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Sample records for antioxidant supplementation enhances

  1. Purified anthocyanin supplementation reduces dyslipidemia, enhances antioxidant capacity, and prevents insulin resistance in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zhang, Yuhua; Liu, Yan; Sun, Ruifang; Xia, Min

    2015-04-01

    Oxidative stress plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Anthocyanin, a natural antioxidant, has been reported to reduce oxidative stress and to attenuate insulin resistance and diabetes in animal models; however, the translation of these observations to humans has not been fully tested. This study was designed to investigate the effects of purified anthocyanins on dyslipidemia, oxidative status, and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 58 diabetic patients were given 160 mg of anthocyanins twice daily or placebo (n = 29/group) for 24 wk in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Participants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. Anthocyanin supplementation significantly decreased serum LDL cholesterol (by 7.9%; P anthocyanin group showed higher total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power values than did patients in the placebo group (both P anthocyanin group were significantly less than in patients in the placebo group (23.4%, 25.8%; P anthocyanin lowered fasting plasma glucose (by 8.5%; P anthocyanin supplementation exerts beneficial metabolic effects in subjects with type 2 diabetes by improving dyslipidemia, enhancing antioxidant capacity, and preventing insulin resistance. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02317211. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Dietary Supplementation of Phoenix dactylifera Seeds Enhances Performance, Immune Response, and Antioxidant Status in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. El-Far

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera seeds were utilized in some traditional medical remedies and have been investigated for their possible health benefits. This proposed study wanted to assess the effect of date palm seeds (DPS dietary supplementation in comparison to mannan-oligosaccharides (Bio-Mos® and β-glucan over antioxidant and immunity events that have effect on growth and carcass performances of broilers. An aggregate of 180, one-day-old, chicks were raised in the wire-floored cages and allotted into control, Bio-Mos (0.1%  Bio-Mos, β-glucan (0.1%  β-glucan, DPS2 (2% date crushed seeds, DPS4 (4% date crushed seeds, and DPS6 (6% date crushed seeds groups. Broilers in DPS2 and DPS4 groups showed significant variations (P<0.05 in relative growth rate (RGR, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and efficiency of energy utilization in comparison to control group. Moreover, all DPS fed groups showed significant increases (P<0.05 in serum reduced glutathione (GSH values. Meanwhile, both serum interferon-gamma (IFN-γ and interleukin-2 (IL-2 levels were significantly increased (P<0.05 in DPS2. Consequently, obtained data revealed a substantial enhancement of performance, immunity, and antioxidant status by DPS supplementation in broiler that might be related to the antioxidant and immune-stimulant constituents of P. dactylifera seeds.

  3. Antioxidant supplements and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of a...... of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging....

  4. l-Arginine supplementation enhances antioxidant activity and erythrocyte integrity in sickle cell anaemia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, M O; Ogungbemi, S I; Anigbogu, C N; Jaja, S I

    2015-09-01

    The effect of oral, low-dose l-arginine supplementation (1g/day for 6 weeks) on antioxidant activity, haematological parameters and osmotic fragility of red blood cells was investigated in sickle cell disease sufferers. Twenty eight sickle cell anaemia subjects were recruited for the study. Five millilitres of blood was withdrawn from an ante-cubital vein for the estimation of plasma arginine concentration ([R]), total antioxidant enzymes (TAE) activity, malondialdehyde concentration ([MDA]), RBC count, [Hb], PCV, MCHC, MCV, MCH, percent irreversibly sickled cells (%ISC)) and osmotic fragility of red blood cells in the subjects. l-arginine supplementation increased [R] (pSupplementation shifted the osmotic fragiligram to the right and reduced the concentrations of NaCl at which initial and complete lyses of erythrocytes occurred. Study showed that low-dose, oral l-arginine increased antioxidant activity, red blood cell resistance to osmotic lysis but reduced red cell density in SCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary Supplementation of Phoenix dactylifera Seeds Enhances Performance, Immune Response, and Antioxidant Status in Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Far, Ali H.; Ahmed, Hamada A.

    2016-01-01

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) seeds were utilized in some traditional medical remedies and have been investigated for their possible health benefits. This proposed study wanted to assess the effect of date palm seeds (DPS) dietary supplementation in comparison to mannan-oligosaccharides (Bio-Mos®) and β-glucan over antioxidant and immunity events that have effect on growth and carcass performances of broilers. An aggregate of 180, one-day-old, chicks were raised in the wire-floored cages and allotted into control, Bio-Mos (0.1%  Bio-Mos), β-glucan (0.1%  β-glucan), DPS2 (2% date crushed seeds), DPS4 (4% date crushed seeds), and DPS6 (6% date crushed seeds) groups. Broilers in DPS2 and DPS4 groups showed significant variations (P dactylifera seeds. PMID:28127417

  6. Dietary supplementation of milk fermented with probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum enhances systemic immune response and antioxidant capacity in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rohit; Kapila, Rajeev; Kapasiya, Meena; Saliganti, Vamshi; Dass, Gulshan; Kapila, Suman

    2014-11-01

    Although probiotics are known to enhance the host immune response, their roles in modulating immunosenescence, resisting infection, and improving redox homeostasis during aging remain unclear. Therefore, the present study was devised in aging mice to assess the antiimmunosenescence potential from the consumption of milk that is fermented with probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC 5898 (LF). We hypothesized that probiotic supplementation would boost immunity, improve antioxidant capacity, and resist severity of pathogenic infection in aging mice. To test this hypothesis, during a trial period of 2 months, 16-month-old male Swiss mice were kept on 3 experimental diets: basal diet (BD), BD supplemented with skim milk, and BD supplemented with probiotic LF-fermented milk. A concurrent analysis of several immunosenescence markers that include neutrophil functions, interleukins profile, inflammation and antibody responses in the intestine as well as analysis of antioxidant enzymes in the liver and red blood cells was performed. Neutrophil respiratory burst enzymes and phagocytosis increased significantly in probiotic LF-fed groups, whereas no exacerbation in plasma levels of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and tumor necrosis factor α was observed. Splenocytes registered increased interferon-γ but decreased interleukin 4 and interleukin 10 production, whereas humoral antibodies registered decreases in immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1)/IgG2a ratio and IgE levels in the probiotic-fed groups. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) in LF-fed groups showed increased activities, which were more pronounced in the liver than in red blood cell. An Escherichia coli-based infection model in aging mice was also designed to validate the protective attributes of LF. Administration of probiotic LF significantly reduced E coli population in organs (intestine, liver, spleen, and peritoneal fluid), as compared with control groups, by enhancing E coli

  7. Training Enhances Immune Cells Mitochondrial Biosynthesis, Fission, Fusion, and Their Antioxidant Capabilities Synergistically with Dietary Docosahexaenoic Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Busquets-Cortés

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training induces adaptations in mitochondrial metabolism, dynamics, and oxidative protection. Omega-3 fatty acids change membrane lipid composition and modulate mitochondrial function. The aim was to investigate the effect of 8-week training and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA supplementation (1.14 g/day on the mitochondria dynamics and antioxidant status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from sportsmen. Subjects were assigned to an intervention (N=9 or placebo groups (N=7 in a randomized double-blind trial. Nutritional intervention significantly increased the DHA content in erythrocyte membranes from the experimental group. No significant differences were reported in terms of circulating PBMCs, Mn-superoxide dismutase protein levels, and their capability to produce reactive oxygen species. The proteins related to mitochondrial dynamics were, in general, increased after an 8-week training and this increase was enhanced by DHA supplementation. The content in mitofusins Mtf-1 and Mtf-2, optic atrophy protein-1 (Opa-1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam were significantly higher in the DHA-supplemented group after intervention. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX-IV activity and uncoupling proteins UCP-2 and UCP-3 protein levels were increased after training, with higher UCP-3 levels in the supplemented group. In conclusion, training induced mitochondrial adaptations which may contribute to improved mitochondrial function. This mitochondrial response was modulated by DHA supplementation.

  8. Oreochromis mossambicus diet supplementation with Psidium guajava leaf extracts enhance growth, immune, antioxidant response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobi, Narayanan; Ramya, Chinnu; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vijayakumar, Sekar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    In this research, we focused on the efficacy of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava) based experimental diets on the growth, immune, antioxidant and disease resistance of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus following challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental diets were prepared by mixing powdered (1, 5 and 10 mg/g) aqueous and ethanol extract of guava leaf with commercial diet. The growth (FW, FCR and SGR), non-specific cellular immune (myeloperoxidase activity, reactive oxygen activity and reactive nitrogen activity) humoral immune (complement activity, antiprotease, alkaline phosphatase activity and lysozyme activity) and antioxidant enzyme responses (SOD, GPX, and CAT) were examined after 30 days of post-feeding. A significant enhancement in the biochemical and immunological parameters of fish were observed fed with experimental diets compared to control. The dietary supplementation of P. guajava leaf extract powder for 30 days significantly reduced the mortality and increased the disease resistance of O. mossambicus following challenge with A. hydrophila at 50 μl (1 × 10 7  cells ml -1 ) compared to control after post-infection. The results suggest that the guava leaf extract could be used as a promising feed additive in aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G; Nikolova, D; Simonetti, R G

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  10. Taurine and magnesium supplementation enhances the function of endothelial progenitor cells through antioxidation in healthy men and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakawa, Mayumi; Fukuda, Noboru; Tsunemi, Akiko; Mori, Mari; Maruyama, Takashi; Matsumoto, Taro; Abe, Masanori; Yamori, Yukio

    2016-12-01

    Endothelial damage is repaired by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are pivotal in preventing cardiovascular diseases and prolonging lifespan. The WHO Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison Study demonstrated that dietary taurine and magnesium (Mg) intake suppresses cardiovascular diseases. We herein evaluate the effects of taurine and Mg supplementation on EPC function and oxidative stress in healthy men and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Healthy men received taurine (3 g per day) or Mg (340 mg per day) for 2 weeks. SHRs and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were housed with high-salt drinking water (1% NaCl). The SHRs received 3% taurine solution and/or a high-Mg (600 mg per 100 g) diet for 4 weeks. Their peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated to quantify EPC colony formation. Oxidative stress markers in their peripheral blood were evaluated using a free radical analytical system and a thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay. Taurine and Mg supplementation significantly increased EPC colony numbers and significantly decreased free radical levels and TBARS scores in healthy men. Taurine and Mg supplementation significantly increased EPC colony numbers and significantly decreased TBARS scores and free radical levels in SHRs. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase component mRNA expression was significantly higher in the renal cortex of salt-loaded SHRs than in WKY rats, in which it was suppressed by taurine and Mg supplementation. Taurine and Mg supplementation increased EPC colony formation in healthy men and improved impaired EPC function in SHRs through antioxidation, indicating that the dietary intake of taurine and Mg may prolong lifespan by preventing the progression of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Dietary Supplementation ofPhoenix dactyliferaSeeds Enhances Performance, Immune Response, and Antioxidant Status in Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Far, Ali H; Ahmed, Hamada A; Shaheen, Hazem M

    2016-01-01

    The date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera ) seeds were utilized in some traditional medical remedies and have been investigated for their possible health benefits. This proposed study wanted to assess the effect of date palm seeds (DPS) dietary supplementation in comparison to mannan-oligosaccharides (Bio-Mos®) and β -glucan over antioxidant and immunity events that have effect on growth and carcass performances of broilers. An aggregate of 180, one-day-old, chicks were raised in the wire-floored cages and allotted into control, Bio-Mos (0.1%  Bio-Mos), β -glucan (0.1%   β -glucan), DPS2 (2% date crushed seeds), DPS4 (4% date crushed seeds), and DPS6 (6% date crushed seeds) groups. Broilers in DPS2 and DPS4 groups showed significant variations ( P dactylifera seeds.

  12. The effect of omega-3 supplements on antioxidant capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hajianfar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: With regard to the results of the present study, patients with type 2 diabetes increase their antioxidant capacity, enhance their antioxidant defense system, and probably prevent diabetes complications and related disease progress by taking omega-3 supplements.

  13. Calcium and potassium supplementation enhanced growth, osmolytes, secondary metabolite production, and enzymatic antioxidant machinery in cadmium-exposed chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz eAhmad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to examine the role of exogenously applied calcium (Ca; 50 mM and potassium (K; 10 mM (alone and in combination in alleviating the negative effects of cadmium (Cd; 200 μM on growth, biochemical attributes, secondary metabolites and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.. Cd stress significantly decreased length and fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, and number of pods and seed yield (vs. control. Exhibition of decreases in chlorophyll (Chl a, Chl b, and total Chl was also observed with Cd-exposure when compared to control. However, Cd-exposure led to an increase in the content of carotenoid. In contrast, the exogenous application of Ca and K individually as well as in combination minimized the extent of Cd-impact on previous traits. C. arietinum seedlings subjected to Cd treatment exhibited increased contents of organic solute (proline, Pro and total protein; whereas, Ca and K-supplementation further enhanced the Pro and total protein content. Additionally, compared to control, Cd-exposure also caused elevation in the contents of oxidative stress markers (hydrogen peroxidase, H2O2; malondialdehyde, MDA and in the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; glutathione reductase, GR. Ca, K and Ca + K supplementation caused further enhancements in the activity of these enzymes but significantly decreased contents of H2O2 and MDA, also that of Cd in shoot and root. The contents of total phenol, flavonoid and mineral elements (S, Mn, Mg, Ca and K that were also suppressed in Cd stressed plants in both shoot and root were restored to appreciable levels with Ca- and K-supplementation. However, the combination of Ca + K supplementation was more effective in bringing the positive response as compared to individual effect of Ca and K on Cd-exposed C. arietinum. Overall, this investigation suggests that application of Ca and/or K can efficiently minimize

  14. Antioxidant supplements for liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka

    2011-01-01

    Several liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress. Accordingly, antioxidants have been suggested as potential therapeutics for various liver diseases. The evidence supporting these suggestions is equivocal.......Several liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress. Accordingly, antioxidants have been suggested as potential therapeutics for various liver diseases. The evidence supporting these suggestions is equivocal....

  15. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal...... Database from inception to October 2007. We scanned reference lists and contacted pharmaceutical companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing antioxidant supplements to placebo/no intervention examining occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors (GB...... and DN) independently selected trials for inclusion and extracted data. Outcome measures were gastrointestinal cancers, overall mortality, and adverse effects. Outcomes were reported as relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) based on random-effects and fixed-effect model meta...

  16. Dietary supplementation with a high dose of daidzein enhances the antioxidant capacity in swine muscle but experts pro-oxidant function in liver and fat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Ma, Xianyong; Lin, Yingcai; Xiong, Yunxia; Zheng, Chuntian; Hu, Youjun; Yu, Deqian; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-01-01

    Although isoflavones are natural dietary antioxidants, they may have toxicological effects. This study aimed to evaluate the redox system in tissues of finishing pigs by supplementation with high dose of daidzein (640 mg/kg). The supplementation of high dose of daidzein for 64 d increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity in longissimus muscle but down-regulated the expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing enzyme NADPH oxidase-2 and cyclooxygenase-2. In contrast, high-level supplementation with daidzein exerted pro-oxidant changes in back fat, abdominal fat, liver, and plasma, as reflected by increased contents of malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation product, in these tissues. Furthermore, daidzein supplementation resulted in higher expression of ROS-producing enzymes, including NADPH oxidase-1 and cyclooxygenase-1 in liver, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) in backfat and NADPH oxidase-2 both in abdominal fat and backfat. The supplementation of daidzein did not affect meat quality parameters in longissimus muscle, including marbling score, eye muscle areas, intramuscular fat, shear force, drip loss, pH and meat color. This experiment suggests that dietary supplementation of finishing pigs with daidzein at a high dose level improves redox status in muscle but exerts pro-oxidant effect in liver and fat tissues.

  17. Effect of Antioxidants Supplementation on Aging and Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    If aging is due to or contributed by free radical reactions, as postulated by the free radical theory of aging, lifespan of organisms should be extended by administration of exogenous antioxidants. This paper reviews data on model organisms concerning the effects of exogenous antioxidants (antioxidant vitamins, lipoic acid, coenzyme Q, melatonin, resveratrol, curcumin, other polyphenols, and synthetic antioxidants including antioxidant nanoparticles) on the lifespan of model organisms. Mechanisms of effects of antioxidants, often due to indirect antioxidant action or to action not related to the antioxidant properties of the compounds administered, are discussed. The legitimacy of antioxidant supplementation in human is considered. PMID:24783202

  18. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers (Letter)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress can cause cancer. Our aim was to establish whether antioxidant supplements reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer and mortality.......Oxidative stress can cause cancer. Our aim was to establish whether antioxidant supplements reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer and mortality....

  19. Antioxidant supplementation does not alter endurance training adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yfanti, Christina; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Nielsen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a considerable commercial market, especially within the sports community, claiming the need for antioxidant supplementation. One argument for antioxidant supplementation in sports is that physical exercise is associated with increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS...... concentration, citrate synthase (CS), and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (beta-HAD) activity in muscle were significantly higher in response to training (P

  20. Antioxidant food supplements in human health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiramatsu, Midori; Packer, Lester; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    1999-01-01

    ... of many of nature's antioxidant substances; grapes: starting source for red wine production; rich in antioxidants; onions: rich source of the bioflavonoid quercetin. This book is printed on acid-...

  1. ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION IN THE TREATMENT OF AGING-ASSOCIATED DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria eConti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is generally considered an imbalance between pro- and antioxidants species, which often results into indiscriminate and global damage at the organismal level. Elderly people are more susceptible to oxidative stress and this depends, almost in part, from a decreased performance of their endogenous antioxidant system. As many studies reported an inverse correlation between systemic levels of antioxidants and several diseases, primarily cardiovascular diseases, but also diabetes and neurological disorders, antioxidant supplementation has been foreseen as an effective preventive and therapeutic intervention for aging-associated pathologies. However, the expectations of this therapeutic approach have often been partially disappointed by clinical trials. The interplay of both endogenous and exogenous antioxidants with the systemic redox system is very complex and represents an issue that is still under debate. In this review a selection of recent clinical studies concerning antioxidants supplementation and the evaluation of their influence in aging-related diseases is analyzed. The controversial outcomes of the antioxidants supplementation therapy that might partially depend, among others, from an underestimation of the patient specific metabolic demand and genetic background, are presented.

  2. DNA repair phenotype and dietary antioxidant supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guarnieri, Serena; Loft, Steffen; Riso, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    Phytochemicals may protect cellular DNA by direct antioxidant effect or modulation of the DNA repair activity. We investigated the repair activity towards oxidised DNA in human mononuclear blood cells (MNBC) in two placebo-controlled antioxidant intervention studies as follows: (1) well-nourished......Phytochemicals may protect cellular DNA by direct antioxidant effect or modulation of the DNA repair activity. We investigated the repair activity towards oxidised DNA in human mononuclear blood cells (MNBC) in two placebo-controlled antioxidant intervention studies as follows: (1) well......-nourished subjects who ingested 600 g fruits and vegetables, or tablets containing the equivalent amount of vitamins and minerals, for 24 d; (2) poorly nourished male smokers who ingested 500 mg vitamin C/d as slow- or plain-release formulations together with 182 mg vitamin E/d for 4 weeks. The mean baseline levels...

  3. Antioxidant and sensorial properties of acacia honey supplemented with prunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas Vesna T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in total phenol and flavonoid content, as well as antioxidant activity was monitored in acacia honey supplemented with prunes in 20, 30 and 40% mass concentrations. The total phenolic content increased by 2.5 times (from 16.18 to 41.64 mg GAE/100 g with increasing concentration of prunes in honey, while the increase in flavonoid content was even higher, approximately 11.5-fold (from 2.65 to 30.86 mg RE/100 g. The addition of prunes also improved the antioxidant activity of acacia honey. The honey samples with highest content of prunes, 40%, exhibited the best antioxidant activity measured by hydroxyl radical sacvenging assay (EC50 •OH=4.56 mg/ml, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay (EC50 DPPH=16.48 mg/ml, and reducing power (EC50 RP=81.17 mg/ml. Judging from the high correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.771 to 0.947 for total phenolics, and from 0.862 to 0.993 for total flavonoids, it is obvious that these compounds were associated with the antioxidant mechanisms. On the other hand, sensorial properties of supplemented honeys were lower than that of pure acacia honey, where flavor of supplemented honey was the least affected. Our results indicate that the supplementation of honey with prunes improves antioxidant activity of honey by enriching the phenolic composition, with slight modifications in sensorial characteristics.

  4. The effect of vitamin C and cobalt supplementation on antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. The effect of vitamin C and cobalt supplementation on antioxidant status in healthy and diabetic rats. Özlem Yildirim. Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 06100, Tandogan, Ankara, Turkey. E -mail: yildirim@science.ankara.edu.tr Tel: +90-312-212-6720 ...

  5. The impact of antioxidant supplementation on clinical outcomes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the English literature was performed to determine the effect of antioxidant micronutrient supplementation on clinically important outcomes in the critically ill. Pubmed, Google Scholar and Science Direct electronic databases were searched for papers published ...

  6. Enhanced production of biomass, pigments and antioxidant capacity of a nutritionally important cyanobacterium Nostochopsis lobatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Usha; Pandey, J

    2008-07-01

    A diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nostochopsis lobatus was evaluated for enhanced production of biomass, pigments and antioxidant capacity. N. lobatus showed potentially high antioxidant capacity (46.12 microM AEAC) with significant improvement under immobilized cell cultures (87.05 microM AEAC). When a mixture of P and Fe was supplemented, biomass, pigments, nutritive value and antioxidant capacity increased substantially at pH 7.8. When considered separately, P appeared to be a better supplement than Fe for the production of biomass, chlorophyll and carotenoids. However, for phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, nutritive value and antioxidant capacity, Fe appeared more effective than P. Our study indicates N. lobatus to be a promising bioresource for enhanced production of nutritionally rich biomass, pigments and antioxidants. The study also suggests that P and Fe are potentially effective supplements for scale-up production for commercial application.

  7. Do antioxidant supplements interfere with skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristow, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A popular belief is that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) produced during exercise by the mitochondria and other subcellular compartments ubiquitously cause skeletal muscle damage, fatigue and impair recovery. However, the importance of ROS and RNS as signals in the cellular adaptation process to stress is now evident. In an effort to combat the perceived deleterious effects of ROS and RNS it has become common practice for active individuals to ingest supplements with antioxidant properties, but interfering with ROS/RNS signalling in skeletal muscle during acute exercise may blunt favourable adaptation. There is building evidence that antioxidant supplementation can attenuate endurance training‐induced and ROS/RNS‐mediated enhancements in antioxidant capacity, mitochondrial biogenesis, cellular defence mechanisms and insulin sensitivity. However, this is not a universal finding, potentially indicating that there is redundancy in the mechanisms controlling skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise, meaning that in some circumstances the negative impact of antioxidants on acute exercise response can be overcome by training. Antioxidant supplementation has been more consistently reported to have deleterious effects on the response to overload stress and high‐intensity training, suggesting that remodelling of skeletal muscle following resistance and high‐intensity exercise is more dependent on ROS/RNS signalling. Importantly there is no convincing evidence to suggest that antioxidant supplementation enhances exercise‐training adaptions. Overall, ROS/RNS are likely to exhibit a non‐linear (hormetic) pattern on exercise adaptations, where physiological doses are beneficial and high exposure (which would seldom be achieved during normal exercise training) may be detrimental. PMID:26638792

  8. Benefits of antioxidant supplements for knee osteoarthritis: rationale and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Ashok Kumar; Samson, Sue E

    2016-01-05

    Arthritis causes disability due to pain and inflammation in joints. There are many forms of arthritis, one of which is osteoarthritis whose prevalence increases with age. It occurs in various joints including hip, knee and hand with knee osteoarthritis being more prevalent. There is no cure for it. The management strategies include exercise, glucosamine plus chondroitin sulfate and NSAIDs. In vitro and animal studies provide a rationale for the use of antioxidant supplements for its management. This review assesses the reality of the benefits of antioxidant supplements in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Several difficulties were encountered in examining this issue: poorly conducted studies, a lack of uniformity in disease definition and diagnosis, and muddling of conclusions from attempts to isolate the efficacious molecules. The antioxidant supplements with most evidence for benefit for pain relief and function in knee osteoarthritis were based on curcumin and avocado-soya bean unsaponifiables. Boswellia and some herbs used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine may also be useful. The benefits of cuisines with the appropriate antioxidants should be assessed because they may be more economical and easier to incorporate into the lifestyle.

  9. Antioxidant supplementation for lung disease in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway infection leads to progressive damage of the lungs in cystic fibrosis and oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology. Supplementation of antioxidant micronutrients (vitamin E, vitamin C, ß-carotene and selenium) or glutathione may therefore potentially help maintain...... an oxidant-antioxidant balance. Current literature suggests a relationship between oxidative status and lung function. OBJECTIVES: To synthesize existing knowledge of the effect of antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, ß-carotene, selenium and glutathione in cystic fibrosis lung disease. SEARCH METHODS......: The Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register and PubMed were searched using detailed search strategies. We contacted authors of included studies and checked reference lists of these studies for additional, potentially relevant studies.Last search of Cystic Fibrosis...

  10. Oxidative stress and food supplementation with antioxidants in therapy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, Sara; Fiore, Filippo; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Dimauro, Corrado; Nudda, Anna; Cocco, Raffaella

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a long-term antioxidant-supplemented diet to regulate the oxidative stress and general health status of dogs involved in animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs. Oxidative stress is a consequence of the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exercise-induced oxidative stress can increase muscle fatigue and fiber damage and eventually leads to impairment of the immune system. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical evaluation was conducted with 11 healthy therapy dogs: 6 females and 5 males of different breeds and with a mean age of 2.7 ± 0.8 y (mean ± SEM). The dogs were divided into 2 groups, 1 fed a high quality commercial diet without antioxidants (CD) and the other a high quality commercial diet supplemented with antioxidants (SD) for 18 wk. After the first 18 wk, metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen metabolite-derivatives (d-ROMs), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels were monitored and showed a significant reduction of d-ROMs, triglycerides, and creatinine values in the SD group ( P dogs.

  11. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  12. l-Arginine supplementation improves rats' antioxidant system and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E P; Borges, L S; Mendes-da-Silva, C; Hirabara, S M; Lambertucci, R H

    2017-03-01

    Reactive species have great importance in sports performance, once they can directly regulate energy production, muscular contraction, inflammation, and fatigue. Therefore, the redox control is essential for athletes' performance. Studies demonstrated that l-arginine has an important role in the synthesis of urea, cell growth and production of nitric oxide, moreover, there are indications that it is also able to induce benefits to muscle antioxidant system through the upregulation of some antioxidant enzymes, and by inhibiting some pathways of reactive species production. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of l-arginine supplementation on performance and oxidative stress of male rats (trained or not), submitted to a single session of high intensity exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, control (C), control+l-arginine (C + A), trained (T), and trained+l-arginine (T + A). The aerobic training was conducted for 8 weeks. Data of maximum speed and time from tests were used as indicators of performance. Variables related to oxidative stress and antioxidant system were also evaluated. Aerobic training was capable to induce enhancements on animals' exercise performance and on their redox state. Additionally, supplementation improved rats' physical performance on both groups, control and trained. Different improvements between groups on the antioxidant capacity were observed. Nevertheless, considering the ergogenic effect of l-arginine and the lack of all positive adaptations promoted by the exercise training, untrained animals may be more exposed to oxidative damages after the practice of intense exercises.

  13. Study of antioxidant activity of natural food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Lozova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 96 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE This article describes the results of a study of antioxidant activity of natural food supplements suggested for use in flour confectionery production. Oxidation rate of the model substance - cumene - was measured using a volumetric unit. Diagram of absorbed oxygen amount as a function of time (∆HO2 over t was built by measuring time in minutes and absorbed oxygen volume in cm3. This diagram was subsequently used to graphically determine the oxidation rate as the slope ratio of the line in specified coordinates. Afterwards, the oxidation rate was measured at a different initiation rate (different azobisisobutyronitrile solution volume, while all other parameters of the experiment remained unaltered. On the basis of the resulting data, diagrams of oxidation rate as a function of initiation rate were built for all investigated substances (both extracts and powders. The study revealed that apian products, including pollen and propolis, as well as kidney bean powder and phytosupplements (leaves of leather bergenia, lime blossom, heartsease, wild chamomile, pepper mint, bog rosemary, and elderflowers, possessed high antioxidant activity. According to the research data, the highest activity was detected in propolis  0.482·20 pollen 0.802 and powdered forms of pepper mint 1.066 leather bergenia leaves 0.937 heartsease 0.385 lime blossom 0.331 and kidney beans 0.323. Relatively lower antioxidant activity was found in powdered bog rosemary 0.242 elderflowers 0.238 and wild chamomile 0.212. (Introduction of the investigated supplements will allow inhibiting oxidation processes in the lipide fraction of foodstuffs, including flour confectionery, to ensure stability of their qualitative characteristics over a longer period.

  14. Acute phase protein mRNA expressions and enhancement of antioxidant defense system in Black-meated Silkie Fowls supplemented with clove (Eugenia caryophyllus extracts under the influence of chronic heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhassan Usman Bello

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study investigates the anti-stress effects of clove (Eugenia caryophyllus extracts (0, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg on serum antioxidant biomarkers, immune response, immunological organ growth index, and expression levels of acute phase proteins (APPs; ovotransferrin (OVT, ceruloplasmin (CP, ceruloplasmin (AGP, C-reactive protein (CRP, and serum amyloid-A (SAA mRNA in the immunological organs of 63-d-old male black-meated Silkie fowls subjected to 21 d chronic heat stress at 35 ± 2 °C. Results The results demonstrated that clove extract supplementation in the diet of Silkie fowls subjected to elevated temperature (ET improve growth performance, immune responses, and suppressed the activities of glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD; reduced serum malonaldehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH concentrations when compared with fowls raised under thermoneutral condition (TC. Upon chronic heat stress and supplementation of clove extracts, the Silkie fowls showed a linear increase in GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, and TXNRD activities (P = 0.01 compared with fowls fed diets without clove extract. ET decreased (P < 0.05 the growth index of the liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus. However, the growth index of the liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus increased significantly (P < 0.05 which corresponded to an increase in clove supplemented levels. The expression of OVT, CP, AGP, CRP, and SAA mRNA in the liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus were elevated (P < 0.01 by ET compared with those maintained at TC. Nevertheless, clove mitigates heat stress-induced overexpression of OVT, CP, AGP, CRP and SAA mRNA in the immune organs of fowls fed 400 mg clove/kg compared to other groups. Conclusions The results showed that clove extracts supplementation decreased oxidative stress in the heat-stressed black-meated fowls by alleviating

  15. Phytosterol supplementation does not affect plasma antioxidant capacity in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sialvera, Theodora-Eirini; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Richter, Dimitris J; Yfanti, Georgia; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Micha, Renata; Goumas, Giorgos; Diamantopoulos, Emmanouil; Zampelas, Antonis

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have observed decreased levels of lipophilic antioxidants after supplementation with phytosterols and stanols. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of phytosterol supplementation on plasma total antioxidant capacity in patients with metabolic syndrome. In a parallel arm, randomized placebo-controlled design, 108 patients with metabolic syndrome were assigned to consume yogurt beverage which provided 4 g of phytosterols per day or yogurt beverage without phytosterols. The duration of the study was 2 months and the patients in both groups followed their habitual westernized type diet. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and after 2 months, and the total antioxidant capacity of plasma was measured using the ferric reducing antioxidant power of plasma and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays. After 2 months of intervention, plasma total antioxidant capacity did not differ between and within the intervention and the control groups. Phytosterol supplementation does not affect plasma antioxidant status.

  16. Systematic review: primary and secondary prevention of gastrointestinal cancers with antioxidant supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements prevent gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. AIM: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal cancers. METHODS: Using the Cochrane Collaboration methodology, we reviewed...... the randomized trials comparing antioxidant supplements with placebo or no intervention on the occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. We searched electronic databases and reference lists until October, 2007. Our outcome measures were gastrointestinal cancers, overall mortality and adverse events. Outcomes were....... The antioxidant supplements were without a significant effect on the occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83-1.06, I(2) = 54.0%). The heterogeneity seemed to be explained by bias risk (low-bias risk trials RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.13 compared to high-bias risk trials RR 0.59, 95% CI 0...

  17. Antioxidant and Cytotoxicological Effects of Aloe vera Food Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, food industries use supplements from Aloe vera as highly concentrated powders (starting products, which are added to the final product at a concentration of 1x, meaning 10 g/L for decolourized and spray-dried whole leaf powder (WLP or 5 g/L for decolourized and spray-dried inner leaf powder (ILG and also for nondecolourized and belt-dried inner leaf powder (ILF. Flavonoids, tannins, or saponins could not be detected for any starting product at this concentration and their total phenol concentration of 68–112 μM gallate-eq. was much lower than in fresh extract; however, their antioxidant capacity of 90–123 μM ascorbate-eq. for DPPH was similar to the fresh extract. Starting products, dissolved at 1x, had an aloin concentration of 0.04 to 0.07 ppm, a concentration much lower than the industry standard of 10 ppm for foodstuff. While decolourized starting products (i.e., treated with activated carbon exhibited low cytotoxicity on HeLa cells (CC50 = 15 g/L ILG or 50 g/L WLP, ILF at CC50 = 1–5 g/L exhibited cytotoxic effects, that is, at concentrations even below the recommended for human consumption. Probable causes for the cytotoxicity of ILF are the exposure to high temperatures (70–85°C combined with a high fibre content.

  18. [Are antioxidant supplements effective in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness? A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia-Luján, Ramón; De Paz Fernández, José Antonio; Costa Moreira, Osvaldo

    2014-10-05

    In recent years, antioxidant supplements have become popular to counter the effects of free radicals and muscle damage symptoms, including delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). To conduct a systematic review in different databases to determine the effects of antioxidant supplements on DOMS. We conducted a search in databases; Cochrane, Pubmed, Scopus and SportDiscus and Web of Science (WOS). The words and acronyms used were; Delayed onset muscle soreness, exercise induced muscle damage, DOMS, EIMD, antioxidant and oxidative stress. 54 articles were identified of which 48 were retreived, all in English, 17 related to vitamin C and E, supplements polyphenolic correspond to fourteen, eleven other antioxidant supplements and six to commercial supplements, all of them used to diminish the DOMS and other variables. Both vitamins and commercial supplements have low effectiveness in reducing DOMS, while polyphenols and other antioxidant supplements show moderate to good effectiveness in combating DOMS. However, most of the studies have effectiveness in reducing other symptoms of muscle damage besides helping in the post-exercise recovery. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Lise Lotte

    2012-01-01

    and secondary prevention randomised clinical trials on antioxidant supplements (beta-carotene, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium) versus placebo or no intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three authors extracted data. Random-effects and fixed-effect model meta-analyses were conducted. Risk......BACKGROUND: Our systematic review has demonstrated that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. We have now updated this review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched...... years). The mean proportion of women was 46%. Of the 78 trials, 46 used the parallel-group design, 30 the factorial design, and 2 the cross-over design. All antioxidants were administered orally, either alone or in combination with vitamins, minerals, or other interventions. The duration...

  20. L-Arginine supplementation improves antioxidant defenses through L-arginine/nitric oxide pathways in exercised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lingling; Wang, Bin; Gao, Guizhen; Cao, Wengen; Zhang, Yunkun

    2013-10-15

    l-Arginine (l-Arg) supplementation has been shown to enhance physical exercise capacity and delay onset of fatigue. This work investigated the potential beneficial mechanism(s) of l-Arg supplementation by examining its effect on the cellular oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways in the exercised rats. Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into six groups: sedentary control; sedentary control with l-Arg treatment; endurance training (daily swimming training for 8 wk) control; endurance training with l-Arg treatment; an exhaustive exercise (one time swimming to fatigue) control; and an exhaustive exercise with l-Arg treatment. l-Arg (500 mg/kg body wt) or saline was given to rats by intragastric administration 1 h before the endurance training and the exhaustive swimming test. Expression levels and activities of the l-Arg/nitric oxide (NO) pathway components and parameters of the oxidative stress and antioxidant defense capacity were investigated in l-Arg-treated and control rats. The result show that the l-Arg supplementation completely reversed the exercise-induced activation of NO synthase and superoxide dismutase, increased l-Arg transport capacity, and increased NO and anti-superoxide anion levels. These data demonstrate that l-Arg supplementation effectively reduces the exercise-induced imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant defense capacity, and this modulation is likely mediated through the l-Arg/NO pathways. The findings of this study improved our understanding of how l-Arg supplementation prevents elevations of reactive oxygen species and favorably enhances the antioxidant defense capacity during physical exercise.

  1. Antioxidant capacity of trans-resveratrol dietary supplements alone or combined with the mycotoxin beauvericin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallebrera, Beatriz; Maietti, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Paola; Font, Guillermina; Ruiz, Maria-Jose; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2017-07-01

    Trans-resveratrol (trans-RSV) is a polyphenol with multiples biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-diabetic, and antiplatelet. It occurs naturally in grapes and derivate, peanuts and berries. Beauvericin (BEA) is a mycotoxin present in cereals that produces cytotoxicity, intracellular reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. The general objective of this research was to evaluate whether trans-RSV could be used as a good polyphenol against damages produced by BEA. Because trans-RSV can be ingested through dietary supplements, to reach this goal, the following specific objectives were proposed: to determine a) the trans-RSV content in different polyphenol dietary supplements by capillary electrophoresis, b) the antioxidant capacity of the trans-RSV in polyphenol supplements, and c) the influence of BEA in the antioxidant capacity of trans-RSV when they are in combination by photochemioluminiscence assay. The results obtained in this study showed that all polyphenol dietary supplements present higher RSV content that the content of the label. The polyphenol supplements present antioxidant capacity. And the combination of trans-RSV and BEA did not affect the antioxidant capacity of trans-RSV. Thus, RSV could contribute to decrease oxidant effects produced by BEA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barikmo Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential

  3. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Monica H; Halvorsen, Bente L; Holte, Kari; Bøhn, Siv K; Dragland, Steinar; Sampson, Laura; Willey, Carol; Senoo, Haruki; Umezono, Yuko; Sanada, Chiho; Barikmo, Ingrid; Berhe, Nega; Willett, Walter C; Phillips, Katherine M; Jacobs, David R; Blomhoff, Rune

    2010-01-22

    A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name) were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential health effects of phytochemical antioxidants in diet.

  4. Effect of supplementation with antioxidants on the quality of bovine milk and meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Cristina; Pereira, Víctor; Abuelo, Ángel; Hernández, Joaquín

    2013-11-21

    From a clinical point of view, oxidative stress (OS) is considered the primary cause of numerous metabolic processes in transition cow. Thus, the addition of antioxidants has been considered a palliative or preventive treatment. But beyond the clinical perspective, antioxidant supplementation provides an added value to the product obtained being either milk or meat. This paper reviews the beneficial aspects that provide antioxidant supplementation on quality of both products and that fit into the new concept that the consumer has a functional and healthy food. Our approach is from a veterinary standpoint, by reviewing the studies conducted to date and the new perspectives that are interesting and need to be studied in the following years. One of the highlights is that sustainable farming, one in which production is combined with animal health, also impacts positively on the quality of the final products, with beneficial antioxidant properties to human health.

  5. [Effects of multi-nutrients supplementation on the nutritional status and antioxidant capability of healthy adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiying; Li, Yanfang; Wu, Zhaoyan; Huang, Wenjing; Jiang, Zhuoqin

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether daily multivitamins/minerals supplement can improve nutrient status, plasma, antioxidant enzymes activity and total antioxidant capacity in healthy adults. One hundred and fifty-one healthy adults living in a normal lifestyle with a mean age of 28 (20 - 50) years were recruited from Guangzhou. The subjects were divided into the supplement group and the control ineral supplements. One hundred and fifty-one healthy adults living in a normal lifestyle with a mean age of 28 (20 - 50) years were recruited from Guangzhou. The subjects were divided into the supplement group and the control group carefully matched with age and gender. Supplement pellets (consisted of multivitamins/minerals, including VitA, VitC, VitE,Ca, Zn, Fe, Se, etc.) and placebo pellets (consisted of only dextrin with the same color, shape and size as the supplement pellets) were administrated in a double-blinded manner for 8 week. The nutrients intake data of the research subjects were collected daily by a 24-hour dietary recall method. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and the end of the intervention period for determining the nutritional status, the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the products of oxidative damage. The dietary intake of nutrients was insufficient in these subjects. The levels of plasma VitC, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, Zn, Fe and Se in the supplement group were increased in comparison with the control group by 46%, 28%, 116%, 7%, 30% and 28% respectively (P nutritional status regarding antioxidant nutrients had largely been improved. But levels of plasma gamma-tocopherol were decreased by 25% in comparison with the control group (P supplementation (P Supplementation of multiple micronutrients could effectively increase the levels of plasma VitC, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, Zn, Fe and Se and the activities of GPX, CAT and T-AOC.

  6. Prior exercise and antioxidant supplementation: effect on oxidative stress and muscle injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Brian K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both acute bouts of prior exercise (preconditioning and antioxidant nutrients have been used in an attempt to attenuate muscle injury or oxidative stress in response to resistance exercise. However, most studies have focused on untrained participants rather than on athletes. The purpose of this work was to determine the independent and combined effects of antioxidant supplementation (vitamin C + mixed tocopherols/tocotrienols and prior eccentric exercise in attenuating markers of skeletal muscle injury and oxidative stress in resistance trained men. Methods Thirty-six men were randomly assigned to: no prior exercise + placebo; no prior exercise + antioxidant; prior exercise + placebo; prior exercise + antioxidant. Markers of muscle/cell injury (muscle performance, muscle soreness, C-reactive protein, and creatine kinase activity, as well as oxidative stress (blood protein carbonyls and peroxides, were measured before and through 48 hours of exercise recovery. Results No group by time interactions were noted for any variable (P > 0.05. Time main effects were noted for creatine kinase activity, muscle soreness, maximal isometric force and peak velocity (P Conclusion There appears to be no independent or combined effect of a prior bout of eccentric exercise or antioxidant supplementation as used here on markers of muscle injury in resistance trained men. Moreover, eccentric exercise as used in the present study results in minimal blood oxidative stress in resistance trained men. Hence, antioxidant supplementation for the purpose of minimizing blood oxidative stress in relation to eccentric exercise appears unnecessary in this population.

  7. Arginine and antioxidant supplement on performance in elderly male cyclists: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter Catherine L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human exercise capacity declines with advancing age. These changes often result in loss of physical fitness and more rapid senescence. Nitric oxide (NO has been implicated in improvement of exercise capacity through vascular smooth muscle relaxation in both coronary and skeletal muscle arteries, as well as via independent mechanisms. Antioxidants may prevent nitric oxide inactivation by oxygen free radicals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an L-arginine and antioxidant supplement on exercise performance in elderly male cyclists. Methods This was a two-arm prospectively randomized double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial. Sixteen male cyclists were randomized to receive either a proprietary supplement (Niteworks®, Herbalife International Inc., Century City, CA or a placebo powder. Exercise parameters were assessed by maximal incremental exercise testing performed on a stationary cycle ergometer using breath-by-breath analysis at baseline, week one and week three. Results There was no difference between baseline exercise parameters. In the supplemented group, anaerobic threshold increased by 16.7% (2.38 ± 0.18 L/min, p 2 max between control and intervention groups at either week 1 or week 3 by comparison to baseline. Conclusion An arginine and antioxidant-containing supplement increased the anaerobic threshold at both week one and week three in elderly cyclists. No effect on VO2 max was observed. This study indicated a potential role of L-arginine and antioxidant supplementation in improving exercise performance in elderly.

  8. LC-QTOF-MS Analysis and Activity Profiles of Popular Antioxidant Dietary Supplements in Terms of Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Sieniawska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dietary supplements with claimed antioxidant activity constitute a substantial part of the dietary supplement market. In this study, we performed the LC-QTOF-MS analysis and investigated the activity profiles of popular antioxidant dietary supplements from different chemical groups in terms of quality control. The commonly used antioxidant tests and statistical analysis revealed that substantial part of the results was comparable if 1 g sample was considered, but while comparing single and daily doses, significant differences in antioxidant values were noticed in all assays. The best antioxidant activity was obtained in ORAC assay (from 142 to 13814 μM of Trolox equivalents per 1 g of sample, and the strongest correlation occurred between TPC and ORAC. The LC-QTOF-MS analysis revealed that catechins were present in samples having the best antioxidant activity and that dietary supplements showing the weakest activity contained very small amount of any chemical constituents.

  9. LC-QTOF-MS Analysis and Activity Profiles of Popular Antioxidant Dietary Supplements in Terms of Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baj, Tomasz; Sawicki, Rafal; Wanat, Aleksandra; Wojtanowski, Krzysztof Kamil; Ginalska, Grazyna; Zgorka, Grazyna; Szymanska, Jolanta

    2017-01-01

    The dietary supplements with claimed antioxidant activity constitute a substantial part of the dietary supplement market. In this study, we performed the LC-QTOF-MS analysis and investigated the activity profiles of popular antioxidant dietary supplements from different chemical groups in terms of quality control. The commonly used antioxidant tests and statistical analysis revealed that substantial part of the results was comparable if 1 g sample was considered, but while comparing single and daily doses, significant differences in antioxidant values were noticed in all assays. The best antioxidant activity was obtained in ORAC assay (from 142 to 13814 μM of Trolox equivalents per 1 g of sample), and the strongest correlation occurred between TPC and ORAC. The LC-QTOF-MS analysis revealed that catechins were present in samples having the best antioxidant activity and that dietary supplements showing the weakest activity contained very small amount of any chemical constituents. PMID:28642814

  10. Effects of basal media, salt concentrations, antioxidant supplements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antioxidants than MS, LS and D basal media. Five different levels of N6 medium salts (10, 30, 50, 70 and 100%) were tested, and the highest transformation efficiency was 15.9% under a 50% salt concentration, followed by 6.4% transformation efficiency with 70 and 3.2% under 100% salt conditions. More than 95% of ...

  11. Effect of a dietary antioxidant supplementation on semen quality in pony stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichsel, K; Palm, F; Koblischke, P; Budik, S; Aurich, C

    2008-05-01

    Lipid peroxidation contributes to the damage of the sperm plasma membrane. In different species, dietary supplementation with antioxidants has been shown to improve semen quality. Therefore, we tested effects of dietary supplementation with antioxidants and l-carnitin on semen quality in Shetland pony stallions (n=6). Semen was collected twice a week over a time period of 16 weeks. From weeks 5 to 12, a special diet for stallions containing a variety of antioxidants (STALLION, Pavo Pferdenahrung GmbH, Goch, Germany; tocopherol 300 mg/day; ascorbic acid 300 mg/day; l-carnitin 4000 mg/day; folic acid 12 mg/day) was added to the basal diet (hay, mineral supplements, water). Ejaculates were evaluated for total sperm count, semen motility (percentage of totally and progressively motile spermatozoa, longevity for 24 h at 5 degrees C) and membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI staining): All values given are means+/-S.E.M. No changes in motility, progressive motility and membrane integrity or semen longevity for 24 h were detected. A slight but significant reduction of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa was found (weeks 1-4: 43.7+/-7.1%; weeks 13-16: 39.4+/-7.2%, p<0.05). Results show that a supplementary diet with antioxidants in the given concentration and duration does not result in pronounced effects on semen quality of stallions. It is therefore questionable to support stallions with dietary antioxidants as long as they receive an adequately balanced basal diet.

  12. Effects of Zinc supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities in healthy old subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, E.; Mangialasche, F.; Feliziani, F.T.; Cecchetti, R.; Malavolta, M.; Bastiani, P.; Baglioni, M.; Dedoussis, G.; Fulop, T.; Herbein, G.; Jajte, J.; Monti, Dominique; Rink, L.; Mocchegiani, E.; Mecocci, P.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of Zinc supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities in healthy old subjects correspondence: Corresponding author. Tel.: +39 075 578 3270; fax: +39 075 573 0259. (Mecocci, P.) (Mecocci, P.) Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Perugia - ITALY (Mariani, E.) Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Perugia - ITALY (Mangialasche, F.) Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Unive...

  13. The effects of dietary boric acid and borax supplementation on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, and DNA damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Cigerci, Ibrahim Hakki; Fatih Fidan, A; Eryavuz, Abdullah

    2010-07-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of high dietary supplementation with boric acid and borax, called boron (B) compounds, on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some vitamin levels, and DNA damage in rats. Thirty Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into three equal groups: the animals in the first group (control) were fed with a standard rodent diet containing 6.4 mg B/kg, and the animals in the experimental group were fed with a standard rodent diet added with a supra-nutritional amount of boric acid and borax (100 mg B/kg) throughout the experimental period of 28 days. The B compounds decreased malondialdehyde (MDA), DNA damage, the protein carbonyl content (PCO) level in blood, and glutathione (GSH) concentration in the liver, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity in the kidney. The B compounds increased GSH concentration in blood and the vitamin C level in plasma. Consequently, our results demonstrate that B supplementation (100 mg/kg) in diet decreases LPO, and enhances the antioxidant defense mechanism and vitamin status. There are no differences in oxidant/antioxidant balance and biochemical parameters except for serum vitamin A and liver GSH concentration, between the boron compounds used in this study. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Redox modulation of mitochondriogenesis in exercise. Does antioxidant supplementation blunt the benefits of exercise training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Cabo, Helena; Ferrando, Beatriz; Viña, Jose

    2015-09-01

    Physical exercise increases the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in muscle, liver, and other organs. This is unlikely due to increased mitochondrial production but rather to extramitochondrial sources such as NADPH oxidase or xanthine oxidase. We have reported a xanthine oxidase-mediated increase in ROS production in many experimental models from isolated cells to humans. Originally, ROS were considered as detrimental and thus as a likely cause of cell damage associated with exhaustion. In the past decade, evidence showing that ROS act as signals has been gathered and thus the idea that antioxidant supplementation in exercise is always recommendable has proved incorrect. In fact, we proposed that exercise itself can be considered as an antioxidant because training increases the expression of classical antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and, in general, lowering the endogenous antioxidant enzymes by administration of antioxidant supplements may not be a good strategy when training. Antioxidant enzymes are not the only ones to be activated by training. Mitochondriogenesis is an important process activated in exercise. Many redox-sensitive enzymes are involved in this process. Important signaling molecules like MAP kinases, NF-κB, PGC-1α, p53, heat shock factor, and others modulate muscle adaptation to exercise. Interventions aimed at modifying the production of ROS in exercise must be performed with care as they may be detrimental in that they may lower useful adaptations to exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumoulin M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marion Dumoulin, David Gaudout, Benoit Lemaire Activ’Inside, Libourne, France Background: Environmental factors impact the skin aging resulting in decrease of skin radiance. Nutrition and particularly antioxidants could help to fight against skin degradation.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral supplement rich in specific antioxidants, SkinAx2TM, on the improvement of the skin radiance in women.Methods: The open-label clinical study enrolled 35 women, aged 40–70, with facial dull complexion. Subjects were supplemented orally with a daily dosage of 150 mg of an antioxidant-rich formulation containing superoxide dismutase-rich melon concentrate, grape seed extract rich in monomers of flavanols, vitamin C, and zinc for 8 weeks. Each subject served as her own control. The C.L.B.T.™ test has been used to evaluate facial skin coloring (C, luminosity (L, brightness (B, and transparency (T involved in skin radiance. Facial skin imperfections have been assessed by clinical assessment. Firmness has been evaluated by clinical assessment and cutometer measurement. Finally, an auto-questionnaire has been carried out in order to evaluate the satisfaction of the subjects concerning different parameters involved in skin radiance and the global efficacy of the supplement.Results: Skin “red pink” and “olive” colors were significantly improved after supplementation (P<0.0001. Luminosity was increased by 25.9% (P<0.0001 whereas brightness and transparency were not affected by the supplementation. Facial skin imperfections were significantly reduced after the antioxidant-rich formulation intake (global reduction: –18.0%; P<0.0001. Indeed, dark circles, redness, and spots significantly diminished after oral treatment. Firmness and elasticity have been shown to be improved. Subjects were globally satisfied by the product (82.4% and have found improvements on their facial skin. Furthermore, 64.7% reported to look

  16. Feed supplementation with arginine and zinc on antioxidant status and inflammatory response in challenged weanling piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bergeron

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although supplementing the diet with zinc oxide and arginine is known to improve growth in weanling piglets, the mechanism of action is not well understood. We measured the antioxidant status and inflammatory response in 48 weanling castrated male piglets fed diets supplemented with or without zinc oxide (2,500 mg Zn oxide per kg and arginine (1% starting at the age of 20 days. The animals were injected with lipopolysaccharide (100 μg/kg on day 5. Half of them received another injection on day 12. Blood samples were taken just before and 6, 24 and 48 h after injection and the mucosa lining the ileum was recovered following euthanizing on days 7 and 14. Zinc supplementation increased reduced and total glutathione (GSH (reduced and total during days 5 to 7 and arginine decreased oxidized GSH measured on days 5 and 12 and the ratio of total antioxidant capacity to total oxidative status during days 12 to 14. Zinc decreased plasma malondialdehyde measured on days 5 and 12 and serum haptoglobin measured on day 12 and increased both metallothionein-1 expression and total antioxidant capacity measured in the ileal mucosa on day 14. Tumour necrosis factor α concentration decreased from days 5 to 12 (all effects were significant at P < 0.05. This study shows that the zinc supplement reduced lipid oxidation and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation during the post-weaning period, while the arginine supplementation had only a limited effect.

  17. [Effect of antioxidant supplementation over oxidative stress and quality of life in cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Tarlovsky, V; Bejarano-Rosales, M; Gutiérrez-Salmeán, G; Casillas, M A; López-Alvarenga, J C; Ceballos-Reyes, G M

    2011-01-01

    Mexico has a high rate of cervical cancer which represents an important public health issue. The treatment for this disease depends on the extension of the tumor; for the initial stages surgery is recommended, and for locally advanced tumors, a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is used. All this process affects natural antioxidant consumption and Quality of Life (QoL). To find out the effect that supplementation with antioxidants (β-carotene, vitamin C y vitamin E) has on oxidative stress, and quality of life in patient diagnosed with cervical cancer during treatments with cisplatin and radiotherapy. We conducted a randomized, blind clinical trial in women with cervical cancer whose antineoplasic treatment was radiotherapy in and radiotherapy with cisplatin. Patients were randomly assigned to receive antioxidant therapy or a placebo. Plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), free carbonyls, dityrosines, and carbonyl/protein rate in two different moments, before oncologic therapy, and after finishing oncology treatment, we also evaluated food consumption by using a validated food frequency questionnaire and a QOL questionnaire before treatment and after it was over. The effect of the antioxidant treatment was assessed by the use t-student test for independent and paired samples, as well as frequencies and X² for categorical variables. We evaluated 103 patients who were randomly assigned to receive treatment with antioxidants 49 (47.60%) and placebo 54 (52.40%). We did not find statistically significant differences in food or antioxidant consumption according to the food frequency questionnaires. Most of the patients consumed more energy than needed to meet their requirement, but they did not consume enough of most of the antioxidants according to the Recommended Dailiy Allowance (RDA) recommendation. Serum levels of plasma free carbonyls and carbonil/mg of protein ratio were statistically significant (p stress in the supplemented group, this

  18. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of two important memory enhancing medicinal plants Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Harsahay; Pandey, Hemant Kumar; Pandey, Pankaj; Arya, Mahesh Chand; Ahmed, Zakwan

    2012-01-01

    Free radicals or highly reactive oxygen species are capable of inducing oxidative damage to human body. Antioxidants are the compounds which terminate the attack of reactive species and reduce the risk of diseases. Both Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica are used in treatment of brain disorders in humans and have almost similar effects. The study was conducted to determine the antioxidant properties of two well-known memory enhancer medicinal plants Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica. The antioxidant activity of these two medicinal plants was evaluated by measuring reducing ability, free radical scavenging activity by DPPH and hydrogen peroxide methods. The antioxidants compounds like ascorbic acid, total phenols and tannins were also evaluated in these plants. Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica exhibited significant differences (PCentella asiatica. The antioxidant components viz. ascorbic acid, total phenols and tannins were also found in a higher concentration in Baccopa monnieri as compared to Centella asiatica. It can be concluded from the study that regular use of Baccopa monnieri as a supplement could be more helpful compared to Centella asiatica in treatment of neurological disorders caused by free radical damage.

  19. Effects of organic acid supplementation on antioxidant capacity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds receiving treatment, CTL., produced the highest H2O2 value (75.9 ìM), while, FYS, FORMA and SELK lowered H2O2 concentration significantly (51.1, 53.8 and 55.0 ìM, respectively). Anti-Salmonella titre was significantly improved by dietary organic acid supplementation. The highest Salmonella titre was recorded for ...

  20. Antioxidant Potential of the Polyherbal Formulation “ImmuPlus”: A Nutritional Supplement for Horses

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    Stefano Cecchini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to counteract harmful effects of oxidative stress due to pathological conditions or physical exercise, horses are often administered dietary supplements having supposed high antioxidant activities. The aim of the present study was to identify the in vitro antioxidant potential of “ImmuPlus”, a polyherbal formulation (Global Herbs LTD, Chichester, West Sussex, Great Britain, containing three medicinal plants (Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, and Emblica officinalis, known in Ayurveda for their use in human disease treatment. Extracts obtained by different solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, and hexane were tested for total antioxidant capacity, total reducing power, scavenging activity against DPPH radical, and total polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Our results showed that, except as regards hexane, all the used solvents are able to extract compounds having high antioxidant activity, even when compared to ascorbic acid. Regression analysis showed significant correlations between antioxidant properties and polyphenol/flavonoid contents, indicating the latter, known for their beneficial effects on health of human and animal beings, as major components responsible for the strong antioxidant capacities. Moreover, obtained results suggest the effective role of the polyherbal mixture as good source of antioxidants in horses.

  1. Anti-oxidative effects of some dietary supplements on Yellow perch (Perca flavescens exposed to different physical stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiam Elabd

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In current study, Yellow perch (P. flavescens was exposed to common forms of physical stressors and antioxidative effects of dietary incorporated Astragalus membranaceus (AM and Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice were assessed. To address this, for a four-week five groups of fish (31 ± 1.0 g, average weight received 1, 2, and 3% (w/w Glycyrrhiza glabra; and 1% G. glabra- A. membranaceus mixture daily. Control group fed an additive-free basal diet. Immunological, biochemical and histopathological profiles were evaluated; and fish were redistributed to be exposed to heat, cold, hypoxia and capture stressors. The current findings demonstrated that A. membranaceus and G. glabra dietary incorporation remarkably enhanced antioxidative and biochemical parameters. Also, the study showed markedly up-regulation of related genes expression; and revealed better liver histology in supplemented groups over the control. In conclusion, A. membranaceus and G. glabra dietary supplementation markedly enhanced antioxidantive responses throughout the experimental period, indicating the ability of both herbal plants to confer protection against different physical stressors.

  2. Maternal antioxidant supplementation prevents adiposity in the offspring of Western diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sarbattama; Simmons, Rebecca A

    2010-12-01

    Obesity in pregnancy significantly increases the risk of the offspring developing obesity after birth. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that maternal obesity increases oxidative stress during fetal development, and to determine whether administration of an antioxidant supplement to pregnant Western diet-fed rats would prevent the development of adiposity in the offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were started on the designated diet at 4 weeks of age. Four groups of animals were studied: control chow (control); control + antioxidants (control+Aox); Western diet (Western); and Western diet + antioxidants (Western+Aox). The rats were mated at 12 to 14 weeks of age, and all pups were weaned onto control diet. Offspring from dams fed the Western diet had significantly increased adiposity as early as 2 weeks of age as well as impaired glucose tolerance compared with offspring of dams fed a control diet. Inflammation and oxidative stress were increased in preimplantation embryos, fetuses, and newborns of Western diet-fed rats. Gene expression of proadipogenic and lipogenic genes was altered in fat tissue of rats at 2 weeks and 2 months of age. The addition of an antioxidant supplement decreased adiposity and normalized glucose tolerance. CONCLUSIONS; Inflammation and oxidative stress appear to play a key role in the development of increased adiposity in the offspring of Western diet-fed pregnant dams. Restoration of the antioxidant balance during pregnancy in the Western diet-fed dam is associated with decreased adiposity in offspring.

  3. Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar facilitate its adaptation to salt stress. L Chen, H Yin, J Xu, X Liu. Abstract. Wheat cultivars capable of accumulating minerals under salt stress are of considerable interest for their potential to improve crop productivity and crop quality. This study addressed the ...

  4. Ageing and reproduction: antioxidant supplementation alleviates telomere loss in wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badás, E P; Martínez, J; Rivero de Aguilar Cachafeiro, J; Miranda, F; Figuerola, J; Merino, S

    2015-04-01

    Reproduction is inherently costly. Environmental stressors, such as infection and limited food resources, can compromise investment at each breeding attempt. For example, recent data on captive birds showed that increased reproductive effort accelerates ageing. However, the effects of nutritional status and infection on ageing remain unknown. Telomeres function as protective caps at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, and changes in telomere length is a commonly used proxy for ageing. To partially address the mechanisms of ageing following reproduction, we supplemented, medicated or administered a combined treatment to wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) breeding in central Spain during 2012. The nutritional supplement consisted of two different antioxidants, whereas the medication was an antimalarial treatment against blood parasites. We evaluated the effect of these manipulations on reproductive success and parasite loads in the first breeding season, and on changes in telomere length between two consecutive breeding seasons. Supplemented birds showed no reduction in blood parasite infections in 2012, although they exhibited higher body mass and fledging success. The antimalarial drugs reduced infections by several parasite species, but this had no effect on fitness parameters. In the following season, telomeres from supplemented birds had shortened less. Altogether, we found that supplementation with antioxidants provided fitness benefits in the short term and reduced telomere loss a year following treatment. Our results provide indirect empirical support for accelerated telomere loss as a cost of reproduction. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant characteristics of chia oil supplemented margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Taj, Imran; Ajmal, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad

    2017-05-31

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is known as power house of omega fatty acids which has great health benefits. It contains up to 78% linolenic acid (ω-3) and 18% linoleic acid (ω-6), which could be a great source of omega-3 fatty acids for functional foods. Therefore, in this study, margarines were prepared with supplementation of different concentrations of chia oil to enhance omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidant characteristics and oxidative stability of the product. Margarines were formulated from non-hydrogenated palm oil, palm kernel and butter. Margarines were supplemented with 5, 10, 15 and 20% chia oil (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 ), respectively. Margarine without any addition of chia oil was kept as control. Margarine samples were stored at 5 °C for a period of 90 days. Physico-chemical (fat, moisture, refractive index, melting point, solid fat index, fatty acids profile, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, free fatty acids and peroxide value) and sensory characteristics were studied at the interval of 45 days. The melting point of T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 developed in current investigation were 34.2, 33.8, 33.1 and 32.5 °C, respectively. The solid fat index of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were 47.21, 22.71, 20.33, 18.12 and 16.58%, respectively. The α-linolenic acid contents in T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were found 2.92, 5.85, 9.22, 12.29%, respectively. The concentration of eicosanoic acid in T 2 , T 3 and T 4 was 1.82, 3.52, 6.43 and 9.81%, respectively. The content of docosahexanoic acid in T 2 , T 3 and T 4 was present 1.26, 2.64, 3.49 and 5.19%, respectively. The omega-3 fatty acids were not detected in the control sample. Total phenolic contents of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 samples were 0.27, 2.22, 4.15, 7.23 and 11.42 mg GAE/mL, respectively. DPPH free radical scavenging activity for control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 was noted 65.8, 5.37, 17.82, 24.95, 45.42 and 62.8%, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid

  6. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (Pyogurt. PMID:28078255

  7. Antioxidant effects of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate-induced hepatic injury in rats

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    Walid Hamdy El-Tantawy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of behavioral, biochemical and physiological effects in humans. Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activities of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate -induced hepatic injury in rats. Five groups of rats were used in this study, Control, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg + 0.5 g/kg Spirulina, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg + 1 g/kg Spirulina and Lead acetate + 25 mg/100 g Vitamin C (reference drug. All experimental groups received the oral treatment by stomach tube once daily for 4 weeks. Lead intoxication resulted in a significant increase in serum alanine transaminae (ALT, aspartate transaminae (AST activities, liver homogenate tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, caspase-3, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO levels and a significant decline of total serum protein, liver homogenate reduced glutathione (GSH level and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Both doses of Spirulina supplement as well as Vitamin C succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of serum and liver and prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and antioxidant status of the liver. Both doses of Spirulina supplement had the same anti-apoptotic activity and high dose exhibited more antioxidant activity than that of low dose. In conclusion, the results of the present work revealed that Spirulina supplement had protective, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects on lead acetate-induced hepatic damage.

  8. Maternal Antioxidant Supplementation Prevents Adiposity in the Offspring of Western Diet?Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Sarbattama; Simmons, Rebecca A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Obesity in pregnancy significantly increases the risk of the offspring developing obesity after birth. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that maternal obesity increases oxidative stress during fetal development, and to determine whether administration of an antioxidant supplement to pregnant Western diet-fed rats would prevent the development of adiposity in the offspring. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Female Sprague Dawley rats were started on the designated diet at ...

  9. Timing of antioxidant supplementation is critical in improving anorexia in an experimental model of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, Alessio; De Luca, Simona; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Citro, Gennaro; Fazi, Lucia; Mari, Alessia; Ramaccini, Cesarina; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Laviano, Alessandro

    2013-08-01

    Increased oxidative stress may contribute to cancer anorexia, which could be ameliorated by antioxidant supplementation. methylcholanthrene (MCA) sarcoma-bearing Fisher rats were studied. After tumour inoculation, rats were randomly assigned to standard diet (CTR group, n = 6), or to an antioxidant-enriched diet (AOX group, n = 8). Eight more rats (STD-AOX group) switched from standard to antioxidant diet when anorexia developed. At the end of the study, food intake (FI, g/d), body weight and tumour weight (g) were recorded, and plasma samples were obtained. On day 16, anorexia has appeared only in CTR and STD-AOX animals. At the end of the study, FI in AOX animals was still higher than in the other groups (p = 0.08). No differences in body and tumour weights were observed among groups. However, hydrogen peroxide and interleukin-1β levels were significantly reduced only in AOX rats. Data obtained suggest that early antioxidant supplementation improves cancer anorexia, ameliorates oxidative stress and reduces inflammation.

  10. Antioxidant Supplement Inhibits Skeletal Muscle Constitutive Autophagy rather than Fasting-Induced Autophagy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtang Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the hypothesis that NAC administration leads to reduced oxidative stress and thus to decreased expression of autophagy markers in young mice. Our results reveal that NAC administration results in reduced muscle mRNA levels of several autophagy markers, including Beclin-1, Atg7, LC3, Atg9, and LAMP2. However, NAC supplement fails to block the activation of skeletal muscle autophagy in response to fasting, because fasting significantly increases the mRNA level of several autophagy markers and LC3 lipidation. We further examined the effects of NAC administration on mitochondrial antioxidant capacity in fed and 24-hour fasted mice. Our results clearly show that NAC administration depresses the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR, both of which play a predominant antioxidant role in mitochondria by reducing ROS level. In addition, we found no beneficial effect of NAC supplement on muscle mass but it can protect from muscle loss in response to fasting. Collectively, our findings indicate that ROS is required for skeletal muscle constitutive autophagy, rather than starvation-induced autophagy, and that antioxidant NAC inhibits constitutive autophagy by the regulation of mitochondrial ROS production and antioxidant capacity.

  11. No Evidence of Racial Differences in Endothelial Function and Exercise Blood Flow in Young, Healthy Males Following Acute Antioxidant Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Rosenberg, Alexander J; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute antioxidant supplementation on endothelial function, exercise blood flow and oxidative stress biomarkers in 9 young African American compared to 10 Caucasian males (25.7±1.2 years). We hypothesized that African American males would have lower exercise blood flow and endothelial responsiveness compared to Caucasian males, and these responses would be improved following antioxidant supplementation. Ultrasonography was used to measure blood flow during handgrip exercise. Endothelial function was assessed using flow-mediated dilation, and lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring levels of malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. African American males exhibited lower endothelial function than Caucasians at baseline (8.3±1.7 vs. 12.2±1.7%) and the difference was ameliorated with antioxidant supplementation (10.7±1.9% vs. 10.8±1.8%), but the interaction was not significant (p=0.10). There were no significant changes in malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances following antioxidant supplementation. There was a significant increase in brachial blood flow and forearm vascular conductance with exercise but no differences with antioxidant supplementation. There were no group differences in exercise responses and no differences with antioxidant supplementation, suggesting a lack of influence of oxidative stress during exercise in this cohort. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Response of selected antioxidants and pigments in tissues of Rosa hybrida and Fuchsia hybrida to supplemental UV-A exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Vos, de C.H.; Maas, F.M.; Jonker, H.H.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Jordi, W.; Pot, C.S.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of supplemental UV-A (320-400 nm) radiation on tissue absorption at 355 nm, levels of various antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione, carotenoids and flavonoids) and of antioxidant scavenging capacity were investigated with leaves and petals of Rosa hybrida, cv. Honesty and with leaves,

  13. Levels of the Antioxidant Nutrients Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Selenium in the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database: NHANES Data Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory evidence indicates that antioxidants may slow or possibly prevent the development of certain cancers by protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals or other mechanisms. Many dietary supplements containing antioxidant constituents (e.g., vitamin C) are available to consumers. Th...

  14. Antioxidant supplementation and obesity have independent effects on hepatic oxylipin profiles in insulin-resistant, obesity-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklo, Matthew J; Newman, John W

    2015-12-01

    Obesity-induced changes in lipid metabolism are mechanistically associated with the development of insulin resistance and prediabetes. Recent studies have focused on the extent to which obesity-induced insulin resistance is mediated through oxylipins, derived from enzymatic and nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation. Vitamin E and vitamin C are widely used antioxidant supplements, but conflicting data exist as to whether supplementation with vitamins E and C reduces insulin resistance. The purpose of this work is (1) to test the hypothesis that supplementation with vitamin E and vitamin C prevents the development of insulin resistance and (2) to determine the extent to which antioxidant supplementation modifies obesity-induced changes in hepatic oxylipins. Using obesity-prone Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat, hypercaloric diet, we found that vitamin E and C supplementation did not block the development of insulin resistance, despite increased plasma levels of these antioxidants and decreased hepatic F2-isoprostane (F2-IsoP) concentrations. The obese phenotype was associated with increased hepatic concentrations of cytochrome P450 (CYP450)-dependent linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid-derived epoxides. Antioxidant supplementation, but not obesity, decreased levels of the lipoxygenase (LOX)-dependent, arachidonic acid-derived products lipoxin A4 (LXA4), 8,15-dihydroxtetraenoate (8,15-DiHETE), and 5,15-DiHETE. Our data demonstrate that antioxidant supplementation and obesity impact hepatic LOX- and CYP450-dependent oxylipin metabolism. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Dietary glutamine supplementation effects on amino acid metabolism, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity and antioxidant response of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, F; Castro, C; Rufino-Palomares, E; Ordóñez-Grande, B; Gallardo, M A; Oliva-Teles, A; Peres, H

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate dietary glutamine supplementation effects on gilthead sea bream performance, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity, hepatic and intestinal glutamine metabolism and oxidative status. For that purpose gilthead sea bream juveniles (mean weight 13.0g) were fed four isolipidic (18% lipid) and isonitrogenous (43% protein) diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% glutamine for 6weeks. Fish performance, body composition and intestinal nutrient absorption capacity were not affected by dietary glutamine levels. Hepatic and intestinal glutaminase (GlNase), glutamine synthetase (GSase), alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities were also unaffected by dietary glutamine supplementation. In the intestine GlNase activity was higher and GSase/GlNase ratio was two-fold lower than in the liver, suggesting a higher use of glutamine for energy production by the intestine than by the liver. The liver showed higher catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, while the intestine presented higher glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and oxidised glutathione content, which seems to reveal a higher glutathione dependency of the intestinal antioxidant response. Total and reduced glutathione contents in liver and intestine and superoxide dismutase activity in the intestine were enhanced by dietary glutamine, though lipid peroxidation values were not affected. Overall, differences between liver and intestine glutamine metabolism and antioxidant response were identified and the potential of dietary glutamine supplementation to gilthead sea bream's antioxidant response was elucidated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance enhancement with supplements: incongruence between rationale and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazanov Jason

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Athletes are expected to consider multiple factors when making informed decision about nutritional supplement use. Besides rules, regulations and potential health hazards, the efficacy of different nutritional supplements in performance enhancement is a key issue. The aim of this paper was to find evidence for informed decision making by investigating the relationship between specific performance-related reasons for supplement use and the reported use of nutritional supplements. Methods The 'UK Sport 2005 Drug Free Survey' data (n = 874 were re-analysed using association [χ2] and 'strength of association' tests [ϕ] to show the proportion of informed choices and to unveil incongruencies between self-reported supplement use and the underlying motives. Results Participants (n = 520 reported supplement use in the pattern of: vitamin C (70.4%, creatine (36.1%, whey protein (30.6%, iron (29.8%, caffeine (23.8%, and ginseng (8.3% for the following reasons: strength maintenance (38.1%, doctors' advice (24.2%, enhancing endurance (20.0%, ability to train longer (13.3%, and provided by the governing body (3.8%. Of thirty possible associations between the above supplements and reasons, 11 were predictable from literature precedents and only 8 were evidenced and these were not strong (ϕ 2 = 49.14, p 2 = 97.08, p 2 = 97.82, p Conclusion This study provided a platform for assessing congruence between athletes' reasons for supplement use and their actual use. These results suggest that a lack of understanding exists in supplement use. There is an urgent need to provide accurate information which will help athletes make informed choices about the use of supplements.

  17. Effect of pomegranate supplementation and aerobic training on total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Rahimifardin

    2014-11-01

    Results: It was found that MDA index decreased in the pomegranate supplementation group compared to placebo group (P=0.016. But, total antioxidant capacity (TAC index in neither of the groups was significant (P=0.72. Conclusion: Results of the study indicate that pomegranate supplementation can reduce MDA derived from lipid peroxidation after 8 week running training in the obese. .

  18. Pulmonary Embolism Secondary to Testosterone-Enhancing Herbal Supplement Use

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Steven M; Ko Ko, Nway; Sattar, Asad S; Gucuk Ipek, Esra; Ali, Sayed

    2017-01-01

    Decreased testosterone levels in men are often a normal sign of aging. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is a well-established option for those with symptomatic hypogonadism related to low testosterone levels. Conversely, designer herbal supplements in the context of testosterone supplementation are poorly studied, yet remain popular among aging men who seek the well-known, often enhancing, effects of testosterone that involve muscle mass and sexual function/drive. In 2014, the Food and ...

  19. Enzyme-Enhanced Extraction of Antioxidant Ingredients from Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalbjörnsson, Björn V; Jónsdóttir, Rósa

    2015-01-01

    Marine algae are not only a rich source of dietary fibre, proteins, vitamins, and minerals, but also contain a great variety of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities. Marine macroalgae are a rich source of various natural antioxidants such as polyphenols, especially phlorotannins (made of polyphloroglucinol units) derived from brown algae, which play an important role in preventing lipid peroxidation. In recent years, a number of potent antioxidant compounds have been isolated and identified from different types of edible seaweeds. Extraction methods commonly used for the isolation of antioxidants are based on conventional water or organic solvent extractions. However, recent advances have shown that enzymatic hydrolysis can achieve higher yield of bioactive compounds from algae. Here we describe a method based on enzymatic hydrolysis which both increases yield and decreases cost associated with organic solvents. This method achieves cell wall disruption and breakdown of internal storage components for more effective release of intracellular bioactive compounds. In addition, hydrolysis of proteins produces peptides which may have antioxidant properties, thus enhancing the bioactivity of the algal extract. The method described can be used for production of extracts from red and brown macroalgal species.

  20. Dietary supplement enriched in antioxidants and omega-3 protects from progressive light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaoula Ramchani-Ben Othman

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have evaluated one of the dietary supplements enriched with antioxidants and fish oil used in clinical care for patient with age-related macular degeneration. Rats were orally fed by a gastric canula daily with 0.2 ml of water or dietary supplement until they were sacrificed. After one week of treatment, animals were either sacrificed for lipid analysis in plasma and retina, or used for evaluation of rod-response recovery by electroretinography (ERG followed by their sacrifice to measure rhodopsin content, or used for progressive light-induced retinal degeneration (PLIRD. For PLIRD, animals were transferred to bright cyclic light for one week. Retinal damage was quantified by ERG, histology and detection of apoptotic nuclei. Animals kept in dim-cyclic-light were processed in parallel. PLIRD induced a thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a reduction of the b-wave amplitude of the ERG in the water group. Retinal structure and function were preserved in supplemented animals. Supplement induced a significant increase in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma by 168% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 142% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA and 19% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and a decrease in the omega-6 fatty acids, DPA by 28%. In the retina, supplement induced significant reduction of linolenic acid by 67% and an increase in EPA and DPA by 80% and 72%, respectively, associated with significant decrease in omega-6 DPA by 42%. Supplement did not affect rhodopsin content or rod-response recovery. The present data indicate that supplement rapidly modified the fatty acid content and induced an accumulation of EPA in the retina without affecting rhodopsin content or recovery. In addition, it protected the retina from oxidative stress induced by light. Therefore, this supplement might be beneficial to slow down progression of certain retinal degeneration.

  1. Dietary supplement enriched in antioxidants and omega-3 protects from progressive light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchani-Ben Othman, Khaoula; Cercy, Christine; Amri, Mohamed; Doly, Michel; Ranchon-Cole, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated one of the dietary supplements enriched with antioxidants and fish oil used in clinical care for patient with age-related macular degeneration. Rats were orally fed by a gastric canula daily with 0.2 ml of water or dietary supplement until they were sacrificed. After one week of treatment, animals were either sacrificed for lipid analysis in plasma and retina, or used for evaluation of rod-response recovery by electroretinography (ERG) followed by their sacrifice to measure rhodopsin content, or used for progressive light-induced retinal degeneration (PLIRD). For PLIRD, animals were transferred to bright cyclic light for one week. Retinal damage was quantified by ERG, histology and detection of apoptotic nuclei. Animals kept in dim-cyclic-light were processed in parallel. PLIRD induced a thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a reduction of the b-wave amplitude of the ERG in the water group. Retinal structure and function were preserved in supplemented animals. Supplement induced a significant increase in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma by 168% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 142% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and 19% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and a decrease in the omega-6 fatty acids, DPA by 28%. In the retina, supplement induced significant reduction of linolenic acid by 67% and an increase in EPA and DPA by 80% and 72%, respectively, associated with significant decrease in omega-6 DPA by 42%. Supplement did not affect rhodopsin content or rod-response recovery. The present data indicate that supplement rapidly modified the fatty acid content and induced an accumulation of EPA in the retina without affecting rhodopsin content or recovery. In addition, it protected the retina from oxidative stress induced by light. Therefore, this supplement might be beneficial to slow down progression of certain retinal degeneration.

  2. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers

  3. Astaxanthin supplementation enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Jang Soo; Okamoto, Masahiro; Rakwal, Randeep; Shibato, Junko; Lee, Min Chul; Matsui, Takashi; Chang, Hyukki; Cho, Joon Yong; Soya, Hideaki

    2016-03-01

    There is a growing necessity for efficacious natural supplements with antioxidant effects on the brain, in particular, hippocampal function. One such compound, which also has a neuroprotective effect, is the carotenoid astaxanthin (ASX). Despite ASX's potential benefit to the brain, very little is known about its effect on hippocampal plasticity and cognition. Thus, we investigated the effect of ASX on adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) and spatial memory using a mouse model. Dose-response was examined in mice fed ASX-supplemented diets (0, 0.02, 0.1, and 0.5%) to define the effect of ASX on AHN. In conjunction with AHN results, hippocampus-dependent cognitive function was assessed. We delineated molecular mechanisms associated with ASX-enhanced AHN using DNA microarray analysis. Results revealed that ASX enhanced cell proliferation and survival at 0.1% and 0.5% doses. Newborn mature neurons were higher only with 0.5% ASX, which also enhanced spatial memory. Transcriptomic profiling revealed potential AHN-associated molecules (Prl, Itga4, and Il4) that were ASX induced. Their downstream factors, identified through Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, were positively correlated with ASX-induced increases in spatial memory. ASX supplementation enhanced AHN and spatial memory, and a DNA microarray approach provided, for the first time, novel molecular insights into ASX action. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Potential role of antioxidant food supplements, preservatives and colorants in the pathogenesis of allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaknun, Daniela; Schroecksnadel, Sebastian; Kurz, Katharina; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    A significant increase in the incidence of allergy and asthma has been observed during the past decades. The background of this phenomenon has not been well explained, but changes in lifestyle and habits are heavily discussed as contributing factors. Among these is a too clean environment, which may predispose individuals to increased sensitivity to allergic responses. Also the increase in dietary supplements including preservatives and colorants may contribute to this. In vitro, we and others have shown in freshly isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells that antioxidant compounds like vitamins C and E as well as food preservatives and colorants exert significant suppressive effects on the Th1 immune activation cascade. The effects observed may be based on the interaction of antioxidant compounds with proinflammatory cascades involving important signal transduction elements such as nuclear factor-κB. Although only obtained in vitro, these results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity. This review article discusses the potential role of increased use of antioxidant food supplements as well as preservatives and colorants in the increase in allergy and asthma in the Western world. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Short communication: Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of milk supplemented with red ginseng extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J E; Yoon, H J; Yu, H S; Lee, N-K; Jee, H-S; Paik, H-D

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of red ginseng extract (RGE) on the physicochemical properties, sensory test, and antioxidant activity of milk. The milk samples with RGE added at 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2% were analyzed during storage at 4°C. The physicochemical properties included composition of milk, pH, titratable acidity, and color. The antioxidant activity of milk samples was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method, β-carotene bleaching assay, and ferric thiocyanate assay. An increase in the amount of RGE in milk resulted in an increase of lactose and total solids content, titratable acidity, and a* and b* values, whereas fat and protein contents remained unchanged. Also, pH and L* value decreased. The antioxidant activity of milk samples supplemented with RGE was higher than that of the control sample. Sensory evaluation was performed using a quantitative descriptive analysis. Two types of samples were used: (1) sterilized milk fortified with RGE (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) and (2) 2% RGE, 2% RGE with oligosaccharide, and 2% RGE with oligosaccharide and cyclodextrin. The addition of oligosaccharide and cyclodextrin could effect an increase of sweetness, a decrease of bitterness and flavor of RGE, and aftertaste. Therefore, milk supplemented with RGE could be useful as a functional food. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antioxidant Supplements Improve Profiles of Hepatic Oxysterols and Plasma Lipids in Butter-fed Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Poirier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia diets are associated with oxidative stress that may contribute to hypercholesterolemia by adversely affecting enzymatically-generated oxysterols involved in cholesterol homeostasis. An experiment was conducted to examine whether the cholesterol-lowering effects of the antioxidants selenium and α-tocopherol were related to hepatic oxysterol concentrations. Four groups of male Syrian hamsters (n = 7-8 were fed high cholesterol and saturated fat (0.46% cholesterol, 14.3% fat hypercholesterolemic semi-purified diets: 1 Control; 2 Control + α-tocopherol (67 IU all-racemic-α-tocopheryl-acetate/kg diet; 3 Control + selenium (3.4 mg selenate/kg diet; and 4 Control + α-tocopherol + selenium. Antioxidant supplementation was associated with lowered plasma cholesterol concentrations, decreased tissue lipid peroxidation and higher hepatic oxysterol concentrations. A second experiment examined the effect of graded selenium doses (0.15, 0.85, 1.7 and 3.4 mg selenate/kg diet on mRNA expression of the oxysterol-generating enzyme, hepatic 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1, EC 1.14.13.15, in hamsters (n = 8-9 fed the hypercholesterolemic diets. Supplementation of selenium at 3.4 mg selenate/kg diet was not associated with increased hepatic 27-hydroxylase mRNA. In conclusion, the cholesterol lowering effects of selenium and α-tocopherol were associated with increased hepatic enzymatically generated oxysterol concentrations, which appears to be mediated via improved antioxidant status rather than increased enzymatic production.

  7. Effect of vitamin C and E supplementation on total antioxidant content of human breastmilk and infant urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarban, Asghar; Toroghi, Mahsa Mostafavi; Asli, Marziye; Jafari, Masumeh; Vejdan, Morteza; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza

    2015-05-01

    After delivery and birth, mothers and neonates are exposed to oxidative stress. The present study examined the effect of supplementation of the diet of breastfeeding mothers with vitamin C and E to improve the antioxidant content of breastmilk and evidence of antioxidant activity in infant urine. The subjects were 60 healthy lactating breastfeeding mothers and their infants 1-6 months of age. They were randomly allocated to a control group (n=30) consuming a free diet or an experimental group (n=30) consuming a free diet supplemented each day with effervescent tablets of vitamin C (500 mg) and chewable tablets of vitamin E (100 IU). After 30 days, the total antioxidant content of the mothers' breastmilk and evidence of antioxidant activity in the infants' urine were measured by the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay. The free radical scavenging activity of the urine samples was measured by the α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl method. Differences pre- and postintervention were compared within and between the groups. Significantly higher levels of antioxidants in the breastmilk (610±295.5 to 716±237.5 μmol/L) and infant urine (43.2±21.8 to 75.0±49.2 μmol/mg creatinine) were observed in the experimental group over the control group (pvitamin C and E supplements appears to have a positive effect on total antioxidant content of breastmilk and evidence of antioxidant activity in infant urine.

  8. The importance of the oxidative status of dairy cattle in the periparturient period: revisiting antioxidant supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2015-12-01

    Dairy cows are especially vulnerable to health disorders during the transition period, when they shift from late pregnancy to the onset of lactation. Diseases at this stage affect not only the animals' well-being, but also cause a major economic impact in dairy farms, because apart from treatment costs, affected cows will not reach their peak milk-producing capacity. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress, which has been identified as an underlying factor of dysfunctional inflammatory responses. Supplementation with vitamins and trace elements attempts to minimize the harmful consequences of excessive ROS production, thereby trying to improve animals' health status and to reduce disease incidence. However, results regarding the effects of supplementing antioxidants on dairy cows' health and performance have been inconsistent, because in most cases, the antioxidant potential of the animals was not assessed beforehand and the nutritional strategy planned accordingly. Therefore, reviewing the physiological and harmful effects of ROS production, along with the different options available for assessing the redox balance in dairy cattle and some of the key findings of different supplementation trials, could bring one step forward the on-farm application of determinations of oxidative status for establishing nutritional strategies early enough in the dry period that could improve transition cow health. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. The Effects of Dietary Flavonoid Supplementation on the Antioxidant Status of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Iskender

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ninety-six 28-week-old Lohmann White laying hens were utilized to test the antioxidant effects of flavonoids (hesperidin, naringin, and quercetin at 0.5 g/kg diet during an 8-wk experimental period. At the end of the experiment blood samples were collected to determine total protein, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels as well as activities of glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and superoxide dismutase (SOD and level of glutathione (GSH in erythrocyte lysates. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Naringin supplementation did not alter serum cholesterol concentration, whereas hesperidin and quercetin supplementations decreased serum cholesterol concentration. Naringin and quercetin supplementations did not affect serum protein concentration. All flavonoids decreased MDA concentration as well as increased GSH-Px, GR, GST, and SOD activities and GSH level, being quercetion superior to hesperidin and naringin. In conclusion, flavonoids, especially quercetin, exert antioxidant activity, which may help improve wellbeing when laying hens are exposed to stressors.

  10. Benefits of dietary phytochemical supplementation on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage: Is including antioxidants enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Panza, Vilma Simões; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically discuss studies that investigated the effects of supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. The performance of physical activities that involve unaccustomed eccentric muscle actions-such as lowering a weight or downhill walking-can result in muscle damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These events may be accompanied by muscle weakness and delayed-onset muscle soreness. According to the current evidences, supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals appears to have the potential to attenuate symptoms associated with eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. However, there are inconsistencies regarding the relationship between muscle damage and blood markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of strategies appear to depend on a number of aspects inherent to phytochemical compounds as well as its food matrix. Methodological issues also may interfere with the proper interpretation of supplementation effects. Thus, the study may contribute to updating professionals involved in sport nutrition as well as highlighting the interest of scientists in new perspectives that can widen dietary strategies applied to training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of yoghurt serum powder dietary supplementation on growth performance and antioxidant status in fattening lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis E Simitzis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of serum are produced during the strained yoghurt manufacturing process, which is the predominant type of yoghurt in Greece. However, the exploitation of this by-product as an alternative source of energy, protein and mineral elements in animal diets has not yet been examined. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary yoghurt serum supplementation on growth performance and antioxidant status in sheep. Fourty eight male 2 months old lambs of Chios breed were randomly assigned to three experimental groups; control group was fed with a commercial basal diet, whereas the other two groups consumed the same diet, with the only difference that concentrated feed was uniformly supplemented with two levels of yoghurt serum powder (YS1: 25 g/kg feed or YS2: 50 g/kg feed. Lambs were weighed in a weekly basis from the beginning until the end of the experiment and blood samples were collected to measure antioxidant status. No significant effect of yoghurt serum powder on growth performance of fattening lambs was demonstrated, even after 28 days of dietary supplementation (P>0.05. At the same time, malondialdehyde (MDA levels in blood plasma were not significantly different among the experimental groups (P>0.05 and no incidents of lambs with diarrhea were recorded. It can be concluded that yoghurt serum powder appears as a promising alternative of the cereals in the diets of fattening lambs, since no negative effects on growth performance and health status were observed.

  12. Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Roselle during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Latifa Sri Suharto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the quality (physical, chemical, microbiological characteristics, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH inhibition assay of probiotic yogurt supplemented with roselle flower extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa L during cold storage. The experiment used treatment for types of yogurt as follows: cow’s milk probiotic yogurt + roselle, goat’s milk probiotic yogurt + roselle, cow’s milk yogurt, and goat’s milk yogurt. The yogurt was stored in cold storage and evaluated the quality and antioxidant activity variables on days 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15th. The results showed that there were interaction (P<0.05 between types of yogurt and storage time on pH value and total lactic acid bacteria (LAB, but no interaction effect on viscosity. The types of yogurt significantly affected (P<0.05 aw, total titrable acid (TTA, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Cow’s milk probiotic yogurt + roselle and goat’s milk probiotic yogurt + roselle were the best yogurt that contributed to a good quality and high antioxidant activity up to 15 d at cold storage.

  13. Variation in phenolic compounds of Ugni molinae populations and their potential use as antioxidant supplement

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    Marcia A. Avello

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we carried out a comparative study of total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity of aqueous leaf extracts of Ugni molinae Turcz., Myrtaceae (infusion and Soxhlet extracted prepared from continent and Juan Fernández Island samples. The results revealed that total phenol content (TPC, tannins (TTC and flavonoids (TFC for U. molinae extracts (infusion and Soxhlet extracts from island leaves were 38.5, 56.7 and 37.5% higher than those obtained with leaves from the continent, respectively. Also, HPLC profiles showed important differences between U. molinae populations. In vitro antioxidant capacity (scavenging of DPPH radical for 1% infusion and aqueous extract (Soxhlet method of U. molinae from island samples, was 15% greater than from continent samples. Further, in vivo impact of U. molinae intake (1% infusion was studied in plasma samples obtained from healthy volunteers. Participants that consumed tea prepared with leaves from island population showed higher TBARS reduction and plasma antioxidant capacity (TEAC-CUPRAC than those who consumed tea prepared with leaves from continental population. The conditions of the territory in which U. molinae populations growth could explain the differences in their composition and activity. According to results, island U. molinae populations could be an important source of study for the development of an antioxidant supplement, and thereby contribute to the use of this species that has becoming an ecological problem in the island.

  14. Enhanced neural activation with blueberry supplementation in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boespflug, Erin L; Eliassen, James C; Dudley, Jonathan A; Shidler, Marcelle D; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Summer, Suzanne S; Stein, Amanda L; Stover, Amanda N; Krikorian, Robert

    2018-05-01

    Preclinical studies have shown that blueberry supplementation can improve cognitive performance and neural function in aged animals and have identified associations between anthocyanins and such benefits. Preliminary human trials also suggest cognitive improvement in older adults, although direct evidence of enhancement of brain function has not been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the effect of blueberry supplementation on regional brain activation in older adults at risk for dementia. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we performed pre- and post-intervention functional magnetic resonance imaging during a working memory (WM) task to assess the effect of blueberry supplementation on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in older adults with mild cognitive impairment, a risk condition for dementia. Following daily supplementation for 16 weeks, blueberry-treated participants exhibited increased BOLD activation in the left pre-central gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and left inferior parietal lobe during WM load conditions (corrected P blueberry supplementation. Diet records indicated no between-group difference in anthocyanin consumption external to the intervention. These data demonstrate, for the first time, enhanced neural response during WM challenge in blueberry-treated older adults with cognitive decline and are consistent with prior trials showing neurocognitive benefit with blueberry supplementation in this at-risk population.

  15. The effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status: a randomized trial among chronic hepatitis C virus-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groenbaek, K.; Friis, H.; Hansen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status. Methods We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation on serum alanine aminotransferase, plasma hepa...... and catalase) or plasma levels of oxidative markers (malondialdehyde and 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde) were found. Conclusion Supplementation with vitamin C, E and selenium increased the antioxidant status, but had no effects on alanine aminotransferase, viral load or oxidative markers....

  16. Oxidative stress and antioxidant supplementation in the management of diabetic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-López, Sonia; Devaraj, Sridevi; Jialal, Ishwarlal

    2004-01-01

    The diabetic state confers an increased propensity to accelerated atherogenesis. In addition to the established risk factors, there is evidence for increased oxidative stress in diabetes. Increased oxidative stress is manifested by increased lipid peroxidation, increased F2-isoprostanes, increased nitrotyrosine, and increased DNA damage. Also, in diabetics, there is increased superoxide release. With regard to diabetes, antioxidants such as alpha-tocopherol, alpha-lipoate, and ascorbic acid supplementation have been shown to be beneficial. Most importantly, alpha-tocopherol therapy, especially at high doses, clearly shows a benefit with regard to low-density lipoprotein oxidation, isoprostanes, and monocyte superoxide release. Thus, it appears that, in diabetes, antioxidant therapy could alleviate the increased attendant oxidative stress and emerge as an additional therapeutic modality.

  17. Prevention of Treacher Collins syndrome craniofacial anomalies in mouse models via maternal antioxidant supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Daisuke; Dixon, Jill; Achilleos, Annita; Dixon, Michael; Trainor, Paul A

    2016-01-21

    Craniofacial anomalies account for approximately one-third of all birth defects and are a significant cause of infant mortality. Since the majority of the bones, cartilage and connective tissues that comprise the head and face are derived from a multipotent migratory progenitor cell population called the neural crest, craniofacial disorders are typically attributed to defects in neural crest cell development. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a disorder of craniofacial development and although TCS arises primarily through autosomal dominant mutations in TCOF1, no clear genotype-phenotype correlation has been documented. Here we show that Tcof1 haploinsufficiency results in oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and neuroepithelial cell death. Consistent with this discovery, maternal treatment with antioxidants minimizes cell death in the neuroepithelium and substantially ameliorates or prevents the pathogenesis of craniofacial anomalies in Tcof1(+/-) mice. Thus maternal antioxidant dietary supplementation may provide an avenue for protection against the pathogenesis of TCS and similar neurocristopathies.

  18. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on the auditory threshold in sensorineural hearing loss: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Maria Eduarda Di Cavalcanti Alves de; Costa, Klinger Vagner Teixeira da; Vitorino, Paulo Augusto; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Menezes, Pedro de Lemos

    2017-08-26

    Hearing loss is conceptualized as any impairment of the ability to hear and/or detect speech or environment sounds, regardless of cause, type, or degree. It may occur at different stages of life; during pregnancy or childbirth, in childhood, adulthood or old age. It should be noted that aging is the most common cause of sensorineural hearing loss followed by noise-induced hearing loss, and both are closely related to the formation of reactive oxygen species. Dietary antioxidant supplementation has been employed as a therapeutic strategy to prevent and/or delay the risks of major human diseases. To assess randomized clinical trials to determine the effect of antioxidant supplementation on the auditory thresholds in patients of different age groups with sensorineural hearing loss. This systematic review consisted of a search in the following databases: MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, SciELO and ClinicalTrials.gov. Additionally, the gray literature was also searched. The search strategy included terms related to the intervention (antioxidant supplementation), primary outcome (sensorineural hearing loss), as well as terms related to randomized clinical trials to improve search sensitivity. Based on 977 potentially relevant records identified through the search in the databases, ten full-text publications were retrieved for further evaluation. The increase in threshold at the 4kHz frequency was statistically higher in the control group (1.89 [1.01-2.78], p<0.0001) when compared to the NAC group and the ginseng group, whereas at 6kHz, the threshold increase was higher in the control group (1.42 [-1.14-3.97], p=0.28), but no statistically significant differences were found between groups. Ginseng was the antioxidant agent that showed the best effect in preventing auditory threshold worsening at the frequency of 4kHz, but not at 6kHz in patients with sensorineural hearing loss caused by exposure to high sound pressure levels. There was no

  19. Increased antioxidant activity and changes in phenolic profile of Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamarck) Persoon (Crassulaceae) specimens grown under supplemental blue light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Luana B S; Leal-Costa, Marcos V; Coutinho, Marcela A S; Moreira, Nattacha dos S; Lage, Celso L S; Barbi, Nancy dos S; Costa, Sônia S; Tavares, Eliana S

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant compounds protect plants against oxidative stress caused by environmental conditions. Different light qualities, such as UV-A radiation and blue light, have shown positive effects on the production of phenols in plants. Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamarck) Persoon (Crassulaceae) is used for treating wounds and inflammations. Some of these beneficial effects are attributed to the antioxidant activity of plant components. We investigated the effects of blue light and UV-A radiation supplementation on the total phenol content, antioxidant activity and chromatographic profile of aqueous extracts from leaves of K. pinnata. Monoclonal plants were grown under white light, white plus blue light and white plus UV-A radiation. Supplemental blue light improved the antioxidant activity and changed the phenolic profile of the extracts. Analysis by HPLC of supplemental blue-light plant extracts revealed a higher proportion of the major flavonoid quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl (1→2) α-L-rhamnopyranoside, as well as the presence of a wide variety of other phenolic substances. These findings may explain the higher antioxidant activity observed for this extract. Blue light is proposed as a supplemental light source in the cultivation of K. pinnata, to improve its antioxidant activity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  20. Control of antioxidant supplementation through interview is not appropriate in oxidative-stress sport studies: Analytical confirmation should be required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco-Ruiz, Yaira; Aragón-Vela, Jeronimo; Casals, Cristina; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Casuso, Rafael A; Huertas, Jesus R

    2017-01-01

    Controlling antioxidant supplementation in athletes involved in studies related to oxidative stress and muscle damage is the key to ensure results. The aim of this study was to confirm through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis whether well-trained individuals lied during a personal interview when asked if they were taking supplements with antioxidants, and how this could affect oxidative stress, muscle damage, and antioxidant response. A total of 94 men, well trained in endurance sports, volunteered in this study. They denied taking any antioxidant supplementation at initial interview. After a HPLC analysis, abnormal α-tocopherol concentrations were detected, probably due to a hidden antioxidant supplementation. Participants were classified into two groups: no evidence of antioxidant supplementation (NS group = α-tocopherol values 80 nmol/mL; n = 19). Lipid peroxidation, muscle damage, antioxidant enzyme activity, and nonenzymatic antioxidant content were analyzed according to this classification. Statistical comparisons were performed using Student's t test. The α-tocopherol concentrations were significantly higher in the S group than in the NS group (MD = 725.01 ± 39.01 nmol/mL; P = 0.001). The S group showed a trend toward lower hydroperoxides than the NS group (MD = 1.19 ± 0.72 nmol/mL; P = 0.071). The S group showed significantly lower catalase activity than the NS group (MD = 0.10 ± 0.02-seg-1 mg-1; P stress and sport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High-protein-PUFA supplementation, red blood cell membranes, and plasma antioxidant activity in volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguti, Marco; Baldini, Marta; Angeloni, Cristina; Biagi, Pierluigi; Hrelia, Silvana

    2008-06-01

    The authors evaluated the role of a high-protein, low-calorie, polyunsaturated fatty-acid (PUFA) -supplemented diet on anthropometric parameters, erythrocyte-membrane fatty-acid composition, and plasma antioxidant defenses of nonprofessional volleyball athletes. The athletes were divided in two groups: One (n = 5) followed the Mediterranean diet, and the other (n = 6) followed a high-protein, low-calorie diet with a 3-g/day fish-oil supplementation. All the athletes had anthropometric measurements taken, both at the beginning and at the end of the study, which lasted for 2 months. Body-mass index and total body fat were significantly diminished in the second group, while they remained unchanged in the first. Plasma total antioxidant activity (TAA) was significantly increased in the plasma of both groups, with no differences between the groups, suggesting that physical activity, not the different diets, is the main contributor to the increase of plasma TAA. The second group showed a significant increase in erythrocyte-membrane PUFA content and in the unsaturation index value (UI) because of the fish-oil supplementation.A high-protein, low-carbohydrate, fish-oil-supplemented diet seems to be useful only when the aim of the diet is to obtain weight loss in a short-term period. The significant increase in the UI of erythrocyte membranes indicates the potential for harm, because a high intake of PUFA might increase susceptibility to lipid peroxidation not counterbalanced by a higher increase in TAA. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet seems to be the better choice.

  2. French adults' cognitive performance after daily supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals at nutritional doses: a post hoc analysis of the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Fezeu, Léopold; Jeandel, Claude; Ferry, Monique; Andreeva, Valentina; Amieva, Hélène; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar

    2011-09-01

    Antioxidant properties of some vitamins and trace elements may help to prevent cognitive decline. The aim of the current study was to estimate the long-term effects of antioxidant nutrient supplementation on the cognitive performance of participants in the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) study 6 y after the end of the trial. This study included 4447 French participants aged 45-60 y who were enrolled in the SU.VI.MAX study (1994-2002), which was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. From 1994 to 2002, participants received daily vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 μg), and zinc (20 mg) in combination or as a placebo. In 2007-2009, the cognitive performance of participants was assessed with 4 neuropsychological tests (6 tasks). Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed to identify cognitive-function summary scores. Associations between antioxidant supplementation and cognitive functions, in the full sample and by subgroups, were estimated through ANOVA and expressed as mean differences and 95% CIs. Subgroup analyses were performed according to baseline characteristics. Subjects receiving active antioxidant supplementation had better episodic memory scores (mean difference: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.02, 1.20). PCA indicated 2 factors that were interpreted as showing verbal memory and executive functioning. Verbal memory was improved by antioxidant supplementation only in subjects who were nonsmokers or who had low serum vitamin C concentrations at baseline. This study supports the role of an adequate antioxidant nutrient status in the preservation of verbal memory under certain conditions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428.

  3. Modification by antioxidant supplementation of changes in human lung function associated with air pollutant exposure: A systematic review

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    Chow Katherine S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outdoor air pollution, given its demonstrated negative effects on the respiratory system, is a growing public health concern worldwide, particularly in urban cities. Human exposure to pollutants such as ozone, nitrogen oxides, combustion-related particulate matter and oxides of sulfur is responsible for significant cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in both adults and children. Several antioxidants have shown an ability to partially attenuate the negative physiological and functional impacts of air pollutants. This study systematically presents current data on the potential benefits of antioxidant supplementation on lung function outcomes associated with air pollutant exposures in intact humans. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Sciences, Environmental Sciences & Pollution Management and TOXNET were systematically searched for all studies published up to April 2009. Search terms relating to the concepts of respiratory tract diseases, respiratory function tests, air pollution, and antioxidants were used. Data was systematically abstracted from original articles that satisfied selection criteria for inclusion. For inclusion, the studies needed to have evaluated human subjects, given supplemental antioxidants, under conditions of known levels of air pollutants with measured lung function before and after antioxidant administration and/or air pollution exposure. Selected studies were summarized and conclusions presented. Results Eight studies investigated the role of antioxidant supplementation on measured lung function outcomes after subject exposure to air pollutants under controlled conditions; 5 of these studies concluded that pollutant-induced airway hyper-responsiveness and diminution in lung function measurements were attenuated by antioxidant supplementation. The remaining five studies took place under ambient (uncontrolled exposures and unanimously concluded that antioxidant

  4. Modification by antioxidant supplementation of changes in human lung function associated with air pollutant exposure: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashakkor, Amir Y; Chow, Katherine S; Carlsten, Chris

    2011-07-05

    Outdoor air pollution, given its demonstrated negative effects on the respiratory system, is a growing public health concern worldwide, particularly in urban cities. Human exposure to pollutants such as ozone, nitrogen oxides, combustion-related particulate matter and oxides of sulfur is responsible for significant cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in both adults and children. Several antioxidants have shown an ability to partially attenuate the negative physiological and functional impacts of air pollutants. This study systematically presents current data on the potential benefits of antioxidant supplementation on lung function outcomes associated with air pollutant exposures in intact humans. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Sciences, Environmental Sciences & Pollution Management and TOXNET) were systematically searched for all studies published up to April 2009. Search terms relating to the concepts of respiratory tract diseases, respiratory function tests, air pollution, and antioxidants were used. Data was systematically abstracted from original articles that satisfied selection criteria for inclusion. For inclusion, the studies needed to have evaluated human subjects, given supplemental antioxidants, under conditions of known levels of air pollutants with measured lung function before and after antioxidant administration and/or air pollution exposure. Selected studies were summarized and conclusions presented. Eight studies investigated the role of antioxidant supplementation on measured lung function outcomes after subject exposure to air pollutants under controlled conditions; 5 of these studies concluded that pollutant-induced airway hyper-responsiveness and diminution in lung function measurements were attenuated by antioxidant supplementation. The remaining five studies took place under ambient (uncontrolled) exposures and unanimously concluded that antioxidant supplementations attenuate the negative effects of urban

  5. Enhancing the efficacy of AREDS antioxidants in light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul; Markey, M; Rapp, C M; Darrow, R M; Ziesel, A; Organisciak, D T

    2017-01-01

    week of supplemental AREDS plus carnosic acid resulted in higher levels of rod and cone cell proteins, and higher levels of retinal DNA than for AREDS alone. Rhodopsin regeneration was unaffected by the rosemary treatment. Retinal gene array analysis showed reduced expression of medium- wavelength opsin 1 and arrestin C in the high-light reared rats versus the low-light rats. The transition of rats from low cyclic light to a high cyclic light environment resulted in the differential expression of 280 gene markers, enriched for genes related to inflammation, apoptosis, cytokine, innate immune response, and receptors. Rosemary, zinc oxide plus rosemary, and AREDS plus rosemary suppressed 131, 241, and 266 of these genes (respectively) in high-light versus low-light animals and induced a small subset of changes in gene expression that were independent of light rearing conditions. Long-term environmental light intensity is a major determinant of retinal gene and protein expression, and of visual cell survival following acute photooxidative insult. Rats preconditioned by high-light rearing exhibit lower levels of cone opsin mRNA and protein, and lower mCAR protein, than low-light reared animals, but greater retention of retinal DNA and proteins following photooxidative damage. Rosemary enhanced the protective efficacy of AREDS and led to the greatest effect on the retinal genome in animals reared in high environmental light. Chronic administration of rosemary antioxidants may be a useful adjunct to the therapeutic benefit of AREDS in slowing disease progression in AMD.

  6. Effects of supplementation of antioxidant vitamins and lipid peroxidation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Carla R; Borges, Fernanda; Lameu, Edson; Franca, Carlos; Ramalho, Andréa

    2013-01-01

    Critical patients present systemic inflammatory process that can be followed by decrease in plasma concentrations of antioxidant vitamins. [corrected] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of antioxidant vitamins in critical patients and their relation with lipid peroxidation. 23 patients went on a standard diet (G1) and 11 went on a diet with daily supplementation of 10,000 IU of vitamin A, 400 mg of vitamin E and 600 mg of vitamin C (G2). The APACHE II score was made. Serum concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, vitamins C and E, malondialdehyde (MDA) and C-reactive protein was measured before (T0) and on the 8th day after the beginning of the nutritional therapy (T1). The groups had been monitored on T0, T1 and T2, (at discharges or death) on the following parameters: mechanical ventilation; hospitalization days; mortality; infection incidence. Serum concentrations of MDA and vitamin E were significantly lower in G2 after intervention and strong tendency to increase vitamin C. There were not significant differences between the groups regarding the clinical parameters. The doses of vitamin A, C and E that were indicated were effective for the current lipid peroxidation reduction. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. L-carnitine supplementation as a potential antioxidant therapy for inherited neurometabolic disorders.

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    Ribas, Graziela S; Vargas, Carmen R; Wajner, Moacir

    2014-01-10

    In recent years increasing evidence has emerged suggesting that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of a number of inherited metabolic disorders. However the clinical use of classical antioxidants in these diseases has been poorly evaluated and so far no benefit has been demonstrated. l-Carnitine is an endogenous substance that acts as a carrier for fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane necessary for subsequent beta-oxidation and ATP production. Besides its important role in the metabolism of lipids, l-carnitine is also a potent antioxidant (free radical scavenger) and thus may protect tissues from oxidative damage. This review addresses recent findings obtained from patients with some inherited neurometabolic diseases showing that l-carnitine may be involved in the reduction of oxidative damage observed in these disorders. For some of these diseases, reduced concentrations of l-carnitine may occur due to the combination of this compound to the accumulating toxic metabolites, especially organic acids, or as a result of protein restricted diets. Thus, l-carnitine supplementation may be useful not only to prevent tissue deficiency of this element, but also to avoid oxidative damage secondary to increased production of reactive species in these diseases. Considering the ability of l-carnitine to easily cross the blood-brain barrier, l-carnitine supplementation may also be beneficial in preventing neurological damage derived from oxidative injury. However further studies are required to better explore this potential. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exercise training and antioxidant supplementation independently improve cognitive function in adult male and female GFAP-APOE mice

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    Kiran Chaudhari

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Exercise was the most effective treatment at improving cognitive function in both genotypes and sex, while antioxidants seemed to be effective only in the APOE4. In young adult mice only non-spatial learning and memory were improved. The combination of the two treatments did not yield further improvement in cognition, and there was no antagonistic action of the antioxidant supplementation on the beneficial effects of exercise.

  9. Nitrate supplementation enhances the contractile properties of human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Georg; Folland, Jonathan P

    2014-12-01

    Dietary nitrate supplementation positively affects cardiovascular function at rest and energy metabolism during exercise in humans and has recently also been reported to markedly enhance the in vitro contractile properties of mouse fast-twitch muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term nitrate supplementation on the in vivo contractile properties of the skeletal muscle and voluntary muscle function of humans. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover design, 19 healthy untrained men (21 ± 3 yr) ingested a nitrate-rich concentrated beetroot juice (NIT; nitrate dosage, approximately 9.7 mmol·d) and a placebo (PLA) for seven consecutive days. After the last supplementation dose, force was recorded while participants completed a series of voluntary and involuntary (electrically evoked) unilateral isometric contractions of the knee extensors. NIT enhanced the peak force response to low-frequency electrical stimulation, as follows: maximal twitch (NIT, 149 ± 41 N, vs PLA, 138 ± 37 N; P = 0.008; effect size, r (ES) = 0.56) and submaximal 1- to 20-Hz contractions (5%-10%, ES = 0.53-0.63). Whereas explosive (rising phase) force production during the first 50 ms of evoked maximal twitch and octet contractions (eight electrical impulses at 300 Hz) was also 3%-15% greater after NIT compared with that after PLA (P = 0.023-0.048, ES = 0.52-0.59), explosive voluntary force remained similar (P = 0.510, ES = 0.16). Maximum voluntary force was also unchanged after NIT (P = 0.539, ES = 0.15). These results indicate that 7 d of dietary nitrate supplementation enhanced the in vivo contractile properties of the human skeletal muscle. Specifically, nitrate supplementation improved excitation-contraction coupling at low frequencies of stimulation and enhanced evoked explosive force production but did not affect maximum or explosive voluntary force production in untrained individuals.

  10. Short term supplementation of dietary antioxidants selectively regulates the inflammatory responses during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice

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    Park Na-Young

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers are serious complications for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlines the treatment of these diabetic complications remains unclear. We hypothesized that dietary antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, combined either with vitamin E or with vitamin E and NAC, improves delayed wound healing through modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Mice were divided into 4 groups; CON (non-diabetic control mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, DM (diabetic mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, VCE (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C and 0.5% vitamin E supplemented diet, and Comb (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C, 0.5% vitamin E, and 2.5% NAC supplemented diet. After 10 days of dietary antioxidant supplementation, cutaneous full-thickness excisional wounds were performed, and the rate of wound closure was examined. TBARS as lipid peroxidation products and vitamin E levels were measured in the liver. Expression levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory response related proteins were measured in the cutaneous wound site. Results Dietary antioxidant supplementation improved blood glucose levels and wound closure rate and increased liver vitamin E, but not liver TBARS levels in the diabetic mice as compared to those of the CON. In addition, dietary antioxidant supplementation modulated the expression levels of pIκBα, HO-1, CuZnSOD, iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the diabetic mice. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that delayed wound healing is associated with an inflammatory response induced by hyperglycaemia, and suggests that dietary antioxidant supplementation may have beneficial effects on wound healing through selective modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response.

  11. Evidence-Based Supplements for the Enhancement of Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Peter; Binnie, Martyn J; Goods, Paul S R; Sim, Marc; Burke, Louise M

    2018-02-21

    A strong foundation in physical conditioning and sport-specific experience, in addition to a bespoke and periodized training and nutrition program, are essential for athlete development. Once these underpinning factors are accounted for, and the athlete reaches a training maturity and competition level where marginal gains determine success, a role may exist for the use of evidence-based performance supplements. However, it is important that any decisions surrounding performance supplements are made in consideration of robust information that suggests the use of a product is safe, legal, and effective. The following review focuses on the current evidence-base for a number of common (and emerging) performance supplements used in sport. The supplements discussed here are separated into three categories based on the level of evidence supporting their use for enhancing sports performance: (1) established (caffeine, creatine, nitrate, beta-alanine, bicarbonate); (2) equivocal (citrate, phosphate, carnitine); and (3) developing. Within each section, the relevant performance type, the potential mechanisms of action, and the most common protocols used in the supplement dosing schedule are summarized.

  12. Antioxidant and immuno-enhancing effects of Echinacea purpurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Satoshi; Maruyama, Hiroe; Saito, Kiyoto; Yamashita, Takenori; Gu, Yeunhwa; Inoue, Makoto; Ishida, Torao

    2004-01-01

    We studied the protective effects of Echinacea purpurea against radiation by evaluating changes in the peripheral blood cell count and peripheral blood antioxidant activity. E. purpurea administration had a suppressive effect on radiation-induced leukopenia, especially on lymphocytes and monocytes, and resulted in a faster recovery of blood cell counts. Mouse peripheral blood antioxidant activity was increased by E. purpurea, and a relationship between the suppressive effect on radiation-induced leukopenia and the antioxidant effect was suggested. Furthermore, we reviewed the evidence of augmentation of found in this study humoral immunity. The effect of immune activation by E. purpurea were investigated by measuring total immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM). The radioprotective effects of immune activation by E. purpurea were investigated by measuring T lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of mice following whole-body irradiation. E. purpurea activates macrophages to stimulate IFN-γ production in association with the secondary activation of T lymphocytes, resulting in a decrease in IgG and IgM production. Cytokines released from macrophages in mouse peripheral blood after E. purpurea administration activated helper T cells to proliferate. In addition, it is reported that activated macrophages in association with the secondary T lymphocyte activation increases IFN-γ production and stimulates proliferation of cytotoxic T cells and suppressor T cells. We think that CD 4 and CD 8 subsets were more immunologically enhanced by E. purpurea than helper T cells and suppressor T cell these results reflect activation. In addition, we think that these results reflect cell-mediated immune responses. (author)

  13. Effects of Dietary Copper and Zinc Supplementation on Growth Performance, Tissue Mineral Retention, Antioxidant Status, and Fur Quality in Growing-Furring Blue Foxes (Alopex lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Guo, Jungang; Gao, Xiuhua; Yang, Fuhe; Xing, Xiumei

    2015-12-01

    A 4×2 factorial experiment with four supplemental levels of copper (0, 20, 40, or 60 mg copper per kg dry matter) from copper sulfate and two supplemental levels of zinc (40 or 200 mg zinc per kg dry matter) from zinc sulfate was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary copper and zinc supplementation on growth performance, tissue mineral retention, antioxidant status, and fur quality in growing-furring blue foxes. One hundred and twenty healthy 15-week-old male blue foxes were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments with 15 replicates per treatment for a 70-day trial from mid-September to pelting in December. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were increased with copper supplementation in the first 35 days as well as the overall period (P0.10) and feed intake (P>0.10) but improved feed conversion (Peffects on the digestibility of other nutrients. Fecal copper was increased with both copper (Pdietary zinc addition (Pdietary treatments (P>0.05). However, the level of copper in the liver was increased with copper supplementation (PDietary zinc addition tended to increase the activity of alkaline phosphatase (P=0.07). The activities of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase and catalase tended to increase by copper (P=0.08) and zinc addition (P=0.05). Moreover, a copper×zinc interaction was observed for catalase in the experiment (Pdietary copper and zinc levels (Pdietary copper and zinc supplementation can improve growth by increasing feed intake and improving fat digestibility. Additionally, copper and zinc can enhance the antioxidant capacity of blue foxes. This study also indicates that additional zinc up to 200 mg/kg did not exert significant adverse effects on the copper metabolism of growing-furring blue foxes.

  14. Effects of dietary supplementation with turmeric rhizome extract on growth performance, carcass characteristics, antioxidant capability, and meat quality of Wenchang broiler chickens

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    Dingfa Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to determine the effect of increasing dietary levels of turmeric rhizome extract (TRE on performance, carcass characteristics, antioxidant capability and meat quality of Wenchang broiler chickens. Three hundred, 1-day-old Wenchang broiler chickens were brooded together for 2 weeks, then randomly allocated into four treatments with five replicates of 15 birds each. Birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet supplemented with TRE at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg for 12 weeks. The results revealed that a TRE-supplemented diet had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the body weight, although birds fed a diet with TRE at 100 and 200 mg/kg had higher average daily weight gains and average daily feed as compared to controls from 9 to 12 week (P<0.05. Also, the addition of TRE at 100 to 300 mg/kg had a better feed conversion ratio compared to controls from week 9 to 12 (P<0.05. Dietary supplementation with TRE at 300 mg/kg increased the breast muscle weight ratio (P<0.05. Meanwhile, dietary supplementation with TRE at 100 to 300 mg/kg reduced the abdominal fat ratio (P<0.05, compared to that of the control group. TRE increased enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and reduced malondiadehhyde concentrations, compared to the control group. Dietary TRE supplementation at 300 mg/kg decreased the drip loss in both breast muscle and thigh muscles, compared with the control group (P<0.05. In conclusion, dietary TRE supplementation enhanced antioxidant capability, growth performance, breast muscle weight ratio, and reduced the abdominal fat ratio of Wenchang broiler chickens.

  15. Antioxidants from diet or supplements do not alter inflammatory markers in adults with cardiovascular disease risk. A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Tsao, Philip; Rigdon, Joseph; Gardner, Christopher D

    2018-02-01

    Antioxidants have been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects, but there is a lack of research comparing food to supplement antioxidant sources. The aim of this study was to determine if increases in intake of foods naturally rich in antioxidants would lower blood levels of inflammatory markers more than consuming antioxidant supplements among adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors. Eighty-eight generally healthy adults with ≥1 elevated risk factor for cardiovascular disease were randomized in a single-blind (diets)/double-blind (supplements), parallel-group study for 8 weeks. Participants consumed (1) usual diet and placebo pills (n = 29), (2) usual diet and antioxidant supplements (n = 29), or (3) antioxidant-rich foods closely matched to antioxidant content of supplements and placebo (n = 30). Usual diet combined with antioxidant supplements or increased antioxidant-rich food intake was designed to approximately double daily habitual antioxidant intake. Antioxidant pills included carotenoids, mixed tocopherols, vitamin C, and selenium. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for inflammatory marker concentrations of interleukin-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Participants in the intervention groups successfully doubled most antioxidants as verified by diet records and elevated blood concentrations in treatment groups. Baseline levels of inflammatory markers for the entire study group were 110 ± 65 pg/mL for monocyte chemotactic protein-1, 0.9 ± 0.7 pg/mL for interleukin-6, and 217 ± 56 ng/mL for soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (means ± standard deviation) and did not differ by treatment arm. After 8 weeks, there were no significant within-group changes or between-group 8-week change differences in inflammatory marker concentrations. In conclusion, no beneficial effects were detected on the inflammatory markers investigated in response to antioxidants from foods or supplements. Copyright

  16. Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation enhances growth performance and alleviates aluminum toxicity in tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Zhu, Jiamin; Zhang, Chengcheng; Li, Tianqi; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the protection offered by the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 against waterborne Al exposure in tilapia. Fish were allocated to control, CCFM639-only, Al-only or Al plus CCFM639 groups. The fish were exposed to 2.73mg/L Al ions for 4 weeks. The probiotic was incorporated into the fish diet at 10 8 CFU/g and provided twice daily. Our results showed that L. plantarum CCFM639 significantly enhanced feed utilization, growth performance and antioxidant ability in the absence of waterborne Al exposure. When fish were exposed to Al, dietary supplementation with the strain effectively decreased the death rate and accumulation of Al in tissues, and enhanced growth performance. Moreover, Al-induced changes in hematobiochemical parameters and hepatic oxidative stress and histopathology were also alleviated. Therefore, L. plantarum CCFM639 may be a novel dietary supplement for fish to enhance growth performance and prevent aquaculture and food safety problems induced by Al pollution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Association of Antioxidant Supplement Use and Dementia in the Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease by Vitamin E and Selenium Trial (PREADViSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryscio, Richard J; Abner, Erin L; Caban-Holt, Allison; Lovell, Mark; Goodman, Phyllis; Darke, Amy K; Yee, Monica; Crowley, John; Schmitt, Frederick A

    2017-05-01

    Oxidative stress is an established dementia pathway, but it is unknown if the use of antioxidant supplements can prevent dementia. To determine if antioxidant supplements (vitamin E or selenium) used alone or in combination can prevent dementia in asymptomatic older men. The Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease by Vitamin E and Selenium (PREADViSE) trial began as a double-blind randomized clinical trial in May 2002, which transformed into a cohort study from September 2009 to May 2015. The PREADViSE trial was ancillary to the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), a randomized clinical trial of the same antioxidant supplements for preventing prostate cancer, which closed in 2009 owing to findings from a futility analysis. The PREADViSE trial recruited 7540 men, of whom 3786 continued into the cohort study. Participants were at least 60 years old at study entry and were enrolled at 130 SELECT sites, and Cox proportional hazards models were used in a modified intent-to-treat analysis to compare hazard rates among the study arms. Participants were randomized to vitamin E, selenium, vitamin E and selenium, or placebo. While taking study supplements, enrolled men visited their SELECT site and were evaluated for dementia using a 2-stage screen. During the cohort study, men were contacted by telephone and assessed using an enhanced 2-stage cognitive screen. In both phases, men were encouraged to visit their physician if the screen results indicated possible cognitive impairment. Dementia case ascertainment relied on a consensus review of the cognitive screens and medical records for men with suspected dementia who visited their physician for an evaluation or by review of all available information, including a functional assessment screen. The mean (SD) baseline age of the 7540 participants was 67.5 (5.3) years, with 3936 (52.2%) reporting a college education or better, 754 (10.0%) reporting black race, and 505 (6.7%) reporting Hispanic ethnicity. Dementia

  18. Effect of dietary antioxidant supplementation on reproductive characteristics of male broiler breeders during the post-peak production phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Eugênio Triques

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of their membrane constitution, sperm cells of male broiler breeders are prone to lipid peroxidation, which affects their fertilizing capacity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of antioxidant diet supplementation on the reproductive characteristics of 12 male broiler breeders (Cobb older than 50 weeks. The roosters were randomly distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with two treatments (treatment 1: commercial feed; treatment 2: commercial feed supplemented with canthaxanthin, lycopene, and vitamin C and 6 replicates. Semen samples were collected by abdominal massage, and then underwent evaluation of semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, vigor, and morphology. Morphometric analyses of testes, combs, and dewlaps were performed at 68 weeks. Testes samples were collected for morphometric analysis of seminiferous tubules and analysis of cellular proliferation in the germinal epithelium by using immunohistochemical staining with anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (anti-PCNA antibodies. Statistical data analysis was performed using the SAS software (SAS, 2002. No significant effects of antioxidant supplementation were observed on semen characteristics (p > 0.05. A significant positive effect of the antioxidant blend was observed on the percentage of normal sperm, dewlap weight and width, and testes weight and length (p < 0.05. PCNA-positive cell counts and morphometry of the seminiferous tubules were not affected by the treatment. Dietary antioxidant supplementation may represent a nutritional tool to increase fertility in male broiler breeder flocks during the post-peak production phase.

  19. Antioxidant supplementation and obesity have independent effects on hepatic oxylipin profiles in insulin resistant, obese-prone rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective - Elevated oxidative stress is associated with development of glucose intolerance. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate; 0.4 g/kg diet) and vitamin C (0.5 g/kg diet) prevents glucose intolerance in obese-pro...

  20. Effects of Inulin Supplementation in Low- or High-Fat Diets on Reproductive Performance of Sows and Antioxidant Defence Capacity in Sows and Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y S; Zhou, P; Liu, H; Li, S; Zhao, Y; Deng, K; Cao, D D; Che, L Q; Fang, Z F; Xu, S Y; Lin, Y; Feng, B; Li, J; Wu, D

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin supplementation in low- or high-fat diets on both the reproductive performance of sow and the antioxidant defence capacity in sows and offspring. Sixty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were randomly allocated to four treatments with low-fat diet (L), low-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (LI), high-fat diet (H) and high-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (HI). Inulin-rich diets lowered the within-litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CV, p = 0.05) of piglets, increased the proportion of piglets weighing 1.0-1.5 kg at farrowing (p Inulin-rich diets fed to sow during gestation had beneficial effects on within-litter uniformity of piglet birthweight and enhanced the antioxidant defence capacity of sows and piglets. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. New approaches to biochemical radioprotection: antioxidants and DNA repair enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riklis, E.; Emerit, I.; Setlow, R. B.

    Chemical repair may be provided by radioprotective compounds present during exposure to ionizing radiation. Considering DNA as the most sensitive target it is feasible to biochemically improve protection by enhancing DNA repair mechanisms. Protection of DNA by reducing the amount of damage (by radical scavenging and chemical repair) followed by enhanced repair of DNA will provide much improved protection and recovery. Furthermore, in cases of prolonged exposure, such as is possible in prolonged space missions, or of unexpected variations in the intensity of radiation, as is possible when encountering solar flares, it is important to provide long-acting protection, and this may be provided by antioxidants and well functioning DNA repair systems. It has also become important to provide protection from the potentially damaging action of long-lived clastogenic factors which have been found in plasma of exposed persons from Hiroshima & Nagasaki, radiation accidents, radiotherapy patients and recently in ``liquidators'' - persons involved in salvage operations at the Chernobyl reactor. The clastogenic factor, which causes chromatid breaks in non-exposed plasma, might account for late effects and is posing a potential carcinogenic hazard /1/. The enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been shown to eliminate the breakage factor from cultured plasma of exposed persons /2/. Several compounds have been shown to enhance DNA repair: WR-2721 /3/, nicotinamide /4/, glutathione monoester (Riklis et al., unpublished) and others. The right combination of such compounds may prove effective in providing protection from a wide range of radiation exposures over a long period of time.

  2. Different effectiveness of two pastas supplemented with either lipophilic or hydrophilic/phenolic antioxidants in affecting serum as evaluated by the novel Antioxidant/Oxidant Balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Maura N; Soccio, Mario; Alfarano, Michela; Pasqualone, Antonella; Lenucci, Marcello S; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Pastore, Donato

    2017-04-15

    Effectiveness in improving serum antioxidant status of two functional pastas was evaluated by the novel Antioxidant/Oxidant Balance (AOB) parameter, calculated as Antioxidant Capacity (AC)/Peroxide Level ratio, assessed here for the first time. In particular, Bran Oleoresin (BO) and Bran Water (BW) pastas, enriched respectively with either lipophilic (tocochromanols, carotenoids) or hydrophilic/phenolic antioxidants extracted from durum wheat bran, were studied. Notably, BO pasta was able to improve significantly (+65%) serum AOB during four hours after intake similarly to Lisosan G, a wheat antioxidant-rich dietary supplement. Contrarily, BW pasta had oxidative effect on serum so as conventional pasta and glucose, thus suggesting greater effectiveness of lipophilic than hydrophilic/phenolic antioxidants under our experimental conditions. Interestingly, no clear differences between the two pastas were observed, when AC measurements of either serum after pasta intake or pasta extracts by in vitro assays were considered, thus strengthening effectiveness and reliability of AOB approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antioxidant supplementation can reduce the survival costs of excess amino acid intake in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, C Ruth; Köhler, Angela; Pirk, Christian W W; Oosthuizen, Vinette; Apostolides, Zeno; Nicolson, Susan W

    2014-12-01

    Over-consuming amino acids is associated with reduced survival in many species, including honeybees. The mechanisms responsible for this are unclear but one possibility is that excessive intake of amino acids increases oxidative damage. If this is the case, antioxidant supplementation may help reduce the survival costs of high amino acid intake. We tested this hypothesis in African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata) using the major antioxidant in green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). We first determined the dose-range of EGCG that improved survival of caged honeybees fed sucrose solution. We then provided bees with eight diets that differed in their ratio of essential amino acids (EAA) to carbohydrate (C) (0:1, 1:250, 1:100, 1:75, 1:50, 1:25, 1:10, 1:5 EAA:C) and also in their EGCG dose (0.0 or 0.4 mM). We found that bees fed sucrose only solution survived better than bees fed EAA diets. Despite this, bees preferred a diet that contained intermediate ratios of EAA:C (ca. 1:25), which may represent the high demands for nitrogen of developing nurse bees. EGCG supplementation improved honeybee survival but only at an intermediate dose (0.3-0.5 mM) and in bees fed low EAA diets (1:250, 1:100 EAA:C). That EGCG counteracted the lifespan reducing effects of eating low EAA diets suggests that oxidative damage may be involved in the association between EAAs and lifespan in honeybees. However, that EGCG had no effect on survival in bees fed high EAA diets suggests that there are other physiological costs of over-consuming EAAs in honeybees. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of fishmeal replacement by soy protein concentrate with taurine supplementation on hepatic intermediary metabolism and antioxidant status of totoaba juveniles (Totoaba macdonaldi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos-Vargas, Isaura; López, Lus M; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Peres, Helena

    2014-04-01

    The effect of dietary incorporation of soy protein concentrate (SPC) and the concomitant supplementation with taurine on hepatic intermediary metabolism and antioxidant status of totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) juveniles was assessed. Four isoproteic and isolipidic diets were formulated containing either 30 or 60% of SPC (diets SP30 and SP60), supplemented or not with 1% of taurine (diets SP30T and SP60T). A fish meal (FM) based diet, without SPC and taurine supplementation, was used as a control. Triplicate groups of 32 totoaba juveniles (average body mass=7.5g) were fed these diets over 45days. Results revealed that dietary FM replacement by SPC depressed the overall intermediary metabolism. Activity of key enzymes of amino acid catabolism and gluconeogenesis was significantly reduced and a trend to reduce glycolysis and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was observed. The incorporation of the highest level of SPC also significantly increased hepatic lipid peroxidation and the activity of superoxide dismutase. Concomitant taurine supplementation restored the activity of amino acid catabolic and gluconeogenic enzymes and hexokinase to levels similar of those of the control diet. Taurine supplementation also led to a significant increase of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase activity, as well as to a significant reduction of liver lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that taurine may play an important metabolic modulation action on totoaba fed SPC based diets, contributing to the enhancement of the overall metabolism and to the reduction of liver oxidative damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for preventing age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jennifer R; Lawrenson, John G

    2017-07-30

    There is inconclusive evidence from observational studies to suggest that people who eat a diet rich in antioxidant vitamins (carotenoids, vitamins C, and E) or minerals (selenium and zinc) may be less likely to develop age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To determine whether or not taking antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplements, or both, prevent the development of AMD. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 29 March 2017), Embase Ovid (1947 to 29 March 2017), AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database) (1985 to 29 March 2017), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/); searched 29 March 2017, the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch); searched 29 March 2017, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 29 March 2017 and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 29 March 2017. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing an antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplement (alone or in combination) to control. Both review authors independently assessed risk of bias in the included studies and extracted data. One author entered data into RevMan 5; the other author checked the data entry. We pooled data using a fixed-effect model. We graded the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. We included a total of five RCTs in this review with data available for 76,756 people. The trials were conducted in Australia, Finland, and the USA, and investigated vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and multivitamin supplements. All trials were judged to be at low risk of bias.Four studies reported the comparison of vitamin E with placebo. Average treatment and follow-up duration ranged from 4 to 10 years. Data were

  6. EFFECT OF SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ON PIG PRODUCTION PROPERTIES, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND MEAT QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Šperanda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food containing functional ingredients to achieve a positive effect on health and reducing the risk of infection is increasing production. It is also very important to improve the quality of pork with respect to change the genetic makeup of pigs that raised leanness, being inversely correlated with the quality of meat. This study monitored the effectiveness of addition of higher doses of organic selenium in the diet of fattening pigs in relation to their growth, immunity, antioxidant power, the quality of meat and possibility of meat enriching with selenium. The experiment was carried out on 100 pigs (crossbred WJxSLxP of both sexes, from 28 kg to 98 kg body weight during a period of 98 days. Piglets fed the finished feed mixture for fattening up to 60 kg (ST-1 and a mixture for fattening up to 100 kg (DM-2 in addition, by the groups as follows: K-0. 3 mg/kg organic selenium, P1-0.5 mg/kg inorganic selenium, P2-0.5 mg/kg organic selenium, P3-0.5 mg/ kg organic selenium +0.2% zeolite clinoptilolite treated vibrotehnology and P4-gradual increase in selenium so that the concentration of the last month was 0.7 mg/ kg diet of organic selenium. All groups of pigs fed high concentration of organic selenium had a higher proportion of lymphocytes, especially CD4 T lymphocytes. Glutathione peroxidase activity was higher in all groups fed elevated selenium levels and significantly higher in the P3 and P4 groups 71st and 98th days of the trials. Glutathione reductase was significantly higher in the P3 and P4 group 98th days compared to the control. Antioxidant indicators suggested increased antioxidant protection in groups supplemented with 0.5 ppm organic selenium and selenium formulations of the same with the addition of zeolite under stress intensive pig production. No differences were found in the products of lipid peroxidation (TBARS in raw meat or in meat after a week in refrigerator storage. By histological examination statistically higher level of

  7. Oral Lutein Supplementation Enhances Macular Pigment Density and Contrast Sensitivity but Not in Combination With Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Schnurrbusch, Ute E K; Zinkernagel, Martin S; Munk, Marion R; Ebneter, Andreas; Wolf, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    It has been shown that lutein and zeaxanthin accumulate in the macula where they enhance contrast sensitivity and may reduce the risk of progression to advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Furthermore, omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) might further reduce this risk. However, controversy exists regarding whether PUFA may reduce the bioavailability of lutein. This was a prospective 12-month, randomized, open label study evaluating the effect of supplementation with lutein, other antioxidants, and minerals on contrast sensitivity (CS) and macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in patients with age-related maculopathy. A total of 79 patients were randomized to either lutein (10 mg) and antioxidant supplement or lutein and antioxidant supplement in combination with PUFA. Patients received supplementation for a period of 6 months and were followed for a total of 12 months. Serum lutein and zeaxanthin increased significantly by the first follow-up visit at 1 month, and remained elevated throughout the intervention period of 6 months in the lutein-only group but not in the lutein+PUFA group. Macular pigment optical density and CS increased significantly in the lutein-only group (P lutein+PUFA group (P = 0.059) compared to baseline. Best-corrected visual acuity remained unchanged during the entire study period in both groups. Addition of PUFA may reduce the bioavailability of lutein and therefore lessen the beneficial effect on macular pigment and CS. This needs to be considered when prescribing lutein supplements to patients with low lutein levels. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00563979.).

  8. Antioxidant supplementation in pig nutrition: effects on shelf life of longissimus dorsi muscle and consumers’ preferences for smoked cured ham.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Maghin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation with antioxidant mixture in medium-heavy swine on oxidative status, nutritional and sensory characteristics of longissimus dorsi (LD muscle and smoked cured ham were evaluated. Seventy-four pigs (PIC x Max Grow, were assigned to two experimental groups: control (CT and treated supplemented with antioxidant mixture (AOX for 45 days before slaughter. The total antiradicalic activity of blood (KRL test and carcass dressing percentage was positively affected (P<0.05 by AOX supplementation. Chemical composition of LD was not affected by dietary treatment. Oxidative stability and colour indices were significantly affected (P<0.05 by dietary treatment and storage time (0, 6, 12, 15 days under modified atmosphere packs - MAP. Sensory analysis revealed that at 12 and 15 days of storage a loss of colour beside presence of off odors was higher (P<0.05 in CT than AOX group. The seasoning losses of smoked cured ham tended to be lower (P=0.06 in AOX group than CT. Physical and chemical composition was not affected by dietary treatment. Sensory analysis revealed a difference between CT and AOX (P<0.05 in salty and sweet taste. Furthermore, the consumer test revealed that smoked cured ham from AOX were preferred (P<0.05 than CT. Dietary supplementation with antioxidant mixture improves total antioxidant status, carcass dressing percentage and smoked cured ham seasoning losses. The oxidative, colour stability and sensory parameters of LD muscle was improved in AOX groups during refrigerated storage in MAP. Antioxidant mixture positively affect the consumer preference of smoked cured ham, without affecting other quality parameters.

  9. The Effect of Antioxidant Activity of Liquid Smoke in Feed Supplement Block on Meat Functional of Muscle Longissimus dorsi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abustam, E.; Said, M. I.; Yusuf, M.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to look at the role of liquid smoke as an antioxidant added in feed supplement block and administered to cattle for 45 days on the functional properties of meat. The level of liquid smoke in the feed and the time of maturation in Muscle Longissimus dorsi after slaughtering cattle were the two treatment factors observed for the functional properties of meat. The study used a complete randomized design in which factor 1 was a 10% smoke level in the feed (0, 1, 2%) and factor 2 was maturation time (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 days). The parameters observed were water holding capacity (WHC), raw meat shear force (RMSF), fat oxidation rate (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The results showed that liquid smoke levels lowered the WHC, RMSF more or less the same, increased fat oxidation rate, and antioxidant activity more or less the same. While maturation tends to increase WHC, increase RMSF, fat oxidation rate, and antioxidant activity. It can be concluded that liquid smoke as an antioxidant in the diet of block supplements can maintain the functional properties of Muscle Longissimus dorsi of Bali cattle during maturation.

  10. Dietary flaxseed oil supplementation ameliorates the effect of cisplatin on brush border membrane enzymes and antioxidant system in rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqshbandi, A; Rizwan, S; Khan, M W; Khan, F

    2013-04-01

    Cisplatin (CP; cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II) is a drug widely used against different types of solid tumors. Patients receiving CP, however, experience very profound and long lasting gastrointestinal symptoms. Recently, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched flaxseed/flaxseed oil (FXO) has shown numerous health benefits. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether FXO can prevent CP-induced adverse biochemical changes in the small intestine of rats. A single intraperitoneal dose of CP (6 mg/kg body weight) was administered to male Wistar rats fed with control diet (CP group) and FXO diet (CPFXO group). Administration of CP led to a significant decline in the specific activities of brush border membrane enzymes both in the mucosal homogenates and in the isolated membrane vesicles. Lipid peroxidation and total sulfhydryl groups were altered upon CP treatment, indicating the generation of oxidative stress. The activities of SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase also decreased in CP-treated rats. In contrast, dietary supplementation of FXO prior to and following CP treatment significantly attenuated the CP-induced changes in all these parameters. FXO feeding markedly enhanced resistance to CP-elicited adverse gastrointestinal effects. The results suggest that FXO owing to its intrinsic biochemical/antioxidant properties is an effective agent in reducing the adverse effects of CP on intestine.

  11. Effects of dietary supplementation of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) egg on survival, pigmentation and antioxidant activity of Blood parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Liu, Qiao; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Liu-Lan; Wang, Yan; Yang, Shi-Yong; Du, Zong-Jun; Zhang, Jia-En

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of supplementing golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) eggs powder (EP) in the diet as a source of natural carotenoids on survival, pigmentation and antioxidant activity of Blood parrot. A total of 90 fish were divided into three treatment groups with three replicates per treatment. Blood parrot were fed with diets containing 0 (control), 5 % (EP 5 %), and 15 % (EP 15 %) dry powder of golden apple snail egg for 60 days, and nine fish per group were sampled at 20, 40, and 60 days. No differences in survival of the fish among treatments were found throughout the experiment. The body coloration of Blood parrot was enhanced in the skin and caudal fin with increasing content of golden apple snail egg powder in the diet. At the end of the experiment, the carotenoid content in the caudal fin and the number of scale chromatophores of the fish fed dietary with EP were higher (P  0.05) in CAT activities. Results demonstrated that golden apple snail eggs can be used as a colorant to promote the pigmentation efficacy of Blood parrot.

  12. Impact of supplementation of semen extender with antioxidants on the quality of chilled or cryopreserved Arabian stallion spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghallab, AbdelRaouf M; Shahat, Abdallah M; Fadl, Aya M; Ayoub, Mohamed M; Moawad, Adel R

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of semen extender with various non-enzymatic antioxidants on the quality of cooled or cryopreserved Arabian stallion spermatozoa. Semen collected from four pure Arabian stallions was centrifuged at 600g for 15 min. Spermatozoa were then diluted in INRA-82 extender supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA; 0, 10, 15 and 20 mg/mL) or trehalose (0, 75, 100 and 150 mM) or zinc sulphate (0, 100, 150 and 200 μM). The diluted semen was then either cooled at 5 °C or cryopreserved in 0.5-ml plastic straws. After cooling or thawing, sperm motility, viability, sperm abnormalities, viability index, and plasma membrane integrity were evaluated. The results showed that supplementation of semen extender with 150 mM trehalose or with 200 μM zinc sulphate significantly (P < 0.05) improved motility, viability, sperm membrane integrity and acrosome status in Arabian stallion spermatozoa after cooling or after freezing and thawing compared with controls (non-supplemented media) or with those supplemented with other concentrations of trehalose or zinc sulphate. Supplementation of semen extender with BSA did not improve sperm motility or cryosurvival of Arabian stallion spermatozoa after cooling or after freezing and thawing. In conclusion, supplementation of semen extender with non-enzymatic antioxidants (trehalose or zinc sulphate) improved the quality of chilled and frozen/thawed Arabian stallion spermatozoa. The most beneficial effects occur when semen diluent was supplemented with 150 mM trehalose or 200 μM zinc sulphate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermal Degradation and Isomerization of β-Carotene in Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsions Supplemented with Natural Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jiang; Fan, Yuting; Yokoyama, Wallace; Zhang, Yuzhu; Zhao, Liqing

    2016-03-09

    The goal of this study was to see the impact on the retention and isomerization of encapsulated β-carotene (BC) in nanoemulsions fortified with natural antioxidants (α-tocopherol (AT) and l-ascorbic acid (AA)). The physical stability of nanoemulsion, oxidative stability, and isomerization of all-trans-β-carotene (BC) in oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions were determined in the presence or absence of natural antioxidants at 25 and 50 °C at certain intervals of time by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sodium caseinate was used as the emulsifier, and corn oil (CO) was more protective than medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and used for isomerization studies. Mean diameters of control (without antioxidants) and AA- and AT-fortified particles were similar. Mean particle diameter of nanoemulsions increased from 10 to 25 nm at 25 °C and from 40 to 50 nm at 50 °C during 30 days of storage. The isomerization from all-trans-BC to cis-BC isomers was inhibited by antioxidants. The isomerization rates were in the following order: 13-cis-BC > 15-cis-BC > 9-cis-BC. AT had better antioxidant activities than AA in inhibiting BC degradation in O/W nanoemulsions. The results indicated that BC encapsulated in nanoemulsions supplemented with antioxidants could significantly improve BC's chemical stability.

  14. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity on exposure to acute restraint stress in sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodhi, G.M.; Hussain, M.M.; Aslam, M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effects of ascorbic acid (AA) and alpha tocopherol (AT) supplementation on stress induced changes in serum malondialdehyde and serum superoxide dismutase levels in male Sprague Dawley rats. Study design: Quasi experimental study Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, Army Medical College Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad during March 2009 to September 2009. Materials and Methods: Eighty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups with sixteen rats in each group. Group I served as control without stress and group II exposed to restraint stress for 06 hours, group III given ascorbic acid, group IV alpha tocopherol and group V was supplemented with both vitamins along with standard diet for one month. All antioxidant supplemented groups were exposed to restraint stress for six hours. Immediately after stress, the blood samples were analyzed colorimetrically to estimate serum malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase by commercially available kits. Results: There was no significant fall in serum malondialdehyde in rats supplemented with ascorbic acid alone, however rats supplemented with alpha tocopherol or combination of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol revealed significant fall in serum malondialdehyde and increment in superoxide dismutase activity. Conclusions: Alpha tocopherol alone and in combination with ascorbic acid is effective to prevent reactive oxygen species induced increase in lipid peroxidation and fall in super oxide dismutase activity thereby conferring protection against oxidative stress. (author)

  15. Enhanced antioxidant activity of polyolefin films integrated with grape tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejar, Kenneth J; Ray, Sudip; Kilmartin, Paul A

    2016-06-01

    A natural antioxidant derived from an agro-waste of the wine industry, grape tannin, was incorporated by melt blending into three different polyolefins (high-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene and polypropylene) to introduce antioxidant functionality. Significant antioxidant activity was observed at 1% tannin inclusion in all polymer blends. The antioxidant activity was observed to increase steadily with a greater concentration of grape tannins, the highest increases being seen with polypropylene. The mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer films following antioxidant incorporation were minimally altered with up to 3% grape tannins. All of the polyolefin-grape tannin films successfully passed the leachability test following USP661 standard protocol. Superior antioxidant activity was established in polyolefin thin films by utilization of a bulk grape extract obtained from winery waste. Significant increases in antioxidant activity were seen with 1% extract inclusion. This not only demonstrates the potential for food packaging applications of the polyolefin blends, but also valorizes the agro-waste. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Antioxidant property enhancement of sweet potato flour under simulated gastrointestinal pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kim Wei; Khong, Nicholas M H; Iqbal, Shahid; Umar, Imam Mustapha; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Sweet potato is known to be rich in healthful antioxidants, but the stability of its antioxidant properties under gastrointestinal pH is very much unknown. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the changes in antioxidant properties (total contents of phenolics and flavonoids as well as antioxidant activity) of sweet potato flour (SPF) under simulated gastrointestinal pH conditions. It was found that the yield of SPF crude phenolic extract increased from 0.29 to 3.22 g/100 g SPF upon subjection to gastrointestinal pH conditions (p gastrointestinal pH conditions, suggesting that SPF might possess a considerable amount of bound phenolic and other antioxidative compounds. The antioxidant properties of SPF are largely influenced by pH and thus might be enhanced during the in vivo digestive process.

  17. Effect of dietary mannanoligosaccharide supplementation on nutrient digestibility, hindgut fermentation, immune response and antioxidant indices in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh M. Pawar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of prebiotics in companion animal nutrition is often considered advantageous over probiotics because of the ease of handling, ability to withstand processing and storage etc. While most of the studies on prebiotic use in dogs have been done with processed food as basal diet, the response in relation to homemade diet feeding is not very well explored. Methods The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary mannanoligosaccharide (MOS supplementation on nutrient digestibility, hindgut fermentation, immune response and antioxidant indices in dogs. Ten Spitz pups were divided into two groups: control (CON with no supplementation, and experimental (MOS wherein the basal diet was supplemented with MOS at 15 g/kg diet. All dogs were fed on a home-prepared diet for a period of 150 days. The study protocol included a digestion trial, periodic blood collection and analysis for lipid profile and erythrocytic antioxidants. Immune response of the animals was assessed towards the end of the feeding period. Results Results revealed no significant (P > 0.05 variations in palatability score, intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients between the groups. Faecal score, faeces voided, faecal pH, concentrations of ammonia, lactate and short-chain fatty acids were comparable (P > 0.05 between the two groups. Cell-mediated immune response, assessed as delayed-type of hypersensitivity response, was significantly higher (P  0.05 in both the groups. Supplementation of MOS lowered (P  0.05 between the two groups. Conclusions The results indicated that supplementation of MOS at the rate of 15 g/kg in the diet of dog augmented the cell-mediated immune response and serum lipid profile without any influences on digestibility of nutrients, hindgut fermentation and antioxidants indices.

  18. Vitamin C supplementation enhances compact morulae formation but reduces the hatching blastocyst rate of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Li, Rui-Zhe; Cui, Chen-Chen; Li, Wen-Zhe; Zhang, Yong; Jin, Ya-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin C, an antioxidant that reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, is capable of significantly improving the developmental competence of porcine and mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the effects of vitamin C on the developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were investigated. The results indicated that vitamin C (40 μg/mL) positively affected the scavenging of intracellular ROS, cleavage rate at 24 h (76.67 vs. 68.26%, pvitamin C supplementation did not significantly affect the blastocyst formation rate and proportion of inner cell mass over total cells per blastocyst on day 7. Moreover, vitamin C supplementation obviously impaired the total cell numbers per blastocyst (97.20 ± 11.35 vs. 88.57 ± 10.43, pVitamin C supplementation preferentially improved the viability of bovine SCNT embryos prior to the blastocyst stage, but did not enhance the formation and quality of blastocysts in vitro. In conclusion, the effect of vitamin C on the development of bovine SCNT embryos is complex, and vitamin C is not a suitable antioxidant chemical for the in vitro culture of bovine SCNT embryos.

  19. Coenzyme Q10 and α-lipoic acid: antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects in plasma and peripheral blood lymphocytes of supplemented subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Sonia; Orlando, Patrick; Armeni, Tatiana; Padella, Lucia; Brugè, Francesca; Seddaiu, Giovanna; Littarru, Gian Paolo; Tiano, Luca

    2015-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species not only cause damage but also have a physiological role in the protection against pathogens and in cell signalling. Mitochondrial nutrients, such as coenzyme Q10 and α-lipoic acid, beside their acknowledged antioxidant activities, show interesting features in relation to their redox state and consequent biological activity. In this study, we tested whether oral supplementation with 200 mg/day of coenzyme Q10 alone or in association with 200 mg/die of α-lipoic acid for 15 days on 16 healthy subjects was able to modulate the oxidative status into different compartments (plasma and cells), in basal condition and following an oxidative insult in peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro to H2O2. Data have shown that tested compounds produced antioxidant and bioenergetic effects improving oxidative status of the lipid compartment and mitochondrial functionality in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Simultaneously, an increased intracellular reactive oxygen species level was observed, although they did not lead to enhanced DNA oxidative damage. Coenzyme Q10 and α-lipoic acid produced beneficial effects also steering intracellular redox poise toward a pro-oxidant environment. In contrast with other antioxidant molecules, pro-oxidant activities of tested mitochondrial nutrients and consequent oxidant mediated signalling, could have important implications in promoting adaptive response to oxidative stress.

  20. Supplemental Antioxidants Do Not Ameliorate Colitis Development in HLA-B27 Transgenic Rats Despite Extremely Low Glutathione Levels in Colonic Mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepens, M.A.A.; Vink, C.; Schonewille, A.J.; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Brummer, R.J.; Meer, van der R.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress is presumed to play an important role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Accordingly, antioxidant supplementation might be protective. Dietary calcium inhibited colitis development in HLA-B27 transgenic rats, an animal model mimicking IBD. As antioxidants might act at

  1. Performance-enhancing sports supplements: role in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, Lindsay-Rae B; Sandoval, Paul A; Mayles, W Jonathan; Wischmeyer, Paul E

    2009-10-01

    Many performance-enhancing supplements and/or drugs are increasing in popularity among professional and amateur athletes alike. Although the uncontrolled use of these agents can pose health risks in the general population, their clearly demonstrated benefits could prove helpful to the critically ill population in whom preservation and restoration of lean body mass and neuromuscular function are crucial. Post-intensive care unit weakness not only impairs post-intensive care unit quality of life but also correlates with intensive care unit mortality. This review covers a number of the agents known to enhance athletic performance, and their possible role in preservation of muscle function and prevention/treatment of post-intensive care unit weakness in critically ill patients. These agents include testosterone analogues, growth hormone, branched chain amino acid, glutamine, arginine, creatine, and beta-hydryoxy-beta-methylbutyrate. Three of the safest and most effective agents in enhancing athletic performance in this group are creatine, branched-chain amino acid, and beta-hydryoxy-beta-methylbutyrate. However, these agents have received very little study in the recovering critically ill patient suffering from post-intensive care unit weakness. More placebo-controlled studies are needed in this area to determine efficacy and optimal dosing. It is very possible that, under the supervision of a physician, many of these agents may prove beneficial in the prevention and treatment of post-intensive care unit weakness.

  2. Synthesis of novel octyl sinapate to enhance antioxidant capacity of rapeseed-linseed oil mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Rabiej, Dobrochna; Krzemiński, Marek

    2018-03-01

    Lipophilisation allows the formation of new functionalised antioxidants having beneficial properties compared to natural hydrophilic phenolic acids. Therefore, this work focused on the synthesis of lipophilic antioxidants, such as a new octyl sinapate, octyl caffeate and octyl ferulate using the modified Fischer esterification of selected hydroxycinnamic acids with 1-octanol. The lipophilic octyl sinapate was obtained for the first time with satisfactory yield (83%) after purification by column chromatography. The identity of the synthesised phenolipids was confirmed by chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses. Antioxidant capacity of phenolipids was determined by DPPH (IC 50  = 35.87-52.24 μg mL -1 ) and ABTS (IC 50  = 39.45-48.72 μg mL -1 ) methods and compared with IC 50 values (7.37-35.30 μg mL -1 and 7.55-41.67 μg mL -1 , respectively) for well known antioxidants. The antioxidant capacity of rapeseed-linseed oil enriched with the purified esters was about two to 30 times higher in comparison with a non-supplemented oil. The novel octyl sinapate as well as octyl caffeate and octyl ferulate have antioxidant properties and lipophilic character, therefore they may be added to vegetable oils as potential antioxidants for tackling oxidative processes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Antioxidant supplementation to the exercising horse Suplementação de antioxidantes para cavalos atletas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey A. Williams

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of oxidative stress in horses has been described in reports dealing with intense and endurance exercise. Oxidative stress occurs when antioxidant systems are insufficient causing oxidation to potentially damage DNA, proteins, and lipids, and contribute to degenerative changes. Vitamin E is the most commonly supplemented antioxidant in horses and has been shown that horses in exercise conditioning may require higher intakes of vitamin E than recommended. Also in various species vitamin C potentiates the effects of vitamin E; however, under maintenance conditions horses have the ability to synthesize sufficient ascorbate, the demand increases as stress on the body is increased. Competitive endurance horses were estimated to consume 1.2 to 5-times higher levels of vitamin E than recommended intakes. In these horses a negative correlation was found between the vitamin E intake and creatine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Similarly, three-day event horses have vitamin E average intakes about 50% over recommended levels, and it was also found that intake of vitamin E negatively correlated with inflammatory markers. However, large doses of vitamin E at about 10-times the recommended levels could potentially interfere with beta-carotene absorption. While some studies have shown benefits of lipoic acid supplementation in endurance trained horses similar to that of vitamin E, other studies failed to show any benefit of supplemental superoxide dismutase in intensely exercising horses. The implications from this broad scope of work show potential benefits for supplementing various antioxidants however, before assuming efficacy from other species horse specific studies should be performed.Evidência de estresse oxidativo em eqüinos tem sido descrita em artigos que lidam com exercícios intensos e de resistência. O estresse oxidativo ocorre quando sistemas antioxidantes são insuficientes, causando oxidação com potencial de danificar DNA

  4. Effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on performance, egg quality, yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activity of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z H; Gong, J G; Zhao, G X; Lin, X; Liu, Y C; Ma, K W

    2017-10-01

    1. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on laying performance, egg quality, egg yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 360 Beijing PINK-1 laying hens (60 weeks old) were randomly distributed among five dietary treatments, each of which included 6 replicates of 12 hens. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg diet resveratrol. The study lasted for 9 weeks including 1 week of adaptation and 8 weeks of the main experimental period. 3. The results indicated that dietary resveratrol significantly improved feed conversion ratios during 5-8 weeks and 1-8 weeks of the trial. Increasing dietary concentrations of the resveratrol linearly improved Haugh unit and albumen height of eggs. 4. The content of total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) in serum and cholesterol in yolk was significantly decreased by dietary resveratrol, and there were significant linear correlations between these indexes and resveratrol supplemental levels. 5. Dietary resveratrol supplementation significantly improved serum Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activity and decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content in groups with 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg resveratrol as compared to the control, respectively. However, supplementation of resveratrol did not affect the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD). 6. It is concluded that resveratrol supplementation has a positive effect on performance, lipid-related traits and antioxidant activity of laying hens.

  5. A novel dietary supplement containing multiple phytochemicals and vitamins elevates hepatorenal and cardiac antioxidant enzymes in the absence of significant serum chemistry and genomic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulku, Elida; Zinkovsky, Daniel; Patel, Payal; Javia, Vishal; Lahoti, Tejas; Khodos, Inna; Stohs, Sidney J; Ray, Sidhartha D

    2010-01-01

    A novel dietary supplement composed of three well-known phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage) extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea) extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana) extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin) was designed to provide nutritional support by enhancing metabolism and maintaining healthy weight and energy. The present study evaluated the safety of this dietary supplement (STG; S=sage; T=tea; G=guarana) and assessed changes in target organ antioxidant enzymes (liver, kidneys and heart), serum chemistry profiles and organ histopathology in Fisher 344 rats. Adult male and female Fisher 344 rats were fed control (no STG) or STG containing (1X and 7X, 1X=daily human dose) diets and sacrificed after 2 and 4 months. Serum chemistry analysis and histopathological examination of three vital target organs disclosed no adverse influence on protein, lipid and carbohydrate profiles, genomic integrity of the liver and/or the tissue architecture. However, analysis of the most important antioxidant components in the liver, kidney and heart homogenates revealed a dramatic increase in total glutathione concentrations, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. Concomitantly, oxidative stress levels (malondialdehyde accumulation) in these three organs were less than control. Organ specific serum markers (ALT/AST for the liver; CPK/AST for the heart; BUN/creatinine for kidneys) and the genomic integrity disclosed no STG-induced alteration. Some of the serum components (lipid and protein) showed insignificant changes. Overall, STG-exposed rats were more active, and the results suggest that STG exposure produces normal serum chemistry coupled with elevated antioxidant capacity in rats fed up to seven times the normal human dose and does not adversely influence any of the vital target organs. Additionally, this study reiterates the potential benefits of exposure to a pharmacologically relevant combination of

  6. A Novel Dietary Supplement Containing Multiple Phytochemicals and Vitamins Elevates Hepatorenal and Cardiac Antioxidant Enzymes in the Absence of Significant Serum Chemistry and Genomic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elida Bulku

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel dietary supplement composed of three well-known phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin was designed to provide nutritional support by enhancing metabolism and maintaining healthy weight and energy. The present study evaluated the safety of this dietary supplement (STG; S, sage; T, tea; G, guarana and assessed changes in target organ antioxidant enzymes (liver, kidneys and heart, serum chemistry profiles and organ histopathology in Fisher 344 rats. Adult male and female Fisher 344 rats were fed control (no STG or STG containing (1X and 7X, 1X = daily human dose diets and sacrificed after 2 and 4 months. Serum chemistry analysis and histopathological examination of three vital target organs disclosed no adverse influence on protein, lipid and carbohydrate profiles, genomic integrity of the liver and/or the tissue architecture. However, analysis of the most important antioxidant components in the liver, kidney and heart homogenates revealed a dramatic increase in total glutathione concentrations, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. Concomitantly, oxidative stress levels (malondialdehyde accumulation in these three organs were less than control. Organ specific serum markers (ALT/AST for the liver; CPK/AST/LDH for the heart; BUN/creatinine for kidneys and the genomic integrity disclosed no STG-induced alteration. Some of the serum components (lipid and protein showed insignificant changes. Overall, STG-exposed rats were more active, and the results suggest that STG exposure produces normal serum chemistry coupled with elevated antioxidant capacity in rats fed up to seven times the normal human dose and does not adversely influence any of the vital target organs. Additionally, this study reiterates the potential benefits of exposure to a pharmacologically relevant

  7. High-antioxidant potatoes: acute in vivo antioxidant source and hypotensive agent in humans after supplementation to hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Joe A; Demkosky, Cheryil A; Navarre, Duroy A; Smyda, Melissa A

    2012-07-11

    Potatoes have the highest daily per capita consumption of all vegetables in the U.S. diet. Pigmented potatoes contain high concentrations of antioxidants, including phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and carotenoids. In a single-dose study six to eight microwaved potatoes with skins or a comparable amount of refined starch as cooked biscuits was given to eight normal fasting subjects; repeated samples of blood were taken over an 8 h period. Plasma antioxidant capacity was measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). A 24 h urine was taken before and after each regimen. Urine antioxidant capacity due to polyphenol was measured by Folin reagent after correction for nonphenolic interferences with a solid phase (Polyclar) procedure. Potato caused an increase in plasma and urine antioxidant capacity, whereas refined potato starch caused a decrease in both; that is, it acted as a pro-oxidant. In a crossover study 18 hypertensive subjects with an average BMI of 29 were given either six to eight small microwaved purple potatoes twice daily or no potatoes for 4 weeks and then given the other regimen for another 4 weeks. There was no significant effect of potato on fasting plasma glucose, lipids, or HbA1c. There was no significant body weight increase. Diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased 4.3%, a 4 mm reduction. Systolic blood pressure decreased 3.5%, a 5 mm reduction. This blood pressure drop occurred despite the fact that 14 of 18 subjects were taking antihypertensive drugs. This is the first study to investigate the effect of potatoes on blood pressure. Thus, purple potatoes are an effective hypotensive agent and lower the risk of heart disease and stroke in hypertensive subjects without weight gain.

  8. Transcriptome-based identification of antioxidative gene expression after fish oil supplementation in normo- and dyslipidemic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Simone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, especially in dyslipidemic subjects with a high risk of cardiovascular disease, are widely described in the literature. A lot of effects of n-3 PUFAs and their oxidized metabolites are triggered by regulating the expression of genes. Currently, it is uncertain if the administration of n-3 PUFAs results in different expression changes of genes related to antioxidative mechanisms in normo- and dyslipidemic subjects, which may partly explain their cardioprotective effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on expression changes of genes involved in oxidative processes. Methods Ten normo- and ten dyslipidemic men were supplemented for twelve weeks with fish oil capsules, providing 1.14 g docosahexaenoic acid and 1.56 g eicosapentaenoic acid. Gene expression levels were determined by whole genome microarray analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Results Using microarrays, we discovered an increased expression of antioxidative enzymes and a decreased expression of pro-oxidative and tissue enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 enzymes and matrix metalloproteinases, in both normo- and dyslipidemic men. An up-regulation of catalase and heme oxigenase 2 in both normo- and dyslipidemic subjects and an up-regulation of cytochrome P450 enzyme 1A2 only in dyslipidemic subjects could be observed by qRT-PCR analysis. Conclusions Supplementation of normo- and dyslipidemic subjects with n-3 PUFAs changed the expression of genes related to oxidative processes, which may suggest antioxidative and potential cardioprotective effects of n-3 PUFAs. Further studies combining genetic and metabolic endpoints are needed to verify the regulative effects of n-3 PUFAs in antioxidative gene expression to better understand their beneficial effects in health and disease prevention. Trial registration Clinical

  9. Effects of acute creatine supplementation on iron homeostasis and uric acid-based antioxidant capacity of plasma after wingate test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Marcelo P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary creatine has been largely used as an ergogenic aid to improve strength and athletic performance, especially in short-term and high energy-demanding anaerobic exercise. Recent findings have also suggested a possible antioxidant role for creatine in muscle tissues during exercise. Here we evaluate the effects of a 1-week regimen of 20 g/day creatine supplementation on the plasma antioxidant capacity, free and heme iron content, and uric acid and lipid peroxidation levels of young subjects (23.1 ± 5.8 years old immediately before and 5 and 60 min after the exhaustive Wingate test. Results Maximum anaerobic power was improved by acute creatine supplementation (10.5 %, but it was accompanied by a 2.4-fold increase in pro-oxidant free iron ions in the plasma. However, potential iron-driven oxidative insult was adequately counterbalanced by proportional increases in antioxidant ferric-reducing activity in plasma (FRAP, leading to unaltered lipid peroxidation levels. Interestingly, the FRAP index, found to be highly dependent on uric acid levels in the placebo group, also had an additional contribution from other circulating metabolites in creatine-fed subjects. Conclusions Our data suggest that acute creatine supplementation improved the anaerobic performance of athletes and limited short-term oxidative insults, since creatine-induced iron overload was efficiently circumvented by acquired FRAP capacity attributed to: overproduction of uric acid in energy-depleted muscles (as an end-product of purine metabolism and a powerful iron chelating agent and inherent antioxidant activity of creatine.

  10. Antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of supplementation with red wine pomace in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino-García, Raquel; Rivero-Pérez, María D; González-SanJosé, María L; Croft, Kevin D; Muñiz, Pilar

    2017-07-19

    Hypertension is associated with enhanced vascular oxidative stress and impaired endothelial function, which is related to an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide bioavailability. Short-term supplementation with a polyphenol-rich powdered red wine pomace seasoning (RWPS) was investigated for its effects on blood pressure and biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative status in a model of essential hypertension. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (12-week-old, 5 rats per group) were administered RWPS (300 mg kg -1 day -1 ; equivalent to 7.32 mg gallic acid per kg per day) or vehicle by gavage. In SHRs, 4-week RWPS supplementation progressively decreased blood pressure, reaching 11.5% reduction at the end of the study (p < 0.001). RWPS consumption also increased the ferric reducing ability of plasma and attenuated the oxidation of plasma lipids and proteins, as evidenced by F 2 -isoprostanes, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl groups as oxidative stress biomarkers. Moreover, nitric oxide production (indirectly measured) was 1.5-fold higher in SHRs + RWPS than that in SHRs (p < 0.05). These beneficial effects were partly attributed to the ability of RWPS-derived bioactive compounds to modulate aortic gene expression, with eNOS, SOD2 and HO-1 over-expression, ACE down-regulation, and no changes in NOX4. In conclusion, this study suggests the potential of red wine pomace-derived seasonings to help in the management of hypertension.

  11. Quercetin Oxidation Paradoxically Enhances its Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Jocelyn; Atala, Elías; Pastene, Edgar; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Speisky, Hernán

    2017-12-20

    Quercetin oxidation is generally believed to ultimately result in the loss of its antioxidant properties. To test this assertion, quercetin oxidation was induced, and after each of its major metabolites was identified and isolated by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS, the antioxidant (dichlorodihydrofluorescein oxidation-inhibiting) and cytoprotective (LDH leakage-preventing) properties were evaluated in Hs68 and Caco2 cells exposed to indomethacin. Compared to quercetin, the whole mixture of metabolites (Q OX ) displayed a 20-fold greater potency. After resolution of Q OX into 12 major peaks, only one (peak 8), identified as 2,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxy-3,4-flavandione or its 2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxy-3(2H)-benzofuranone tautomer, could account for the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects afforded Q OX . Peak 8 exerted such effects at a 50 nM concentration, revealing a potency 200-fold higher than that of quercetin. The effects of peak 8 were seen regardless of whether it was added to the cells 40 min before or simultaneously with the oxygen-reactive species-generating agent, suggesting an intracellular ability to trigger early antioxidant responses. Thus, the present study is the first to reveal that in regard to the intracellular actions of quercetin, attention should be extended toward some of its oxidation products.

  12. Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... Wheat cultivars capable of accumulating minerals under salt stress are of considerable interest for their potential to improve crop productivity and crop quality. This study addressed the role of antioxidative enzymes in the responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar Cang 6001 to high-salt stress compared to ...

  13. Effects of antioxidants on CD4 and viral load in HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa - dietary supplements vs. local diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkengfack, Germaine N; Torimiro, Judith N; Englert, Heike

    2012-02-01

    In sub-Sahara Africa, micronutrient deficiency, especially of antioxidant micronutrients including vitamins A, C, and E, beta-carotene, selenium, zinc, and polyphenols is very common in HIV-positive patients. Amongst adults, women are the most vulnerable. Antioxidants are known to play a vital role in the immune system, reducing oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is induced by excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), due to the HIV infection. Such damage may be prevented or moderated through adequate oral intake of antioxidants, scavenging ROS, as well as protecting cells and tissues against oxidative stress. Antioxidants can be provided to the body through locally available antioxidant rich-diets such as fruit-and-vegetable-based diets and/or dietary supplements. Provision of antioxidants through local diets or dietary supplements exercise beneficial effects on biological markers of the immune system (CD4 and viral load). However, while dietary supplements represent a costly and short-term strategy to limiting antioxidant deficiency, local diets, combined with adequate nutritional education, can provide a low-cost and long-term strategy to reduce oxidative stress, prevent micronutrient deficiency, and slow down HIV disease progression. The former can be applicable in countries around the West, Central, and South coast of Africa, which are rich in natural food resources. In contrast with significant evidence that dietary supplements confer benefits in HIV patients, fewer data are available relating to the benefits of local diets. Thus the need to do more research in this area arises. This review compares available data on effects of antioxidants on CD4 and viral load in HIV-positive women noneligible for antiretroviral therapy. Intake of antioxidants though dietary supplements and local diet, associated with nutritional education, is compared. Studies conducted in sub-Sahara Africa are considered.

  14. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsen, Monica H; Halvorsen, Bente L; Holte, Kari; B?hn, Siv K; Dragland, Steinar; Sampson, Laura; Willey, Carol; Senoo, Haruki; Umezono, Yuko; Sanada, Chiho; Barikmo, Ingrid; Berhe, Nega; Willett, Walter C; Phillips, Katherine M; Jacobs, David R

    2010-01-01

    Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs...

  15. Effect of different levels of copper and molybdenum supplements on serum lipid profiles and antioxidant status in cashmere goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Shi W; Song, Xian Z; Jia, Zhi H; Wang, Run L

    2012-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate on the effects of different levels of copper (Cu: 0, 19, and 38 mg/kg) and molybdenum (Mo: 0 and 5 mg/kg) supplements and the interaction of these two factors on serum lipid profiles and antioxidant status in cashmere goats during the cashmere fiber growing period. Thirty-six Liaoning cashmere goats (approximately 1.5 years of age; 27.53±1.38 kg of body weight) were assigned to one of six treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2×3 factorial arrangement. Goats were housed in individual pens and fed with Chinese wild rye- and alfalfa hay-based diet containing 4.72 mg Cu/kg, 0.16 mg Mo/kg, and 0.21 % S for 84 days. Blood samples were collected on day 84. The triglyceride concentration did not differ among treatments (P>0.05). Supplemental Cu, regardless of Mo level, decreased (P0.05) in these values between Cu-supplemented groups. Supplemental Cu increased (P0.05) on the activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase, and the concentrations of serum glucose and total protein. In conclusion, addition of 19 mg Cu/kg in the absence of Mo (the total dietary Cu level of 23.72 mg/kg) was recommended for altering the fat metabolism and obtaining the optimal antioxidant activity of cashmere goats, while 38 mg Cu/kg should be supplemented when 5 mg Mo/kg was added in the basal diet (the total dietary level of 42.72 mg Cu/kg, 5.16 mg Mo/kg, and 0.21 % S) during the cashmere growing period.

  16. Enhancement of Antioxidant Quality of Green Leafy Vegetables upon Different Cooking Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Afzal; Khatun, Mst Afifa; Islam, Mahfuza; Huque, Roksana

    2017-09-01

    Antioxidant rich green leafy vegetables including garden spinach leaf, water spinach leaf, Indian spinach leaf, and green leaved amaranth were selected to evaluate the effects of water boiling and oil frying on their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), reducing power (RP), and antioxidant capacity. The results revealed that there was a significant increase in TPC, TFC, and RP in all the selected vegetables indicating the effectiveness of the cooking process on the antioxidant potential of leafy vegetables. Both cooking processes enhanced significantly ( P vegetables due to boiling and frying except in the Indian spinach leaf. However, the present findings suggest that boiling and frying can be used to enhance the antioxidant ability, by increasing the bioaccessibility of health-promoting constituents from the four vegetables investigated in this study.

  17. Meta-analysis: antioxidant supplements for liver diseases - the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, L L; Nikolova, D

    2010-01-01

    Several liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress. Accordingly, antioxidants have been suggested as potential therapeutics for various liver diseases. The evidence supporting these suggestions is equivocal....

  18. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of two important memory enhancing medicinal plants Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica

    OpenAIRE

    Meena, Harsahay; Pandey, Hemant Kumar; Pandey, Pankaj; Arya, Mahesh Chand; Ahmed, Zakwan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Free radicals or highly reactive oxygen species are capable of inducing oxidative damage to human body. Antioxidants are the compounds which terminate the attack of reactive species and reduce the risk of diseases. Both Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica are used in treatment of brain disorders in humans and have almost similar effects. Objective: The study was conducted to determine the antioxidant properties of two well-known memory enhancer medicinal plants Baccopa mon...

  19. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Vargas-Robles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications.

  20. Physical, Textural, and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Waxy Wheat Flour Snack Supplemented with Several Varieties of Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Emily F; Kowalski, Ryan J; Morris, Craig F; Nguyen, Thuy; Li, Chongjun; Ganjyal, Girish; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-09-28

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and although industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets fed to livestock. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran samples from hard red spring, soft white club cv. Bruehl, and purple wheat lines were added to cv. Waxy-Pen wheat flour (Triticum aestivum L.) at replacement concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 37.5% (w/w; n = 10). Extrudates were evaluated for antioxidant capacity, color, and physical properties. Results showed that high fiber concentrations altered several pasting properties, reduced expansion ratios (P extrudates. Purple bran supplemented extrudates produced harder products compared to white and red bran treatments (P Extrudates produced with 37.5% (w/w) of each bran variety absorbed more water than the control with no added bran. The oxygen radical absorption capacity assay, expressed as Trolox Equivalents, showed that extrudates made with addition of red (37.5%) and purple (37.5%) bran had higher values compared to the other treatments; the control, red, and white bran treatments had less antioxidant activity after extrusion (P extrudates. Purple and red brans may serve as viable functional ingredients in extruded foods given their higher antioxidant activities. Future studies could evaluate how bran variety and concentration, extruded shape, and flavor influence consumer acceptance. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Heat shock protein 70, oxidative stress, and antioxidant status in periparturient crossbred cows supplemented with α-tocopherol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anjali; Ashutosh; Chandra, Gulab; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigating the effect of α-tocopherol acetate on heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), oxidative stress, and antioxidant status during periparturient period in medium body condition score crossbred cows. Twenty crossbred Karan Fries cows with confirmed pregnancy were selected 2 months before expected date of calving. The cows were randomly distributed in to two groups: 10 cows were kept as control and 10 were supplemented with α-tocopherol acetate during dry period for 2 months. Blood samples were collected at -20, -10, -5, 0, 5, 10, and 20 days in relation to the expected date of calving. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and total immunoglobulin were significantly higher (P stress, heat shock protein Hsp70 levels, improved antioxidant, and improved immunity status indicating beneficial effect of α-tocopherol acetate treatment.

  2. Garlic Supplementation Ameliorates UV-Induced Photoaging in Hairless Mice by Regulating Antioxidative Activity and MMPs Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Kyung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UV exposure is associated with oxidative stress and is the primary factor in skin photoaging. UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS cause the up-regulation of metalloproteinase (MMPs and the degradation of dermal collagen and elastic fibers. Garlic and its components have been reported to exert antioxidative effects. The present study investigated the protective effect of garlic on UV-induced photoaging and MMPs regulation in hairless mice. Garlic was supplemented in the diet, and Skh-1 hairless mice were exposed to UV irradiation five days/week for eight weeks. Mice were divided into four groups; Non-UV, UV-irradiated control, UV+1% garlic powder diet group, and UV+2% garlic powder diet group. Chronic UV irradiation induced rough wrinkling of the skin with hyperkeratosis, and administration of garlic diminished the coarse wrinkle formation. UV-induced dorsal skin and epidermal thickness were also ameliorated by garlic supplementation. ROS generation, skin and serum malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased by UV exposure and were ameliorated by garlic administration although the effects were not dose-dependent. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in skin tissues were markedly reduced by UV irradiation and garlic treatment increased these enzyme activities. UV-induced MMP-1 and MMP-2 protein levels were suppressed by garlic administration. Furthermore, garlic supplementation prevented the UV-induced increase of MMP-1 mRNA expression and the UV-induced decrease of procollagen mRNA expression. These results suggest that garlic may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UV irradiation through the antioxidative system and MMP regulation.

  3. Garlic Supplementation Ameliorates UV-Induced Photoaging in Hairless Mice by Regulating Antioxidative Activity and MMPs Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-08

    UV exposure is associated with oxidative stress and is the primary factor in skin photoaging. UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause the up-regulation of metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the degradation of dermal collagen and elastic fibers. Garlic and its components have been reported to exert antioxidative effects. The present study investigated the protective effect of garlic on UV-induced photoaging and MMPs regulation in hairless mice. Garlic was supplemented in the diet, and Skh-1 hairless mice were exposed to UV irradiation five days/week for eight weeks. Mice were divided into four groups; Non-UV, UV-irradiated control, UV+1% garlic powder diet group, and UV+2% garlic powder diet group. Chronic UV irradiation induced rough wrinkling of the skin with hyperkeratosis, and administration of garlic diminished the coarse wrinkle formation. UV-induced dorsal skin and epidermal thickness were also ameliorated by garlic supplementation. ROS generation, skin and serum malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased by UV exposure and were ameliorated by garlic administration although the effects were not dose-dependent. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in skin tissues were markedly reduced by UV irradiation and garlic treatment increased these enzyme activities. UV-induced MMP-1 and MMP-2 protein levels were suppressed by garlic administration. Furthermore, garlic supplementation prevented the UV-induced increase of MMP-1 mRNA expression and the UV-induced decrease of procollagen mRNA expression. These results suggest that garlic may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UV irradiation through the antioxidative system and MMP regulation.

  4. Effect of dietary creatine monohydrate supplementation on muscle lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of transported broilers in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X F; Zhu, X D; Li, Y J; Liu, Y; Li, J L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H; Zhang, L

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with creatine monohydrate (CMH) during the finishing period on the muscle lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of broilers that experienced transport stress in summer. A total of 320 male Arbor Acres broilers (28 d in age) were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments including a basal control diet without additional CMH (160 birds), or with 600 (80 birds) or 1,200 mg/kg (80 birds) CMH for 14 d. On the morning of d 42, after an 8-h fast, the birds fed the basal diets were divided into 2 equal groups, and all birds in the 4 groups of 80 birds were transported according to the following protocols: 1) a 0.75-h transport of birds on basal diets (as a lower-stress control group), 2) a 3-h transport of birds on basal diets, 3) a 3-h transport of birds on 600 or 4) 1,200 mg/kg CMH supplementation diets. The results showed that the 3-h transport decreased the concentration of creatine (Cr) in both the pectoralis major (PM) and the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles, increased the concentration of phosphocreatine (PCr) and PCr/Cr ratio in PM muscle, and elevated the concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in both the PM and TA muscles of birds (P CMH increased the concentrations of Cr and PCr in PM muscle, and Cr in TA muscle than those in the 3-h transport group (P CMH did not alter the measured parameters in relation to muscle lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity affected by 3-h transport (P > 0.05). These results indicate that dietary CMH supplementation does not provide any significant protection via directly scavenging free radicals or increased antioxidant capacity of transported broilers. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Suplementação de antioxidantes: enfoque em queimados Antioxidant supplementation: focusing on burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Barbosa

    2007-12-01

    increases the production of free radicals but it is also capable of impairing the antioxidant defense mechanism, subjecting the burned patient to oxidative stress, which can be a perpetuating factor of the inflammatory response and lead to progressive metabolic deterioration. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to provide updated information on antioxidant supplementation in burned patients and describe the benefits of this intervention.

  6. Effects of dietary l-methionine supplementation on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and muscular antioxidant capacity and myogenic gene expression in low birth weight pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Zhang, H; Chen, Y P; Ying, Z X; Su, W P; Zhang, L L; Wang, T

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary Met supplementation on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and muscular antioxidant capacity and myogenic gene expression in low birth weight (LBW) pigs. Thirty normal birth weight (NBW) and 60 LBW female piglets were selected at birth. In each litter, after weaning, 1 of the LBW piglets (LBW-CON group) and 1 of the NBW piglets (NBW-CON group) were fed the basal diets and 1 LBW littermate was fed the basal diet supplemented with Met (LBW-MET group). Thus, all pigs were distributed into groups of 3 treatments × 6 replicates (pens) × 5 piglets per replicate up to 180 d of age. Compared with NBW-CON pigs, LBW-CON pigs had decreased ADG ( = 0.004) and ADFI ( supplemented diets had a greater amount of reduced glutathione (GSH; = 0.009) but a lower level of MDA ( = 0.015) in the LM compared with the LBW-CON pigs. Methionine supplementation increased the pH at 24 h postmortem (pH) value ( = 0.004) but reduced the drip loss at both 24 ( = 0.016) and 48 h ( = 0.005) postmortem of LBW-MET pigs in comparison with the LBW-CON pigs. The Met-supplemented diets increased the -adenosyl-methionine content ( = 0.006), DNA methyltransferase activity ( = 0.007), and CpG methylation levels of the sites +27 ( = 0.008) and +160 ( = 0.009) of myostatin (MSTN) exon 1 but decreased the mRNA expression of MSTN ( = 0.011) in the LM of the LBW-MET group compared with the LM of the LBW-CON group. Additionally, when compared with the LBW-CON group, the area of LM ( = 0.037) was significantly increased in the LBW-MET group, in parallel with the upregulated mRNA abundance of myogenin ( = 0.025), myocyte enhancer factor 2A ( = 0.036), and myocyte enhancer factor 2D ( = 0.015). In conclusion, Met supplementation increases pH and decreases drip loss in the LM of LBW-MET pigs, along with a greater GSH content but a lower MDA accumulation. Also, the LBW-MET pigs showed a greater LM area, which may be

  7. Α-lipoic acid supplementation up-regulates antioxidant capacity in adults with G6PD deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Deli, Chariklia K; Zalavras, Athanasios; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of α-lipoic acid (LA) supplementation on blood redox status in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Eight adults with G6PD deficiency (D group) and eight controls with normal G6PD levels (N group) participated in this study. Participants received LA (600 mg/day) for 28 days. At baseline, 2 and 4 weeks after supplementation, venous blood was collected for analysis of reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase, protein carbonyls (PC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), bilirubin, uric acid (UA) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Baseline GSH was lower (PG6PD deficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Six edible wild fruits as potential antioxidant additives or nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Isabel; Sánchez-Bel, Paloma; Romojaro, Felix; Pretel, Maria Teresa

    2010-06-01

    Total antioxidant activity of six non-cultivated but traditionally collected fruits from the south of Europe was assessed by measuring their ability to reduce the hydroxyl radical (OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and their Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). This antioxidant activity was compared with that shown by the synthetic antioxidants BHA (E-320), BHT (E-321) and propyl gallate (E-310). Total phenolics, ascorbic acid and the carotenoid content of the fruits were also analyzed. All fruits showed a high ability to scavenge the OH radical, ranging from 60.61% to 81.04% inhibition for Rosa canina and Crataegus monogyna, respectively. The H(2)O(2) scavenging capacity and the TEAC value varied widely, ranging between 3.63% and 87.26% inhibition of H(2)O(2) and between 0.47 and 416.64 mM trolox g(-1) FW for Sorbus domestica and Rosa canina, respectively. The antioxidant activity of fruits was higher than that of the synthetic additives analyzed, except in the TEAC assay. The phenolic and carotenoid content of R. canina was much higher than that of the other fruits analyzed and its ascorbic acid concentration was also high, reflecting its higher efficacy towards ABTS⁻ (TEAC assay) and H(2)O(2) species(.) In spite of these associations, the correlation coefficients between total antioxidant activity and the antioxidant compounds analyzed were not very significant; only phenolics and carotenoids showed a marginal correlation with the TEAC assay. The results support the possible use of R. canina as natural antioxidant to replace the synthetic additives, as well as their use in the production of functional foods with a high antioxidant activity.

  9. Enhanced photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant potential mediate brassinosteriod-induced phenanthrene stress tolerance in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Li, Xin; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis, the basal manufacturing process in the earth is habitually restricted by airborne micropollutants such as phenanthrene (PHE). Here, we show that 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), a bioactive plant steroid is able to keep higher photosynthetic capacity consistently for a long period under a shoot-imposed PHE stress in tomato. EBR-promoted photosynthetic capacity and efficiency eventually resulted in a 37.5% increase of biomass under PHE stress. As primary response, transcripts of antioxidant genes were remarkably induced by EBR in PHE-treated plants. Activities of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes were also enhanced by EBR. Notably, EBR-induced higher antioxidant potential was associated with reduced levels of H 2 O 2 and O 2 · — , resulting in a 32.7% decrease of content of malondialdehyde in the end of experiment and relatively healthy chloroplast ultrastructure in EBR + PHE treatment compared with PHE alone. These results indicate that EBR alleviates shoot-imposed PHE phytotoxicity by maintaining a consistently higher photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant potential in tomato. - Highlights: • PHE mist spray gradually inhibits photosynthesis and eventually reduces biomass. • EBR maintains a consistently higher photosynthesis even under PHE stress. • EBR upregulates expression of antioxidant genes as initial response to PHE stress. • EBR reduces oxidative stress by constantly activating strong antioxidant potential. • EBR-induced efficient neutralization of ROS protects chloroplast ultrastructure. - 24-epibrassinolide protects tomato plants from airborne phenanthrene-induced damages by maintaining a consistently higher photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant potential

  10. Sesame oil enhances endogenous antioxidants in ischemic myocardium of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Mohamed Saleem

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the potency of antioxidant activity of sesame oil in-vitro model of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury of rat. Sesame oil was administered orally to Wistar albino rats (180-200 g in two different doses (n=6, by gastric gavage at a dose of 5 mL/kg b.w. (S1 and 10 mL/kg b.w (S2 daily for thirty days. Control and sesame oil treated rat hearts were subjected to invitro global ischemic reperfusion injury (5 min perfusion, 9 min noflow and 12 min reperfusion. A significant rise in TBARS and decrease of GSH, catalase, LDH, CK and AST occurred in the hearts subjected to in-vitro myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury indicate the myocardial damage through oxidative stress. In sesame oil treated rats there was a significant decrease in TBARS and significant increase in endogenous antioxidants and myocardial marker enzymes in all the groups. In 10 mL/kg treatment group, a significant rise in the levels of GSH, SOD and catalase were observed with marker enzymes, and it shows better recovery profile than the other groups subjected to in-vitro ischemic reperfusion injury. In histological studies, control rats which subjected to IR injury show extensive myocardial damage and all the treatment groups, shows preserved myocardium. The effect of sesame oil was compared with reference compound captopril. The present study demonstrates that the sesame oil treated by the dose 10 mL/kg augments endogenous antioxidant compounds of the rat heart and also prevents the myocardium from in-vitro model of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury

  11. Effect Of Using Ginger And / Or Cinnamon, As An Irradiated Supplement, On Lipid Profiles And Antioxidant Activities Of Dietary-Induced Hypercholesterolemia In Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.F.S.; Osman, N.N.; Yonies, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Combating hypercholesterolemia is one of the modern nutrition directions. Towards this goal, hypercholesterolemia diet (HCD) containing cholesterol (1% w/w) and sodium cholate (0.2% w/w) was investigated on male Wister rats. Ginger and/or cinnamon (1% w/w) irradiated with 10 KGy were added to the HCD as a decontaminated supplement to evaluate the efficacy of these spices in reducing hypercholesterolemia. Their effects on serum and hepatic lipid, atherogenic index, blood and liver lipid peroxidation and antioxidant properties were determined. It was found that, the use of either ginger or cinnamon or both reduced TG, TC and LDL-C and increased HDL-C. Also, these spices suppressed lipid peroxidation via enhancement of antioxidant activities. The mixture of the two spices was more effective on the studied parameters in HCD fed rats. Thus, it could be concluded that intake of ginger and cinnamon may minimize the risk of atherosclerosis associated with a high cholesterol diet. These overall results support the future use of these spices and that continuous spices intake may be recommended in human

  12. Effects of dietary supplementation of Artemisia argyi aqueous extract on antioxidant indexes of small intestine in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Artemisia argyi aqueous extract (AAE on antioxidant indexes in the small intestine. A total of 192 Arbor Acre broiler chickens (one-day-old were randomly divided into 4 treatments with 6 replicates of 8 chickens. These 4 diets were formulated by adding 0, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg AAE to the basal diet. The results showed as follows: 1 compared with the control, the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC in ileum for the 2,000 mg/kg treatment group was significantly increased at 21 days of age (P < 0.05; the T-AOC levels in jejunum and ileum were significantly increased in broilers supplemented with 500 mg/kg AAE at 42 days of age (P < 0.05, and the T-AOC levels in jejunum and ileum were significantly improved in 1,000 mg/kg treatment group (P < 0.01. 2 At 21 days of age, supplementation of 500 mg/kg AAE significantly increased the catalase (CAT activity of small intestine, and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity of jejunum was improved (P < 0.01, meanwhile, the GSH-Px activity of duodenum and the total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD activity of duodenum and jejunum were significantly higher than those of the control group (P < 0.05; supplementation of 1,000 mg/kg AAE significantly increased the CAT activity of duodenum and ileum and the GSH-Px activity of duodenum and jejunum (P < 0.05, and the ileum GSH-Px activity was significantly increased (P < 0.01; supplementation of 2,000 mg/kg AAE significantly increased the CAT activity of duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05. At 42 days of age, supplementation of 500 mg/kg AAE significantly increased the GSH-Px activity of ileum and the T-SOD activity of duodenum (P < 0.05, meanwhile, the T-SOD activity of jejunum was significantly increased (P < 0.01; supplementation of 1,000 mg/kg AAE significantly increased the CAT activity of jejunum and the T-SOD activity of ileum (P < 0.01, and the GSH-Px activity of jejunum was

  13. Development of microalgae biomaterials with enhanced antioxidant activity using electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younghwa; Park, Hyunjin; Choi, Soojeong; Lee, Jaehwa

    2013-01-01

    By increasing the antioxidant products (e. g. antioxidant enzyme, carotenoid, phycobiliproteins, chlorophyll, lipid phenolic compounds, etc.) in microalgae, it could be useful for industry. In this study, mutants of fresh water microalgae Arthrospira platensis (A. platensis) by high energy electron beam were isolated and characterized. Those selected mutants showed higher growth rate than parental strain. The antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and POD), flavonoid, phenolic compound and phycocyanin of mutants were increased about 2 times compared to wild type. Moreover, DPPH radical scavenging activity was increased about 20%. Microalgae species with improved growth rate and enhanced active compounds make the commercial process more feasible in industry. Using microalgae mutants with increased antioxidant products, it is useful to develop microalgae biomaterials for neutraceuticals

  14. Development of microalgae biomaterials with enhanced antioxidant activity using electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Younghwa; Park, Hyunjin; Choi, Soojeong; Lee, Jaehwa [Silla Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    By increasing the antioxidant products (e. g. antioxidant enzyme, carotenoid, phycobiliproteins, chlorophyll, lipid phenolic compounds, etc.) in microalgae, it could be useful for industry. In this study, mutants of fresh water microalgae Arthrospira platensis (A. platensis) by high energy electron beam were isolated and characterized. Those selected mutants showed higher growth rate than parental strain. The antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and POD), flavonoid, phenolic compound and phycocyanin of mutants were increased about 2 times compared to wild type. Moreover, DPPH radical scavenging activity was increased about 20%. Microalgae species with improved growth rate and enhanced active compounds make the commercial process more feasible in industry. Using microalgae mutants with increased antioxidant products, it is useful to develop microalgae biomaterials for neutraceuticals.

  15. ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION AND NASAL INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES AMONG YOUNG ASTHMATICS EXPOSED TO HIGH LEVELS OF OZONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Recent studies examining the inflammatory response in atopic asthma to ozone suggest a release of soluble mediators of inflammation factors that might be related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidant could prove useful in subjects exposed to additional oxidati...

  16. Effects of nutritional supplement of ginger root on antioxidant status in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid fartashvand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale is a medicinal plant and pungent food spice, which has antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ginger on antioxidant status of blood in healthy sheep. In this study, dried ginger root powder was added to the ration of 10 male yearling sheep (treatment group, at the rate of 1g/head/day for a period of 2 months. In the second group (n = 10 sheep, a single dose of vitamin E+selenium injection was administered intramuscularly (positive control group and the control group (n=10 sheep received no medication or special additives. Blood samples were collected regularly at 2 week intervals and enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT and total antioxidant levels were measured. Ginger increased total antioxidant capacity of serum and blood levels of SOD, GPX and CAT, which was significant compared to the control group (p

  17. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  18. Dietary Supplementation with Virgin Coconut Oil Improves Lipid Profile and Hepatic Antioxidant Status and Has Potential Benefits on Cardiovascular Risk Indices in Normal Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famurewa, Ademola C; Ekeleme-Egedigwe, Chima A; Nwali, Sophia C; Agbo, Ngozi N; Obi, Joy N; Ezechukwu, Goodness C

    2018-05-04

    Research findings that suggest beneficial health effects of dietary supplementation with virgin coconut oil (VCO) are limited in the published literature. This study investigated the in vivo effects of a 5-week VCO-supplemented diet on lipid profile, hepatic antioxidant status, hepatorenal function, and cardiovascular risk indices in normal rats. Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1 control and 2 treatment groups (10% and 15% VCO-supplemented diets) for 5 weeks. Serum and homogenate samples were used to analyze lipid profile, hepatorenal function markers, hepatic activities of antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde level. Lipid profile of animals fed VCO diets showed significant reduction in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels; high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level increased significantly (p profile, renal status, hepatic antioxidant defense system, and cardiovascular risk indices in rats.

  19. Semen supplementation with palmitoleic acid promotes kinematics, microscopic and antioxidative parameters of ram spermatozoa during liquid storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, M; Ghasemiyan, H; Zadeh Hashem, E

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate the protective effects of palmitoleate on the quality of ram semen during low temperature liquid storage. Ejaculates were collected using the artificial vagina from four Qezel rams twice a week. Ejaculates were pooled, diluted with Tris-egg yolk extender without palmitoleate (control) or supplemented with 0.125 (P 0.125), 0.25 (P 0.25), 0.5 (P 0.5) and 1 (P 1) mM palmitoleate at a final concentration of 500 × 10 6 spermatozoa/ml. Total motility and forward progressive motility (FPM) as well as other spermatozoa kinematics were evaluated by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Moreover, viability and membrane functionality were determined in the spermatozoa. Additionally, amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant activity (AOA), nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were evaluated in the medium and spermatozoa at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hr of storage. The palmitoleate supplementation resulted in a significant (p spermatozoa (76.60 ± 1.95%) and viability (75.81 ± 1.34%) at 72 hr (p spermatozoa during storage time (p spermatozoa compared to the control (p spermatozoa motion characteristics, AOA levels and SOD activities during liquid storage. Then, palmitoleate could be used as an antioxidant source during liquid storage of ram semen. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Oxidative stability of fish oil supplemented with carnosic acid compared with synthetic antioxidants during long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Fang; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Han; Qu, Shengzhuo; Zhang, Ying

    2011-09-01

    The effects of carnosic acid (CA) of different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3mg/g) and synthetic antioxidants on oxidative stability in fish oil stored for 66days at different temperatures (30 and 4°C) were compared. The investigation focused on the increase in peroxide and conjugated diene values, as well as free fatty acid and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. The changes in trans fatty acid and aldehyde compound contents were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, while the changes in polyunsaturated fatty acid content were monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the three CA concentrations were more effective in restraining fish oil oxidation, in which a dose-response relationship was observed. The antioxidant activity of CA was stronger than that of vitamin E, but still weaker than that of tertiary-butyl hydroquinone. Fish oil supplemented with 0.2mg/g CA exhibited favourable antioxidant effects and is preferable for effectively avoiding oxidation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Selenium supplementation modulates zinc levels and antioxidant values in blood and tissues of diabetic rats fed zinc-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmi, Wided; Kechrid, Zine; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Flores-Arce, Manuel

    2013-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated to a reduction of antioxidant defenses that leads to oxidative stress and complications in diabetic individuals. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of selenium on blood biochemical parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, and tissue zinc levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed a zinc-deficient diet. The rats were divided into two groups; the first group was fed a zinc-sufficient diet, while the second group was fed a zinc-deficient diet. Half of each group was treated orally with 0.5 mg/kg sodium selenite. Tissue and blood samples were taken from all animals after 28 days of treatment. At the end of the experiment, the body weight gain and food intake of the zinc-deficient diabetic animals were lower than that of zinc-adequate diabetic animals. Inadequate dietary zinc intake increased glucose, lipids, triglycerides, urea, and liver lipid peroxidation levels. In contrast, serum protein, reduced glutathione, plasma zinc and tissue levels were decreased. A zinc-deficient diet led also to an increase in serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and liver glutathione-S-transferase and to a decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase activity and glutathione peroxidase. Selenium treatment ameliorated all the values approximately to their normal levels. In conclusion, selenium supplementation presumably acting as an antioxidant led to an improvement of insulin activity, significantly reducing the severity of zinc deficiency in diabetes.

  2. Effect of refrigerated storage on probiotic viability and the production and stability of antimutagenic and antioxidant peptides in yogurt supplemented with pineapple peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, B N P; Vasiljevic, T; McKechnie, S; Donkor, O N

    2015-09-01

    Fruit by-products are good resources of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals, which may function as growth nutrients for probiotic bacteria. This research aimed at evaluating effects of pineapple peel powder addition on the viability and activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC 4356), Lactobacillus casei (ATCC393), and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (ATCC BAA52) in yogurts throughout storage at 4°C for 28d. Plain and probiotic yogurts supplemented with or without pineapple peel powder or inulin were prepared. The probiotic counts in supplemented yogurts at 28d of storage ranged from 7.68 and 8.03 log cfu/g, one log cycle higher compared with nonsupplemented control yogurt. Degree of proteolysis in synbiotic yogurts was significantly higher than plain yogurts and increased substantially during storage. Crude water-soluble peptide extract of the probiotic yogurt with peel possessed stronger antimutagenic and antioxidant activities [evaluated measuring reducing power and scavenging capacity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and hydroxyl radicals] than control and maintained during storage. Pineapple peel, a by-product of juice production, could be proposed as a prebiotic ingredient in the manufacture of yogurts with enhanced nutrition, and functionality. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antioxidant activity of ginger extract as a daily supplement in cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danwilai K

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kwanjit Danwilai,1,2 Jitprapa Konmun,2,3 Bung-orn Sripanidkulchai,4 Suphat Subongkot,2,4,5 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, 2The College of Pharmacotherapy of Thailand, Nonthaburi, 3Department of Pharmacy, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 4Center for Research and Development of Herbal Health Products, 5Clinical Pharmacy Division, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the antioxidant activity of ginger extract oral supplement in newly diagnosed cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy compared to placebo.Patients and methods: Newly diagnosed cancer patients receiving moderate-to-high emetogenic potential adjuvant chemotherapy were randomized to receive either a ginger extract (standardized 6-gingerol 20 mg/day or a placebo 3 days prior to chemotherapy, which they continued daily. Oxidant/antioxidant parameters, including the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, total glutathione (GSH/GSSG, lipid peroxidation products detected as malondialdehyde (MDA and NO2-/NO3-, were measured at baseline and at days 1, 22, 43 and 64 after undergoing chemotherapy. Two-sided statistical analysis, with P < 0.05, was used to determine statistical significance.Results: A total of 43 patients were included in the study: 19 and 24 patients were randomly assigned to the ginger group and placebo group, respectively. Antioxidant activity parameters, including SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH/GSSG, were significantly increased at day 64 in the ginger group compared to those in the placebo group, while MDA and NO2-/NO3- levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.0001. When compared to the baseline, the activities of SOD and CAT and the levels of GPx and GSH/GSSG were significantly higher on day 64 (P = 0.01, while the blood levels of

  4. The gender-differentiated antioxidant effects of a lutein-containing supplement in the aqueous humor of patients with senile cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Rijo; Hayashi, Shimmin; Arai, Kiyomi; Sakai, Miki; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Chikuda, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    Antioxidant supplements are expected to decrease oxidative damage and prevent ocular diseases. In this study, changes in the anti-oxidative ability and oxidative status in the aqueous humor before and after intake of a lutein-containing supplement were measured. Forty patients who all had identical grades of cataracts in both eyes were included. The aqueous humor was collected as pre-intake samples during cataract surgery. Ocuvite + Lutein(Ⓡ), an antioxidant supplement, was administered orally beginning the day after surgery. Six weeks later, the aqueous humor was collected as a post-intake sample during cataract surgery of the opposite eye. To determine the anti-oxidative ability, the levels of superoxide (O2(*-)) scavenging activity were measured. To determine the oxidative status, the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and total amount of hydroperoxides (TH, including H2O2 and peroxides of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) were measured. In post-intake samples, the O2(*-) scavenging activities were significantly higher in both genders (p humor in females only (r = 0.66 and p humor to prevent further oxidation of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, which was confirmed by the low levels of TH in post-intake samples. Antioxidant supplements are suggested to be effective in reducing oxidation in the aqueous humor by different mechanisms in both genders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced task related brain activation and resting perfusion in healthy older adults after chronic blueberry supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Bowtell, J.; Zainie, A.; Conway, M. E.; Adlam, A.; Fulford, J.

    2017-01-01

    Blueberries are rich in flavonoids, which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. High flavonoid intakes attenuate age-related cognitive decline, but data from human intervention studies are sparse. We investigated whether 12 weeks of blueberry concentrate supplementation improved brain\\ud perfusion, task-related activation and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Participants were randomised to consume either 30 ml blueberry concentrate providing 387 mg anthocyanidins (5...

  6. Exogenous Glycine Nitrogen Enhances Accumulation of Glycosylated Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycine, the simplest amino acid in nature and one of the most abundant free amino acids in soil, is regarded as a model nutrient in organic nitrogen studies. To date, many studies have focused on the uptake, metabolism and distribution of organic nitrogen in plants, but few have investigated the nutritional performance of plants supplied with organic nitrogen. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., one of the most widely consumed leafy vegetables worldwide, is a significant source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, ascorbic acid and tocopherols. In this study, two lettuce cultivars, Shenxuan 1 and Lollo Rossa, were hydroponically cultured in media containing 4.5, 9, or 18 mM glycine or 9 mM nitrate (control for 4 weeks, and the levels of health-promoting compounds and antioxidant activity of the lettuce leaf extracts were evaluated. Glycine significantly reduced fresh weight compared to control lettuce, while 9 mM glycine significantly increased fresh weight compared to 4.5 or 18 mM glycine. Compared to controls, glycine (18 mM for Shenxuan 1; 9 mM for Lollo Rossa significantly increased the levels of most antioxidants (including total polyphenols, α-tocopherol and antioxidant activity, suggesting appropriate glycine supply promotes antioxidant accumulation and activity. Glycine induced most glycosylated quercetin derivatives and luteolin derivatives detected and decreased some phenolic acids compared to nitrate treatment. This study indicates exogenous glycine supplementation could be used strategically to promote the accumulation of health-promoting compounds and antioxidant activity of hydroponically grown lettuce, which could potentially improve human nutrition.

  7. Influence of Antioxidant-Enhanced Polymers in Bitumen Rheology and Bituminous Concrete Mixtures Mechanical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Dessouky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the effect of polymer enhancement with antioxidant in the rheological properties of bitumen and mechanical properties of bituminous concrete mixture (BCM. In this study, two antioxidant-enhanced polymers were utilized in mitigating bitumen hardening due to aging. The rheological testing consists of temperature sweep using Dynamic Shear Rheometer at various aging conditions. Critical stiffness temperature data from the sweep test suggested that enhanced polymer exhibits less long-term hardening and brittleness compared to standard polymer. The mechanical testing consists of dynamic modulus, indirect tensile, flow number, and beam fatigue tests on BCM exposed to short-term aging. Hamburg wheel tracking test was also performed to assess moisture-damage susceptibility. It is found that the enhanced-polymer BCM exhibited higher modulus, higher tensile strength ratio, improved rutting resistance, lower moisture-damage susceptibility, and slightly increased fatigue life as compared to standard-polymer BCM.

  8. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  9. Effect of cocoa butter and sunflower oil supplementation on performance, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ebru; Cınar, Miyase; Yalçınkaya, Ilkay; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiulcer properties of Vaccinium leschenaultii Wight: A therapeutic supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima Nagulsamy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In folklore systems of medicine, bilberry fruit and leaf extracts have been used for the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, diabetes, inflammation, and ulcer. The present study was to determine antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiulcerogenic activities of Vaccinium leschenaultii Wight leaf and fruit. The phenolic, tannin, and flavonoid contents of V. leschenaultii leaf and fruit were quantified and were subjected to assess their antioxidant potential using various in vitro systems such as 1, 1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging, phosphomolybdenum, and ferric reducing antioxidant power reduction activities. Based on the antioxidant potential, acetone and methanol extracts of leaf and fruit were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity and protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric damage in a rat model. The quantification of secondary metabolites shows that the phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents are higher in methanol extracts of fruit and leaf. The results of antioxidant assays exhibited that the methanol extracts of leaf possesses better 1, 1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activity. Oral administration of the acetone fruit and leaf extracts of V. leschenaultii were capable of reducing the edema formation in rats against carrageenan and egg albumin induced inflammation. Moreover, leaf and fruit acetone extracts at the dose of 400 mg/kg highly inhibited ulcer formation. The study concluded that the plant substances such as total phenols, flavonoids along with appreciable antioxidant potential could be the supportive evidence to prove both the anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities of V. leschenaultii. The traditional importance of this plant will help to reveal the potential of plant to provide alternative phytotherapeutics for human health.

  11. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M; van Griensven, Leo

    2015-10-27

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  12. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  13. Sodium nitrate supplementation does not enhance performance of endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bescós, Raúl; Ferrer-Roca, Ventura; Galilea, Pedro A; Roig, Andreu; Drobnic, Franchek; Sureda, Antoni; Martorell, Miquel; Cordova, Alfredo; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2012-12-01

    Supplementation with inorganic nitrate has been suggested to be an ergogenic aid for athletes as nitric oxide donor. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ingestion of inorganic sodium nitrate benefits well-trained athletes performing a 40-min exercise test in laboratory conditions. In addition, we investigated the effect of this supplement on plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and in nitrated proteins. Thirteen trained athletes participated in this randomized, double-blind, crossover study. They performed a 40-min cycle ergometer distance-trial test after two 3-d periods of dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate (10 mg·kg of body mass) or placebo. Concentration of plasma nitrate (256 ± 35 μM) and nitrite (334 ± 86 nM) increased significantly (P nitrate supplementation compared with placebo (nitrate: 44 ± 11 μM; nitrite: 187 ± 43 nM). In terms of exercise performance, there were no differences in either the mean distance (nitrate: 26.4 ± 1.1 km; placebo: 26.3 ± 1.2 km; P = 0.61) or mean power output (nitrate: 258 ± 28 W; placebo: 257 ± 28 W; P = 0.89) between treatments. Plasma ET-1 increased significantly (P nitrate (4.0 ± 0.8 pg·mL) and placebo (2.4 ± 0.4 pg·mL) conditions. This increase was significantly greater (P nitrate group. Levels of nitrated proteins did not differ between treatments (nitrate: preexercise, 91% ± 23%; postexercise, 81% ± 23%; placebo: preexercise, 95% ± 20%; postexercise, 99% ± 19%). Sodium nitrate supplementation did not improve a 40-min distance-trial performance in endurance athletes. In addition, concentration of plasma ET-1 increased significantly after exercise after supplementation with sodium nitrate.

  14. Arctigenin enhances swimming endurance of sedentary rats partially by regulation of antioxidant pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruo-ming; Sun, Yan-yan; Zhou, Ting-ting; Zhu, Zhi-yuan; Zhuang, Jing-jing; Tang, Xuan; Chen, Jing; Hu, Li-hong; Shen, Xu

    2014-10-01

    Arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan found in traditional Chinese herbs, has been determined to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, neuroprotection, and endurance enhancement. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidation and anti-fatigue effects of arctigenin in rats. Rat L6 skeletal muscle cell line was exposed to H2O2 (700 μmol/L), and ROS level was assayed using DCFH-DA as a probe. Male SD rats were injected with arctigenin (15 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) for 6 weeks, and then the weight-loaded forced swimming test (WFST) was performed to evaluate their endurance. The levels of antioxidant-related genes in L6 cells and the skeletal muscles of rats were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Incubation of L6 cells with arctigenin (1, 5, 20 μmol/L) dose-dependently decreased the H2O2-induced ROS production. WFST results demonstrated that chronic administration of arctigenin significantly enhanced the endurance of rats. Furthermore, molecular biology studies on L6 cells and skeletal muscles of the rats showed that arctigenin effectively increased the expression of the antioxidant-related genes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (Gsr), glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), thioredoxin (Txn) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), through regulation of two potential antioxidant pathways: AMPK/PGC-1α/PPARα in mitochondria and AMPK/p53/Nrf2 in the cell nucleus. Arctigenin efficiently enhances rat swimming endurance by elevation of the antioxidant capacity of the skeletal muscles, which has thereby highlighted the potential of this natural product as an antioxidant in the treatment of fatigue and related diseases.

  15. New methods and antioxidants to prevent oxidation of omega-3 oil supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 oils have gained much attention recently due to their beneficial health effects. However, their polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) are so prone to oxidation in the presence of oxygen, heat, light, and metal ions that a strong antioxidant is needed to prevent oxidation during manufacturing processe...

  16. Enhanced antioxidant defense after exogenous application of Ca 2+ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both of these nutrients play an important role in ameliorating drought stress in crop plants. This experiment was designed to study whether exogenous application of Ca2+ and K+ before the drought could enhance the potential of plants to survive under limiting water conditions. Brassica napus L. cv Bulbul-98 seedlings ...

  17. Dietary L-arginine supplementation enhances placental growth and reproductive performance in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kaiguo; Jiang, Zongyong; Lin, Yingcai; Zheng, Chuntian; Zhou, Guilian; Chen, Fang; Yang, Lin; Wu, Guoyao

    2012-06-01

    Suboptimal embryonic/fetal survival and growth remains a significant problem in mammals. Using a swine model, we tested the hypothesis that dietary L-arginine supplementation during gestation may improve pregnancy outcomes through enhancing placental growth and modulating hormonal secretions. Gestating pigs (Yorkshire×Landrace, n=108) were assigned randomly into two groups based on parity and body weight, representing dietary supplementation with 1.0% L-arginine-HCl or 1.7% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) between days 22 and 114 of gestation. Blood samples were obtained from the ear vein on days 22, 40, 70 and 90 of gestation. On days 40, 70 and 90 of gestation, concentrations of estradiol in plasma were higher (Psupplemented than in control sows. Moreover, arginine supplementation increased (Psupplementation increased (Psupplementation enhanced (Psupplementation during gestation. These results indicate that dietary arginine supplementation beneficially enhances placental growth and the reproductive performance of sows.

  18. Characteristics and enhanced antioxidant activity of glycated Morchella esculenta protein isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang ZHANG

    Full Text Available Abstract Morchella esculenta (L Pers. is a highly valued edible and medicinal fungus that remains underutilized. For this study, the effects of glycation treatment on antioxidant activity and characteristics of the M. esculenta protein isolate (MPI were investigated via the Maillard reaction. Conjugation between MPI and xylose was proven via UV-vis, FT-IR, intrinsic fluorescence analysis, and SDS-PAGE. Amino acid analysis revealed involvement of lysine, arginine and tyrosine in MPI, forming a covalent cross-link with xylose. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results showed that glycated MPI (MPIG possesses a more favorable thermal stability compared to native MPI (MPIN, heated MPI (MPIH and an unheated mixture of MPI and xylose (MPI-XM. MPIG exhibited significantly enhanced antioxidant activity compared to MPIN, MPIH, and MPI-XM. These results indicate MPIG can serve as a promising novel source of nutraceutical and functional ingredients that exert antioxidant activity.

  19. Effect of supplementation during pregnancy with L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins in medical food on pre-eclampsia in high risk population: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Espino, Salvador; Avila-Vergara, Marco Antonio; Ibarra, Isabel; Ahued, Roberto; Godines, Myrna; Parry, Samuel; Macones, George; Strauss, Jerome F

    2011-05-19

    To test the hypothesis that a relative deficiency in L-arginine, the substrate for synthesis of the vasodilatory gas nitric oxide, may be associated with the development of pre-eclampsia in a population at high risk. Randomised, blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial. Tertiary public hospital in Mexico City. Pregnant women with a history of a previous pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia, or pre-eclampsia in a first degree relative, and deemed to be at increased risk of recurrence of the disease were studied from week 14-32 of gestation and followed until delivery. Supplementation with a medical food-bars containing L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins, antioxidant vitamins alone, or placebo-during pregnancy. Development of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. 222 women were allocated to the placebo group, 228 received L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins, and 222 received antioxidant vitamins alone. Women had 4-8 prenatal visits while receiving the bars. The incidence of pre-eclampsia was reduced significantly (χ(2) = 19.41; P L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins compared with placebo (absolute risk reduction 0.17 (95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.21). Antioxidant vitamins alone showed an observed benefit, but this effect was not statistically significant compared with placebo (χ(2) = 3.76; P = 0.052; absolute risk reduction 0.07, 0.005 to 0.15). L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins compared with antioxidant vitamins alone resulted in a significant effect (P = 0.004; absolute risk reduction 0.09, 0.05 to 0.14). Supplementation during pregnancy with a medical food containing L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins reduced the incidence of pre-eclampsia in a population at high risk of the condition. Antioxidant vitamins alone did not have a protective effect for prevention of pre-eclampsia. Supplementation with L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins needs to be evaluated in a low risk population to determine the generalisability of the protective effect, and the relative

  20. Effect of thymol and carvacrol feed supplementation on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, and immune response in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashemipour, H.; Kermanshahi, H.; Golian, A.; Veldkamp, T.

    2013-01-01

    This trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of phytogenic product containing an equal mixture of thymol and carvacrol at 4 levels (0, 60, 100, and 200 mg/kg of diet) on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities,

  1. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION OF EWES ON PRODUCTION TRAITS, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND METABOLIC PROFILE OF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Novoselec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary selenium supplementation (organic, inorganic of high pregnant ewes on the production traits of lambs, the concentration of selenium in the blood of ewes and their lambs, indicators of antioxidant status in the blood of ewes and their lambs, the metabolic profile of ewes and their lambs and concentrations of thyroid hormones. Ewes were in the last third of pregnancy, the average age of four years, healthy and in good condition, divided into three groups of 10 animals. The research lasted 4 months respectively, 2 months with ewes during high pregnancy, 2 months with ewes during lactation and on their lambs during suckling period. Ewes ration from control group one was composed from 300 g/day/animal feed mixture without addition of selenium and 150 g/day/animal barley and alfalfa hay that they had ad libitum. Feed mixture from second group of ewes was supplemented with 0.3 mg/kg organic form of selenium (Sel-Plex®, and feed mixture from third group with the same amount inorganic form of selenium (sodium selenite. Selenium supplementation of ewes feed mixture did not significantly influence on the production traits of their lambs postpartum. Selenium supplementation of ewes and their lambs had influence on a significant (P<0.01; P<0.05 increase in the concentration of selenium, GSH-Px and SOD in whole blood compared to control group of ewes. Organic selenium supplement had a more significant impact on the increase in concentration of selenium and GSH-Px in the blood. In the ewes and lambs blood was determined decrease of MDA with increasing concentrations of selenium in the blood. Generally, the selenium supplementation led to an increase (P<0.05 in the number of WBC and lymphocytes in the blood of ewes and lambs. Also, the increase in the number of RBC, HGB content and MCV in lambs and MCH as well as MCHC in ewes that had a selenium supplement in feed mixture were determined

  2. Antioxidant supplement and long-term reduction of recurrent adenomas of the large bowel. A double-blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Luigina; Puntoni, Matteo; Gatteschi, Beatrice; Massa, Paolo; Missale, Guido; Munizzi, Francesco; Turbino, Laura; Villanacci, Vincenzo; De Censi, Andrea; Bruzzi, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    Patients who undergo polypectomy are at increased risk of adenoma recurrence. The preventive potential of vitamins (A, C and E) and selenium supplementation represent an interesting opportunity for colorectal cancer prevention. To assess the efficacy of a combination of these micronutrients in reducing the incidence of recurrent adenomas in subjects on post-polypectomy endoscopic follow-up, a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial was started in Italy in 1988. A total of 411 patients were randomized to receive either an active compound (200 μg selenium, 30 mg zinc, 2 mg vitamin A, 180 mg vitamin C, 30 mg vitamin E) or a placebo daily for 5 years. Of them, 330 had follow-up colonoscopy (164 in the intervention and 166 in the placebo group). After a median follow-up of 4 years (range 1-15 years), 100 patients had recurrence: 38 in the intervention and 62 in the placebo arm. The 15-year cumulative incidence of recurrence was 48.3% in the intervention and 64.5% in the placebo arm (HR = 0.59; log-rank P = 0.009). A 39% reduction of the risk of recurrence was observed in the intervention compared to the placebo group (adjusted HR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.41-0.92): the risk reduction was similar for small tubular (adjusted HR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.37-0.99) and advanced adenomas (adjusted HR = 0.50; 95% CI 0.24-1.01). Our study showed a statistically significant effect of antioxidant supplementation on adenoma recurrence. Further clinical trials are needed to address the role of antioxidants in subgroups of subjects at increased risk for colorectal cancer.

  3. Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents Enhancement with Acute Gamma Irradiation in Curcuma alismatifolia (Zingiberaceae) Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Sima; Abdullah, Thohirah Lee; Karimi, Ehsan; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to assess the effect of various doses of acute gamma irradiation (0, 10, 15, and 20 Gy) on the improvement of bioactive compounds and their antioxidant properties of Curcuma alismatifolia var. Sweet pink. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) analysis uncovered that various types of phenolic, flavonoid compounds, and fatty acids gradually altered in response to radiation doses. On the other hand, antioxidant activities determined by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reduction, antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay showed a higher irradiation level significantly increased the antioxidant properties. This study revealed an efficient effect of varying levels of gamma radiation, based on the pharmaceutical demand to enhance the accumulation and distribution of bioactive compounds such as phenolic and flavonoid compounds, fatty acids, as well as their antioxidant activities in the leaves of C. alismatifolia var. Sweet pink. PMID:25056545

  4. Pomegranate peel extract decreases small intestine lipid peroxidation by enhancing activities of major antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gubory, Kaïs H; Blachier, François; Faure, Patrice; Garrel, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Pomegranate peel extract (PPE) contains several compounds with antioxidative properties. PPE added to foods may interact with endogenous antioxidants and promote health. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanisms by which PPE exerts their actions on tissues of biological systems in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of PPE on activities of antioxidant enzymes. Mice were used to investigate the effects of PPE on plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tissue MDA content and activities of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), SOD2 and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the small intestine, liver and skeletal muscle - different tissues involved in the digestion, absorption and metabolism of dietary nutrients. Control mice were fed a standard diet, whereas treated mice were fed for 40 days with the standard diet containing 5% or 10% PPE. Mice fed the 10% PPE diet exhibited lower plasma MDA concentrations, reduced content of MDA in the small intestine and liver and higher levels of SOD1 and GPX activities in the small intestine compared to mice fed the control diet. These findings demonstrate that intake of PPE in diet attenuates small intestine lipid peroxidation and strengthens the first line of small intestine antioxidant defense by enhancing enzymatic antioxidative pathways. PPE is worthy of further study as a therapeutic approach to prevent peroxidative stress-induced gut pathogenesis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents Enhancement with Acute Gamma Irradiation in Curcuma alismatifolia (Zingiberaceae Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Taheri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to assess the effect of various doses of acute gamma irradiation (0, 10, 15, and 20 Gy on the improvement of bioactive compounds and their antioxidant properties of Curcuma alismatifolia var. Sweet pink. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography (GC analysis uncovered that various types of phenolic, flavonoid compounds, and fatty acids gradually altered in response to radiation doses. On the other hand, antioxidant activities determined by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH, ferric reduction, antioxidant power (FRAP, and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging assay showed a higher irradiation level significantly increased the antioxidant properties. This study revealed an efficient effect of varying levels of gamma radiation, based on the pharmaceutical demand to enhance the accumulation and distribution of bioactive compounds such as phenolic and flavonoid compounds, fatty acids, as well as their antioxidant activities in the leaves of C. alismatifolia var. Sweet pink.

  6. The Antioxidant Role of Glutathione and N-Acetyl-Cysteine Supplements and Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willoughby Darryn

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An increase in exercise intensity is one of the many ways in which oxidative stress and free radical production has been shown to increase inside our cells. Effective regulation of the cellular balance between oxidation and antioxidation is important when considering cellular function and DNA integrity as well as the signal transduction of gene expression. Many pathological states, such as cancer, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease have been shown to be related to the redox state of cells. In an attempt to minimize the onset of oxidative stress, supplementation with various known antioxidants has been suggested. Glutathione and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC are antioxidants which are quite popular for their ability to minimize oxidative stress and the downstream negative effects thought to be associated with oxidative stress. Glutathione is largely known to minimize the lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes and other such targets that is known to occur with oxidative stress. N-acetyl-cysteine is a by-product of glutathione and is popular due to its cysteine residues and the role it has on glutathione maintenance and metabolism. The process of oxidative stress is a complicated, inter-twined series of events which quite possibly is related to many other cellular processes. Exercise enthusiasts and researchers have become interested in recent years to identify any means to help minimize the detrimental effects of oxidative stress that are commonly associated with intense and unaccustomed exercise. It is possible that a decrease in the amount of oxidative stress a cell is exposed to could increase health and performance.

  7. Effects of dietary oxidized fish oil supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Larroquet, Laurence; Dias, Karine; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Heraud, Cécile; Corlay, Dominique

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the response of the antioxidant defense system against dietary prooxidant conditions in rainbow trout juveniles. Fish (initial mean weight: 62 ± 1 g) were fed three fishmeal and plant-derived protein-based diets supplemented with 15% fresh fish oil (CTL diet), 15% fresh fish oil from tuna by-products (BYP diet) or 15% autooxidized fish oil (OX diet) over a 12-week growth trial at 17.5 ± 0.5 °C. No significant differences in growth performance were recorded between dietary groups. Muscle lipid content was reduced and n-6 PUFA levels were increased in rainbow trout fed diets BYP and OX compared to CTL. After 12 weeks of feeding, the level of lipid peroxidation products in muscle was not affected whereas the 8-isoprostane content in liver was increased in fish fed diet OX as well as plasma total and oxidized glutathione contents. The hepatic and muscle contents for α-tocopherol were decreased in fish fed BYP and OX. Hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities and mRNA levels were not affected after 12 weeks of feeding, except for catalase and glutathione peroxidase 1b2 mRNA levels that were decreased in trout fed diet OX. Fish fed diet OX and BYP displayed also reduced cytosolic Nrf2 and both cytosolic and nuclear NF-κB protein levels in liver. The present work indicates that feeding rainbow trout juveniles with fresh fish oil from by-products or moderately oxidized lipid appears not to be detrimental to the growth performance of fish. The mechanisms beyond the control of the antioxidant defense system by moderately oxidized lipid require further investigations in rainbow trout juveniles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrasensitive detection of phenolic antioxidants by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas-Soto, N.; Aguilar-Hernández, I. A.; Afseth, N.; López-Luke, T.; Contreras-Torres, F. F.; Wold, J. P.

    2017-08-01

    Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful surface-sensitive technique to study the vibrational properties of analytes at very low concentrations. In this study, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and sinapic acid were analyzed by SERS using Ag colloids. Analytes were detected up to 2.5x10-9M. For caffeic acid and coumaric acid, this detection limit has been reached for the first time, as well as the SERS analysis of sinapic acid using silver colloids.

  9. Influence of different histidine sources and zinc supplementation of broiler diets on dipeptide content and antioxidant status of blood and meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, W; Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate how a diet containing spray-dried blood cells (SDBC) (4%) with or without zinc (Zn) would affect the concentration of two histidine heterodipeptides and the antioxidant status of broiler blood and breast muscles. 2. The study was carried out on 920 male Flex chickens randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: I - control, II - diet I with SDBC, III - diet I with SDBC and supplemented with Zn and IV - diet I supplemented with L-histidine. Birds were raised on floor littered with wood shavings, given free access to water and fed ad libitum. Performance indices were measured on d 1, 21 and 42. 3. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was analysed in plasma, erythrocytes and muscle tissue. The total antioxidant capacity of plasma and breast muscles was measured by 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, as well as by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Carnosine/anserine content of meat and plasma were determined using HPLC. Diets and breast muscles were analysed for amino acid profile and selected microelement content. 4. Histidine supplementation of the diet increased glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma and superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes. Moreover, the addition of SDBC or pure histidine in the diet increased histidine dipeptide content and activated enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems in chicken blood and muscles. However, it led to lower growth performance indices. 5. The enrichment of broiler diets with Zn increased the antioxidant potential and the activity of superoxide dismutase in plasma, which was independent of the histidine dipeptide concentration. Zn supplementation combined with SDBC in a broiler diet led to the increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, but it did not affect the radical

  10. Supplements for exotic pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Fava, Johanna; Colitz, Carmen M H

    2014-09-01

    The use of supplements has become commonplace in an effort to complement traditional therapy and as part of long-term preventive health plans. This article discusses historical and present uses of antioxidants, vitamins, and herbs. By complementing traditional medicine with holistic and alternative nutrition and supplements, the overall health and wellness of exotic pets can be enhanced and balanced. Further research is needed for understanding the strengths and uses of supplements in exotic species. Going back to the animals' origin and roots bring clinicians closer to nature and its healing powers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Vitamin E and Selenium Supplement on Paraoxonase-1 Activity, Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein and Antioxidant Defense in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Rashidi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on serum paraoxonase (PON1 activity, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty two female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: the control group (n=8 received a standard diet; streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats (n=12, received corn oil and physiological solution; and vitamin E and selenium supplemented diabetic rats (n=12 were treated with oral administration of vitamin E (300 mg/kg and sodium selenite (0.5 mg/kg once a day for 4 weeks. Results: Significantly lower total antioxidant status (TAS, PON1and erythrocyte SOD activities and a higher fasting plasma glucose level were observed in the diabetic rats compared to the control. A significant increase in SOD and GPX activities in vitamin E and selenium supplemented diabetic group was observed after 5 weeks of the experiment. Compared to the normal rats, malondialdehyde (MDA and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL levels were higher in the diabetic animals; however, these values reduced significantly following vitamin E and selenium supplementation. Conclusion: Vitamin E and selenium supplementation in diabetic rats has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects and may slow down the progression of diabetic complications through its protective effect on PON1 activity and lipoproteins oxidation.

  12. A Review on the Role of Chromium Supplementation in Ruminant Nutrition-Effects on Productive Performance, Blood Metabolites, Antioxidant Status, and Immunocompetence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashkari, Saman; Habibian, Mahmood; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2018-01-01

    , Cr supplementation improved dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition of dairy cows in the early, mid, or late stage of lactation. Also, in some studies, performance of growing animal, immune response, and some blood parameters responded positively to Cr supplementation. In conclusion...... microminerals is important. Chromium (Cr) is one of the important micronutrients which plays an important role in metabolism of ruminants. Experimental studies have found that Cr could change performance, immune responses, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, and antioxidant status in dairy cows. In some studies......, the effects of Cr supplementation on performance of ruminants are inconsistent; however, its long-term effects on health, productivity, immune system, and antioxidant activity of ruminants still need to be investigated....

  13. Effect of supplementation during pregnancy with L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins in medical food on pre-eclampsia in high risk population: randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Espino, Salvador; Avila-Vergara, Marco Antonio; Ibarra, Isabel; Ahued, Roberto; Godines, Myrna; Parry, Samuel; Macones, George; Strauss, Jerome F

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that a relative deficiency in L-arginine, the substrate for synthesis of the vasodilatory gas nitric oxide, may be associated with the development of pre-eclampsia in a population at high risk. Design Randomised, blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial. Setting Tertiary public hospital in Mexico City. Participants Pregnant women with a history of a previous pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia, or pre-eclampsia in a first degree relative, and deemed to be at increased risk of recurrence of the disease were studied from week 14-32 of gestation and followed until delivery. Interventions Supplementation with a medical food—bars containing L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins, antioxidant vitamins alone, or placebo—during pregnancy. Main outcome measure Development of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. Results 222 women were allocated to the placebo group, 228 received L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins, and 222 received antioxidant vitamins alone. Women had 4-8 prenatal visits while receiving the bars. The incidence of pre-eclampsia was reduced significantly (χ2=19.41; Pvitamins compared with placebo (absolute risk reduction 0.17 (95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.21). Antioxidant vitamins alone showed an observed benefit, but this effect was not statistically significant compared with placebo (χ2=3.76; P=0.052; absolute risk reduction 0.07, 0.005 to 0.15). L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins compared with antioxidant vitamins alone resulted in a significant effect (P=0.004; absolute risk reduction 0.09, 0.05 to 0.14). Conclusions Supplementation during pregnancy with a medical food containing L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins reduced the incidence of pre-eclampsia in a population at high risk of the condition. Antioxidant vitamins alone did not have a protective effect for prevention of pre-eclampsia. Supplementation with L-arginine plus antioxidant vitamins needs to be evaluated in a low risk population to determine the

  14. Effect of thyme extract supplementation on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity, PGC-1α content and endurance exercise performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Mostafa; Motamedi, Pezhman; Dehkhoda, Mohammad Reza; Dabagh Nikukheslat, Saeed; Karimi, Pouran

    2017-01-01

    Athletes have a large extent of oxidant agent production. In the current study, we aimed to determine the influence of thyme extract on the endurance exercise performance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and antioxidant status in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups receiving either normal drinking water (non-supplemented group, n  = 10) or thyme extract, 400 mg/kg, (supplemented group, n  = 10). Rats in both groups were subjected to endurance treadmill training (27 m/min, 10% grade, 60 min, and 5 days/week for 8 weeks). Finally, to determine the endurance capacity, time to exhaustion treadmill running at 36 m/min speed was assessed. At the end of the endurance capacity test, serum and soleus muscle samples were collected and their superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were measured. Protein expression of PGC-1α, as a marker of mitochondrial biogenesis, was also determined in the soleus muscle tissue by immunoblotting assay. Findings revealed that the exhaustive running time in the treatment group was significantly ( p  endurance exercise tolerance in intact animals, although decrease of oxidative stress and regulation of the PGC-1α protein expression are not considered as underlying molecular mechanisms.

  15. Effect of a dietary supplement containing blueberry and sea buckthorn concentrate on antioxidant capacity in type 1 diabetic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes-Nagy, E; Szocs-Molnár, T; Dunca, I; Balogh-Sămărghiţan, V; Hobai, S; Morar, R; Pusta, D L; Crăciun, E C

    2008-12-01

    Many studies have shown that oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of diabetes and its complications. New methods of treatment for prevention and control of this disease is a priority for the international scientific community. We investigated the relationship between the glycated hemoglobin, C peptide and two antioxidant enzymes. Thirty type 1 diabetic children were treated with a blueberry and sea buckthorn concentrate for two months. After two months of administering the product to diabetic children, the erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity was significantly higher (p < 0.05). Levels of glycated hemoglobin were significantly lower (p < 0.05). The activity of whole blood glutathione peroxidase was moderately increased but the difference was not statistically significant. C peptide concentration was significantly higher after treatment with this dietary supplement (p < 0.05). These results suggest that treatment with this dietary supplement has a beneficial effect in the treatment of type 1 diabetic children and it should be considered as a phytotherapeutic product in the fight against diabetes mellitus.

  16. Effects of a combined protein and antioxidant supplement on recovery of muscle function and soreness following eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Stephen J; Bloom, Samuel; Matias, Alexs; Morrow, Noelle; Martins, Natalya; Roh, Yookee; Ebenstein, Daniel; O'Brien, Gabriel; Escudero, Daniela; Brito, Kevin; Glickman, Leah; Connelly, Scott; Arciero, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    An acute bout of eccentric contractions (ECC) cause muscle fiber damage, inflammation, impaired muscle function (MF) and muscle soreness (MS). Individually, protein (PRO) and antioxidant (AO) supplementation may improve some aspects of recovery from ECC, though have yet to be combined. We sought to determine if combined PRO and AO supplementation (PRO + AO) improves MS and MF following damaging ECC over PRO alone. Sixty sedentary college-aged males participated in a randomized, single-blind, parallel design study of peak isometric torque (PIMT), peak isokinetic torque (PIKT), thigh circumference (TC), and muscle soreness (MS) of knee extensor muscles measured at baseline, immediately after and 1, 2, 6, and 24 h after completion of 100 maximal ECC. Immediately, 6 h, and 22 h post-ECC, participants consumed either: carbohydrate control (CHO; n  = 14), PRO ( n  = 16), or PRO + AO ( n  = 17). At baseline MS, TC, MF, macro- and micro-nutrient intakes, and total work during the ECC were not different between groups ( p  > 0.05). PIMT and PIKT (both -25%∆), TC (~1%∆) and MS (~35%∆) all changed with time ( p   CHO, p   PRO & CHO, p  < 0.05). Our results suggest PRO facilitates recovery of muscle function within 24 h following ECC, and addition of AO ameliorates MS more than PRO or CHO alone.

  17. Efficacy of Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) and/N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) Supplementation on Nutritional and Antioxidant Status of Male Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirabbasi, Elham; Shahar, Suzana; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Manap, Roslina Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant therapy has a potential to be introduced as therapeutic modality for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study aimed to determine the effect of antioxidant supplementation [ascorbic acid and N-Acetylcysteine (NAC)] on nutritional and antioxidant status in male COPD patients. A parallel and single blind randomised controlled clinical trial (RCT) was conducted at two medical centers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Seventy-nine subjects were recruited and randomly divided into four trial arms (i.e., NAC, vitamin C, NAC+vitamin C and control groups) for six mo. The primary outcome was changes in body mass index by estimating power of 90% and significance level of psupplementation of NAC or vitamin C improved nutritional and antioxidant status of subjects.

  18. Cigarette Smoking-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy, Vascular Inflammation and Injury Are Attenuated by Antioxidant Supplementation in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hariri, Moustafa; Zibara, Kazem; Farhat, Wissam; Hashem, Yasmine; Soudani, Nadia; Al Ibrahim, Farah; Hamade, Eva; Zeidan, Asad; Husari, Ahmad; Kobeissy, Firas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cigarette smoking remains a global health epidemic with associated detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. In this work, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on cardiovascular system in an animal model. The study then evaluated the effects of antioxidants (AO), represented by pomegranate juice, on cigarette smoke induced cardiovascular injury. This study aims at evaluating the effect of pomegranate juice supplementation on the cardiovascular system of an experimental rat model of smoke exposure. Methods: Adult rats were divided into four different groups: Control, Cigarette smoking (CS), AO, and CS + AO. Cigarette smoke exposure was for 4 weeks (5 days of exposure/week) and AO group received pomegranate juice while other groups received placebo. Assessment of cardiovascular injury was documented by assessing different parameters of cardiovascular injury mediators including: (1) cardiac hypertrophy, (2) oxidative stress, (3) expression of inflammatory markers, (4) expression of Bradykinin receptor 1 (Bdkrb1), Bradykinin receptor 2 (Bdkrb2), and (5) altered expression of fibrotic/atherogenic markers [(Fibronectin (Fn1) and leptin receptor (ObR))]. Results: Data from this work demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure induced cardiac hypertrophy, which was reduced upon administration of pomegranate in CS + AO group. Cigarette smoke exposure was associated with elevation in oxidative stress, significant increase in the expression of IL-1β, TNFα, Fn1, and ObR in rat's aorta. In addition, an increase in aortic calcification was observed after 1 month of cigarette smoke exposure. Furthermore, cigarette smoke induced a significant up regulation in Bdkrb1 expression level. Finally, pomegranate supplementation exhibited cardiovascular protection assessed by the above findings and partly contributed to ameliorating cardiac hypertrophy in cigarette

  19. Cigarette Smoking-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy, Vascular Inflammation and Injury are Attenuated by Antioxidant Supplementation in An Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Al Hariri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cigarette smoking remains a global health epidemic with associated detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. In this work, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on cardiovascular system in an animal model. The study then evaluated the effects of antioxidants (AO, represented by pomegranate juice, on cigarette smoke induced cardiovascular injury. This study aims at evaluating the effect of pomegranate juice supplementation on the cardiovascular system of an experimental rat model of smoke exposure.Methods Adult rats were divided into four different groups: Control, Cigarette smoking (CS, AO, and CS + AO. Cigarette smoke exposure was for 4 weeks (5 days of exposure/week and AO group received pomegranate juice while other groups received placebo. Assessment of cardiovascular injury was documented by assessing different parameters of cardiovascular injury mediators including: 1 cardiac hypertrophy, 2 oxidative stress (OS, 3 expression of inflammatory markers, 3 expression of Bradykinin receptor 1 (Bdkrb1, Bradykinin receptor 2 (Bdkrb2, and 4 altered expression expression of fibrotic/atherogenic markers [(Fibronectin (Fn1 and leptin receptor (ObR].ResultsData from this work demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure induced cardiac hypertrophy, which was reduced upon administration of pomegranate in CS + AO group. Cigarette smoke exposure was associated with elevation in oxidative stress, significant increase in the expression of IL-1β, TNFα, Fn1 and ObR in rat’s aorta. In addition, an increase in aortic calcification was observed after one month of Cigarette smoke exposure. Furthermore, Cigarette smoke induced a significant up regulation in Bdkrb1 and Bdkrb2 expression levels. Finally, pomegranate supplementation exhibited cardiovascular protection assessed by the above findings and partly contributed to ameliorating cardiac

  20. A dietary supplementation with leucine and antioxidants is capable to accelerate muscle mass recovery after immobilization in adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux

    Full Text Available Prolonged inactivity induces muscle loss due to an activation of proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis; the latter is also involved in the recovery of muscle mass. The aim of the present work was to explore the evolution of muscle mass and protein metabolism during immobilization and recovery and assess the effect of a nutritional strategy for counteracting muscle loss and facilitating recovery. Adult rats (6-8 months were subjected to unilateral hindlimb casting for 8 days (I0-I8 and then permitted to recover for 10 to 40 days (R10-R40. They were fed a Control or Experimental diet supplemented with antioxidants/polyphenols (AOX (I0 to I8, AOX and leucine (AOX + LEU (I8 to R15 and LEU alone (R15 to R40. Muscle mass, absolute protein synthesis rate and proteasome activities were measured in gastrocnemius muscle in casted and non-casted legs in post prandial (PP and post absorptive (PA states at each time point. Immobilized gastrocnemius protein content was similarly reduced (-37% in both diets compared to the non-casted leg. Muscle mass recovery was accelerated by the AOX and LEU supplementation (+6% AOX+LEU vs. Control, P<0.05 at R40 due to a higher protein synthesis both in PA and PP states (+23% and 31% respectively, Experimental vs. Control diets, P<0.05, R40 without difference in trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like activities between diets. Thus, this nutritional supplementation accelerated the recovery of muscle mass via a stimulation of protein synthesis throughout the entire day (in the PP and PA states and could be a promising strategy to be tested during recovery from bed rest in humans.

  1. Enhanced solubility and antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid-chitosan conjugates due to the conjugation of chitosan with chlorogenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Liyun; Xie, Minhao; Hu, Bing; Zhou, Li; Saeeduddin, Muhammad; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2017-08-15

    Chlorogenic acid-chitosan conjugate was synthesized by introducing of chlorogenic acid onto chitosan with the aid of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and hydroxybenzotriazole. The data of UV-vis, FT-IR and NMR for chlorogenic acid-chitosan conjugates demonstrated the successful conjugation of chlorogenic acid with chitosan. Compared to chitosan, chlorogenic acid-chitosan conjugates exhibited increased solubility in distilled water, 1% acetic acid solution (v/v) or 50% ethanol solution (v/v) containing 0.5% acetic acid. Moreover, chlorogenic acid-chitosan conjugates showed dramatic enhancements in metal ion chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, scavenging activities on 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and superoxide radicals, inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching, and protective effect on H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative injury of PC12 cells. Particularly, chlorogenic acid-chitosan conjugate exhibited higher inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching than chlorogenic acid. The results suggested that chlorogenic acid-chitosan conjugates could serve as food supplements to enhance the function of foods in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhancing the quality and lipid stability of chicken nuggets using natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Imran, Ali; Nadeem, Muhammad Tahir; Sohaib, Muhammad; Saeed, Farhan; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Hussain, Shahzad

    2017-06-08

    Current day consumers prefer natural antioxidants to synthetic antioxidants because they are more active. However, the activity generally depends on the specific condition and composition of food. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of wheat germ oil and α-lipoic acid on the quality characteristics, antioxidant status, fatty acid profile, and sensory attributes of chicken nuggets. Six types of diets were prepared for feeding the chickens to evaluate the quality of nuggets made from the leg meat of these experimental animals. These included control, diet enriched with wheat germ oil (WGO), which is a rich natural source of α-tocopherol (AT), diet with added AT or α-lipoic acid (ALA), diet with a combination of either ALA and WGO (ALA + WGO) or ALA and synthetic AT (ALA + AT). ALA has great synergism with synthetic as well as natural AT (WGO). The diet with WGO and ALA showed the best potential with respect to both antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. HPLC results revealed that the chicken nuggets made from WGO + ALA group showed maximum deposition of AT and ALA. The stability of the nuggets from control group was found to be significantly lower than that of nuggets from the WGO + ALA group. Total fatty acid content too was higher in the nuggets from this group. The poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found to be higher in the nuggets from the groups fed with a combination of natural and synthetic antioxidants. It is concluded that the combination of natural and synthetic antioxidants in the animal feed exerts a synergistic effect in enhancing the stability and quality of chicken nuggets.

  3. Polyphenols: well beyond the antioxidant capacity: polyphenol supplementation and exercise-induced oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Antoni; Tejada, Silvia; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Tur, Josep Antoni; Pons, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Moderate physical exercise leads the organism to adapt to this stressful situation. However, when exercise is exhaustive, it is also known to induce an overproduction of reactive species which can result in oxidative damage to macromolecules and tissues. Many studies have been carried out to evaluate the validity of dietary strategies or micronutrients in order to attenuate exercise-induced oxidative stress. Polyphenols are a large group of compounds widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. This review summarizes recent evidence in relation to the effects of polyphenols as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents, using exercise as a model of study.

  4. Maternal N-Carbamylglutamate Supplementation during Early Pregnancy Enhances Embryonic Survival and Development through Modulation of the Endometrial Proteome in Gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinlong; Zeng, Xiangfang; Peng, Qian; Zeng, Shenming; Zhao, Haiyi; Shen, Hexiao; Qiao, Shiyan

    2015-10-01

    Early pregnancy loss is a major concern in humans and animals. N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) has been found to enhance embryonic survival during early pregnancy in rats. However, little is known about the key factors in the endometrium involved in the improvement of embryonic implantation and development induced by maternal NCG supplementation. Our objectives were to investigate whether NCG supplementation during early gestation enhanced embryonic survival and development in gilts and to uncover the related factors using the approach of endometrium proteome analysis with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). Uteruses and embryos/fetuses were obtained on days 14 and 28 of gestation from gilts fed a basal diet that was or was not supplemented with 0.05% NCG. The iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics approach was performed to explore the endometrium proteome altered by NCG supplementation. Maternal NCG supplementation significantly increased the number of total fetuses and live fetuses on day 28 of gestation by 1.32 and 1.29, respectively (P gilts. The differentially expressed proteins primarily are involved in cell adhesion, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, protein metabolism, antioxidative stress, and immune response. On day 14 of gestation, several proteins closely related to embryonic implantation and development, such as integrin-αv, integrin-β3, talin, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, were upregulated (3.7-, 4.1-, 2.4-, and 5.4-fold increases, respectively) by NCG supplementation. To our knowledge, our results provide the first evidence that altered abundance of the endometrial proteome induced by NCG supplementation is highly associated with the improvement of embryonic survival and development in gilts. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Enhancing climate adaptation capacity for drinking water treatment facilities (supplement)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Historical water quality data of the Ohio River. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Levine, A., J. Yang , and J. Goodrich. Enhancing climate...

  6. Citrulline Supplementation Improves Organ Perfusion and Arginine Availability under Conditions with Enhanced Arginase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnands, Karolina A P; Meesters, Dennis M; van Barneveld, Kevin W Y; Visschers, Ruben G J; Briedé, Jacob J; Vandendriessche, Benjamin; van Eijk, Hans M H; Bessems, Babs A F M; van den Hoven, Nadine; von Wintersdorff, Christian J H; Brouckaert, Peter; Bouvy, Nicole D; Lamers, Wouter H; Cauwels, Anje; Poeze, Martijn

    2015-06-29

    Enhanced arginase-induced arginine consumption is believed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease-induced end organ failure. Enhancement of arginine availability with L-arginine supplementation exhibited less consistent results; however, L-citrulline, the precursor of L-arginine, may be a promising alternative. In this study, we determined the effects of L-citrulline compared to L-arginine supplementation on arginine-nitric oxide (NO) metabolism, arginine availability and microcirculation in a murine model with acutely-enhanced arginase activity. The effects were measured in six groups of mice (n = 8 each) injected intraperitoneally with sterile saline or arginase (1000 IE/mouse) with or without being separately injected with L-citrulline or L-arginine 1 h prior to assessment of the microcirculation with side stream dark-field (SDF)-imaging or in vivo NO-production with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Arginase injection caused a decrease in plasma and tissue arginine concentrations. L-arginine and L-citrulline supplementation both enhanced plasma and tissue arginine concentrations in arginase-injected mice. However, only the citrulline supplementation increased NO production and improved microcirculatory flow in arginase-injected mice. In conclusion, the present study provides for the first time in vivo experimental evidence that L-citrulline, and not L-arginine supplementation, improves the end organ microcirculation during conditions with acute arginase-induced arginine deficiency by increasing the NO concentration in tissues.

  7. Desiccation tolerance in bovine sperm: a study of the effect of intracellular sugars and the supplemental roles of an antioxidant and a chelator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaula, Ranjan; Elmoazzen, Heidi; Toner, Mehmet; Bhowmick, Sankha

    2009-06-01

    Desiccation preservation holds promise as a simplified alternative to cryopreservation for the long term storage of cells. We report a study on the protective effects of intracellular and extracellular sugars during bovine sperm desiccation and the supplemental effects of the addition of an antioxidant (catalase) or a chelator (desferal). The goal of the study was to preserve mammalian sperm in a partially or completely desiccated state. Sperm loaded intracellularly with two different types of sugars, trehalose or sucrose, were dried with and without catalase and desferal and evaluated for motility and membrane integrity immediately after rehydration. Intracellular sugars were loaded using ATP induced poration. Drying was performed in desiccator boxes maintained at 11% relative humidity (RH). Results indicated that sperm exhibited improved desiccation tolerance if they were loaded with either intracellular trehalose or sucrose. Survival was further enhanced by the addition of 1mM desferal to the desiccation buffer. Though sperm motility after drying to low dry basis water fractions (DBWF) did not show significant improvement under any of the tested conditions, there was an increase in the sperm membrane integrity that could be retained after partial desiccation through the use of intracellular sugars and desferal.

  8. Effects of supplementation with acai ( Euterpe oleracea Mart. berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Sadowska-Krępa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes. Seven junior hurdlers (17.5±1.2 years taking part in a pre-season conditioning camp were supplemented once a day, for six weeks, with 100 ml of the juice blend. At the start and the end of the camp the athletes performed a 300-m sprint running test on an outdoor track. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after the test and after 1 h of recovery. Blood antioxidant status was evaluated based on activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px], glutathione reductase [GR], concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione [GSH], uric acid, total plasma polyphenols, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and activities of creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH as muscle damage markers. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of the acai berry, the post-treatment changes in lipid profile parameters (triglycerides, cholesterol and its fractions were analysed. Six weeks’ consumption of acai berry-based juice blend had no effect on sprint performance, but it led to a marked increase in the total antioxidant capacity of plasma, attenuation of the exercise-induced muscle damage, and a substantial improvement of serum lipid profile. These findings strongly support the view of the health benefits of supplementation with the acai berry-based juice blend, mainly attributed to its high total polyphenol content and the related high in vivo antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic activities of this supplement.

  9. Effects of supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska-Krępa, E; Kłapcińska, B; Podgórski, T; Szade, B; Tyl, K; Hadzik, A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes. Seven junior hurdlers (17.5±1.2 years) taking part in a pre-season conditioning camp were supplemented once a day, for six weeks, with 100 ml of the juice blend. At the start and the end of the camp the athletes performed a 300-m sprint running test on an outdoor track. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after the test and after 1 h of recovery. Blood antioxidant status was evaluated based on activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px], glutathione reductase [GR]), concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione [GSH], uric acid), total plasma polyphenols, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as muscle damage markers. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of the acai berry, the post-treatment changes in lipid profile parameters (triglycerides, cholesterol and its fractions) were analysed. Six weeks' consumption of acai berry-based juice blend had no effect on sprint performance, but it led to a marked increase in the total antioxidant capacity of plasma, attenuation of the exercise-induced muscle damage, and a substantial improvement of serum lipid profile. These findings strongly support the view of the health benefits of supplementation with the acai berry-based juice blend, mainly attributed to its high total polyphenol content and the related high in vivo antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic activities of this supplement.

  10. N-Acetylcysteine Supplementation Controls Total Antioxidant Capacity, Creatine Kinase, Lactate, and Tumor Necrotic Factor-Alpha against Oxidative Stress Induced by Graded Exercise in Sedentary Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donrawee Leelarungrayub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term (7 days N-acetylcysteine (NAC at 1,200 mg daily supplementation on muscle fatigue, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, lactate, creatine kinase (CK, and tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α. Twenty-nine sedentary men (13 controls; 16 in the supplement group from a randomized control were included. At before and after supplementation, fatigue index (FI was evaluated in the quadriceps muscle, and performed a graded exercise treadmill test to induce oxidative stress, and as a measure of VO2max. Blood samples were taken before exercise and 20 minutes after it at before and after supplementation, to determine TAC, CK, lactate, and TNF-α levels. Results showed that FI and VO2max increased significantly in the supplement group. After exercise decreased the levels of TAC and increased lactate, CK, and TNF-α of both groups at before supplementation. After supplementation, lactate, CK, and TNF-α levels significantly increased and TAC decreased after exercise in the control group. Whereas the TAC and lactate levels did not change significantly, but CK and TNF-α increased significantly in the supplement group. Therefore, this results showed that NAC improved the muscle fatigue, VO2max, maintained TAC, controlled lactate production, but had no influence on CK and TNF-α.

  11. Supplementation of a western diet with golden kiwifruits (Actinidia chinensis var.'Hort 16A': effects on biomarkers of oxidation damage and antioxidant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomhoff Rune

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health positive effects of diets high in fruits and vegetables are generally not replicated in supplementation trials with isolated antioxidants and vitamins, and as a consequence the emphasis of chronic disease prevention has shifted to whole foods and whole food products. Methods We carried out a human intervention trial with the golden kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis, measuring markers of antioxidant status, DNA stability, plasma lipids, and platelet aggregation. Our hypothesis was that supplementation of a normal diet with kiwifruits would have an effect on biomarkers of oxidative status. Healthy volunteers supplemented a normal diet with either one or two golden kiwifruits per day in a cross-over study lasting 2 × 4 weeks. Plasma levels of vitamin C, and carotenoids, and the ferric reducing activity of plasma (FRAP were measured. Malondialdehyde was assessed as a biomarker of lipid oxidation. Effects on DNA damage in circulating lymphocytes were estimated using the comet assay with enzyme modification to measure specific lesions; another modification allowed estimation of DNA repair. Results Plasma vitamin C increased after supplementation as did resistance towards H2O2-induced DNA damage. Purine oxidation in lymphocyte DNA decreased significantly after one kiwifruit per day, pyrimidine oxidation decreased after two fruits per day. Neither DNA base excision nor nucleotide excision repair was influenced by kiwifruit consumption. Malondialdehyde was not affected, but plasma triglycerides decreased. Whole blood platelet aggregation was decreased by kiwifruit supplementation. Conclusion Golden kiwifruit consumption strengthens resistance towards endogenous oxidative damage.

  12. α-Tocopherol supplementation and the oxidative stress, homocysteine, and antioxidants in lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Dobrakowski, Michał; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Nogaj, Ewa; Boroń, Marta; Szlacheta, Zbigniew; Birkner, Ewa

    2017-05-04

    To investigate whether α-tocopherol supplementation in workers exposed to lead would reduce the oxidative stress intensity and decrease homocysteine level, the examined population was randomly divided into two groups. Workers in the first group (n = 49, reference group) were not administered any drugs. Workers in the second group (n = 34) were administered orally α-tocopherol, 200 mg per day for 12 weeks. The level of α-tocopherol significantly increased compared to the baseline and the reference group. The level of thiol groups significantly increased compared to the reference group. However, the levels of malondialdehyde and homocysteine did not significantly change. Animal studies suggest the ability of α-tocopherol administration to reverse adverse health effects of lead exposure, such as oxidative stress; however, the results of this study on humans do not confirm these protective effects.

  13. Enhancing Fatty Acid Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an Animal Feed Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Seung Kyou; Joo, Young-Chul; Kang, Dae Hee; Shin, Sang Kyu; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Woo, Han Min; Um, Youngsoon; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2017-12-20

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used for edible purposes, such as human food or as an animal feed supplement. Fatty acids are also beneficial as feed supplements, but S. cerevisiae produces small amounts of fatty acids. In this study, we enhanced fatty acid production of S. cerevisiae by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase, thioesterase, and malic enzyme associated with fatty acid metabolism. The enhanced strain pAMT showed 2.4-fold higher fatty acids than the wild-type strain. To further increase the fatty acids, various nitrogen sources were analyzed and calcium nitrate was selected as an optimal nitrogen source for fatty acid production. By concentration optimization, 672 mg/L of fatty acids was produced, which was 4.7-fold higher than wild-type strain. These results complement the low level fatty acid production and make it possible to obtain the benefits of fatty acids as an animal feed supplement while, simultaneously, maintaining the advantages of S. cerevisiae.

  14. Saffron supplements modulate serum pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance in patients with metabolic syndrome: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyebeh Kermani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We have investigated the effect of a saffron supplement, given at a dose of 100 mg/kg, on prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial design was used in 75 subjects with metabolic syndrome who were randomly allocated to one of two study groups: (1 the case group received 100mg/kg saffron and (2 the placebo control group received placebo for 12 weeks. The serum PAB assay was applied to all subjects before (week 0 and after (weeks 6 and 12 the intervention. Results: There was a significant (p=0.035 reduction in serum PAB between week 0 to week 6 and also from week 0 to week 12.  Conclusion: Saffron supplements can modulate serum PAB in subjects with metabolic syndrome, implying an improvement in some aspects of oxidative stress or antioxidant protection.

  15. Obesity and Subsequent Cardiovascular Events in Rats and The Potential Benefits of some Antioxidants Supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEIBASHY, M.I.; El-Negmy, F.A.; Shahin, M.I.; Kelada, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between the obesity and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and the possible amelioration effects of curcumin or L-carnitine and their mixture on cardiac and lipid profiles tests. Obesity is associated with abnormal endothelial function and it is often inferred that the reduction in endothelial function is the result of a decrease in nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) is an endogenous competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOs) activity. This modified amino acid is derived from proteins that have been post-translationally methylated and subsequently hydrolyzed. In the current study, obesity was induced in the rats by receiving orally 200 mg cholesterol/100 g by the aid of gastric tube together with injection i.m. 30 mg cholic acid/100 g for one month. After one month of induction of hyper-cholesterolemia in rats and in comparison to normal rats, the results showed that incorporation of extra cholesterol in diet led to a significant increase in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, VLDL-cholesterol and resistin levels. Moreover, significant elevations in the levels of AST, LDH, CK, ADMA and endotheline-1 were recorded in obese rats compared with normal rats. All previous parameters were corrected after the hypercholesterolemic rats were treated with curcumin or L-carnitine and their mixture depending on the time of treatment. These findings are consistent with the concept that curcumin and L-carnitine are hypolipidemic agents and powerful antioxidants

  16. The Antioxidant Tempol Reduces Carcinogenesis and Enhances Survival in Mice when Administered After Non-Lethal Total Body Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James B.; Anver, Miriam R.; Sowers, Anastasia L.; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Figueroa, Maria; Thetford, Angela; Krishna, Murali C.; Albert, Paul S.; Cook, John A.

    2012-01-01

    There is significant interest in the development of agents that can ameliorate radiation damage after exposure to radiation has occurred. Here we report that chronic supplementation of the antioxidant Tempol in the diet of mice can reduce body weight without toxicity, decrease cancer, and extend survival when administered after non-lethal total body radiation (TBI). These effects were apparent in two different strains of mice (C3H, CBA) exposed to TBI (3 Gy). Notably, delaying administration of the Tempol diet 1 month after TBI could also enhance survival. Tempol reduced the incidence of hematopoietic neoplasms (lymphomas) in both strains; whereas, both the onset and incidence of non-hematopoietic neoplasms were reduced in CBA mice. These results encourage further study of Tempol as a chemopreventive, to reduce the incidence of radiation-induced second malignancies after a course of definitive radiation therapy. Tempol may also find applications to reduce the risk of cancers in populations exposed to non-lethal radiation due to nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks. PMID:22805306

  17. 78 FR 64468 - Request for Information: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... SNAP authorized stores help to ensure that these stores offer more healthy food choices? If so, what... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service [FNS-2013-0033] Request for Information: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility; Extension of Comment...

  18. 78 FR 51136 - Request for Information: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... SNAP authorized stores help to ensure that these stores offer more healthy food choices? If so, what... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Request for Information: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility AGENCY: Food and Nutrition...

  19. A Performance Enhanced Interactive Learning Workshop Model as a Supplement for Organic Chemistry Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Karen E. S.; Grose-Fifer, Jilliam

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors describe a Performance Enhanced Interactive Learning (PEIL) workshop model as a supplement for organic chemistry instruction. This workshop model differs from many others in that it includes public presentations by students and other whole-class-discussion components that have not been thoroughly investigated in the…

  20. Enhancement of curcumin water dispersibility and antioxidant activity using core-shell protein-polysaccharide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Huang, Xulin; Gong, Yushi; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian; Hu, Kun

    2016-09-01

    Curcumin has strong antioxidant activity, but poor water-solubility and chemical stability, which limits its utilization as a nutraceutical in many applications. Previously, we developed a core-shell (zein-pectin) nanoparticle delivery system with high curcumin loading efficiency, high particle yield, and good water dispersibility. However, this system was unstable to aggregation around neutral pH and moderate ionic strengths due to weakening of electrostatic repulsion between nanoparticles. In the current study, we used a combination of alginate (high charge density) and pectin (low charge density) to form the shell around zein nanoparticles. Replacement of 30% of pectin with alginate greatly improved aggregation stability at pH 5 to 7 and at high ionic strengths (2000mM NaCl). Curcumin encapsulated within these core-shell nanoparticles exhibited higher antioxidant and radical scavenging activities than curcumin solubilized in ethanol solutions as determined by Fe (III) reducing power, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH·), and 2, 2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical cation (ABTS· + ) scavenging analysis. These core-shell nanoparticles may be useful for incorporating chemically unstable hydrophobic nutraceuticals such as curcumin into functional foods, dietary supplements, and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhancement of antioxidant activity of C-phycocyanin of Spirulina powder treated with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monchai Dejsungkranont

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The functionality and activity of proteins can be modified by supercritical fluid CO2 (SCFCO2. The objectives of this study were to investigate the possibility of enhanced antioxidant activity of C-phycocyanin (C-PC proteins from light-harvested Spirulina maxima powder using the SCFCO2 pretreatment and to optimize the SCFCO2 pretreatment conditions enhancing the antioxidant activity of C-PC. The Taguchi method was used to determine the optimum conditions for the SCFCO2 pretreatment. The experimental factors were the pretreatment temperature, pressure, pretreatment mode (static, dynamic and conjugated and duration. The optimal conditions of SCFCO2 pretreatment were: 60 °C, 24.13 MPa and 60 min in static batch mode. Using these pretreatment conditions, the maximum antioxidant activity of C-PC from the treated residual biomass was 410.1 μmole trolox/mg, which was 1.7-fold higher than the untreated biomass (control. The factor that most affected the antioxidant activity of C-PC was temperature (59%. A high pretreatment temperature could damage C-PC, but promoted antioxidant activity. Of note is that this work was the first to explore SCFCO2 treatment enhancing the antioxidant activity of C-PC in Spirulina sp. powder. Keywords: Antioxidant activity, C-phycocyanin, Spirulina sp., Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide pretreatment, Taguchi method

  2. Dietary Supplementation of Almond Prevents Oxidative Stress by Advocating Antioxidants and Attenuates Impaired Aversive Memory in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Zehra; Tabassum, Saiqa; Siddiqui, Rafat Ali; Haider, Saida

    2018-03-01

    Scopolamine, an anti-muscarinic agent, has been shown to induce amnesia and oxidative stress similar to that observed in the older age. The present study was designed to determine the relationship between the oxidative status and memory improvement in scopolamine injected rats pre-administered with almonds. Rats (n = 8) in the almond group were administered orally with 400 mg/kg almond suspension for 28 days daily before the intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg). Passive avoidance task (PAT) was used to assess memory function at the end of treatment. The present study revealed that scopolamine injection significantly impaired the memory function in rats pre-treated with saline which was accompanied by increased oxidative stress as evident by increased brain malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes as compared to healthy controls. Pre-treatment with almond significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced oxidative stress and memory dysfunction. These findings suggest that dietary supplementation with almonds may have a beneficial effect in reducing the risk of oxidative stress-induced memory loss and delaying or preventing the onset of age-related memory impairment.

  3. Does the use of dietary supplements enhance athletes’ sport performances? A systematic review and a meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    De Meo, Concetta; Laurenti, Patrizia; de Waure, Chiara; Terracciano, Elisa; Di Nardo, Francesco; Ricciardi, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background: The consumption of dietary supplements has increased in recent years.Despite their widespread use, there is confusion about effects on sport performances.The aim of this study was to investigate association between use of supplements and enhance of athletes’ sports performance.Methods: A review and a meta-analysis of studies conducted on Dietary Supplements and Sports between 2003 and 2013 were performed. Enhancement on sport performances was considered as outcome. The following a...

  4. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Selected Natural Compounds Contained in a Dietary Supplement on Two Human Immortalized Keratinocyte Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fasano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several advantages may derive from the use of dietary supplements containing multiple natural antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatory agents. At present, however, there is scarce information on the properties and potential of combined supplements. To fill the gap, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities exerted by a combination of seven natural components (coenzyme Q10, krill oil, lipoic acid, resveratrol, grape seed oil, α-tocopherol, and selenium contained in a dietary supplement used for the prevention of skin disorders were investigated in vitro. Each component was administered, alone or in combination, to human keratinocytes, and the inhibition of Reactive Oxygen Species production and lipid peroxidation as well as the ability to reduce inflammatory cytokine secretion and to modulate Nuclear Factor-κB pathway was evaluated. The combination exhibited high antioxidant activity and in specific conditions the combination’s efficiency was higher than that of the most powerful components administered individually. Moreover, the combination showed remarkable anti-inflammatory properties. It reduced more efficiently than each component the secretion of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1, a crucial cytokine for the development of chronic inflammation in skin, and inhibited Nuclear Factor-κB molecular pathway. Overall, our findings suggest that the combined formulation may have the potential to powerfully inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation at skin level.

  5. Enhancement of Antioxidant Mechanisms and Reduction of Oxidative Stress in Chickens after the Administration of Drinking Water Enriched with Polyphenolic Powder from Olive Mill Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliki Papadopoulou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effects of a polyphenolic powder from olive mill wastewater (OMWW administered through drinking water, on chickens’ redox status. Thus, 75 chickens were divided into three groups. Group A was given just drinking water, while groups B and C were given drinking water containing 20 and 50 μg/ml of polyphenols, respectively, for 45 days. The antioxidant effects of the polyphenolic powder were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood after 25 and 45 days of treatment. These markers were total antioxidant capacity (TAC, protein carbonyls (CARB, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD in plasma, and glutathione (GSH and catalase activity in erythrocytes. The results showed that CARB and TBARS were decreased significantly in groups B and C, and SOD decreased in group B compared to that in group A. TAC was increased significantly in group C and GSH was increased in group B, while catalase activity was increased in groups B and C compared to that in group A. In conclusion, this is the first study showing that supplementation of chickens with polyphenols from OMWW through drinking water enhanced their antioxidant mechanisms and reduced oxidative stress-induced damage.

  6. Enhancement of Antioxidant Mechanisms and Reduction of Oxidative Stress in Chickens after the Administration of Drinking Water Enriched with Polyphenolic Powder from Olive Mill Waste Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Aliki; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Maimaris, Antonios; Makris, Haralampos; Kafantaris, Ioannis; Makri, Sotiria; Kerasioti, Efthalia; Halabalaki, Maria; Brieudes, Vincent; Ntasi, Georgia; Kokkas, Stylianos; Tzimas, Pavlos; Goulas, Panagiotis; Zakharenko, Alexander M; Golokhvast, Kirill S; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of a polyphenolic powder from olive mill wastewater (OMWW) administered through drinking water, on chickens' redox status. Thus, 75 chickens were divided into three groups. Group A was given just drinking water, while groups B and C were given drinking water containing 20 and 50  μ g/ml of polyphenols, respectively, for 45 days. The antioxidant effects of the polyphenolic powder were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood after 25 and 45 days of treatment. These markers were total antioxidant capacity (TAC), protein carbonyls (CARB), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in plasma, and glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in erythrocytes. The results showed that CARB and TBARS were decreased significantly in groups B and C, and SOD decreased in group B compared to that in group A. TAC was increased significantly in group C and GSH was increased in group B, while catalase activity was increased in groups B and C compared to that in group A. In conclusion, this is the first study showing that supplementation of chickens with polyphenols from OMWW through drinking water enhanced their antioxidant mechanisms and reduced oxidative stress-induced damage.

  7. Sesame Lignans and Vitamin E Supplementation Improve Subjective Statuses and Anti-Oxidative Capacity in Healthy Humans With Feelings of Daily Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Daisuke; Yasutake, Yoko; Tomimori, Namino; Ono, Yoshiko; Shibata, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    Sesamin has anti-oxidative functions in vivo. Fatigue is caused in part by oxidative stress. We evaluated whether sesame lignans (sesamin/episesamin = 1/1, 10 mg) with vitamin E (55 mg of α-tocopherol) (SVE) could improve subjective statuses and anti-oxidative capacity in humans using questionnaires on fatigue, sleep and physical appearance, as well as low-density lipoprotein oxidation lag time. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group study was conducted with subjects experiencing daily fatigue. After a run-in period, subjects were administered oral SVE or a placebo (P) for 8 weeks. A questionnaire regarding fatigue, sleep and physical appearance was conducted at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Plasma low-density lipoprotein oxidation lag time was measured as an indicator of anti-oxidative capacity. The per-protocol analysis revealed significant improvements in fatigue status at 4 and 8 weeks compared to 0 weeks in both groups (p subject subgroup analysis (aged 40 and over), the sleep and physical appearance significantly improved compared to the P group (p < 0.05), and fatigue status showed a tendency for improvement compared to the P group. Anti-oxidative capacity in the SVE group significantly increased compared to the P group (p < 0.01). No adverse events relating to SVE supplementation were confirmed. These results suggest SVE supplementation could safely alleviate daily fatigue and oxidative stress. PMID:26153159

  8. Gamma radiation induced enhancement in the antioxidant and radioprotective activities of flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arul Anantha Kumar, A.; Sonwani, Swetha; Bakkiam, D.

    2018-01-01

    Recently γ-radiation has been used as a tool to induce structural changes in natural biomolecules to enhance their biological and physiological properties. Flavonoids are a family of plant derived polyphenolic compounds having considerable scientific and therapeutic importance. Structurally they are the benzo-γ-pyrone derivatives containing phenolic and pyrane rings. Flavonoid radioprotection is an intense area of research thanks to features like natural origin, effectiveness at non-toxic dose levels and lack of side effects. But till date no report is available on the effect of γ-radiation mediated enhancement in radioprotection activity of flavonoids. In view of this the present study was carried out to determine the γ-radiation induced structural changes in selected flavonoids i.e. apigenin, naringenin and genistein and also to explore the possibility of enhancement in their antioxidant and radioprotective activities

  9. Protein supplementation may enhance the spontaneous recovery of neurological alterations in patients with ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilani, Roberto; Scocchi, Marco; Iadarola, Paolo; Franciscone, Piero; Verri, Manuela; Boschi, Federica; Pasini, Evasio; Viglio, Simona

    2008-12-01

    To determine whether protein supplementation could enhance neurological recovery in subacute patients with ischaemic stroke. Alimentation-independent patients with ischaemic stroke were randomly allocated to either 21 days of protein supplementation (protein-supplemented group; n=20) or to a spontaneous diet only (control group; n=21) in order to investigate the recovery of neurological changes (measured using the National Institute of Health (NIH) Stroke Scale). Tertiary care rehabilitation in Italy. Forty-two patients (27 male and 15 female; 66.4 +/- 11 years) 16 +/-2 days after the acute event. Supplementation with a hyperproteic nutritional formula (10% protein). NIH Stroke Scale and protein intake. At admission to rehabilitation, both groups of patients were homogeneous for demographic, clinical and functional characteristics. After 21 days from the start of the protocol, the NIH Stroke Scale was found to be enhanced in the group with supplemental proteins (-4.4 +/- 1.5 score versus -3 +/- 1.4 of control group; Pneurological recovery in subacute patients with ischaemic stroke.

  10. Greater Total Antioxidant Capacity from Diet and Supplements Is Associated with a Less Atherogenic Blood Profile in U.S. Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijoon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC in the diet might be inversely associated with stroke, heart failure, and inflammatory biomarkers. However, studies on the association of TAC from both diet and supplements with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in the U.S. population are lacking. This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to investigate the association of TAC with both diet and supplements with CVD risk factors among 4039 U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2012. TAC from both food sources and dietary supplements was estimated from two 24-h dietary recalls using the NHANES supplement ingredient database, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA proanthocyanidin, flavonoid, and isoflavone databases. Top contributors to TAC were tea, antioxidant supplements, vegetable mixture, orange juice, berries, and wine. Antioxidant supplement users had 1.6 times higher TAC than non-users. Greater TAC was associated with reduced triglycerides (TG (−1.39% change; 95% CI = −2.56 to −0.21, TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio (−2.03% change; 95% CI = −3.45 to −0.60, HDL-C (0.65% change; 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.23, insulin (−1.37% change; 95% CI = −2.64 to −0.09, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (−1.57% change; 95% CI = −3.02 to −0.09 and C-reactive protein (CRP (−0.83% change; 95% CI = −1.29 to −0.38 after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between TAC and waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, total cholesterol (TC, and fasting glucose. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that an antioxidant-rich diet and intake of supplements are beneficial to reduce CVD risk.

  11. Lactic acid bacteria: promising supplements for enhancing the biological activities of kombucha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyen Khoi; Dong, Ngan Thi Ngoc; Nguyen, Huong Thuy; Le, Phu Hong

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha is sweetened black tea that is fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast embedded within a cellulose membrane. It is considered a health drink in many countries because it is a rich source of vitamins and may have other health benefits. It has previously been reported that adding lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus) strains to kombucha can enhance its biological functions, but in that study only lactic acid bacteria isolated from kefir grains were tested. There are many other natural sources of lactic acid bacteria. In this study, we examined the effects of lactic acid bacteria from various fermented Vietnamese food sources (pickled cabbage, kefir and kombucha) on kombucha's three main biological functions: glucuronic acid production, antibacterial activity and antioxidant ability. Glucuronic acid production was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, antibacterial activity was assessed by the agar-well diffusion method and antioxidant ability was evaluated by determining the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity. Four strains of food-borne pathogenic bacteria were used in our antibacterial experiments: Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778. Our findings showed that lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from kefir are superior to those from other sources for improving glucuronic acid production and enhancing the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of kombucha. This study illustrates the potential of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from kefir as biosupplements for enhancing the bioactivities of kombucha.

  12. Genetic Transformation and Hairy Root Induction Enhance the Antioxidant Potential of Lactuca serriola L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Esawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactuca serriola L. is a herbaceous species, used for human nutrition and medicinal purposes. The high antioxidant capacity of L. serriola indicates the possibility of enhancing its edible and health potential by increasing the flavonoid and phenolic contents. The present study aimed at enhancing the production of phenolics and flavonoids by hairy root cultures in Lactuca serriola transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain AR15834 harbouring the rolB gene. The genetic transformation of rolB in transformed roots was validated, and rolB expression level was evaluated using real-time qPCR analysis. Expression levels of flavonoid biosynthesis genes (CHI, PAL, FLS, and CHS were assessed in the hairy and nontransformed roots. Results showed higher expression levels in the transgenic roots than in the nontransformed ones (p<0.01. Transgenic hairy roots exhibited a 54.8–96.7% increase in the total phenolic content, 38.1–76.2% increase in the total flavonoid content, and 56.7–96.7% increase in the total reducing power when compared with the nontransgenic roots (p<0.01. DPPH results also revealed that the transgenic hairy roots exhibited a 31.6–50% increase in antioxidant potential, when compared to normal roots. This study addressed the enhancement of secondary metabolite biosynthesis by hairy root induction in L. serriola.

  13. Martial art training enhances the glutathione antioxidant system in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter C; Elokda, Ahmed S; Handrakis, John P; Principal, Suze; Rondo, Eleni; Bovell, Juan; Coughlin, William P; Mastroianni, Charles N; Wong, Michael J; Zimmerman, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antioxidant capacity of physically active middle-aged martial artists to age-matched sedentary controls. Nine sedentary subjects (mean age 52.9 yr) and 9 martial artists (mean age 51.8 yr) who practice Soo Bahk Do, a Korean martial art and were age- and sex-matched performed a graded exercise test (GXT) using a modified Bruce protocol. Ages ranged from 41 to 58 years. A GXT has been shown to be an effective technique for inducing oxidative stress. Glutathione (GSH) is the body's most highly concentrated antioxidant, is the central component of the antioxidant system, and plays an essential role in protecting tissues against oxidative stress. Free radical oxidation leads to the transformation of GSH to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Venous blood samples for GSH and GSSG were collected before and immediately after the GXT. Repeated measures analysis of variance were performed on the resting baseline values and immediate post-GXT values of GSH, GSSG, and GSH:GSSG to compare groups. The blood GSH, GSSG, and GSH:GSSG levels were significantly different (p < 0.001) between the 2 groups at rest and after the GXT. The Soo Bahk Do practitioners had higher resting levels of GSH and lower levels of GSSG and responded more effectively to acute oxidative stress than the age-matched sedentary controls. Soo Bahk Do appears to enhance the antioxidant defense system and may be an effective intervention for improving overall health by protecting against the adverse effects of oxidative stress that is associated with the free radical theory of aging. Health professionals should be aware of alternative methods of training, conditioning, and exercise that can improve the general adaptation response to oxidative stress.

  14. Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities by Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung Hoi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chinese tonifying herbs such as Herba Cistanche, Ganoderma and Cordyceps, which possess antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory activities, can be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Pharmacological studies on Yang and Yin tonifying herbs suggest that Yang tonifying herbs stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP generation, presumably through the intermediacy of reactive oxidant species, leading to the enhancement of cellular/mitochondrial antioxidant status. Yin tonifying herbs, however, apart from possessing antioxidant properties, exert mainly immunomodulatory functions that may boost a weak immune system and may also suppress overreactive immune responses. The abilities of Yang and Yin Chinese tonifying herbs to enhance ATP generation and to exhibit antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory actions are the pharmacological basis for their beneficial effects on the retardation of aging.

  15. Reduction of arsenite-enhanced ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage by supplemental zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Karen L.; King, Brenee S.; Sandoval, Monica M.; Liu, Ke Jian; Hudson, Laurie G., E-mail: lhudson@salud.unm.edu

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen and there is evidence that arsenic augments the carcinogenicity of DNA damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR) thereby acting as a co-carcinogen. Inhibition of DNA repair is one proposed mechanism to account for the co-carcinogenic actions of arsenic. We and others find that arsenite interferes with the function of certain zinc finger DNA repair proteins. Furthermore, we reported that zinc reverses the effects of arsenite in cultured cells and a DNA repair target protein, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. In order to determine whether zinc ameliorates the effects of arsenite on UVR-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes and in an in vivo model, normal human epidermal keratinocytes and SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed to arsenite, zinc or both before solar-simulated (ss) UVR exposure. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, DNA damage and mutation frequencies at the Hprt locus were measured in each treatment group in normal human keratinocytes. DNA damage was assessed in vivo by immunohistochemical staining of skin sections isolated from SKH-1 hairless mice. Cell-based findings demonstrate that ssUVR-induced DNA damage and mutagenesis are enhanced by arsenite, and supplemental zinc partially reverses the arsenite effect. In vivo studies confirm that zinc supplementation decreases arsenite-enhanced DNA damage in response to ssUVR exposure. From these data we can conclude that zinc offsets the impact of arsenic on ssUVR-stimulated DNA damage in cells and in vivo suggesting that zinc supplementation may provide a strategy to improve DNA repair capacity in arsenic exposed human populations. - Highlights: • Low levels of arsenite enhance UV-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes. • UV-initiated HPRT mutation frequency is enhanced by arsenite. • Zinc supplementation offsets DNA damage and mutation frequency enhanced by arsenite. • Zinc-dependent reduction of arsenite enhanced DNA damage is confirmed in vivo.

  16. Diets supplemented with seaweed affect metabolic rate, innate immune, and antioxidant responses, but not individual growth rate in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peixoto, Maria J.; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Malte, Hans

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of seaweed dietary supplementation on measures of fish performance including aerobic metabolism, digestive enzymes activity, innate immune status, oxidative damage, and growth rate using European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were fed for 49 days...... with three different diets: a control diet (CTRL), a Gracilaria-supplemented diet (GR7.5), and a mixed diet (Mix) composed of Gracilaria, Fucus, and Ulva genera representatives. All diets were isoenergetic (22 kJ g−1 adjusted for dry matter (DM)), isoproteic (47 %DM), and isolipidic (18 %DM) and tested......-transferase activity. Mix diet increased glutathione reductase activity when compared to CTRL. Collectively, our findings suggest that dietary seaweed supplementation may alter seabass metabolic rate, innate immune, and antioxidant responses without compromising growth parameters...

  17. First joint SPE/DOE symposium on enhanced oil recovery, proceedings supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The First Joint Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery sponsored by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and the US Department of Energy was held in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Besides the thirty-three technical papers which covered all phases of enhanced oil recovery and were published in the Proceedings, the Symposium included a session on Enhanced Oil Recovery Incentives where ten papers were presented which discussed the status of enhanced oil recovery technology, and included papers on incentive programs of the United States, Canada and Venezuela. These papers are published in this Proceedings Supplement under the following titles: Federal Government Role in enhanced Oil Recovery; Financial Realities of an Adequate Petroleum Supply; Major Technology Constraints in Enhanced Oil Recovery; Decontrol-Opportunities and Dangers; Status of EOR Technology; Impact of Federal Incentives on US Production; Canadian Incentives Program; and Heavy Oil Incentives in Venezuela.

  18. The biomechanic origin of sprint performance enhancement after one-week creatine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedel, J M; Terrier, P; Schutz, Y

    2000-04-01

    In order to test whether an improvement of maximal sprinting speed after creatine (Cr) supplementation was due to the increase of stride frequency (SF), stride length (SL) or both, 7 subjects ran 4 consecutive sprints after 1 week of placebo or Cr supplementation. SF and SL were assessed by a triaxial accelerometer. Compared to the placebo, Cr induced an increase of running speed (+1.4% p < 0.05) and SF (+1.5%, p < 0.01), but not of SL. The drop in performance following repeated sprints was partially prevented by Cr. In conclusion, exogenous Cr enhanced sprinting performance by increasing SF. This result may be related to the recent findings of shortening in muscular relaxation time after Cr supplementation.

  19. Effects of blending wheatgrass juice on enhancing phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of traditional kombucha beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tzu-Ying; Li, Jia-Shiun; Chen, Chinshuh

    2015-12-01

    Traditional kombucha is a fermented black tea extract and sugar. Sweetened black tea (10% w/v) and wheatgrass juice (WGJ) were mixed in various ratios and used as fermentation substrate for enhancing phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Starter, comprising of yeast (Dekkera bruxellensis) and acetic acid bacteria (Gluconacetobacter rhaeticus and Gluconobacter roseus), was inoculated at 20% (v/v), and fermented statically at 29 ± 1°C for 12 days. The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of the modified kombucha were higher than those of traditional preparations. All WGJ-blended kombucha preparations were characterized as having higher concentrations of various phenolic compounds such as gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, and chlorogenic acid as compared to traditional ones. Addition of WGJ resulted in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging ability of kombucha being > 90%, while the oxygen radical absorbance capacity increased from 5.0 μmol trolox equivalents/mL to 12.8 μmol trolox equivalents/mL as the ratio of WGJ increased from 0% to 67% (v/v). The highest antioxidant activity was obtained using a 1:1 (v/v) black tea decoction to WGJ ratio and 3 days of fermentation, producing various types of phenolic acids. These results suggest that intake of fermented black tea enhanced with wheatgrass juice is advantageous over traditional kombucha formulas in terms of providing various complementary phenolics and might have more potential to reduce oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Effects of blending wheatgrass juice on enhancing phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of traditional kombucha beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Ying Sun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional kombucha is a fermented black tea extract and sugar. Sweetened black tea (10% w/v and wheatgrass juice (WGJ were mixed in various ratios and used as fermentation substrate for enhancing phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Starter, comprising of yeast (Dekkera bruxellensis and acetic acid bacteria (Gluconacetobacter rhaeticus and Gluconobacter roseus, was inoculated at 20% (v/v, and fermented statically at 29 ± 1°C for 12 days. The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of the modified kombucha were higher than those of traditional preparations. All WGJ-blended kombucha preparations were characterized as having higher concentrations of various phenolic compounds such as gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, and chlorogenic acid as compared to traditional ones. Addition of WGJ resulted in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging ability of kombucha being > 90%, while the oxygen radical absorbance capacity increased from 5.0 μmol trolox equivalents/mL to 12.8 μmol trolox equivalents/mL as the ratio of WGJ increased from 0% to 67% (v/v. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained using a 1:1 (v/v black tea decoction to WGJ ratio and 3 days of fermentation, producing various types of phenolic acids. These results suggest that intake of fermented black tea enhanced with wheatgrass juice is advantageous over traditional kombucha formulas in terms of providing various complementary phenolics and might have more potential to reduce oxidative stress.

  1. Effect of carnosine supplementation on apoptosis and irisin, total oxidant and antioxidants levels in the serum, liver and lung tissues in rats exposed to formaldehyde inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Suna; Ogeturk, Murat; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Kavakli, Ahmet; Aydin, Suleyman

    2015-02-01

    The main objective of the study has been to show whether carnosine has positive effects on liver and lung tissues of rats exposed to a range of formaldehyde concentrations, and to explore how irisin expression and antioxidant capacity are altered in these tissues by carnosine supplementation. Sprague-Dawley type male rats were divided into 8 groups with 6 animals in each: (I) Control; no chemical supplementation); (II) sham (100mg/kg/day carnosine); (III) low dose formaldehyde (LDFA) for 5 days/week; (IV) LDFA for 5 days/week and carnosine); (V) moderate dose formaldehyde (MDFA) for 5 days/week); (VI) MDFA for 5 days/week and carnosine; (VII) high dose formaldehyde (HDFA) for 5 days/week; (VIII) and HDFA for 5 days/week and carnosine. Sham and control groups were exposed to normal air. Irisin levels of the serum, liver and lung tissue supernatants were analyzed by ELISA, while the REL method was used to determine total oxidant/antioxidant capacity. Irisin production by the tissues was detected immunohistochemically. Increasing doses of FA decreased serum/tissue irisin and total antioxidant levels relative to the controls, as also to increases in TUNEL expressions, total oxidant level, oxidant and apoptosis index. Irisin expression was detected in hepatocyte and sinusoidal cells of the liver and parenchymal cells of the lung. In conclusion, while FA exposure reduces irisin and total oxidant in the serum, liver and lung tissues in a dose-dependent manner and increases the total antioxidant capacity, carnosine supplementation reduces the oxidative stress and restores the histopathological and biochemical signs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of process parameters influencing the enhanced production of prodigiosin from Serratia marcescens and evaluation of its antimicrobial, antioxidant and dyeing potentials

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    Gulani, C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Prodigiosin is a bright red pigment produced by certain strains of Serratia marcescens, characterized by a common pyrrolylpyrromethane skeleton. This pigment is found to possess antibacterial, antifungal, immunosuppressive and antiproliferative activity. The present study aimed at designing process parameters for the enhanced production of this pigment.Methodology and Results: Peptone glycerol broth was selected as the best synthetic medium. The effects of various media components and process parameters like carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature, pH, incubation period and other supplements were investigated. Maximal amount of prodigiosin was produced at temperature 25 °C, pH 7.0 andincubation period of 48 h. Supplementation of media with maltose and peptone yielded maximal amount of prodigiosin. Incorporation of minimal amount of supplements like silica gel, iron salts, inorganic phosphate also showed promising results. Chromatographic separations suggested that prodigiosin is made up of three different fractions (purple, orange and red. Further investigation of antimicrobial properties of prodigiosin revealed that it is a potent inhibitor against gram positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus and fungal pathogens like Candida albicans, C.parapsilosis and Cryptococcus sp. This antimicrobial potency remained stable under a wide range of temperature and pH. The antioxidant capacity of prodigiosin was found to be 22.05 Bg ascorbic acid equivalents/ml of extract. When applied to textiles, prodigiosin resisted the action of acid, alkali and detergent. Conclusion, Significance and Impact of study: Besides combating gram positive bacterial pathogens and some pathogenic yeasts, prodigiosin with strong dyeing and antioxidant activity may find broad applications in textile and therapeutic industries.

  3. A carbohydrate-antioxidant hybrid polymer reduces oxidative damage in spermatozoa and enhances fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Craig; Maldjian, André; Da Costa, Daniel; Rullay, Attvinder K; Haddleton, David M; St John, Justin; Penny, Paul; Noble, Raymond C; Cameron, Neil R; Davis, Benjamin G

    2005-10-01

    Gamete-gamete interactions are critically modulated by carbohydrate-protein interactions that rely on the carbohydrate-selective recognition of polyvalent carbohydrate structures. A galactose-binding protein has been identified in mammalian spermatozoa that has similarity to the well-characterized hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor. With the aim of exploiting the ability of this class of proteins to bind and internalize macromolecules displaying galactose, we designed hybrid carbohydrate-antioxidant polymers to deliver antioxidant vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) to porcine spermatozoa. Treatment of sperm cells with one hybrid polymer in particular produced large increases in intracellular sperm levels of alpha-tocopherol and greatly reduced endogenous fatty acid degradation under oxidative stress. The polymer-treated spermatozoa had enhanced physiological properties and longer half-lives, which resulted in enhanced fertilization rates. Our results indicate that hybrid polymer delivery systems can prolong the functional viability of mammalian spermatozoa and improve fertility rates, and that our functionally guided optimization strategy can be applied to the discovery of active glycoconjugate ligands.

  4. Differential response of radish plants to supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation under varying NPK levels: chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suruchi; Kumari, Rima; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2012-07-01

    Current and projected increases in ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation may alter crop growth and yield by modifying the physiological and biochemical functions. This study was conducted to assess the possibility of alleviating the negative effects of supplemental UV-B (sUV-B; 7.2 kJ m⁻² day⁻¹; 280-315 nm) on radish (Raphanus sativus var Pusa Himani) by modifying soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) levels. The N, P and K treatments were recommended dose of N, P and K, 1.5 times recommended dose of N, P and K, 1.5 times recommended dose of N and 1.5 times recommended dose of K. Plants showed variations in their response to UV-B radiation under varying soil NPK levels. The minimum damaging effects of sUV-B on photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance coupled with minimum reduction in chlorophyll content were recorded for plants grown at recommended dose of NPK. Flavonoids increased under sUV-B except in plants grown at 1.5 times recommended dose of N. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) also increased in response to sUV-B at all NPK levels with maximum at 1.5 times recommended dose of K and minimum at recommended dose of NPK. This study revealed that sUV-B radiation negatively affected the radish plants by reducing the photosynthetic efficiency and increasing LPO. The plants grown at 1.5 times recommended dose of NPK/N/K could not enhance antioxidative potential to the extent as recorded at recommended dose of NPK and hence showed more sensitivity to sUV-B. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  5. The enhanced reproduction of cow parent brahman cross post partum with feed supplement multinutrient block medicated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nursyam Andi Syarifuddin; Anis Wahdi

    2011-01-01

    One of the problems in breeding Brahman Cross cattle reproduction efficiency is low due to the length of postpartum anestrus and the high number of services per conception is partly due to the low nutrient content of rations. This study aims to improve the performance of reproductive cows parent Brahman Cross post partum through feeding strategy supplement Multi nutrient Block plus Medicated (MBPM) which starts with the correct parent condition score so that it can accelerate the process appear oestrus post partum then increasing conception rate to minimize the number of service per conception as well as to improve the growth calf produced. This research uses 16 cows parent Brahman Cross post partum not exceeding 90 days comprising 9 tails were given feed supplements MBPM compared with 7 tail not given feed supplements MBPM as control. Research results show that feeding supplements MBPM can enhanced reproductive cow parent Brahman Cross post partum i.e. : maintain parent condition score in early post partum until the occurrence of pregnant, accelerating day 24,8 appear oestrus post partum, number service per conception = 1 and conception rate can reach 60%, maintaining the levels of urea plasma of blood and blood glucose levels within normal limits either at the time of post partum and oestrus post partum. Feeding supplements MBPM on cows parent Brahman Cross post partum can give added daily gain 0,51 kg on calf is suckling. (author)

  6. Enhanced interfacial interaction and antioxidative behavior of novel halloysite nanotubes/silica hybrid supported antioxidant in styrene-butadiene rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Luo, Yuanfang; Zhong, Bangchao; Hu, Dechao; Jia, Zhixin; Jia, Demin

    2018-05-01

    A novel antioxidant (HS-s-RT) to improve the mechanical properties and anti-aging performance of styrene-butadiene (SBR) composites was prepared by antioxidant intermediate p-aminodiphenylamine (RT) grafting on the surface of halloysite nanotubes/silica hybrid (HS) via the linkage of silane coupling agent. The analysis of SEM and rubber processing analyzer (RPA) demonstrated HS-s-RT was uniformly dispersed in SBR, and stronger interfacial interaction between HS-s-RT and SBR was formed. Consequently, SBR/HS-s-RT composites have improving mechanical properties. Furthermore, the test of the retention of mechanical properties, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR), and oxidation induction time (OIT) showed HS-s-RT can effectively improve the anti-aging effect of SBR composites than corresponding low molecular-weight antioxidant N-isopropyl-N‧-phenyl-4-phenylenediamin (4010NA). Then, the mechanism of thermo-oxidative aging of SBR/HS composites was also investigated, and the superior antioxidative efficiency is attributed to the uniform dispersion and excellent migration resistance of HS-s-RT. Hence, this novel antioxidant might open up new opportunities for the fabrication of high-performance rubber composites due to its superior anti-aging effect and reinforcement.

  7. Effects of zinc bearing palygorskite supplementation on the growth performance, hepatic mineral content, and antioxidant status of broilers at early age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate effects of zinc (Zn bearing palygorskite (ZnPal supplementation on growth performance, hepatic mineral content, and antioxidant status of broilers at early age. Methods A total of 240 1-day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were allocated into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 8 chicks each. Birds in 5 treatments were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control group; Analyzed Zn content: 81 mg/kg, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kg Zn as ZnPal for 21 days, respectively. Blood, liver and intestinal mucosa were collected at 21 days of age. Results Treatments did not affect growth performance of broilers during the 21-day study (p> 0.05. The contents of hepatic Zn and magnesium (Mg were linearly increased (p<0.001 by ZnPal supplementation. ZnPal inclusion linearly (p = 0.007 reduced malondialdehyde (MDA concentration in serum. The activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD in liver increased linearly (p = 0.001 with concentration of ZnPal in diet. ZnPal inclusion linearly (p = 0.036 and quadratically (p = 0.005 increased T-SOD activity, and linearly (p = 0.012 increased copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD activity in jejunal mucosa. The maximum responses of hepatic and jejunal antioxidant enzymes activities (T-SOD and Cu/Zn SOD were found when supplementing the basal diet with 60 mg/kg Zn as ZnPal. Furthermore, ZnPal supplementation quadratically (p = 0.001 increased Cu/Zn SOD activity in ileal mucosa, and its maximum activity was observed in the diet supplemented with 20 mg/kg Zn as ZnPal. Conclusion ZnPal supplementation did not alter growth performance of broilers. Dietary ZnPal inclusion could increase concentrations of hepatic trace minerals (Zn and Mg and inhibit lipid peroxidation by reducing serum MDA accumulation, with the optimal dosage of Zn from ZnPal being 80 mg/kg diet (analyzed Zn content in the diet: 165 mg/kg, and 60 mg/kg Zn as ZnPal (analyzed Zn content in the diet: 148 mg/kg was

  8. Melatonin Enhances Phenolics Accumulation Partially via Ethylene Signaling and Resulted in High Antioxidant Capacity in Grape Berries

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    Lili Xu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the primary impacts of exogenous melatonin (MT treatment on grape berry metabolism. Exogenous MT treatment increased the endogenous MT content and modified berry ripening. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the processes of polyphenol metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and ethylene biosynthesis and signaling were the three most significantly altered biological processes upon MT treatment. Further experiments verified that MT treatment increased the contents of total anthocyanins, phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in berries. Additionally, the contents of 18 of the 22 detected individual phenolic compounds were enhanced by MT treatment; particularly, the resveratrol content was largely increased concomitantly with the up-regulation of STS gene expression. Meanwhile, MT treatment enhanced the antioxidant capacity of berries. On the other hand, it was indicated that ethylene participated in the regulation of polyphenol metabolism and antioxidant capacity under MT treatment in grape berries. In summary, MT enhances the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of grape berries partially via ethylene signaling.

  9. Propolis from Southwest of Parana produced by selected bees: Influence of seasonality and food supplementation on antioxidant activity and phenolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, Matheus A; Prasniewski, Anaclara; Silva, Cleidiane DA; Sado, Ricardo Y; Maia, Fabiana M C; Tonial, Larissa M S; Oldoni, Tatiane L C

    2017-01-01

    Propolis produced by selected bees Apis mellifera were collected from March to June of 2013 and in March of 2015 and analyzed in order to evaluate the influence of climate, colony of origin, and food supplementation of colonies on the content of total phenolic and flavonoid by chromatographic analysis and antioxidant activity by radical scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was carried out with propolis collected in 2013 and two clusters were formed. Propolis produced in the months of March and April showed a higher content of total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity than those produced in May and June. The results of PCA obtained from samples collected in March of 2013 and 2015 showed two clusters, and propolis collected in 2015 were more bioactive and presented a higher content of TPC. The chromatographic analysis of extracts allowed the identification of phenolic acids p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic with similar chemical profiles that could be closely related to the botanical origin of propolis. It can be concluded that the season and food supplementation of colonies influenced the chemical composition and the biological activity of samples analysed.

  10. Soapwort extract supplementation alters antioxidant status of serum, liver and heart tissues in growing Japanese quails reared under chronic intermittent cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestami Dalkilic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant effect of dietary soapwort extract supplementation was studied in growing Japanese quails suffering from chronic intermittent cold stress. For this purpose, a total of ninety 15-d-old quails were divided into three groups with three replicates. Chronic intermittent cold stress was applied every night between 22.00 to 06.00 h; starting at 14 °C for the first week, and gradually weekly lowered to 8 °C. Three groups were fed with corn-soy based standard diets supplemented with 0, 50, and 100 ppm soapwort extract for four weeks. At the end of the study, three males and three females were slaughtered to determine total antioxidant and oxidant status of serum, malondialdehyde, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity, superoxide dismutase of liver and heart tissues. Although the dietary soapwort extract had no effect on serum total antioxidant capacity, it significantly lowered the total oxidant status of serum in cold stressed quails. Glutathione and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity of liver and heart tissues were similar among groups. While the dietary soapwort extract had no effect on glutathione peroxidase activity of the heart tissue, it significantly increased glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver tissue. In relation to the control group, malondialdehyde concentrations in the liver and heart tissues were significantly lower in soapwort extract groups. These data suggest that dietary soapwort extract could alleviate the detrimental effects of oxidative stress in growing Japanese quails exposed to cold stress.

  11. Propolis from Southwest of Parana produced by selected bees: Influence of seasonality and food supplementation on antioxidant activity and phenolic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATHEUS A. CALEGARI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Propolis produced by selected bees Apis mellifera were collected from March to June of 2013 and in March of 2015 and analyzed in order to evaluate the influence of climate, colony of origin, and food supplementation of colonies on the content of total phenolic and flavonoid by chromatographic analysis and antioxidant activity by radical scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP methods. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA was carried out with propolis collected in 2013 and two clusters were formed. Propolis produced in the months of March and April showed a higher content of total phenolic compounds (TPC and antioxidant capacity than those produced in May and June. The results of PCA obtained from samples collected in March of 2013 and 2015 showed two clusters, and propolis collected in 2015 were more bioactive and presented a higher content of TPC. The chromatographic analysis of extracts allowed the identification of phenolic acids p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic with similar chemical profiles that could be closely related to the botanical origin of propolis. It can be concluded that the season and food supplementation of colonies influenced the chemical composition and the biological activity of samples analysed.

  12. Leafy vegetable mix supplementation improves lipid profiles and antioxidant status in C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Yeon; Cheong, Sun Hee; Kim, Min Hee; Son, ChanWok; Yook, Hong-Sun; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Cho, YongSik; Chun, HyeKyung; Kim, Mee Ree

    2009-08-01

    Daily consumption of an antioxidant-rich leafy vegetable mix (LVM) was assessed for beneficial effects on plasma lipid profiles, tissue lipid peroxidation, and oxidative DNA damage in C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet (20% fat and 1% cholesterol, wt/wt) for 4 weeks. The LVM contained beet leaf, angelica, red leaf lettuce, dandelion, green cos lettuce, lollo rosso, romaine lettuce (12.5%, respectively), scotch kale, and red kale (6.25%, respectively). The mice (n = 16) were randomly divided into either the control (high fat and cholesterol diet without LVM) or the LVM (high fat and cholesterol diet with 8% LVM supplement) groups after a 1-week acclimation. Lipid peroxidation as measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the plasma, liver, heart, and kidney was significantly lower. Antioxidants (glutathione and beta-carotene) and antioxidant enzyme activities (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase) were improved in mice fed LVM diet. In the comet assay, tail extent moment, olive tail moment, and tail length were significantly less in the hepatocyte and lymphocyte DNA of the LVM group, indicating the beneficial effect of LVM on the resistance of hepatocytes and lymphocytes DNA to oxidative damage. Findings from the present study suggest that dietary supplementation with LVM may be useful for protecting cells from lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage.

  13. Dietary Supplementation of Blueberry Juice Enhances Hepatic Expression of Metallothionein and Attenuates Liver Fibrosis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Cheng, Mingliang; Zhang, Baofang; Nie, Fei; Jiang, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effect of blueberry juice intake on rat liver fibrosis and its influence on hepatic antioxidant defense. Methods Rabbiteye blueberry was used to prepare fresh juice to feed rats by daily gastric gavage. Dan-shao-hua-xian capsule (DSHX) was used as a positive control for liver fibrosis protection. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 and feeding a high-lipid/low-protein diet for 8 weeks. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by Masson staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen III (Col III) were determined by immunohistochemical techniques. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenates were determined. Metallothionein (MT) expression was detected by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical techniques. Results Blueberry juice consumption significantly attenuates CCl4-induced rat hepatic fibrosis, which was associated with elevated expression of metallothionein (MT), increased SOD activity, reduced oxidative stress, and decreased levels of α-SMA and Col III in the liver. Conclusion Our study suggests that dietary supplementation of blueberry juice can augment antioxidative capability of the liver presumably via stimulating MT expression and SOD activity, which in turn promotes HSC inactivation and thus decreases extracellular matrix collagen accumulation in the liver, and thereby alleviating hepatic fibrosis. PMID:23554912

  14. Recovery from a cycling time trial is enhanced with carbohydrate-protein supplementation vs. isoenergetic carbohydrate supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemon Peter WR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we assessed whether a liquid carbohydrate-protein (C+P supplement (0.8 g/kg C; 0.4 g/kg P ingested early during recovery from a cycling time trial could enhance a subsequent 60 min effort on the same day vs. an isoenergetic liquid carbohydrate (CHO supplement (1.2 g/kg. Methods Two hours after a standardized breakfast, 15 trained male cyclists completed a time trial in which they cycled as far as they could in 60 min (AMex using a Computrainer indoor trainer. Following AMex, subjects ingested either C+P, or CHO at 10, 60 and 120 min, followed by a standardized meal at 4 h post exercise. At 6 h post AMex subjects repeated the time trial (PMex. Results There was a significant reduction in performance for both groups in PMex versus AMex. However, performance and power decreases between PMex and AMex were significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05 with CHO (-1.05 ± 0.44 km and -16.50 ± 6.74 W vs C+P (-0.30 ± 0.50 km and -3.86 ± 6.47 W. Fat oxidation estimated from RER values was significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05 in the C+P vs CHO during the PMex, despite a higher average workload in the C+P group. Conclusion Under these experimental conditions, liquid C+P ingestion immediately after exercise increases fat oxidation, increases recovery, and improves subsequent same day, 60 min efforts relative to isoenergetic CHO ingestion.

  15. A Review on the Role of Chromium Supplementation in Ruminant Nutrition-Effects on Productive Performance, Blood Metabolites, Antioxidant Status, and Immunocompetence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, Saman; Habibian, Mahmood; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2018-03-28

    With the increase in the global herd, the use of metabolic modifiers has become an important area for many researchers looking for a supraphysiological diet to improve production parameters. For improving the performance of high yielding cows, the optimal balance of all nutrients including microminerals is important. Chromium (Cr) is one of the important micronutrients which plays an important role in metabolism of ruminants. Experimental studies have found that Cr could change performance, immune responses, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, and antioxidant status in dairy cows. In some studies, Cr supplementation improved dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition of dairy cows in the early, mid, or late stage of lactation. Also, in some studies, performance of growing animal, immune response, and some blood parameters responded positively to Cr supplementation. In conclusion, the effects of Cr supplementation on performance of ruminants are inconsistent; however, its long-term effects on health, productivity, immune system, and antioxidant activity of ruminants still need to be investigated.

  16. High Whey Protein Intake Delayed the Loss of Lean Body Mass in Healthy Old Rats, whereas Protein Type and Polyphenol/Antioxidant Supplementation Had No Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoni, Laurent; Gatineau, Eva; Gatellier, Philippe; Migné, Carole; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier; Rocher, Emilie; Dardevet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1) increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2) use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism). 3) Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidative stress is also effective to improve muscle anabolism). Such comparisons and combinations were never tested before. Nutritional groups were: casein 12% protein, whey 12% protein, whey 18% protein and each of these groups were supplemented or not with polyphenols/antioxidants. During 6 months, we followed changes of weight, food intake, inflammation (plasma fibrinogen and alpha-2-macroglobulin) and body composition (DXA). After 6 months, we measured muscle mass, in vivo and ex-vivo fed and post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis, ex-vivo muscle proteolysis, and oxidative stress parameters (liver and muscle glutathione, SOD and total antioxidant activities, muscle carbonyls and TBARS). We showed that although micronutrient supplementation reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, the only factor that significantly reduced the loss of lean body mass was the increase in whey protein intake, with no detectable effect on muscle protein synthesis, and a tendency to reduce muscle proteolysis. We conclude that in healthy rats, increasing protein intake is an effective way to delay sarcopenia. PMID:25268515

  17. High whey protein intake delayed the loss of lean body mass in healthy old rats, whereas protein type and polyphenol/antioxidant supplementation had no effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Mosoni

    Full Text Available Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1 increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2 use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism. 3 Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidative stress is also effective to improve muscle anabolism. Such comparisons and combinations were never tested before. Nutritional groups were: casein 12% protein, whey 12% protein, whey 18% protein and each of these groups were supplemented or not with polyphenols/antioxidants. During 6 months, we followed changes of weight, food intake, inflammation (plasma fibrinogen and alpha-2-macroglobulin and body composition (DXA. After 6 months, we measured muscle mass, in vivo and ex-vivo fed and post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis, ex-vivo muscle proteolysis, and oxidative stress parameters (liver and muscle glutathione, SOD and total antioxidant activities, muscle carbonyls and TBARS. We showed that although micronutrient supplementation reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, the only factor that significantly reduced the loss of lean body mass was the increase in whey protein intake, with no detectable effect on muscle protein synthesis, and a tendency to reduce muscle proteolysis. We conclude that in healthy rats, increasing protein intake is an effective way to delay sarcopenia.

  18. A novel dietary supplement containing multiple phytochemicals and vitamins elevates hepatorenal and cardiac antioxidant enzymes in the absence of significant serum chemistry and genomic changes

    OpenAIRE

    Bulku, Elida; Zinkovsky, Daniel; Patel, Payal; Javia, Vishal; Lahoti, Tejas; Khodos, Inna; Stohs, Sidney J; Ray, Sidhartha D

    2010-01-01

    A novel dietary supplement composed of three well-known phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage) extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea) extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana) extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin) was designed to provide nutritional support by enhancing metabolism and maintaining healthy weight and energy. The present study evaluated the safety of this dietary supplement (STG; S, sage; T, tea; G, guarana) and assessed changes in target organ anti...

  19. A Novel Dietary Supplement Containing Multiple Phytochemicals and Vitamins Elevates Hepatorenal and Cardiac Antioxidant Enzymes in the Absence of Significant Serum Chemistry and Genomic Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Bulku, Elida; Zinkovsky, Daniel; Patel, Payal; Javia, Vishal; Lahoti, Tejas; Khodos, Inna; Stohs, Sidney J.; Ray, Sidhartha D.

    2010-01-01

    A novel dietary supplement composed of three well-known phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage) extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea) extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana) extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin) was designed to provide nutritional support by enhancing metabolism and maintaining healthy weight and energy. The present study evaluated the safety of this dietary supplement (STG; S, sage; T, tea; G, guarana) and assessed changes in target organ anti...

  20. Effect of Supplementing Organic Forms of Zinc, Selenium and Chromium on Performance, Anti-Oxidant and Immune Responses in Broiler Chicken Reared in Tropical Summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S V Rama; Prakash, B; Raju, M V L N; Panda, A K; Kumari, R K; Reddy, E Pradeep Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of supplementing organic forms of zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and chromium (Cr) on performance, anti-oxidant activities and immune responses in broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age, which were reared in cyclic heat-stressed condition under tropical summer in open-sided poultry house. A total of 200 (experiment I) and 450-day-old (experiment II) broiler male chicks (Cobb 400) were randomly distributed in stainless steel battery brooders (610 mm × 762 mm × 475 mm) at the rate of five birds per pen. A maize-soybean meal-based control diet (CD) containing recommended (Vencobb 400, Broiler Management Guide) concentrations of inorganic trace minerals and other nutrients was prepared. The CD was supplemented individually with organic form of selenium (Se, 0.30 mg/kg), chromium (Cr, 2 mg/kg) and zinc (Zn, 40 mg/kg) in experiment I. In experiment II, two concentrations of each Zn (20 and 40 mg/kg), Se (0.15 and 0.30 mg/kg) and Cr (1 and 2 mg/kg) were supplemented to the basal diet in 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. A group without supplementing inorganic trace minerals was maintained as control group in both experiments. Each diet was allotted randomly to ten replicates in both experiments and fed ad libitum from 1 to 21 days of age. At 19th day of age, blood samples were collected for estimation of anti-oxidant and immune responses. Supplementation of Se, Cr and Zn increased (P  0.05) by the interaction between levels of Zn, Se and Cr in broiler diet. The FE improved (P  0.05) the immune responses (Newcastle disease titre and cell-mediated immune response to phytohaemagglutinin-P) in both the experiments. Based on the results, it is concluded that supplementation of organic form of Se, Cr and Zn (0.30, 2 and 40 mg/kg, respectively) either alone or in combination significantly improved performance and anti-oxidant responses (reduced LP and increased superoxide dismutase) in commercial

  1. Metabolic engineering of the phenylpropanoid pathway enhances the antioxidant capacity of Saussurea involucrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Qiu

    Full Text Available The rare wild species of snow lotus Saussurea involucrata is a commonly used medicinal herb with great pharmacological value for human health, resulting from its uniquely high level of phenylpropanoid compound production. To gain information on the phenylpropanid biosynthetic pathway genes in this critically important medicinal plant, global transcriptome sequencing was performed. It revealed that the phenylpropanoid pathway genes were well represented in S. involucrata. In addition, we introduced two key phenylpropanoid pathway inducing transcription factors (PAP1 and Lc into this medicinal plant. Transgenic S. involucrata co-expressing PAP1 and Lc exhibited purple pigments due to a massive accumulation of anthocyanins. The over-expression of PAP1 and Lc largely activated most of the phenylpropanoid pathway genes, and increased accumulation of several phenylpropanoid compounds significantly, including chlorogenic acid, syringin, cyanrine and rutin. Both ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzotiazo-line-6-sulfonic acid and FRAP (ferric reducing anti-oxidant power assays revealed that the antioxidant capacity of transgenic S. involucrata lines was greatly enhanced over controls. In addition to providing a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of phenylpropanoid metabolism, our results potentially enable an alternation of bioactive compound production in S. involucrata through metabolic engineering.

  2. Food grade fungal stress on germinating peanut seeds induced phytoalexins and enhanced polyphenolic antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Huang, Dejian

    2011-06-08

    The effects of food grade fungus Rhizopus oligosporus stress on phytochemicals and phytoalexins of germinating peanut seeds were investigated by comparing the metabolic profiles of ungerminated (UG), germinated (G), and germinated seeds under fungal stress (GS). Three types of peanut seeds with different skin color (red, reddish brown, and black) were compared in the process. The polyphenolic contents were analyzed and correlated with antioxidant capacity for specific free radicals including peroxyl radical ROO(•) (ORAC), hydroxyl radical HO(•) (HORAC), superoxide radical O(2)(•-) (SORAC), and DPPH radical. The polyphenolic fingerprints analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS(n) showed that phenolic acids (coumaric, sinapinic, and ferulic acids derivatives) were the major group of phenolic compounds in ungerminated seeds. G or GS increased the level of phenolic acids, phytoalexins, and antioxidant capacity values in reddish and red peanuts but not in black peanuts. From the LC-MS(n) spectral data, 45 compounds were identified tentatively in the germinated peanuts, including 14 coumaric acids, 3 ferulic acids, 4 sinapinic acids, 2 hydroxybenzoic acids, 1 caffeic acid, 2 flavonoids, and 19 stilbenoids derivatives. Reddish brown germinated peanuts produced the highest amount of phytoalexins after GS with 55 compounds detected. Forty-five of these compounds were suggested as stilbenoid phytoalexins derivatives. The high content of phytoalexins may enhance the bioactivity of peanut seeds as functional food ingredients.

  3. Carvedilol Enhances the Antioxidant Effect of Vitamins E and C in Chronic Chagas Heart Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budni, Patrícia; Pedrosa, Roberto Coury; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Dalmarco, Juliana Bastos; Frode, Tânia Sílvia; Wilhelm, Danilo Filho

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease is still an important endemic disease in Brazil, and the cardiac involvement is its more severe manifestation. To verify whether the concomitant use of carvedilol will enhance the antioxidant effect of vitamins E and C in reducing the systemic oxidative stress in chronic Chagas heart disease. A total of 42 patients with Chagas heart disease were studied. They were divided into four groups according to the modified Los Andes classification: 10 patients in group IA (normal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram; no cardiac involvement); 20 patients in group IB (normal electrocardiogram and abnormal echocardiogram; mild cardiac involvement); eight patients in group II (abnormal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram; no heart failure; moderate cardiac involvement); and four patients in group III (abnormal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram with heart failure; severe cardiac involvement). Blood levels of markers of oxidative stress were determined before and after a six-month period of treatment with carvedilol, and six months after combined therapy of carvedilol with vitamins E and C. The markers analyzed were as follows: activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and reductase, myeloperoxidade and adenosine deaminase; and the levels of reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, vitamin E, and nitric oxide. After treatment with carvedilol, all groups showed significant decrease in protein carbonyls and reduced glutathione levels, whereas nitric oxide levels and adenosine activity increased significantly only in the less severely affected group (IA). In addition, the activity of most of the antioxidant enzymes was decreased in the less severely affected groups (IA and IB). By combining the vitamins with carvedilol, a reduction in protein damage, in glutathione levels, and in the activity of most of the antioxidant enzymes were observed. The decrease in oxidative

  4. Carvedilol Enhances the Antioxidant Effect of Vitamins E and C in Chronic Chagas Heart Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budni, Patrícia, E-mail: budnip@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Pedrosa, Roberto Coury [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Dalmarco, Juliana Bastos; Frode, Tânia Sílvia; Wilhelm, Danilo Filho [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Chagas disease is still an important endemic disease in Brazil, and the cardiac involvement is its more severe manifestation. To verify whether the concomitant use of carvedilol will enhance the antioxidant effect of vitamins E and C in reducing the systemic oxidative stress in chronic Chagas heart disease. A total of 42 patients with Chagas heart disease were studied. They were divided into four groups according to the modified Los Andes classification: 10 patients in group IA (normal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram; no cardiac involvement); 20 patients in group IB (normal electrocardiogram and abnormal echocardiogram; mild cardiac involvement); eight patients in group II (abnormal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram; no heart failure; moderate cardiac involvement); and four patients in group III (abnormal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram with heart failure; severe cardiac involvement). Blood levels of markers of oxidative stress were determined before and after a six-month period of treatment with carvedilol, and six months after combined therapy of carvedilol with vitamins E and C. The markers analyzed were as follows: activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and reductase, myeloperoxidade and adenosine deaminase; and the levels of reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, vitamin E, and nitric oxide. After treatment with carvedilol, all groups showed significant decrease in protein carbonyls and reduced glutathione levels, whereas nitric oxide levels and adenosine activity increased significantly only in the less severely affected group (IA). In addition, the activity of most of the antioxidant enzymes was decreased in the less severely affected groups (IA and IB). By combining the vitamins with carvedilol, a reduction in protein damage, in glutathione levels, and in the activity of most of the antioxidant enzymes were observed. The decrease in oxidative

  5. Enhanced acetone-butanol-ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates by using starchy slurry as supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Kuittinen, Suvi; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Zhang, Junhua; Pappinen, Ari

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to improve acetone-butanol-ethanol production from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic material by supplementing starchy slurry as nutrients. In the fermentations of glucose, xylose and the hydrolysates of Salix schwerinii, the normal supplements such as buffer, minerals, and vitamins solutions were replaced with the barley starchy slurry. The ABE production was increased from 0.86 to 14.7g/L by supplementation of starchy slurry in the fermentation of xylose and the utilization of xylose increased from 29% to 81%. In the fermentations of hemicellulosic and enzymatic hydrolysates from S. schwerinii, the ABE yields were increased from 0 and 0.26 to 0.35 and 0.33g/g sugars, respectively. The results suggested that the starchy slurry supplied the essential nutrients for ABE fermentation. The starchy slurry as supplement could improve the ABE production from both hemicellulosic and cellulosic hydrolysate of lignocelluloses, and it is particularly helpful for enhancing the utilization of xylose from hemicelluloses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vibration-enhanced posture stabilization achieved by tactile supplementation: may blind individuals get extra benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Fernando Henrique; Kohn, André Fabio

    2011-08-01

    Diminished balance ability poses a serious health risk due to the increased likelihood of falling, and impaired postural stability is significantly associated with blindness and poor vision. Noise stimulation (by improving the detection of sub-threshold somatosensory information) and tactile supplementation (i.e., additional haptic information provided by an external contact surface) have been shown to improve the performance of the postural control system. Moreover, vibratory noise added to the source of tactile supplementation (e.g., applied to a surface that the fingertip touches) has been shown to enhance balance stability more effectively than tactile supplementation alone. In view of the above findings, in addition to the well established consensus that blind subjects show superior abilities in the use of tactile information, we hypothesized that blind subjects may take extra benefits from the vibratory noise added to the tactile supplementation and hence show greater improvements in postural stability than those observed for sighted subjects. If confirmed, this hypothesis may lay the foundation for the development of noise-based assistive devices (e.g., canes, walking sticks) for improving somatosensation and hence prevent falls in blind individuals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of combined inositol hexakisphosphate and inositol supplement on antioxidant activity and metabolic enzymes in the liver of streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Shadae R; Dilworth, Lowell L; Thompson, Rory K; Alexander-Lindo, Ruby L; Omoruyi, Felix O

    2017-09-25

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with elevated reactive oxygen species, lipid abnormalities, reduced antioxidant activity and organ damage. This study examines the effects of combined inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) and inositol supplement on antioxidant levels and other biochemical parameters in the liver of type 2 diabetic rats. Five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Six rats were fed normal diet (non-diabetic control), while 24 rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced in 18 of the rats fed HFD by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin. The diabetic rats were separated into three groups namely: combined IP6 and inositol, glibenclamide and diabetic control. The non-diabetic group fed high-fat diet was classified as a high-fat control group. For the final four weeks of the experiment, all rats were fed normal diet and given their respective treatment regimes. Hepatic antioxidant status, metabolic enzyme activity, lipid profile, peroxidative damage and liver histology, as well as, serum aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities, and total bilirubin concentration were assessed. Treatment with combined IP6 and inositol supplement significantly increased liver reduced glutathione and high-density lipoprotein levels while liver triglyceride levels and serum alkaline phosphatase activity were significantly reduced by 27%, 50%, 38.5%, and 69.2% respectively compared to the diabetic control. Hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were significantly upregulated by 55%, 26% and 53% respectively in the diabetic rats treated with combined IP6 and inositol compared to the diabetic control. Combined IP6 and inositol treatment resulted in the preservation of liver cell integrity and improved antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Puffing, a novel coffee bean processing technique for the enhancement of extract yield and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooki; Kim, Sang-Youn; Kim, Dae-Ok; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2018-02-01

    Puffing of coffee beans, which induces heat- and pressure-derived physicochemical changes, was applied as an alternative to roasting. Roasted or puffed coffee beans with equivalent lightness values were compared. The moisture content was higher while the crude fat and protein compositions were lower in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The pH was lower and the acid content was higher in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The roasted beans exhibited greater specific volumes, while the puffed beans displayed greater extraction yields. The trigonelline and total phenolic contents were greater in puffed beans than in roasted beans resulting in an enhanced antioxidant capacity. Sensory evaluation of roasted and puffed coffee bean brews revealed that puffing did not affect the flavor or overall acceptance. The current study provides evidence that puffing is an alternative to roasting coffee beans with various benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhancement of Solubility and Antioxidant Activity of Some Flavonoids Based on the Inclusion Complexation with Sulfobutylether β-Cyclodextrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yong Eun; Kim, Hyun Myung; Jung, Seun Ho; Park, Se Yeon

    2010-01-01

    β-CD and SBE-β-CD functioned as a solubilizing agent against three flavonoids. SBE-β-CD is more efficient than native β-CD in solubility enhancement of tested flavonoids. All three tested flavonoids have antioxidant ability. Flavonoid-CD complex positively affected the antioxidant activity comparing with free flavonoids. Throughout this research, SBE-β-CD showed better complexation capacity for the solubility enhancement and bioavailability of tested flavonoids comparing with native β-CD. Flavonoids are polyphenolic photochemicals generally found in plants, foods, and beverages. They contribute to plant colors in fruit, leaves providing a wide spectrum of color from red to blue in flowers. Flavonoids have many good physiological activities such as the antioxidant, antitumor, and antibacterial activities which have been a focus of the attention of many researchers. There are four subgroups of flavonoids, flavone, flavonol, flavanone, and isoflavone, according to their chemical structure

  10. Effects of supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Sadowska-Kr?pa, E; K?apci?ska, B; Podg?rski, T; Szade, B; Tyl, K; Hadzik, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes. Seven junior hurdlers (17.5±1.2 years) taking part in a pre-season conditioning camp were supplemented once a day, for six weeks, with 100 ml of the juice blend. At the start and the end of the camp the athletes performed a 300-m sprint running test on an outdoor track. Blood sam...

  11. Antioxidant supplements and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of a...

  12. Fish-oil supplementation enhances the effects of strength training in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodacki, Cintia L N; Rodacki, André L F; Pereira, Gleber; Naliwaiko, Katya; Coelho, Isabela; Pequito, Daniele; Fernandes, Luiz Cléudio

    2012-02-01

    Muscle force and functional capacity generally decrease with aging in the older population, although this effect can be reversed, attenuated, or both through strength training. Fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 (omega-3) PUFAs, has been shown to play a role in the plasma membrane and cell function of muscles, which may enhance the benefits of training. The effect of strength training and FO supplementation on the neuromuscular system of the elderly has not been investigated. The objective was to investigate the chronic effect of FO supplementation and strength training on the neuromuscular system (muscle strength and functional capacity) of older women. Forty-five women (aged 64 ± 1.4 y) were randomly assigned to 3 groups. One group performed strength training only (ST group) for 90 d, whereas the others performed the same strength-training program and received FO supplementation (2 g/d) for 90 d (ST90 group) or for 150 d (ST150 group; supplemented 60 d before training). Muscle strength and functional capacity were assessed before and after the training period. No differences in the pretraining period were found between groups for any of the variables. The peak torque and rate of torque development for all muscles (knee flexor and extensor, plantar and dorsiflexor) increased from pre- to posttraining in all groups. However, the effect was greater in the ST90 and ST150 groups than in the ST group. The activation level and electromechanical delay of the muscles changed from pre- to posttraining only for the ST90 and ST150 groups. Chair-rising performance in the FO groups was higher than in the ST group. Strength training increased muscle strength in elderly women. The inclusion of FO supplementation caused greater improvements in muscle strength and functional capacity.

  13. Enhanced antioxidant capacity following selenium supplemented antimalarial therapy in Plasmodium berghei infected mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Abiodun Humphrey; Olasehinde, Grace Iyabo; Egbeola, Oluwaseun Ayodimeji; Yakubu, Omolara Faith; Adeyemi, Alaba Oladipupo; Adekeye, Bosede Temitope

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the co-administration of artemether, lumefantrine and selenium was studied in mice infected with Plasmodium bergheiparasite. The mice were divided into seven groups of six animals per group. All groups except A were parasitized. Group A (unparasitized/untreated) and B (parasitized/untreated) served as the positive and negative control respectively, these were administered with olive oil. Animals in groups C and D were treated with 8 and 48 mg/kg/bw of artemether and lumefantrine respectively while group E was treated with a combination of artemether and lumefantrine (8: 48 mg/kg/bw). Animals in group F were treated with 0.945 mg/kg/bw of selenium only and group G was treated with a combination of artemether, lumefantrine and selenium (8:48:0.945 mg/kg/bw). All the treatment was done for a three day period. These animals were subsequently anaesthetized and the organs were excised. Homogenates were prepared for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, reduced Glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays. The results showed a significant (p<0.05) difference in the levels of ALP and MDA in group B, while a significant difference was observed in the levels of ALP, total protein, CAT and MDA in group G when compared with the parasitized group. Histopathological analysis showed no presence of inflammatory cells in group G when compared with group B. It may be concluded that the combination of artemether, lumefantrine and selenium showed a more potent effect against the parasite than the group treated with artemether and lumefantrine, thus, helps to combat post-infection oxidative stress in susceptible cells.

  14. Effects of Supplemental Levels of Bazhen on Growth Performances, Serum Traits, Immunity, Meat Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Taiwan Country Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu-Fa Lien

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and sixty Taiwan country chickens (d-old chicks were randomly assigned into four groups with four replicates and equal sex. Basal diets were supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% of Bazhen powder, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine complex. The study was conducted for 14 wks. Experimental results indicated that Bazhen supplement did not influence feed intake, body weight gain and feed:gain ratio. Compared with control group, the percentage of serum HDL (high-density lipoprotein linearly increased (p<0.03 and that of VLDL+LDL (very low-density+low-density lipoprotein linearly decreased (p<0.03 in Bazhen supplemented groups, that 2% Bazhen was significantly different with control group (p<0.05. Chickens fed diets containing 2% Bazhen displayed reduced (p<0.05 serum GOT (glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase levels. The IgG, γ-globulin levels and PHA (phytohemagglutinin skin challenge results in 1% Bazhan supplemented group were higher (p<0.05 than in the control group, the SRBC (sheep red blood cell and ND (newcastle disease titers in Bazhen supplemented groups were linear higher (p<0.05 than in the control group. The liver catalase activity and the capacity of scavenging DPPH (α-α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical were linearly increased (p<0.03 in Bazhen supplemented groups, and the 1 and 2% groups were different from the control group (p<0.05. Liver TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels in all Bazhen supplemented groups and total glutathione level in the 2% group were reduced (p<0.05 compared to the control group and displayed a linear response (p<0.05. The TBA (thiobarbituric acid and pH value of the breast muscle after 24 h post-mortem in the Bazhen supplemented groups was linear lower (p<0.05 than in the control group. Results from this study demonstrated that Bazhen supplement in chicken had several beneficial effects, including increased SRBC and ND titers, HDL and IgG, γ-globulin levels, PHA skin challenge

  15. Wheat germ oil enrichment in broiler feed with α-lipoic acid to enhance the antioxidant potential and lipid stability of meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Lipid peroxidation is the cause of declining the meat quality. Natural antioxidants plays a vital role in enhancing the stability and quality of meat. The supplementation of natural antioxidants in feed decreases lipid peroxidation and improves the stability of meat. Methods The present research was conducted to determine the effect of α-lipoic acid, α-tocopherol and wheat germ oil on the status of antioxidants, quality and lipid stability of broiler meat. One day old male broilers were fed with different feeds containing antioxidants i.e. natural (wheat germ oil) and synthetic α-tocopherol and α-lipoic acid during the two experimental years. Results The feed treatments have significant variation on the body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) while having no influence on the feed intake. The broilers fed on wheat germ oil (natural α-tocopherol) gained maximum body weight (2451.97 g & 2466.07 g) in the experimental years 2010–11 & 2011–12, respectively. The higher total phenolic contents were found in the broilers fed on wheat germ oil plus α-lipoic acid in breast (162.73±4.8 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g & 162.18±4.5 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g) and leg (149.67±3.3 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g & 146.07±3.2 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g) meat during both experimental years. Similar trend was observed for the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The production of malondialdehydes in the breast and leg meat increased with progressive increase in the time period. The deposition of α-tocopherol (AT) and α-lipoic acid (ALA) contents were found to be higher in the broilers fed on wheat germ oil plus α-lipoic acid in breast and leg meat during the both experimental years. Conclusion In conclusion, the combination of wheat germ oil and α-lipoic acid has more beneficial for stability and the quality of the broiler meat and more work should be needed in future for the bio

  16. Effect of supplementing different concentrations of organic trace minerals on performance, antioxidant activity, and bone mineralization in Vanaraja chickens developed for free range farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Savaram Venkata Rama; Prakash, Bhukya; Kumari, Kanya; Raju, Mantena Venkata Laxmi Narasimha; Panda, Arun Kumar

    2013-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the performance, antioxidation activity, and bone mineral content in Vanaraja chickens fed diet supplemented with organic trace minerals (oTM) at reduced levels. A total of 360 day-old chicks were selected and distributed randomly into 60 battery brooder pens. A maize-soybean meal-based control diet was supplemented with inorganic trace minerals (iTM), i.e., Mn, Zn, Fe, and Cu at 50, 45, 40, and 7.5 mg/kg, respectively, and varying concentration of oTM, i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, I, Se, and Cr at 45, 50, 7.5, 40, 2, 0.30, and 0.25 mg/kg (diet II); 33.75, 37.50, 5.63, 30.0, 1.50, 0.23, and 0.19 mg/kg (diet III); 22.5, 25.0, 3.75, 20.0, 1.0, 0.15, and 0.13 mg/kg (diet IV); 18.0, 20.0, 3.0, 16.0, 0.80, 0.12, and 0.10 mg/kg (diet V); and 13.5, 15.0, 2.25, 12.0, 0.60, 0.09, and 0.08 mg/kg (diet VI), respectively. Each diet was allotted randomly to ten replicates and fed ad libitum from 1 to 42 days of age. The body weight at 14, 28, and 42 days was not affected by reducing the supplementation of oTM concentration in the diets. Similarly, feed intake at 14 days of age was not affected but reduced significantly (P trace minerals in tibia were evident in the group fed oTM-supplemented diets compared to the diet containing iTM. Activities of glutathione peroxidase and ferric reducing ability in plasma did not differ in the groups fed on lower concentration of oTM compared to those fed on diet I (control diet). Therefore, it is concluded that the dietary supplementation of trace minerals can be reduced greatly when supplemented as organic form without affecting growth and antioxidant status in Vanaraja chickens.

  17. Dietary supplementation of curcumin augments heat stress tolerance through upregulation of nrf-2-mediated antioxidative enzymes and hsps in Puntius sophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Mohanty, Sasmita; Mohanty, Bimal P

    2017-08-01

    Heat stress is one of the major environmental concerns in global warming regime and rising temperature has resulted in mass mortalities of animals including fishes. Therefore, strategies for high temperature stress tolerance and ameliorating the effects of heat stress are being looked for. In an earlier study, we reported that Nrf-2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2) mediated upregulation of antioxidative enzymes and heat shock proteins (Hsps) provide survivability to fish under heat stress. In this study, we have evaluated the ameliorative potential of dietary curcumin, a potential Nrf-2 inducer in heat stressed cyprinid Puntius sophore. Fishes were fed with diet supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% curcumin at the rate 2% of body weight daily in three separate groups (n = 40 in each group) for 60 days. Fishes fed with basal diet (without curcumin) served as the control (n = 40). Critical thermal maxima (CTmax) was determined for all the groups (n = 10, in duplicates) after the feeding trial. Significant increase in the CTmax was observed in the group fed with 1.5% curcumin- supplemented fishes whereas it remained similar in groups fed with 0.5%, and 1% curcumin-supplemented diet, as compared to control. To understand the molecular mechanism of elevated thermotolerance in the 1.5% curcumin supplemented group, fishes were given a sub-lethal heat shock treatment (36 °C) for 6 h and expression analysis of nrf-2, keap-1, sod, catalase, gpx, and hsp27, hsp60, hsp70, hsp90, and hsp110 was carried out using RT-PCR. In the gill, expression of nrf-2, sod, catalase, gpx, and hsp60, hsp70, hsp90, and hsp110 was found to be elevated in the 1.5% curcumin-fed heat-shocked group compared to control and the basal diet-fed, heat-shocked fishes. Similarly, in the liver, upregulation in expression of nrf-2, sod, catalase, and hsp70 and hsp110 was observed in 1.5% curcumin supplemented and heat shocked group. Thus, this study showed that supplementation of curcumin

  18. Effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin C on growth, reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant enzyme activity of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) juveniles exposed to nitrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zuoyong; Wang, Baojie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Liu, Mingxing; Wang, Lei

    2014-07-01

    Different amounts of vitamin C were added to diets fed to juveniles (2.5 ± 0.15 g) of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonic u s (Selenka) in an attempt to reduce the stress response of specimens exposed to nitrite stress. A commercial feed was used as the control diet and three experimental diets were made by supplementing 1 000, 1 500, or 2 000 mg vitamin C/kg diet to control diet separately in a 45-day experiment. Sea cucumbers were exposed to three different levels (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/L) of nitrite stress for 4, 8, and 12 h at four time intervals (0, 15, 30, and 45 d). Growth of the animals was recorded during the experiment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) (i.e. hydroxyl free radical (-OH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)) and antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) were measured. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze the effect of multiple factors on ROS indices and enzyme activities. Weight gain (WG) and special growth rate (SGR) of vitamin C supplementation groups were significantly higher than those of control group ( P effectively the effects of nitrite exposure.

  19. Effects of two P/S ratios with same peroxidizability index value and antioxidants supplementation on serum lipid concentration and hepatic enzyme activities of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Jeong; Lee, Eun Kyung; Lee, Sang Sun

    2004-12-01

    High polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (P/S) ratio of diet decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with improvement of serum lipid profiles and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. This study was to investigate the effects of P/S ratio and antioxidants supplementation on lipid and peroxidation when dietary peroxidizability index (PI) value was the same. Female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100-120 g were fed four different experimental diets for 4 weeks. The P/S ratios were 0.38 (LP) and 4.81 (HP) when the PI value of diet was 81.22. These diets were supplemented with vitamin E 1000 mg/kg diet and selenium 2.5 mg/kg diet (LPS and HPS). The total-cholesterol (T-C) and HDL-cholesterol concentrations of serum were higher in HP and HPS (pLPS (pCVD risk even without antioxidant when the PI value is the same. We suggest that P/S ratio as well as PI value should be considered for reducing the risk of CVD.

  20. Effects of L- Arginine Supplementation on Antioxidant Status and Body Composition in Obese Patients with Pre-diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Fazelian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of present study was to determine effects of L-Arginine supplementation on antioxidant status and body composition in obese patients with prediabetes. Methods: A double-blind randomized control trial was performed on 46 (24 men, 22 women obese patients with prediabetes. They were divided randomly into two groups. Patients in intervention (n = 23 and control group (n=23 received 3 gr/day L-arginine and placebo, respectively for 8 weeks. Anthropometric indices, dietary intake and biochemical measurements ((serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC, Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD were performed at the baseline and after 8-week intervention. Results: The mean age and BMI of participants were 44.29±8.65 years old and 28.14±1.35 kg/m2, respectively. At the end of study, in both intervention and control group, percentage of carbohydrate decreased and %fat intake increased compared to the baseline (P0.05. Among measured biochemical factors, only serum TAC level showed significant differences at the end of study in the intervention group compared to the control group (pv<0.01. Conclusion: 3gr/day L-Arginine supplementation increased TAC level in obese patients with prediabetes.

  1. Effect of pad-fan cooling and dietary organic acid supplementation during late gestation and lactation on reproductive performance and antioxidant status of multiparous sows in hot weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Guo, Ji; Guan, Wu-Tai; Song, Jun-Jie; Deng, Zi-Xiao; Cheng, Lin; Deng, Yue-Lin; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Shi-Hai; Zhang, Yin-Zi; Yang, Fei; Ren, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Chao-Xian

    2018-03-04

    A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (rearing room with or without pad-fan cooling × diet with or without 2.5 kg/t organic acid) was used to evaluate the effect of pad-fan cooling and dietary organic acid supplementation during perinatal period on reproductive performance and antioxidant status of sows in hot weather. This study was conducted in a subtropical city in Guangdong Province in South China between August and October, 2015. At day 85 of gestation, a total of 112 sows were randomly assigned to the four treatments with 28 sows per treatment, and maintained until day 21 of lactation, and the feeding trial lasted for 51 days. During the experimental period, room temperature and humidity were recorded hourly. The lactation feed intake of sows (P = 0.109) and stillbirths (P fan cooling against the room without pad-fan cooling. The number of weak newborns per litter and the malondialdehyde content in days 14 and 21 milk decreased (P fan cooling in rearing room improved the lactation feed intake of sows, and dietary organic acid supplementation improved reproductive performance and milk antioxidant status of sows. Pad-fan cooling is recommended in farrowing room, but not in gestating room.

  2. Strong enhancement of antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Lee, Seung Sik; Hong, Sung Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Young; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that approximately 80% of individuals rely on traditional medicines. Among over 400 Aloe species, Aloe vera was the most accepted species for various medical, cosmetic and neutraceutical purposes. Aloe vera (syn.: Aloe barbadensis Miller) was a perennial succulent plant belonging to the Aloeaceae family (subfamily of the Asphodelaceae). It has been reported that Aloe vera extracts were useful in the treatment of wound and burn healing, minor skin infections, sebaceous cyst, diabetes, and elevated blood lipids in humans. Recent studies have shown that treatment with either Aloe vera crude gel or its extracts, such as acemannan, {beta}-sitosterol, and others, resulted in faster healing of wounds by stimulating fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, and production of growth factors. Ionizing radiation technology has been developed to improve our daily life such as cancer therapy and sterilizing tool due to its unique feature that could be penetrated biomaterials leading to alter their own physical properties. More recently, many studies have attempted to apply the radiation technology to enhance their biological activities. At present, however, very little was known about whether naturally-occurring phenolic compounds of ethanolic aloe gel extracts that were altered their biological activities by ionizing radiation to serve as antioxidant in the body to reduce ROS produced by the stresses. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation on antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts, and open insight new possibilities that gamma ray could be a powerful tool for improving its own biological activities

  3. Strong enhancement of antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Lee, Seung Sik; Hong, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jae Young; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that approximately 80% of individuals rely on traditional medicines. Among over 400 Aloe species, Aloe vera was the most accepted species for various medical, cosmetic and neutraceutical purposes. Aloe vera (syn.: Aloe barbadensis Miller) was a perennial succulent plant belonging to the Aloeaceae family (subfamily of the Asphodelaceae). It has been reported that Aloe vera extracts were useful in the treatment of wound and burn healing, minor skin infections, sebaceous cyst, diabetes, and elevated blood lipids in humans. Recent studies have shown that treatment with either Aloe vera crude gel or its extracts, such as acemannan, β-sitosterol, and others, resulted in faster healing of wounds by stimulating fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, and production of growth factors. Ionizing radiation technology has been developed to improve our daily life such as cancer therapy and sterilizing tool due to its unique feature that could be penetrated biomaterials leading to alter their own physical properties. More recently, many studies have attempted to apply the radiation technology to enhance their biological activities. At present, however, very little was known about whether naturally-occurring phenolic compounds of ethanolic aloe gel extracts that were altered their biological activities by ionizing radiation to serve as antioxidant in the body to reduce ROS produced by the stresses. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation on antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts, and open insight new possibilities that gamma ray could be a powerful tool for improving its own biological activities

  4. C60-based ebselen derivative: synthesis by bingel cyclopropanation and enhanced antioxidative and neuroprotective activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xufeng Liu; Wenchao Guan; Wengshan Ke

    2007-01-01

    C 60 -based ebselen derivative 3 was synthesized through Bingel cyclopropanation of C 60 with the ebselen malonate 2. Compound 3 was obtained in 42% yield (based on consumed C 60 ) in a three-step synthesis starting from 2-(chloroseleno)benzoyl chloride and 2-(2aminoethoxy)ethanol. Its structure was confirmed by 1H NMR, 13 C NMR, IR, UV and FAB-MS spectroscopy analyses. In order to verify the enhanced antioxidative and neuroprotective activity of 3, a C 60 derivative (4), an ebselen derivative (2), and their mixture (4 plus 2 in equimolar ratio) were employed to treat cortical neuronal cells, following the same procedure used with 3 and at the same final concentration (30 μmol L -1 ). Cell viabilities of the four treated groups were estimated by LDH (lactic dehydrogenase) leakage and MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assays. Results showed that the antioxidative and protective activities of C 60 -based ebselen derivative 3 against H 2 O 2 -mediated neuronal injury (MTT(OD) 0.364 ± 0.028; LDH release (UL -1 ) 4.66 ± 0.28) were significantly higher than those of C 6 )0 derivative 4 (MTT(OD) 0.324 ± 0.025; LDH release (UL -1 ) 5.39 ± 0.17), ebselen derivative 2 (MTT(OD) 0.294 ± 0.021; LDH release (UL -1 ) 5.71 ± 0.27), and the mixture of 4 and 2 (MTT(OD) 0.310 ± 0.018; LDH release (UL -1 ) 5.54 ±0.39). These findings demonstrated that the combination of two molecular units with similar biological activities (C 60 and ebselen) may be a desirable way of obtaining new and more biologically effective C 60 -based compounds. (author)

  5. Supplementing with vitamin C the diet of honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica) parasitized with Varroa destructor: effects on antioxidative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjan, Marek; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Żółtowska, Krystyna

    2014-05-01

    We studied a total of eight developmental stages of capped brood and newly emerged workers of Apis mellifera carnica colonies naturally parasitized with Varroa destructor. During winter and early spring four colonies were fed syrup containing 1.8 mg vitamin C kg(-1) (ascorbic acid group; group AA) while four colonies were fed syrup without the vitamin C (control group C). Selected elements of the antioxidative system were analysed including total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione content and antioxidative enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase). Body weight, protein content and indices of infestation were also determined. The prevalence (8.11%) and intensity (1·15 parasite per bee) of the infestation were lower in group AA compared with group C (11.3% and 1.21, respectively). Changes in the indicators of antioxidative stress were evidence for the strengthening of the antioxidative system in the brood by administration of vitamin C. In freshly emerged worker bees of group AA, despite the infestation, protein content, TAS, and the activity of all antioxidative enzymes had significantly higher values in relation to group C.

  6. Comparative effects of direct-fed microbials alone or with a trace minerals supplements on the productive performance, blood metabolites, and antioxidant status in grazing Awassi lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhidary, I A; Abdelrahman, M M; Khan, R U

    2016-12-01

    Twenty Awassi lambs were used to find the effects of direct-fed microbials (DFM) and long-acting trace minerals rumen bolus (TMB) supplements on performance, blood biochemical variables, and antioxidant status of the lambs under grazing conditions. The lambs were randomly distributed into four groups as follows: (1) untreated, (2) oral dose of 5 mL DFM, (3) TMB, or (4) oral dose of 5 mL DFM and TMB. The treatments were carried out for 90 days. Supplementation with TMB significantly increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency compared with the control. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in blood albumin in the DFM and a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in aspartate aminotrasferase were found in the lambs supplemented with TMB alone or in combination with DFM. Supplementing lambs with TMB resulted in higher glutathione peroxidase, total antioxidant capacity (P < 0.001) and activity of superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05) compared with no supplementation and supplementation with DFM only. In conclusion, TMB supplementation had a positive impact on performance traits and the antioxidant system of the lambs under grazing condition.

  7. Reconvene and Reconnect the Antioxidant Hypothesis in Human Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, P. P.; Chandra, Anu; Mahdi, Farzana; Roy, Ajanta; Sharma, Praveen

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidants are essential molecules in human system but are not miracle molecules. They are neither performance enhancers nor can prevent or cure diseases when taken in excess. Their supplemental value is debateable. In fact, many high quality clinical trials on antioxidant supplement have shown no effect or adverse outcomes ranging from morbidity to all cause mortality. Several Chochrane Meta-analysis and Markov Model techniques, which are presently best available statistical models to ...

  8. Oxidation and antioxidant status: effects on shelf-life of meat from Limousine cattle fed with supplements of α-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Gatta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant status of meat from cattle fed diets supplemented with vitamin E (α-tocopherol acetate during the finishing period and to evaluate the effect of this treatment on meat shelf-life. Twenty purebred Limousine calves reared in the same farm, were randomly selected, divided into control group (n=10 and treated group (n=10 and fed a total mixed ration: treated group received a supplementation of vitamin E (900 mg/kg of CMF for a period of 150 days before slaughter. Meat quality was evaluated by the following analyses: pH, water holding capacity (drip loss, colour (L*, a*, b*, C*, H*, chemical forms of myoglobin, substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid (MDA and enzymatic antioxidant activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutation peroxidase. Dietary vitamin E supplementation had a positive effect on water holding capacity; in the control group a considerable increase in drip loss from the 2nd to 6th day of conservation was observed (2.83% vs 7.54%, while in the treated group during the same time period this increase appeared to be much more gradual and occurred to a lesser degree (2.31% vs 4.15%. Moreover, administration of vitamin E led to greater stability of colorimetric coordinates and reduced discoloration of the longissimus dorsi muscle during conservation as indicated by the redness a* (control: 23.85 and 23.87 vs 19.34 at 2h, 2 and 6 days, respectively; treated: 24.88, 23.91 and 24.01 at 2h, 2 days and 6 days, respectively and in the Chroma* (control: 26.89 and 26.77 vs 21.90 at 2h, 2 days and 6 days, respectively; treated: 27.67, 26.57 and 26.77 at 2h, 2 and 6 days, respectively. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly greater in the meat from cattle treated with vitamin E compared to that observed in the meat from controls (0.204 vs 0.167. The study showed that vitamin E supplementation in the finishing diets of calves caused only slight modifications in the

  9. Daily Nutritional Dose Supplementation with Antioxidant Nutrients and Phytochemicals Improves DNA and LDL Stability: A Double-Blind, Randomized, and Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Jin Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species are important risk factors for age-related diseases, but they also act as signaling factors for endogenous antioxidative defense. The hypothesis that a multi-micronutrient supplement with nutritional doses of antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals (MP may provide protection against oxidative damage and maintain the endogenous antioxidant defense capacity was assessed in subjects with a habitually low intake of fruits and vegetables. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, and parallel designed trial, 89 eligible subjects were assigned to either placebo or MP for eight weeks. Eighty subjects have completed the protocol and included for the analysis. MP treatment was superior at increasing serum folate (p < 0.0001 and resistance to DNA damage (p = 0.006, tail intensity; p = 0.030, tail moment by comet assay, and LDL oxidation (p = 0.009 compared with the placebo. Moreover, the endogenous oxidative defense capacity was not weakened after MP supplementation, as determined by the levels of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.442, catalase (p = 0.686, and superoxide dismutase (p = 0.804. The serum folate level was negatively correlated with DNA damage (r = −0.376, p = 0.001 for tail density; r = −0.329, p = 0.003 for tail moment, but no correlation was found with LDL oxidation (r = −0.123, p = 0.275. These results suggest that MP use in healthy subjects with habitually low dietary fruit and vegetable intake may be beneficial in providing resistance to oxidative damage to DNA and LDL without suppressing the endogenous defense mechanisms.

  10. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Exogenous Application of Growth Enhancers Mitigate Water Stress in Wheat by Antioxidant Elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid eNawaz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available TThe present study was conducted to investigate the response of two wheat cultivars (AARI-11 and Millat-11 to a foliar application of four growth enhancers which include: {H2O (water, MLE30 (moringa leaf extract, KCl (potassium chloride and BAP (benzyl-amino purine}, within the six irrigation water-regimes which are applied at the various critical growth stages such as crown root initiation (CRI, tillering (T, booting (B and heading (H. Irrigation water-regimes include: CRI+T+B, CRI+T, CRI+B, T+B, T+H and control (CRI+T+B+H. The growth enhancers i.e. H2O, MLE30 (1:30, KCl (2% and BAP (50 mg L-1 were applied @ 500 L ha-1 at tillering and heading stages. The results demonstrated some increased quantities of both enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid, phenol antioxidants in leaves of AARI-11 when MLE30 was applied under T+B and T+H irrigation water-regimes. Similar results were also observed in the case of leaf chlorophyll a & b and K+ contents in both cultivars under control, T+B and CRI+T+B irrigation water regimes. AARI-11 produced the highest biological and grain yield, due to the application of MLE30 and BAP under control, CRI+T+B, T+B and T+H irrigation water-regimes. However, KCl lagged behind among the treatments set for both cultivars under all the irrigation water-regimes. Foliar spray of MLE30 remained prominent growth enhancer and stresses mitigating agent under water deficit conditions particularly under T+B and T+H irrigation water-regimes. Moreover, economic analysis indicated that the foliar application of MLE30 is a cost effective and environment friendly strategy for the maximum yield and income.

  12. Genetic polymorphisms influence runners' responses to the dietary ingestion of antioxidant supplementation based on pequi oil (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.): a before-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Lordelo, Graciana Souza; Akimoto, Arthur Kenji; Alves, Penha Cristina Zaidan; Pereira, Luiz Carlos da Silva; Klautau-Guimarães, Maria de Nazaré; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2011-11-01

    Genes have been implicated in the levels of oxidative stress, lipids, CVD risk, immune reactivity, and performance. Pequi oil (Caryocar brasiliense) has shown anti-inflammatory and hypotensive effects, besides reducing exercise-induced DNA, tissue damages, and anisocytosis. Given that diet can interact with the human genome to influence health and disease, and because genetic variability can influence response to diet, we aim to investigate the influence of 12 gene polymorphisms on inflammatory markers, postprandial lipids, arterial pressure, and plasma lipid peroxidation of runners (N = 125), before and after 14 days of 400 mg pequi-oil supplementation, after races under closely comparable conditions. Arterial pressure was checked before races; blood samples were taken immediately after racing to perform leukogram and plateletgram, Tbars assay, lipid, and CRP dosages and genotyping. CAT, GST-M1/T1, CRP-G1059C, and MTHFR-C677T polymorphisms influenced post-pequi-oil responses in leukogram; Hp and MTHFR-C677T, in plateletgram; Hp, ACE, GSTT1, and MTHFR-A1298C, in lipid profile; MTHFR-A1298C, in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels; and Hp and MnSOD, in Tbars assay. Differences between ACE genotypes in leukogram and total cholesterol disappeared after pequi, and the same occurred for Hp and MnSOD in Tbars assay and for MTHFR-A1298C with CRP levels. Because genetic inheritance is one of the factors that drive atherosclerosis-related lipid abnormalities, results can contribute to a greater understanding of the influence of genetic polymorphisms in situations that push up free radicals. Knowledge is also expanded on how antioxidant supplementation affects an individual's genes and how athletic genetic makeup can affect the way a person responds to antioxidant supplements.

  13. Dietary supplementation of a mixture of Lactobacillus strains enhances performance of broiler chickens raised under heat stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Wesam Altaher, Yassir; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Ebrahimi, Roohollah; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Idrus, Zulkifli; Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Liang, Juan Boo

    2016-07-01

    High ambient temperature is a major problem in commercial broiler production in the humid tropics because high producing broiler birds consume more feed, have higher metabolic activity, and thus higher body heat production. To evaluate the effects of two previously isolated potential probiotic strains ( Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23 and Lactobacillus acidophilus ITA44) on broilers growing under heat stress condition, a total of 192 chicks were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 48 chickens each as follows: CL, birds fed with basal diet raised in 24 °C; PL, birds fed with basal diet plus 0.1 % probiotic mixture raised in 24 °C; CH, birds fed with basal diet raised in 35 °C; and PH, birds fed with basal diet plus 0.1 % probiotic mixture raised in 35 °C. The effects of probiotic mixture on the performance, expression of nutrient absorption genes of the small intestine, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbial population of cecal contents, antioxidant capacity of liver, and fatty acid composition of breast muscle were investigated. Results showed that probiotic positively affected the final body weight under both temperature conditions (PL and PH groups) compared to their respective control groups (CL and CH). Probiotic supplementation numerically improved the average daily gain (ADG) under lower temperature, but significantly improved ADG under the higher temperature ( P < 0.05) by sustaining high feed intake. Under the lower temperature environment, supplementation of the two Lactobacillus strains significantly increased the expression of the four sugar transporter genes tested (GLUT2, GLUT5, SGLT1, and SGLT4) indicating probiotic enhances the absorption of this nutrient. Similar but less pronounced effect was also observed under higher temperature (35 °C) condition. In addition, the probiotic mixture improved bacterial population of the cecal contents, by increasing beneficial bacteria and decreasing Escherichia coli population, which could be

  14. Antioxidant Activity of The Crude Carotenoid Pigment Extract from Yellow Ambon Banana (M. parasidiaca sapientum Peel: Its Potency as Vitamin A Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2012-06-01

    Method: The total vitamin A carotenoid in the banana peel was assessed using the double beam Varian Cary 50 spectrophotometer at 470 nm. Then it was converted to microgram per gram of the banana peel using the NAS-NRC equation. The extraction was conducted using acetone. The antioxidant activity was assessed using DPPH (1.1-difenil-2-dipikrilhidrazil. The antioxidant activity of carotenoid crude extract was compared to that of marker â-karoten antioxidant (E-Merck, No. 1.02236. IC50 values were calculated using the regression formula. The dried carotenoid crude extract was encapsulated with dextrin filler. Result: The water content level of ambon banana was 50.68 % ± 3.35 %. The peel of the yellow ambon banana has a total carotenoid of 6.203 ± 0.004 μg/g. The converted carotenoid vitamin A was 124.06 ± 0.08 IU. The IC50 value of the yellow ambon banana crude extract was 2350.3 ppm meaning higher than the marker â-caroten (565.76 ppm. The encapsulation technique increased the pigment stabilization of the yellow ambon banana which will be used for vitamin A supplement. Conclusion: The crude extract of carotenoid pigment of the yellow ambon banana peel has an antioxidant potential although it is less efficient compared to that of â-carotene. The IC50 value of the crude extract of carotenoid pigment of the yellow banana ambon is 2350.3 ppm, higher than marker â -caroten (Sains Medika, 4(1:78-88.

  15. Gum Arabic supplementation improved antioxidant status and alters expression of oxidative stress gene in ovary of mice fed high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkareem A. Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global health concern associated with high morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic strategies include surgery and synthetic drugs, and may cause high costs and serious complications. Gum Arabic (GA, Acacia senegal considered as a dietary fiber that reduces body fat deposition. Yet, the effect of the GA on reproductive functions in high fat diet remains unclear. In this study, we fed mice either a normal diet (control, low fat diet (low, high fat diet (high or a high fat diet supplemented with 10% w/w GA (high + gum for 12 weeks. Body weight, visceral adipose tissue (VAT, plasma lipid profile and blood glucose were determined. Ovarian antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the measurement of antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde (MDA and antioxidant enzymes activity. Moreover, ovarian histopathological changes and oxidative stress related genes mRNA were measured. GA treatment significantly (P < 0.05 increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx compared to low, HFD and control groups. The treatment of GA significantly (P < 0.05 decreased ovary MDA, plasma total cholesterol, LDL-c and triglyceride concentrations whereas, increased HDL-c concentrations compared to low, HFD and control groups. SOD and GPx mRNA expression were significantly increased in GA group compared to low, HFD and control groups. Ovaries of all HFD mice showed marked degeneration whereas, slight degeneration was observed in GA treated mice compared to low, HFD and control groups. Our findings suggest that GA may protect ovaries by improvement of antioxidant capacity; thus, it may be useful to ameliorate the fertility complications in obese patient.

  16. Antioxidant Property Enhancement of Sweet Potato Flour under Simulated Gastrointestinal pH

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kim Wei; Khong, Nicholas M. H.; Iqbal, Shahid; Umar, Imam Mustapha; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Sweet potato is known to be rich in healthful antioxidants, but the stability of its antioxidant properties under gastrointestinal pH is very much unknown. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the changes in antioxidant properties (total contents of phenolics and flavonoids as well as antioxidant activity) of sweet potato flour (SPF) under simulated gastrointestinal pH conditions. It was found that the yield of SPF crude phenolic extract increased from 0.29 to 3.22 g/100 g SPF upon subjection ...

  17. Enhanced production of recombinant proteins by a small molecule protein synthesis enhancer in combination with an antioxidant in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camire, Joseph; Kim, Dongjoo; Kwon, Soonjo

    2017-07-01

    The improvement in the production of recombinant proteins has been linked in a number of small molecules such as carboxylic acids to the inhibition of histone deacetylase, leading to increased transcription of genes. However, carboxylic acids such as pentanoic acid and butanoic acid have been shown to promote an apoptotic response in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture. Supplementation of cultures with antioxidants has shown the ability to reduce the apoptotic response of carboxylic acid supplementation, leading to increased therapeutic protein production. In this study, we showed that pentanoic acid reduced the number of cells entering early apoptosis relative to butanoic acid by 15.4%. Additionally, supplementation of butanoic acid- and pentanoic acid-treated cultures with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) reduced the population of cells entering early apoptosis by 5.3 and 10.0%, respectively, while increasing productivity by 19.5% in the presence of pentanoic acid and NAC. Conversely, a decrease of 5.7% in production was observed in response to combined butanoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine treatment. The results presented herein provide evidence that a culture supplementation method is critical for optimization of biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes.

  18. Effects of Glucomannan-Enriched, Aronia Juice-Based Supplement on Cellular Antioxidant Enzymes and Membrane Lipid Status in Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevena Kardum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a 4-week-long consumption of glucomannan-enriched, aronia juice-based supplement on anthropometric parameters, membrane fatty acid profile, and status of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes obtained from postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. Twenty women aged 45–65 with a mean body mass index (BMI of 36.1 ± 4.4 kg/m2 and waist circumference of 104.8 ± 10.1 cm were enrolled. Participants were instructed to consume 100 mL of supplement per day as part of their regular diet. A significant increase in the content of n-3 (P<0.05 polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids was observed, with a marked increase in the level of docosahexaenoic fatty acid (P<0.05. Accordingly, a decrease in the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids ratio was observed (P<0.05. The observed effects were accompanied with an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity (P<0.05. Values for BMI (P<0.001, waist circumference (P<0.001, and systolic blood pressure (P<0.05 were significantly lower after the intervention. The obtained results indicate a positive impact of tested supplement on cellular oxidative damage, blood pressure, and anthropometric indices of obesity.

  19. Enhancing stress growth traits as well as phytochemical and antioxidant contents of Spiraea and Pittosporum under seaweed extract treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elansary, Hosam O; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; King, Ian W

    2016-08-01

    Seaweed extracts (SWE) might play an important role in enhancing growth and phytochemical composition of medicinal shrubs. In this study, we investigate the morphological, physiological and biochemical effects of irrigation levels (100% and 50% of the evapotranspiration rate) coupled with a weekly treatment of SWE of Ascophyllum nodosum at 5 and 7 mL L(-1) as a soil drench or foliar spray on Spiraea nipponica "Snowmound" and Pittosporum eugenioides "Variegatum" grown in containers under controlled greenhouse conditions. In addition, the phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in both plant species was largely enhanced while the proline accumulation was reduced. After 8 weeks of treatments, drought condition reduced plant vegetative growth and gas exchange, as well as leaf water potential, but increased the phenolic and flavonoid contents in leaves, their antioxidant capacities and proline content. The application of SWE enhanced the performance of both species during mild drought conditions by means of increasing leaf number and area, dry weights, plant height, gas exchange and leaf water potential. The maximum vegetative growth, physiological performance and phytochemical composition of both species was achieved using the drench SWE treatments (5 and 7 mL L(-1)) in moderate drought conditions, which improved the plant water status, stomatal conductance, and photosynthetic rate. SWE enhanced plant growth and the phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of plant leaves of both species during moderate drought conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Nanoselenium Supplementation of Heat-Stressed Broilers: Effects on Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Blood Metabolites, Immune Response, Antioxidant Status, and Jejunal Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari-Rostamabad, Morteza; Hosseini-Vashan, Seyyed Javad; Perai, Ali Hossein; Sarir, Hadi

    2017-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary nanoselenium supplementation at 0, 0.6 and 1.2 mg/kg of diet on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, immune response, antioxidant capacity, and jejunal morphology of 29-d-old male broilers subjected to heat stress at 37 ± 1°C for 14 d. Broilers were fed for 42 d on the experimental diets. The results showed that nanoselenium supplementation had no effect on growth performance, but it supplementation at the rate of 1.2 mg/kg diet decreased the serum concentration of cholesterol prior to the heat exposure. Further, dietary nanoselenium supplementation linearly increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, while linearly decreased those of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and aspartate aminotransferase in the serum before applying heat stress. Compared with thermoneutral temperature, heat stress reduced body mass gain, feed intake, percentages of carcass, breast, leg, abdominal fat, bursa of Fabricius, thymus, antibody response against sheep red blood cells, serum concentration of protein, erythrocyte activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, jejunal villus height, and villus height to crypt depth ratio, while increased feed conversion ratio, percentages of liver, gizzard, pancreas, gallbladder, heart, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase and malondialdehyde. Dietary supplementation of nanoselenium linearly reduced the abdominal fat and liver percentages, while linearly increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase and villus height in heat-stressed broilers. Furthermore, the lower level of nanoselenium decreased the percentages of gizzard and heart in broilers under heat stress. The diet supplemented with 1.2 mg/kg nanoselenium improved feed conversion ratio and increased antibody response against sheep red blood cells, activity of superoxide dismutase, and villus height to crypt depth ratio, but decreased the serum

  1. Effect of short-term zinc supplementation on zinc and selenium tissue distribution and serum antioxidant enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Andrey A. Skalny; Alexey A. Tinkov; Yulia S. Medvedeva; Irina B. Alchinova; Mikhail Y. Karganov; Anatoly V. Skalny; Alexandr A. Nikonorov

    2015-01-01

    Background. A significant association between Zn and Se homeostasis exists. At the same time, data on the influence of zinc supplementation on selenium distribution in organs and tissues seem to be absent. Therefore, the primary objective of the current study is to investigate the infl uence of zinc asparaginate supplementation on zinc and selenium distribution and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in Wistar rats. Material and methods. 36 rats were...

  2. Application of melanin-free ink as a new antioxidative gel enhancer in sardine surimi gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vate, Naveen Kumar; Benjakul, Soottawat; Agustini, Tri Winarni

    2015-08-30

    The squid ink that is discarded as waste during processing can be effectively utilised as a gel enhancer in surimi gels, especially those prepared from dark-fleshed fish which have poor gel properties. It also acts as an antioxidant, inhibiting lipid oxidation. This investigation aimed to study the effect of melanin-free ink (MFI) from splendid squid (Loligo formosana) on properties and oxidative stability of surimi gel from sardine (Sardinella albella). MFI (0-0.1 g kg(-1) surimi) increased the breaking force and deformation of sardine surimi gel in a dose-dependent manner (P 0.05). The expressible moisture content of gels decreased as the levels of MFI increased (P < 0.05). Based on a microstructure study, gel added with MFI at a level of 0.08 g kg(-1) surimi was denser and finer than that of the control (without MFI). Surimi gels with MFI had lower peroxide values, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, nonanal and 2-decenal. MFI could improve the properties of sardine surimi gel. Additionally, it was able to prevent lipid oxidation in surimi gels during refrigerated storage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effect of short-term lycopene supplementation and postprandial dyslipidemia on plasma antioxidants and biomarkers of endothelial health in young, healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G Denniss

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven G Denniss, Thomas D Haffner, Jeffrey T Kroetsch, Sara R Davidson, James WE Rush, Richard L HughsonFaculty of Applied Health Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1Abstract: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the effect of a high-fat meal (HFm on plasma lipid-soluble antioxidants and biomarkers of vascular oxidative stress and inflammation would be attenuated by short-term lycopene supplementation in young healthy subjects. Following restriction of lycopene-containing foods for 1-wk (LYr, blood was collected in a fasting state and 3 h after a HFm and a low-fat meal (LFm in N = 18 men aged 23 ± 2 years, and after a HFm only in N = 9 women aged 23 ± 1 years. Blood was also sampled pre- and post-meals following 1-wk of 80 mg/day lycopene supplementation (LYs under continued dietary LYr. In the fasting state, LYs compared with LYr not only evoked a >2-fold increase in plasma lycopene but also increased plasma β-carotene and α-tocopherol (p<0.01, though LYs did not affect plasma nitrate/nitrite (biomarker of nitric oxide, malondialdehyde (biomarker of lipid oxidative stress, vascular- and intercellular-adhesion molecules or C-reactive protein (biomarkers of inflammation. Contrary to the hypothesis, the HFm-induced dyslipidemic state did not affect plasma malondialdehyde, C-reactive protein, or adhesion molecules in either LYr or LYs. Both the HFm and LFm were associated with decreases in the nitric oxide metabolites nitrate/nitrite and lipid-soluble antioxidants (p<0.05. The data revealed that 1-wk of LYs increased plasma lycopene, β-carotene, and α-tocopherol yet despite these marked changes to the plasma lipid-soluble antioxidant pool, biomarkers of vascular oxidative stress and inflammation were unaffected in the fasted state as well as during dyslipidemia induced by a HFm in young healthy subjects.Keywords: carotenoids, dietary antioxidants, high-fat meal, low-fat meal

  4. Sodium chloride enhances cadmium tolerance through reducing cadmium accumulation and increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing-Lin; Shang, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Jabeen, Zahra; Zhang, Guo-Ping

    2013-06-01

    The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on cadmium (Cd) uptake, translocation, and oxidative stress was investigated using 2 tobacco cultivars differing in Cd tolerance. The growth inhibition of the tobacco plants exposed to Cd toxicity was in part alleviated by moderate addition of NaCl in the culture solution. Cadmium concentration of shoots and roots in the 2 cultivars increased with increasing Cd levels in the solution and decreased with the addition of NaCl. The addition of NaCl could alleviate the oxidative stress caused by Cd toxicity, as reflected by reduced production of malondialdehyde and recovered or enhanced activities of antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The results also showed that the enhancement of antioxidative enzyme activity by NaCl for the tobacco plants exposed to Cd stress is related to induced Ca signaling. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  5. Cultivated Sea Lettuce is a Multiorgan Protector from Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress by Enhancing the Endogenous Antioxidant Defense System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Ranjala; Liu, Yanxia; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    The health-promoting effects of seaweeds have been linked to antioxidant activity that may counteract cancer-causing oxidative stress-induced damage and inflammation. While antioxidant activity is commonly associated with direct radical scavenging activity, an alternative way to increase the antioxidant status of a cell is to enhance the endogenous (phase II) defense system consisting of cytoprotective antioxidant enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). These enzymes are transcriptionally regulated by the antioxidant response element (ARE) via the transcription factor Nrf2. Extracts derived from cultivated Ulva sp., a green alga regarded as a marine vegetable (sea lettuce), potently activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway in IMR-32 neuroblastoma and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. RNA interference studies demonstrated that Nrf2 and PI3 kinase are essential for the phase II response in IMR-32 cells. Activity-enriched fractions induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and target gene transcription, and boosted the cellular glutathione level and therefore antioxidant status. A single-dose gavage feeding of Ulva-derived fractions increased Nqo1 transcript levels in various organs. Nqo1 induction spiked in different tissues, depending on the specific chemical composition of each administered fraction. We purified and characterized four ARE inducers in this extract, including loliolide (1), isololiolide (2), a megastigmen (3), and a novel chlorinated unsaturated aldehyde (4). The ARE-active fractions attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and Cox2 gene expression in macrophagic RAW264.7 cells, decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, respectively. Nqo1 activity and NO production were abrogated in nrf2−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts, providing a direct link between the induction of phase II response and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:24005795

  6. Supplementation with antioxidant-rich extra virgin olive oil prevents hepatic oxidative stress and reduction of desaturation capacity in mice fed a high-fat diet: Effects on fatty acid composition in liver and extrahepatic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Angel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Marambio, Macarena; Espinosa, Alejandra; Mayer, Susana; Romero, Nalda; Barrera M Sc, Cynthia; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Videla, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in mice on the reduction of desaturase and antioxidant enzymatic activities in liver, concomitantly with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) profiles in liver and extrahepatic tissues induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male mice C57 BL/6 J were fed with a control diet (CD; 10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates) or an HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates) for 12 wk. Animals were supplemented with 100 mg/d EVOO with different antioxidant contents (EVOO I, II, and III). After the intervention, blood and several tissues were analyzed. Dietary supplementation with EVOO with the highest antioxidant content and antioxidant capacity (EVOO III) significantly reduced fat accumulation in liver and the plasmatic metabolic alterations caused by HFD and produced a normalization of oxidative stress-related parameters, desaturase activities, and LCPUFA content in tissues. Data suggest that dietary supplementation with EVOO III may prevent oxidative stress and reduction of biosynthesis and accretion of ω-3 LCPUFA in the liver of HFD-fed mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. High Antioxidant Action and Prebiotic Activity of Hydrolyzed Spent Coffee Grounds (HSCG) in a Simulated Digestion-Fermentation Model: Toward the Development of a Novel Food Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzella, Lucia; Pérez-Burillo, Sergio; Pastoriza, Silvia; Martín, María Ángeles; Cerruti, Pierfrancesco; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia; Rufián-Henares, José Ángel; Napolitano, Alessandra; d'Ischia, Marco

    2017-08-09

    Spent coffee grounds are a byproduct with a large production all over the world. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of a simulated digestion-fermentation treatment on hydrolyzed spent coffee grounds (HSCG) and to investigate the antioxidant properties of the digestion and fermentation products in the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. The potentially bioaccessible (soluble) fractions exhibited high chemoprotective activity in HepG2 cells against oxidative stress. Structural analysis of both the indigestible (insoluble) and soluble material revealed partial hydrolysis and release of the lignin components in the potentially bioaccessible fraction following simulated digestion-fermentation. A high prebiotic activity as determined from the increase in Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) following microbial fermentation of HSCG was also observed. These results pave the way toward the use of HSCG as a food supplement.

  8. Maternal butyrate supplementation induces insulin resistance associated with enhanced intramuscular fat deposition in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanping; Gao, Shixing; Chen, Jinglong; Albrecht, Elke; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2017-02-21

    Maternal nutrition is important for the risk of the offspring to develop insulin resistance and adiposity later in life. The study was undertaken to determine effects of maternal butyrate supplementation on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in the offspring skeletal muscle. The offspring of rats, fed a control diet or a butyrate diet (1% sodium butyrate) throughout gestation and lactation, was studied at weaning and at 60 days of age. The offspring of dams fed a butyrate diet had higher HOMA-insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. This was associated with elevated mRNA and protein expressions of lipogenic genes and decreased amounts of lipolytic enzyme. Simultaneously, enhanced acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 and histone H3 lysine 27 modification on the lipogenic genes in skeletal muscle of adult offspring was observed. Higher concentration of serum insulin and intramuscular triglyceride in skeletal muscle of offspring from the butyrate group at weaning were accompanied by increasing levels of lipogenic genes and enrichment of acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27. Maternal butyrate supplementation leads to insulin resistance and ectopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle of offspring, indicating the importance of short chain fatty acids in the maternal diet on lipid metabolism.

  9. Use of Gallic Acid to Enhance the Antioxidant and Mechanical Properties of Active Fish Gelatin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpisophon, Kanokrat; Schleining, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the potential roles of gallic acid in fish gelatin film for improving mechanical properties, UV barrier, and providing antioxidant activities. Glycerol, a common used plasticizer, also impacts on mechanical properties of the film. A factorial design was used to investigate the effects of gallic acid and glycerol concentrations on antioxidant activities and mechanical properties of fish gelatin film. Increasing the amount of gallic acid increased the antioxidant capacities of the film measured by radical scavenging assay and the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay. The released antioxidant power of gallic acid from the film was not reduced by glycerol. The presence of gallic acid not only increased the antioxidant capacity of the film, but also increased the tensile strength, elongation at break, and reduced UV absorption due to interaction between gallic acid and protein by hydrogen bonding. Glycerol did not affect the antioxidant capacities of the film, but increased the elasticity of the films. Overall, this study revealed that gallic acid entrapped in the fish gelatin film provided antioxidant activities and improved film characteristics, namely UV barrier, strength, and elasticity of the film. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Single or combined effects of mannan-oligosaccharides and probiotic supplements on the total oxidants, total antioxidants, enzymatic antioxidants, liver enzymes, and serum trace minerals in cyclic heat-stressed broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, M U; Rahman, Z U; Ijaz, A; Yousaf, M S; Ashraf, K; Yaqub, T; Zaneb, H; Anwar, H; Rehman, H

    2011-11-01

    This study was intended to explore the oxidative status of broilers under cyclic heat stress (HS) as modulated by supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and a probiotic mixture (PM). Two hundred fifty 1-d-old chicks were randomly divided into 5 groups. From d 22, birds were either kept in a thermoneutral zone (TN; 26.7°C for 24 h/d) or subjected to HS (35 ± 1.1°C and 75 ± 5% RH for 8 h/d from 1000 to 1800 h) to the conclusion of the study on d 42. Birds were fed either a corn-based diet (TN and HS groups) or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% MOS (HS-MOS group), 0.1% PM (HS-PM group), or their combination as a symbiotic (SYN; HS-SYN group). On d 42, birds were killed by cervical dislocation to collect serum for the determination of total oxidants, total antioxidants, paraoxonase, arylesterase, ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and trace minerals. Heat stress increased (P trace minerals, whereas SYN increased (P trace minerals.

  11. Enhanced biohydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse by Clostridium thermocellum supplemented with CaCO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qing-Qing; Liang, Lei; Zhu, Ming-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 was used to degrade sugarcane bagasse (SCB) directly for hydrogen production, which was significantly enhanced by supplementing medium with CaCO3. The effect of CaCO3 concentration on the hydrogen production was investigated. The hydrogen production was significantly enhanced with the CaCO3 concentration increased from 10mM to 20mM. However, with the CaCO3 concentration further increased from 20mM to 100mM, the hydrogen production didn't increase further. Under the optimal CaCO3 concentration of 20mM, the hydrogen production reached 97.83±5.19mmol/L from 2% sodium hydroxide-pretreated SCB, a 116.72% increase over the control (45.14±1.03mmol/L), and the yield of hydrogen production reached 4.89mmol H2/g SCBadded. Additionally, CaCO3 promoted the biodegradation of SCB and the growth of C. thermocellum. The stimulatory effects of CaCO3 on biohydrogen production are mainly attributed to the buffering capacity of carbonate. The study provides a novel strategy to enhance biohydrogen production from lignocellulose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cordyceps sinensis Health Supplement Enhances Recovery from Taxol-Induced Leukopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Chung; Chuang, Wei-Ling; Tsai, Min-Lung; Hong, Ji-Hong; McBride, William H.; Chiang, Chi-Shiun

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the health food supplement Cordyceps sinensis (CS) to ameliorate suppressive effects of chemotherapy on bone marrow function as a model for cancer treatment Mice were treated with Taxol (17 mg/kg body wt) one day before oral administration of a hot-water extract of CS (50 mg/kg daily) that was given daily for 3 weeks. White blood cell counts in peripheral blood of mice receiving Taxol were at 50% of normal levels on day 28 but had recovered completely in mice treated with CS. In vitro assays showed that CS enhanced the colony-forming ability of both granulocyte macrophage colony forming unit (GM-CFU) and osteogenic cells from bone marrow preparations and promoted the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells into adipocytes, alkaline phosphatase–positive osteoblasts, and bone tissue. This result could be attributed to enhanced expression of Cbfa1 (core binding factor a) and BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein) with concurrent suppression of ODF (osteoclast differentiation factor/RANK [receptor activator of NF-κB]) ligand. In summary, CS enhances recovery of mice from leukopenia caused by Taxol treatment. It appears to do so by protecting both hematopoietic progenitor cells directly and the bone marrow stem cell niche through its effects on osteoblast differentiation. PMID:18367634

  13. Cordyceps sinensis health supplement enhances recovery from taxol-induced leukopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Chung; Chuang, Wei-Ling; Tsai, Min-Lung; Hong, Ji-Hong; McBride, William H; Chiang, Chi-Shiun

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the health food supplement Cordyceps sinensis (CS) to ameliorate suppressive effects of chemotherapy on bone marrow function as a model for cancer treatment. Mice were treated with Taxol (17 mg/kg body wt) one day before oral administration of a hot-water extract of CS (50 mg/kg daily) that was given daily for 3 weeks. White blood cell counts in peripheral blood of mice receiving Taxol were at 50% of normal levels on day 28 but had recovered completely in mice treated with CS. In vitro assays showed that CS enhanced the colony-forming ability of both granulocyte macrophage colony forming unit (GM-CFU) and osteogenic cells from bone marrow preparations and promoted the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells into adipocytes, alkaline phosphatase-positive osteoblasts, and bone tissue. This result could be attributed to enhanced expression of Cbfa1 (core binding factor a) and BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein) with concurrent suppression of ODF (osteoclast differentiation factor/RANK [receptor activator of NF-kappaB]) ligand. In summary, CS enhances recovery of mice from leukopenia caused by Taxol treatment. It appears to do so by protecting both hematopoietic progenitor cells directly and the bone marrow stem cell niche through its effects on osteoblast differentiation.

  14. Blueberry supplementation enhances signaling and prevents behavioral deficits in an Alzheimer disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J A; Denisova, N A; Arendash, G; Gordon, M; Diamond, D; Shukitt-Hale, B; Morgan, D

    2003-06-01

    Previously, we showed that blueberry (BB) supplementation reversed the deleterious effects of aging on motor behavior and neuronal signaling in senescent rodents. We now report that BB-fed (from 4 months of age) APP + PS1 transgenic mice showed no deficits in Y-maze performance (at 12 months of age) with no alterations in amyloid beta burden. It appeared that the protective mechanisms are derived from BB-induced enhancement of memory-associated neuronal signaling (e.g. extracellular signal-regulated kinase) and alterations in neutral sphingomyelin-specific phospholipase C activity. Thus, our data indicate for the first time that it may be possible to overcome genetic predispositions to Alzheimer disease through diet.

  15. Antioxidant-Enhancing Property of the Polar Fraction of Mangosteen Pericarp Extract and Evaluation of Its Safety in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichit Suthammarak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude extract from the pericarp of the mangosteen (mangosteen extract [ME] has exhibited several medicinal properties in both animal models and human cell lines. Interestingly, the cytotoxic activities were always observed in nonpolar fraction of the extract whereas the potent antioxidant was often found in polar fraction. Although it has been demonstrated that the polar fraction of ME exhibited the antioxidant activity, the safety of the polar fraction of ME has never been thoroughly investigated in humans. In this study, we investigated the safety of oral administration of the polar fraction of ME in 11 healthy Thai volunteers. During a 24-week period of the study, only minor and tolerable side effects were reported; no serious side effects were documented. Blood chemistry studies also showed no liver damage or kidney dysfunction in all subjects. We also demonstrated antioxidant property of the polar fraction of ME both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, oral administration of the polar fraction of ME enhanced the antioxidant capability of red blood cells and decreased oxidative damage to proteins within red blood cells and whole blood.

  16. Enhancing the biotransformation of isoflavones in soymilk supplemented with lactose using probiotic bacteria during extended fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W K; Shah, N P

    2010-04-01

    Soymilk (SM) lacks lactose; hence supplementation of SM with lactose is likely to enhance the growth of probiotic bacteria and biotransformation of isoflavone glycosides to isoflavone aglycones. In this study, 11 strains of probiotic bacteria including Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. salivarius, L. plantarum, L. acidophilus, L. paracasei, HOWARU L. rhamnosus, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium lactis type Bi-07, B. longum, HOWARU B. bifidum, and B lactis type Bi-04 were inoculated individually or as mixed cultures into SM and soymilk supplemented with lactose (SML). A total of 2% of lactose was added to 1 L of SM with the aim of improving the growth of probiotic organisms and promoting the biotransformation of isoflavone isomers to bioactive isoflavone aglycomes. Samples of SM were incubated at 37 degrees C and 10 mL aliquots of SM were taken at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h to monitor the growth of probiotic bacteria and changes in isoflavone contents using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results indicated that SML fermented with probiotics had higher viable counts by >2.4 log CFU/mL than that in SM at the end of the 72 h fermentation period. Mixed cultures grew at different rates and in general Lactobacilius spp. had >1.02 log CFU/mL more cells than Bifidobacterium spp. at the end of the fermentation period. The total aglycone content in SM at 72 h of fermentation was 0.924 mg/100 mL, whereas that in SML was 1.623 mg/100 mL. Addition of lactose not only improved the growth of probiotic bacteria in SM but also enhanced the biotransformation of isoflavone glucosides to the more bioactive isoflavone aglycones. Mixed cultures did not improve the biotransformation of bioactive isoflavones when compared to single cultures.

  17. The Effects of Different Amount of Protein and Vitamin e Supplementation in Rations on Lipid and Antioxidant Metabolism of Broilers Exposed to Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HS Erol

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Heat stress, causes economic losses and has negative effects on both broiler husbandry and animal welfare. Nutritional strategies are applied for minimizing the negative effects of heat stress. In the present study, at the finishing period (24-39 days of age of heat stress, the effects of diet involving 21% and 19% proteins and vitamin E on lipid metabolism and antioxidant mechanism of action, aimed to be identified. This study was carried out in six groups as: HPC (24oC heat + 21% crude protein (CP, HPS (34oC heat + 21% CP, LPC (24oC heat + 19% CP, LPS (34oC heat + 19% CP, HPSVE (34oC heat + 21% CP + Vitamin E and LPSVE (34oC heat + 19% CP + vitamin E groups. Superficial pectoral muscles (breast and liver tissues were used for oxidative stress and antioxidant defence determinations. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels have also been determined in blood serums. During the research, it is found that heat stress increased serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels, where Vitamin E has recovered triglyceride levels limitedly and cholesterol levels significantly. It is also observed that the adverse effect of high temperature was directly related to oxidative stress. Protein levels and vitamin supplementation relatively ameliorated these adverse effects, suggesting the tissue specificity. Consequently, the importance of feeding strategies such as the presence of Vitamin E and protein ratios on broiler nutrition in heat stress was established.

  18. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım, Ebru; Çınar, Miyase; Yalçınkaya, İlkay; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  19. Cigarette Smoking-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy, Vascular Inflammation and Injury Are Attenuated by Antioxidant Supplementation in an Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Al Hariri, Moustafa; Zibara, Kazem; Farhat, Wissam; Hashem, Yasmine; Soudani, Nadia; Al Ibrahim, Farah; Hamade, Eva; Zeidan, Asad; Husari, Ahmad; Kobeissy, Firas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cigarette smoking remains a global health epidemic with associated detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. In this work, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on cardiovascular system in an animal model. The study then evaluated the effects of antioxidants (AO), represented by pomegranate juice, on cigarette smoke induced cardiovascular injury. This study aims at evalua...

  20. Enhanced task-related brain activation and resting perfusion in healthy older adults after chronic blueberry supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowtell, Joanna L; Aboo-Bakkar, Zainie; Conway, Myra E; Adlam, Anna-Lynne R; Fulford, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    Blueberries are rich in flavonoids, which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. High flavonoid intakes attenuate age-related cognitive decline, but data from human intervention studies are sparse. We investigated whether 12 weeks of blueberry concentrate supplementation improved brain perfusion, task-related activation, and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Participants were randomised to consume either 30 mL blueberry concentrate providing 387 mg anthocyanidins (5 female, 7 male; age 67.5 ± 3.0 y; body mass index, 25.9 ± 3.3 kg·m -2 ) or isoenergetic placebo (8 female, 6 male; age 69.0 ± 3.3 y; body mass index, 27.1 ± 4.0 kg·m -2 ). Pre- and postsupplementation, participants undertook a battery of cognitive function tests and a numerical Stroop test within a 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scanner while functional magnetic resonance images were continuously acquired. Quantitative resting brain perfusion was determined using an arterial spin labelling technique, and blood biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Significant increases in brain activity were observed in response to blueberry supplementation relative to the placebo group within Brodmann areas 4/6/10/21/40/44/45, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and insula/thalamus (p blueberry versus placebo supplementation (p = 0.05). Supplementation with an anthocyanin-rich blueberry concentrate improved brain perfusion and activation in brain areas associated with cognitive function in healthy older adults.

  1. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects and phytochemicals of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L. polyphenol enhanced extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihai Wang

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L. were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG and glycosylated serum protein (GSP, and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

  2. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects and phytochemicals of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) polyphenol enhanced extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

  3. Increased plasma leptin through l-carnitine supplementation is associated with an enhanced glucose tolerance in healthy ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Weyenberg, S; Buyse, J; Janssens, G P J

    2009-04-01

    In this study 0 or 4 g of l-carnitine was supplemented for 7 days in a cross-over design of six healthy ponies to modulate glucose metabolism and leptin production. At the end of each period, serial blood samples were taken to measure glucose and insulin response, leptin, triglyceride (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and creatine phosphokinase. l-carnitine supplementation was associated with a decrease in postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentration, indicating an enhanced glucose tolerance. In contrast, postprandial plasma leptin concentration was increased when l-carnitine was supplemented. Yet, this increase in leptin concentration was not preceded by an increase in insulin concentration, suggesting that other factors apart from plasma insulin concentration could influence plasma leptin concentration. Although NEFA and TG were not significantly influenced by l-carnitine supplementation under these experimental conditions, further research must clarify whether net TG synthesis might be responsible for this increase in leptin.

  4. Physiological and pharmacological inductors of HSP70 enhance the antioxidative defense mechanisms of the liver and pancreas in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrovska, Maja; Dervisevik, Mirsada; Cipanovska, Natasa; Gerazova, Katerina; Dinevska-Kjovkarovska, Suzana; Miova, Biljana

    2018-02-01

    Heat preconditioning (HP) is a powerful adaptive and protective phenomenon and the heat stress proteins (HSPs) it produces are an important determinant for the development of diabetic complications. Aspirin has been reported to modulate heat shock response in different organisms through increased induction of HSPs and is also known to exert antioxidative and radical scavenging effects in diabetes. We estimated the effect of physiological (heat stress: 45 min at 41 ± 0.5 °C) and pharmacological (aspirin treatment) induction of HSP70 on several parameters of oxidative state in the pancreas and liver of diabetic rats. Diabetes increased HSP70 level and decreased poly(ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in the pancreas. In the liver, there was reduction of HSP70 level, GSH concentration, and CAT activity, while GPx and GR activity were enhanced. HP of diabetic rats caused an additional increase of HSP70, GSH, and antioxidant enzymes in both organs. Pre-treatment of HP-diabetic animals with aspirin led to an additional increase of PARP and HSP70. Both HP and aspirin, as physiological and pharmacological inductors of HSP70, respectively, enhanced the antioxidative defense mechanisms of the liver and pancreas in diabetic rats.

  5. Applied electric field enhances DRG neurite growth: influence of stimulation media, surface coating and growth supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew D.; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2009-08-01

    Electrical therapies have been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. This enhanced neural growth existed even after the electric field (EF) or stimulation was removed, but the factors that may influence the enhanced growth, such as stimulation media or surface coating, have not been fully investigated. This study characterized neurite outgrowth and branching under various conditions: EF magnitude and application time, ECM surface coating, medium during EF application and growth supplements. A uniform, low-magnitude EF (24 or 44 V m-1) was applied to dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglia seeded on collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. During the growth period, cells were either exposed to NGF or N2, and during stimulation cells were exposed to either unsupplemented media (Ca2+) or PBS (no Ca2+). Parallel controls for each experiment included cells exposed to the chamber with no stimulation and cells remaining outside the chamber. After brief electrical stimulation (10 min), neurite length significantly increased 24 h after application for all conditions studied. Of particular interest, increased stimulation time (10-100 min) further enhanced neurite length on laminin but not on collagen surfaces. Neurite branching was not affected by stimulation on any surface, and no preferential growth of neurites was noted after stimulation. Overall, the results of this report suggest that short-duration electric stimulation is sufficient to enhance neurite length under a variety of conditions. While further data are needed to fully elucidate a mechanism for this increased growth, these data suggest that one focus of those investigations should be the interaction between the growth cone and the substrata.

  6. Does the use of dietary supplements enhance athletes’ sport performances? A systematic review and a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta De Meo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The consumption of dietary supplements has increased in recent years.Despite their widespread use, there is confusion about effects on sport performances.The aim of this study was to investigate association between use of supplements and enhance of athletes’ sports performance.Methods: A review and a meta-analysis of studies conducted on Dietary Supplements and Sports between 2003 and 2013 were performed. Enhancement on sport performances was considered as outcome. The following aspects related to enhancement were considered: ergogenic effect (EE, time to exhaustion (TTE, muscular endurance (ME, post-exercise recovery (PER and body mass (BM. With respect to meta-analysis, data on level of post Exercise Glucose (GpE [mg/dL] and level of post exercise Lactate (LpE [mmol/L] were considered as  indicators of TTE, PER and EE. Similarly, Change in Body Mass (CBM [kg] was used as indicator of BM.Results: The most investigated dietary supplements were: Creatine, Carbohydrates, Beta-alanine, Proteins. The qualitative analysis evaluating the effect of supplements on sports listed by the International Olympic Committee has achieved interesting results: supplements didn’t show statistically significant effects when compared to placebo in more than 48% of papers.For the quantitative analysis, 15 studies were considered. The meta-analysis showed that there was no significant effect of Beta-alanine, Creatine and Carbohydrates on LpE and GpE. Furthermore, a non-significant increase in BM was observed in athletes undergoing Creatine compared to placebo.Conclusion: Considering the increasing attention to this topic, it would be interesting to investigate the existing awareness about effectiveness and possible risks of supplements.

  7. The beneficial effect of fiber supplementation in high- or low-fat diets on fetal development and antioxidant defense capacity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Han, Xing-fa; Fang, Zheng-feng; Che, Lian-qiang; Wu, De; Wu, Xiu-qun; Wu, Cai-mei

    2012-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that an imbalance in oxidant/antioxidant activities plays a pivotal role in fetal development. To determine the effects of maternal intake of fat and fiber on fetal intrauterine development and antioxidant defense systems of rats. Virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups according to diet: the low-fat, low-fiber group (LL); the low-fat, high-fiber group (LH); the high-fat, low-fiber group (HL); and the high-fat, high-fiber group (HH). The diets were fed 4 weeks prior to breeding through day 17.5 of pregnancy. Dietary intakes of fiber (wheat bran and oat) and fat were quantitatively varied, while intakes of energy and essential nutrients were kept constant among the diets. Rats fed a fiber-rich diet had significantly improved fetal numbers, as well as enhanced activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and capacity of scavenging free radicals (p fiber levels (p liver and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) in the placenta and fetus were significantly downregulated in the HL group (p fiber-rich diet had significantly upregulated mRNA expressions of Cu,Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, and HIF-1α in the maternal liver (p fiber in high- or low-fat diets benefits fetal development and growth, through improvements in maternal, placental, and fetal antioxidant defense capacities.

  8. Maternal reproductive health: Expression patterns of antioxidant enzyme selenoproteins of post-implantation embryos conceived by ethanol-treated murine mothers supplemented with α-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gliceria B Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate if the protective effect of α-tocopherol against the impact of ethanol on brain morphogenesis involved the activity of the selenoproteins phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx; GPx4 and selenoprotein P (SelPP that have roles against oxidative stress. Methods: Forty female mice were randomly assigned into natural control (CON, positive control (ETOH, low-, medium-, and high-α-tocopherolsupplemented- ethanol groups (LTOC, MTOC, HTOC, respectively. CON received drinking water without ethanol while ETOH, LTOC, MTOC and HTOC groups received 20% ethanol in drinking water. The supplemented groups were given respective dosages of α-tocopherol, 0.410, 0.819, and 1.640 mg/g body weight, at day 14 before mating onwards to the day 9 of gestation. At 10.5 ED of gestation (1 100 h, the pregnant females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the embryos were harvested. Total RNA were extracted, cDNA synthesis and qRT- PCR analyses were carried out. Results: The level of expression of PHGPx in the positive control was significantly lower than that of the natural control. Among the three α- tocopherol-supplemented groups, only the medium dose- group was significantly higher than the positive control. The level of expression of SelPP in the positive control was significantly lower than those of the natural control, the low- and medium- dose α-tocopherol supplemented groups. In the high dose-α-tocopherol supplemented group, the level of expression was not significantly different from the positive control but significantly lower than the natural control. Conclusions: The activity of the selenoproteins PHGPx and SelPP are involved in the internetwork of antioxidative enzymes with vitamin E when given up to a medium dose only and is one of the possible pathways of shielding embryonic development against the impact of ethanol on brain morphogenesis. This study strengthens the impact of dietaryα-tocopherol and

  9. The effect of supplementation of clove and agrimony or clove and lemon balm on growth performance, antioxidant status and selected indices of lipid profile of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, V; Marcincak, S; Popelka, P; Simkova, J; Martonova, M; Buleca, J; Marcincakova, D; Tuckova, M; Molnar, L; Kovac, G

    2012-12-01

    The study investigated the effects of diet supplementation with 1% clove flower buds powder combined with either 0.2% lemon balm extract or 0.2% agrimony extract (each of the two pulverized extracts supplied through drinking water) on body weight of broilers, total feed intake, feed conversion ratio and the carcass yield, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, EC 1.11.1.9) in blood, concentration of sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin A and E, low-density lipoproteins in the blood plasma, serum cholesterol, total lipids, triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins in broiler chickens at 42 days of age. On the day of hatching, 120 male and female broilers of Cobb 500 were randomly divided into three groups. The control group (1st group) of broilers received a basal diet (BD) without any feed and water additive. Both experimental groups of chicks were fed BD enriched with clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) powder at a dose of 10 g/kg DM for 42 days. Moreover, either lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L.) extract or agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria L.) extract diluted with drinking water (2:1000) was given to broilers in the 2nd and 3rd group respectively. The results indicated that feeding the diets enriched with selected herbal supplements failed to affect the growth performance of broiler chickens at 42 days of age. In addition, this supplementation had no influence on the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, concentration of vitamin A and selected lipid metabolism indices. On the other hand, we observed beneficial effects on some indices of the antioxidant status (increased concentration of -SH groups and vitamin E, decreased concentration of MDA) in the blood of broilers in both experimental groups in comparison with the control group of chickens (p lemon balm compared to clove and agrimony (vitamin E, 11.26 ± 0.73 vs. 9.73 ± 0.64 μmol/L, p lemon balm extract or agrimony extract

  10. Radioiodine-induced oxidative stress in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and effect of supplementation with vitamins C and E and selenium (antioxidants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley; Batista, Kelly Cristina Siqueira; Calsolari, Maria Regina, E-mail: pedrowsrosario@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study, in addition to confirming that therapy with {sup 131}I causes oxidative stress, was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with vitamins C and E and selenium on this phenomenon by measuring plasma 8-epi-PGF2α, a marker of lipid peroxidation. Subjects and methods: Forty patients with thyroid cancer submitted to thyroidectomy, who received 3.7 GBq {sup 131}I after levothyroxine withdrawal, were selected; 20 patients did not receive (control group) and 20 patients received (intervention group) daily supplementation consisting of 2000 mg vitamin C, 1000 mg vitamin E and 400 μg selenium for 21 days before {sup 131}I. Plasma 8-epi-PGF2α was measured immediately before and 2 and 7 days after {sup 131}I. Results: A significant increase in plasma 8-epi-PGF2α after {sup 131}I was observed in the two groups. The concentrations of 8-epi-PGF2α were significantly higher in the control group before and 2 and 7 days after {sup 131}I. The percentage of patients with elevated 8-epi-PGF2α was also significantly higher in the control group before and after {sup 131}I. Furthermore, the increase (percent) in 8-epi-PGF2α was significantly greater in the control group (average of 112.3% versus 56.3%). Only two patients (10%) reported side effects during supplementation. Conclusions: Ablation with {sup 131}I causes oxidative stress which can be minimized by the use of antioxidants. (author)

  11. Role of Antioxidants in Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Agarwal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS has been recognized as a significant cause of suboptimal assisted reproductive outcome. Many of the sperm preparation and manipulation procedures that are necessary in the in vitro environment can result in excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS thereby exposing the gametes and growing embryos to significant oxidative damage. Antioxidants have long been utilized in the management of male subfertility as they can counterbalance the elevated levels of ROS inducing a high state of OS. Few studies have looked into the clinical effectiveness of antioxidants in patients undergoing assisted reproduction. While an overall favorable outcome has been perceived, the specific clinical indication and optimal antioxidant regimen remain unknown. The goal of our review is to explore the sources of ROS in the in vitro environment and provide a clinical scenario-based approach to identify the circumstances where antioxidant supplementation is most beneficial to enhance the outcome of assisted reproduction.

  12. Role of Antioxidants in Assisted Reproductive Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Majzoub, Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has been recognized as a significant cause of suboptimal assisted reproductive outcome. Many of the sperm preparation and manipulation procedures that are necessary in the in vitro environment can result in excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) thereby exposing the gametes and growing embryos to significant oxidative damage. Antioxidants have long been utilized in the management of male subfertility as they can counterbalance the elevated levels of ROS inducing a high state of OS. Few studies have looked into the clinical effectiveness of antioxidants in patients undergoing assisted reproduction. While an overall favorable outcome has been perceived, the specific clinical indication and optimal antioxidant regimen remain unknown. The goal of our review is to explore the sources of ROS in the in vitro environment and provide a clinical scenario-based approach to identify the circumstances where antioxidant supplementation is most beneficial to enhance the outcome of assisted reproduction. Copyright © 2017 Korean Society for Sexual Medicine and Andrology.

  13. [Enhancement of endogenous antioxidant defenses: a promising strategy for prevention of skin cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béani, J C

    2001-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that ultraviolet radiation (UV) from sunlight is implicated in skin carcinogenesis. So the risks of cutaneous cancer have increased during the last decade due to increase of sun exposure. For a long time, ultraviolet B radiation (UVB: 290-320 nm) have been considered to be the more efficient wavelength in eliciting carcinogenesis in human skin. It is today clear that UVA (320-400 nm), especially UVA1 (340-400 nm) also participate to photo carcinogenesis. One of molecular mechanisms in the biological effects of UV is the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) directly or through endogenous photosensitization reactions. UVA radiation mainly acts via this production of ROS and the subsequent oxidative stress seems to play a crucial role in the deleterious effects of UVA. Fortunately, the skin possesses a wide range of interlinked antioxidant defence mechanism to protect itself from damage by UV-induced ROS. However, the capacity of these systems is not unlimited; they can be overwhelmed by excessive exposure to UV and then ROS can reach damaging levels. An interesting strategy to provide photoprotection would be to support or enhance one or more of these endogenous systems. In our experiments, we have evaluated the protective effect of glutathion, selenium and zinc, three compounds playing a pivotal role in the cellular defence against oxidative damage. We have irradiated both by UVA1 and UVB culture of human normal skin fibroblasts or of spontaneously immortalised human keratinocyte cell line Hacat. Before irradiation, treated cells were submitted to zinc deprivation by a diffusible zinc chelator, NNN' N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylene diamine (TPEN) or supplied with zinc chloride, thiols (N-acetyl-cysteine; N-acetyl-homocysteine-thiolactone, L2oxothiozolidine-4 carboxylate) selenium as sodium selenite. The cell viability was measured using the adhesion-proliferation method or a tetrazolium colorimetric assay. The damages

  14. No Effects of Antioxidant Supplementation in Triathletes on Maximal Oxygen Uptake, 31P-NMRS Detected Muscle Energy Metabolism and Muscle Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A.N.; Mizuno, M.; Ratkevicius, Aivaras

    1999-01-01

    Antioxidative vitamins, coenzyme Q 10 electrical stimulation, isometric exercise, low frequency fatigue......Antioxidative vitamins, coenzyme Q 10 electrical stimulation, isometric exercise, low frequency fatigue...

  15. Exogenous low-dose hydrogen peroxide enhances drought tolerance of soybean (Glycine max L.) through inducing antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Neslihan Saruhan; Pehlivan, Necla

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) functions as a signal molecule in plants under abiotic and biotic stress. In this study, the role of exogenous H(2)O(2) in improving drought tolerance in two soybean cultivars (Glycine max L. Merrill) differing in their tolerance to drought was evaluated. Plants were grown in plastic pots with normal irrigation in a phytotron. Four weeks after radicle emergence, either 1 mM H(2)O(2) or distilled water was sprayed as foliar onto the leaves of each plant, after drought stress was applied. Leaf samples were harvested on the 4(th) and 7(th) days of the drought. Antioxidant-related enzyme activity, such as the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was measured during the drought period. Drought stress decreased leaf water potential, relative water content and photosynthetic pigment content but enhanced lipid peroxidation and endogenous H(2)O(2) concentration. By contrast, exogenous low dose H(2)O(2) improved water status, pigment content and lipid peroxidation under drought stress. Endogenous H(2)O(2) concentration was reduced by exogenous H(2)O(2) as compared to drought treatment alone. H(2)O(2) pre-treatment induced all the antioxidant enzyme activities, to a greater extent than the control leaves, during drought. H(2)O(2) pretreatment further enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the tolerant cultivar compared to the sensitive cultivar. Results suggested that low dose H(2)O(2) pre-treatment alleviated water loss and H(2)O(2) content and increased drought stress tolerance by inducing the antioxidant system.

  16. Effect of short-term zinc supplementation on zinc and selenium tissue distribution and serum antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalny, Andrey A; Tinkov, Alexey A; Medvedeva, Yulia S; Alchinova, Irina B; Karganov, Mikhail Y; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-01-01

    A significant association between Zn and Se homeostasis exists. At the same time, data on the influence of zinc supplementation on selenium distribution in organs and tissues seem to be absent. Therefore, the primary objective of the current study is to investigate the influence of zinc asparaginate supplementation on zinc and selenium distribution and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in Wistar rats. 36 rats were used in the experiment. The duration of the experiment was 7 and 14 days in the first and second series, respectively. The rats in Group I were used as the control ones. Animals in Groups II and III daily obtained zinc asparaginate (ZnA) in the doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg weight, respectively. Zinc and selenium content in liver, kidneys, heart, muscle, serum and hair was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Serum SOD and GPx activity was analysed spectrophotometrically using Randox kits. Intragastric administration of zinc asparaginate significantly increased liver, kidney, and serum zinc content without affecting skeletal and cardiac muscle levels. Zinc supplementation also stimulated selenium retention in the rats' organs. Moreover, a significant positive correlation between zinc and selenium content was observed. Finally, zinc asparaginate treatment has been shown to modulate serum GPx but not SOD activity. The obtained data indicate that zinc-induced increase in GPx activity may be mediated through modulation of selenium status. However, future studies are required to estimate the exact mechanisms of zinc and selenium interplay.

  17. Accumulation of Antioxidants in Apricot Fruit through Ripening: Characterization of a Genotype with Enhanced Functional Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Hegedüs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two apricot genotypes, 'Gonci magyarkajszi' and 'Preventa' were assayed at three ripening stages for flesh color indices (L*, a*, b*, C* and Hº, contents of total phenolics and vitamin C, and both water- and lipid-soluble antioxidant capacities (ferric reducing antioxidant power; 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity; total radical scavenging activity; and Photochem lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity to compare their dynamics in the accumulation of antioxidant compounds and capacities through ripening. The increase in a*, b* and C* and decrease in Hº during ripening represented a color shift from green to yellow and orange due to carotenoid accumulation. Parallel to carotenoid accumulation, contents of total phenolics and vitamin C and antioxidant capacity increased significantly (p < 0.05 from unripe to fully ripe fruits. More phenolics and vitamin C accumulated in fully ripe fruits of 'Preventa' than 'Gonci magyarkajszi'. The accumulation patterns of these compounds were different: while the vitamin C contents in unripe fruit of 'Preventa' and 'Gonci magyarkajszi' were identical (approx. 6 mg/100 g fresh weight, unripe 'Preventa' contained even more phenolics (approx. 12 mmolGA/l than fully ripe 'Gonci magyarkajszi' (8 mmolGA/l. Our results confirm that fully ripe 'Preventa' fruits are characterized by outstanding functional properties due to the increased accumulation of vitamin C and phenolics throughout the ripening process.

  18. Accumulation of antioxidants in apricot fruit through ripening: characterization of a genotype with enhanced functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedüs, Attila; Pfeiffer, Péter; Papp, Nóra; Abrankó, László; Blázovics, Anna; Pedryc, Andrzej; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Two apricot genotypes, 'Gonci magyarkajszi' and 'Preventa' were assayed at three ripening stages for flesh color indices (L*, a*, b*, C* and Hº), contents of total phenolics and vitamin C, and both water- and lipid-soluble antioxidant capacities (ferric reducing antioxidant power; 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity; total radical scavenging activity; and Photochem lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity) to compare their dynamics in the accumulation of antioxidant compounds and capacities through ripening. The increase in a*, b* and C* and decrease in Hº during ripening represented a color shift from green to yellow and orange due to carotenoid accumulation. Parallel to carotenoid accumulation, contents of total phenolics and vitamin C and antioxidant capacity increased significantly (p fruits. More phenolics and vitamin C accumulated in fully ripe fruits of 'Preventa' than 'Gönci magyarkajszi'. The accumulation patterns of these compounds were different: while the vitamin C contents in unripe fruit of 'Preventa' and 'Gönci magyarkajszi' were identical (approx. 6 mg/100 g fresh weight), unripe 'Preventa' contained even more phenolics (approx. 12 mmolGA/l) than fully ripe 'Gönci magyarkajszi' (8 mmolGA/l). Our results confirm that fully ripe 'Preventa' fruits are characterized by outstanding functional properties due to the increased accumulation of vitamin C and phenolics throughout the ripening process.

  19. Enhancing antioxidant activity of sesamol at frying temperature by addition of additives through reducing volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Vermillion, Karl; Liu, Sean X

    2014-11-01

    Additives were evaluated to investigate their effects on volatility of sesamol at frying temperature with the hypothesis that the interaction between an additive and sesamol would reduce sesamol volatility. Twenty-two additive : sesamol combinations were examined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under nitrogen in neat form and in soybean oil. The results indicate that these additives could bind to or interact with sesamol and consequently reduced its volatility. (1) H NMR study provided evidence for hydrogen bonding between sesamol and a hydroxyl group, an amino group, and ether groups. Subsequent heating tests were conducted to investigate the effect of the reduced volatility of sesamol on antioxidant activity in soybean oil at 180 °C. Oxidation of soybean oil was monitored with gel permeation chromatography for formation of polymerized triacylglycerols and with (1) H NMR for loss of olefinic and bisallylic protons. Sesamol retained in soybean oil during the heating process was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. A strong correlation between the retained sesamol and the antioxidant activity was observed. The mixture of 830 ppm sesamol and mono-/diglycerides, polysorbate 20 or l-carnosine showed much improved antioxidant activity compared to sesamol itself and slightly better antioxidant activity than 200 ppm tert-butylhydroquinone. It is believed that this method can also be used for many other antioxidants for which volatility is a problem. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Enhanced oral bioavailability and in vivo antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid via liposomal formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yingshu; Sun, Congyong; Yuan, Yangyang; Zhu, Yuan; Wan, Jinyi; Firempong, Caleb Kesse; Omari-Siaw, Emmanuel; Xu, Yang; Pu, Zunqin; Yu, Jiangnan; Xu, Ximing

    2016-03-30

    In the present study, a formulation system consisting of cholesterol and phosphatidyl choline was used to prepare an effective chlorogenic acid-loaded liposome (CAL) with an improved oral bioavailability and an increased antioxidant activity. The developed liposomal formulation produced regular, spherical and multilamellar-shaped distribution nanoparticles. The pharmacokinetic analysis of CAL compared with chlorogenic acid (CA), showed a higher value of Cmax(6.42 ± 1.49 min versus 3.97 ± 0.39 min) and a delayed Tmax(15 min versus 10 min), with 1.29-fold increase in relative oral bioavailability. The tissue distribution in mice also demonstrated that CAL predominantly accumulated in the liver which indicated hepatic targeting potential of the drug. The increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (Total Superoxide Dismutase (T-SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px)) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), in addition to decreased level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity study further revealed that CAL exhibited significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects. Collectively, these findings present a liposomal formulation with significantly improved oral bioavailability and an increased in vivo antioxidant activity of CA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Culturing on decellularized extracellular matrix enhances antioxidant properties of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaozhen [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhou, Long; Chen, Xi [Orthopaedic Institute, Soochow University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Liu, Tao [Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Pan, Guoqing; Cui, Wenguo; Li, Mao; Luo, Zong-Ping [Orthopaedic Institute, Soochow University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Pei, Ming [Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Yang, Huilin [Orthopaedic Institute, Soochow University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Gong, Yihong, E-mail: gongyih@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); He, Fan, E-mail: fanhe@suda.edu.cn [Orthopaedic Institute, Soochow University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2016-04-01

    Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) have attracted great interest in clinical application because of their regenerative potential and their lack of ethical issues. Our previous studies showed that decellularized cell-deposited extracellular matrix (ECM) provided an in vivo-mimicking microenvironment for MSCs and facilitated in vitro cell expansion. This study was conducted to analyze the cellular response of UC-MSCs when culturing on the ECM, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), intracellular antioxidative enzymes, and the resistance to exogenous oxidative stress. After decellularization, the architecture of cell-deposited ECM was characterized as nanofibrous, collagen fibrils and the matrix components were identified as type I and III collagens, fibronectin, and laminin. Compared to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) plates, culturing on ECM yielded a 2-fold increase of UC-MSC proliferation and improved the percentage of cells in the S phase by 2.4-fold. The levels of intracellular ROS and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in ECM-cultured cells were reduced by 41.7% and 82.9%, respectively. More importantly, ECM-cultured UC-MSCs showed enhanced expression and activity of intracellular antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, up-regulated expression of silent information regulator type 1, and suppressed phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, a continuous treatment with exogenous 100 μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dramatically inhibited osteogenic differentiation of UC-MSCs cultured on TCPS, but culturing on ECM retained the differentiation capacity for matrix mineralization and osteoblast-specific marker gene expression. Collectively, by providing sufficient cell amounts and enhancing antioxidant capacity, decellularized ECM can be a promising cell culture platform for in vitro expansion of UC-MSCs. - Highlights: • Decellularization preserved the architecture and components of cell

  2. The use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications by United States college students to enhance athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyte, Christopher O; Albert, Donald; Heard, Kennon J

    2013-06-01

    While the use of performance enhancing substances by professional, collegiate, and Olympic athletes is well described, the rate of use in the general population is not well studied. We explored the use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications for the enhancement of athletic performance among college students using an ongoing survey system. We conducted a multi-round online questionnaire collecting data from self-identified students at two-year colleges, four-year colleges, online courses, or technical schools at least part-time during the specified sampling period. The sample is obtained through the use of a survey panel company in which respondents voluntarily register. Survey data were collected from December, 2010 through August, 2011. Subjects who reported participating in athletics were asked if they used any of the following substances to enhance athletic performance (1) energy drinks (2) dietary supplements (3) prescription medications within the last year. Data were analyzed from October, 2011 through January, 2012. There were 462 college students who responded to the survey reporting they participate in sports at various levels. Of these, 397 (85.9 %) responded that within the last year they used energy drinks, dietary supplements, or prescription medications to enhance athletic performance. Energy drinks had the highest prevalence (80.1 %), followed by dietary supplements (64.1 %) and prescription medications (53.3 %). Use was most prevalent amongst intercollegiate athletes (89.4 %) followed by club (88.5 %) and intermural (82.1 %) participants. The vast majority of survey respondents reported using energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications within the last year for athletic performance enhancement.

  3. Branched-chain amino acids supplementation enhances exercise capacity and lipid oxidation during endurance exercise after muscle glycogen depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualano, A B; Bozza, T; Lopes De Campos, P; Roschel, H; Dos Santos Costa, A; Luiz Marquezi, M; Benatti, F; Herbert Lancha Junior, A

    2011-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) transaminase activation occurs simultaneously with exercise-induced muscle glycogen reduction, suggesting that BCAA supplementation might play an energetic role in this condition. This study aimed to test whether BCAA supplementation enhances exercise capacity and lipid oxidation in glycogen-depleted subjects. Using a double-blind cross-over design, volunteers (N.=7) were randomly assigned to either the BCAA (300 mg . kg . day -1) or the placebo (maltodextrine) for 3 days. On the second day, subjects were submitted to an exercise-induced glycogen depletion protocol. They then performed an exhaustive exercise test on the third day, after which time to exhaustion, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), plasma glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), blood ketones and lactate were determined. BCAA supplementation promoted a greater resistance to fatigue when compared to the placebo (+17.2%). Moreover, subjects supplemented with BCAA showed reduced RER and higher plasma glucose levels during the exhaustive exercise test. In conclusion, BCAA supplementation increases resistance to fatigue and enhances lipid oxidation during exercise in glycogen-depleted subjects.

  4. Chestnut flowers as functionalizing agents to enhance the antioxidant properties of highly appreciated traditional pastry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-11-01

    Some studies have proven the antioxidant and antimicrobial potency of chestnut flowers both in the raw matrix and after extraction, and the consumption of their decoctions has been related to beneficial effects towards health. In recent years, due to controversy and ambiguous legislation of chemical conservatives, plant extracts have been successfully used as functionalizing agents in different matrixes by displaying their various beneficial effects towards the foodstuff and/or the consumer. In this paper, decoctions of chestnut flowers as well as the dried flower were added to Portuguese traditional cakes that were then stored for 15 and 30 days, after which they were analysed for their antioxidant potential. The results were analysed by means of a 2 way ANOVA and a linear discriminant analysis, concluding that storage time had a slightly higher influence on alteration of the antioxidant activity. DPPH and TBARS were the most improved parameters, regardless of the concentration added.

  5. Value of supplemental interventions to enhance the effectiveness of physical exercise during respiratory rehabilitation in COPD patients. A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schünemann Holger J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a controversy about the additional benefit of various supplemental interventions used in clinical practice to further enhance the effectiveness of respiratory rehabilitation in patients with Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The aim of this research was to assess randomised controlled trials (RCTs testing the additional benefit of supplemental interventions during respiratory rehabilitation in COPD patients. Methods Systematic review with literature searches in six electronic databases, extensive hand-searching and contacting of authors. Two reviewers selected independently eligible RCTs, rated the methodological quality and extracted the data, which were analyzed considering the minimal important difference of patient-important outcomes where possible. Findings We identified 20 RCTs whereof 18 provided sufficient data for analysis. The methodological quality was low and sample sizes were too small for most trials to produce meaningful results (median total sample size = 28. Data from five trials showed that supplemental oxygen during exercise did not have clinically meaningful effects on health-related quality of life while improvements of exercise capacity may be even larger for patients exercising on room air. RCTs of adding assisted ventilation, nutritional supplements or a number of anabolically acting drugs do not provide sufficient evidence for or against the use any of these supplemental interventions. Interpretation There is insufficient evidence for most supplemental interventions during respiratory rehabilitation to estimate their additional value, partly due to methodological shortcomings of included RCTs. Current data do not suggest benefit from supplemental oxygen during exercise, although the methodological quality of included trials limits conclusions. To appropriately assess any of the various supplemental interventions used in clinical practice, pragmatic trials on respiratory

  6. H(2) enhances arabidopsis salt tolerance by manipulating ZAT10/12-mediated antioxidant defence and controlling sodium exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanjie; Mao, Yu; Lai, Diwen; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Wenbiao

    2012-01-01

    The metabolism of hydrogen gas (H(2)) in bacteria and algae has been extensively studied for the interesting of developing H(2)-based fuel. Recently, H(2) is recognized as a therapeutic antioxidant and activates several signalling pathways in clinical trials. However, underlying physiological roles and mechanisms of H(2) in plants as well as its signalling cascade remain unknown. In this report, histochemical, molecular, immunological and genetic approaches were applied to characterize the participation of H(2) in enhancing Arabidopsis salt tolerance. An increase of endogenous H(2) release was observed 6 hr after exposure to 150 mM NaCl. Arabidopsis pretreated with 50% H(2)-saturated liquid medium, mimicking the induction of endogenous H(2) release when subsequently exposed to NaCl, effectively decreased salinity-induced growth inhibition. Further results showed that H(2) pretreatment modulated genes/proteins of zinc-finger transcription factor ZAT10/12 and related antioxidant defence enzymes, thus significantly counteracting the NaCl-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and lipid peroxidation. Additionally, H(2) pretreatment maintained ion homeostasis by regulating the antiporters and H(+) pump responsible for Na(+) exclusion (in particular) and compartmentation. Genetic evidence suggested that SOS1 and cAPX1 might be the target genes of H(2) signalling. Overall, our findings indicate that H(2) acts as a novel and cytoprotective regulator in coupling ZAT10/12-mediated antioxidant defence and maintenance of ion homeostasis in the improvement of Arabidopsis salt tolerance.

  7. Customized Cooking Methods Enhance Antioxidant, Antiglycemic, and Insulin-Like Properties of Momordica charantia and Moringa oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarasvathy Subramaniam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study compares antioxidant activities, total phenolic content (TPC, vitamin C content, and antiglycemic properties of Momordica charantia (small bitter gourd and Moringa oleifera (drumstick leaves before and after subjecting to boiling and microwave heating for different durations. Both cooking methods enhanced the antioxidant activity and vitamin C content in the vegetables studied when cooked for five minutes and these properties declined when the cooking time was prolonged to 20 minutes. Cooking also retained or slightly improved the α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition activity of the vegetables; however, it reduced the ability of the vegetable extracts to inhibit α-amylase enzyme activity. The antioxidant activities were positively correlated with the TPC and vitamin C content in the vegetable extracts tested. The present study also evaluated the insulin-like properties (stimulation of adipogenesis of selected vegetable extracts (five minutes microwaved. 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with small bitter gourd extract significantly stimulated lipogenesis (in the absence of insulin compared to drumstick leaves. Thus, the finding of this study negates the belief that cooking will reduce the nutritional value of the vegetables and also suggested that appropriate cooking method and duration for different vegetables could be selected to improve or preserve their nutritional value.

  8. Enhanced HDL-cholesterol-associated anti-oxidant PON-1 activity in prostate cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Eroglu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Increases in the generation of reactive oxygen species and decreases in antioxidant enzyme activities with aging have been reported in the prostate, and are also observed in age-related disorders such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and cataracts. Several studies have demonstrated that proteins are targets for reactive oxidants in cells, and that oxidized proteins accumulate during aging, oxidative stress and in some pathological conditions. However, only a limited number of studies have actually evaluated oxidative damage in relation to HDL-cholesterol-associated antioxidant enzyme activities or have assessed its relationship with prostate cancer. In this study, we examined the effect of HDL-cholesterol-associated antioxidant enzyme activities, paraoxonase1, arylesterase and new oxidative stress parameters (total oxidant status, total antioxidant status [and oxidative stress index] in newly-diagnosed prostate cancer patients and healthy controls. There were no significant differences in oxidative stress parameters and lipid parameters between prostate cancer patients and controls, however, paraoxonase1 enzyme activity, and non-HDL-cholesterol levels were higher in prostate cancer patients than controls. The results of this study were derived from a small number of subjects, but might represent an important working hypothesis for further research in a larger number of cases to clarify the role of paraoxonase1 overproduction on the prostate and its clinical relevance.

  9. Whole eggs enhance antioxidant activity when combined with energy dense, cooked breakfast foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute metabolic changes following the consumption of energy dense foods high in saturated fat (SFA) and glycemic load (GL) may contribute to the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. Eggs provide highly digestible protein, unsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, and other antioxidant compounds tha...

  10. Antioxidant enzymes in Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval): Are they enhanced to protect gut tissues during oxidative stress?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krishnan, Natraj; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2006), s. 11-20 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/05/0151 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : antioxidant enzyme * oxidative stress * allelochemicals Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.019, year: 2006

  11. Preparation of gelatin films incorporated with tea polyphenol nanoparticles for enhancing controlled-release antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tea polyphenols (TP) were incorporated into edible gelatin films either alone or incorporated into nanoparticles in order to determine the physico-chemical properties of the film and the antioxidant properties of TP in a solid gelatin matrix. The TP containing nanoparticles were prepared by cross-li...

  12. L-malate enhances the gene expression of carried proteins and antioxidant enzymes in liver of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Wu, J; Wu, Q; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory reported L-malate as a free radical scavenger in aged rats. To investigate the antioxidant mechanism of L-malate in the mitochondria, we analyzed the change in gene expression of two malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS)-related carried proteins (AGC, aspartate/glutamate carrier and OMC, oxoglutarate/malate carrier) in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and three antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px) in the mitochondria. The changes in gene expression of these proteins and enzymes were examined by real-time RT-PCR in the heart and liver of aged rats treated with L-malate. L-malate was orally administered in rats continuously for 30 days using a feeding atraumatic needle. We found that the gene expression of OMC and GSH-Px mRNA in the liver increased by 39 % and 38 %, respectively, in the 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment group than that in the control group. The expression levels of SOD mRNA in the liver increased by 39 %, 56 %, and 78 % in the 0.105, 0.210, and 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment groups, respectively. No difference were observed in the expression levels of AGC, OMC, CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px mRNAs in the heart of rats between the L-malate treatment and control groups. These results predicted that L-malate may increase the antioxidant capacity of mitochondria by enhancing the expression of mRNAs involved in the MAS and the antioxidant enzymes.

  13. Dietary supplementation with lactose or artificial sweetener enhances swine gut Lactobacillus population abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Kristian; Darby, Alistair C; Hall, Neil; Nau, Alexandra; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2014-06-01

    The commensal bacteria Lactobacillus are widely used as probiotic organisms conferring a heath benefit on the host. They have been implicated in promoting gut health via the stimulation of host immunity and anti-inflammatory responses, as well as protecting the intestinalmucosa against pathogen invasion. Lactobacilli grow by fermenting sugars and starches and produce lactic acid as their primary metabolic product. For efficient utilisation of varied carbohydrates, lactobacilli have evolved diverse sugar transport and metabolic systems, which are specifically induced by their own substrates. Many bacteria are also capable of sensing and responding to changes in their environment. These sensory responses are often independent of transport or metabolism and are mediated through membrane-spanning receptor proteins. We employed DNA-based pyrosequencing technology to investigate the changes in the intestinal microbiota of piglets weaned to a diet supplemented with either a natural sugar, lactose or an artificial sweetener (SUCRAM®, consisting of saccharin and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC); Pancosma SA). The addition of either lactose or saccharin/NHDC to the piglets' feed dramatically increased the caecal population abundance of Lactobacillus, with concomitant increases in intraluminal lactic acid concentrations. This is the first report of the prebiotic-like effects of saccharin/NHDC, an artificial sweetener, being able to influence the commensal gut microbiota. The identification of the underlying mechanism(s) will assist in designing nutritional strategies for enhancing gut immunity and maintaining gut health.

  14. Green-light supplementation for enhanced lettuce growth under red- and blue-light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeon-Hye; Goins, Gregory D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Plants will be an important component of future long-term space missions. Lighting systems for growing plants will need to be lightweight, reliable, and durable, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have these characteristics. Previous studies demonstrated that the combination of red and blue light was an effective light source for several crops. Yet the appearance of plants under red and blue lighting is purplish gray making visual assessment of any problems difficult. The addition of green light would make the plant leave appear green and normal similar to a natural setting under white light and may also offer a psychological benefit to the crew. Green supplemental lighting could also offer benefits, since green light can better penetrate the plant canopy and potentially increase plant growth by increasing photosynthesis from the leaves in the lower canopy. In this study, four light sources were tested: 1) red and blue LEDs (RB), 2) red and blue LEDs with green fluorescent lamps (RGB), 3) green fluorescent lamps (GF), and 4) cool-white fluorescent lamps (CWF), that provided 0%, 24%, 86%, and 51% of the total PPF in the green region of the spectrum, respectively. The addition of 24% green light (500 to 600 nm) to red and blue LEDs (RGB treatment) enhanced plant growth. The RGB treatment plants produced more biomass than the plants grown under the cool-white fluorescent lamps (CWF treatment), a commonly tested light source used as a broad-spectrum control.

  15. Chronic L-arginine supplementation enhances endurance exercise tolerance in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutreleau, S; Mettauer, B; Piquard, F; Rouyer, O; Schaefer, A; Lonsdorfer, J; Geny, B

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the potential beneficial effect of six weeks oral L-arginine supplementation (LAS) on endurance exercise, an important determinant of daily-life activity in patients with chronic stable heart failure (CHF). After an initial incremental maximal exercise test, CHF patients performed an identical thirty-minute interval endurance exercise test before and after six weeks with (L-arginine group; ARG) or without LAS (control group; CTL). Hemodynamic, respiratory, and metabolic parameters were determined at rest, during exercise, and during recovery. Mean heart rate decreased throughout exercise and recovery after LAS (- 8.2 +/- 1.4 b x min(-1); p = 0.003 and - 6.7 +/- 1.6 b x min(-1); p < 0.001, respectively), systemic blood pressure and respiratory parameters remaining unchanged. Resting L-argininaemia increased from 102 +/- 11 to 181 +/- 37 micromol x l(-1) (p < 0.004) and exercise-induced peak increase in plasma lactate was blunted after LAS (4.13 +/- 0.75 vs. 3.13 +/- 0.39 mmol x l(-1); p = 0.02). No significant change was observed in the control group. In heart failure patients, six weeks oral LAS enhances endurance exercise tolerance, reducing both heart rate and circulating lactates. This suggests that chronic LAS might be useful as a therapeutic adjuvant in order to improve the patient's physical fitness.

  16. Effect of supplemental fermented Ginkgo biloba leaves at different levels on growth performance, meat quality, and antioxidant status of breast and thigh muscles in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Y; Wan, X L; Zhang, X H; Zhao, L G; He, J T; Zhang, J F; Zhang, L L; Wang, T

    2017-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary supplementation with different levels of fermented Ginkgo biloba leaves (FGBL) on growth performance, slaughter performance, meat quality, antioxidant enzyme capacity, and free radical scavenging activities of muscles in broiler chickens. A total of 648 one-d-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated into six dietary treatments, including control group (CON group: basal diet), FGBL1, FGBL2, FGBL3, FGBL4, and FGBL5 groups (basal diet containing 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 g/kg FGBL, respectively). Body weight gain and feed intake were recorded at 1, 21, and 42 d. At 42 d, 2 birds from each replicate were slaughtered. The results indicated that 3.5 g/kg FGBL diet significantly increased (P < 0.05) ADFI and ADG in 1 to 42 d and ADFI in 22 to 42 d compared with the CON group. In 1 to 21 d, 4.5 g/kg FGBL diet improved (P < 0.05) ADFI and ADG. With dietary FGBL increasing, the feed: gain ratio (F/G) in 1 to 21 d was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). However, birds fed with 5.5 g/kg FGBL had a higher (P < 0.05) F/G compared with other groups in 22 to 42 d and 1 to 42 d. In addition, FGBL3 and FGBL4 showed lower (P < 0.05) L* value in breast muscle, cooking loss in thigh muscle and lower 24 h and 48 h drip loss in both breast and thigh muscles than those of other groups. Furthermore, birds in the FGBL3 and FGBL4 groups increased (P < 0.05) the activity of total superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capability in muscles, and the scavenging activities of 2,2΄-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) acid radical, OH•, and O2•- in thigh muscle, decreased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde concentration in thigh muscle, as compared to the CON group. In conclusion, FGBL had the potential to improve the growth performance, meat quality and antioxidant status of broiler chickens. The optimal dose in the present study of FGBL in broiler diets was from 3.5 to 4.5 g/kg. © 2016

  17. The Impact of Supplemental Antioxidants on Visual Function in Nonadvanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Head-to-Head Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuffo, Kwadwo Owusu; Beatty, Stephen; Peto, Tunde; Stack, Jim; Stringham, Jim; Kelly, David; Leung, Irene; Corcoran, Laura; Nolan, John M

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of supplemental macular carotenoids (including versus not including meso-zeaxanthin) in combination with coantioxidants on visual function in patients with nonadvanced age-related macular degeneration. In this study, 121 participants were randomly assigned to group 1 (Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 formulation with a low dose [25 mg] of zinc and an addition of 10 mg meso-zeaxanthin; n = 60) or group 2 (Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 formulation with a low dose [25 mg] of zinc; n = 61). Visual function was assessed using best-corrected visual acuity, contrast sensitivity (CS), glare disability, retinal straylight, photostress recovery time, reading performance, and the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25. Macular pigment was measured using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. There was a statistically significant improvement in the primary outcome measure (letter CS at 6 cycles per degree [6 cpd]) over time (P = 0.013), and this observed improvement was statistically comparable between interventions (P = 0.881). Statistically significant improvements in several secondary outcome visual function measures (letter CS at 1.2 and 2.4 cpd; mesopic and photopic CS at all spatial frequencies; mesopic glare disability at 1.5, 3, and 6 cpd; photopic glare disability at 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 cpd; photostress recovery time; retinal straylight; mean and maximum reading speed) were also observed over time (P 0.05, for all). Statistically significant increases in macular pigment at all eccentricities were observed over time (P 0.05). Antioxidant supplementation in patients with nonadvanced age-related macular degeneration results in significant increases in macular pigment and improvements in CS and other measures of visual function. (Clinical trial, http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN13894787).

  18. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters for ammonia-exposed broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min; Bai, Jie; Wei, Fengxian; Xu, Bin; Sun, Quanyou; Li, Jie; Wang, Gaili; Tang, Xiangfang; Zhang, Hongfu; Yin, Qingqiang; Li, Shaoyu

    2017-08-01

    In order to estimate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) supplementation on relieving ammonia stress of broilers, 180 22-day-old male broilers were assigned to three groups, six replicates in each group and 10 birds per replicate. The three groups were: (1) a control group without ammonia stress; (2) exposure to 70 ppm atmospheric ammonia (AM); (3) exposure to 70 ppm atmospheric ammonia and administration of 300 mg/kg LA (AM + LA). The experimental period was 3 weeks. Results showed that average daily weight gain was increased and feed conversion ratio was decreased in the AM + LA group, compared with the AM group (P ammonia stress to restore broiler production performance to normal levels. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. A Randomized Control Trial: Supplementing Hearing Aid Use with Listening and Communication Enhancement (LACE) Auditory Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Gabrielle H; Smith, Sherri L; Chisolm, Theresa H; Frederick, Melissa T; McArdle, Rachel A; Wilson, Richard H

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of the Listening and Communication Enhancement (LACE) program as a supplement to standard-of-care hearing aid intervention in a Veteran population. A multisite randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare outcomes following standard-of-care hearing aid intervention supplemented with (1) LACE training using the 10-session DVD format, (2) LACE training using the 20-session computer-based format, (3) placebo auditory training (AT) consisting of actively listening to 10 hr of digitized books on a computer, and (4) educational counseling-the control group. The study involved 3 VA sites and enrolled 279 veterans. Both new and experienced hearing aid users participated to determine if outcomes differed as a function of hearing aid user status. Data for five behavioral and two self-report measures were collected during three research visits: baseline, immediately following the intervention period, and at 6 months postintervention. The five behavioral measures were selected to determine whether the perceptual and cognitive skills targeted in LACE training generalized to untrained tasks that required similar underlying skills. The two self-report measures were completed to determine whether the training resulted in a lessening of activity limitations and participation restrictions. Outcomes were obtained from 263 participants immediately following the intervention period and from 243 participants 6 months postintervention. Analyses of covariance comparing performance on each outcome measure separately were conducted using intervention and hearing aid user status as between-subject factors, visit as a within-subject factor, and baseline performance as a covariate. No statistically significant main effects or interactions were found for the use of LACE on any outcome measure. Findings from this randomized controlled trial show that LACE training does not result in improved outcomes over standard-of-care hearing aid intervention alone

  20. Leucine-protein supplemented recovery feeding enhances subsequent cycling performance in well-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jasmine S; Ali, Ajmol; Rowlands, David S

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a practical leucine-protein, high-carbohydrate postexercise feeding regimen could improve recovery, as measured by subsequent cycling performance and mechanistic markers, relative to control feeding. In a crossover, 10 male cyclists performed 2- to 2.5-h interval training bouts on 3 consecutive evenings, ingesting either leucine-protein, high-carbohydrate nutrition (0.1/0.4/1.2/0.2 g·kg(-1)·h(-1); leucine, protein, carbohydrate, fat, respectively) or isocaloric control (0.06/1.6/0.2 g·kg(-1)·h(-1); protein, carbohydrate, fat, respectively) nutrition for 1.5 h postexercise. Throughout the experimental period diet was controlled, energy and macronutrient intake balanced, and protein intake clamped at 1.6 g·kg(-1)·day(-1). The alternate supplement was provided the next morning, thereby isolating the postexercise nutrition effect. Following 39 h of recovery, cyclists performed a repeat-sprint performance test. Postexercise leucine-protein ingestion improved mean sprint power by 2.5% (99% confidence limit, ±2.6%; p = 0.013) and reduced perceived overall tiredness during the sprints by 13% (90% confidence limit, ±9.2%), but perceptions of leg tiredness and soreness were unaffected. Before exercise, creatine-kinase concentration was lowered by 19% (90% confidence limits, ±18%), but lactate dehydrogenase and pressure-pain threshold were unaltered. There was a small reduction in anger (25% ± 18%), but other moods were unchanged. Plasma leucine (3-fold) and essential amino acid (47%) concentrations were elevated postexercise. Net nitrogen balance trended mildly negative in both conditions (mean ± SD: leucine-protein, -20 ± 46 mg·kg(-1) per 24 h; control, -25 ± 36 mg·kg(-1) per 24 h). The ingestion of a leucine-protein supplement along with other high-carbohydrate food following intense training on consecutive days enhances subsequent high-intensity endurance performance and may attenuate

  1. Effects of gluten-free breads, with varying functional supplements, on the biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of rat serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Reguła, Julita; Suliburska, Joanna; Złotek, Urszula; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines the effects of gluten-free bread enriched with functional ingredients (milk powder, poppy, sunflower and pumpkin seeds, egg yolk, carum, hazel nuts and amaranth) on the morphological and biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of rats serum. Rats were provided test diets--gluten-free breads and water ad libitum. After 14 days, the animals were weighed and killed. A hazel nut-amaranth bread diet significantly increased the level of thrombocytes when compared to control bread. A mixed bread diet significantly decreased cholesterol levels in rats. All fortified breads decreased triglyceride levels and alanine transaminase activity and caused an increase in antiradical activity of the serum. In rats fed with poppy-milk bread, milk-seed bread and mixed bread, a marked decrease in superoxide dismutase activity was found. Enriched breads reduced the levels of triglyceride and improved the antiradical properties of serum, although the physiological relevance of this needs to be confirmed by human studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The benefit of a supplement with the antioxidant melatonin on redox status and muscle damage in resistance-trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo-Mendonça, Roberto C; Ocaña-Wilhelmi, Javier; de Haro, Tomás; de Teresa-Galván, Carlos; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo; Rusanova, Iryna; Fernández-Ortiz, Marisol; Sayed, Ramy K A; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2017-07-01

    Previous data showed that the administration of high doses of melatonin improved the circadian system in athletes. Here, we investigated in the same experimental paradigm whether the antioxidant properties of melatonin has also beneficial effects against exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle damage in athletes. Twenty-four athletes were treated with 100 mg·day -1 of melatonin or placebo 30 min before bedtime during 4 weeks in a randomized double-blind scheme. Exercise intensity was higher during the study that before starting it. Blood samples were collected before and after treatment, and plasma was used for oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitrite plus nitrate (NOx), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) determinations. Glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulphide (GSSG) levels, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reductase (GRd) activities, were measured in erythrocytes. Melatonin intake increased ORAC, reduced LPO and NOx levels, and prevented the increase of AOPP, compared to placebo group. Melatonin was also more efficient than placebo in reducing GSSG·GSH -1 and GPx·GRd -1 ratios. Melatonin, but not placebo, reduced creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, and total cholesterol levels. Overall, the data reflect a beneficial effect of melatonin treatment in resistance-training athletes, preventing extra- and intracellular oxidative stress induced by exercise, and yielding further skeletal muscle protection against exercise-induced oxidative damage.

  3. Whole body exposure to low-dose γ-radiation enhances the antioxidant defense system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, C.M.; Avti, P.K.; Khanduja, K.L.; Sharma, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that the extent of cellular damage by low- radiation dose is proportional to the effects observed at high radiation dose as per the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) hypothesis. However, this notion may not be true at low-dose radiation exposure in the living system. Recent evidence suggest that the living organisms do not respond to ionizing radiations in a linear manner in the low dose range 0.01-0.5Gy and rather restore the homeostasis both in vivo and in vitro by normal physiological mechanisms such as cellular and DNA repair processes, immune reactions, antioxidant defense, adaptive responses, activation of immune functions, stimulation of growth etc. In this study, we have attempted to find the critical radiation dose range and the post irradiation period during which the antioxidant defense systems in the lungs, liver and kidneys remain stimulated in these organs after whole body exposure of the animals to low-dose radiation

  4. Ferulic acid modification enhances the anti-oxidation activity of natural Hb in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Donglai; Li, Qian; Chen, Chen; Wang, Xiang

    2018-03-13

    During the development of artificial red blood cell (RBC) substitutes, oxidation side reaction is one of the major factors that hinder the application of haemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). In order to avoid oxidation toxicity, we designed and prepared natural Hb conjugated with ferulic acid (FA) via simple chemical modification. In addition, the thiol groups on Hb surface were increased via the reaction of Hb with 2-iminothiolane (2-IT) and then modified with FA for the study of anti-oxidant ability. It was showed that Hb modified with FA (FA-Hb) had similar oxygen-binding capacity to natural Hb. Moreover, the anti-oxidant ability of FA-Hb in vitro in different systems was superior to natural Hb and in proportion to the degree of modification of FA. The results indicate that FA-Hb might have the potential to serve as a novel oxygen carrier with the capacity to reduce oxidative side reaction.

  5. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, and Genomic Stability Enhancement Effects of Zinc l-carnosine: A Potential Cancer Chemopreventive Agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Theng Choon; Chan, Kok Meng; Sharif, Razinah

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide, and the incidence and mortality rates of cancer are expected to rise tremendously in the near future. Despite a better understanding of cancer biology and advancement in cancer management, current strategies in cancer treatment remain costly and ineffective. Hence, instead of putting more efforts to search for new cancer cures, attention has now been shifted to the development of cancer chemopreventive agents as a preventive measure for cancer formation. It is well known that neoplastic transformation of cells is multifactorial, and the occurrence of oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and genomic instability events has been implicated in the carcinogenesis of cells. Zinc l-carnosine (ZnC), which is clinically used as gastric ulcer treatment in Japan, has been suggested to have the potential in preventing cancer development. Multiple studies have revealed that ZnC possesses potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and genomic stability enhancement effects. Thus, this review provides some mechanistic insight into the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and genomic stability enhancement effects of ZnC in relevance to its chemopreventive potential.

  6. the potential for enhancement of immunity in cats by dietary supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherfurd-Markwick, K.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Morel, P.C.H.; Thomas, D.G.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the potential benefits of dietary supplementation on the feline immune system. Forty three cats (8 or 9 per group) were fed a low protein control diet (22.7% DM basis), the same diet supplemented with yeast-derived nucleotides, salmon oil or l-arginine or a

  7. Further analysis of multicentre cystathionine beta synthase deficiency thrombosis data and metabolic pathways suggests potentially better treatment via improved cysteine supplementation, diet, antioxidant supplementation, follow-up and testing for thrombophilic mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vance

    2017-01-01

    in the sub- optimality of metabolic outcomes, due not only to CBS-- but also its treatments. Conclusions It seems likely that substantial improvements in the treatment of CBS-- may be achieved through 1 Cysteine supplementation (preferably on its own rather than in whole-diet formula mixtures, in accord with various uses of homocysteine-lowering nutrients other than VitB6, which have various effects on the metabolism of homocysteine to cysteine. 2 Better use of low-methionine, high-fruit and vegetable whole-food diets. 3 Supplementation with vitamin C and other antioxidants. 4 Better cultivation of patient compliance. 5 Testing for Factor 5 Leiden and prothrombin C20210A mutations.

  8. Antioxidant enzymes in Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval): are they enhanced to protect gut tissues during oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Natraj; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2006-01-01

    The Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis is a polyphagous insect attacking a number of plant species including those belonging to the Solanaceae and Cruciferaceae families. Its digestive physiology must therefore adapt to the food plant to ensure maximum extraction of nutrients with minimum trade-off in terms of growth retardation by pro-oxidant allelochemicals. To investigate this, the caterpillars of S. littoralis were fed on a semi-artificial diet (Manduca Premix-Heliothis Premix) and for 24 h on potato plants (Solanum tuberosum), respectively, at the mature 6th instar, and the levels of oxidative radicals and antioxidant enzymes in their guts were compared. The gut pH, standard redox potential (Eh) and electron availability (pe) revealed that oxidizing conditions prevail which promote oxidation of pro-oxidant allelochemicals in foliage. Oxidative stress in the foregut and midgut tissue and the gut contents was assessed from the generation of superoxide radical, total peroxide content and protein carbonyl content. Antioxidant defense was measured by the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) and glutathione S-transferase peroxidase (GSTpx). A significant (p enzymes SOD (in midgut tissues), CAT (in foregut, midgut tissue and contents), APOX (in foregut contents, midgut tissue and contents) and GSTpx (in foregut tissues) was recorded on the plant diet in comparison to the semi-artificial diet. The pro-oxidant allelochemicals in the plant diet are thus eliminated by the insect at the expense of up-regulation of antioxidative enzymes in response to increased oxidative stress from oxidizable allelochemicals. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that increased concentrations of antioxidants form an important component of the defense of herbivorous insects against both exogenous and endogenous oxidative radicals.

  9. Simulating of Top-Cross system for enhancement of antioxidants in maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vancetovic

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Blue maize (Zea mays L. is grown for its high content of antioxidants. Conversion of yellow and white to blue maize is time consuming because several genes affect blue color. After each backcross selfing is needed for color to be expressed. In order to overcome the problem of time and effort needed for conversion to blue kernel color, we have set a pilot experiment simulating a Top-cross system for increasing antioxidants in maize grain. The idea is to alternately sow six rows of sterile standard quality hybrid and two rows of blue maize in commercial production. Five commercial ZP hybrids were crossed with a blue pop-corn population. Xenia effect caused by cross-pollination produced blue grain on all hybrids in the same year. Chemical analyses of the grains of five selfed original hybrids, five cross-pollinated hybrids and selfed blue popcorn pollinator were performed. Cross-fertilization with blue popcorn had different impact on antioxidant capacity and phytonutrients, increasing them significantly in some but not all cross-pollinated hybrids. Popcorn blue pollinator had higher values for all the analyzed traits than either selfed or cross-pollinated hybrids. Selfed vs. pollinated hybrids showed significant difference for total antioxidant capacity (p<0.1, total phenolics and total yellow pigments (p<0.01, with the increase of total phenolics and decrease of total yellow pigments in pollinated ones. Total flavonoids showed a little non-significant decrease in pollinated hybrids, while total anthocyanins were not detected in selfed yellow hybrids. Blue maize obtained this way has shown good potential for growing high quality phytonutrient genotypes.

  10. Effects of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (silymarin) extract supplementation on antioxidant status and hs-CRP in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimpour Koujan, Soraiya; Gargari, Bahram Pourghassem; Mobasseri, Majid; Valizadeh, Hadi; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2015-02-15

    Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder and oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to its pathogenesis and complications. Since Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (silymarin) extract is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties, this randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of silymarin supplementation on oxidative stress indices and hs-CRP in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. For the present paralleled, randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 40 type 2 diabetes patients aged 25-50 yr old and on stable medication were recruited from the Iranian Diabetes Society and endocrinology clinics in East Azarbayjan (Tabriz, Iran) and randomly assigned into two groups. Patients in the silymarin treatment group received 140 mg, thrice daily of dried extracts of Silybum marianum (n = 20) and those in the placebo group (n = 20) received identical placebos for 45 days. Data pertaining to height, weight, waist circumference and BMI, as well as food consumption, were collected at base line and at the conclusion of the study. Fasting blood samples were obtained and antioxidant indices and hs-CRP were assessed at baseline, as well as at the end of the trial. All 40 patients completed the study and did not report any adverse effects or symptoms with the silymarin supplementation. Silymarin supplementation significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) compared to patients taking the placebo, by 12.85%, 30.32% and 8.43%, respectively (p < 0.05). There was a significant reduction in hs-CRP levels by 26.83% (p < 0.05) in the silymarin group compared to the placebo group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration significantly decreased by 12.01% (p < 0.05) in the silymarin group compared to the baseline. Silymarin supplementation improves some antioxidant indices (SOD, GPX and TAC) and decrease hs-CRP levels in T2DM patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  11. Chitosan-caffeic acid-genipin films presenting enhanced antioxidant activity and stability in acidic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cláudia; Maricato, Élia; Cunha, Ângela; Nunes, Alexandra; da Silva, José A Lopes; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2013-01-02

    The use of chitosan films has been limited due to their high degradability in aqueous acidic media. In order to produce chitosan films with high antioxidant activity and insoluble in acid solutions caffeic acid was grafted to chitosan by a radical mechanism using ammonium cerium (IV) nitrate (60 mM). Genipin was used as cross-linker. This methodology originated films with 80% higher antioxidant activity than the pristine film. Also, these films only lost 11% of their mass upon seven days immersion into an aqueous solution at pH 3.5 under stirring. The films surface wettability (contact angle 105°), mechanical properties (68 MPa of tensile strength and 4% of elongation at break), and thermal stability for temperatures lower than 300 °C were not significantly influenced by the covalent linkage of caffeic acid and genipin to chitosan. Due to their characteristics, mainly higher antioxidant activity and lower solubility, these are promising materials to be used as active films. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Citric acid enhanced the antioxidant defense system and chromium uptake by Lemna minor L. grown in hydroponics under Cr stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallah-Ud-Din, Rasham; Farid, Mujahid; Saeed, Rashid; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Tauqeer, Hafiz Muhammad; Bukhari, Syed Asad Hussain

    2017-07-01

    Phytoextraction is a cost-effective and eco-friendly technique for the removal of pollutants, mainly heavy metal(loids) especially from polluted water and metal-contaminated soils. The phytoextraction of heavy metals is, in general, limited due to the low availability of heavy metals in the growth medium. Organic chelators can help to improve the phytoextraction by increasing metal mobility and solubility in the growth medium. The present research was carried out to examine the possibility of citric acid (CA) in improving chromium (Cr) phytoextraction by Lemna minor (duckweed). For this purpose, healthy plants were collected from nearby marsh and grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. Initial metal contents of both marsh water and plant were measured along with physico-chemical properties of the marsh water. Different concentrations of Cr and CA were applied in the hydroponics in different combinations after defined intervals. Continuous aeration was supplied and pH maintained at 6.5 ± 0.1. Results showed that increasing concentration of Cr significantly decreased the plant biomass, photosynthetic pigments, leaf area, and antioxidant enzyme activities (like catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase). Furthermore, Cr stress increased the Cr concentrations, electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde contents in plants. The addition of CA alleviated the Cr-induced toxicity in plants and further enhanced the Cr uptake and its accumulation in L. minor. The addition of CA enhanced the Cr concentration in L. minor by 6.10, 26.5, 20.5, and 20.2% at 0, 10, 100, and 200 μM Cr treatments, respectively, compared to the respective Cr treatments without CA. Overall, the results of the present study showed that CA addition may enhance the Cr accumulation and tolerance in L. minor by enhancing the plant growth and activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  13. Oral supplementation with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 8481 enhances systemic immunity in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro-García, Marco Antonio; Alonso-Arias, Rebeca; Baltadjieva, Maria; Fernández Benítez, Carlos; Fernández Barrial, Manuel Amadeo; Díaz Ruisánchez, Enrique; Alonso Santos, Ricardo; Alvarez Sánchez, Magdalena; Saavedra Miján, Juan; López-Larrea, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Throughout life, there is an aging of the immune system that causes impairment of its defense capability. Prevention or delay of this deterioration is considered crucial to maintain general health and increase longevity. We evaluated whether dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 8481 could enhance the immune response in the elderly. This multi-center, double-blind, and placebo controlled study enrolled 61 elderly volunteers who were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or probiotics. Each capsule of probiotics contained at least 3 × 10(7)  L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 8481. Individuals in the study were administered three capsules per day for 6 months. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (time 0), end of month 3, and month 6. We characterized cell subpopulations, measured cytokines by flow cytometry, quantified T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) by real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and determined human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) concentrations and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) titers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Elderly responded to the intake of probiotic with an increase in the percentage of NK cells, an improvement in the parameters defining the immune risk profile (IRP), and an increase in the T cell subsets that are less differentiated. The probiotic group also showed decreased concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 but increased antimicrobial peptide hBD-2. These effects disappeared within 6 months of stopping the probiotic intake. Immunomodulation induced by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 8481 could favor the maintenance of an adequate immune response, mainly by slowing the aging of the T cell subpopulations and increasing the number of immature T cells which are potential responders to new antigens.

  14. Silicon-enhanced resistance to cadmium toxicity in Brassica chinensis L. is attributed to Si-suppressed cadmium uptake and transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Alin [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Zhaojun [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Jie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Xue Gaofeng; Fan Fenliang [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Liang Yongchao, E-mail: ycliang@caas.ac.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Oasis Eco-Agriculture, College of Agriculture, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A series of hydroponics experiments were performed to investigate roles of silicon (Si) in enhancing cadmium (Cd) tolerance in two pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) cultivars: i.e. cv. Shanghaiqing, a Cd-sensitive cultivar, and cv. Hangyoudong, a Cd-tolerant cultivar. Plants were grown under 0.5 and 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} Cd stress without or with 1.5 mM Si. Plant growth of the Cd-tolerant cultivar was stimulated at the lower Cd level, but was decreased at the higher Cd level when plants were treated with Cd for one week. However, Plant growth was severely inhibited at both Cd levels as stress duration lasted for up to three weeks. Plant growth of the Cd-sensitive cultivar was severely inhibited at both Cd levels irrespective of Cd stress duration. Addition of Si increased shoot and root biomass of both cultivars at both Cd levels and decreased Cd uptake and root-to-shoot transport. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased, but malondialdehyde and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were counteracted by Si added. Ascorbic acid, glutathione and non-protein thiols concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were further intensified by addition of Si. The effects of Si and Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activity were further verified by isoenzyme analysis. Silicon was more effective in enhancing Cd tolerance in the Cd-tolerant cultivar than in the Cd-sensitive cultivar. It can be concluded that Si-enhanced Cd tolerance in B. chinensis is attributed mainly to Si-suppressed Cd uptake and root-to-shoot Cd transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense activity.

  15. The effect of oral L-arginine supplementation on fasting glucose, HbA1c, nitric oxide and total antioxidant status in diabetic patients with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease of lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłecka, A; Bogdański, P; Balcer, N; Cieślewicz, A; Skołuda, A; Musialik, K

    2012-03-01

    Numerous studies indicate hyperglycemia and oxidative stress as factors responsible for endothelium dysfunction and the following development of angiopathy. Increased production of free radicals by vascular endothelium causes disturbance in production and/or decreases bioaccessibility of nitric oxide (NO). It has been suggested that L-arginine supplementation is a reasonable method to increase endothelium NO production and lower free radicals formation. There is a growing number of evidence showing that dietary supplementation of arginine reverses endothelial dysfunction associated with major cardiovascular risk factors and ameliorates many common cardiovascular disorders. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential influence of two-months oral L-arginine supplementation on fasting glucose, HbA1c, nitric oxide and total antioxidant status (TAS). 38 patients with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease of lower extremities at Fontaine's stage II and coexisting type 2 diabetes and 12 healthy volunteers as control group were studied. All patients were treated with oral L-arginine (3 x 2 g/day) for two months. Fasting glucose, HbAlc, nitric oxide and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured before and after the study. Fasting glucose and HbAlc did not change significantly after L-arginine treatment. Statistically significant increase in NO concentration and TAS level was found. Oral two-month supplementation with L-arginine (3 x 2 g/day) had no effect on fasting glucose and HbA1 level in diabetic patients with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease of lower extremities at Fontaine's stage II. The supplementation of L-arginine led to substantial increase in NO concentration and TAS level in these patients, suggesting its indirect antioxidative effect.

  16. Enhanced antioxidant activity of gold nanoparticle embedded 3,6-dihydroxyflavone: a combinational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhe, Sharad; Bansal, Prachi; Srivastava, Man Mohan

    2012-12-01

    The antioxidative effect of selected dietary compounds (3,6-dihydroxyflavone, lutein and selenium methyl selenocysteine) was determined in single and combination using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl), OH (hydroxyl), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) and NO (nitric oxide) radical scavenging assays. Radical scavenging effect of the dietary phytochemicals individually are found to be in the order: ascorbic acid (standard) > lutein > 3,6-dihydroxyflavone > selenium methyl selenocysteine, at concentration 100 μg/ml, confirmed by all the four bioassays (p nanotech enforcement of dietary phytochemicals shows the utility in the architecture of nanoparticle embedded phytoproducts having a wide range of applications in medical science.

  17. H(2 enhances arabidopsis salt tolerance by manipulating ZAT10/12-mediated antioxidant defence and controlling sodium exclusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjie Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metabolism of hydrogen gas (H(2 in bacteria and algae has been extensively studied for the interesting of developing H(2-based fuel. Recently, H(2 is recognized as a therapeutic antioxidant and activates several signalling pathways in clinical trials. However, underlying physiological roles and mechanisms of H(2 in plants as well as its signalling cascade remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, histochemical, molecular, immunological and genetic approaches were applied to characterize the participation of H(2 in enhancing Arabidopsis salt tolerance. An increase of endogenous H(2 release was observed 6 hr after exposure to 150 mM NaCl. Arabidopsis pretreated with 50% H(2-saturated liquid medium, mimicking the induction of endogenous H(2 release when subsequently exposed to NaCl, effectively decreased salinity-induced growth inhibition. Further results showed that H(2 pretreatment modulated genes/proteins of zinc-finger transcription factor ZAT10/12 and related antioxidant defence enzymes, thus significantly counteracting the NaCl-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS overproduction and lipid peroxidation. Additionally, H(2 pretreatment maintained ion homeostasis by regulating the antiporters and H(+ pump responsible for Na(+ exclusion (in particular and compartmentation. Genetic evidence suggested that SOS1 and cAPX1 might be the target genes of H(2 signalling. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings indicate that H(2 acts as a novel and cytoprotective regulator in coupling ZAT10/12-mediated antioxidant defence and maintenance of ion homeostasis in the improvement of Arabidopsis salt tolerance.

  18. Effect of supplementation with B vitamins and antioxidants on levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and C-reactive protein (CRP): a double-blind, randomised, factorial design, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Mark G; Gilchrist, Sarah E C M; Young, Ian S; McKinley, Michelle C; Yarnell, John W G; Gey, K Fred; Evans, Alun; Skidmore, Paula M L; Woodside, Jayne V

    2010-12-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors such as elevated levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)/C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine are potentially related to essential micronutrients such as certain B vitamins and antioxidant vitamins. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether supplementation with moderate doses of B vitamins and/or antioxidants could alter either ADMA and/or CRP concentrations in middle-aged, apparently healthy men with mildly elevated homocysteine levels. A randomised, double-blind, factorial design, intervention study was carried out on 132 men with mildly elevated homocysteine levels, allocated to four groups (a) B vitamins alone--1 mg folic acid, 7.2 mg pyridoxine, 0.02 mg cyanocobalamin daily, (b) antioxidants alone--150 mg ascorbic acid, 67 mg vitamin E, 9 mg β-carotene daily, (c) B vitamins with antioxidant vitamins, or (d) placebo. A total of 101 men completed the study to 8 weeks. When the percentage of baseline ADMA and CRP was examined at 8 weeks, no statistically significant differences were observed between the four groups (p = 0.21 and p = 0.90, respectively). Similar non-significant results were observed when analysis was stratified based on baseline CRP levels (B vitamins and/or antioxidants did not alter either ADMA or CRP concentrations in these middle-aged, apparently healthy men with mildly elevated homocysteine levels.

  19. ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS LEVELS IN MALARIA PARASITEMIC PREGNANT WOMEN MAY INFLUENCE THE VIRULENCE OF THE PARASITES: RE-APPRAISING SUPPLEMENTATIONS IN MALARIA-ENDEMIC AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Some biochemical and haematological changes have been reported in malaria parasitemic pregnant women in urban and rural malaria-endemic areas, indicating different oxidative status of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some antioxidant vitamins in symptomatic malaria parasitemic pregnant women to re-appraise the need and extent of vitamin supplementations in this condition. It is a cross-sectional study done between September, 2011 and March, 2012. The study involved 119 pregnant women aged between 24 and 36years, who presented in antenatal clinics with full symptoms of malaria infection. They were within the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Malaria density was determined by absolute malaria parasite count while the vitamins (A, C and E were estimated by spectrophotometric methods. Our results showed that vitamin A concentrations in controls, mild and moderate malaria densities were 16.48 and plusmn; 0.75 and micro;g/ml, 15.72 and plusmn; 0.58 and micro;g/ml and 16.19 and plusmn; 1.40 and micro;g/ml respectively, vitamin C were 31.31 and plusmn; 0.97mg/dL; 38.33 and plusmn; 2.73mg/dL and 52.17mg/dL respectively while vitamin E were 0.89 and plusmn; 0.09mg/dL; 2.05 and plusmn; 0.27mg/dL and 3.32 and plusmn; 0.23mg/dL respectively. The results indicated that there were no significant changes in vitamin A while vitamins C and E increased significantly as malaria density increased. The changes in these vitamins are indications of increased endogenous mobilization to fight oxidative stress. We opine that the results are suggestive of extra oxidative stress in symptomatic malaria parasitemia, and that inadequate concentrations of these antioxidants can potentiate the virulence of these parasites.

  20. Preharvest treatments with salicylates enhance nutrient and antioxidant compounds in plum at harvest and after storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro J; Valero, Daniel; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Díaz-Mula, Huertas M; Serrano, María

    2017-11-06

    Previous reports have addressed the effectiveness of salicylic acid (SA), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and methylsalicylate (MeSA) postharvest treatments on maintaining quality properties during storage in several commodities. However, there is no literature regarding the effect of preharvest treatments with salicylates on plum quality attributes (at harvest or after long-term cold storage), which was evaluated in this research. At harvest, weight, firmness, individual organic acids, sugars, phenolics, anthocyanins and total carotenoids were found at higher levels in plums from SA-, ASA- and MeSA-treated trees than in those from controls. During storage, softening, colour changes and acidity losses were delayed in treated fruits as compared to controls. In addition, organic acids and antioxidant compounds were still found at higher levels in treated than in control plums after 40 days of storage. Results show a delay in the postharvest ripening process due to salicylate treatments, which could be attributed to their effect in delaying and decreasing ethylene production. Preharvest treatment with salicylates could be a safety, eco-friendly and new tool to improve (at harvest) and maintain (during storage) plum quality and especially its content of bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties, increasing the health effects of plum consumption. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Laccase-mediated functionalization of chitosan with 4-hexyloxyphenol enhances antioxidant and hydrophobic properties of copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Ni, Shuzhen; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Meng, Xianzhi; Hao, Naijia; Fu, Yingjuan

    2018-03-10

    An effective method to functionalize chitosan with 4-hexyloxyphenol (HP) under homogeneous reaction conditions was developed using laccase as the catalyst. The resulting copolymer was characterized for chemical structure, grafted-HP content, surface morphology, thermal stability, antioxidant capacity, hydrophobic properties and tensile strength. Solid-state 13 C NMR spectrum confirmed the incorporation of HP onto chitosan. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed a decrease in the degree of crystallinity for laccase/HP treated chitosan compared to pure chitosan. The grafted-HP content in laccase/HP-treated chitosan first increased and then declined with increase of the initial HP/chitosan ratio. A heterogeneous surface with spherical particles on the laccase/HP treated chitosan was observed by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM). The laccase/HP treatment of chitosan improved the thermal stability of copolymer. More significantly, the HP functionalized chitosan showed greatly improved ABTS + and DPPH radicals scavenging capacity, compared with pure chitosan. The hydrophobicity property of the HP functionalized chitosan also significantly increased although its tensile strength decreased. This new type of composite with double functionalities (i.e., antioxidant and hydrophobic) could potentially be used as food packaging materials or coating agents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhancing the Antioxidant Ability of Trametes versicolor Polysaccharopeptides by an Enzymatic Hydrolysis Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhan, Mei-Hsin; Yeh, Ching-Hua; Tsai, Chia-Chun; Kao, Ching-Tian; Chang, Chao-Kai; Hsieh, Chang-Wei

    2016-09-10

    Polysaccharopeptides (PSPs) are among the main bioactive constituents of Trametes versicolor (T. versicolor). The purpose of this research was to investigate the antioxidant activities of enzymatic hydrolysates obtained from T. versicolor polysaccharopeptides by 80 U/mL β-1,3-glucanase (PSPs-EH80). The half-inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PSPs-EH80 in metal chelating assay, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging test results were 0.83 mg/mL, 0.14 mg/mL and 0.52 mg/mL, respectively, which were lower than that of PSPs-EH 20 U/mL. The molecular weights of the PSPs-EH80 hydrolysates were 300, 190, 140 and 50 kDa, respectively, and the hydrolysis of polysaccharides by β-1,3-glucanase did not change the original functional group. PSPs-EH80 reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content at least twice that of treatment without PSPs-EH80. In addition, an oxidative damage test showed that PSPs-EH80 can improve HaCaT cell survival. According to our results, PSP demonstrates the potential of anti-oxidative damage; besides, enzyme hydrolysis can improve the ability of the PSP.

  3. Fortification of fried potato chips with antioxidant vitamins to enhance their nutritional value and storage ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edress El-Sayed, Fyka

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The frying shelf life of commercial frying oil was increased by the addition of synthetic and natural antioxidants, e.g. TBHQ, retinyl palmitate and ascorbyl palmitate (antioxidant vitamins.The results revealed that TBHQ had the best effect in retarding the deteriorative effect of frying conditions throughout 24h of frying potato chips at 180±10 ºC followed by the effect of retinyl palmitate and the effect of ascorbyl palmitate compared to the control without any additives. Fried potato chips in oils either with or without antioxidant were collected during the first 8h of frying, divided into 3 main portions each portion had different treatment; 1 without any additives (control samples for fried potatoes resulting from the control oil or from oil containing TBHQ or containing retinyl or ascorbyl palmitate. 2 fortification of the above 4 samples with vitamin E (tocopherol by dipping each of the resulting samples from the four frying trials separately in oil containing 0.1 % tocopherol. 3 fortification of each of the above mentioned samples with vitamin C by dispersing the mixture of fine salt and ascorbyl palmitate on the fried chips' surface and vigorous shaking in bags. The control samples and fortified samples were packed in aluminum bags and stored in an electric oven at 63±1 ºC . The storage ability of fried potatoes at 63±1 ºC was increased by the fortification with antioxidant vitamins either with vitamin E (tocopherol or with vitamin C (ascorbyl palmitate before packaging and storing at 63±1 ºC. The results indicated that potatoes fried in oil without any additives (control had the lowest storage stability and that it was increased by the fortification with antioxidant vitamins, C or E. Potato chips fortified with vitamins A or C by frying in oil containing retinyl palmitate or ascorbyl palmitate and also in oil containing TBHQ had better storage ability at 63 ºC and this was also prolonged by the addition of vitamin E or C after

  4. Curcuma aromatica Water Extract Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Gastritis via Enhancement of Antioxidant Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Young Jeon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma aromatica is an herbal medicine and traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases in Asia. We investigated the effects of C. aromatica water extract (CAW in the stomach of rats with ethanol-induced gastritis. Gastritis was induced in rats by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol. The CAW groups were given 250 or 500 mg of extract/kg 2 h before administration of ethanol, respectively. To determine the antioxidant effects of CAW, we determined the level of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH, the activities of catalase, degree of inflammation, and mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced ethanol-induced inflammation and loss of epithelial cells and increased the mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced the increase in lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced gastritis (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp. and increased mucosal GSH content (500 mg/kg, p<0.01 and the activity of catalase (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp.. CAW increased the production of prostaglandin E2. These findings suggest that CAW protects against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury by increasing antioxidant status. We suggest that CAW could be developed for the treatment of gastritis induced by alcohol.

  5. Preparation of gelatin films incorporated with tea polyphenol nanoparticles for enhancing controlled-release antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Antoniou, John; Li, Yue; Yi, Jiang; Yokoyama, Wallace; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2015-04-22

    Gelatin films incorporated with chitosan nanoparticles in various free/encapsulated tea polyphenol (TP) ratios were prepared in order to investigate the influence of different ratios on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of films. The TP-containing nanoparticles were prepared by cross-linking chitosan hydrochloride (CSH) with sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin sodium (SBE-β-CD) at three different encapsulation efficiencies (EE; ∼50%, ∼80%, and ∼100%) of TP. The stability of TP-loaded nanoparticles was maintained during the film drying process from the analysis of free TP content in the redissolved film solutions. Composite films showed no significant difference in visual aspects, while the light transmittance (250-550 nm) was decreased with incorporation of TP. Nanoparticles appeared to be homogeneously dispersed within the film matrix by microstructure analysis (SEM and AFM). TP-loaded films had ferric reducing and DPPH radical scavenging power that corresponded to the EEs. Sunflower oil packaged in bags made of gelatin films embedded with nanoparticles of 80% EE showed the best oxidation inhibitory effect, followed by 100% EE, 50% EE, and free TP, over 6 weeks of storage. However, when the gelatin film was placed over the headspace and was not in contact with the oil, the free TP showed the best effect. The results indicate that sustained release of TP in the contacting surface can ensure the protective effects, which vary with free/encapsulated mass ratios, thus improving antioxidant activities instead of increasing the dosage.

  6. Supplementing the maternal diet of rats with butyrate enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in the skeletal muscles of weaned offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanping; Gao, Shixing; Jun, Guo; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal dietary butyrate supplementation on energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in offspring skeletal muscle and the possible mediating mechanisms. Virgin female rats were randomly assigned to either control or butyrate diets (1 % butyrate sodium) throughout gestation and lactation. At the end of lactation (21 d), the offspring were killed by exsanguination from the abdominal aorta under anaesthesia. The results showed that maternal butyrate supplementation throughout gestation and lactation did not affect offspring body weight. However, the protein expressions of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPR) 43 and 41 were significantly enhanced in offspring skeletal muscle of the maternal butyrate-supplemented group. The ATP content, most of mitochondrial DNA-encoded gene expressions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 4 protein contents and the mitochondrial DNA copy number were significantly higher in the butyrate group than in the control group. Meanwhile, the protein expressions of type 1 myosin heavy chain, mitochondrial transcription factor A, PPAR-coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and uncoupling protein 3 were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle of the treatment group compared with the control group. These results indicate for the first time that maternal butyrate supplementation during the gestation and lactation periods influenced energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis through the GPR and PGC-1α pathways in offspring skeletal muscle at weaning.

  7. Consumption of green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate enhances systemic immune response, antioxidative capacity and HPA axis functions in aged male swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rohit; Sharma, Anamika; Kumari, Amita; Kulurkar, Pankaj Markand; Raj, Rajneesh; Gulati, Ashu; Padwad, Yogendra S

    2017-06-01

    The present investigation assessed the potential of green tea phytochemical epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in alleviating age-associated aberrations in immunity, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and redox homeostasis using 16 months old male Swiss albino mice. Four groups of animals (n = 6 per group) were supplemented with either aqueous EGCG at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/animal or vehicle control for 6 weeks. A concurrent analysis of CD4 + and CD8 + lymphocytes in splenocytes, differential leucocyte population, T cell differentiation markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), neutrophil functions, immunoglobulins profile in intestine, circulatory HPA axis hormonal levels as well as inflammatory and oxidative stress in the liver was performed. We observed a remarkable increase in plasma dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels of 100 mg EGCG fed animals while eosinophils and monocytes counts in blood increased. EGCG consumption increased the fraction of CD3 + CD8 + cells in splenocytes and CD28 expression on PBMCs. The immunoglobulins profile revealed decreased production of secretory IgA, IgE and IgG1/IgG2a ratio. Liver extracts showed increase in superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant capacity while lipid peroxidation along with inflammatory markers (IL-6 and TNF-α) decreased. Our results collectively show that EGCG consumption during aging strengthens systemic immunity by enhancing cellular immune response and simultaneously attenuating antibody response aided by an increase in adrenal DHEA production. Thus, consumption of green tea may be beneficial in alleviating some of the deleterious aspects of aging and immunosenescence in elderly.

  8. Dietary supplementation with curcumin enhances metastatic growth of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcumin is a phenolic compound derived from the Curcuma longa plant, commonly known as turmeric. Curcumin has been used traditionally in Ayurvedic medicine as it has therapeutic properties including being anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-microbial. The present study investigated the effects...

  9. Dietary L-arginine supplementation enhances intestinal development and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kang; Guan, Shu; Li, Tiejun; Huang, Ruilin; Wu, Guoyao; Ruan, Zheng; Yin, Yulong

    2011-03-01

    Oral administration of L-arginine has been reported to prevent gut disease in human infants. However, little is known about the effects of dietary arginine supplementation on intestinal development of weaned piglets. In the present study, twenty 21-d-old castrated piglets with 5·3 (SEM 0·13) kg body weight (BW) were weaned from sows, individually housed and randomly assigned to one of the two maize- and soyabean meal-based diets supplemented with 0 or 1% L-arginine. After consuming the diets for 7 d, six pigs were randomly selected from each group to obtain various tissues. Compared with control pigs, dietary supplementation with 1% L-arginine did not affect feed intake but enhanced (Psupplemented piglets was 21, 28 and 25% greater (Psupplementation increased (Psupplementation with 1% L-arginine increased (Psupplementation enhances intestinal growth, development and expression of VEGF in early-weaned pigs fed a maize- and soyabean meal-based diet. The findings may have important implications for neonatal pigs under stressful or diseased conditions.

  10. Arachidonic acid supplementation enhances in vitro skeletal muscle cell growth via a COX-2-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, James F; Cameron-Smith, David

    2013-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is the metabolic precursor to a diverse range of downstream bioactive lipid mediators. A positive or negative influence of individual eicosanoid species [e.g., prostaglandins (PGs), leukotrienes, and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids] has been implicated in skeletal muscle cell growth and development. The collective role of AA-derived metabolites in physiological states of skeletal muscle growth/atrophy remains unclear. The present study aimed to determine the direct effect of free AA supplementation and subsequent eicosanoid biosynthesis on skeletal myocyte growth in vitro. C2C12 (mouse) skeletal myocytes induced to differentiate with supplemental AA exhibited dose-dependent increases in the size, myonuclear content, and protein accretion of developing myotubes, independent of changes in cell density or the rate/extent of myogenic differentiation. Nonselective (indomethacin) or cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)-selective (NS-398) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs blunted basal myogenesis, an effect that was amplified in the presence of supplemental free AA substrate. The stimulatory effects of AA persisted in preexisting myotubes via a COX-2-dependent (NS-389-sensitive) pathway, specifically implying dependency on downstream PG biosynthesis. AA-stimulated growth was associated with markedly increased secretion of PGF(2α) and PGE(2); however, incubation of myocytes with PG-rich conditioned medium failed to mimic the effects of direct AA supplementation. In vitro AA supplementation stimulates PG release and skeletal muscle cell hypertrophy via a COX-2-dependent pathway.

  11. Enhancement of Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Peanut Meal by Bio-modification with Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinjian; Teng, Da; Wang, Xiumin; Guan, Qingfeng; Mao, Ruoyu; Hao, Ya; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-11-01

    Peanut meal (PM) is limited in practical use (feed or food) from imbalance of amino acid profile and denaturation of protein. Fermentation was used to promote its nutritional and functional properties by single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiments. Results showed that the nutritional properties of fermented peanut meal (crude protein content, dry matter content, ash content, acid soluble oligopeptides content, in vitro digestibility, and content of organic acids) had a significant increase (P implied that the nutritional and antioxidant properties of peanut meal were improved effectively by biological modification, which could be valuable in terms of nutrition and protein resources. It is great of importance to meet requirement of raw materials for husbandry in China when facing a huge lacking of feedstuff, especially for protein feed with an over 80 % import amount depending from other countries yearly.

  12. ENHANCED ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF FOOD WASTE BY SUPPLEMENTING TRACE ELEMENTS: ROLE OF SELENIUM (VI AND IRON (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javkhlan eAriunbaatar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential to enhance the anaerobic digestion of food waste FW by supplementing trace elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, Se, and Mo individually as well as in cocktails. A series of batch experiments on the biomethane potential of synthetic food waste were performed with low (FW-A and high (FW-B trace element background concentrations prepared in, respectively, Delft (The Netherlands and Tampa (Florida, USA. The most effective trace elements for FW-A were Fe with an increase of 39.2 (± 0.6 % of biomethane production, followed by Se (34.1 ± 5.6 % increase, Ni (26.4 ± 0.2 % increase and Co (23.8 ± 0.2 % increase. For FW-B supplementing these trace elements did not result in enhancement of the biomethane production, except for Se. FW-B had a Se concentration of 1.3 (± 0. 5 µg/gTS, while it was below the detection limit for FW-A. Regardless of the FW source, Se resulted in 30 – 35% increase of biomethane production at a concentration range of 25-50 µg/L (0.32 – 0.63 µM. Volatile fatty acids analysis revealed that TE supplementation enhances their consumption, thus yielding a higher biomethane production. Moreover, additional experiments on sulfide inhibition showed the enhancing effects of trace elements on the anaerobic digestion of food waste were not related with sulfide toxicity, but with the enzymatic reactions and/or microbial biomass aggregation.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate oxidative stress induced by ADOR and enhance antioxidant responses of tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Palma, José Manuel; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet

    2014-03-15

    The behaviour of tomato plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi grown in the presence of aqueous extracts from dry olive residue (ADOR) was studied in order to understand how this symbiotic relationship helps plants to cope with oxidative stress caused by ADOR. The influence of AM symbiosis on plant growth and other physiological parameters was also studied. Tomato plants were inoculated with the AM fungus Funneliformis mosseae and were grown in the presence of ADOR bioremediated and non-bioremediated by Coriolopsis floccosa and Penicillium chrysogenum-10. The antioxidant response as well as parameters of oxidative damage were examined in roots and leaves. The data showed a significant increase in the biomass of AM plant growth in the presence of ADOR, regardless of whether it was bioremediated. The establishment and development of the symbiosis were negatively affected after plants were exposed to ADOR. No differences were observed in the relative water content (RWC) or PS II efficiency between non-AM and AM plants. The increase in the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) were simultaneous to the reduction of MDA levels and H2O2 content in AM root growth in the presence of ADOR. Similar H2O2 levels were observed among non-AM and AM plants, although only AM plants showed reduced lipid peroxidation content, probably due to the involvement of antioxidant enzymes. The results highlight how the application of both bioremediated ADOR and AM fungi can alleviate the oxidative stress conditions, improving the growth and development of tomato plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Creatine supplementation enhances muscle force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribb Paul J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eccentric exercise-induced damage leads to reductions in muscle force, increased soreness, and impaired muscle function. Creatine monohydrate's (Cr ergogenic potential is well established; however few studies have directly examined the effects of Cr supplementation on recovery after damage. We examined the effects of Cr supplementation on muscle proteins and force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. Methods Fourteen untrained male participants (22.1 ± 2.3 yrs, 173 ± 7.7 cm, 76.2 ± 9.3 kg were randomly separated into 2 supplement groups: i Cr and carbohydrate (Cr-CHO; n = 7; or ii carbohydrate (CHO; n = 7. Participants consumed their supplement for a period of 5 days prior to, and 14 days following a resistance exercise session. Participants performed 4 sets of 10 eccentric-only repetitions at 120% of their maximum concentric 1-RM on the leg press, leg extension and leg flexion exercise machine. Plasma creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity were assessed as relevant blood markers of muscle damage. Muscle strength was examined by voluntary isokinetic knee extension using a Cybex dynamometer. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05. Results The Cr-supplemented group had significantly greater isokinetic (10% higher and isometric (21% higher knee extension strength during recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage. Furthermore, plasma CK activity was significantly lower (by an average of 84% after 48 hrs (P Conclusion The major finding of this investigation was a significant improvement in the rate of recovery of knee extensor muscle function after Cr supplementation following injury.

  15. Enhancing the Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidants of Lemon Pomace Aqueous Extracts by Applying UV-C Irradiation to the Dried Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Papoutsis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that UV-C (ultraviolet C irradiation promotes the bioactive compounds and antioxidants of fresh fruits and vegetables. The aim of this study was to apply UV irradiation in dried lemon pomace powder for enhancing its phenolic content and antioxidant properties, thus more bioactive compounds should be available for extraction and utilization. Lemon pomace dried powder was placed under a UV lamp and treated with dosages of 4, 19, 80 and 185 kJ·m−2, while untreated powder was used as a control. UV-C irradiation significantly affected the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, proanthocyanidins, and antioxidant capacity measured by cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP of the lemon pomace dried powder, while it did not affect the vitamin C content. UV-C irradiation of 19 kJ·m−2 resulted in 19% higher total phenolic content than the control, while UV-C irradiation of 180 kJ·m−2 resulted in 28% higher total flavonoid content than the control. The antioxidant capacity was reduced when UV-C irradiation more than 4 kJ·m−2 was applied. The results of this study indicate that UV-C treatment has the potential to increase the extraction of bioactive compounds of dried lemon pomace at relatively high dosages.

  16. Enhancing the Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidants of Lemon Pomace Aqueous Extracts by Applying UV-C Irradiation to the Dried Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsis, Konstantinos; Vuong, Quan V; Pristijono, Penta; Golding, John B; Bowyer, Michael C; Scarlett, Christopher J; Stathopoulos, Costas E

    2016-08-23

    Several studies have shown that UV-C (ultraviolet C) irradiation promotes the bioactive compounds and antioxidants of fresh fruits and vegetables. The aim of this study was to apply UV irradiation in dried lemon pomace powder for enhancing its phenolic content and antioxidant properties, thus more bioactive compounds should be available for extraction and utilization. Lemon pomace dried powder was placed under a UV lamp and treated with dosages of 4, 19, 80 and 185 kJ·m -2 , while untreated powder was used as a control. UV-C irradiation significantly affected the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, proanthocyanidins, and antioxidant capacity measured by cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the lemon pomace dried powder, while it did not affect the vitamin C content. UV-C irradiation of 19 kJ·m -2 resulted in 19% higher total phenolic content than the control, while UV-C irradiation of 180 kJ·m -2 resulted in 28% higher total flavonoid content than the control. The antioxidant capacity was reduced when UV-C irradiation more than 4 kJ·m -2 was applied. The results of this study indicate that UV-C treatment has the potential to increase the extraction of bioactive compounds of dried lemon pomace at relatively high dosages.

  17. Reduction in antioxidant enzyme expression and sustained inflammation enhance tissue damage in the subacute phase of spinal cord contusive injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyue Song-Kun

    2011-02-01

    and stress contribute to extensive inflammation, causing time-dependent spread of tissue damage after severe SCI. The interventions by supplement of anti-oxidant enzymes right after SCI or delayed administration with chABC can facilitate spinal neural cell survival and tissue repair.

  18. In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Aged Ginseng (Panax ginseng).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo Im; Kang, Mi Young; Lee, Sang Chul

    2016-03-01

    Fresh ginseng roots were aged in an oven at 80°C for 14 d. The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of this aged ginseng, in comparison with those of the white and red ginsengs, were evaluated. In in vitro antioxidant assays, the ethanolic extracts from aged ginseng showed significantly higher free radical scavenging activity and reducing power than those of the white and red ginsengs. In in vivo antioxidant assays, mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with white, red, or aged ginseng powders. High fat feeding resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and a substantial decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities in the animals. However, diet supplementation of ginseng powders, particularly aged ginseng, markedly reduced lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activities. The results illustrate that the aged ginseng has greater in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity than the white and red ginsengs. The aged ginseng also showed considerably higher total saponin, phenolic, and flavonoid contents, indicating that its antioxidant capacity may have been partly due to its high levels of antioxidant compounds. This new ginseng product may be useful as a functional food with strong antioxidant potential.

  19. Chromium supplementation enhances the metabolic response of steers to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brandChromiumProprionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) supplementation on the metabolic response to LPS challenge was examined. Steers (n=20; 235±4 kg body weight (BW)) received a premix that added 0 (Con) or 0.2 mg/kg Cr to the total diet (DM (dry matter) basis) for ...

  20. Chromium supplementation enhances the acute phase response of steers to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study examined the effect of chromium supplementation on the response of steers to an LPS challenge. Twenty crossbred steers (235±4 kg BW) received 0 ppb (Control; C) or 200 ppb chromium propionate (CHR) for 55 days. Steers were fitted with jugular catheters and rectal temperature (RT) recording...

  1. Enhancement of the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in steers supplemented with chromium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study examined the effect of chromium supplementation on the response of steers to an LPS challenge. Twenty steers received a premix that added 0 (control) or 0.2 mg/kg of chromium (KemTRACE®brandChromiumProprionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) to the total diet on a dry matter basis for 55 d. Steer...

  2. Preoperative oral nutritional interventions in surgery, including arginine- and glutamine-enhanced supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkmann, S.J.H.; Buijs, N.; Luttikhold, J.; Mahdavian Delavary, B.; Niessen, F.B.; van Leeuwen, P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The patients' condition prior to surgery is of major importance for clinical outcome. It is believed nowadays that artificial nutrition in the form of a preoperative drink may improve postoperative outcome. Until now, a clear overview concerning the effects of preoperative supplementation on

  3. Supplemental design requirements document enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage Phase V Project W-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, V.P.; Boothe, G.F.; Greager, T.M.; Johnson, K.D.; Kooiker, S.L.; Martin, J.D.

    1994-11-01

    This document provides additional and supplemental information to WHC-SD-W112-FDC-001, Project W-112 for radioactive and mixed waste storage. It provides additional requirements for the design and summarizes Westinghouse Hanford Company key design guidance and establishes the technical baseline agreements to be used for definitive design of the Project W-112 facilities.

  4. Supplemental design requirements document enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage Phase V Project W-112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo, V.P.; Boothe, G.F.; Greager, T.M.; Johnson, K.D.; Kooiker, S.L.; Martin, J.D.

    1994-11-01

    This document provides additional and supplemental information to WHC-SD-W112-FDC-001, Project W-112 for radioactive and mixed waste storage. It provides additional requirements for the design and summarizes Westinghouse Hanford Company key design guidance and establishes the technical baseline agreements to be used for definitive design of the Project W-112 facilities

  5. Effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid supplementation on growth performance, indices of ascites syndrome, and antioxidant capacity of broilers reared at low ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G. L.; Zhang, K. Y.; Ding, X. M.; Zheng, P.; Luo, Y. H.; Bai, S. P.; Wang, J. P.; Xuan, Y.; Su, Z. W.; Zeng, Q. F.

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary DL-2-hydroxy-4(methylthio)butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA) supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and ascites syndrome (AS) in broilers reared at low ambient temperature (LAT) from 7 to 28 days of age. Eight hundred 7-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to two ambient temperatures (LAT and normal ambient temperature [NAT]), four supplemental DL-HMTBA levels (0.17, 0.34, 0.51, and 0.68 %) of the basal diet in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (ten replicate pens; ten birds/pen). LAT and NAT indicate temperatures of 12-14 and 24-26 °C in two chambers, respectively, and broilers were reared at these temperatures from 7 to 28 days of age. LAT significantly decreased body weight gain ( P weight ratio (RV/TV) at 21 days ( P = 0.012) and 28 days ( P = 0.046). Supplementation of DL-HMTBA markedly decreased RV/TV at day 28 ( P = 0.021), RBC (day 21, P = 0.008), HCT (day 21, P supplemental DL-HMTBA levels in basal diet of broilers aged from 7 to 28 days under low or normal temperatures were similar, so the authors recommended supplemental of DL-HMTBA level was 0.46 %.

  6. Oral L-arginine supplementation in patients with mild arterial hypertension and its effect on plasma level of asymmetric dimethylarginine, L-citruline, L-arginine and antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabecka, A; Ast, J; Bogdaski, P; Drozdowski, M; Pawlak-Lemaska, K; Cielewicz, A R; Pupek-Musialik, D

    2012-11-01

    Potential role of L-arginine supplementation as a new effective strategy of improving endothelial function in patients with hypertension is recently under consideration. To evaluate influence of 28-day oral supplementation of L-arginine on plasma level of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), L-citrulline, L-arginine and total antioxidant status (TAS), in patients with mild arterial hypertension. 54 participants (24 women and 30 men) were studied. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was used for allotting patients to either healthy control group (19 subjects) or hypertensive treatment group (35 patients). Patients were later randomized to either L-arginine (2 g tid or 4 g tid) or placebo. During 28 days of study on 5 consecutive visits TAS, plasma level of ADMA, L-citrulline, and L-arginine were measured. In patients with mild hypertension treated with L-arginine significant increase in TAS and plasma level of arginine and citrulline was observed. Additionally plasma ADMA concentrations after 28 days of L-arginine supplementation significantly exceeded initial concentrations. L-arginine supplementation increases plasma arginine, citrulline and TAS in patients with mild arterial hypertension. It confirms the thesis that augmented concentrations of L-arginine stimulate NO biosynthesis which leads to reduction of oxidative stress. Increase of ADMA plasma level after L-arginine supplementation confirms correlation between ADMA and L-arginine.

  7. Reconvene and reconnect the antioxidant hypothesis in human health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P P; Chandra, Anu; Mahdi, Farzana; Roy, Ajanta; Sharma, Praveen

    2010-07-01

    The antioxidants are essential molecules in human system but are not miracle molecules. They are neither performance enhancers nor can prevent or cure diseases when taken in excess. Their supplemental value is debateable. In fact, many high quality clinical trials on antioxidant supplement have shown no effect or adverse outcomes ranging from morbidity to all cause mortality. Several Chochrane Meta-analysis and Markov Model techniques, which are presently best available statistical models to derive conclusive answers for comparing large number of trials, support these claims. Nevertheless none of these statistical techniques are flawless. Hence, more efforts are needed to develop perfect statistical model to analyze the pooled data and further double blind, placebo controlled interventional clinical trials, which are gold standard, should be implicitly conducted to get explicit answers. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase and catalase are termed as primary antioxidants as these scavenge superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide. All these three enzymes are inducible enzymes, thereby inherently meaning that body increases or decreases their activity as per requirement. Hence there is no need to attempt to manipulate their activity nor have such efforts been clinically useful. SOD administration has been tried in some conditions especially in cancer and myocardial infarction but has largely failed, probably because SOD is a large molecule and can not cross cell membrane. The dietary antioxidants, including nutrient antioxidants are chain breaking antioxidants and in tandem with enzyme antioxidants temper the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) within physiological limits. Since body is able to regulate its own requirements of enzyme antioxidants, the diet must provide adequate quantity of non-enzymic antioxidants to meet the normal requirements and provide protection in exigent condition. So far, there is no evidence that

  8. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel W D; Abou Sawan, Sidney; Mazzulla, Michael; Williamson, Eric; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-07-11

    No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h) and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD)) performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey) or an energy-matched placebo (CHO) immediately post-exercise (0 h), and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery). A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest). Participants ingested [ 15 N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO ( P = 0.064; effect size (ES) = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO) during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO ( P = 0.036) but not in CHO ( P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO), which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76), REP (ES = 0.44), and peak power (ES = 0.55). In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of exercise performance after a strenuous bout of resistance exercise.

  9. Purple potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) anthocyanins attenuate alcohol-induced hepatic injury by enhancing antioxidant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhihui; Chen, Chen; Wang, Jian; Xie, Wenyan; Wang, Meng; Li, Xinsheng; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a serious and challenging health issue. In the past decade, natural components possessing hepatoprotective properties have gained more attention for ALD intervention. In this study, the phytochemical components of anthocyanins from purple potato were assessed using UPLC-MS/MS, and the hepatoprotective effects of purple potato anthocyanins (PPAs) were investigated in the ALD mouse model. Serum and liver biochemical parameters were determined, along with histopathological changes in liver tissue. In addition, the major contributors to alcohol-induced oxidative stress were assessed. The results indicated that the levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were lower in the serum of the PPA-treated group than the alcohol-treated group. PPAs significantly inhibited the reduction of total cholesterol and triglycerides. Higher levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione enzymes as well as a reduction in the formation of malondialdehyde occurred in mice fed with PPAs. In addition, PPAs protected against increased alcohol-induced levels and activity of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which demonstrates the effects of PPAs against alcohol-induced oxidative stress and liver injury. This study suggests that PPAs could be an effective therapeutic agent in alcohol-induced liver injuries by inhibiting CYP2E1 expression and thereby strengthening antioxidant defenses.

  10. Enhanced antioxidation and microwave absorbing properties of SiO2-coated flaky carbonyl iron particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Xie, Hui; Zhou, Wancheng; Ren, Zhaowen

    2018-01-01

    SiO2 was successfully coated on the surface of flaky carbonyl iron particles using a chemical bath deposition method in the presence of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES). The morphologies, composition, valence states of elements, as well as antioxidation and electromagnetic properties of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric (TG) and microwave network analyzer. TG curve shows the obvious weight gain of carbonyl iron was deferred to 360 °C after SiO2-coated, which can be ascribed to the exits of SiO2 overlayer. Compared with the raw carbonyl iron, SiO2-coated sample shows good wave absorption performance due to its impedance matching. The electromagnetic properties of raw and SiO2-coated carbonyl iron particles were characterized in X band before and after heat treatment at 250 °C for 10 h. It was established that SiO2-coated carbonyl iron demonstrate good thermal stability, indicating SiO2-coating is useful in the usage of microwave absorbers operating at temperature up to 250 °C.

  11. Sulfation and Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity of an Exopolysaccharide Produced by the Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Kun Yan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available EPS-1 was an exopolysaccharide produced by the medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis (Cs-HK1. In the present study, EPS-1 was sulfated with chlorosulfonic acid (CSA-pyridine (Pyr at different volume ratios, yielding four sulfated derivatives, SEPS-1A, B, C and D, with different degrees of substitution (DS: 0.25–1.38 and molecular weights (17.1–4.1 kDa. The sulfation of EPS-1 occurred most frequently at the C-6 hydroxyl groups due to their higher reactivity. In aqueous solution, the native EPS-1 formed random coils or aggregated networks, but the sulfated derivatives formed single helices. The antioxidant activities of the sulfated EPS-1 derivatives for scavenging hydroxyl radicals (•OH and 2,2-azinobis-3-ehtylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid radicals (ABTS•+ were significantly increased with increasing DS and decreasing molecular weight (MW. Sulfation has thus been shown to be an effective and favorable strategy for improving the physico-chemical properties and bioactivities of fungal polysaccharides.

  12. 3D Late Gadolinium Enhancement in a Single Prolonged Breath-hold using Supplemental Oxygenation and Hyperventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roujol, Sébastien; Basha, Tamer A.; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Foppa, Murilo; Chan, Raymond H.; Kissinger, Kraig V.; Goddu, Beth; Berg, Sophie; Manning, Warren J.; Nezafat, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of 3D single breath-hold late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) of the left ventricle (LV) using supplemental oxygen and hyperventilation and compressed-sensing acceleration. Methods: Breath-hold metrics (breath-hold duration, diaphragmatic/LV position drift, and maximum variation of RR interval) without and with supplemental oxygen and hyperventilation were assessed in healthy adult subjects using a real time single shot acquisition. Ten healthy subjects and 13 patients then underwent assessment of the proposed 3D breath-hold LGE acquisition (FOV=320×320×100 mm3, resolution=1.6×1.6×5.0 mm3, acceleration rate of 4) and a free breathing acquisition with right hemidiaphragm navigator (NAV) respiratory gating. Semi-quantitative grading of overall image quality, motion artifact, myocardial nulling, and diagnostic value was performed by consensus of two blinded observers. Results: Supplemental oxygenation and hyperventilation increased the breath-hold duration (35±11 s to 58±21 s, p0.01). LGE images were of similar quality when compared to free breathing acquisitions but with reduced total scan time (85±22 s to 35±6 s, pbreath-holding and enable single breath-hold 3D accelerated LGE with similar image quality as free breathing with NAV. PMID:24186772

  13. Dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide enhances neonatal immune responses in chickens during natural exposure to Eimeria spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Gerardo M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control and eradication of intestinal infections caused by protozoa are important biomedical challenges worldwide. Prophylactic control of coccidiosis has been achieved with the use of anticoccidial drugs; however, the increase in anticoccidial resistance has raised concerns about the need for new alternatives for the control of coccidial infections. In fact, new strategies are needed to induce potent protective immune responses in neonatal individuals. Methods The effects of a dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide (yeast cell wall; YCW on the local, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and intestinal replication of coccidia were evaluated in a neonatal animal model during natural exposure to Eimeria spp. A total of 840 one-day-old chicks were distributed among four dietary regimens: A Control diet (no YCW plus anticoccidial vaccine; B Control diet plus coccidiostat; C YCW diet plus anticoccidial vaccination; and D YCW diet plus coccidiostat. Weight gain, feed consumption and immunological parameters were examined within the first seven weeks of life. Results Dietary supplementation of 0.05% of YCW increased local mucosal IgA secretions, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and reduced parasite excretion in feces. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of yeast cell wall in neonatal animals can enhance the immune response against coccidial infections. The present study reveals the potential of YCW as adjuvant for modulating mucosal immune responses.

  14. Dietary nucleotide supplementation enhances immune responses and survival to Streptococcus iniae in hybrid tilapia fed diet containing low fish meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yen Shiau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of nucleotide (NT supplementation in diet on immune responses and disease resistance of juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus. Nucleotide was added at 0, 120, 240, 360, 480 and 600 mg NT/kg to low fish meal (6% and high soybean meal (56% basal diet for a total of 6 experimental diets. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of tilapia (initial body weight 0.15 ± 0.005 g in a recirculated freshwater rearing system for 10 weeks. Head kidney leukocyte superoxide anion production ratio was higher (P 80% were observed in fish fed diets supplemented with NT than fish fed the NT unsupplemented control diet (56.7%. These results suggest that nucleotides supplemented at 120–240 mg NT/kg in diet enhances immune responses and survival of tilapia fed low fish meal and high soybean meal diet.

  15. Enhancing the Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidants of Lemon Pomace Aqueous Extracts by Applying UV-C Irradiation to the Dried Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Papoutsis, Konstantinos; Vuong, Quan V.; Pristijono, Penta; Golding, John B.; Bowyer, Michael C.; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Stathopoulos, Costas E.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown that UV-C (ultraviolet C) irradiation promotes the bioactive compounds and antioxidants of fresh fruits and vegetables. The aim of this study was to apply UV irradiation in dried lemon pomace powder for enhancing its phenolic content and antioxidant properties, thus more bioactive compounds should be available for extraction and utilization. Lemon pomace dried powder was placed under a UV lamp and treated with dosages of 4, 19, 80 and 185 kJ·m−2, while untreated pow...

  16. Amla Enhances Mitochondrial Spare Respiratory Capacity by Increasing Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Antioxidant Systems in a Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Yamamoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amla is one of the most important plants in Indian traditional medicine and has been shown to improve various age-related disorders while decreasing oxidative stress. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a proposed cause of aging through elevated oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of Amla on mitochondrial function in C2C12 myotubes, a murine skeletal muscle cell model with abundant mitochondria. Based on cell flux analysis, treatment with an extract of Amla fruit enhanced mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity, which enables cells to overcome various stresses. To further explore the mechanisms underlying these effects on mitochondrial function, we analyzed mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant systems, both proposed regulators of mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. We found that Amla treatment stimulated both systems accompanied by AMPK and Nrf2 activation. Furthermore, we found that Amla treatment exhibited cytoprotective effects and lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in cells subjected to t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. These effects were accompanied by increased oxygen consumption, suggesting that Amla protected cells against oxidative stress by using enhanced spare respiratory capacity to produce more energy. Thus we identified protective effects of Amla, involving activation of mitochondrial function, which potentially explain its various effects on age-related disorders.

  17. Study on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Properties, and Maillard Reaction Products Formation in Rye-Buckwheat Cakes Enhanced with Selected Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Przygodzka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected spices included in the recipe of rye-buckwheat cakes on sensory quality, nutritional value, and Maillard reaction (MR products formation was addressed in this study. The cakes with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix addition revealed the highest overall quality values. Cakes enriched with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest rutin content and almost threefold higher available lysine contents whereas cakes enhanced with mix, cloves, and cinnamon were the richest source of phenolic compounds. The highest antioxidant capacity showed cakes with cloves and spice mix. The furosine, a marker of early stage of MR, was decreased in cakes with cloves, allspice, spice mix, and vanilla whereas fluorescent intermediatory compounds were reduced in cakes enhanced with cloves, allspice, and cinnamon. In contrast, browning index was increased as compared to cakes without spices. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix addition. The presence of cloves, allspice, and vanilla in cake formula was the most efficient in acrylamide strategy. It can be suggested that cloves, allspice, and vanilla might be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  18. Dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ron J; King, Doug S; Lea, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread among sportsmen and women, but the use of few of these products is supported by a sound research base and some may even be harmful to the athlete. Special sports foods, including energy bars and sports drinks, have a real role to play, and some protein supplements and meal replacements may also be useful in some circumstances. Where there is a demonstrated deficiency of an essential nutrient, an increased intake from food or from supplementation may help, but many athletes ignore the need for caution in supplement use and take supplements in doses that are not necessary or may even be harmful. Some supplements do offer the prospect of improved performance; these include creatine, caffeine, bicarbonate and, perhaps, a very few others. There is no evidence that prohormones such as androstenedione are effective in enhancing muscle mass or strength, and these prohormones may result in negative health consequences, as well as positive drug tests. Contamination of supplements that may cause an athlete to fail a doping test is widespread.

  19. Severe oxidative damage in multiple sclerosis lesions coincides with enhanced antioxidant enzyme expression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horssen, J. van; Schreibelt, G.; Drexhage, J.; Hazes, T.; Dijkstra, C.D.; Valk, P. van de; Vries, H.E. de

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent oxidative damage may contribute to the formation and persistence of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions by acting on distinct pathological processes. ROS initiate lesion formation by inducing blood-brain barrier disruption, enhance leukocyte migration and

  20. Severe oxidative damage in multiple sclerosis lesions coincides with enhanced antioxidant enzyme expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Horssen, J.; Schreibelt, G.; Drexhage, J.; Hazes, T.; Dijkstra, C.D.; van der Valk, P.; de Vries, H.E.

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent oxidative damage may contribute to the formation and persistence of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions by acting on distinct pathological processes. ROS initiate lesion formation by inducing blood-brain barrier disruption, enhance leukocyte migration and

  1. Effects of varying dietary iodine supplementation levels as iodide or iodate on thyroid status as well as mRNA expression and enzyme activity of antioxidative enzymes in tissues of grower/finisher pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qimeng; Mair, Christiane; Schedle, Karl; Hellmayr, Isabella; Windisch, Wilhelm

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of high dietary iodine supply and different iodine sources on thyroid status and oxidative stress in target tissues of the thyroid hormones in fattening pigs. Eighty castrates (body weight: 33.3 ± 0.4 kg) were randomly allotted into five different treatments: The control diet contained 150 μg I/kg as KI, the other feeding groups were supplemented with 4,000 μg I/kg (as KI and KIO(3)) and 10,000 μg I/kg (as KI and KIO(3)), respectively. The mRNA expression levels of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and key antioxidant enzymes (Cu/Zn SOD, CAT, GPx) were analyzed in thyroid gland, liver, kidney, muscle, and adipose tissue sampled during slaughter. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activities and the effect on lipid peroxidation (MDA) were determined in liver and muscle. In thyroid gland, a significant downregulation of NIS and Cu/Zn SOD mRNA expression was observed in high-iodine groups. In liver, a source effect on the mRNA expression of Cu/Zn SOD between KI and KIO(3) at 4,000 μg I/kg was shown. In contrast, not SOD but GPx activity was affected by iodine source with strongest downregulation in high KIO(3) group. In muscle, GPx activity was affected by both iodine source and dose, showing stronger downregulation in KI groups. In kidney and adipose tissue, oxidative stress parameters showed no or only unsystematic changes. However, variation in iodine supply had no effect on MDA concentrations. NIS expression was significantly decreased with increased iodine supplementation, which is to ensure the thyroid gland function. However, the alleviating effect of iodine supplementation observed in antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activity did not reflect on the lipid peroxide level.

  2. Organic trace mineral supplementation enhances local and systemic innate immune responses and modulates oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverry, H; Yitbarek, A; Munyaka, P; Alizadeh, M; Cleaver, A; Camelo-Jaimes, G; Wang, P; O, K; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C

    2016-03-01

    The effect of organic trace mineral supplementation on performance, intestinal morphology, immune organ weights (bursa of Fabricius and spleen), expression of innate immune response related genes, blood heterophils/lymphocytes ratio, chemical metabolic panel, natural antibodies (IgG), and oxidative stress of broiler chickens was studied. A total of 1,080 day-old male broilers were assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments, which included basal diet with Monensin (control), control diet supplemented with bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD), and BMD diet supplemented with organic trace minerals (OTM). No difference in feed conversion ratio was observed among treatments; ileum histomorphological analysis showed a lower crypt depth, higher villi height/crypt depth ratio, and lower villi width in the OTM treatment compared to control. Furthermore, OTM treatment resulted in higher uric acid and lower plasma malondehaldehyde (MDA), indicating lower oxidative stress. Gene expression analysis showed that OTM treatment resulted in up-regulations of TLR2 bin the ileum, and TLR2b, TLR4, and IL-12p35 in the bursa of Fabricius, and down-regulation of TLR2b and TLR4 in the cecal tonsils. In the spleen, OTM treatment resulted in up-regulation of IL-10. In conclusion, OTM supplementation to broiler diets may have beneficial effects on intestinal development, immune system status, and survival by improving ileum histomorphological parameters, modulation of Toll-like receptors and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and decreasing level of MDA, which in conjunction could enhance health status. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine between days 14 and 25 of gestation enhances embryonic development and survival in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xilong; Bazer, Fuller W; Johnson, Gregory A; Burghardt, Robert C; Frank, James W; Dai, Zhaolai; Wang, Junjun; Wu, Zhenlong; Shinzato, Izuru; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-02-01

    Embryonic loss is a major problem in mammals, but there are few effective ways to prevent it. Using a porcine model, we determined effects of dietary L-arginine supplementation between days 14 and 25 of gestation on embryonic growth and survival. Gilts were checked daily for estrus with boars in the morning and bred at onset of the second estrus and 12 h later (the time of breeding = day 0 of gestation). Between days 14 and 25 of gestation, 15 gilts/treatment were housed individually and fed twice daily 1 kg of a corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0.0, 0.4, or 0.8 % L-arginine. All diets were made isonitrogenous by addition of L-alanine. On day 25 of gestation, gilts were hysterectomized to obtain conceptuses. Compared with controls, dietary supplementation with 0.4 or 0.8 % L-arginine increased (P ≤ 0.05) arginine concentrations in maternal plasma, total volume of amniotic fluid; total amounts of arginine in allantoic and amniotic fluids; total amounts of fructose and most amino acids in amniotic fluid; placental growth; and the number of viable fetuses per litter by 2. The numbers of total fetuses, fetal weight, corpora lutea, volume of allantoic fluid, maternal circulating levels of progesterone and estrogen, or total amounts of hormones in allantoic fluid did not differ among the three treatment groups. Reproductive performance of gilts did not differ between the 0.4 and 0.8 % L-arginine groups. Thus, dietary supplementation with 0.4 or 0.8 % L-arginine between days 14 and 25 of gestation enhances embryonic/fetal survival in swine.

  4. L-Arginine supplementation in mice enhances NO production in spleen cells and inhibits Plasmodium yoelii transmission in mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li; Pan, Yanyan; Feng, Yonghui; Cui, Liwang; Cao, Yaming

    2015-06-14

    The life cycle of Plasmodium is complex, requiring invasion of two different hosts, humans and mosquitoes. In humans, initiation of an effective Th1 response during early infection is critical for the control of parasite multiplication. In mosquitoes, inhibition of the development of sexual-stage parasites interrupts the parasite transmission. In this study, we aim to investigate whether dietary supplementation of L-arginine (L-Arg) in mice affects Plasmodium yoelii 17XL (Py17XL) transmission in mosquitoes. BALB/c mice were orally administered with 1.5 mg/g L-Arg daily for 7 days and infected with Py17XL. The mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase 1 in spleen cells were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The amount of nitric oxide (NO) released by spleen cells in vitro was determined by the Griess method. The effect of L-Arg supplementation on subsequent development of P. yoelii gametocytes was evaluated by an in vitro ookinete culture assay and mosquito feeding assay. Pretreatment of mice with L-Arg significantly increased the transcript level of iNOS in spleen cells and the amount of NO synthesized. Dietary L-Arg supplementation also significantly reduced the number of zygotes and ookinetes formed during in vitro culture and the number of oocysts formed on mosquito midguts after blood feeding. L-Arg enhances host immunity against blood-stage parasites as well as suppressing subsequent parasite development in mosquitoes. L-Arg as an inexpensive and safe supplement may be used as a novel adjunct treatment against malarial infection.

  5. Carotenoid supplementation enhances reproductive success in captive strawberry poison frogs (Oophaga pumilio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Matthew B; Yeager, Justin; Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are currently experiencing the most severe declines in biodiversity of any vertebrate, and their requirements for successful reproduction are poorly understood. Here, we show that supplementing the diet of prey items (fruit flies) with carotenoids has strong positive effects on the reproduction of captive strawberry poison frogs (Oophaga pumilio), substantially increasing the number of metamorphs produced by pairs. This improved reproduction most likely arose via increases in the quality of both the fertilized eggs from which tadpoles develop and trophic eggs that are fed to tadpoles by mothers. Frogs in this colony had previously been diagnosed with a Vitamin A deficiency, and this supplementation may have resolved this issue. These results support growing evidence of the importance of carotenoids in vertebrate reproduction and highlight the nuanced ways in which nutrition constrains captive populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Is long term creatine and glutamine supplementation effective in enhancing physical performance of military police officers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Celismar Lázaro; de Souza, Thiago Siqueira Paiva; Batista, Gilmário Ricarte; de Araújo, Adenilson Targino; da Silva, Júlio César Gomes; de Sousa, Maria do Socorro Cirilo; Marta, Carlos; Garrido, Nuno Domingo

    2014-09-29

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of supplementation with creatine and glutamine on physical fitness of military police officers. Therefore, an experimental double blind study was developed, with the final sample composed by 32 men randomly distributed into three groups: a group supplemented with creatine (n=10), glutamine (n=10) and a placebo group (n=12) and evaluated in three distinct moments, in an interval of three months (T1, T2 and T3). The physical training had a weekly frequency of 5 sessions × 90 min, including strength exercises, local muscular resistance, flexibility and both aerobic and anaerobic capacity. After analyzing the effect of time, group and interaction (group × time) for measures that indicated the physical capabilities of the subjects, a significant effect of time for the entire variable was identified (p0,05). In face of the results it was concluded that supplementation with creatine and glutamine showed no ergogenic effect on physical performance in military police officers.

  7. Enhancement of the nutritional value of whey drink by supplementing with leaves of moringa oleifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Hussain, I.; Abdullah, M.; Rehman, F.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of supplementing Moringa oleilera leaf powder (MOLP) on the nutritional and sensory characteristics of whey drink was investigated. Whey drink was supplemented with MOLP at four different concentrations i.e., 1% MOLP (TO, 2% MOLP (T.,), 3% MOLP (T,), 4% MOLP (1.4) and compared with a control (To). The addition of MOLP at any level did not have a negative effect on p11 and acidity of whey drink. Iron content of T, increased from 0.17 to 115 mg/100 mL, total phenolic content of MOLP was 7.4 g/100 g on dry weight basis (gallic acid). Vitamin C increased from 1.46 to 2.20 mg/100 g in -1.4. The overall acceptability score of T, was 6.9 out 9 (total score) which was more than 76%. These results suggest that nutritional value of whey can be increased by supplementing with 4% dry leaves of M. oleifera in the form of a whey based drink with acceptable sensory characteristics. (author)

  8. Vitamin B6 Supplementation Improves Oxidative Stress and Enhances Serum Paraoxonase/Arylesterase Activities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Taş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin B6 (Vit B6 on oxidant and antioxidant status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C, control + Vit B6 group (C + Vit B6, diabetes (D, and diabetes + Vit B6 group (D + Vit B6. Vit B6 (4 mg/kg body weight was administered in drinking water for 4 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Vitamin B6 reduced serum total cholesterol level in the C + Vit B6 (P < 0.01 and D + Vit B6 (P < 0.05 groups. Plasma and tissue malondialdehyde levels were reduced in the C + Vit B6 and D + Vit B6 groups. Whole blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were higher in the D group (P < 0.05. GSH-Px and SOD activities were increased in C + Vit B6 group while these parameters decreased in the D + Vit B6 group. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were decreased in the D group while they were increased in C + Vit B6 and D + Vit B6 groups. The results of present study suggest that vitamin B6 supplementation might be a promising adjunctive agent for improving oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and for preventing diabetic complications including atherogenesis.

  9. Dietary Formulas Fortify Antioxidant Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The astronaut's life and work is so different from our own daily experiences that it s easy to forget that astronauts are people, too. Just like everyone else, astronauts have basic nutritional needs, such as five to nine servings of fruit and vegetables per day, in order to maintain optimal health. Here on Earth, it can be a challenge to incorporate the recommended amount of fruit and veggies into our diets, despite easy access to fresh produce. In space, it becomes even more difficult, as astronauts must take everything they need with them. And in the harsh conditions of space, many miles from medical assistance, proper nutrition takes on added importance. As NASA makes plans to send astronauts on missions that could take months and even years, the Agency explores new ways to provide astronauts with a daily dose of nutrition equivalent to that provided by fresh produce. These foods are critically important because they provide the essential vitamins, minerals, pigments, and other micronutrients (substances required in small amounts for human health) that promote everything from healthy skin to a strong heart.

  10. Application of new phenolic antioxidants for cryopreservation of sturgeon sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipova, V P; Berberova, N T; Gazzaeva, R A; Kudryavtsev, K V

    2016-04-01

    Heterocyclic derivatives of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were studied as cryoprotectants of the basic media for cryopreservation of the Russian sturgeon sperm. Rates of lipid peroxidation of sturgeon sperm before and after cryopreservation were reduced in the presence of the studied compounds, exceeding the effects of BHT and water-soluble analogue of vitamin E, trolox. The most efficient antioxidant has the effective concentration of 0.1 mM. Novel antioxidant agents as cryomedium supplements not only reduced the level of lipid peroxidation, but also enhanced the translational motility of the sperm of the Russian sturgeon after defrosting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dual Role of Selected Antioxidants Found in Dietary Supplements: Crossover between Anti- and Pro-oxidant Activities in the Presence of Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun-Jie; Fu, Peter P.; Lutterodt, Herman; Zhou, Yu-Ting; Antholine, William E.; Wamer, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo can result in damage associated with many aging-associated diseases. Defenses against ROS that have evolved include antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, peroxidases, and catalases, which can scavenge ROS. In addition, endogenous and dietary antioxidants play an important role in moderating damage associated with ROS. In this study, we use four common dietary antioxidants to demonstrate that, in the presence of copper (cupric sulfate and cupric gluconate) and physiologically relevant levels of hydrogen peroxide, these antioxidants can also act as pro-oxidants by producing hydroxyl radicals. Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping techniques, we demonstrate that the level of hydroxyl radical formation is a function of the pH of the medium and the relative amounts of antioxidant and copper. Based on the level of hydroxyl radical formation, the relative pro-oxidant potential of these antioxidants is: cysteine > ascorbate >EGCG > GSH. It has been reported that copper sequestered by protein ligands, as happens in vivo, loses its redox activity (diminishing/abolishing the formation of free radicals). However, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, cysteine and GSH efficiently react with cupric sulfate sequestered with bovine serum albumin to generate hydroxyl radicals. Overall, the results demonstrate that, in the presence of copper endogenous and dietary antioxidants can also exhibit pro-oxidative activity. PMID:22339379

  12. Enhanced salt-induced antioxidative responses involve a contribution of polyamine biosynthesis in grapevine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikbal, Fatima Ezzohra; Hernández, José Antonio; Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Koussa, Tayeb; Aziz, Aziz; Faize, Mohamed; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2014-06-15

    The possible involvement of polyamines in the salt stress adaptation was investigated in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) plantlets focusing on photosynthesis and oxidative metabolism. Salt stress resulted in the deterioration of plant growth and photosynthesis, and treatment of plantlets with methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), a S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) inhibitor, enhanced the salt stress effect. A decrease in PSII quantum yield (Fv/Fm), effective PSII quantum yield (Y(II)) and coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP) as well as increases in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and its coefficient (qN) was observed by these treatments. Salt and/or MGBG treatments also triggered an increase in lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation as well as an increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POX) activities, but not ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity. Salt stress also resulted in an accumulation of oxidized ascorbate (DHA) and a decrease in reduced glutathione. MGBG alone or in combination with salt stress increased monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), SOD and POX activities and surprisingly no accumulation of DHA was noticed following treatment with MGBG. These salt-induced responses correlated with the maintaining of high level of free and conjugated spermidine and spermine, whereas a reduction of agmatine and putrescine levels was observed, which seemed to be amplified by the MGBG treatment. These results suggest that maintaining polyamine biosynthesis through the enhanced SAMDC activity in grapevine leaf tissues under salt stress conditions could contribute to the enhanced ROS scavenging activity and a protection of photosynthetic apparatus from oxidative damages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. D. West

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey or an energy-matched placebo (CHO immediately post-exercise (0 h, and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery. A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest. Participants ingested [15N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO (P = 0.064; effect size (ES = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO (P = 0.036 but not in CHO (P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO, which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO < CHO; P < 0.01. Exercise decreased repetitions to failure (REP, maximal strength (MVC, peak and mean power, and countermovement jump performance (CMJ at 0 h (all P < 0.05 vs. Pre. At 10 h, there were small-to-moderate effects for enhanced recovery of the MVC (ES = 0.56, mean power (ES = 0.49, and CMJ variables (ES: 0.27–0.49 in PRO. At 24 h, protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76, REP (ES = 0.44, and peak power (ES = 0.55. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of

  14. Cordyceps sinensis Health Supplement Enhances Recovery from Taxol-Induced Leukopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wei-Chung; Chuang, Wei-Ling; Tsai, Min-Lung; Hong, Ji-Hong; McBride, William H.; Chiang, Chi-Shiun

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the health food supplement Cordyceps sinensis (CS) to ameliorate suppressive effects of chemotherapy on bone marrow function as a model for cancer treatment Mice were treated with Taxol (17 mg/kg body wt) one day before oral administration of a hot-water extract of CS (50 mg/kg daily) that was given daily for 3 weeks. White blood cell counts in peripheral blood of mice receiving Taxol were at 50% of normal levels on day 28 but had recovered complete...

  15. Enhancement of the tolerance to oxidative stress in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings by UV-B irradiation: Possible involvement of phenolic compounds and antioxidative enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, N.; Kawashima, M.

    2000-01-01

    L.) seedlings were irradiated or not irradiated with UV-B for several days in environment-controlled growth chambers. The first leaves irradiated with UV-B were retarded in growth but simultaneously acquired a remarkably high tolerance to oxidative stress, as induced by paraquat treatment, compared with the non-irradiated leaves. This enhanced tolerance was observed within 1d after the start of UV-B irradiation and was maintained during the 12 d period of UV-B treatment. The effects of UV-B on several antioxidative enzymes were examined, and activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase, but not of glutathione reductase, were found to be enhanced. However, activation of these enzymes occurred only from 6 d after the start of irradiation. In contrast, accumulation of phenolic compounds was observed within 1d after the start of UV-B irradiation. HPLC analysis of phenolic compounds showed the distinct enhancement of a substance, which may have antioxidative properties in cucumber seedlings irradiated with UV-B. On the basis of these results, we conclude that not only antioxidative enzymes but also other factors in cucumber seedlings irradiated with UV-B, such as phenolic compounds, may participate in the enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress

  16. Application of the Kombucha 'tea fungus' for the enhancement of antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory properties of ten herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watawana, Mindani I; Jayawardena, Nilakshi; Choo, Candy; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2016-03-01

    Ten herbal teas (Acacia arabica, Aegle marmelos flower, A. marmelos root bark, Aerva lanata, Asteracantha longifolia, Cassia auriculata, Hemidesmus indicus, Hordeum vulgare, Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia) were fermented with the Kombucha 'tea fungus'. The pH values of the fermented beverages ranged from 4.0 to 6.0 by day 7, while the titratable acidity ranged from 2.5 to 5.0g/mL (PKombucha beverages to have statistically significant increases (P<0.05) by day 7. The α-amylase inhibitory activities ranged from 52.5 to 67.2μg/mL in terms of IC50 values following fermentation, while the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities ranged from 95.2 to 196.1μg/mL. In conclusion, an enhancement of the antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory potential of the herbal teas was observed by adding the tea fungus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Zinc Supplementation and Enhanced Growth of the Low-Birth Weight Neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Farghali, Ola; El-Wahed, Mohamed Abd; Hassan, Nayera E; Imam, Safaa; Alian, Khadija

    2015-03-15

    Nutritional deficits are almost universal in Low-Birth Weight babies. Zinc is essential for normal infant growth and its supplementation assists growth probably through insulin-like growth factor-1. This double-blind randomized-controlled trial aimed at evaluating the role of zinc in catch-up growth of low-birth-weight infants and investigating its proposed mediator. The study was conducted in Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital. Two hundred low-birth-weight neonates were simply randomized to either oral zinc therapy or placebo. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at birth, 3, 6, and 12 months; including weight, recumbent length, head, waist, chest, and mid-upper arm circumferences, and triceps and sub-scapular skin fold thickness. We found that initial and 3-months measurements, except weight, were comparable in the 2 groups. All measurements at 6- and 12-months, except sub-scapular skin-fold-thickness, were significantly higher in zinc group than placebo. Catch-up growth, at 12-months, was significant in zinc group and was significantly higher in appropriate-for-gestational-age vs. small-for-gestational-age, in preterm vs. term, and in male vs. female infants. The median 6-months insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were significantly higher in zinc group. We conclude that early start of oral zinc supplementation in low-birth-weight neonates assists catch-up growth, probably through rise of insulin-like growth factor-1.

  18. Polymer-free nanofibers from vanillin/cyclodextrin inclusion complexes: high thermal stability, enhanced solubility and antioxidant property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebioglu, Asli; Kayaci-Senirmak, Fatma; İpek, Semran; Durgun, Engin; Uyar, Tamer

    2016-07-13

    Vanillin/cyclodextrin inclusion complex nanofibers (vanillin/CD-IC NFs) were successfully obtained from three modified CD types (HPβCD, HPγCD and MβCD) in three different solvent systems (water, DMF and DMAc) via an electrospinning technique without using a carrier polymeric matrix. Vanillin/CD-IC NFs with uniform and bead-free fiber morphology were successfully produced and their free-standing nanofibrous webs were obtained. The polymer-free CD/vanillin-IC-NFs allow us to accomplish a much higher vanillin loading (∼12%, w/w) when compared to electrospun polymeric nanofibers containing CD/vanillin-IC (∼5%, w/w). Vanillin has a volatile nature yet, after electrospinning, a significant amount of vanillin was preserved due to complex formation depending on the CD types. Maximum preservation of vanillin was observed for vanillin/MβCD-IC NFs which is up to ∼85% w/w, besides, a considerable amount of vanillin (∼75% w/w) was also preserved for vanillin/HPβCD-IC NFs and vanillin/HPγCD-IC NFs. Phase solubility studies suggested a 1 : 1 molar complexation tendency between guest van