 256.00 mg of GAE/g of crude extract. The same leaves crude extracts also showed good amount of total flavonoids content ranging from 1.38 to 8.51 mg QE/g plant material. The six crude extracts from the leaves displayed significant α,αα-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity with highest value in chloroform extract followed by methanol, butanol, ethyl acetate, hexane and water crude extracts (98.13%, 89.26%, 88.82%, 86.41%, 79.95% and 69.44%, respectively). Conclusions: Leaves crude extracts from pigeon pea have high contents of total phenols and flavonoids. In this regards, it could be used as a medicine for the treatment of different diseases.

  1. Altering Knee Abduction Angular Impulse Using Wedged Insoles for Treatment of Patellofemoral Pain in Runners: A Six-Week Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan T Lewinson

    Full Text Available Determine if a change in internal knee abduction angular impulse (KAAI is related to pain reduction for runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP by comparing lateral and medial wedge insole interventions, and increased KAAI and decreased KAAI groups.Randomized controlled clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov ID# NCT01332110.Biomechanics laboratory and community.Thirty-six runners with physician-diagnosed PFP enrolled in the trial, and 27 were analyzed.Runners with PFP were randomly assigned to either an experimental 3 mm lateral wedge or control 6 mm medial wedge group. Participants completed a biomechanical gait analysis to quantify KAAIs with their assigned insole, and then used their assigned insole for six-weeks during their regular runs. Usual pain during running was measured at baseline and at six-week follow-up using a visual analog scale. Statistical tests were performed to identify differences between wedge types, differences between biomechanical response types (i.e. increase or decrease KAAI, as well as predictors of pain reduction.Percent change in KAAI relative to neutral, and % change in pain over six weeks.Clinically meaningful reductions in pain (>33% were measured for both footwear groups; however, no significant differences between footwear groups were found (p = 0.697. When participants were regrouped based on KAAI change (i.e., increase or decrease, again, no significant differences in pain reduction were noted (p = 0.146. Interestingly, when evaluating absolute change in KAAI, a significant relationship between absolute % change in KAAI and % pain reduction was observed (R2 = 0.21; p = 0.030, after adjusting for baseline pain levels.The greater the absolute % change in KAAI during running, the greater the % reduction in pain over six weeks, regardless of wedge type, and whether KAAIs increased or decreased. Lateral and medial wedge insoles were similar in effectiveness for treatment of PFP.Altering KAAI should be a focus of future

  2. Alteration of the spontaneous systemic autoimmune disease in (NZB x NZW)F1 mice by treatment with thimerosal (ethyl mercury)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic mercury may aggravate murine systemic autoimmune diseases which are either spontaneous (genetically determined) or induced by non-genetic mechanisms. Organic mercury species, the dominating form of mercury exposure in the human population, have not been examined in this respect. Therefore, ethyl mercury in the form of thimerosal, a preservative recently debated as a possible health hazard when present in vaccines, was administered in a dose of 0.156-5 mg/L drinking water to female (NZB x NZW)F1 (ZBWF1) mice. These mice develop an age-dependent spontaneous systemic autoimmune disease with high mortality primarily due to immune-complex (IC) glomerulonephritis. Five mg thimerosal/L drinking water (295 μg Hg/kg body weight (bw)/day) for 7 weeks induced glomerular, mesangial and systemic vessel wall IC deposits and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) which were not present in the untreated controls. After 22-25 weeks, the higher doses of thimerosal had shifted the localization of the spontaneously developing renal glomerular IC deposits from the capillary wall position seen in controls to the mesangium. The altered localization was associated with less severe histological kidney damage, less proteinuria, and reduced mortality. The effect was dose-dependent, lower doses having no effect compared with the untreated controls. A different effect of thimerosal treatment was induction of renal and splenic vessel walls IC deposits. Renal vessel wall deposits occurred at a dose of 0.313-5 mg thimerosal/L (18-295 μg Hg/kg bw/day), while splenic vessel wall deposits developed also in mice given the lowest dose of thimerosal, 0.156 mg/L (9 μg Hg/kg bw/day). The latter dose is 3- and 15-fold lower than the dose of Hg required to induce vessel wall IC deposits in genetically susceptible H-2 s mice by HgCl2 and thimerosal, respectively. Further studies on the exact conditions needed for induction of systemic IC deposits by low-dose organic mercurials in autoimmune

  3. Mitigation of NaCl Stress by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi through the Modulation of Osmolytes, Antioxidants and Secondary Metabolites in Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwat, Maryam; Hashem, Abeer; Ahanger, Mohammad A.; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Alqarawi, A. A.; Alyemeni, Mohammed N.; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Present work was carried out to investigate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in mitigating salinity-induced alterations in Brassica juncea L. Exposure to NaCl stress altered the morphological, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant activity, secondary metabolites and phytohormones in the mustard seedlings. The growth and biomass yield, leaf water content, and total chlorophyll content were decreased with NaCl stress. However, AMF-inoculated plants exhibited enhanced shoot and root length, elevated relative water content, enhanced chlorophyll content, and ultimately biomass yield. Lipid peroxidation and proline content were increased by 54.53 and 63.47%, respectively with 200 mM NaCl concentration. Further increase in proline content and decrease in lipid peroxidation was observed in NaCl-treated plants inoculated with AMF. The antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and reduced glutathione were increased by 48.35, 54.86, 43.85, and 44.44%, respectively, with 200 mM NaCl concentration. Further increase in these antioxidants has been observed in AMF-colonized plants indicating the alleviating role of AMF to salinity stress through antioxidant modulation. The total phenol, flavonoids, and phytohormones increase with NaCl treatment. However, NaCl-treated plants colonized with AMF showed further increase in the above parameters except ABA, which was reduced with NaCl+AMF treatment over the plants treated with NaCl alone. Our results demonstrated that NaCl caused negative effect on B. juncea seedlings; however, colonization with AMF enhances the NaCl tolerance by reforming the physio-biochemical attributes, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and production of secondary metabolites and phytohormones.

  4. Mitigation of NaCl Stress by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi through the Modulation of Osmolytes, Antioxidants and Secondary Metabolites in Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwat, Maryam; Hashem, Abeer; Ahanger, Mohammad A; Abd Allah, Elsayed F; Alqarawi, A A; Alyemeni, Mohammed N; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Present work was carried out to investigate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in mitigating salinity-induced alterations in Brassica juncea L. Exposure to NaCl stress altered the morphological, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant activity, secondary metabolites and phytohormones in the mustard seedlings. The growth and biomass yield, leaf water content, and total chlorophyll content were decreased with NaCl stress. However, AMF-inoculated plants exhibited enhanced shoot and root length, elevated relative water content, enhanced chlorophyll content, and ultimately biomass yield. Lipid peroxidation and proline content were increased by 54.53 and 63.47%, respectively with 200 mM NaCl concentration. Further increase in proline content and decrease in lipid peroxidation was observed in NaCl-treated plants inoculated with AMF. The antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and reduced glutathione were increased by 48.35, 54.86, 43.85, and 44.44%, respectively, with 200 mM NaCl concentration. Further increase in these antioxidants has been observed in AMF-colonized plants indicating the alleviating role of AMF to salinity stress through antioxidant modulation. The total phenol, flavonoids, and phytohormones increase with NaCl treatment. However, NaCl-treated plants colonized with AMF showed further increase in the above parameters except ABA, which was reduced with NaCl+AMF treatment over the plants treated with NaCl alone. Our results demonstrated that NaCl caused negative effect on B. juncea seedlings; however, colonization with AMF enhances the NaCl tolerance by reforming the physio-biochemical attributes, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and production of secondary metabolites and phytohormones. PMID:27458462

  5. The Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A complex antioxidant system has been developed in mammals to relieve oxidative stress. However, excessive reactive species derived from oxygen and nitrogen may still lead to oxidative damage to tissue and organs. Oxidative stress has been considered as a conjoint pathological mechanism, and it contributes to initiation and progression of liver injury. A lot of risk factors, including alcohol, drugs, environmental pollutants and irradiation, may induce oxidative stress in liver, which in turn results in severe liver diseases, such as alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Application of antioxidants signifies a rational curative strategy to prevent and cure liver diseases involving oxidative stress. Although conclusions drawn from clinical studies remain uncertain, animal studies have revealed the promising in vivo therapeutic effect of antioxidants on liver diseases. Natural antioxidants contained in edible or medicinal plants often possess strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities as well as anti-inflammatory action, which are also supposed to be the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits. In this review, PubMed was extensively searched for literature research. The keywords for searching oxidative stress were free radicals, reactive oxygen, nitrogen species, anti-oxidative therapy, Chinese medicines, natural products, antioxidants and liver diseases. The literature, including ours, with studies on oxidative stress and anti-oxidative therapy in liver diseases were the focus. Various factors that cause oxidative stress in liver and effects of antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases were summarized, questioned, and discussed.

  6. Atmospheric oxidation and antioxidants

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    1993-01-01

    Volume I reviews current understanding of autoxidation, largely on the basis of the reactions of oxygen with characterised chemicals. From this flows the modern mechanism of antioxidant actions and their application in stabilisation technology.

  7. The impact of Quercetin like flavonoid antioxidants on Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Akan, Zafer

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled consumption of medical plants may lead controversial result over the patients who are receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer treatment. Especially, flavonoid free radical scavenger including chemical and plants may not be innocent as much as thought. Free radical scavenger antioxidant extracts uses for commonly for two aims; the prevention of cancer and therapy of cancer.In the light of recent developments the impact of antioxidant usage on cancer treatment and prevent...

  8. HERBAL ANTIOXIDANTS- A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Swathi K; Priyenka Devi K S*; Sangeetha A

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species, circulating in the human body tend to react with the electron of other molecules which may initiate the chain reaction and contribute to adverse health effects in the body. Antioxidants possess anti-inflammatory property, antitumor property, anticarcinogenic property, antimutagenic property and metal chelating potential which inturn terminates the chain reaction by arresting free radical intermediates. Natural antioxidants derived from plant sources are effective and ...

  9. Antioxidant supplements and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of a...... of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging....

  10. Plasma antioxidants from chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, M.; Bugianesi, R.; Maiani, G; Valtuena, S.; De Santis, S.; Crozier, A.

    2003-01-01

    There is some speculation that dietary flavonoids from chocolate, in particular (-)epicatechin, may promote cardiovascular health as a result of direct antioxidant effects or through antithrombotic mechanisms. Here we show that consumption of plain, dark chocolate results in an increase in both the total antioxidant capacity and the (-)epicatechin content of blood plasma, but that these effects are markedly reduced when the chocolate is consumed with milk or if milk is incorporated as milk ch...

  11. The antioxidant activity of cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kilicgun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aimed to determine the antioxidant effects of Cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L., which is commonly used in both chocolate and cocoa drinks all over the world , on lipid peroxidation, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, glutathione (GSH and protein oxidation levels in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 treated for male Wistar rats. Two control groups and one treatment group of rats were formed. The control groups were nourished with a standard diet, while the Cocoa group was nourished with standard diet which was enriched with % 6 by weight dried Cocoa powder. After three months, a single dose of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 was performed in Control II (CCl4 and Cocoa groups (1ml/kg, as 20% in olive oil intraperitoneally and single dose of olive oil was administered (1ml/kg,i.p. in the same way as rats in Control I group. They were sacrificed two hours later. Lipid peroxide levels in liver, protein oxidation in liver, glutathione levels in liver, ALT and AST in plasma were measured. Cocoa decreased liver lipid peroxide, liver glutathione levels and plasma ALT and AST activities previously increased by CCl4 treatment, to the Control I levels The protein oxidation levels in the rats in the Cocoa group compared with the rats in CCl4 treated control group were found to have significantly lessened. These fi ndings suggest that cocoa has strong antioxidant activity because of the fact that cocoa inhibits liver injury.

  12. Assessment of effect of hydroalcoholic and decoction methods on extraction of antioxidants from selected Indian medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mital Kaneria; Bhavana Kanani; Sumitra Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant activities of selected Indian medicinal flora. Methods: Different parts of plants were extracted by hydroalcoholic and decoction methods using water and various concentrations of methanol (ME) viz. 75%, 50% and 25% ME. The antioxidant activity of all the different extracts was evaluated using two different antioxidant assays viz. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and superoxide anion radical scavenging assay. Total phenol and flavonoid content was also estimated. Results: The results showed that the extracting solvent significantly altered the antioxidant property estimations of screened plants. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of extracts were observed. High levels of antioxidant activities were detected in Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) as compared with other screened plants.Conclusions:The results obtained appear to confirm the effect of different methods on extraction of antioxidants and antioxidant property of M. zapota.

  13. Antioxidants for Preventing Preeclampsia: A Systematic Review

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    Adriana Magalhaes Ribeiro Salles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the efficacy of antioxidants for preventing preeclampsia and other maternal and fetal complications among pregnant women with low, moderate, or high risk of preeclampsia. Methods. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, mRCT, and other databases, with no language or publication restrictions. Two independent reviewers selected randomized controlled trials that evaluated the use of antioxidants versus placebo and extracted the relevant data. Relative risks (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated. The data were compiled through the random effects model. Main Results. Fifteen studies were included (21,012 women and 21,647 fetuses. No statistically significant difference was found between women who received antioxidant treatment and women who received placebo for preeclampsia (RR =0.92; 95% CI: 0.82–1.04, severe preeclampsia (RR =1.03; 95% CI: 0.87–1.22, preterm birth (RR =1.03; 95% CI: 0.94–1.14, and small for gestational age <10th centile (RR =0.92; 95% CI: 0.80–1.05. Side effects were numerically more frequent in the antioxidants group compared to placebo, but without significant statistical difference (RR =1.24; 95% CI: 0.85–1.80. Conclusions. The available evidence reviewed does not support the use of antioxidants during pregnancy for the prevention of preeclampsia and other outcomes.

  14. Antioxidant Activities of Melittis melissophyllum L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Raseta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of Melittis melissophyllum leaves in ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water were evaporated to dryness and dissolved in 50% ethanol to make 10% (w/v solutions. The potential protective action of the extracts was assessed by the corresponding in vitro and in vivo tests. In the in vitro experiments extracts were tested as potential scavengers of free radicals (DPPH, O2·-, NO, and OH radicals, as well as inhibitors of liposomal peroxidation (LPx. The results obtained show that all extracts (exept n-BuOH extract are good scavengers of radicals and reduce LPx intensity in liposomes, which points to their protective (antioxidant activity. In vivo experiments were concerned with antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, GSHR, Px, CAT, XOD, GSH content and intensity of LPx in liver homogenate and blood-hemolysate of experimental animals after their treatment with extracts of M. melissophyllum leaves, or in combination with CCl4. On the basis of the results obtained it can be concluded that the examined extracts have protective (antioxidative effect and this antioxidative behaviour is more pronounced in liver than in blood-hemolysate. The reason is probably the fact that liver contains other enzymatic systems, which can also participate in the antioxidative mechanism. Of all the extracts the H2O one showed the highest protective activity.

  15. Dietary Antioxidant and Oxidative Stress: Interaction between Vitamins and Genetics

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    Aline Marcadenti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress promotes DNA damage and may also contribute to the development of chronic disease, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Oxidative stress is a result of an imbalance between the production and accumulation of reactive species and the organism´s capacity to manage those using endogenous and exogenous antioxidants. Exogenous antioxidants obtained from the diet, mainly vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, selenium and carotenoids have an important role in reducing oxidative stress and also DNA damage. Endogenous antioxidants include the enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Nutrigenetics is a field of science that examines the interactions between diet and genetic variation. Individual genetic variation can affect proteins involved in the uptake, utilization and metabolism of dietary antioxidants. It may alter their serum levels and subsequent contribution to modulation of oxidative stress. The elucidation of interaction between genetic variations and antioxidant status may have important implications for public health through the identification of individuals and populations who could benefit from dietary intervention and supplementation with antioxidants. A greater understanding of which antioxidants could promote more protection and increase DNA repair may be important as a strategy to avoid the earlier development of chronic diseases.

  16. Effect of permethrin plus antioxidants on locomotor activity and striatum in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasuti, Cinzia; Falcioni, Maria Letizia; Nwankwo, Innocent Ejike; Cantalamessa, Franco; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2008-09-29

    Pyrethroids are important insecticides used largely because of their high activity as an insecticide and their low mammalian toxicity. Some studies have demonstrated that these products show neurotoxic effects on the mammalian central nervous system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the propensity of permethrin to induce oxidative stress in adolescent rats and its possible attenuation by Vitamin E alone or+Coenzyme Q(10). Data indicated that adolescent rats exposed to permethrin exhibited alteration in the locomotor activity and plasma membrane fluidity of striatum. Vitamin E+Q(10) and Vitamin E alone supplementation reversed the negative effect on central nervous system. Permethrin alteration of striatum plasma membrane fluidity was restored by Vitamin E+Q(10). Data obtained from red blood cells showed that permethrin did not induce any modification of plasma membrane fluidity in adolescent rats, whereas antioxidants supplementation induced pro-oxidant effect. In summary some differences between antioxidant treatments were observed at striatum level: Coenzyme Q(10)+Vitamin E maintains plasma membrane fluidity, while Vitamin E is more effective to preserve GSH level.

  17. Neuroprotective and antioxidant role ofPhoenix dactylifera in permanent bilateral common carotid occlusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rohini R Pujari; Neeraj S Vyawahare; Prasad A Thakurdesai

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate neuroprotective and antioxidant effect ofPhoenix dactylifera (P. dactylifera)(PD) fruits.Methods:Methanolic extract ofP. dactylifera fruits(MEPD) at doses of 30,100 and300 mg/kg was studied against permanentBCCAO(long-term hypoperfusion) in rats. Chronic occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries(BCCA) caused significant elevation in malondialdehyde levels due to increased lipid peroxidation as well as decrease in levels of other biochemical enzymesi.e. glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferse, catalase and superoxide dismutase.Results:Post occlusion treatment for15 d with 100 and300 mg/kg doses ofMEPD significantly reduced the enhanced malondialdehyde levels and reversed the alterations in the declined levels of antioxidant enzymes in brain homogenates of hypoperfused rats.Long-term cerebral hypoperfusion in rats caused a propensity towards anxiety and restlessness(open field paradigm) accompanied by deficits of spatial learning and memory(Morris water maze testing).Additionally, histopathological observations in hypoperfused brains revealed reactive changes like shrinkage and necrosis of neurons.100 and300 mg/kg doses ofMEPD significantly alleviated these alterations.Conclusions:These results confirmed the protective role ofP. dactylifera in ischemia hypoperfusion and thereby it’s beneficial role in cerebrovascular insufficiency states and related complications.

  18. Protective effect of antioxidant rich aqueous curry leaf (Murraya koenigii extract against gastro-toxic effects of piroxicam in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Benazir Firdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Piroxicam (chemically 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-2-pyridinyl-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide, a classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID is orally administered to arthritic patients. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 synthesis and subsequent free hydroxyl radical generation in vivo exert gastro-toxic side effects on piroxicam treatment. Leaves of curry plant are rich in antioxidants with prolific free radical scavenging activities. This led us to investigate the efficiency of the use of curry leaves in ameliorating piroxicam induced gastric damage. Piroxicam was orally (30 mg per kg body weight administered in male albino Wistar rats to generate gastric ulcers. These rats were orally fed with graded doses of aqueous extract of curry or Murraya koenigii leaves (Cu LE prior to piroxicam administration. Oxidative stress biomarkers, activities of antioxidant and pro-oxidant enzymes, mucin content and nature, PGE2 level, activities of mitochondrial enzymes and histomorphology of gastric tissues were studied. Piroxicam treatment altered all the above mentioned parameters whereas, curry leaf extract pre-treated animals were protected against piroxicam induced alterations. Hence, the protective action of the antioxidant rich Cu LE was investigated to propose a new combination therapy or dietary management to arthritic patients using piroxicam.

  19. Rice bran oil prevents neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms in rats: Possible antioxidant mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen Samad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tardive dyskinesia (TD is one of the serious side effects of long-term antipsychotic treatment. Chronic treatment with neuroleptic leads to the development of abnormal oral movements called vacuous chewing movements (VCMs. The oxidative stress hypothesis of TD is one of the possible pathophysiologic models for TD. Preclinical and clinical studies of this hypothesis indicate that neurotoxic free radical production is likely to be a consequence of antipsychotic medication and is related to occurrence of TD. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathophysiology of TD. Rats chronically treated with haloperidol orally at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day for a period of 5 weeks developed VCMs, which increased in a time-dependent manner as the treatment continued for 5 weeks. Motor coordination impairment started after the 1st week and was maximally impaired after 3 weeks and gradually returned to the 1st week value. Motor activity in an open field or home cage (activity box not altered. Administration of rice bran oil (antioxidant by oral tubes at a dose of 0.4 mL/day prevented the induction of haloperidol-elicited VCMs as well impairment of motor coordination. The results are discussed in the context of a protective role of antioxidant of rice bran oil in the prevention of haloperidol-induced extrapyramidal symptoms.

  20. Post-factum detection of radiation treatment of meat and fish by means of DNA alterations identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The doctoral thesis explains methods and experiments for post-factum detection of radiation-induced alterations of DNA. There are various manifestations of such alterations. Ionizing radiation can directly alter the bases and/or sugar component, or can indirectly induce DNA damage by way of forming water radicals. Both mechanisms result in base derivatives, released for some part from the DNA strand, or formed by alterations of the 2-deoxyribose, inducing strand breaks ( single and double strand breaks). The first part of the thesis explains the approach applying GC-MS for detection of radiation-induced base derivatives, using herring sperm DNA as a model DNA. Some typical types of base derivatives were identified (thymine glycol, 5-hydroxycytosine).Some base derivatives were also found in DNA samples derived from poultry meat. These base derivatives are known to be indicators of food processing with ionizing radiation, but surprisingly were also found in non-irradiated controls, although in minor amounts. The second part discusses the identification of strand breaks applying the pused-field gel electrophoresis. This method is capable of producing evidence that irradiation markedly enhances the short-chain DNA molecules as compared to non-irradiated controls. DNA molecules of a size of approx. 2.2 million base pairs are almost completely broken into short-chain fragments. The method reliably detects radiation treatments down to 1500 Gy, even if applied long ago. (orig./MG)

  1. Antioxidant and protective effects of Royal jelly on histopathological changes in testis of diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Elham; Nejati, Vahid; Khazaei, Mozafar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease. It has adverse effects on male reproductive function. Royal Jelly (RJ) has antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects and show protective effects against diabetes. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of RJ on histopathological alterations of the testicular tissue in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (C), royal jelly (R), diabetic (D) and RJ-treated diabetic (D+R) groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at 50 mg/kg body weight (BW). The rats from the R and D+R groups received daily RJ (100 mg/kg BW) for 6 wks orally. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining was used to analyze histopathological changes including: tunica albuginea thickness (TAT), seminiferous tubules diameter (STsD), Johnsen’s score, tubular differentiation index (TDI), spermiogenesis index (SPI), Sertoli cell index (SCI), meiotic index (MI), and mononuclear immune cells (MICs) in testes. The antioxidant status was examined by evaluating testicular levels of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and catalase (CAT) activity. Results: Histological results of the testis from diabetic rats showed significant decrease in STsD, Johnsen’s score, TDI, SPI, SCI and MI, and significant increase in TAT and MICs, while administration of RJ significantly reverted these changes (p<0.05). RJ treatment markedly increased activity of CAT and FRAP. There were significant differences in FRAP levels among C (13.0±0.5), RJ (13.4±0.3), D (7.8±0.6) and D+R (12.4±0.7) groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: RJ improved diabetes-induced impairment in testis, probably through its antioxidant property. PMID:27679827

  2. Skin and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  3. Succinobucol’s New Coat — Conjugation with Steroids to Alter Its Drug Effect and Bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Ikonen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis, detailed structural characterization (X-ray, NMR, MS, IR, elemental analysis, and studies of toxicity, antioxidant activity and bioavailability of unique potent anti-atherosclerotic succinobucol-steroid conjugates are reported. The conjugates consist of, on one side, the therapeutically important drug succinobucol ([4-{2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-[(1-{[3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-5-(propan-2-ylphenyl]sulfanyl}ethylsulfanyl]phenoxy}-4-oxo-butanoic acid] possessing an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, and on the other side, plant stanol/sterols (stigmastanol, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol possessing an ability to lower the blood cholesterol level. A cholesterol-succinobucol prodrug was also prepared in order to enhance the absorption of succinobucol through the intestinal membrane into the organism and to target the drug into the place of lipid metabolism—The enterohepatic circulation system. Their low toxicity towards mice fibroblasts at maximal concentrations, their antioxidant activity, comparable or even higher than that of ascorbic acid as determined by direct quenching of the DPPH radical, and their potential for significantly altering total and LDL cholesterol levels, suggest that these conjugates merit further studies in the treatment of cardiovascular or other related diseases. A brief discussion of succinobucol’s ability to quench the radicals, supported with a computational model of the electrostatic potential mapped on the electron density surface of the drug, is also presented.

  4. Antioxidant Therapy Against Trypanosome Infections: A Review Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Bindawa Isah, Murtala; Abdullahi Salman, Abdulmalik

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis is a serious parasitic disease that affects humans and animals resulting in heavy health and economic burdens. Disturbance of redox equilibrium represents a classical challenge for both the host and the parasite during infections with either extracellular African or intracellular American trypanosomes species. This is in spite of existing detoxification mechanisms in both the host and the parasite for maintaining oxidative balance. However, oxidative stress still plays vital roles in the induction of numerous host-associated pathological damages such as anemia, hepatic and renal damages as well as cardiomyopathy while on the other hand, drugs that specifically induce oxidative stress to the parasite have been effective. Therefore, antioxidants have been deemed to play a role in modulating trypanosome infections. This review provides a current update on most of the studies conducted on the potential use of antioxidants as therapeutic agents against trypanosomes. The most frequently studied plant-derived phenolic antioxidants are resveratrol, cucurmin, gallic acid and quercetin while other antioxidants such as vitamins (A, C, E) and trace elements (selenium and iron) have been investigated. Some of the investigations monitored the direct trypanocidal or trypanostatic effects of the antioxidants while others studied the potentials of the antioxidants as adjuncts to trypanocidal drugs. So far, none of these approaches has sufficient data to allow a definite statement on the actual therapeutic potential of antioxidants in the treatment of clinical trypanosomiasis. Therefore, suggestions are made on the most therapeutically and clinically relevant role of antioxidants in trypanosome infections. PMID:27072713

  5. Eruca sativa seeds possess antioxidant activity and exert a protective effect on mercuric chloride induced renal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar Alam, M; Kaur, Gurpreet; Jabbar, Zoobi; Javed, Kaleem; Athar, Mohammad

    2007-06-01

    Mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) is a well-known nephrotoxic agent. Increasing number of evidences suggest the role of oxidative stress in HgCl(2) induced nephrotoxicity. Eruca sativa is widely used in folklore medicines and has a good reputation as a remedy of renal ailments. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of E. sativa seeds was determined and its protective effect on HgCl(2) induced renal toxicity was investigated. The extract was found to possess a potent antioxidant effect, with a large amount of polyphenols and a high reducing ability. HPLC analysis of the extract revealed glucoerucin and flavonoids to be the major antioxidants present in it. E. sativa extract significantly scavenged several reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Feeding of the extract to rats afforded a significant protection against HgCl(2) induced renal toxicity. Subcutaneous administration of 4 mg/kg body weight HgCl(2) induced renal injury evident as a marked elevation in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels, and histopathological changes such as necrosis, oedema and congestion of stroma and glomeruli. Oxidative modulation of renal tissues following HgCl(2) exposure was evident from a significant elevation in lipid peroxidation and attenuation in glutathione (GSH) contents and activities of antioxidant enzymes viz., catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). Oral administration of E. sativa extract to rats at a dose regimen: 50-200 mg/kg body weight for 7 days prior to HgCl(2) treatment significantly and dose dependently protected against alterations in all these diagnostic parameters. The data obtained in the present study suggests E. sativa seeds to possess a potent antioxidant and renal protective activity and preclude oxidative damage inflicted to the kidney.

  6. Antioxidants and Health: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been shown to counteract oxidative stress in laboratory experiments (for example, in cells or animal studies). However, ... risk. Researchers have also studied antioxidants in laboratory experiments. These experiments showed that antioxidants interacted with free ...

  7. Modification of mercury-induced biochemical alterations by Triticum Aestivum Linn in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, B V S; Sudhakar, M; Nireesha, G

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation has been undertaken to evaluate role of Wheat grass extract in modifying mercury-induced biochemical alterations in albino rats. Mercuric chloride 5 mg/kg body weight i.p. was given on 11, 13 & 15th day of the experiment. Wheat grass extract (400 mg/kg) and Quercetin (10 mg/kg) were administered 10 days before mercuric chloride administration and continued up to 30 days after mercuric chloride administration. The animals were sacrificed on 1, 15 and 30 days, the activity of serum alkaline and acid phosphatase and the iron, calcium, BUN, creatinine, SGPT, SGOT, total bilirubin, total protein levels were measured. Tissue lipid peroxidation content, glutathione (GSH) level, anti-oxidant enzymes- CAT and GR were measured. Hematological indices were also estimated. Mercury intoxication causes significant increase (P iron level, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, and CAT, GR and glutathione level. Wheat grass extract pre- and post-treatment ameliorated mercury-induced alterations in terms of biochemical and hematological parameters. Concomitant treatment of Wheatgrass extract with Mercury showed prominent recovery and normal architecture with mild residual degeneration in the tissues. Thus from present investigation, it can be concluded that Wheat grass extract pre- and post-treatment with HgCl2 significantly modulate or modify mercury-induced biochemical alteration in albino rats. PMID:26215012

  8. ANTIOXIDANT STATUS, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND LIPID PROF ILE IN ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSIVE MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantha Kumari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Hypertension is a major health burden and coexists o f with imbalance in antioxidants and lipid profile. This study is done to evaluate the total antioxidant status and oxidative stress like Malondialdehyde (MDA, catala se, superoxide dismutase (SOD, uric acid and correlate with lipid profile among hypertensive m en. Significant increase in MDA, uric acid and dyslipidemia was found among hypertensive men. Al so total antioxidant status and other antioxidants like SOD, catalase was found to be dec reased in hypertensive men. Hence it is concluded that lipid peroxidation occur in hypertensi on which leads to endothelial dysfunction, renal blood flow alteration and tissue damage. As a result of which dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia and decrease in anti oxidants are seen. Hence decre ase in antioxidants is a useful marker for antioxidant therapy to prevent organ damage among hype rtensive.

  9. Does Zinc Sulfate Prevent Therapy-Induced Taste Alterations in Head and Neck Cancer Patients? Results of Phase III Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N01C4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Taste alterations (dysgeusia) are well described in head and neck cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy (RT). Anecdotal observations and pilot studies have suggested zinc may mitigate these symptoms. This multi-institutional, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to provide definitive evidence of this mineral's palliative efficacy. Methods and Materials: A total of 169 evaluable patients were randomly assigned to zinc sulfate 45 mg orally three times daily vs. placebo. Treatment was to be given throughout RT and for 1 month after. All patients were scheduled to receive ≥2,000 cGy of external beam RT to ≥30% of the oral cavity, were able to take oral medication, and had no oral thrush at study entry. Changes in taste were assessed using the previously validated Wickham questionnaire. Results: At baseline, the groups were comparable in age, gender, and planned radiation dose (<6,000 vs. ≥6,000 cGy). Overall, 61 zinc-treated (73%) and 71 placebo-exposed (84%) patients described taste alterations during the first 2 months (p = 0.16). The median interval to taste alterations was 2.3 vs. 1.6 weeks in the zinc-treated and placebo-exposed patients, respectively (p = 0.09). The reported taste alterations included the absence of any taste (16%), bitter taste (8%), salty taste (5%), sour taste (4%), sweet taste (5%), and the presence of a metallic taste (10%), as well as other descriptions provided by a write in response (81%). Zinc sulfate did not favorably affect the interval to taste recovery. Conclusion: Zinc sulfate, as prescribed in this trial, did not prevent taste alterations in cancer patients who were undergoing RT to the oral pharynx

  10. 采后处理对杏鲍菇贮藏品质及抗氧化酶系统的影响%Effect of Postharvest Treatment on the Storage Quality and Antioxidant Enzyme System ofPleurotus eryngii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田平平; 王杰; 秦晓艺; 李丹青

    2015-01-01

    [Objective]This research was conducted to study the effect of postharvest treatment on the storage quality and antioxidant enzyme system ofPleurotus eryngii and to provide a theoretical guide for the application and development of postharvest preservation ofPleurotus eryngii.[Method]Fresh mushrooms, treated by 1.5% chitosan coating, 0.03 mm and 0.05 mm PE film packaging, respectively, were stored at 4℃ and RH 85%-95%. Mushrooms packed with 0.05 mm PE without sealing were used as the control. Based on analysis of main quality indexes, including weight loss rate, color, firmness, total soluble solids (TSS) content, reducing sugar content and total soluble protein content, antioxidant enzyme activities of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), conductivity, malondialdehyde content, superoxide anion and H2O2 content, effects of different postharvest treatment methods on the storage quality and antioxidant enzyme system were studied in storedP. eryngii.[Result]The results showed that compared with the control, 0.05 mm and 0.03 mm PE film packaging could significantly reduce the weight loss rate (P0.05). Chitosan coating mushrooms showed low browning index, but at the end of storage, browning in chitosan coating treatment was significantly higher (P<0.05). The changes of total soluble solids (TSS), reducing sugar and total soluble protein of chitosan coated mushrooms were significantly lower than those of the control in the mid and late storage. To a certain extent, the three treatments enhanced the antioxidant ability of storedP. eryngii compared with control. Three treatments could significantly decrease the cell membrane permeability and the content of membrane lipid peroxidation products MDA (P<0.05). The conductivity and malondialdehyde content of chitosan coated mushrooms were significantly higher than those of two PE treatments in the mid and late storage. The 0.03 mm PE packaging and chitosan coating treatment could effectively reduce

  11. Alterations of Dopamine D2 Receptors and Related Receptor-Interacting Proteins in Schizophrenia: The Pivotal Position of Dopamine Supersensitivity Psychosis in Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunori Oda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2 has been a main target of antipsychotic pharmacotherapy for the treatment of schizophrenia, the standard treatment does not offer sufficient relief of symptoms to 20%–30% of patients suffering from this disorder. Moreover, over 80% of patients experience relapsed psychotic episodes within five years following treatment initiation. These data strongly suggest that the continuous blockade of DRD2 by antipsychotic(s could eventually fail to control the psychosis in some point during long-term treatment, even if such treatment has successfully provided symptomatic improvement for the first-episode psychosis, or stability for the subsequent chronic stage. Dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP is historically known as a by-product of antipsychotic treatment in the manner of tardive dyskinesia or transient rebound psychosis. Numerous data in psychopharmacological studies suggest that the up-regulation of DRD2, caused by antipsychotic(s, is likely the mechanism underlying the development of the dopamine supersensitivity state. However, regardless of evolving notions of dopamine signaling, particularly dopamine release, signal transduction, and receptor recycling, most of this research has been conducted and discussed from the standpoint of disease etiology or action mechanism of the antipsychotic, not of DSP. Hence, the mechanism of the DRD2 up-regulation or mechanism evoking clinical DSP, both of which are caused by pharmacotherapy, remains unknown. Once patients experience a DSP episode, they become increasingly difficult to treat. Light was recently shed on a new aspect of DSP as a treatment-resistant factor. Clarification of the detailed mechanism of DSP is therefore crucial, and a preventive treatment strategy for DSP or treatment-resistant schizophrenia is urgently needed.

  12. Anti-oxidation treatment of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene components to decrease periprosthetic osteolysis: evaluation of osteolytic and osteogenic properties of wear debris particles in a murine calvaria model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Justin M; Hallab, Nadim J; Liao, Yen-Shuo; Narayan, Venkat; Schwarz, Edward M; Xie, Chao

    2013-05-01

    Wear debris-induced osteolysis remains the greatest limitation of long-term success for total joint replacements with ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) bearings. To address oxidative degradation post-gamma irradiation, manufacturers are investigating the incorporation of antioxidants into PE resins. Similarly, larger molecular weight monomers have been developed to increase crosslinking and decrease wear debris, and ultimately osteolysis. However, the effects of modifying monomer size, crosslink density, and antioxidant incorporation on UHMWPE particle-induced osteoclastic bone resorption and coupled osteoblastic bone formation have never been tested. Here, we review the field of antioxidant-containing UHMWPE, and present an illustrative pilot study evaluating the osteolytic and osteogenic potential of wear debris generated from three chemically distinct particles (MARATHON®, XLK, and AOX™) as determined by a novel 3D micro-CT algorithm designed for the murine calvaria model. The results demonstrate an approach by which the potential osteoprotective effects of antioxidants in UHMWPE can be evaluated.

  13. PHOTOPROTECTIVE ANTIOXIDANT PHYTOCHEMICALS

    OpenAIRE

    Deore, Sharada L.; Saroj Kombade; Baviskar, Bhushan A.; Khadabadi, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    Many ayurvedic natural products have properties to rejuvenate and protect the skin from environmental pollution, chemicals, atmospheric temperature fluctuation, UVA and UVB radiation, wrinkling, hyperpigmentation (excessive tanning) and inflammation. The present review focuses on properties and mechanism of action of photoprotective antioxidant phytoconstituents obtained from ayurvedic plants such as flavonoids, carotenoids, phenolics which can be useful in development of effective photoprote...

  14. Antioxidant effects of carotenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, A.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Berg, R. van den; Berg, H. van den

    1998-01-01

    Surprisingly, neither the precise pharmacological effect nor the toxicological profile is usually established for food components. Carotenoids are no exception in this regard. Only limited insight into the pharmacology and toxicology of carotenoids exists. It is known that the antioxidant action of

  15. Antioxidant System in Dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Şemsettin Karaca; Hüsna Güder

    2009-01-01

    In healthy body, oxygen species and antioxidant defence mechanisms work in balance. Overproduction or inadequate removal of reactive oxygen species result in oxidative stress, leading to lipid peroxidation, DNA mutation or breakage, activation or inactivation of enzymes, protein oxidation. Clinically, these cause several unfavorable effects included erythema, edema, wrinkles, photoaging, inflammation, autoimmune reactions, hipersensitivity reactions, keratinization disorders, neoplastic or pr...

  16. Addition of anacardic acid as antioxidants in broiler chicken mortadella

    OpenAIRE

    Virgínia Kelly Gonçalves ABREU; Ana Lúcia Fernandes PEREIRA; Ednardo Rodrigues de FREITAS; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; José Maria Correia da COSTA

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe effect of anacardic acid on lipid stability and coloration of chicken mortadella was investigated. Antioxidants were added to chicken mortadellas, according to the treatments: no added antioxidant, 100 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene and 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm anacardic acid. The mortadellas were stored for 90 days at 4 °C, and the analysis of lipid oxidation and color were performed. For TBARS, there was linear reduction with increased anacardic acid. According to the means test, ...

  17. Topical application of Gallic acid suppresses the 7,12-DMBA/Croton oil induced two-step skin carcinogenesis by modulating anti-oxidants and MMP-2/MMP-9 in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Vimala; Venkatesan, Balaji; Tumala, Anusha; Vellaichamy, Elangovan

    2014-04-01

    Gallic acid (GA - 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a dietary anti-oxidant has been shown to inhibit cancer cell growth in in vitro. Herein, we investigated the in vivo chemo preventive activity of GA on 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/Croton oil induced two-step skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Skin tumor incidence and tumor volume were recorded during the 16 weeks of experimental period. In addition, LDH-isozyme shift, skin collagen content, activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2/MMP-9) enzymes and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant were studied in the skin and serum of experimental mice. Tumor incidence was significantly increased in the DMBA/Croton oil induced mice (100%; pCroton oil induced skin while decreased levels of enzymatic (GST, SOD, CAT & GPx) and non-enzymatic anti-oxidant (GSH) were noticed. On the other hand, GA co-treatment exhibited a significant protection by reverting back the altered levels of LDH-isoenzymes, antioxidants, collagen and MMP-2/MMP-9 activities. The results of this study indicate that topical application of GA inhibits DMBA/Croton oil induced two-stage skin carcinogenic process by modulating the antioxidants and MMPs (-2 & -9) in the mouse skin.

  18. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of high antioxidant australian fruits with antiproliferative activity against cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Sirdaarta; Anton Maen; Paran Rayan; Ben Matthews; Ian Edwin Cock

    2016-01-01

    Background: High antioxidant capacities have been linked to the treatment and prevention of several cancers. Recent reports have identified several native Australian fruits with high antioxidant capacities. Despite this, several of these species are yet to be tested for anticancer activity. Materials and Methods: Solvent extracts prepared from high antioxidant native Australian fruits were analyzed for antioxidant capacity by the di (phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) iminoazanium free radical sc...

  19. Role of antioxidants in the skin: anti-aging effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Hitoshi

    2010-05-01

    Intracellular and extracellular oxidative stress initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) advance skin aging, which is characterized by wrinkles and atypical pigmentation. Because UV enhances ROS generation in cells, skin aging is usually discussed in relation to UV exposure. The use of antioxidants is an effective approach to prevent symptoms related to photo-induced aging of the skin. In this review, the mechanisms of ROS generation and ROS elimination in the body are summarized. The effects of ROS generated in the skin and the roles of ROS in altering the skin are also discussed. In addition, the effects of representative antioxidants on the skin are summarized with a focus on skin aging.

  20. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) as a target of oxidative stress-mediated damage: cochlear and cortical responses after an increase in antioxidant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetoni, Anna Rita; De Bartolo, Paola; Eramo, Sara Letizia Maria; Rolesi, Rolando; Paciello, Fabiola; Bergamini, Christian; Fato, Romana; Paludetti, Gaetano; Petrosini, Laura; Troiani, Diana

    2013-02-27

    This study addresses the relationship between cochlear oxidative damage and auditory cortical injury in a rat model of repeated noise exposure. To test the effect of increased antioxidant defenses, a water-soluble coenzyme Q10 analog (Qter) was used. We analyzed auditory function, cochlear oxidative stress, morphological alterations in auditory cortices and cochlear structures, and levels of coenzymes Q9 and Q10 (CoQ9 and CoQ10, respectively) as indicators of endogenous antioxidant capability. We report three main results. First, hearing loss and damage in hair cells and spiral ganglion was determined by noise-induced oxidative stress. Second, the acoustic trauma altered dendritic morphology and decreased spine number of II-III and V-VI layer pyramidal neurons of auditory cortices. Third, the systemic administration of the water-soluble CoQ10 analog reduced oxidative-induced cochlear damage, hearing loss, and cortical dendritic injury. Furthermore, cochlear levels of CoQ9 and CoQ10 content increased. These findings indicate that antioxidant treatment restores auditory cortical neuronal morphology and hearing function by reducing the noise-induced redox imbalance in the cochlea and the deafferentation effects upstream the acoustic pathway. PMID:23447610

  1. Paradoxical Roles of Antioxidant Enzymes: Basic Mechanisms and Health Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xin Gen; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Bao, Yongping; Ho, Ye-Shih; Reddi, Amit R; Holmgren, Arne; Arnér, Elias S J

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are generated from aerobic metabolism, as a result of accidental electron leakage as well as regulated enzymatic processes. Because ROS/RNS can induce oxidative injury and act in redox signaling, enzymes metabolizing them will inherently promote either health or disease, depending on the physiological context. It is thus misleading to consider conventionally called antioxidant enzymes to be largely, if not exclusively, health protective. Because such a notion is nonetheless common, we herein attempt to rationalize why this simplistic view should be avoided. First we give an updated summary of physiological phenotypes triggered in mouse models of overexpression or knockout of major antioxidant enzymes. Subsequently, we focus on a series of striking cases that demonstrate "paradoxical" outcomes, i.e., increased fitness upon deletion of antioxidant enzymes or disease triggered by their overexpression. We elaborate mechanisms by which these phenotypes are mediated via chemical, biological, and metabolic interactions of the antioxidant enzymes with their substrates, downstream events, and cellular context. Furthermore, we propose that novel treatments of antioxidant enzyme-related human diseases may be enabled by deliberate targeting of dual roles of the pertaining enzymes. We also discuss the potential of "antioxidant" nutrients and phytochemicals, via regulating the expression or function of antioxidant enzymes, in preventing, treating, or aggravating chronic diseases. We conclude that "paradoxical" roles of antioxidant enzymes in physiology, health, and disease derive from sophisticated molecular mechanisms of redox biology and metabolic homeostasis. Simply viewing antioxidant enzymes as always being beneficial is not only conceptually misleading but also clinically hazardous if such notions underpin medical treatment protocols based on modulation of redox pathways.

  2. Paradoxical Roles of Antioxidant Enzymes: Basic Mechanisms and Health Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xin Gen; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Bao, Yongping; Ho, Ye-Shih; Reddi, Amit R; Holmgren, Arne; Arnér, Elias S J

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are generated from aerobic metabolism, as a result of accidental electron leakage as well as regulated enzymatic processes. Because ROS/RNS can induce oxidative injury and act in redox signaling, enzymes metabolizing them will inherently promote either health or disease, depending on the physiological context. It is thus misleading to consider conventionally called antioxidant enzymes to be largely, if not exclusively, health protective. Because such a notion is nonetheless common, we herein attempt to rationalize why this simplistic view should be avoided. First we give an updated summary of physiological phenotypes triggered in mouse models of overexpression or knockout of major antioxidant enzymes. Subsequently, we focus on a series of striking cases that demonstrate "paradoxical" outcomes, i.e., increased fitness upon deletion of antioxidant enzymes or disease triggered by their overexpression. We elaborate mechanisms by which these phenotypes are mediated via chemical, biological, and metabolic interactions of the antioxidant enzymes with their substrates, downstream events, and cellular context. Furthermore, we propose that novel treatments of antioxidant enzyme-related human diseases may be enabled by deliberate targeting of dual roles of the pertaining enzymes. We also discuss the potential of "antioxidant" nutrients and phytochemicals, via regulating the expression or function of antioxidant enzymes, in preventing, treating, or aggravating chronic diseases. We conclude that "paradoxical" roles of antioxidant enzymes in physiology, health, and disease derive from sophisticated molecular mechanisms of redox biology and metabolic homeostasis. Simply viewing antioxidant enzymes as always being beneficial is not only conceptually misleading but also clinically hazardous if such notions underpin medical treatment protocols based on modulation of redox pathways. PMID:26681794

  3. Antioxidant Activities of Iranian Corn Silk

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; POURMORAD, Fereshteh; HAFEZI, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally corn silk (CS) has been used as diuretic, antilithiasic, uricosuric, and antiseptic. It is used for the treatment of edema as well as for cystitis, gout, kidney stones, nephritis, and prostatitis. In the present study, the antioxidant properties of ethanol-water extract from CS were estimated by different methods. Also phenol and flavonoid content of the extract were measured by Folin Ciocalteu and AlCl3 assays. CS extract contained a significant amount of phenol and flavonoids....

  4. Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant potential of methanol extract ofTectona grandis flowers in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramaniam Ramachandran; Aiyalu Rajasekaran; KT Manisenthil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activity of methanol extract ofTectona grandis (T. grandis) flowers(METGF)in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats to supports its traditional use.Methods: Acute toxicity study of METGF was carried out in rat to determine its dose for the antidiabetic study. Oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) was performed to evaluateMETGF effect on elevated blood glucose level. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration ofSTZ(60 mg/kg, ip.) and it was confirmed 72 h after induction.METGF was orally given to the diabetic rats up to28 days and blood glucose level were estimated each week. On28 day of the experiment, diabetic rats were sacrificed after the blood collection for the biochemical parameters analysis and liver, kidney was collected to determine antioxidants levels.Results:In acute toxicity,METGFdid not show toxicity and death up to a dose 2 000mg/kg in rats. Administration ofMETGF 100 and200mg/kg significantly (P<0.001) reduced blood glucose levels inOGTTand STZ-induced diabetic rats. Both doses ofMETGF treatment significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 andP<0.05) increased body weight, serum insulin, haemoglobin (Hb) and total protein levels in diabetic rats. Also,MEGTF treatment reduced elevated glycosylated haemoglobin(HbA1c) and other biochemical parameters levels significantly (P<0.001) in diabetic rats. Altered lipid profiles and antioxidants levels were reversed to near normal in diabetic rats treated withMETGF. Conclusions: These results concluded that METGF possesses antidiabetic, antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity which supports its traditional use.

  5. Early osmotic, antioxidant, ionic, and redox responses to salinity in leaves and roots of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Singh Laxmi; Manish, Pandey; Penna, Suprasanna

    2016-01-01

    Salt-stress-induced alterations in osmotic, ionic, and redox responses were studied in the early period of treatment (30 min to 5 days) in seedlings of Brassica juncea L. Roots and shoots under mild (50 mM) and severe (250 mM) NaCl stress were analyzed for growth, oxidative stress, osmolyte accumulation, antioxidant defense, and redox state. Growth reduction was less pronounced in the early time period of salt stress while oxidative damage increased linearly and in a sustained manner under severe stress up to 6 h. An early and transient reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, as evidenced by superoxide and hydrogen peroxide level was observed, followed by activation of enzymatic antioxidant system (GPX, SOD, CAT, and GR) in both root and shoot. The enzymatic activity was not affected much under mild stress particularly at early phase; however, severe stress induced a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Root ascorbate was progressively accumulated, and its redox state maintained in the early time phase of treatment under mild stress while increase in root and shoot glutathione content was recorded under mild stress at 5 days when the active ascorbate pool decreased. While early period of salt stress showed significant Na(+) accumulation over control, plants subjected to mild stress measured less Na(+) accumulation up to 5 days compared to severely stressed plants. The results showed an early induction of differential responses to salt stress in roots and shoots of Brassica which include growth limitations, reduced relative water content, increased osmolytes, redox state, and antioxidant system, and a significant Na(+) increase. The results also indicate that roots and shoots may have distinct mechanisms of responses to salt stress.

  6. Study of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels in tobacco chewers and smokers: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chundru Venkata Naga Sirisha

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study gave us an insight about the relationship between antioxidant enzyme activity, oxidative stress and tobacco. The altered antioxidant enzyme levels observed in this study will act as a predictor for pre potentially malignant lesions. Therefore an early intervention of tobacco habit and its related oxidative stress would prevent the development of tobacco induced lesions.

  7. Increased oxidative stress and antioxidant expression in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to paraquat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) is a widely used herbicide known to induce skin toxicity. This is thought to be due to oxidative stress resulting from the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) during paraquat redox cycling. The skin contains a diverse array of antioxidant enzymes which protect against oxidative stress including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), metallothionein-2 (MT-2), and glutathione-S-transferases (GST). In the present studies we compared paraquat redox cycling in primary cultures of undifferentiated and differentiated mouse keratinocytes and determined if this was associated with oxidative stress and altered expression of antioxidant enzymes. We found that paraquat readily undergoes redox cycling in both undifferentiated and differentiated keratinocytes, generating superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide as well as increased protein oxidation which was greater in differentiated cells. Paraquat treatment also resulted in increased expression of HO-1, Cu,Zn-SOD, catalase, GSTP1, GSTA3 and GSTA4. However, no major differences in expression of these enzymes were evident between undifferentiated and differentiated cells. In contrast, expression of GSTA1-2 was significantly greater in differentiated relative to undifferentiated cells after paraquat treatment. No changes in expression of MT-2, Mn-SOD, GPx-1, GSTM1 or the microsomal GST's mGST1, mGST2 and mGST3, were observed in response to paraquat. These data demonstrate that paraquat induces oxidative stress in keratinocytes leading to increased expression of antioxidant genes. These intracellular proteins may be important in protecting the skin from paraquat-mediated cytotoxicity

  8. Cytoskeleton, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus alterations in CHO-K1 cell line after Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake venom treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Tamieti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms are toxic to a variety of cell types. However, the intracellular damages and the cell death fate induced by venom are unclear. In the present work, the action of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus venom on CHO-K1 cell line was analyzed. The cells CHO-K1 were incubated with C. d. terrificus venom (10, 50 and 100g/ml for 1 and 24 hours, and structural alterations of actin filaments, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus were assessed using specific fluorescent probes and agarose gel electrophoresis for DNA fragmentation. Significant structural changes were observed in all analyzed structures. DNA fragmentation was detected suggesting that, at the concentrations used, the venom induced apoptosis.

  9. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delles, Rebecca M; Xiong, Youling L; True, Alma D; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A

    2014-06-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity.

  10. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delles, Rebecca M.; Xiong, Youling L.; True, Alma D.; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:24879706

  11. Antiviral Treatment Alters the Frequency of Activating and Inhibitory Receptor-Expressing Natural Killer Cells in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lv

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells play a critical role in innate antiviral immunity, but little is known about the impact of antiviral therapy on the frequency of NK cell subsets. To this aim, we performed this longitudinal study to examine the dynamic changes of the frequency of different subsets of NK cells in CHB patients after initiation of tenofovir or adefovir therapy. We found that NK cell numbers and subset distribution differ between CHB patients and normal subjects; furthermore, the association was found between ALT level and CD158b+ NK cell in HBV patients. In tenofovir group, the frequency of NK cells increased during the treatment accompanied by downregulated expression of NKG2A and KIR2DL3. In adefovir group, NK cell numbers did not differ during the treatment, but also accompanied by downregulated expression of NKG2A and KIR2DL3. Our results demonstrate that treatment with tenofovir leads to viral load reduction, and correlated with NK cell frequencies in peripheral blood of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. In addition, treatments with both tenofovir and adefovir in chronic HBV infected patients induce a decrease of the frequency of inhibitory receptor+ NK cells, which may account for the partial restoration of the function of NK cells in peripheral blood following treatment.

  12. The experiment study of the anti-oxidative treatment in Liver with anomalous pancreaticobiliary ductal union%胰胆管合流异常肝损伤抗氧化治疗的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈风; 吕毅; 汪健; 黄顺根; 王兴东

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究胰胆管合流异常(APBDU)肝损伤的抗氧化治疗.方法 采用13只健康杂种猫,建立胰胆管合流异常的动物模型后随机分为:A组7只,不进行抗氧化治疗;B组6只,抗氧化治疗;术前的13只作为对照组.饲养6个月观察肝脏的病理和肝脏过氧化产物丙二醛(maleic dialdehyde,MDA)变化.结果 13只猫均成活6个月.术前对照组13只猫的肝脏呈淡红色,质软,表面无结节;A组7只猫的肝脏均颜色加深、呈暗红色,有粟粒结节样改变,质地变韧;B组中有2只与A组猫无差别,另4只肝脏有针尖样小结节,颜色与A组比明显好转.光镜下术前对照组肝细胞结构形态正常,无细胞变性坏死,少量夷性细胞浸润;A组7只猫可见大量肝细胞气球样变,炙性细胞浸润;B组1只镜下与A组无差异,另5只气球样变细胞数目明显减少,没有坏死.电镜下B组脂滴数目、线粒体肿胀、内质网扩张程度都比A组减轻.A组MDA(4.697±1.957)nmol/mgprot,明显高于对照组(1.273±0.889)nmol/mgprot,而稍高于B组(0.789±0.860)nmol/mgprot,P=0.001,F=17.43.结论 抗氧化治疗对APBDU有效.%Objective To evaluate the anti-oxidative treatment in cats with anomalous pancreaticobiliary ductal union. Methods Thirteen healthy cats as control group which were made a model resembling the common channel of anomalous pancreaticobiliary ductal union in humans were divided randomly into two groups: 7 cats in group A were not treated, 6 cats in group B were treated with melatonin, vitamin C and vitamin E. Six months later, the livers of these cats were removed and histopathological changes were evaluated by pathological and electron microscopic examination. The levels of MDA in livers were test. Results Thirteen cats in control group showed that the color of liver was salmon pink and no nodus in liver. In A group, the color of liver became deeper and a little nodus was found in liver. Histopathology showed ballooning changes in liver cells

  13. Seed treatment with 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing pseudomonads improves crop health in low-pH soils by altering patterns of nutrient uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudales, Rosa E; Stone, Erica; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B

    2009-05-01

    Seed treatment with a 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG)-producing Pseudomonas strain ameliorated abiotic stress disorder in corn caused by growth in a low-pH soil. In two consecutive growing seasons, Wood1R-treated seed gave rise to plants that grew taller (Pseed treatment with Wood1R also reduced foliar lesion severity (Pseed treatment under both sets of growing conditions. In contrast, suppression of seedling damping-off disease was not indicated in this low-pH soil, because no difference in crop stand was observed for any experiment. Additionally, Wood1R-mediated growth inhibition of seedling pathogens was reduced in vitro at pH<5.0, indicating that secretion of antifungal metabolites may not occur in low-pH soils. This is the first report of an abiotic stress amelioration of acid soil stress-related symptoms by a DAPG-producing pseudomonad. PMID:19351246

  14. The influence of gamma-irradiation on the formation of free radicals and antioxidant status of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of various gamma-radiation dose absorptions on oregano samples was monitored by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Further, the antioxidant activity of oregano methanol/water extracts was characterised using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), ferric reducing power (FRP), and total content of phenolic compounds (TPC) assays. EPR spectroscopy was used for the investigation of the influence of the absorbed dose on the character of the paramagnetic structures formed, as well as for their thermal stability and life-time characterisation. Paramagnetic structures of different origin (mostly of cellulose and carbohydrate), possessing diverse thermal stability and life-time, were identified in the gamma-irradiated samples. Immediately after irradiation, a statistically significant increase of the TBARS values and the total content of phenolic compounds in methanol/water oregano extract was observed. The alterations of the antioxidant properties of oregano extracts with the time after the radiation treatment were also monitored. A substantial time-dependent decrease of antioxidant activity was observed, probably as a result of storage, with both irradiated and non-irradiated oregano samples, as obvious from the ferric reducing power test and the content of total phenolic substances. The influence of irradiation and subsequent storage on the DPPH radical-scavenging ability was negligible

  15. Dose-response effects of lycopene on selected drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S. T.; Daneshvar, B.;

    2000-01-01

    treatment. The activity of superoxide dismutase was thus significantly induced at lycopene doses of 0.005 and 0.05 g/kg b.w, whereas glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase was only induced at the 0.005 g/kg b.w. per day dose. For all antioxidant enzymes investigated, the activities seemed......-metabolizing enzymes involved in the protection against oxidative stress and cancer. The fact that these enzymatic activities are induced at all of these very low plasma levels, could be taken to suggest that modulation of antioxidant and drug-metabolizing enzymes map indeed be relevant to humans, which in general......The administration of lycopene to female rats at doses ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 g/kg b.w, per day for 2 weeks was found to alter the drug-metabolizing capacity and antioxidant status of the exposed animals. An investigation of four cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes revealed that benzyloxyresorufin...

  16. Effect of Different Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease and Renal Replacement Therapies on Oxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Uremic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadja Fatima Tbahriti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress seems to be involved in the path physiology of cardiovascular complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD. In this study, we determined the effect of different stages of CKD and substitutive therapies on oxidative stress. One hundred sixty-seven patients (age: 44±06 years; male/female: 76/91 with CKD were divided into 6 groups according to the National Kidney Foundation classification. Prooxidant status was assessed by assaying thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, and protein carbonyls. Antioxidant defence was performed by analysis of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, vitamin E, Iron, and bilirubin. TBARS and LPO were higher in HD patients compared to other groups (P<0.001, while protein carbonyls were more increased in PD patients. The antioxidant enzymes were declined already at severe stage of CKD and they were declined notably in HD patients (P<0.001. Similar observation was found for vitamin E, Fe, and bilirubin where we observed a significant decrease in the majority of study groups, especially in HD patients (P<0.001. The evolution of CKD was associated with elevated OS. HD accentuates lipid, while PD aggravates protein oxidation. However, the activity of antioxidant enzymes was altered by impaired renal function and by both dialysis treatments.

  17. Lipid profiles alter from pro-atherogenic into less atherogenic and proinflammatory in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients responding to anti TNF-α treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Wei Yeh

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Dyslipidemia with higher inflammatory states, disease activity, and longer disease duration in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA patients seemed to increase the risks of atherosclerosis. Tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α receptor blocking agent etanercept has been proven to be effective in JIA. However, data about the correlation of anti-inflammatory treatment on lipid profiles and atherogenic index in JIA patients remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the longitudinal changes on lipid profiles and atherogenic index in JIA patients after etanercept treatment. METHODS: Twenty-three patients diagnosed with JIA (polyarticular type n = 7; oligoarticular type, n = 2; systemic type, n = 10, Enthesitis-related arthritis = 4 received treatment with etanercept during the period 2004-012 in a medical center. We measured their serum lipid profiles at baseline and 2, 4, 6, 12 months later, and determined whether there were differences in complete blood counts, inflammatory mediators, lipid levels and atherogenic indices between patients who had inactive disease (responders and those who were poor responders (non-responders to etanercept treatment. RESULTS: Analysis of dynamic change in total JIA patients before and after TNF inhibitor therapy showed modest increases in hemoglobin levels (P = 0.02 and decreases in WBC counts, Platelet and CRP levels progressively (p = 0.002, p = 0.006 and p = 0.006, respectively.Twelve of the 23 patients achieved inactive disease status (responders after 12-months of treatment. In responders, compared to non-responders, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C increased significantly (P = 0.007,P = 0.044,P<0.001, whereas triglyceride and atherogenic index (TC/HDL-C ratio significantly decreased (P = 0.04, P = 0.01, respectively after etanercept treatment. CONCLUSION: Disease severity

  18. Saffron: A Natural Potent Antioxidant as a Promising Anti-Obesity Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mashmoul

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with various diseases, particularly diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis and heart disease. Research on possibilities of herbal extracts and isolated compounds from natural products for treating obesity has an upward trend. Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. Iridaceae is a source of plant polyphenols/carotenoids, used as important spice and food colorant in different parts of the world. It has also been used in traditional medicine for treatment of different types of illnesses since ancient times. Many of these medicinal properties of saffron can be attributed to a number of its compounds such as crocetin, crocins and other substances having strong antioxidant and radical scavenger properties against a variety of radical oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this article is to assess the potential role of saffron and its constituents in the regulation of metabolic functions, which can beneficially alter obesity pathophysiology.

  19. (Modic) signal alterations of vertebral endplates and their correlation to a minimally invasive treatment of lumbar disc herniation using epidural injections; (Modic-)Signalveraenderungen vertebraler Endplatten und ihr Bezug zu einer minimalinvasiven Injektionstherapie lumbaler Bandscheibenvorfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liphofer, J.P.; Becker, G.T.; Koester, O. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, St. Josef-Hospital Bochum (Germany); Theodoridis, T. [Klinik fuer Orthopaedie und Unfallchirurgie, St. Josef-Hospital Bochum (Germany); Schmid, G. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Johanna-Etienne-Krankenhaus Neuss (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To study the influence of (Modic) signal alterations (SA) of the cartilage endplate (CEP) of vertebrae L3-S1 on the outcome of an in-patient minimally invasive treatment (MIT), using epidural injections on patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Materials and Methods: The MR images of 59 consecutive patients with LDH within segments L3/L4-L5/S1 undergoing in-patient minimally invasive treatment with epidural injections were evaluated in a clinical study. The (Modic) signal alterations of the CEP were recorded using T1- and T2-weighted sagittal images. On the basis of the T2-weighted sagittal images, the extension and distribution of the SA were measured by dividing each CEP into 9 areas. The outcome of the MIT was recorded using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) before and after therapy and in a 3-month follow-up. Within a subgroup of patients (n=35), the distribution and extension of the signal alterations were correlated with the development of the ODI. Results: Segments with LDH showed significantly more (p<0.001) SA of the CEP than segments without LDH. Although the extension of the SA was not dependent on sex, it did increase significantly with age (p=0.017). The outcome after MIT did not depend on the sex and age of the patients or on the type od LDH. The SA extension tended to have a negative correlation with the outcome after MIT after 3 months (p=0.071). A significant negative correlation could be established between the SA extension in the central section of the upper endplate and the outcome after 3 months (p=0.019). (orig.)

  20. Impact of DNA mismatch repair system alterations on human fertility and related treatments%DNA 错配修复系统的改变对人类生育能力及相关治疗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-hao HU; Shu-yuan LIU; Ning WANG; Yan WU; Fan JIN‡

    2016-01-01

    概简要概括 DNA损伤修复系统在人体中的作用和机制,并探讨其改变与人类生殖能力以及通过辅助生殖技术诞生的子代之间的相互影响。希望更多相关工作的进行能够为人类不孕症的预防、诊断和治疗工作建立一个更好的医疗体系。%DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is one of the biological pathways, which plays a critical role in DNA home-ostasis, primarily by repairing base-pair mismatches and insertion/deletion loops that occur during DNA replication. MMR also takes part in other metabolic pathways and regulates cel cycle arrest. Defects in MMR are associated with genomic instability, predisposition to certain types of cancers and resistance to certain therapeutic drugs. Moreover, genetic and epigenetic alterations in the MMR system demonstrate a significant relationship with human fertility and related treatments, which helps us to understand the etiology and susceptibility of human infertility. Alterations in the MMR system may also influence the health of offspring conceived by assisted reproductive technology in humans. However, further studies are needed to explore the specific mechanisms by which the MMR system may affect human infertility. This review addresses the physiological mechanisms of the MMR system and associations between altera-tions of the MMR system and human fertility and related treatments, and potential effects on the next generation.

  1. Renal Oxidative Stress Induced by Long-Term Hyperuricemia Alters Mitochondrial Function and Maintains Systemic Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cristóbal-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We addressed if oxidative stress in the renal cortex plays a role in the induction of hypertension and mitochondrial alterations in hyperuricemia. A second objective was to evaluate whether the long-term treatment with the antioxidant Tempol prevents renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, and systemic hypertension in this model. Long-term (11-12 weeks and short-term (3 weeks effects of oxonic acid induced hyperuricemia were studied in rats (OA, 750 mg/kg BW, OA+Allopurinol (AP, 150 mg/L drinking water, OA+Tempol (T, 15 mg/kg BW, or vehicle. Systolic blood pressure, renal blood flow, and vascular resistance were measured. Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. Oxygen consumption, aconitase activity, and uric acid were evaluated in isolated mitochondria from renal cortex. Short-term hyperuricemia resulted in hypertension without demonstrable renal oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. Long-term hyperuricemia induced hypertension, renal vasoconstriction, tubular damage, renal cortex oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased ATP levels. Treatments with Tempol and allopurinol prevented these alterations. Renal oxidative stress induced by hyperuricemia promoted mitochondrial functional disturbances and decreased ATP content, which represent an additional pathogenic mechanism induced by chronic hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related hypertension occurs before these changes are evident.

  2. Islet transplantation and antioxidant management A comprehensive review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Sajad Mohseni Salehi Monfared; Bagher Larijani; Mohammad Abdollahi

    2009-01-01

    Islet transplantation as a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes has received widespread attention.Oxidative stress plays an essential role in cell injury during islet isolation and transplantation procedures.Antioxidants have been used in various studies to improve islet transplantation procedures. The present study reviews the role of oxidative stress and the benefits of antioxidants in islet transplantation procedures. The bibliographical databases Pubmed and Scopus were searched up to November 2008.All relevant human and animal in-vivo and in-vitro studies, which investigated antioxidants on islets,were included. Almost all the tested antioxidants used in the in-vitro studies enhanced islet viability and insulin secretion. Better control of blood glucose after transplantation was the major outcome of antioxidant therapy in all in-vivo studies. The data also indicated that antioxidants improved islet transplantation procedures. Although there is still insufficient evidence to draw definitive conclusions about the efficacy of individual supplements, the benefits of antioxidants in islet isolation procedures cannot be ignored.

  3. Synthetic lipophilic antioxidant BO-653 suppresses HCV replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Fumihiko; Sudoh, Masayuki; Arai, Masaaki; Kohara, Michinori

    2013-02-01

    The influence of the intracellular redox state on the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle is poorly understood. This study demonstrated the anti-HCV activity of 2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-2,2-dipentyl-4,6-di-tert-butylbenzofuran (BO-653), a synthetic lipophilic antioxidant, and examined whether BO-653's antioxidant activity is integral to its anti-HCV activity. The anti-HCV activity of BO-653 was investigated in HuH-7 cells bearing an HCV subgenomic replicon (FLR3-1 cells) and in HuH-7 cells infected persistently with HCV (RMT-tri cells). BO-653 inhibition of HCV replication was also compared with that of several hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants. BO-653 suppressed HCV replication in FLR3-1 and RMT-tri cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The lipophilic antioxidants had stronger anti-HCV activities than the hydrophilic antioxidants, and BO-653 displayed the strongest anti-HCV activity of all the antioxidants examined. Therefore, the anti-HCV activity of BO-653 was examined in chimeric mice harboring human hepatocytes infected with HCV. The combination treatment of BO-653 and polyethylene glycol-conjugated interferon-α (PEG-IFN) decreased serum HCV RNA titer more than that seen with PEG-IFN alone. These findings suggest that both the lipophilic property and the antioxidant activity of BO-653 play an important role in the inhibition of HCV replication. PMID:23192857

  4. Experimental and clinical evidence of antioxidant therapy in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukaddes Esrefoglu

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP).Antioxidants,alone or in combination with conventional therapy,should improve oxidative-stress-induced organ damage and therefore accelerate the rate of recovery.In recent years,substantial amounts of data about the efficiency of