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Sample records for antioxidant response element

  1. The Nrf2-antioxidant response element pathway: a target for regulating energy metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that responds to oxidative stress by binding to the antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter of genes coding for antioxidant enzymes like NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and proteins for glutathione synthesis. ...

  2. Bisphenol A activates the Nrf1/2-antioxidant response element pathway in HEK 293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepelev, Nikolai L; Enikanolaiye, Mutiat I; Chepelev, Leonid L; Almohaisen, Abdulrahman; Chen, Qixuan; Scoggan, Kylie A; Coughlan, Melanie C; Cao, Xu-Liang; Jin, Xiaolei; Willmore, William G

    2013-03-18

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins for baby bottles, liners of canned food, and many other consumer products. Previously, BPA has been shown to reduce the activity of several antioxidant enzymes, which may contribute to oxidative stress. However, the underlying mechanism of the BPA-mediated effect upon antioxidant enzyme activity is unknown. Antioxidant and phase II metabolizing enzymes protect cells from oxidative stress and are transcriptionally activated by Nrf1 and Nrf2 factors through their cis-regulatory antioxidant response elements (AREs). In this work, we have assessed the effect of BPA on the Nrf1/2-ARE pathway in cultured human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. Surprisingly, glutathione and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays revealed that BPA application created a more reduced intracellular environment in cultured HEK 293 cells. Furthermore, BPA increased the transactivation activity of ectopic Nrf1 and Nrf2 and increased the expression of ARE-target genes ho-1 and nqo1 at high (100-200 μM) BPA concentrations only. Our study suggests that BPA activates the Nrf1/2-ARE pathway at high (>10 μM) micromolar concentrations. PMID:23360430

  3. Induced Expression of Drug Metabolizing Enzymes by Preventive Agents: Role of the Antioxidant Response Element

    OpenAIRE

    Lubet, Ronald A; Yao, Ruisheng; Grubbs, Clinton J; You, Ming; Wang, Yian

    2009-01-01

    Identifying agents that block tumor initiation is a goal of cancer prevention. The ability of a chemically varied group of agents to induce various drug metabolizing genes in livers of rats was examined. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for seven days with various agents in the diet or by gavage. The agents examined, which might be expected to respond via specific nuclear receptors (CAR, AhR) as well as antioxidant response elements (AREs), included Phase I/II inducers [5,6 benzoflavone (BF, ...

  4. Isoniazid suppresses antioxidant response element activities and impairs adipogenesis in mouse and human preadipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yanyan [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Xue, Peng [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Key Laboratory of the Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Hou, Yongyong [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Zhang, Hao [Key Laboratory of the Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zheng, Hongzhi [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Zhou, Tong [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Qu, Weidong [Key Laboratory of the Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Teng, Weiping [The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E. [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Pi, Jingbo, E-mail: jingbopi@gmail.com [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Transcriptional signaling through the antioxidant response element (ARE), orchestrated by the Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), is a major cellular defense mechanism against oxidative or electrophilic stress. Here, we reported that isoniazid (INH), a widely used antitubercular drug, displays a substantial inhibitory property against ARE activities in diverse mouse and human cells. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, INH concentration-dependently suppressed the ARE-luciferase reporter activity and mRNA expression of various ARE-dependent antioxidant genes under basal and oxidative stressed conditions. In keeping with our previous findings that Nrf2-ARE plays a critical role in adipogenesis by regulating expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), suppression of ARE signaling by INH hampered adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Following adipogenesis induced by hormonal cocktails, INH-treated 3T3-L1 cells and ADSCs displayed significantly reduced levels of lipid accumulation and attenuated expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ. Time-course studies in 3T3-L1 cells revealed that inhibition of adipogenesis by INH occurred in the early stage of terminal adipogenic differentiation, where reduced expression of C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ was observed. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that INH suppresses ARE signaling and interrupts with the transcriptional network of adipogenesis, leading to impaired adipogenic differentiation. The inhibition of ARE signaling may be a potential underlying mechanism by which INH attenuates cellular antioxidant response contributing to various complications. - Highlights: • Isoniazid suppresses ARE-mediated transcriptional activity. • Isoniazid inhibits adipogenesis in preadipocytes. • Isoniazid suppresses adipogenic gene expression during adipogenesis.

  5. Isoniazid suppresses antioxidant response element activities and impairs adipogenesis in mouse and human preadipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transcriptional signaling through the antioxidant response element (ARE), orchestrated by the Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), is a major cellular defense mechanism against oxidative or electrophilic stress. Here, we reported that isoniazid (INH), a widely used antitubercular drug, displays a substantial inhibitory property against ARE activities in diverse mouse and human cells. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, INH concentration-dependently suppressed the ARE-luciferase reporter activity and mRNA expression of various ARE-dependent antioxidant genes under basal and oxidative stressed conditions. In keeping with our previous findings that Nrf2-ARE plays a critical role in adipogenesis by regulating expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), suppression of ARE signaling by INH hampered adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Following adipogenesis induced by hormonal cocktails, INH-treated 3T3-L1 cells and ADSCs displayed significantly reduced levels of lipid accumulation and attenuated expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ. Time-course studies in 3T3-L1 cells revealed that inhibition of adipogenesis by INH occurred in the early stage of terminal adipogenic differentiation, where reduced expression of C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ was observed. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that INH suppresses ARE signaling and interrupts with the transcriptional network of adipogenesis, leading to impaired adipogenic differentiation. The inhibition of ARE signaling may be a potential underlying mechanism by which INH attenuates cellular antioxidant response contributing to various complications. - Highlights: • Isoniazid suppresses ARE-mediated transcriptional activity. • Isoniazid inhibits adipogenesis in preadipocytes. • Isoniazid suppresses adipogenic gene expression during adipogenesis

  6. Analysis of trace elements responsible for antioxidant protection by SRXFA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities of using the energy dispersion synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXFA) for control of blood plasma and liver trace element (TE) content in rats with hyperproduction of oxygen radicals and hair TE content in women with mammary hyperplasia and cancer are demonstrated. Our data show that activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in the blood and liver depends on the amount of TE incorporated into the structure of the active center of these enzymes, which are responsible for antioxidant protection. A decrease of activity of these enzymes is accompanied by an increase of production of free OH radicals in the tissues. Clinical data demonstrated that scalp hair of patients with oncological mammary pathology was characterized by a significant decrease of concentrations of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) and by an increase of chromium (Cr). The Se deficit was more pronounced in patients with cancer than in those with mammary hyperplasia (p<0.05). The SRXFA method permits one to carry out a controllable correction of TE imbalance in many diseases whose development is caused by oxygen radical injury

  7. Profiling Environmental Chemicals for Activity in the Antioxidant Response Element Signaling Pathway Using a High-Throughput Screening Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1 ABSTRACT 2 3 BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety 4 of diseases ranging from cancer to neurodegeneration, highlighti.ng the need to identify 5 chemicals that can induce this effect. The antioxidant response element (ARE)...

  8. Profiling Environmental Chemicals in the Antioxidant Response Element Pathway using Quantitative High Throughput Screening (qHTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway plays an important role in the amelioration of oxidative stress, which can contribute to a number of diseases, including cancer. We screened 1408 NTP-provided substances in 1536-well qHTS format at concentrations ranging fr...

  9. 31. Antioxidant and hypoxia induce the human antioxidant response element-mediated expression of NAD(P) H: quinone oxidoreductase1 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Background: NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is an obligate two-electron reductase that is involved in protection of cells against redox cycling, oxidative stress, and neoplasia. and can also bioactivate certain antitumor quinones. Many antioxidants are cancer chemopreventive agents, and tumour hypoxia are now being exploited in cancer treatment which shows considerable promise to overcome the resistance to cancer chemotherapy. Antioxidant response element (ARE) is sensitive to perturbations of cellular redox states. Our previous studies have shown that β-tyrosol (β-TY), as a phenolic antioxidant, can protects cells against DNA damage resulting from toxic H2O2. Aim: We take the present study with the goal of whether antioxidants such as β-tyrosol, butylated hydroxyanisole(BHA) and β-Naphthooflavone(β-NF) and hypoxia (pO2 0.1% -0.5%) can induce gene expression of NQO1, inhibit proliferation of human hepatoma cells SMMC-7721 and the relationship between them; whether ARE can mediate gene expression in response to antioxidans and hypoxia. Methods: SMMC-7721 human hepatoma cells are planted in plates, grown for 24h. and exposed to antioxidants and hypoxia, each alone or in combination for another 24h. The enzyme activity was determinied by spectrophotometric assay using direct measurement of NQO1 from cells cultured in Microtiter wells. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) technique was used to measure NQO1 mRNA levets. Proliferation was estimated using the crystal violet staining technique. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was employed to assess protein binding to the ARE under all of These conditions. Hypoxia cells were harvested in an anaerobic chamber at the end of the incubation period. Results: Antioxidant (90ug/ml β-TY、60μmol/L BHA、80μmol/L β-NF) potently induce an increase in the activity of NQO1. From 60μg/ml to 90μg/ml, β-TY caused NQO1 activity enhancement in a dose-dependent manner The NQO1 activity induced

  10. Novel insights into the regulation of the antioxidant response element mediated gene expression by electrophiles: induction of the transcriptional repressor BACH1 by NRF2

    OpenAIRE

    Jyrkkänen, Henna-Kaisa; Suvi M. Kuosmanen; Heinäniemi, Merja; Laitinen, Heidi; Kansanen, Emilia; Mella-Aho, Eero; Leinonen, Hanna; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Levonen, Anna-Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A central mechanism in cellular defence against oxidative or electrophilic stress is mediated by transcriptional induction of genes via the Antioxidant Response Element (ARE), a cis-acting sequence present in the regulatory regions of genes involved in the detoxification and elimination of reactive oxidants and electrophiles. The ARE binds different basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors, most notably NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) that functions as a tran...

  11. Crambene, a bioactive nitrile derived from glucosinolate hydrolysis, acts via the antioxidant response element to upregulate quinone reductase alone or synergistically with indole-3-carbinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies show that cruciferous vegetables play a role in dietary protection against cancers. The protective effects of crucifers are thought to be associated with secondary metabolites termed glucosinolates, the hydrolysis products of which upregulate hepatic detoxification enzymes. Crambene, a nitrile product of the glucosinolate progoitrin, increases hepatic quinone reductase (QR) when included in the diet of animals. Here we evaluate the mechanism of upregulation of detoxification enzymes by crambene. The regulatory region of the QR gene contains two response elements, the antioxidant response element (ARE) and the xenobiotic response element (XRE), that respond to glucosinolate hydrolysis products. We compared upregulation of QR mRNA expression by crambene in wild-type and Ah receptor-deficient mouse hepatoma cell lines. Both cell lines showed a similar increase in QR mRNA, suggesting that the Ah receptor-dependent XRE pathway is not required for crambene to act. Transient transfection of HepG2 cells with reporter constructs containing portions of the 5' regulatory region of the rat QR gene confirmed this, revealing that crambene significantly activated ARE, but not XRE, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, both indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and I3C acid condensates (I3C-A) activated the ARE for QR gene expression whereas only I3C-A activated the XRE at the concentrations studied. In addition, co-treatment with crambene and I3C-A caused synergistic increases in QR transcriptional activity and mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. Based on these findings, we propose that synergistic upregulation of QR is due to co-activation of the ARE and the XRE by crambene and I3C-A

  12. A Polymorphic Antioxidant Response Element Links NRF2/sMAF Binding to Enhanced MAPT Expression and Reduced Risk of Parkinsonian Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuting Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The NRF2/sMAF protein complex regulates the oxidative stress response by occupying cis-acting enhancers containing an antioxidant response element (ARE. Integrating genome-wide maps of NRF2/sMAF occupancy with disease-susceptibility loci, we discovered eight polymorphic AREs linked to 14 highly ranked disease-risk SNPs in individuals of European ancestry. Among these SNPs was rs242561, located within a regulatory region of the MAPT gene (encoding microtubule-associated protein Tau. It was consistently occupied by NRF2/sMAF in multiple experiments and its strong-binding allele associated with higher mRNA levels in cell lines and human brain tissue. Induction of MAPT transcription by NRF2 was confirmed using a human neuroblastoma cell line and a Nrf2-deficient mouse model. Most importantly, rs242561 displayed complete linkage disequilibrium with a highly protective allele identified in multiple GWASs of progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson’s disease, and corticobasal degeneration. These observations suggest a potential role for NRF2/sMAF in tauopathies and a possible role for NRF2 pathway activators in disease prevention.

  13. Vitamins, trace elements, and antioxidant status in dementia disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tabet, N.; Mantle, D; WALKER, Z.; Orrell, M.

    2001-01-01

    Antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E, have been proposed for the treatment of dementia disorders. Although other vitamins and trace elements may also have antioxidant-enhancing activities, it is not known whether the overall antioxidant status in dementia patients is associated with the intake level of these vitamins and trace elements. In this study, we assessed the levels of vitamins and trace elements in the diet of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and dem...

  14. 5MeCDDO Blocks Metabolic Activation but not Progression of Breast, Intestine, and Tongue Cancers. Is Antioxidant Response Element a Prevention Target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubet, Ronald A; Townsend, Reid; Clapper, Margie L; Juliana, M Margaret; Steele, Vernon E; McCormick, David L; Grubbs, Clinton J

    2016-07-01

    The preventive efficacy of the triterpenoid 5MeCDDO was tested in two models of mammary cancer, the Min model of intestinal cancer, and a chemically induced model of head and neck cancer. In one model of mammary cancer, female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered MNU at 50 days of age, and 5MeCDDO (27 ppm) was administered in the diet beginning 5 days later for the duration of the study; 5MeCDDO was ineffective. In contrast, in a model examining initiation of mammary cancers by the procarcinogen dimethyl-benzanthracene, 5, 6-benzoflavone (500 ppm, an Ah receptor agonist) or 5MeCDDO (27 or 2.7 ppm) decreased tumor multiplicity by 90%, 80%, and 50%, respectively. This anti-initiating effect which is presumably mediated by altered metabolic activation parallels our observation that 5MeCDDO induced proteins of various antioxidant response element (ARE)-related phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes [e.g., GST Pi, AKR 7A3 (aflatoxicol), epoxide hydrolase, and quinone reductase] in the liver. 5MeCDDO tested in the 4-nitroquinoline-l-oxide (4-NQO) head and neck cancer model failed to decrease tumor incidence or invasiveness. In the Min mouse model of intestinal cancer, a high dose of 5MeCDDO (80 ppm) was weakly effective in reducing adenoma multiplicity [∼30% (P < 0.05)]; however, a lower dose was totally ineffective. These findings question whether measuring increased levels of certain ARE-related genes (e.g., quinone reductase, GST Pi), indicating decreased carcinogen activation are sufficient to imply general chemopreventive efficacy of a given agent or mixture. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 616-23. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27150634

  15. Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekkoek, W A C Kristine; van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive narrative review summarizes relevant antioxidant mechanisms, the antioxidant status, and effects of supplementation in critically ill patients for the most studied antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and the enzyme cofactor trace elements selenium and zinc. Over the past 15 years, oxidative stress-mediated cell damage has been recognized to be fundamental to the pathophysiology of various critical illnesses such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and multiorgan dysfunction in sepsis. Related to these conditions, low plasma levels of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, and trace elements have been frequently reported, and thus supplementation seems logical. However, low antioxidant plasma levels per se may not indicate low total body stores as critical illness may induce redistribution of antioxidants. Furthermore, low antioxidant levels may even be beneficial as pro-oxidants are essential in bacterial killing. The reviewed studies in critically ill patients show conflicting results. This may be due to different patient populations, study designs, timing, dosing regimens, and duration of the intervention and outcome measures evaluated. Therefore, at present, it remains unclear whether supplementation of antioxidant micronutrients has any clinical benefit in critically ill patients as some studies show clear benefits, whereas others demonstrate neutral outcomes and even harm. Combination therapy of antioxidants seems logical as they work in synergy and function as elements of the human antioxidant network. Further research should focus on defining the normal antioxidant status for critically ill patients and to study optimal supplement combinations either by nutrition enrichment or by enteral or parenteral pharmacological interventions. PMID:27312081

  16. Arsenic induces NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase I by disrupting the Nrf2 x Keap1 x Cul3 complex and recruiting Nrf2 x Maf to the antioxidant response element enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoqing; Chen, Michael G; Lin, Gary X; Ma, Qiang

    2006-08-18

    The ubiquitous toxic metalloid arsenic elicits pleiotropic adverse and adaptive responses in mammalian species. The biological targets of arsenic are largely unknown at present. We analyzed the signaling pathway for induction of detoxification gene NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase (Nqo1) by arsenic. Genetic and biochemical evidence revealed that induction required cap 'n' collar basic leucine zipper transcription factor Nrf2 and the antioxidant response element (ARE) of Nqo1. Arsenic stabilized Nrf2 protein, extending the t(1/2) of Nrf2 from 21 to 200 min by inhibiting the Keap1 x Cul3-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal turnover of Nrf2. Arsenic markedly inhibited the ubiquitination of Nrf2 but did not disrupt the Nrf2 x Keap1 x Cul3 association in the cytoplasm. In the nucleus, arsenic, but not phenolic antioxidant tert-butylhydroquinone, dissociated Nrf2 from Keap1 and Cul3 followed by dimerization of Nrf2 with a Maf protein (Maf G/Maf K). Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Nrf2 and Maf associated with the endogenous Nqo1 ARE enhancer constitutively. Arsenic substantially increased the ARE occupancy by Nrf2 and Maf. In addition, Keap1 was shown to be ubiquitinated in the cytoplasm and deubiquitinated in the nucleus in the presence of arsenic without changing the protein level, implicating nuclear-cytoplasmic recycling of Keap1. Our data reveal that arsenic activates the Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway through a distinct mechanism from that by antioxidants and suggest an "on-switch" model of Nqo1 transcription in which the binding of Nrf2 x Maf to ARE controls both the basal and inducible expression of Nqo1. PMID:16785233

  17. Ethanol Extract of Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense Kitamura Exhibits the Activation of Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2-dependent Antioxidant Response Element and Protects Human Keratinocyte HaCaT Cells Against Oxidative DNA Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ok-Kyung; Choi, Bu Young; Park, Jin-Oh; Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Byoung-Kwon; Joo, Chul Gue; Heo, Hyo-Jung; Keum, Young-Sam

    2016-01-01

    Keratinocytes are constantly exposed to extracellular insults, such as ultraviolet B, toxic chemicals and mechanical stress, all of which can facilitate the aging of keratinocytes via the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in protecting keratinocytes against oxidants and xenobiotics by binding to the antioxidant response element (ARE), a cis-acting element existing in the promoter of most phase II cytoprotective genes. In the present study, we have attempted to find novel ethanol extract(s) of indigenous plants of Jeju island, Korea that can activate the Nrf2/ARE-dependent gene expression in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. As a result, we identified that ethanol extract of Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense Kitamura (ECJUK) elicited strong stimulatory effect on the ARE-dependent gene expression. Supporting this observation, we found that ECJUK induced the expression of Nrf2, hemoxygenase-1, and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 and this event was correlated with Akt1 phosphorylation. We also found that ECJUK increased the intracellular reduced glutathione level and suppressed 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate-induced 8-hydroxyguanosine formation without affecting the overall viability. Collectively, our results provide evidence that ECJUK can protect against oxidative stress-mediated damages through the activation of Nrf2/ARE-dependent phase II cytoprotective gene expression. PMID:27051652

  18. Evaluation of Ayurvedic plants for stimulating intrinsic antioxidant responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Dutt Shukla

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage caused by free radicals plays an important role in the causation and progression of many diseases, including aging. Free radical damage is countered by many mechanisms, including both active antioxidant enzymatic activity in our body and passive antioxidants. Antioxidant response of our body can accommodate increased oxidative damage in diseased states to a level but beyond that level, additional antioxidants are required to combat the increased stress. Apart from the regular dietary sources of antioxidants, many traditional herbal medicines demonstrate a potential to boost antioxidant activity. Rasayana chikitsa that deals with rejuvenation and revitalization is a branch of the Indian traditional medical system of Ayurveda. We review some select herbs described in Rasayana chikitsa that have been assessed by modern means for stimulating intrinsic antioxidant responses in humans. A critical evaluation of Rasayana chikitsa will likely provide urgently needed, actual stimulants of our physiological antioxidant responses and not just more passive antioxidants to an already large catalogue.

  19. Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L.) bark extract regulates antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated enzyme expression via Nrf2 pathway activation in normal hepatocyte cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajka-Kuźniak, Violetta; Paluszczak, Jarosław; Oszmiański, Jan; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2014-04-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L.), a plant used in traditional medicine, is a rich source of procyanidins which have been reported to exhibit antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activity. In this study, we assessed the effect of hawthorn bark extract (HBE) on Nrf2 pathway activation in THLE-2 and HepG2 cells. Treatment with 1.1 µg/mL, 5.5 µg/mL and 11 µg/mL of HBE resulted in the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytosol to the nucleus in both cell lines; however, the accumulation of phosphorylated Nrf2 was observed only in THLE-2. Accordingly, treatment of cells with HBE was associated with an increase in the mRNA and protein level of such Nrf2-dependent genes as glutathione S-transferases (GSTA, GSTP, GSTM, GSTT), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) (0.2-1.1-fold change, p < 0.05), however, only in normal THLE-2 hepatocytes. The induction of NQO1 correlated with an increased level of p53 (0.21-0.42-fold change, p < 0.05). These effects may be related to induction of phosphorylation of upstream ERK and JNK kinases. Collectively, the results suggest that the Nrf2/ARE pathway may play an important role in the regulation of procyanidin-mediated antioxidant/detoxifying effects in hepatocytes, and this may explain the hepatoprotective and chemopreventive properties of these phytochemicals. PMID:23843400

  20. Salt tolerance in Solanum pennellii: antioxidant response and related QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şığva Hasan Ö

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive soil salinity is an important problem for agriculture, however, salt tolerance is a complex trait that is not easily bred into plants. Exposure of cultivated tomato to salt stress has been reported to result in increased antioxidant content and activity. Salt tolerance of the related wild species, Solanum pennellii, has also been associated with similar changes in antioxidants. In this work, S. lycopersicum M82, S. pennellii LA716 and a S. pennellii introgression line (IL population were evaluated for growth and their levels of antioxidant activity (total water-soluble antioxidant activity, major antioxidant compounds (phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and peroxidase under both control and salt stress (150 mM NaCl conditions. These data were then used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL responsible for controlling the antioxidant parameters under both stress and nonstress conditions. Results Under control conditions, cultivated tomato had higher levels of all antioxidants (except superoxide dismutase than S. pennellii. However, under salt stress, the wild species showed greater induction of all antioxidants except peroxidase. The ILs showed diverse responses to salinity and proved very useful for the identification of QTL. Thus, 125 loci for antioxidant content under control and salt conditions were detected. Eleven of the total antioxidant activity and phenolic content QTL matched loci identified in an independent study using the same population, thereby reinforcing the validity of the loci. In addition, the growth responses of the ILs were evaluated to identify lines with favorable growth and antioxidant profiles. Conclusions Plants have a complex antioxidant response when placed under salt stress. Some loci control antioxidant content under all conditions while others are responsible for antioxidant content only under

  1. Studies on tender wheatgrass: estimation of elemental content, bioaccessibility of essential elements and antioxidant activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tender wheatgrass is being consumed by human beings in juice form or as it is due to its antioxidant potential and medicinal value. Systematic studies were carried out to (i) estimate elemental profiles as a function of growth period and conditions, bioaccessibility of different elements and the antioxidant potential of the tender wheatgrass, (ii) determine the optimum growth period for obtaining maximum benefit and (iii) examine the possible correlation between antioxidant potential and mineral content. Wheatgrass was grown in four different conditions namely (i) tap water, (ii) tap water with nutrients, (iii) soil and tap water and (iv) soil with nutrient solution. The studies were carried out on the wheatgrass of 5-20 days old. For comparison with laboratory grown wheatgrass, a set of commercially available wheatgrass tablets and wheat seeds were also studied. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used for concentration determination of elements in the wheatgrass, wheat seeds and wheatgrass tablets. A total of 15 elements like Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Br, Fe and Zn were determined in the samples of shoots and roots of tender wheatgrass. A comparison with the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of different essential elements with that in tender wheatgrass revealed that wheatgrass is a good source of minerals for health benefits rather than a food supplement. Bioaccessible fractions of various elements were estimated by a chemical NAA method by subjecting the samples to in vitro gastric and gastro-intestinal digestion followed by NAA. The bioaccessibility concentrations by both the measurements were in the range of 9-60%. It was found that bioaccessibility of the elements studied was the highest from fresh wheatgrass and the lowest from wheat seeds. Accuracy of the NAA method was evaluated by analyzing two biological reference materials, SRM 1573a (Tomato leaves) from NIST, USA and ICHTJ CTA-vtl-2 (Tobacco leaves) from INCT, Poland. The antioxidant

  2. Evaluation of Ayurvedic plants for stimulating intrinsic antioxidant responses

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Dutt Shukla; Maheep eBhatnagar; Sukant eKhurana

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage caused by free radicals plays an important role in the causation and progression of many diseases, including aging. Free radical damage is countered by many mechanisms, including both active antioxidant enzymatic activity in our body and passive antioxidants. Antioxidant response of our body can accommodate increased oxidative damage in diseased states to a level but beyond that level, additional antioxidants are required to combat the increased stress. Apart from the regular...

  3. Critical Evaluation of Ayurvedic Plants for Stimulating Intrinsic Antioxidant Response

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Sunil Dutt; Bhatnagar, Maheep; Khurana, Sukant

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage caused by free radicals plays an important role in the causation and progression of many diseases, including aging. Free-radical damage is countered by many mechanisms, including both active antioxidant enzymatic activity in our body and passive antioxidants. Antioxidant response of our body can accommodate increased oxidative damage in diseased states to a level but beyond that level, additional antioxidants are required to combat the increased stress. Apart from the regular...

  4. Soy isoflavones increase quinone reductase in hepa-1c1c7 cells via estrogen receptor beta and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 binding to the antioxidant response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froyen, Erik B; Steinberg, Francene M

    2011-09-01

    Soy protein and isoflavones (genistein and daidzein) have been demonstrated to increase quinone reductase (QR) activity, protein, and mRNA in animal and cell culture models. However, their mechanism of action has not been completely characterized. Additionally, it has not been determined if equol, a daidzein metabolite, can modulate QR activity and expression. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is thought to be involved in stimulating QR gene transcription by anti-estrogens and phytoestrogens, along with nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). This study tested the hypothesis that genistein, daidzein and equol increase quinone reductase activity, protein and mRNA via ERβ and Nrf2 binding to the QR antioxidant response element (ARE). QR expression and activity were determined using TaqMan polymerase chain reaction, protein immunoblots and activity assays. Molecular events were investigated using luciferase reporter gene assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Hepa-1c1c7 cells were treated with control [0.1% (v:v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)]; 1 μmol/L β-naphthoflavone (positive control); 5 μmol/L resveratrol (ChIP positive control for ERβ binding) and 1, 5 and 25 μmol/L genistein, daidzein or equol. Treatment durations were 1 h (ChIP), 24 h (mRNA and luciferase assays) and 24 and 48 h (protein and activity). Genistein, daidzein and equol increased QR activity, protein and mRNA, with daidzein and equol having more of an impact at physiologic concentrations (1 and 5 μmol/L) compared to genistein. Furthermore, the study results demonstrate that genistein, daidzein and equol interact with the QR ARE and that daidzein and equol act via both ERβ and Nrf2 binding strongly to the QR ARE. PMID:21167702

  5. Antioxidant responses of wheat plants under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Caverzan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently, food security depends on the increased production of cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L., which is an important source of calories and protein for humans. However, cells of the crop have suffered from the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which can cause severe oxidative damage to the plants, due to environmental stresses. ROS are toxic molecules found in various subcellular compartments. The equilibrium between the production and detoxification of ROS is sustained by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. In the present review, we offer a brief summary of antioxidant defense and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 signaling in wheat plants. Wheat plants increase antioxidant defense mechanisms under abiotic stresses, such as drought, cold, heat, salinity and UV-B radiation, to alleviate oxidative damage. Moreover, H2O2 signaling is an important factor contributing to stress tolerance in cereals.

  6. Antioxidant responses of wheat plants under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverzan, Andréia; Casassola, Alice; Brammer, Sandra Patussi

    2016-03-01

    Currently, food security depends on the increased production of cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which is an important source of calories and protein for humans. However, cells of the crop have suffered from the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause severe oxidative damage to the plants, due to environmental stresses. ROS are toxic molecules found in various subcellular compartments. The equilibrium between the production and detoxification of ROS is sustained by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. In the present review, we offer a brief summary of antioxidant defense and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) signaling in wheat plants. Wheat plants increase antioxidant defense mechanisms under abiotic stresses, such as drought, cold, heat, salinity and UV-B radiation, to alleviate oxidative damage. Moreover, H2O2 signaling is an important factor contributing to stress tolerance in cereals. PMID:27007891

  7. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements in the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora

    OpenAIRE

    Clináscia Rodrigues Rocha Araújo; Thiago de Mello Silva; Monica Lopes; Paula Villela; Antônio Flávio de Carvalho Alcântara; Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni-Pinto

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements of the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora were investigated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and β-carotene methods. The assays based on the DPPH (EC50 = 3.18 g sample/g DPPH), ABTS•+ (1017 μmol Trolox/g sample), FRAP (1676 µM Fe2SO4/g sample) and β-carotene/linoleic aci...

  8. Modular Responsive Web Design using Element Queries

    OpenAIRE

    Wiener, Lucas; Ekholm, Tomas; Haller, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Responsive Web Design (RWD) enables web applications to adapt to the characteristics of different devices such as screen size which is important for mobile browsing. Today, the only W3C standard to support this adaptability is CSS media queries. However, using media queries it is impossible to create applications in a modular way, because responsive elements then always depend on the global context. Hence, responsive elements can only be reused if the global context is exactly the same, sever...

  9. Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Heiselberg, Per; Andresen, Inger; Perino, Marco; van der Aa, Ad

    2006-01-01

    Significant improvement have been achieved on efficiency improvements of specific building elements like the building envelope and building equipment and services and whilst most building elements still offer opportunities for efficiency improvements, the greatest future potential lie with technologies that promote the integration of responsive building elements and building services in integrated building concepts. In order to address some of these issues an international research effort, IE...

  10. Integrating Responsive Building Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Matthias; Amato, Alex; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review of...... responsive building elements, of integrated building concepts and of environmental performance assessment methods to improve and optimize responsive building elements to develop and optimize new building concepts with integration of responsive building elements, HVAC-systems as well as natural and renewable...... energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put on the...

  11. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and vegetables. They are also available ... t clear whether this is because of the antioxidants, something else in the foods, or other factors. High-dose supplements of antioxidants ...

  12. Increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant response in Lafora disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Aguado, Carmen; García-Giménez, José Luis; Ibáñez-Cabellos, José Santiago; Seco-Cervera, Marta; Pallardó, Federico V; Knecht, Erwin; Sanz, Pascual

    2014-10-01

    Lafora Disease (LD, OMIM 254780, ORPHA501) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of glycogen-like intracellular inclusions called Lafora bodies and caused, in the vast majority of cases, by mutations in either EPM2A or EPM2B genes, encoding respectively laforin and malin. In the last years, several reports have revealed molecular details of these two proteins and have identified several processes affected in LD, but the pathophysiology of the disease still remains largely unknown. Since autophagy impairment has been reported as a characteristic treat in both Lafora disease cell and animal models, and as there is a link between autophagy and mitochondrial performance, we sought to determine if mitochondrial function could be altered in those models. Using fibroblasts from LD patients, deficient in laforin or malin, we found mitochondrial alterations, oxidative stress and a deficiency in antioxidant enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Similar results were obtained in brain tissue samples from transgenic mice deficient in either the EPM2A or EPM2B genes. Furthermore, in a proteomic analysis of brain tissue obtained from Epm2b-/- mice, we observed an increase in a modified form of peroxirredoxin-6, an antioxidant enzyme involved in other neurological pathologies, thus corroborating an alteration of the redox condition. These data support that oxidative stress produced by an increase in ROS production and an impairment of the antioxidant enzyme response to this stress play an important role in development of LD. PMID:26461389

  13. Can packaging elements elicit consumers’ emotional responses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis; Corsi, Armando; Lockshin, Larry;

    Emotion has been an important concept in many areas of consumer research such as judgment, decision-making and advertising. Little research has been done on emotion in packaging adopting the physiological measures used in other areas. This paper draws on past studies in advertising that measure...... emotional responses toward image, colour and font, and apply them to packaging research. The study tests the extent at which packaging can elicit consumers’ spontaneous emotional response for each of those three elements, by using skin conductance, facial electromyography (EMG) and selfassessment scales....... The results show that packaging can elicit an emotional response via different elements. The paper also raises concerns about the accuracy of using selfreport measures of emotional responses to packaging research....

  14. Benzo[a]pyrene affects Jurkat T cells in the activated state via the antioxidant response element dependent Nrf2 pathway leading to decreased IL-2 secretion and redirecting glutamine metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Rockstroh, Maxie; Wagner, Juliane [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Baumann, Sven [Department of Metabolomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schorsch, Katrin [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Trump, Saskia; Lehmann, Irina [Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Bergen, Martin von [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark); Tomm, Janina M., E-mail: Janina.tomm@ufz.de [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    There is a clear evidence that environmental pollutants, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), can have detrimental effects on the immune system, whereas the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. Jurkat T cells share many properties with native T lymphocytes and therefore are an appropriate model to analyze the effects of environmental pollutants on T cells and their activation. Since environmental compounds frequently occur at low, not acute toxic concentrations, we analyzed the effects of two subtoxic concentrations, 50 nM and 5 μM, on non- and activated cells. B[a]P interferes directly with the stimulation process as proven by an altered IL-2 secretion. Furthermore, B[a]P exposure results in significant proteomic changes as shown by DIGE analysis. Pathway analysis revealed an involvement of the AhR independent Nrf2 pathway in the altered processes observed in unstimulated and stimulated cells. A participation of the Nrf2 pathway in the change of IL-2 secretion was confirmed by exposing cells to the Nrf2 activator tBHQ. tBHQ and 5 μM B[a]P caused similar alterations of IL-2 secretion and glutamine/glutamate metabolism. Moreover, the proteome changes in unstimulated cells point towards a modified regulation of the cytoskeleton and cellular stress response, which was proven by western blotting. Additionally, there is a strong evidence for alterations in metabolic pathways caused by B[a]P exposure in stimulated cells. Especially the glutamine/glutamate metabolism was indicated by proteome pathway analysis and validated by metabolite measurements. The detrimental effects were slightly enhanced in stimulated cells, suggesting that stimulated cells are more vulnerable to the environmental pollutant model compound B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P affects the proteome of Jurkat T cells also at low concentrations. • Exposure to B[a]P (50 nM, 5 μM) did not change Jurkat T cell viability. • Both B[a]P concentrations altered the IL-2 secretion of stimulated cells.

  15. Benzo[a]pyrene affects Jurkat T cells in the activated state via the antioxidant response element dependent Nrf2 pathway leading to decreased IL-2 secretion and redirecting glutamine metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a clear evidence that environmental pollutants, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), can have detrimental effects on the immune system, whereas the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. Jurkat T cells share many properties with native T lymphocytes and therefore are an appropriate model to analyze the effects of environmental pollutants on T cells and their activation. Since environmental compounds frequently occur at low, not acute toxic concentrations, we analyzed the effects of two subtoxic concentrations, 50 nM and 5 μM, on non- and activated cells. B[a]P interferes directly with the stimulation process as proven by an altered IL-2 secretion. Furthermore, B[a]P exposure results in significant proteomic changes as shown by DIGE analysis. Pathway analysis revealed an involvement of the AhR independent Nrf2 pathway in the altered processes observed in unstimulated and stimulated cells. A participation of the Nrf2 pathway in the change of IL-2 secretion was confirmed by exposing cells to the Nrf2 activator tBHQ. tBHQ and 5 μM B[a]P caused similar alterations of IL-2 secretion and glutamine/glutamate metabolism. Moreover, the proteome changes in unstimulated cells point towards a modified regulation of the cytoskeleton and cellular stress response, which was proven by western blotting. Additionally, there is a strong evidence for alterations in metabolic pathways caused by B[a]P exposure in stimulated cells. Especially the glutamine/glutamate metabolism was indicated by proteome pathway analysis and validated by metabolite measurements. The detrimental effects were slightly enhanced in stimulated cells, suggesting that stimulated cells are more vulnerable to the environmental pollutant model compound B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P affects the proteome of Jurkat T cells also at low concentrations. • Exposure to B[a]P (50 nM, 5 μM) did not change Jurkat T cell viability. • Both B[a]P concentrations altered the IL-2 secretion of stimulated cells.

  16. Evolution of the iron-responsive element

    OpenAIRE

    Piccinelli, Paul; Samuelsson, Tore

    2007-01-01

    An RNA hairpin structure referred to as the iron-responsive element (IRE) and iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) are key players in the control of iron metabolism in animal cells. They regulate translation initiation or mRNA stability, and the IRE is found in a variety of mRNAs, such as those encoding ferritin, transferrin receptor (Tfr), erythroid aminolevulinic acid synthase (eALAS), mitochondrial aconitase (mACO), ferroportin, and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). We have studied the evolu...

  17. The level of elements and antioxidant activity of commercial dietary supplement formulations based on edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilinović, Nebojša; Škrbić, Biljana; Živančev, Jelena; Mrmoš, Nataša; Pavlović, Nebojša; Vukmirović, Saša

    2014-12-01

    Commercial preparations of Cordyceps sinensis, Ganoderma lucidum and Coprinus comatus mushroom marketed as healthy food supplements in Serbia were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry with a graphite furnace (GFAAS) for their element content. Antioxidant activity potential and total phenolics of the same mushrooms were determined. The element content of mushroom samples was in the range of 0.130-0.360 mg kg(-1) for lead (Pb), sinensis showed the best properties. The same was seen for the analysis of selected phenolic compounds; C. sinensis was found to have the highest content. Commercial preparations of C. sinensis and C. comatus can be considered to be safe and suitable food supplements included in well-balanced diets. PMID:25294630

  18. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALWA A. ORABI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orabi SA, Talaat IM, Balbaa LK. 2014. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 118-125. Two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of tryptophan, nicotinamide and α-tocopherol (each at 50 and 100 mg/L on plant growth, essential oil yield and its main constituents. All treatments significantly promoted plant height, and increased fresh and dry mass (g/plant of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.. The treatment with 100 mg/L nicotinamide showed increasing in total potassium mainly in the first cut. Total soluble sugars, oil percentage and oil yield and protein recorded increments with tryptophan treatments. Treatment of Thymus plants with 100 mg/L nicotinamide observed the highest percentage of thymol (67.61%. Oxygenated compounds recorded the highest value with 50 mg/L α-tocopherol treatment, while the maximum non-oxygenated ones resulted from the application of 100 mg/L nicotinamide. All treatments under study significantly affected the activity of oxidoreductase enzymes (POX and PPO. Nicotinamide at the concentration of 100 mg/L recorded the highest increments in APX and GR and the lowest values in oxidoreductase enzyme activities added to the lowest values of lipid peroxidation to enhance the best protection of thyme plants.

  19. ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION AND NASAL INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES AMONG YOUNG ASTHMATICS EXPOSED TO HIGH LEVELS OF OZONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Recent studies examining the inflammatory response in atopic asthma to ozone suggest a release of soluble mediators of inflammation factors that might be related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidant could prove useful in subjects exposed to additional oxidati...

  20. ANTIOXIDATIVE RESPONSE OF VARIOUS CULTIVARS OF SORGHUM ( SORGHUM BICOLOR L.) TO DROUGHT STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Gurpreet Singh; Nidhi Sharma

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim to identify the response of antioxidant enzyme activities in seedlings of different sorghum cultivars under mannitol stress. Seven-day old seedlings were subjected to 100-500 mM mannitol stress which resulted in the decreases in shoot/root length and relative water content thus indicating the primary response to these tissues at phenotypic level. The level of lipid peroxidation as well as the specific activity of antioxidant enzymes such as peroxid...

  1. Optimization of ultrasonic extraction of phenolic antioxidants from green tea using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lan-Sook; Lee, Namhyouck; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Chang-Ho; Hong, Sang Pil; Jeon, Yeo-Won; Kim, Young-Eon

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize the extraction conditions of antioxidants with relatively low caffeine content from green tea by using ultrasonic extraction. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest antioxidant activity and minimum caffeine level were found at 19.7% ethanol, 26.4 min extraction time, and 24.0 ° C extraction temperature. In the predicted optimal conditions, the experimental values were very close to the predicted values. Moreover, the ratio of (EGCg + ECg)/EGC was identified a major factor contributing to the antioxidant activity of green tea extracts. In this study, ultrasonic extraction showed that the ethanol concentration and extraction time used for antioxidant extraction could be remarkably reduced without a decrease in antioxidant activity compared to the conventional extraction conditions. PMID:24184822

  2. Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Green Tea Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Sook Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM has been used to optimize the extraction conditions of antioxidants with relatively low caffeine content from green tea by using ultrasonic extraction. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest antioxidant activity and minimum caffeine level were found at 19.7% ethanol, 26.4 min extraction time, and 24.0 °C extraction temperature. In the predicted optimal conditions, the experimental values were very close to the predicted values. Moreover, the ratio of (EGCg + ECg/EGC was identified a major factor contributing to the antioxidant activity of green tea extracts. In this study, ultrasonic extraction showed that the ethanol concentration and extraction time used for antioxidant extraction could be remarkably reduced without a decrease in antioxidant activity compared to the conventional extraction conditions.

  3. Relationship between serum trace elements and antioxidant capacity indexes in women of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Liu; Mei Xu; Ying Jiang; Yan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the relationship between serum trace elements, antioxidant capacity index and hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy (HDCP). Methods: Forty cases of normal healthy pregnant women, twenty-one pregnant women with high blood pressure, twenty-eight pregnant women with early stage of mild preeclampsia and twenty-two pregnant women with early stage of severe preeclampsia were selected respectively. Then, the differences of blood routine examination and blood coagulation function of the four groups were compared. At the same time, the levels of the serum trace elements and oxidative stress related indexes in the placental villi tissue were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results:The white blood cells and hematocrit of HDCP pregnant women were significantly higher than those of normal healthy pregnant women;platelet and fibrinogen levels were obviously lower than those of normal healthy pregnant women, while thrombin time was shorter than that of normal healthy pregnant women;levels of serum copper, zinc and manganese were also significantly lower than whose of normal healthy pregnant women, while iron level was distinctly higher than that of normal healthy pregnant women. The differences between groups were statistically significant. The activities of SOD and GSH-PX in the placental villi tissue of HDCP pregnant women were significantly smaller than those of normal healthy pregnant women, while the Hcy level was higher than that of normal healthy pregnant women. The differences between groups were statistically significant. Conclusions:Pregnant women with HDCP has both imbalance of trace elements and redox system equilibrium, so we should strengthen the determination of the trace elements and redox related indexes of HDCP pregnant women to ensure health of maternal and child.

  4. Fruit juice drinks prevent endogenous antioxidant response to high-fat meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglio, Cristiana; Peluso, Ilaria; Raguzzini, Anna; Villaño, Deborah V; Cesqui, Eleonora; Catasta, Giovina; Toti, Elisabetta; Serafini, Mauro

    2014-01-28

    High-fat meals (HFM) induce metabolic stress, leading to the activation of protective mechanisms, including inflammation and endogenous antioxidant defences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of antioxidant-rich fruit juice drinks on the endogenous antioxidant response induced by HFM. In a double-blind, cross-over design (10 d washout), fourteen overweight volunteers were randomly assigned to one of the following interventions: HFM+500 ml placebo beverage (HFM-PB, free from fruit); HFM+500 ml antioxidant beverage 1 (HFM-AB1; apple, grape, blueberry and pomegranate juices and grape skin, grape seed and green tea extracts); HFM+500 ml antioxidant beverage 2 (HFM-AB2; pineapple, black currant and plum juices). HFM-PB consumption increased the plasma levels of thiols (SH) (4 h, Ptrapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) (4 h, PTRAP (2 h, P< 0·001) and urinary ferric reducing antioxidant power (0-8 h, P< 0·01) were increased by HFM-AB1 consumption, the drink with the highest in vitro antioxidant capacity, but not by HFM-AB2 consumption. In urine, UA levels were significantly increased from basal levels after the consumption of HFM-PB and HFM-AB2. However, neither of the beverages increased the urinary excretion of UA with respect to the placebo beverage. In conclusion, the increase in UA and SH levels induced by HFM as part of an endogenous antioxidant response to postprandial stress can be prevented by the concomitant ingestion of antioxidant-rich fruit juice drinks. PMID:23930843

  5. Role of natural antioxidant mediated cellular radiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Need for the development of radioprotector was felt after witnessing the disastrous effects of ionizing radiation since World War II. Ionizing radiation is fatal for all living beings. Formation of free radicals (reactive oxygen species) are believed to be the prime reason for various cellular and molecular damages and death of cells. Different chemical agents having ability to quench these free radicals were selected logically for the development of radiation counter measure agents. WR2712 is the first FDA approved clinical cytoprotector, however acute toxicity necessitated search of safe chemical radiation countermeasure agents. Natural antioxidants possess strong antiradical properties and relatively less toxic and therefore currently persuaded for development of radioprotector. The objectives were to undertake a comprehensive mechanism based selection of suitable natural antioxidant compounds and evaluate their antiradical properties using standard assays. Further, validation of the radioprotective efficacy of selected antioxidant in vitro models and investigation in cell lines for elucidation of mechanism underlying radioprotection. Results of modified antiradical assays (ABTS, DPPH, ORAC and FRAP) suggested strong potential of sesamol in comparison to fifteen different antioxidants. Further comparative in vitro studies, prior treatment of antioxidant showed strong potential of sesamol with dose modifying factors of 10 (plasmid DNA) and 3 (V79 cells). The corresponding dose modifying factor of melatonin was 5 and 1.3 respectively. Furthermore, sesamol decreased radiation induced apoptosis, chromosomal aberration, cell cycle arrest, oxidative damages, mitochondrial depolarization in HEK293 cells. The mechanism of radioprotection proposed to be due to enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity and balance in cellular redox together with scavenging of free radicals by sesamol. Due to these potential of sesamol, further evaluation in preclinical models are required for

  6. Effect of chromium (VI) exposure on antioxidant defense status and trace element homeostasis in acute experiment in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyzová, Dana; Hodková, Anna; Bludovská, Monika; Eybl, Vladislav

    2015-11-01

    Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds is of concern in many Cr-related industries and their surrounding environment. Cr(VI) is a proven toxin and carcinogen. The Cr(VI) compounds are easily absorbed, can diffuse across cell membranes, and have strong oxidative potential. Despite intensive studies of Cr(VI) pro-oxidative effects, limited data exist on the influence of Cr(VI) on selenoenzymes thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-important components of antioxidant defense system. This study investigates the effect of Cr(VI) exposure on antioxidant defense status, with focus on these selenoenzymes, and on trace element homeostasis in an acute experiment in rat. Male Wistar rats (130-140g) were assigned to two groups of 8 animals: I. control; and II. Cr(VI) treated. The animals in Cr(VI) group were administered a single dose of K2Cr2O7 (20 mg /kg, intraperitoneally (ip)). The control group received saline solution. After 24 h, the animals were sacrificed and the liver and kidneys were examined for lipid peroxidation (LP; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration), the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of GPx-1, TrxR-1, and glutathione reductase (GR). Samples of tissues were also used to estimate Cr accumulation and alterations in zinc, copper, and iron levels. The acute Cr(VI) exposure caused an increase in both hepatic and renal LP (by 70%, p effect of Cr(VI) was found on TrxR-1 activity in both the liver and the kidneys. The ability of Cr(VI) to cause TrxR inhibition could contribute to its cytotoxic effects. Further investigation of oxidative responses in different in vivo models may enable the development of strategies to protect against Cr(VI) oxidative damage. PMID:23625905

  7. Influence of diet, vitamin, tea, trace elements and exogenous antioxidants on arsenic metabolism and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyan; Liu, Su; Li, Mei; Wu, Bing

    2016-04-01

    Health risk of arsenic (As) has received increasing attention. Acute and chronic exposure to As could cause several detrimental effects on human health. As toxicity is closely related to its bioaccessibility and metabolism. In real environment, many factors, such as diet and nutrition, can influence As bioaccessibility, metabolism and toxicity. This paper mainly reviews the influences of diets and elements on As bioaccessibility, metabolism and toxicity and their underlying mechanisms to provide suggestions for future investigations. Vitamins, jaggery, fruit, tea, glutathione, N-acetylcysteine and zinc could reduce the As-induced toxicity by increasing antioxidative enzymes to antagonize oxidative stress caused by As and/or increasing As methylation. However, bean and betel nut could increase risk of skin lesions caused by As. Interestingly, high-fat diet, selenium and iron have incompatible effects on As bioaccessibility, metabolism and toxicity in different experimental conditions. Based on current literatures, the As methylation and As-induced oxidative damage might be two main ways that the diets and elements influence As toxicity. Combined application of in vitro human cell lines and gastrointestinal models might be useful tools to simultaneously characterize the changes in As bioaccessibility and toxicity in the future research. PMID:26169729

  8. Mallotus roxburghianus modulates antioxidant responses in pancreas of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, V K; Chenkual, L; Gurusubramanian, G

    2016-03-01

    Mallotus roxburghianus has long been used by Mizo tribal people for the treatment of diabetes. Scientific validation at known doses may provide information about its safety and efficacy. Methanolic leaf extract of M. roxburghianus (MRME 100 and 400mg/kg) was tested in comparison with normal and alloxan diabetic rats for 28 days p.o. in terms of body and pancreatic weight, blood glucose level, antioxidant enzymes, expression of visfatin and PCNA, histopathology and histomorphometric measurements of pancreas. The results were evaluated statistically using ANOVA, correlation and regression and Principal component analysis (PCO). MRME (100 and 400mg/kg) treatment significantly (penzymes and up regulate the expression of visfatin and PCNA. PCO analysis was good to fitness and prediction distinguishes the therapeutic effects of M. roxburghianus from the alloxan induced diabetic rats. MRME has significant role in protecting animals from alloxan-induced diabetic oxidative stress in pancreas and exhibited promising antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activities along with significant reversal of disturbed antioxidant status and lipid peroxidative damage. Pancreatic architecture and physiology under diabetic oxidative stress have been significantly modulated by MRME and validated as a drug candidate for antidiabetic treatment. M. roxburghianus treatment restores the antioxidant enzyme system and rejuvenates the islets mass in alloxanized rat by accelerating visfatin and PCNA expression in pancreatic tissue. PMID:26764087

  9. Antioxidative enzymes in the response of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench to complete submergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević N.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and antioxidative defense system activity were studied in buckwheat leaves after complete submergence and re-aeration. The levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation were found to be significantly higher in stressed than in untreated buckwheat leaves. Enzymes catalyzing the degradation of H2O2 and peroxides were shown to participate actively, whereas superoxide dismutase did not take part in the buckwheat leaf response to flooding stress. The most prominent increase in antioxidative enzyme activities was noticed upon return to air, when the strongest oxidative stress occurred and the need for antioxidative defense was the greatest.

  10. ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS AND THE RISK OF ENDOMETRIAL CANCER: A DOSE-RESPONSE META-ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa V Bandera; Gifkins, Dina M.; Moore, Dirk F.; McCullough, Marjorie L; Lawrence H Kushi

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidant vitamins may reduce cancer risk by limiting oxidative DNA damage. To summarize and quantify the current epidemiologic evidence of an association between antioxidant vitamin intake and endometrial cancer we conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. One cohort and 12 case-control studies presenting relevant risk estimates were identified by conducting bibliographical searches through June 2008. Dose-response meta-analyses were conducted for beta-carotene, vitamin C...

  11. Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Green Tea Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Lan-Sook Lee; Namhyouck Lee; Young Ho Kim; Chang-Ho Lee; Sang Pil Hong; Yeo-Won Jeon; Young-Eon Kim

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize the extraction conditions of antioxidants with relatively low caffeine content from green tea by using ultrasonic extraction. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest antioxidant activity and minimum caffeine level were found at 19.7% ethanol, 26.4 min extraction time, and 24.0 °C extraction temperature. In the predicted optimal conditions, the experimental values were very close to the predicted values. Moreover, the ratio ...

  12. Antioxidant system responses in two co-occurring green-tide algae under stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhao, Xinyu; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-01-01

    Green tides have occurred every year from 2007 to 2014 in the Yellow Sea. Ulva prolifera (Müller) J. Agardh has been identified as the bloom-forming alga, co-occurring with U. intestinalis. We observed distinct strategies for both algal species during green tides. U. prolifera exhibited a high abundance initially and then decreased dramatically, while U. intestinalis persisted throughout. The antioxidant system responses of these two macroalgae were compared in the late phase of a green tide (in-situ) and after laboratory acclimation. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system responses differed significantly between the two. Malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide contents increased significantly in-situ in U. prolifera, but not in U. intestinalis. In U. prolifera, we observed a significant decrease in total antioxidant ability (T-AOC), antioxidant enzymes (SOD and Apx), and non-enzyme antioxidants (GSH and AsA) in-situ. U. intestinalis showed the same pattern of T-AOC and SOD, but its Gpx, Apx, and GSH responses did not differ significantly. The results suggest that U. prolifera was more susceptible than U. intestinalis to the harsh environmental changes during the late phase of a Yellow Sea green tide. The boom and bust strategy exhibited by U. prolifera and the persistence of U. intestinalis can be explained by differences in enzyme activity and antioxidant systems.

  13. Ablative Thermal Response Analysis Using the Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec John A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    A review of the classic techniques used to solve ablative thermal response problems is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of both the finite element and finite difference methods are described. As a first step in developing a three dimensional finite element based ablative thermal response capability, a one dimensional computer tool has been developed. The finite element method is used to discretize the governing differential equations and Galerkin's method of weighted residuals is used to derive the element equations. A code to code comparison between the current 1-D tool and the 1-D Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal Response Program (FIAT) has been performed.

  14. Salinity induced changes in photosynthetic pigment and antioxidant responses in Sesuvium portulacastrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Thirumal; Panneerselvam, Rajaram

    2011-11-01

    The production of leaf and root antioxidant changes when exposed to saline conditions were investigated in the perennial halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum L. Plants were grown with a nonsterilized soil and sterilized soil with 50 and 100% of sterilized seawater on 25, 55 and 85 Days After Planting (DAP). The plants were harvested on 30th, 60th and 90th DAP and used for analyzing the photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzyme activities viz., Superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC1.15.1.1) Ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and non enzymatic antioxidant contents like ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, reduced glutathione were determined. Plants exposed to salinity, either alone (SSW) sterilized seawater/unsterilized soil (USS) along with higher pigments, antioxidative enzymes and Na+ ions response. This tendency was generally more marked in SSW/USS plants when compared to SSW/SS plants. The concentration of SSW/SS was negatively correlated with the antioxidative capacity of the plant, either enzymatic or non enzymatic and K+ ions. These data suggest that the enhancement of the antioxidative response is of crucial significance for S. portulacastrum plants growing under saline conditions. PMID:22514886

  15. Yields, Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activities of Ziziphus jujube Mill. in Response to Different Fertilization Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for more jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill. production requires understanding the specific fertilization needs of jujube trees. This study was conducted to compare fruit yields, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of jujube in response to different fertilizers. Application of organic fertilizer appeared to enhance the phenolics and antioxidant activity accumulation of jujubes, compared to conventional fertilized jujubes. Amongst inorganic fertilizers, supplemental potassium as an individual nutrient improved the accumulation of phenolics in jujubes. Our results demonstrate that phenolics levels and antioxidant activity of jujube can be manipulated through fertilizer management and tracked by following proanthocyanidin concentrations. In a practical production context, the combination of organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers such as more supplemental individual potassium, and less supplemental individual nitrogen and phosphorus, might be the best management combination for achieving higher phenolic concentration, stronger antioxidant activity and a good harvest.

  16. Modulation of antioxidant enzymes as radioprotector mechanism of oligo elements and lachesis muta in normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The therapeutic use of the ionizing radiations (IR) it has acquired great relevance in the last decades although their effects are not selective and they are also manifested on the normal tissues. In previous works we demonstrate the radioprotector effect that the combination of oligo elements Zinc, Selenium and Manganese associated to the snake poison Lachesis muta (O-LM) it exercises on the small intestine and the bone marrow of irradiated mouse. The objective of this work was to study the molecular mechanisms, and particularly the paper of the anti-oxidant superoxide dismutases enzymes (MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD), Catalase (CAT), and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), in the radioprotector action that exercises the combination O-LM. Four groups of mice were used: A) control; B) treated with O-LM; C) irradiated; D) irradiated and treated with O-LM. The two treated groups were injected daily via s.c. with 0,1 ml of O-LM from 30 days before the irradiation and until to 4 days later. The two irradiated groups received 10 Gy in whole body the day 30. The day 35 all the animals were sacrificed. The histological intestinal cuts of the mucous one were evaluated by tint with hematoxyline-eosin; the presence of apoptotic cells it was determined by the Tunel method (Apoptag kit); the expression of PCNA (nuclear antigen of proliferating cells), MnSOD, CuZnSOD, CAT and GPx, by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that in the lot D it was preserved totally the histology of the intestinal mucous. In the control A it was observed PCNA expression in the crypts, of MnSOD in the hairiness and CuZnSOD, CAT and Gpx in both. The change produced by O-LM (group B) it was the increase of PCNA, of CAT and the appearance of MnSOD in the crypts. On the other hand, the irradiation (C) it produced a marked descent in the GPx, the complete disappearance of PCNA and an increase of the apoptotic cells. The group D showed that O-LM it reverted totally the effect of the RI on the expression of PCNA

  17. Thresholds in shock response across the elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, F. L.; Bourne, N. K.; CMEC Team

    2015-06-01

    Compendia of shock data have been assembled across national laboratories across the world. Previous work has shown a threshold in behaviour for materials; the weak shock limit. This corresponds the stress state at which the shock is overdriven in a single front. The shock velocity-particle velocity data for elements and compounds has been systematically analysed to note discontinuities in the data. A range of materials show these features and the form of the discontinuity in each case is analysed. Some correspond to martensitic phase transformations as expected whilst others are more difficult to track down. Particular groups within the elements show characteristic forms according to groupings in the periodic table. The datasets are presented and trends are noted.

  18. Studies on the effects on growth and antioxidant responses of two marine microalgal species to uniconazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xueqiao; Zheng, Kang; Wang, Lingdong; Li, Yantuan

    2014-10-01

    Uniconazole, as a plant growth retardant, can enhance stress tolerance in plants, possibly because of improved antioxidation defense mechanisms with higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) enzymes that retard lipid peroxidation and membrane deterioration. These years much attention has been focused on the responses of antioxidant system in plants to uniconazole stress, but such studies on aquatic organism are very few. Moreover, no information is available on growth and antioxidant response in marine microalgae to uniconazole. In this paper, the growth and antioxidant responses of two marine microalgal species, Platymonas helgolandica and Pavlova viridis, at six uniconazole concentrations (0-15 mg L-1) were investigated. The results demonstrated that 3 mg L-1 uniconazole could increase significantly chlorophyll a and carbohydrate contents of P. helgolandica ( P < 0.05). Higher concentrations (≥12 mg L-1) of uniconazole could inhibit significantly the growth, dry weight, chlorophyll-a and carbohydrate contents of P. helgolandica and P. viridis ( P < 0.05). Uniconazole caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation production (MDA) at higher concentrations (≥ 9 mg L-1). The activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were enhanced remarkably at low concentrations of uniconazole. However, significant reduction of SOD and CAT activities was observed at higher concentrations of uniconazole.

  19. Effects of the amplitude and frequency of salinity fluctuations on antioxidant responses in juvenile tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin O. Khairnar; Xiangli Tian; Shuanglin Dong; Ziheng Fang; Bhavesh V. Solanki; Holeyappa A. Shanthanagouda

    2016-01-01

    To understand the tolerance of tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis, to varying salinities, the effects of the amplitude (2, 4, 6 and 8 g/L) and frequency (2, 4 and 8 days) of salinity fluctuations on the activities of antioxidant responses, including acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) from antioxidant system in liver, muscle, gills and kidney, were investigated in this study. The results showed that the antioxidant responses of ...

  20. Prediction of nuclear hormone receptor response elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelin, Albin; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2005-03-01

    The nuclear receptor (NR) class of transcription factors controls critical regulatory events in key developmental processes, homeostasis maintenance, and medically important diseases and conditions. Identification of the members of a regulon controlled by a NR could provide an accelerated understanding of development and disease. New bioinformatics methods for the analysis of regulatory sequences are required to address the complex properties associated with known regulatory elements targeted by the receptors because the standard methods for binding site prediction fail to reflect the diverse target site configurations. We have constructed a flexible Hidden Markov Model framework capable of predicting NHR binding sites. The model allows for variable spacing and orientation of half-sites. In a genome-scale analysis enabled by the model, we show that NRs in Fugu rubripes have a significant cross-regulatory potential. The model is implemented in a web interface, freely available for academic researchers, available at http://mordor.cgb.ki.se/NHR-scan. PMID:15563547

  1. Antioxidant responses to heat and light stress differ with habitat in a common reef coral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Thomas D.; Krueger, Thomas; Wilkinson, Shaun P.; Fisher, Paul L.; Davy, Simon K.

    2015-12-01

    Coral bleaching—the stress-induced collapse of the coral- Symbiodinium symbiosis—is a significant driver of worldwide coral reef degradation. Yet, not all corals are equally susceptible to bleaching, and we lack a clear understanding of the mechanisms underpinning their differential susceptibilities. Here, we focus on cellular redox regulation as a potential determinant of bleaching susceptibility in the reef coral Stylophora pistillata. Using slow heating (1 °C d-1) and altered irradiance, we induced bleaching in S. pistillata colonies sampled from two depths [5-8 m (shallow) and 15-18 m (deep)]. There was significant depth-dependent variability in the timing and extent of bleaching (loss of symbiont cells), as well as in host enzymatic antioxidant activity [specifically, superoxide dismutase and catalase (CAT)]. However, among the coral fragments that bleached, most did so without displaying any evidence of a host enzymatic antioxidant response. For example, both deep and shallow corals suffered significant symbiont loss at elevated temperature, but only deep colonies exposed to high temperature and high light displayed any up-regulation of host antioxidant enzyme activity (CAT). Surprisingly, this preceded the equivalent antioxidant responses of the symbiont, which raises questions about the source(s) of hydrogen peroxide in the symbiosis. Overall, changes in enzymatic antioxidant activity in the symbionts were driven primarily by irradiance rather than temperature, and responses were similar across depth groups. Taken together, our results suggest that in the absence of light stress, heating of 1 °C d-1 to 4 °C above ambient is not sufficient to induce a substantial oxidative challenge in S. pistillata. We provide some of the first evidence that regulation of coral enzymatic antioxidants can vary significantly depending on habitat, and, in terms of determining bleaching susceptibility, our results suggest a significant role for the host's differential

  2. Finite Element Modeling of the Buckling Response of Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Cheryl A.; Moore, David F.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Rankin, Charles C.

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study of different modeling approaches for predicting sandwich panel buckling response is described. The study considers sandwich panels with anisotropic face sheets and a very thick core. Results from conventional analytical solutions for sandwich panel overall buckling and face-sheet-wrinkling type modes are compared with solutions obtained using different finite element modeling approaches. Finite element solutions are obtained using layered shell element models, with and without transverse shear flexibility, layered shell/solid element models, with shell elements for the face sheets and solid elements for the core, and sandwich models using a recently developed specialty sandwich element. Convergence characteristics of the shell/solid and sandwich element modeling approaches with respect to in-plane and through-the-thickness discretization, are demonstrated. Results of the study indicate that the specialty sandwich element provides an accurate and effective modeling approach for predicting both overall and localized sandwich panel buckling response. Furthermore, results indicate that anisotropy of the face sheets, along with the ratio of principle elastic moduli, affect the buckling response and these effects may not be represented accurately by analytical solutions. Modeling recommendations are also provided.

  3. Optimisation of antioxidant extraction from Solanum tuberosum potato peel waste by surface response methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Franco, Daniel; Sánchez, Marivel; Zapata, Carlos; Vázquez, José Antonio

    2014-12-15

    This study reports the optimised conditions (temperature, ethanol concentration and processing-time) for antioxidant extraction from potato peel (Agria variety) waste. At short extraction times (34 min), optimal yields of phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (Fv) compounds were reached at 89.9°C and ethanol concentrations of 71.2% and 38.6%, respectively. The main phenolic compounds identified in the extracts were chlorogenic (Cl) and ferulic (Fer) acids. A significant positive correlation was found between antioxidant activity and TP, Fv, Fer and Cl responses. Potato peel extracts were able to stabilize soybean oil under accelerated oxidation conditions, minimising peroxide, totox and p-anisidine indices. The production of hexanal and 2-hexenal in soybean oil samples was maximal for extracts obtained at intermediate temperatures and ethanol concentrations. Our results demonstrate potato peel waste is a good source of antioxidants able to effectively limit oil oxidation, while contributing to the revalorisation of these agrifood by-products. PMID:25038678

  4. Factors Affecting Antioxidant Response in Fish from a Long-term Mercury-Contaminated Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcikova, M; Modra, H; Blahova, J; Dobsikova, R; Kalina, J; Zitka, O; Kizek, R; Svobodova, Z

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate antioxidant defence and oxidative damage in organs (liver, gills, kidney, and brain) of five fish species (Aspius aspius, Esox lucius, Sander lucioperca, Abramis brama, Rutilus rutilus) from the long-term mercury-contaminated Skalka Reservoir in the Czech Republic. Special emphasis was placed on a comprehensive assessment of the factors that may affect the antioxidant response to mercury in fish. Antioxidant enzymes (glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase) did not significantly respond to mercury contamination. Levels of the analysed enzymes and oxidative damage to lipids were predominantly determined by a separate organ factor or species factor, or by the combination of both (p < 0.001). Levels of total glutathione and the reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio were influenced by mercury contamination in combination with their specific organ distribution (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that species and type of organ alone or in combination are more important factors than chronic exposure to mercury contamination with respect to effects on antioxidant defence in fish under field conditions. Our findings suggest that the main antioxidant defensive mechanism in fish from the studied long-term mercury contaminated site was the inter-tissue distribution of glutathione. PMID:26276034

  5. Response Surface Stochastic Finite Element Method of Composite Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Deyong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Response Surface Method (RSM has been applied to structural reliability problems successfully in many areas. Finite Element Method (FEM is one of the most widely used computational methods, which permit the analysis and design of large-scale engineering systems. In order to obtain a reliability analysis method of composite structure with satisfactory accuracy and computational efficiency, RSM and FEM were combined by secondary development of ABAQUS. Response Surface Stochastic Finite Element Method (RSSFEM which can solve the reliability problems of composite structure was developed. The numerical accuracy and the computational efficiency of the developed method were demonstrated by comparison with Monte-Carlo Stochastic Finite Element Method (MCSFEM.

  6. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoid Compounds and Antioxidants from Alfalfa Using Response Surface Method

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Liang Jing; Xiao-Fang Dong; Jian-Ming Tong

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract flavonoid-enriched antioxidants from alfalfa aerial part. Response surface methodology (RSM), based on a four-factor, five-level central composite design (CCD), was employed to obtain the optimal extraction parameters, in which the flavonoid content was maximum and the antioxidant activity of the extracts was strongest. Radical scavenging capacity of the extracts, which represents the amounts of antioxidants in alfalfa, was determined b...

  7. Cadmium exposure route affects antioxidant responses in the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Lingtian [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Buchwalter, David B., E-mail: david_buchwalter@ncsu.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer, antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase were suppressed by dietary cadmium (Cd) exposures, but not dissolved exposures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dietary Cd reduced concentrations of active glutathione in whole insect homogenates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These findings suggest that diet derived Cd is potentially more toxic than aqueous derived Cd in this mayfly, and may help explain the disconnection between laboratory and field data for aquatic insect responses to trace metal pollution. - Abstract: Aquatic organisms accumulate metals directly from water and from their diets. Exposure to metals is known to generate oxidative stress in living organisms and this stress may be ameliorated via activation of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants. To determine if antioxidant physiology is dependent on Cd exposure route in the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer, we exposed larvae to environmentally relevant concentrations of Cd from isolated dissolved or dietary exposure routes to achieve comparable tissue concentrations. Dissolved Cd had no effect on the antioxidant enzymes examined. However, dietary Cd significantly suppressed catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, and decreased concentrations of the reduced (active) form of glutathione in C. triangulifer larvae. These findings suggest that dietary Cd is potentially more toxic than aqueously derived Cd in this mayfly. We further examined the effect of dietary Cd tissue loading rates on antioxidant enzyme suppression and found that absolute tissue load appeared more important than loading rate. These results may help explain why insects are routinely unresponsive to dissolved metal exposures in the laboratory, yet highly responsive to metal pollution in nature.

  8. Cadmium exposure route affects antioxidant responses in the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► In the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer, antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase were suppressed by dietary cadmium (Cd) exposures, but not dissolved exposures. ► Dietary Cd reduced concentrations of active glutathione in whole insect homogenates. ► These findings suggest that diet derived Cd is potentially more toxic than aqueous derived Cd in this mayfly, and may help explain the disconnection between laboratory and field data for aquatic insect responses to trace metal pollution. - Abstract: Aquatic organisms accumulate metals directly from water and from their diets. Exposure to metals is known to generate oxidative stress in living organisms and this stress may be ameliorated via activation of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants. To determine if antioxidant physiology is dependent on Cd exposure route in the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer, we exposed larvae to environmentally relevant concentrations of Cd from isolated dissolved or dietary exposure routes to achieve comparable tissue concentrations. Dissolved Cd had no effect on the antioxidant enzymes examined. However, dietary Cd significantly suppressed catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, and decreased concentrations of the reduced (active) form of glutathione in C. triangulifer larvae. These findings suggest that dietary Cd is potentially more toxic than aqueously derived Cd in this mayfly. We further examined the effect of dietary Cd tissue loading rates on antioxidant enzyme suppression and found that absolute tissue load appeared more important than loading rate. These results may help explain why insects are routinely unresponsive to dissolved metal exposures in the laboratory, yet highly responsive to metal pollution in nature.

  9. Biopersistence of PEGylated Carbon Nanotubes Promotes a Delayed Antioxidant Response after Infusion into the Rat Hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Dal Bosco

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are promising nanomaterials for the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders. However, the ability of these nanomaterials to cross cell membranes and interact with neural cells brings the need for the assessment of their potential adverse effects on the nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the biopersistence of single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with polyethylene glycol (SWCNT-PEG directly infused into the rat hippocampus. Contextual fear conditioning, Y-maze and open field tasks were performed to evaluate the effects of SWCNT-PEG on memory and locomotor activity. The effects of SWCNT-PEG on oxidative stress and morphology of the hippocampus were assessed 1 and 7 days after infusion of the dispersions at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.1 mg/mL. Raman analysis of the hippocampal homogenates indicates the biopersistence of SWCNT-PEG in the hippocampus 7 days post-injection. The infusion of the dispersions had no effect on the acquisition or persistence of the contextual fear memory; likewise, the spatial recognition memory and locomotor activity were not affected by SWCNT-PEG. Histological examination revealed no remarkable morphological alterations after nanomaterial exposure. One day after the infusion, SWCNT-PEG dispersions at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL were able to decrease total antioxidant capacity without modifying the levels of reactive oxygen species or lipid hydroperoxides in the hippocampus. Moreover, SWCNT-PEG dispersions at all concentrations induced antioxidant defenses and reduced reactive oxygen species production in the hippocampus at 7 days post-injection. In this work, we found a time-dependent change in antioxidant defenses after the exposure to SWCNT-PEG. We hypothesized that the persistence of the nanomaterial in the tissue can induce an antioxidant response that might have provided resistance to an initial insult. Such antioxidant delayed response may constitute an adaptive response to the biopersistence of

  10. Effect of Antioxidant Mineral Elements Supplementation in the Treatment of Hypertension in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. The current work was designed with the aim of investigating the potentials of antioxidants copper, manganese, and zinc in the treatment of hypertension in Wistar rats. The rats were fed 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and treatment with supplements in the presence of the challenging agent for additional 4 weeks. The supplementation significantly decreased the blood pressure as compared with hypertensive control. The result also indicated significant decreased in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, insulin and increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total antioxidant activities, and nitric oxide of the supplemented groups relative to the hypertensive control. The average percentage protection against atherogenesis indicated 47.13 ± 9.60% for all the supplemented groups. The mean arterial blood pressure showed significant positive correlation with glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, insulin resistance and malondialdehyde while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total antioxidant activities showed negative correlation. The result therefore indicated strong relationship between oxidative stress and hypertension and underscores the role of antioxidant minerals in reducing oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance associated with hypertension.

  11. Role of antioxidant vitamins and trace elements in mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is associated with release of free radicals, increased total oxidant capacity and decreased total antioxidants capacity in milk. Antioxidant vitamins and minerals protect the body from free radicals either by directly scavenging free radicals or by inhibiting the activity of oxidizing enzymes. The supplementation of mastitic dairy cows with antioxidant vitamins as vitamin A (VA and β-carotene (BC, vitamin C (VC, vitamin E (VE, and antioxidant minerals as selenium (Se, Zinc (Zn and copper (Cu is very important to help the animal recover early. The aim of this review was to discuss the oxidative stress in dairy cows’ mastitis, and the roles of VA and BC, VC, VE, Se, Zn, and Cu in mastitis of dairy cows. Before deciding to supplement dairy cow rations with the levels of vitamins and minerals, dairy farmers should have their animal feeds tested and their rations evaluated by a competent dairy cow nutritionist and a trustworthy laboratory to be sure what levels of supplementation may be warranted. While inadequate intake and absorption of certain nutrients may result in a weakened immune system and perhaps more mastitis during the lactation period, unjustified supplementation can be expensive and lead to other animal health problems.

  12. Deficiency of glutathione transferase zeta causes oxidative stress and activation of antioxidant response pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Anneke C; Matthaei, Klaus I; Lim, Cindy; Taylor, Matthew C; Cappello, Jean Y; Hayes, John D; Anders, M W; Board, Philip G

    2006-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) zeta (GSTZ1-1) plays a significant role in the catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine, and a deficiency of GSTZ1-1 results in the accumulation of maleylacetoacetate and its derivatives maleylacetone (MA) and succinylacetone. Induction of GST subunits was detected in the liver of Gstz1(-/-) mice by Western blotting with specific antisera and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of glutathione affinity column-purified proteins. The greatest induction was observed in members of the mu class. Induction of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 and the catalytic and modifier subunits of glutamate-cysteine ligase was also observed. Many of the enzymes that are induced in Gstz1(-/-) mice are regulated by antioxidant response elements that respond to oxidative stress via the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway. It is significant that diminished glutathione concentrations were also observed in the liver of Gstz1(-/-) mice, which supports the conclusion that under normal dietary conditions, the accumulation of electrophilic intermediates such as maleylacetoacetate and MA results in a high level of oxidative stress. Elevated GST activities in the livers of Gstz1(-/-) mice suggest that GSTZ1-1 deficiency may alter the metabolism of some drugs and xenobiotics. Gstz1(-/-) mice given acetaminophen demonstrated increased hepatotoxicity compared with wild-type mice. This toxicity may be attributed to the increased GST activity or the decreased hepatic concentrations of glutathione, or both. Patients with acquired deficiency of GSTZ1-1 caused by therapeutic exposure to dichloroacetic acid for the clinical treatment of lactic acidosis may be at increased risk of drug- and chemical-induced toxicity. PMID:16278372

  13. Plant responses to stresses: role of ascorbate peroxidase in the antioxidant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Caverzan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When plants are exposed to stressful environmental conditions, the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS increases and can cause significant damage to the cells. Antioxidant defenses, which can detoxify ROS, are present in plants. A major hydrogen peroxide detoxifying system in plant cells is the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, in which, ascorbate peroxidase (APX enzymes play a key role catalyzing the conversion of H2O2 into H2O, using ascorbate as a specific electron donor. Different APX isoforms are present in distinct subcellular compartments, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisome, and cytosol. The expression of APX genes is regulated in response to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as during plant development. The APX responses are directly involved in the protection of plant cells against adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, mutant plants APX genes showed alterations in growth, physiology and antioxidant metabolism revealing those enzymes involvement in the normal plant development.

  14. Effect of Antioxidant Mineral Elements Supplementation in the Treatment of Hypertension in Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, S. A.; Bilbis, L. S.; Saidu, Y.; Adamu, Y

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. The current work was designed with the aim of investigating the potentials of antioxidants copper, manganese, and zinc in the treatment of hypertension in Wistar rats. The rats were fed 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and treatment with supplements in the presence of the challenging agent for additional 4 weeks. The supplementation significantly decreased the blo...

  15. Antioxidant Enzymes and Certain Trace Elements Values in Infants of Diabetic Mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress and accumulation of oxygen free radicals is a pathophysiological process leading to disadvantageous outcomes in diabetic pregnancies. Diabetes in pregnancy increases perinatal morbidity and mortality of both mother and her newborn. This study aimed to gain a view of antioxidant defense in the blood of infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) and to clarify the relation among serum copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Selenium (Se) and antioxidant enzymes in these infants. For this reason, 25 infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) were investigated. Twenty five newborns of healthy mothers served as a control group. Anthropometric and clinical evaluations were assessed in both groups. Laboratory investigations were performed including complete blood picture, direct and total bilirubin, serum Cu, Zn and Se. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (E-SOD)and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (E-GSHPx) were assisted. This study displayed highly significant reduction in levels of E-SOD and E-GSHPx in IDMs and in the mean serum levels of Cu, Zn and Se as compared to controls. There was a negative significant correlation between serum Zinc and blood glucose, there was a positive correlation between serum copper concentration and both gestational age and length. It also showed a significant positive correlation between GSHPx and both gestational age and Apgar 1, and a significant positive correlation between E-SOD, Apgar 1 and Apgar 5. These results proved that there is a state of oxidative stress in IDMs, therefore, their oxidant and antioxidant status should be carefully considered and appropriate management should be organized during the pregnancy and in the early postnatal period, including antioxidant and micro nutrients supplementation

  16. Study of antioxidant activity of sheep visceral protein hydrolysate: Optimization using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Meshginfar, Nasim; Sadeghi-Mahoonak, Alireza; Ziaiifar, Aman Mohammad; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Kashaninejad, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The main objective of this experiment was optimal use of none edible protein source to increase nutritional value of production with high biological function, including antioxidant activity. METHODS Sheep visceral (stomach and intestine) was used as substrate. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize hydrolysis conditions for preparing protein hydrolysate from the sheep visceral, using alcalase 2.4 l enzyme. The investigated factors were temperature (43-52 °C), time ...

  17. Dose-response effects of gamma irradiation on colour and antioxidant activity of wild Malva neglecta

    OpenAIRE

    Pinela, José; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Radiation processing technology has been used to improve food security, safety and quality. However there are a few reports in the literature on the effect of irradiation on bioactivity of herbs and medicinal plants [1]. Hence, the present work was undertaken to investigate the dose-response effects of gamma irradiation on the colour and antioxidant activity of wild Malva neglecta Wallr. In the north-eastern of Portugal, this annual herbaceous plant is traditionally eaten raw as leafy vegetab...

  18. Optimization of Preparation of Antioxidative Peptides from Pumpkin Seeds Using Response Surface Method

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Sanhong; Hu, Yanan; Li, Chen; Liu, Yanrong

    2014-01-01

    Protein isolates of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L) seeds were hydrolyzed by acid protease to prepare antioxidative peptides. The hydrolysis conditions were optimized through Box-Behnken experimental design combined with response surface method (RSM). The second-order model, developed for the DPPH radical scavenging activity of pumpkin seed hydrolysates, showed good fit with the experiment data with a high value of coefficient of determination (0.9918). The optimal hydrolysis conditions were deter...

  19. Herbicidal and antioxidant responses of transgenic rice overexpressing Myxococcus xanthus protoporphyrinogen oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunyo; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2005-05-01

    We analyzed the herbicidal and antioxidant defense responses of transgenic rice plants that overexpressed the Myxococcus xanthus protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene. Leaf squares of the wild-type incubated with oxyfluorfen were characterized by necrotic leaf lesions and increases in conductivity and malonyldialdehyde levels, whereas transgenic lines M4 and M7 did not show any change with up to 100 microM oxyfluorfen. The wild-type had decreased F(v)/F(m) and produced a high level of H(2)O(2) at 18 h after foliar application of oxyfluorfen, whereas transgenic lines M4 and M7 were unaffected. In response to oxyfluorfen, violaxanthin, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls (Chls) decreased in wild-type plants, whereas antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin increased. Only a slight decline in Chls was observed in transgenic lines at 48 h after oxyfluorfen treatment. Noticeable increases of cytosolic Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, peroxidase isozymes 1 and 2, and catalase were observed after at 48 h of oxyfluorfen treatment in the wild-type. Non-enzymatic antioxidants appeared to respond faster to oxyfluorfen-induced photodynamic stress than did enzymatic antioxidants. Protective responses for the detoxification of active oxygen species were induced to counteract photodynamic stress in oxyfluorfen-treated, wild-type plants. However, oxyfluorfen-treated, transgenic plants suffered less oxidative stress, confirming increased herbicidal resistance resulted from dual expression of M. xanthus Protox in chloroplasts and mitochondria. PMID:15890521

  20. Photoprotection by dietary phenolics against melanogenesis induced by UVA through Nrf2-dependent antioxidant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiprasongsuk, Anyamanee; Onkoksoong, Tasanee; Pluemsamran, Thanyawan; Limsaengurai, Saowalak; Panich, Uraiwan

    2016-08-01

    Dietary phenolics may play a protective role in UV-mediated skin pigmentation through their antioxidant and UV-absorbing actions. In this study, we investigated whether genetic silencing of Nrf2, regulating the transcription of antioxidant genes, affected melanogenesis in primary human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn) and B16F10 melanoma cells subjected to UVA (8J/cm(2)) exposure. Then, we explored the antimelanogenic actions of phenolics; caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) providing partial UVA protection; quercetin (QU) and rutin (RU) providing strong UVA protection and; avobenzone (AV), an efficient UVA filter, in association with modulation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defenses in response to UVA insults in B16F10 cells. Upon oxidative insults, Nrf2 silencing promoted melanogenesis in both HEMn and B16F10 cells irradiated with UVA. Stimulation of melanogenesis by UVA correlated with increased ROS and oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG), GSH depletion as well as a transient downregulation of Nrf2 nuclear translocation and of Nrf2-ARE signaling in B16F10 cells. All test compounds exerted antimelanogenic effects with respect to their abilities to reverse UVA-mediated oxidative damage as well as downregulation of Nrf2 activity and its target antioxidants (GCLC, GST and NQO1) in B16F10 cells. In conclusion, defective Nrf2 may promote melanogenesis under UVA irradiation through oxidative stress mechanisms. Compounds with antioxidant and/or UVA absorption properties could protect against UVA-induced melanogenesis through indirect regulatory effect on Nrf2-ARE pathway. PMID:26765101

  1. Finite Element Vibration and Dynamic Response Analysis of Engineering Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Mackerle

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography lists references to papers, conference proceedings, and theses/dissertations dealing with finite element vibration and dynamic response analysis of engineering structures that were published from 1994 to 1998. It contains 539 citations. The following types of structures are included: basic structural systems; ground structures; ocean and coastal structures; mobile structures; and containment structures.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of plant response to ionising radiation. Exploration of the glucosinolate role in the anti-oxidative response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrestrial organisms are exposed to low doses of ionising radiation from natural or anthropogenic sources. The major effects of the radiations are due to DNA deterioration and water radiolysis which generates an oxidative stress by free radical production. Plants constitute good models to study the effects of ionising radiations and the search of antioxidant molecules because of their important secondary metabolism. Thus this thesis, funded by the Brittany region, characterized the physiological and molecular response of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to low (10 Gy) and moderate (40 Gy) doses of ionising radiation, and was therefore interested in glucosinolates, characteristic compounds of the Brassicaceae family. The global proteomic and transcriptomic studies carried out on this model revealed (1) a common response for both doses dealing with the activation of DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle regulation and protection of cellular structures; (2) an adjustment of the energetic metabolism and an activation of secondary compounds biosynthesis (i.e. glucosinolates and flavonoids) after the 10 Gy dose; (3) an induction of enzymatic control of ROS, the regulation of cellular components recycling and of programmed cell death after the 40 Gy dose. The potential anti-oxidative role of glucosinolates was then explored. The in vitro anti-oxidative power of some glucosinolates and their derivative products were demonstrated. Their modulating effects against irradiation-induced damages were then tested in vivo by simple experimental approaches. The importance of the glucosinolate level to give a positive or negative effect was demonstrated. (author)

  3. Response of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems of Polygonum hydropiper to Mn stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨贤均; 邓冬梅; 刘可慧; 于方明

    2016-01-01

    The response of enzyme and non-enzymatic antioxidants of Mn hyperaccumuator,Polygonum hydropiper (P. hydropiper), to Mn stress was studied using hydroponics culture experiments to explore the mechanism of Mn tolerance in this species. Results showed that both chlorophyll and carotenoid contents significantly (p<0.05) decreased with increasing Mn treatment levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/L) in hydroponics. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the root and shoot ofP. hydropiper were accumulated under Mn stress. Meanwhile, the anti-oxidative functions of several important enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD) in plants were stimulated by Mn spike in leaves and roots, especially at low Mn stress; while sulfhydryl group (—SH) and glutathion (GSH) were likely involved in Mn detoxification ofP. hydropiper under high Mn stress.

  4. Antioxidant response of the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma epiphytized by the invasive red macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tejada

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the response of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma epiphytized by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii in Mallorca coastal waters (Balearic Islands by means of biomarker measures. Methods: Samples of epiphytized and non-epiphytized D. dichotoma were collected in Cala Morlanda (East Mallorca, Balearic Islands. Markers of lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in D. dichotoma. Results: Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde and all the antioxidant activities measured were significantly higher in the epiphytized brown algae when compared with the control algae. Conclusions: In conclusion, the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii seems to produce a more oxidized status in the epiphytized D. dichotoma and cellular damage that could induce increased mortality.

  5. Antioxidant response of the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma epiphytized by the invasive red macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Tejada; Antoni Sureda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the response of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma) epiphytized by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii in Mallorca coastal waters (Balearic Islands) by means of biomarker measures. Methods: Samples of epiphytized and non-epiphytized D. dichotoma were collected in Cala Morlanda (East Mallorca, Balearic Islands). Markers of lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in D. dichotoma. Results: Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde and all the antioxidant activities measured were significantly higher in the epiphytized brown algae when compared with the control algae. Conclusions:In conclusion, the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii seems to produce a more oxidized status in the epiphytized D. dichotoma and cellular damage that could induce increased mortality.

  6. Elements of a national emergency response system for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest elements for a general emergency response system, employed at a national level, to detect, evaluate and assess the consequences of a radiological atmospheric release occurring within or outside of national boundaries. These elements are focused on the total aspect of emergency response ranging from providing an initial alarm to a total assessment of the environmental and health effects. Elements of the emergency response system are described in such a way that existing resources can be directly applied if appropriate; if not, newly developed or an expansion of existing resources can be employed. The major thrust of this paper is toward a philosophical discussion and general description of resources that would be required to implementation. If the major features of this proposal system are judged desirable for implementation, then the next level of detail can be added. The philosophy underlying this paper is preparedness - preparedness through planning, awareness and the application of technology. More specifically, it is establishment of reasonable guidelines including the definition of reference and protective action levels for public exposure to accidents involving nuclear material; education of the public, government officials and the news media; and the application of models and measurements coupled to computer systems to address a series of questions related to emergency planning, response and assessment. It is the role of a proven national emergency response system to provide reliable, quality-controlled information to decision makers for the management of environmental crises

  7. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in placentas of women with low birth weight neonates. Correlation with toxic and essential trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyse content of essential (Fe, Cu Zn and Se) and toxic (As, Pb, and Cd) elements in placentas from mothers delivering normal (control) and low birth weight neonates (LBW) and correlate its concentration with oxidative stress parameters and foetal growth. Methods: Ions concentrations were analysed by AAS (Cu and Cd) and NAA (Fe, Se, Zn, Pb and As). Oxidative stress parameters (TAS, TBARS, GSH) were analysed by spectrophotometry after chemical reactions producing chromogenic compounds. Antioxidant enzymes Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathion peroxidase (GPx) were kinetically determined by evaluating transformation rate of epinephrine and NADPH to adrenochrom and NADP+ respectively. Results: Placentas from mothers related to LBW neonates had lower Fe concentrations and higher levels of toxic elements (Cd, Pb and As) when compared to normal control placentas. Nevertheless, no correlation was found between any measured element and neonate birth weight. No differences were observed in oxidative stress parameter except total glutathion concentration, which was increased in LBW-related placentas, constituting perhaps a quick reactive defence mechanism against detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Preliminary studies performed in both groups, demonstrated that protective enzymes activity (GPx and SOD) against oxidative damage caused by ROS, were not significantly different. Nevertheless, placentas involved in adequate for gestation age neonates showed a tendency to present higher SOD activities. More determinations will be necessary to establish a possible correlation between these activities and neonatal birth weight. (author)

  8. Interactions of arsenic and phenanthrene on their uptake and antioxidative response in Pteris vittata L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Lu [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yan Xiulan [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Liao Xiaoyong, E-mail: liaoxy@igsnrr.ac.cn [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Wen Yi; Chong Zhongyi; Liang Tao [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-12-15

    The interactions of arsenic and phenanthrene on plant uptake and antioxidative response of Pteris vitatta L. were studied hydroponically. The combination of arsenic and phenanthrene decreased arsenic contents in fronds by 30-51%, whereas increased arsenic concentrations 1.2-1.6 times in roots, demonstrating the suppression of arsenic translocation compared to the corresponding treatment without phenanthrene. Under the co-exposure, As(III) concentrations in fronds deceased by 12-73%, and at higher arsenic exposure level ({>=}10 mg/L), As(V) in fronds and As(III) in roots increased compared to the single arsenic treatment. Arsenic exposure elevated phenanthrene concentrations in root by 39-164%. The co-existence of arsenic and phenanthrene had little impact on plant arsenic accumulation, although synergistic effect on antioxidants was observed, suggesting the special physiological process of P. vitatta in the co-exposure and application potential of P. vitatta in phytoremediation of arsenic and PAHs co-contamination. - Highlights: > Pteris vitatta L. show tolerance to the arsenic and phenanthrene co-exposure. > P. vitatta efficiently accumulate arsenic and simultaneously enhance phenanthrene dissipation. > Phenanthrene suppresses arsenic translocation from roots to fronds. > Phenanthrene causes As(III) elevation in roots while reduction in fronds. > Synergistic effect potentiates the toxicity and antioxidants in plant. - Pteris vitatta L. not only efficiently accumulate arsenic but also enhance phenanthrene dissipation under the arsenic and phenanthrene co-exposure.

  9. Sulforaphane ameliorates the insulin responsiveness and the lipid profile but does not alter the antioxidant response in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Carolina Guerini; da Motta, Leonardo Lisbôa; de Assis, Adriano Martimbianco; Rech, Anderson; Bruch, Ricardo; Klamt, Fábio; Souza, Diogo Onofre

    2016-04-20

    Diabetes is one of the most prevalent chronic non-communicable diseases and is characterized by hyperglycemia and increased oxidative stress. These two alterations are also responsible for the main diabetic complications: cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy and peripheral neuropathy. Diabetes progression is governed by pancreatic β-cell failure, and recent studies showed that sulforaphane (SFN) might be able to prevent this change, preserving insulin production. Consequently, our goal was to test the effects of SFN on metabolic parameters related to diabetic complications and antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase, catalase and sulfhydryl groups) in the pancreas, liver and kidney of non-diabetic and diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with water or 0.5 mg kg(-1) SFN i.p. for 21 days after diabetes induction. In diabetic animals treated with SFN, the serum levels of total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols were similar to those of non-diabetic animals, and the insulin responsiveness was higher than that of the diabetic animals that did not receive the compound. No effect of SFN on the superoxide dismutase and catalase activity or sulfhydryl groups was observed in the pancreas, liver or kidney of the treated animals. We conclude that SFN ameliorates some features of clinical diabetic complications particularly the lipid profile and insulin responsiveness, but it does not modulate the antioxidant response induced by superoxide dismutase, catalase and sulfhydryl groups in the evaluated organs. PMID:27025193

  10. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wyrwicka

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot, while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx, catalase (CAT and guaiacol peroxidase (POx, were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity.

  11. Antioxidative stress responses in the floating macrophyte Lemna minor L. with cylindrospermopsin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rojas, Nelida Cecilia; Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Cylindrospermopsin toxicity and oxidative stress have been examined in aquatic animals, however, only a few studies with aquatic plants have been conducted focusing on the potential for bioaccumulation of cylindrospermopsin. The oxidative stress effects caused by cylindrospermopsin on macrophytes have not yet been specifically studied. The oxidative stress response of Lemna minor L. with exposure to cylindrospermopsin, was therefore tested in this study. The hydrogen peroxide concentration together with the activities of the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase) were determined after 24h (hours) of exposure to varying concentrations (0.025, 0.25, 2.5 and 25μg/L) of cylindrospermopsin. Responses with longer exposure periods (48, 96, 168h) were tested only with exposure to 2.5 and 25μg/L cylindrospermopsin. Additionally, the content of the carotenoids was determined as a possible non-enzymatic antioxidant defence mechanism against cylindrospermopsin. The levels of hydrogen peroxide increased after 24h even at the lowest cylindrospermopsin exposure concentrations. Catalase showed the most representative antioxidant response observed after 24h and maintained its activity throughout the experiment. Catalase activity corresponded with the contents of hydrogen peroxide at 2.5 and 25μg/L cylindrospermopsin. The data suggest that glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase and the carotenoid content act together with catalase but are more sensitive to higher concentrations of cylindrospermopsin and after a longer exposure period (168h). The results indicate that cylindrospermopsin promotes oxidative stress in L. minor at concentrations of 2.5 and 25μg/L. However, L. minor has sufficient defence mechanisms in place against this cyanobacterial toxin. Even though L. minor exhibits the potential to managing and control cylindrospermopsin contamination in aquatic systems, further studies in tolerance limits to

  12. Optimization of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Antioxidant Compounds from Marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Mohammad; Brunton, Nigel; Patras, Ankit; Tiwari, Brijesh; O Donnell, C.; Martin-Diana, Ana Belen; Barry-Ryan, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The present study optimized the ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) conditions to maximize the antioxidant activity [Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP)], total phenol content (TP) and content of individual polyphenols of extracts from marjoram. Optimal conditions with regard to amplitude of sonication (24.4–61.0 μm) and extraction temperature (15–35 °C) and extraction time (5–15 min) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the combined trea...

  13. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Coreopsis tinctoria Nuff. and optimisation of isolation by response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Lan Shumin; Lin Jingming; Zheng Ni

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the antioxidant activity of Coreopsis tinctoria flowering tops (CTFT). Studies were conducted to obtain suitable extraction conditions for chlorogenic acid, quercetin, luteolin, apigenin and kaempferol, which were identified and quantified by HPLC. Response surface methodology was employed to optimise the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions, including extraction time, ethanol concentration and liquid-solid ratio. The antioxidant activity of ...

  14. Optimisation of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity from Euphorbia tirucalli Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Quan V. Vuong; Chloe D. Goldsmith; Trung Thanh Dang; Van Tang Nguyen; Deep Jyoti Bhuyan; Elham Sadeqzadeh; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Bowyer, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli) is now widely distributed around the world and is well known as a source of traditional medicine in many countries. This study aimed to utilise response surface methodology (RSM) to optimise ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity from E. tirucalli leaf. The results showed that ultrasonic temperature, time and power effected TPC and antioxidant capacity; however, the effects varied. Ultrason...

  15. The enzymatic and antioxidative stress response of Lemna minor to copper and a chloroacetamide herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Michael; Schröder, Christian A; Helmreich, Brigitte; Schröder, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Lemna minor L., a widely used model plant for toxicity tests has raised interest for its application to phytoremediation due to its rapid growth and ubiquitous occurrence. In rural areas, the pollution of water bodies with heavy metals and agrochemicals poses a problem to surface water quality. Among problematic compounds, heavy metals (copper) and pesticides are frequently found in water bodies. To establish duckweed as a potential plant for phytoremediation, enzymatic and antioxidative stress responses of Lemna minor during exposure to copper and a chloroacetamide herbicide were investigated in laboratory studies. The present study aimed at evaluating growth and the antioxidative and glutathione-dependent enzyme activity of Lemna plants and its performance in a scenario for phytoremediation of copper and a chloroacetamide herbicide. Lemna minor was grown in Steinberg medium under controlled conditions. Plants were treated with CuSO4 (ion conc. 50 and 100 μg/L) and pethoxamide (1.25 and 2.5 μg/L). Measurements following published methods focused on plant growth, oxidative stress, and basic detoxification enzymes. Duckweed proved to survive treatment with the respective concentrations of both pollutants very well. Its growth was inhibited scarcely, and no visible symptoms occurred. On the cellular basis, accumulation of O2(-) and H2O2 were detected, as well as stress reactions of antioxidative enzymes. Duckweed detoxification potential for organic pollutants was high and increased significantly with incubation. Pethoxamide was found to be conjugated with glutathione. Copper was accumulated in the fronds at high levels, and transient oxidative defense reactions were triggered. This work confirms the significance of L. minor for the removal of copper from water and the conjugation of the selective herbicide pethoxamide. Both organic and inorganic xenobiotics induced different trends of enzymatic and antioxidative stress response. The strong increase of stress

  16. Oxidative Response and Antioxidative Mechanism in Germinating Soybean Seeds Exposed to Cadmium

    OpenAIRE

    Shiyong Yang; Jianchun Xie; Quanfa Li

    2012-01-01

    Seeds of soybean (Glycine max L.) exposed to 50 mg/L (Cd50), 100 mg/L (Cd100) and 200 mg/L (Cd200) cadmium solution for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were examined with reference to Cd accumulation, oxidative stress and antioxidative responses. Soybean seeds accumulated Cd in an exposure time-and dosage-dependent manner. FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) concentration, GSH/hGSH content, and GST activity showed a pronounced exposure time-dependent respons...

  17. Spectral response of multi-element silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, B.A.; Rossington, C.S.; Chapman, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Multi-element silicon strip detectors, in conjunction with integrated circuit pulse-processing electronics, offer an attractive alternative to conventional lithium-drifted silicon Si(Li) and high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) for high count rate, low noise synchrotron x-ray fluorescence applications. One of the major differences between the segmented Si detectors and the commercially available single-element Si(Li) or HPGe detectors is that hundreds of elements can be fabricated on a single Si substrate using standard silicon processing technologies. The segmentation of the detector substrate into many small elements results in very low noise performance at or near, room temperature, and the count rate of the detector is increased many-fold due to the multiplication in the total number of detectors. Traditionally, a single channel of detector with electronics can handle {approximately}100 kHz count rates while maintaining good energy resolution; the segmented detectors can operate at greater than MHz count rates merely due to the multiplication in the number of channels. One of the most critical aspects in the development of the segmented detectors is characterizing the charge sharing and charge loss that occur between the individual detector strips, and determining how these affect the spectral response of the detectors.

  18. Finite element simulation of impact response of wire mesh screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Caizheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the response of wire mesh screens to low velocity impact with blunt objects is investigated using finite element (FE simulation. The woven wire mesh is modelled with homogeneous shell elements with equivalent smeared mechanical properties. The mechanical behaviour of the woven wire mesh was determined experimentally with tensile tests on steel wire mesh coupons to generate the data for the smeared shell material used in the FE. The effects of impacts with a low mass (4 kg and a large mass (40 kg providing the same impact energy are studied. The joint between the wire mesh screen and the aluminium frame surrounding it is modelled using contact elements with friction between the corresponding elements. Damage to the screen of different types compromising its structural integrity, such as mesh separation and pulling out from the surrounding frame is modelled. The FE simulation is validated with results of impact tests conducted on woven steel wire screen meshes.

  19. Growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant responses of Vigna unguiculata L. treated with hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Aiman Hasan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. is an important legume well grown in semiarid and arid environment. Hydrogen peroxide solutions (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM have been used to optimize growth and photosynthetic performance of cowpea plant at two growth stages [30 and 45 DAS (days of sowing]. Foliar application of H2O2 at 0.5 > 1.0 mM solution at 29 DAS optimally promoted the photosynthetic attributes [leaf chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (PN, water use efficiency, and maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm] and growth performance [root and shoot length; fresh and dry weight] of plants where the responses were more significant at the later growth stage. It was favored by activity of enzymes as carbonic anhydrase [CA; E.C. 4.2.1.1] and nitrate reductase [NR, E.C. 1.6.6.1] and those of antioxidant enzymes viz. peroxidase [POX; EC 1.11.1.7], catalase [CAT; EC 1.11.1.6], and superoxide dismutase [SOD; EC 1.15.1.1] and leaf proline content. Strengthened root system and antioxidant activity, particularly leaf proline level appeared to be the key factor for efficient photosynthesis and growth responses.

  20. Antioxidant enzymes activities of Burkholderia spp. strains-oxidative responses to Ni toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, M N; Franco, M R; Peters, L P; Martins, P F; Souza, L A; Piotto, F A; Azevedo, R A

    2015-12-01

    Increased agriculture production associated with intense application of herbicides, pesticides, and fungicides leads to soil contamination worldwide. Nickel (Ni), due to its high mobility in soils and groundwater, constitutes one of the greatest problems in terms of environmental pollution. Metals, including Ni, in high concentrations are toxic to cells by imposing a condition of oxidative stress due to the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which damage lipids, proteins, and DNA. This study aimed to characterize the Ni antioxidant response of two tolerant Burkholderia strains (one isolated from noncontaminated soil, SNMS32, and the other from contaminated soil, SCMS54), by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. Ni accumulation and bacterial growth in the presence of the metal were also analyzed. The results showed that both strains exhibited different trends of Ni accumulation and distinct antioxidant enzymes responses. The strain from contaminated soil (SCMS54) exhibited a higher Ni biosorption and exhibited an increase in SOD and GST activities after 5 and 12 h of Ni exposure. The analysis of SOD, CAT, and GR by nondenaturing PAGE revealed the appearance of an extra isoenzyme in strain SCMS54 for each enzyme. The results suggest that the strain SCMS54 isolated from contaminated soil present more plasticity with potential to be used in soil and water bioremediation. PMID:26289332

  1. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Coreopsis tinctoria Nuff. and optimisation of isolation by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Shumin; Lin, Jingming; Zheng, Ni

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the antioxidant activity of Coreopsis tinctoria flowering tops (CTFT). Studies were conducted to obtain suitable extraction conditions for chlorogenic acid, quercetin, luteolin, apigenin and kaempferol, which were identified and quantified by HPLC. Response surface methodology was employed to optimise the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions including extraction time, ethanol concentration and liquid-solid ratio. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analysed using various antioxidant models, such as DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. CTFT extracted for 15.0 min with ethanol at a concentration of 60.4% and with liquidsolid ratio 27.5:1 possessed a considerable amounts of total flavonoids and polyphenols (18.9%). This extract showed higher scavenging activity of ABTS and hydroxyl radical activity than rutin, however not in the DPPH test. We may assume that CTFT possess antioxidant and free radical scavenging potentials. PMID:25296682

  2. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Tunisian Zizyphus lotus fruits using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammi, Khaoula Mkadmini; Jdey, Ahmed; Abdelly, Chedly; Majdoub, Hatem; Ksouri, Riadh

    2015-10-01

    The optimization of antioxidant extraction conditions from a ripe edible fruits of Zizyphus lotus (L.) with an ultrasound-assisted system was achieved by response surface methodology. The central composite rotatable design was employed for optimization of extraction parameters in terms of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and phosphomolybdenum assay. The optimum operating conditions for extraction were as follows: ethanol concentration, 50%; extraction time, 25 min; extraction temperature, 63°C and ratio of solvent to solid, 67 mL/g. Under these conditions, the obtained extract exhibited a high content of phenolic compounds (40.782 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry matter) with significant antioxidant properties (the total antioxidant activity was 75.981 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry matter and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity was 0.289 mg/mL). PMID:25872429

  3. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Coreopsis Tinctoria Nuff. and Optimisation of Isolation by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Shumin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the antioxidant activity of Coreopsis tinctoria flowering tops (CTFT. Studies were conducted to obtain suitable extraction conditions for chlorogenic acid, quercetin, luteolin, apigenin and kaempferol, which were identified and quantified by HPLC. Response surface methodology was employed to optimise the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions including extraction time, ethanol concentration and liquid-solid ratio. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analysed using various antioxidant models, such as DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. CTFT extracted for 15.0 min with ethanol at a concentration of 60.4 % and with liquidsolid ratio 27.5:1 possessed a considerable amounts of total flavonoids and polyphenols (18.9 %. This extract showed higher scavenging activity of ABTS and hydroxyl radical activity than rutin, however not in the DPPH test. We may assume that CTFT possess antioxidant and free radical scavenging potentials.

  4. Hormetic response triggers multifaceted anti-oxidant strategies in immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Dégletagne, Cyril; Bodennec, Jacques; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Mortz, Mathieu; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Tornos, Jeremy; Duchamp, Claude

    2016-08-01

    Repeated deep dives are highly pro-oxidative events for air-breathing aquatic foragers such as penguins. At fledging, the transition from a strictly terrestrial to a marine lifestyle may therefore trigger a complex set of anti-oxidant responses to prevent chronic oxidative stress in immature penguins but these processes are still undefined. By combining in vivo and in vitro approaches with transcriptome analysis, we investigated the adaptive responses of sea-acclimatized (SA) immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) compared with pre-fledging never-immersed (NI) birds. In vivo, experimental immersion into cold water stimulated a higher thermogenic response in SA penguins than in NI birds, but both groups exhibited hypothermia, a condition favouring oxidative stress. In vitro, the pectoralis muscles of SA birds displayed increased oxidative capacity and mitochondrial protein abundance but unchanged reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation per g tissue because ROS production per mitochondria was reduced. The genes encoding oxidant-generating proteins were down-regulated in SA birds while mRNA abundance and activity of the main antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated. Genes encoding proteins involved in repair mechanisms of oxidized DNA or proteins and in degradation processes were also up-regulated in SA birds. Sea life also increased the degree of fatty acid unsaturation in muscle mitochondrial membranes resulting in higher intrinsic susceptibility to ROS. Oxidative damages to protein or DNA were reduced in SA birds. Repeated experimental immersions of NI penguins in cold-water partially mimicked the effects of acclimatization to marine life, modified the expression of fewer genes related to oxidative stress but in a similar way as in SA birds and increased oxidative damages to DNA. It is concluded that the multifaceted plasticity observed after marine life may be crucial to maintain redox homeostasis in active tissues subjected to high pro-oxidative pressure

  5. Analysis of serum response element function in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The c-fos gene is a member of a set of genes that are rapidly and transiently activated following stimulation of susceptible cells with a variety of growth factors and mitogens. In fibroblasts, this group of cellular immediate early genes also includes the genes encoding cytoskeletal actins, extracellular matrix proteins, and a number of putative transcriptional regulatory proteins. Stimulation of cellular immediate early gene expression does not require protein synthesis, implying that appropriate regulatory factors are present prior to growth factor stimulation. In the case of the c-fos gene, transient transfection experiments have been used extensively to map sequences that activate transcription in response to growth factors. These studies allowed the identification of a palindromic sequence element, the serum response element (SRE), located 300 bp 5' to the mRNA start site, that is required for transient transcriptional activation of the gene in response to serum factors. The human c-fos and Xenopus laevis cytoskeletal actin promoters are compared

  6. Trace elements and antioxidants in Astragalus onobrychis L. var. chlorocarpus (Griseb. S. Kožuharov et D.K. Pavlova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Dragoljub L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of growing-wild species Astragalus onobrychis L. var. chlorocarpus (Griseb. S. Kožuharov et D. K. Pavlova were collected during the different stages of growth and analyzed for iron (Fe, copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn, soluble proteins, reduced glutathione (GSH, total flavonoid and total carotenoid contents. Iron, copper and manganese have shown similar seasonal pattern, increasing of metal content in leaves during the vegetative period. The highest values of the examined elements were in seed forming stage, except zinc. The highest value of this element was recorded in initial stage of vegetation. Antioxidant compounds have the highest values in blooming stage of vegetation. The results from the present study suggest that researched plant species represent a good source of trace elements and antioxidant compounds.

  7. Cadmium stress antioxidant responses and root-to-shoot communication in grafted tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratão, Priscila Lupino; Monteiro, Carolina Cristina; Tezotto, Tiago; Carvalho, Rogério Falleiros; Alves, Letícia Rodrigues; Peters, Leila Priscila; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2015-10-01

    Many aspects related to ROS modulation of signaling networks and biological processes that control stress responses still remain unanswered. For this purpose, the grafting technique may be a powerful tool to investigate stress signaling and specific responses between plant organs during stress. In order to gain new insights on the modulation of antioxidant stress responses mechanisms, gas-exchange measurements, lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, proline, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX) were analyzed in Micro-Tom grafted plants submitted to cadmium (Cd). The results observed revealed that higher amounts of Cd accumulated mainly in the roots and rootstocks when compared to leaves and scions. Macronutrients uptake (Ca, S, P and Mg) decreased in non-grafted plants, but differed among plant parts in all grafted plants. The results showed that the accumulation of proline observed in scions of grafted plants could be associated to the lower MDA contents in the scions of grafted plants. In the presence of Cd, non-grafted plants displayed increased CAT, GR, GPOX and APX activities for both tissues, whilst grafted plants revealed distinct trends that clearly indicate signaling responses from the rootstocks, allowing sufficient time to activate defense mechanisms in shoot. The information available concerning plants subjected to grafting can provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of Cd detoxification involving root-to-shoot signaling, opening new possibilities on strategies which can be used to manipulate heavy metal tolerance, since antioxidant systems are directly involved in such mechanism. PMID:26077192

  8. Antioxidant activity of polysaccharide extracted from Ganoderma lucidum using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yongjun; Chen, Tiqiang; Wu, Yanbin; Wu, Jianguo; Wu, Jinzhong

    2015-01-01

    Superfine grinding technology was applied for polysaccharide extraction from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum, and response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the effects of processing parameters on polysaccharide extraction yield. Results showed that the maximum yield of G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) was obtained at an optimum condition: extraction time 137 min, extraction temperature 66 ̊C, the ratio of water to material 35 mL/g, and the GLP extracting yield reached 2.44% under this condition. GLP were precipitated into three crude polysaccharides, viz. GLP40, GLP60 and GLP80. The basic characterization of polysaccharides was determined by using HPLC and FT-IR methods. GLP, GLP80, GLP60, and GLP40 were composed of Man, Rib, Glc, Gal and Fuc with the molar ratios of 1.27:0.36:22.89:1.61:0.33, 1.40:0.31:23.02:3.46:0.91, 0.96:0.34:25.76:2.47:0.46, and 2.81:1.42:23.83:1.61:0.33, respectively. The result of FT-IR suggested that the monosaccharide residue of the four polysaccharides was β-pyranoid ring. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of these four polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that GLP80 had the best reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging ability and oxygen radical scavenging ability followed by GLP, GLP60 and GLP40. Our results demonstrated that RSM might be a valuable technique for optimizing the efficient extraction of GLP, and G. lucidum could be considered as sources of natural antioxidants and preservatives of food industry. Moreover, polysaccharides, especially GLP80, extracted from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, exhibited promising antioxidant activities. PMID:25149043

  9. Photosynthesis and antioxidant response to winter rapeseed (brassica napus l.) as affected by boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of boron on photosynthesis and antioxidant response to rapeseed yield was studied by the field experimentation along with plant analysis during the winter season of 2010 and 2011. The field experimentation was conducted by split plot design with three replications consisting of two factors such as i) two rapeseed cultivars (viz. Xiangzayou 1613 and 09-13581613), assigned in main plots and ii) five boron levels (viz. 0, 4.5, 9.0, 13.5 and 18.0 kgha-1) imposed in the sub-plots. The rate of photosynthesis increased with increasing boron level upto 9.0 kgha-1 with simultaneous increase in photosynthetically active radiation, rate of transpiration and stomatal conductance and decrease in intercellular CO/sun 2/ concentration in both cultivars, while reverse trend was shown with further increase of B concentration. B @ 9.0 kgha- improved the activities of antioxidant protective enzyme of SOD and POD and decreased the accumulation of MDA content in the both cultivars. Dry matter translocation increased with increasing B level upto 9.0 kgha-1 that resulted the highest seed yield and harvest index of rapeseed in both cultivars. Thus, B @ 9 kgha-1 is sufficient for rapeseed cultivation under the subtropical environmental condition of the Southern China. Brassica napus. (author)

  10. Physiological and antioxidant responses of two accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana in different light and temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Renata; Nowicka, Beatrycze; Gabruk, Michał; Glińska, Sława; Michlewska, Sylwia; Dłużewska, Jolanta; Sawicka, Anna; Kruk, Jerzy; Laitinen, Roosa

    2015-06-01

    During their lifetime, plants need to adapt to a changing environment, including light and temperature. To understand how these factors influence plant growth, we investigated the physiological and antioxidant responses of two Arabidopsis accessions, Shahdara (Sha) from the Shahdara valley (Tajikistan, Central Asia) in a mountainous area and Lovvik-5 (Lov-5) from northern Sweden to different light and temperature conditions. These accessions originate from different latitudes and have different life strategies, both of which are known to be influenced by light and temperature. We showed that both accessions grew better in high-light and at a lower temperature (16°C) than in low light and at 23°C. Interestingly, Sha had a lower chlorophyll content but more efficient non-photochemical quenching than Lov-5. Sha, also showed a higher expression of vitamin E biosynthetic genes. We did not observe any difference in the antioxidant prenyllipid level under these conditions. Our results suggest that the mechanisms that keep the plastoquinone (PQ)-pool in more oxidized state could play a role in the adaptation of these accessions to their local climatic conditions. PMID:25214438

  11. Transcriptional and antioxidative responses to endogenous polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrisic, Luka; Collinson, Emma J; Tehlivets, Oksana; Perak, Eleonora; Zarkovic, Tomislav; Dawes, Ian W; Zarkovic, Neven; Cipak Gasparovic, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Pathophysiology of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is associated with aberrant lipid and oxygen metabolism. In particular, under oxidative stress, PUFAs are prone to autocatalytic degradation via peroxidation, leading to formation of reactive aldehydes with numerous potentially harmful effects. However, the pathological and compensatory mechanisms induced by lipid peroxidation are very complex and not sufficiently understood. In our study, we have used yeast capable of endogenous PUFA synthesis in order to understand the effects triggered by PUFA accumulation on cellular physiology of a eukaryotic organism. The mechanisms induced by PUFA accumulation in S. cerevisiae expressing Hevea brasiliensis Δ12-fatty acid desaturase include down-regulation of components of electron transport chain in mitochondria as well as up-regulation of pentose-phosphate pathway and fatty acid β-oxidation at the transcriptional level. Interestingly, while no changes were observed at the transcriptional level, activities of two important enzymatic antioxidants, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase, were altered in response to PUFA accumulation. Increased intracellular glutathione levels further suggest an endogenous oxidative stress and activation of antioxidative defense mechanisms under conditions of PUFA accumulation. Finally, our data suggest that PUFA in cell membrane causes metabolic changes which in turn lead to adaptation to endogenous oxidative stress. PMID:25280400

  12. Optimization of pancreatic lipase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Ilex paraguariensis by using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyung-Eon; Shin, Hyeji; Jeon, Young Ho; Jo, Yang Hee; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Lee, Ken S; Park, Byoungduck; Lee, Ki Yong

    2016-07-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) using a Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the extraction conditions for obtaining pancreatic lipase inhibitory and antioxidant principles from Ilex paraguariensis leaves. Three influencing factors: extraction time (min), the liquid-solid ratio, and ethanol concentration (%, v/v) were investigated in the ultrasonic extraction process. Optimization of the extraction conditions to obtain a product with minimum PL activity, maximum antioxidant activity, and maximum yield was performed using RSM by focusing on the three target influencing factors. The optimum conditions were established as the ethanol concentration (54.8 %), liquid-solid ratio (35.4), and extraction time (70.0 min). Under these conditions, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, PL activity, extraction yield were 59.3 ± 3.5, 35.3 ± 3.0, and 34.4 ± 0.4 %, respectively, similar to the theoretical predicted values of 59.7, 35.2, and 34.3 %, respectively. PMID:27277165

  13. Dynamics of rhizosphere properties and antioxidative responses in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Wang, Li; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Hairong

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we performed a rhizobox experiment to examine the dynamic changes in the rhizosphere properties and antioxidant enzyme responses of Triticum aestivum L. under three levels of cadmium stress. A set of micro-techniques (i.e., Rhizobox and Rhizon SMS) were applied for the dynamically non-destructive collection of the rhizosphere soil solution to enable the observation at a high temporal resolution. The dynamics of soluble cadmium and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the rhizosphere soil solutions of the Triticum aestivum L. were characterised by the sequence week 0 after sowing (WAS0)soil solution pH was found to follow an opposite distribution pattern. Systematically, both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in the leaves of the Triticum aestivum L. increased concomitantly with increasing cadmium levels (p>0.05) and growth duration (pstress with a decrease at high cadmium stress (p>0.05). These results suggested the enhancement of DOC production and the greater antioxidant enzyme activities were two important protective mechanisms of Triticum aestivum L. under cadmium stress, whereas rhizosphere acidification might be an important mechanism for the mobilisation of soil cadmium. The results also revealed that plant-soil interactions strongly influence the soil solution chemistry in the rhizosphere of Triticum aestivum L., that, in turn, can stimulate chemical and biochemical responses in the plants. In most cases, these responses to cadmium stress were sensitive and might allow us to develop strategies for reducing the risks of the cadmium contamination to crop production. PMID:24580822

  14. Effect of Chronic Exposure to Prometryne on Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Response in Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžběta Stará

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine herbicide prometryne on red swamp crayfish on the basis of oxidative stress, antioxidant indices in hepatopancreas and muscle, and histopathology of hepatopancreas. Crayfish were exposed to prometryne concentrations of 0.51 μg L−1, 0.144 mg L−1, and 1.144 mg L−1 for 11 and 25 days. Indices of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, and antioxidant parameters (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione reductase (GR in crayfish muscle and hepatopancreas were measured. Chronic exposure to prometryne did not showed the impact of oxidative damage to cells. Changes activity of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, and GR were observed in all tested concentrations to prometryne for 11 and 25 days (P<0.01 as compared with the control group. We did not see any differences in histopatological examination to hepatopancreas. Prolonged exposure of prometryne did not result in oxidative damage to cell lipids and proteins, but it led to changes in antioxidant activity in crayfish tissues. Changes in antioxidant systems were also observed in the environmental prometryne concentration of 0.51 μg L−1. The results suggest that antioxidant responses may have potential as biomarkers for monitoring residual triazine herbicides in aquatic environments.

  15. Flavonoids Extraction from Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion: Optimisation Using Response Surface Methodology and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongxi Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Box-Behnken design combined with response surface method was employed to optimize ultrasonic-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Taraxacum officinale. The optimized results showed that the highest extraction yield with ultrasonic-assisted extraction could reach 2.62% using 39.6% (v/v ethanol and 59.5 : 1 (mL/g liquid-solid ratio for 43.8 min. The crude extract was then purified by HPD-100 macroporous adsorption resin, and the flavonoids content in the purified extract increased to 54.7%. The antioxidant activity of the purified flavonoids was evaluated in vitro by scavenging capacity of ABTS or DPPH, β-carotene bleaching, and FTC test. The knowledge obtained from this study should be useful to further develop and apply this plant resource.

  16. The immune responses and antioxidant status of Portunus trituberculatus individuals with different body weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xianyun; Yu, Xuan; Gao, Baoquan; Li, Jian; Liu, Ping

    2016-04-01

    Vibrio alginolyticus is a virulent pathogen that affects crab aquacultures. In the present study, the immune responses and antioxidant status of big and small (based on body weight and size) 80-, 100- and 120-day-old specimens of Portunus trituberculatus, challenged for 72 h with Vibrio alginolyticus, were studied. The total hemocyte count (THC), and phagocytic, prophenoloxidase and phenoloxidase activities, of the big individuals (BIs) were higher than those of the small individuals (SIs) (P hemolymph and hepatopancreases of the BIs were higher than in the SIs (P hemolymph, or glutathione peroxidase activity in the cell-free hemolymph or hepatopancreas between the BIs and SIs. The α2-M and crustin gene expression levels in the hemocytes, and SOD expression in the hemocytes and hepatopancreas, were also significantly higher in the BIs. The results suggest that, compared with the SIs, the BIs possessed a higher resistance to V. alginolyticus infection. PMID:26952172

  17. N6-isopentenyladenosine and analogs activate the NRF2-mediated antioxidant response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Dassano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available N6-isopentenyladenosine (i6A, a naturally occurring modified nucleoside, inhibits the proliferation of human tumor cell lines in vitro, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Treatment of MCF7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells with i6A or with three synthetic analogs (allyl6A, benzyl6A, and butyl6A inhibited growth and altered gene expression. About 60% of the genes that were differentially expressed in response to i6A treatment were also modulated by the analogs, and pathway enrichment analysis identified the NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response as being significantly modulated by all four compounds. Luciferase reporter gene assays in transfected MCF7 cells confirmed that i6A activates the transcription factor NRF2. Assays for cellular production of reactive oxygen species indicated that i6A and analogs had antioxidant effects, reducing basal levels and inhibiting the H2O2- or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA-induced production in MCF7 or dHL-60 (HL-60 cells induced to differentiate along the neutrophilic lineage cell lines, respectively. In vivo, topical application of i6A or benzyl6A to mouse ears prior to TPA stimulation lessened the inflammatory response and significantly reduced the number of infiltrating neutrophils. These results suggest that i6A and analogs trigger a cellular response against oxidative stress and open the possibility of i6A and benzyl6A being used as topical anti-inflammatory drugs.

  18. Influence of organic selenium supplementation on the accumulation of toxic and essential trace elements involved in the antioxidant system of chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, Athanasios C; Zoidis, Evangelos; Georgiou, Constantinos A.; Demiris, Nikolaos; Surai, Peter F; Fegeros, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the interactions between selenium (Se) and some trace elements, both toxic and essential, which are all involved in the antioxidant system. A total of 128 day-old chickens (Gallus gallus, broilers) were used to investigate the effect of Se yeast supplementation on the accumulation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). There were 4 replicates of 4 dietary treatments: T1 (basal diet with no added Se, analyzed to contain...

  19. Oxidative Response and Antioxidative Mechanism in Germinating Soybean Seeds Exposed to Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyong Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of soybean (Glycine max L. exposed to 50 mg/L (Cd50, 100 mg/L (Cd100 and 200 mg/L (Cd200 cadmium solution for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were examined with reference to Cd accumulation, oxidative stress and antioxidative responses. Soybean seeds accumulated Cd in an exposure time-and dosage-dependent manner. FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma concentration, GSH/hGSH content, and GST activity showed a pronounced exposure time-dependent response. Cd100 enhanced FRAP concentration in germinating soybean seeds as compared to Cd50 treatment after 24 h exposure. Cd200 however increased statistically GST activities after 72 and 96 h exposure. Under all Cd dosages, GSH/hGSH concentrations were depressed with increasing exposure time. Reduction of GSH/hGSH content and concomitant increase of GST activity suggested a possible participation of GSH into GSH-Cd conjugates synthesis. MDA content is a potential biomarker for monitoring Cd phytotoxicity because it responds significantly to treatment dosage, exposure time and dosage ´ exposure time interaction. Increase of proline content may be a response to acute heavy metal toxicity in soybean seeds.

  20. Optimization of extraction time and temperature on antioxidant activity of Schizophyllum commune aqueous extract using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Rao, Vigneswara; Low, Jia Yin; Matanjun, Patricia; How, Siew Eng; Ho, Chun Wai

    2011-01-01

    Central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction time (X1: 99.5–290.5 min) and temperature (X2: 30.1–54.9 °C) of Schizophyllum commune aqueous extract with high antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC). Results indicated that the data were adequately fitted into four second-order polynomial models. The extraction time and temperature were found to have significant linear, quadratic and interaction effects on antioxidant acti...

  1. Biphasic dose-response of antioxidants in hypericin-induced photohemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Alina S; Vardapetyan, Hrachik R; Tiratsuyan, Susanna G; Hovhannisyan, Ashkhen A

    2011-09-01

    In the present paper the photodynamic effect of hypericin on superoxide dismutase activity and the possibility of reduction of hypericin phototoxicity by antioxidants were studied. It was shown an almost twice decrease in superoxide dismutase activity of red blood cells under the photosensitization by hypericin. The influence of antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin) on hypericin photodynamic action has revealed that these antioxidants suppress or stimulate photohemolysis caused by hypericin. The photosensitization reaction realized by hypericin could be shifted from type II to type I or vice versa by manipulating the antioxidant concentration. Strengthening of photohemolysis by antioxidants in some concentrations indicates the switching of alternative mechanisms of hypericin photodynamic action and its complicated manner. Thus the selection of antioxidant concentrations is of extreme importance for changing the efficacy of photodynamic therapy with hypericin. PMID:21864803

  2. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidants from Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Xiaoyu

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the optimum extraction conditions for maximum recovery of the content of total phenolics (TPC) and total antioxidant abilities were analyzed for Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. using response surface methodology. The effects of ethanol percentage (X1 ,%), ultrasonic power (X2 , W) and extraction temperature (X3 , °C) on the total phenolic content (Y1 ) and antioxidant ability (Y2 ) were evaluated. A second-order polynomial model produced a satisfactory fitting of the experimental data with regard to total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.9942, P extraction temperature of 51.1°C for TPC and 60.5%, 311.4 W, 51.6°C for antioxidant ability, the predicted values agreed well with the experimental values. Results implied that the major phenolic compounds in obtained extracts as chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-gal/glu, quercetin-3-xyl/ara, phloretin-2-xyloside, quercetin-3- rhamnoside, and phloridzin. PMID:23436450

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANTS FROM TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS L. FRUIT PEEL BIOMASS USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis L. fruit peel, the main byproduct during the manufacture of tea seed oil, was used as raw material for the recovery of phenolic antioxidants. The effect of ethanol concentration, extraction time, and extraction temperature on total phenolic content (TPC and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP of the extracts from tea fruit peel was investigated. The maximum predicted TPC (47.5 mg GAE/g dry peel was obtained under the optimum recovery conditions (43% ethanol, 60°C, and 33 min given by using response surface methodology (RSM. A high correlation (R2 = 0.929, p < 0.01 between TPC and FRAP value was identified by linear regression analysis. Furthermore, gallocatechin (GC and epigallocatechin (EGC were found to be the major individual catechins in the extracts from tea fruit peel. Ethanol/aqueous extraction has been presented as an effective method for the recovery of phenolic antioxidants from tea fruit peel.

  4. Increased antioxidant response and capability to produce ROS in hemocytes of Pinna nobilis L. exposed to anthropogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Antoni; Natalotto, Antonino; Alvarez, Elvira; Deudero, Salud

    2013-10-01

    Environmental pollutants exert immunotoxical effects on aquatic organisms. The aim was to determine the antioxidant response, markers of oxidative damage and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes of Pinna nobilis, the largest endemic bivalve in the Mediterranean Sea, under anthropogenic pressure. P. nobilis individuals were collected from two locations along Mallorca Island waters attending to different degree of human impact and the hemocytes were obtained. Specimens from the impacted area showed increased activities of the antioxidant enzymes - catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase -, myeloperoxidase activity and reduced glutathione levels. No differences in oxidative damage markers - malondiahdehyde and carbonyl index - were evidenced between the pristine and polluted areas. Hemocytes from the polluted area presented increased capability to generate reactive oxygen species and nitrite/nitrate when activated. In conclusion, the human activities primed hemocytes for oxidative burst and increased the antioxidant mechanism without evidence of oxidative damage. PMID:23871388

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate oxidative stress induced by ADOR and enhance antioxidant responses of tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Palma, José Manuel; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet

    2014-03-15

    The behaviour of tomato plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi grown in the presence of aqueous extracts from dry olive residue (ADOR) was studied in order to understand how this symbiotic relationship helps plants to cope with oxidative stress caused by ADOR. The influence of AM symbiosis on plant growth and other physiological parameters was also studied. Tomato plants were inoculated with the AM fungus Funneliformis mosseae and were grown in the presence of ADOR bioremediated and non-bioremediated by Coriolopsis floccosa and Penicillium chrysogenum-10. The antioxidant response as well as parameters of oxidative damage were examined in roots and leaves. The data showed a significant increase in the biomass of AM plant growth in the presence of ADOR, regardless of whether it was bioremediated. The establishment and development of the symbiosis were negatively affected after plants were exposed to ADOR. No differences were observed in the relative water content (RWC) or PS II efficiency between non-AM and AM plants. The increase in the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) were simultaneous to the reduction of MDA levels and H2O2 content in AM root growth in the presence of ADOR. Similar H2O2 levels were observed among non-AM and AM plants, although only AM plants showed reduced lipid peroxidation content, probably due to the involvement of antioxidant enzymes. The results highlight how the application of both bioremediated ADOR and AM fungi can alleviate the oxidative stress conditions, improving the growth and development of tomato plants. PMID:24594394

  6. Antioxidative Responses and Metal Accumulation in Invasive Plant Species Growing on Mine Tailings in Zanjan, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. M. A. BOO JAR; Z. TAVAKKOLI

    2011-01-01

    Tailings of a Pb and Zn mine as a metal-contaminated area (Zone 1) with two pioneer plant species,Peganum harmala and Zygophyllum fabago,were investigated and compared with a non-contaminated area (Zone 2) in the vicinity.Total concentrations of Pb,Zn,and Cu in the soil of Zone 1 were 1 416,2217,and 426 mg kg-1,respectively,and all exceeded their ranges in the normal soils.The soil pH was in the neutral range and most of the physical and chemical characteristics of the soils from both zones were almost similar.The species Z.fabago accumulated higher Cu and Zn in its aerial part and roots than the normal plants.On the other.hand,their concentrations did not reach the criteria that the species could be considered as a metal hyperaccumulator.The species P.harmala did not absorb metals in its roots; accordingly,the accumulation factor values of these metals were lower than 1.The contents of chlorophyll,biomass,malondialdehyde,and dityrosine in these two species did not vary significantly between the two zones studied.In Zone 1,leaf vacuoles of Z.fabago stored 35.6% and 43.2% of the total leaf Cu and Zn,respectively.However,in this species,the levels of phytochelatins (PCs) and glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly higher in Zone 1 than in Zone 2.In conclusion,metal exclusion in P.harmala and metal accumulation in Z.fabago were the basic strategies in the two studied pioneer species growing on the metal-contaminated zone.In response to metal stress,elevation in antioxidant enzyme activities,increases in the PCs and GSH levels in the aerial parts,and metal storage within vacuoles counteracted each other in the invasion mechanism of Z.fabago.

  7. Salicylic acid induces differential antioxidant response in spring maize under high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Palak; Kaur, Kamaljit; Gupta, Anil K

    2016-06-01

    High temperature is one of the important stress factors that affect crops in tropical countries. Plants do evolve or adopt different mechanisms to overcome such stress for survival. It is an interesting subject and has attracted many researchers to work upon. Here, we studied the effect of salicylic acid (SA) on seedling growth and antioxidative defense system in two spring maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes viz., CML-32 (relatively heat tolerant) and LM-11 (relatively heat susceptible), under high temperature stress. High temperature induced greater reduction in dry biomass of LM-1 1 seedlings as compared to those of CML-32. There was a parallel increase in ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the roots of CML-32 seedlings. However, the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase decreased and the contents of H202, proline and malonaldialdehyde (MDA) increased in seedlings of both the genotypes. Application of SA (400 µM) led to increased dry biomass in heat stressed CML-32 seedlings. It improved the efficiency of Halliwell-Asada pathway in roots of CML-32 seedlings as was evidenced by the enhanced ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. The activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase increased in both the tissues of LM-11 seedlings, whereas in CML-32, it was only in shoots, after SA application. Peroxidase activity increased in SA treated seedlings of both the genotypes, though the increase was comparatively higher in CML-32. The contents of H₂O₂ and MDA decreased and that of proline increased in SA treated seedlings of both the genotypes, under stress conditions. It may be concluded that SA induced differential antioxidant response by upregulating Halliwell-Asada pathway in roots and attaining high POX activity in both the tissues of CML-32 seedlings, under high temperature stress. PMID:27468465

  8. Antioxidant responses of citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), exposed to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Hong; Huang, Hai; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2010-12-01

    Relatively low or high temperatures are responsible for a variety of physiological stress responses in insects and mites. Induced thermal stress was recently associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which caused oxidative damage. In this study, we examined the time-related effect of the relatively low (0, 5, 10, and 15 °C) or high (32, 35, 38, and 41 °C) temperatures on the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidases (POX), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and the total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor). The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as a marker of lipid peroxidation in organisms, was also measured in the citrus red mite under thermal stress conditions. Results showed that SOD and GST activities were significantly increased and play an important role in the process of antioxidant response to thermal stress. Lipid peroxidation levels increased significantly (P<0.001) and changed in a time-dependent manner. CAT and POX activity, as well as TEAC, did not vary significantly and play a minor role to remove the ROS generation. These results suggest that thermal stress leads to oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes play an important role in reducing oxidative damage in the citrus red mite. PMID:20709071

  9. Antioxidant responses in soybean and alfalfa plants grown in DDTs contaminated soils: Useful variables for selecting plants for soil phytoremediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton, Francesca M; Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L; Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Monserrat, José M

    2016-06-01

    Phytoremediation is a low-cost alternative technology based on the use of plants to remove pollutants from the environment. Persistent organic pollutants such as DDTs with a long half-life in soils are attractive candidates for remediation. This study aimed to determine the potential of antioxidant response use in the evaluation of plants' tolerance for selecting species in phytoremediation purposes. Alfalfa and soybean plants were grown in DDT contaminated soils. After 60days, growth, protein content, antioxidant capacity, GST activity, concentration of proteic and non-proteic thiol groups, chlorophyll content and carotenoid content were measured in plant tissues. Results showed no effect on alfalfa or soybean photosynthetic pigments but different responses in the protein content, antioxidant capacity, GST activity and thiol groups on roots, stems and leaves, indicating that DDTs affected both species. Soybean showed higher susceptibility than alfalfa plants due to the lower antioxidant capacity and GST activity in leaves, in spite of having the lowest DDT accumulation. This study provides new insights into the role of oxidative stress as an important component of the plant's response to DDT exposure. PMID:27155479

  10. Increased antioxidant response and capability to produce ROS in hemocytes of Pinna nobilis L. exposed to anthropogenic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollutants exert immunotoxical effects on aquatic organisms. The aim was to determine the antioxidant response, markers of oxidative damage and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes of Pinna nobilis, the largest endemic bivalve in the Mediterranean Sea, under anthropogenic pressure. P. nobilis individuals were collected from two locations along Mallorca Island waters attending to different degree of human impact and the hemocytes were obtained. Specimens from the impacted area showed increased activities of the antioxidant enzymes – catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase –, myeloperoxidase activity and reduced glutathione levels. No differences in oxidative damage markers – malondiahdehyde and carbonyl index – were evidenced between the pristine and polluted areas. Hemocytes from the polluted area presented increased capability to generate reactive oxygen species and nitrite/nitrate when activated. In conclusion, the human activities primed hemocytes for oxidative burst and increased the antioxidant mechanism without evidence of oxidative damage. -- Highlights: •Pinna nobilis is very sensitive to the human activities. •Anthropogenic pressure induces an antioxidant adaptation to the stressful situation. •Increased capability to generate reactive oxygen species in impacted areas. -- Pinna nobilis responds to the anthropogenic activity with an antioxidant adaptation to the increased capability to generate reactive oxygen species

  11. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Flower of Jatropha integerrima by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ping Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method was developed for the efficient extraction of natural antioxidants from the flowers of Jatropha integerrima. Four independent variables, including ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, ultrasound irradiation time and temperature were studied by single factor experiments. Then, the central composite rotatable design and response surface methodology were employed to investigate the effect of three key parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, and ultrasound irradiation time on the antioxidant activities of the flower extracts. The optimal extraction conditions were an ethanol concentration of 59.6%, solvent/material ratio of 50:1, ultrasound irradiation time of 7 min, and ultrasound irradiation temperature of 40 °C. Under these conditions, the optimized experimental value was 1103.38 ± 16.11 µmol Trolox/g dry weight (DW, which was in accordance with the predicted value (1105.49 µmol Trolox/g DW. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of flower extracts obtained by UAE were compared with those produced by the traditional maceration and Soxhlet extraction methods, and UAE resulted in higher antioxidant activities after a shorter time at a lower temperature. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of Jatropha integerrima, and also indicate that ultrasound-assisted extraction is an efficient method for the extraction of natural antioxidants from plant materials.

  12. In vitro antioxidant profiling of seabuckthorn varieties and their adaptogenic response to high altitude-induced stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Suryakumar, Geetha; Singh, Virendra; Misra, Kshipra; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2015-08-01

    In the past few years, seabuckthorn plants have gained special attention due to their ability to grow in the harshest of the environment. This adaptability may be contributed by various antioxidants present in the plants besides other morphological adaptation. As in vivo studies cannot be justified without in vitro studies, the present investigation carried out evaluation of both in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Hippophae salicifolia (HS) and Hippophae rhamnoides mongolica (HRM) in comparison with Hippophae rhamnoides turkestanica (HRT). The results had clearly depicted that in vitro antioxidant potential of the extracts was responsible for the in vivo adaptogenic performance in animals during cold and hypoxia exposure under restraint stress. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total protein content, and antioxidant potential were determined. For adaptogenic studies, rats with oral drug supplementation were exposed to Cold-hypoxia-restraint (C-H-R) stresses-induced hypothermia, as a measure of endurance. Aqueous extracts of HS showed maximum (99 %) resistance compared to HRT (81 %) and HRM (29 %). The levels of biochemical parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and catalase (CAT) in blood samples also revealed that the aqueous leaf extract of HS has better antioxidant and adaptogenic potential compared to HRM.

  13. Lettuce irrigated with contaminated water: Photosynthetic effects, antioxidative response and bioaccumulation of microcystin congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria do Carmo; Cordeiro-Araújo, Micheline Kézia; Chia, Mathias Ahii; Arruda-Neto, João Dias de Toledo; Oliveira, Ênio Tiago de; Santos, Flávio Dos

    2016-06-01

    The use of microcystins (MCs) contaminated water to irrigate crop plants represents a human health risk due to their bioaccumulation potential. In addition, MCs cause oxidative stress and negatively influence photosynthetic activities in plants. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of MCs on photosynthetic parameters and antioxidative response of lettuce. Furthermore, the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of total MCs, MC-LR and MC-RR in the vegetable after irrigation with contaminated water was determined. Lettuce crops were irrigated for 15 days with water containing cyanobacterial crude extracts (Microcystis aeruginosa) with MC-LR (0.0, 0.5, 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0µgL(-1)), MC-RR (0.0, 0.15, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0µgL(-1)) and total MCs (0.0, 0.65, 2.5, 6.5 and 13.0µgL(-1)). Increased net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, leaf tissue transpiration and intercellular CO2 concentration were recorded in lettuce exposed to different MCs concentrations. Antioxidant response showed that glutathione S-transferase activity was down-regulated in the presence of MCs. On the other hand, superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities were upregulated with increasing MCs concentrations. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of total MCs and MC-LR was highest at 6.50 and 5.00µgL(-1), respectively, while for MC-RR, the highest BAF was recorded at 1.50µgL(-1) concentration. The amount of total MCs, MC-LR and MC-RR bioacumulated in lettuce was highest at the highest exposure concentrations. However, at the lowest exposure concentration, there were no detectable levels of MC-LR, MC-RR and total MCs in lettuce. Thus, the bioaccumulation of MCs in lettuce varies according to the exposure concentration. In addition, the extent of physiological response of lettuce to the toxins relies on exposure concentrations. PMID:26896895

  14. Short term supplementation of dietary antioxidants selectively regulates the inflammatory responses during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Na-Young

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers are serious complications for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlines the treatment of these diabetic complications remains unclear. We hypothesized that dietary antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, combined either with vitamin E or with vitamin E and NAC, improves delayed wound healing through modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Mice were divided into 4 groups; CON (non-diabetic control mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, DM (diabetic mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, VCE (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C and 0.5% vitamin E supplemented diet, and Comb (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C, 0.5% vitamin E, and 2.5% NAC supplemented diet. After 10 days of dietary antioxidant supplementation, cutaneous full-thickness excisional wounds were performed, and the rate of wound closure was examined. TBARS as lipid peroxidation products and vitamin E levels were measured in the liver. Expression levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory response related proteins were measured in the cutaneous wound site. Results Dietary antioxidant supplementation improved blood glucose levels and wound closure rate and increased liver vitamin E, but not liver TBARS levels in the diabetic mice as compared to those of the CON. In addition, dietary antioxidant supplementation modulated the expression levels of pIκBα, HO-1, CuZnSOD, iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the diabetic mice. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that delayed wound healing is associated with an inflammatory response induced by hyperglycaemia, and suggests that dietary antioxidant supplementation may have beneficial effects on wound healing through selective modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response.

  15. Morinda citrifolia leaf enhanced performance by improving angiogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory & stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Shalan, Nor Aijratul Asikin; Mustapha, Noordin M; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-12-01

    Morinda citrifolia fruit, (noni), enhanced performances in athletes and post-menopausal women in clinical studies. This report shows the edible noni leaves water extract enhances performance in a weight-loaded swimming animal model better than the fruit or standardized green tea extract. The 4weeks study showed the extract (containing scopoletin and epicatechin) progressively prolonged the time to exhaustion by threefold longer than the control, fruit or tea extract. The extract improved (i) the mammalian antioxidant responses (MDA, GSH and SOD2 levels), (ii) tissue nutrient (glucose) and metabolite (lactate) management, (iii) stress hormone (cortisol) regulation; (iv) neurotransmitter (dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin) expressions, transporter or receptor levels, (v) anti-inflammatory (IL4 & IL10) responses; (v) skeletal muscle angiogenesis (VEGFA) and (v) energy and mitochondrial biogenesis (via PGC, UCP3, NRF2, AMPK, MAPK1, and CAMK4). The ergogenic extract helped delay fatigue by enhancing energy production, regulation and efficiency, which suggests benefits for physical activities and disease recovery. PMID:27374554

  16. Vibration Response of Multi Storey Building Using Finite Element Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, T. N. T.; Zakaria, M. F.; Remali, M. A.; Yusoff, N. A.

    2016-07-01

    Interaction between building, type of foundation and the geotechnical parameter of ground may trigger a significant effect on the building. In general, stiffer foundations resulted in higher natural frequencies of the building-soil system and higher input frequencies are often associated with other ground. Usually, vibrations transmitted to the buildings by ground borne are often noticeable and can be felt. It might affect the building and become worse if the vibration level is not controlled. UTHM building is prone to the ground borne vibration due to closed distance from the main road, and the construction activities adjacent to the buildings. This paper investigates the natural frequency and vibration mode of multi storey office building with the presence of foundation system and comparison between both systems. Finite element modelling (FEM) package software of LUSAS is used to perform the vibration analysis of the building. The building is modelled based on the original plan with the foundation system on the structure model. The FEM results indicated that the structure which modelled with rigid base have high natural frequency compare to the structure with foundation system. These maybe due to soil structure interaction and also the damping of the system which related to the amount of energy dissipated through the foundation soil. Thus, this paper suggested that modelling with soil is necessary to demonstrate the soil influence towards vibration response to the structure.

  17. Antioxidant responses in estuarine invertebrates exposed to repeated oil spills: Effects of frequency and dosage in a field manipulative experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Pereira, Letícia; Martins, César C; Silva de Assis, Helena C; Camus, Lionel; Lana, Paulo C

    2016-08-01

    We have experimentally investigated the effects of repeated diesel spills on the bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana, the gastropod Neritina virginea and the polychaete Laeonereis culveri, by monitoring the responses of oxidative stress biomarkers in a subtropical estuary. Three frequencies of exposure events were compared against two dosages of oil in a factorial experiment with asymmetrical controls. Hypotheses were tested to distinguish between (i) the overall effect of oil spills, (ii) the effect of diesel dosage via different exposure regimes, and (iii) the effect of time since last spill. Antioxidant defense responses and oxidative damage in the bivalve A. brasiliana and the polychaete L. culveri were overall significantly affected by frequent oil spills compared to undisturbed controls. The main effects of diesel spills on both species were the induction of SOD and GST activities, a significant increase in LPO levels and a decrease in GSH concentration. N. virginea was particularly tolerant to oil exposure, with the exception of a significant GSH depletion. Overall, enzymatic activities and oxidative damage in A. brasiliana and L. culveri were induced by frequent low-dosage spills compared to infrequent high-dosage spills, although the opposite pattern was observed for N. virginea antioxidant responses. Antioxidant responses in A. brasiliana and L. culveri were not affected by timing of exposure events. However, our results revealed that N. virginea might have a delayed response to acute high-dosage exposure. Experimental in situ simulations of oil exposure events with varying frequencies and intensities provide a useful tool for detecting and quantifying environmental impacts. In general, antioxidant biomarkers were induced by frequent low-dosage exposures compared to infrequent high-dosage ones. The bivalve A. brasiliana and the polychaete L. culveri are more suitable sentinels due to their greater responsiveness to oil and also to their wider geographical

  18. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoid Compounds and Antioxidants from Alfalfa Using Response Surface Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Liang Jing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE was used to extract flavonoid-enriched antioxidants from alfalfa aerial part. Response surface methodology (RSM, based on a four-factor, five-level central composite design (CCD, was employed to obtain the optimal extraction parameters, in which the flavonoid content was maximum and the antioxidant activity of the extracts was strongest. Radical scavenging capacity of the extracts, which represents the amounts of antioxidants in alfalfa, was determined by using 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid (ABTS and 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH methods. The results showed good fit with the proposed models for the total flavonoid extraction (R2 = 0.9849, for the antioxidant extraction assayed by ABTS method (R2 = 0.9764, and by DPPH method (R2 = 0.9806. Optimized extraction conditions for total flavonoids was a ratio of liquid to solid of 57.16 mL/g, 62.33 °C, 57.08 min, and 52.14% ethanol. The optimal extraction parameters of extracts for the highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was a ratio of liquid to solid 60.3 mL/g, 54.56 °C, 45.59 min, and 46.67% ethanol, and by ABTS assay was a ratio of liquid to solid 47.29 mL/g, 63.73 °C, 51.62 min, and 60% ethanol concentration. Our work offers optimal extraction conditions for total flavonoids and antioxidants from alfalfa.

  19. High salt induced oxidative damage and antioxidant response in tomato grafted on tobacco

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    Özlem Darcansoy İşeri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major limitations on agricultural development in many countries is the high salinity of the groundwater used in irrigation. Grafted plants may exhibit phenotypic variations from scion and rootstock plants in terms of abiotic stress tolerance, and be a method for improvement of tolerance in agricultural practices. The aim of the present study was to investigate response of Solanum lycopersicum L. ('Elaziğ' grafted on Nicotiana tabacum L. ('Samsun' and Nicotiana rustica L. ('Hasankeyf', namely "Tomacco" plant (patent nr TR-2008-05391-B, to 10-d high NaCl irrigation. Physical development, chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid, and anthocyanin levels were evaluated. Proline, lipid peroxidation, and electrolyte leakage levels were assayed in roots and leaves together with ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT activities. Considering alterations in chlorophyll contents, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA, and conductivity levels, and antioxidant enzyme activity levels scion and self-grafted plants seem to be more affected by salt treatments than tobacco and rootstock grafted plants. Tobacco roots seem to have better adaptive responses against salt stress in comparison to tomato as supported by changes in proline, APX, and CAT levels. Self-grafting experiments further supported grafting tomato onto tobacco rootstocks enhanced salt tolerance and adaptive response of scions and these changes seem to be dependent on rootstock rather than graft-induced changes. In conclusion, we demonstrated that previously defined graft unions of tomato on tobacco, which have increased fruit yield, had also enhanced tolerance to high salt stress and a promising technique for the cultivation of more salt tolerant varieties.

  20. Induction of Antioxidant and Heat Shock Protein Responses During Torpor in the Gray Mouse Lemur, Microcebus murinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Wei Wu; Kyle K Biggar; Jing Zhang; Shannon N Tessier; Fabien Pifferi; Martine Perret; Kenneth B Storey

    2015-01-01

    A natural tolerance of various environmental stresses is typically supported by various cytoprotective mechanisms that protect macromolecules and promote extended viability. Among these are antioxidant defenses that help to limit damage from reactive oxygen species and chaper-ones that help to minimize protein misfolding or unfolding under stress conditions. To understand the molecular mechanisms that act to protect cells during primate torpor, the present study charac-terizes antioxidant and heat shock protein (HSP) responses in various organs of control (aroused)and torpid gray mouse lemurs, Microcebus murinus. Protein expression of HSP70 and HSP90a was elevated to 1.26 and 1.49 fold, respectively, in brown adipose tissue during torpor as compared with control animals, whereas HSP60 in liver of torpid animals was 1.15 fold of that in control (P<0.05). Among antioxidant enzymes, protein levels of thioredoxin 1 were elevated to 2.19 fold in white adipose tissue during torpor, whereas Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase 1 levels rose to 1.1 fold in skeletal muscle (P<0.05). Additionally, total antioxidant capacity was increased to 1.6 fold in liver during torpor (P<0.05), while remaining unchanged in the five other tissues. Overall, our data suggest that antioxidant and HSP responses are modified in a tissue-specific manner during daily torpor in gray mouse lemurs. Furthermore, our data also show that cytoprotective strategies employed during primate torpor are distinct from the strategies in rodent hibernation as reported in previous studies.

  1. Effects of dietary vitamin A on antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jinghua; ZHANG Wenbing; MAI Kangsen; FENG Xiuni; XU Wei; LIUFU Zhiguo; TAN Beiping

    2006-01-01

    A 240 d growth experiment was conducted in a re-circulated water system to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin A on growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone [initial mass was (0.96 ± 0.02) g, shell length was (17.70 ± 0.06) mm] were fed to satiation one of three semi-purified diets containing 0, 1×103, 1×106 IU vitamin A per kilogram diet, respectively. Results showed that the daily increment in shell length (DISL) of abalone in the treatment with 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram diet was significantly higher than that with 0 or 1×106 IU vitamin A per kilogram supplementation (P < 0.05). Vitamin A deficiency (0 IU/kg) significantly elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the viscera of abalone (P < 0.05). In muscle, the effects of vitamin A deficiency on SOD and GPX activities were the same as those in viscera, however, the activity of GR significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Vitamin A deficiency significantly decreased the ratio of CAT to SOD (catalase/superoxide dismutase) in viscera (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, it significantly decreased the ratio of GR to GPX in muscle (P < 0.05). Compared with the supplement of 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram, excessive vitamin A (1×106 IU/kg) had no significant effects on the activities of CAT, SOD and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (P > 0.05), but significantly elevated GPX and GR activities in viscera (P < 0.05). In muscle, the activities of CAT, SOD, GPX, GST and GR were significantly decreased by the excessive dietary vitamin A supplement (P < 0.05). Compared with the supplement of 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram, vitamin A-excessive had no significant effect on the value of ratio of CAT to SOD either in viscera or in muscle (P>0.05). The ratio of GR to GPX was significantly decreased in viscera, but significantly elevated in muscle in the vitamin A

  2. Optimization of the Extraction of Antioxidants and Caffeine from Maté (Ilex paraguariensis Leaves by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Graciela Hartwig

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimal conditions for the industrial extraction of total polyphenols from maté (Ilex paraguariensis were determined using response surface methodology, with two independent variables: ethanol percentage of the extraction solution and liquid to solid ratio. Response variables were total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, concentration of total polyphenols and caffeine content. The optimal conditions found were a liquid to solid ratio from 8 - 9 w w-1 and ethanol percentage of the extraction solution from 30 -50 % w w-1. Under these conditions the main predicted values corresponding to leaf extracts were 40 μg chlorogenic acid equivalents mL-1 of original extract, 13 g chlorogenic acid equivalents per 100 g dry matter for total polyphenol content, 22 g Trolox equivalents and 15.5 g ascorbic acid equivalents per 100 g dry matter for antioxidant capacity. The total polyphenol content of twig extracts was 36% lower than that in the leaf extracts.

  3. Serum Oxidative Stress Markers and Lipidomic Profile to Detect NASH Patients Responsive to an Antioxidant Treatment: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Stiuso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver steatosis can evolve to steatohepatitis (NASH through a series of biochemical steps related to oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Antioxidants, such as silybin, have been proposed as a treatment of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and NASH. In this study, we evaluated, in patients with histologically documented NASH, the oxidant/antioxidant status and lipid “fingerprint” in the serum of NASH patients, both in basal conditions and after 12 months of treatment with silybin-based food integrator Realsil (RA. The oxidant/antioxidant status analysis showed the presence of a group of patients with higher basal severity of disease (NAS scores 4.67 ± 2.5 and a second group corresponding to borderline NASH (NAS scores = 3.8 ± 1.5. The chronic treatment with RA changed the NAS score in both groups that reached the statistical significance only in group 2, in which there was also a significant decrease of serum lipid peroxidation. The lipidomic profile showed a lipid composition similar to that of healthy subjects with a restoration of the values of free cholesterol, lysoPC, SM, and PC only in group 2 of patients after treatment with RA. Conclusion. These data suggest that lipidomic and/or oxidative status of serum from patients with NASH could be useful as prognostic markers of response to an antioxidant treatment.

  4. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for anthocyanins, polyphenols, and antioxidants from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Lee, Won Young; Choi, Yong Hee

    2013-09-01

    Anthocyanins (Acys), polyphenols, and antioxidants were extracted from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using a highly efficient microwave-assisted extraction technique. Different solvents, including methanol, ethanol, and acetone, were tested. The colors of the extracts varied from light yellow to purple red or dark red. SEM and other nutrient analyses verified that ethanol was the most favorable medium for the microwave-assisted extraction of raspberry due to its high output and low toxicity. Effects of process parameters, including microwave power, irradiation time, and solvent concentration, were investigated through response surface methodology. Canonical analysis estimated that the highest total Acys content, total polyphenols content, and antioxidant activity of raspberry were 17.93 mg cyanidin-3-O-glucoside equivalents per gram dry weight, 38.57 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram dry weight, and 81.24%, respectively. The polyphenol compositions of raspberry extract were identified by HPLC with diode array detection, and nine kinds of polyphenols were identified and quantified, revealing that chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, and rutin are the major polyphenols contained in raspberry fruits. Compared with other fruits and vegetables, raspberry contains higher Acy and polyphenol contents with stronger antioxidant activity, suggesting that raspberry fruits are a good source of natural food colorants and antioxidants. PMID:23836596

  5. Effect of Chitosan Coating on the Postharvest Quality and Antioxidant Enzyme System Response of Strawberry Fruit during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Petriccione

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of chitosan fruit coating to delay the qualitative and nutraceutical traits of three strawberry cultivars, namely “Candonga”, “Jonica” and “Sabrina”, as well as the effects of chitosan on antioxidant enzymes were evaluated. The fruits were coated with 1% and 2% chitosan solution and stored at 2 °C for nine days. Samples were taken every three days. Physico-chemical (weight loss, soluble solid content and titratable acidity and nutraceutical (total polyphenol, anthocyanin, flavonoid, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant capacity properties along with the enzymatic activity (catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, guaiacol peroxidase (GPX and lipoxygenase (LOX were evaluated. Chitosan treatment significantly reduced water loss and delayed the qualitative changes in color, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content in dose- and cultivar-dependent manners. Additionally, changes in the total polyphenol, anthocyanin and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant capacity of chitosan-coated strawberry fruits were delayed. Chitosan coating enhanced the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, preventing flesh browning and reducing membrane damage. A global view of the responses of the three strawberry cultivars to chitosan coating and storage temperature was obtained using principal component analysis. Chitosan-coated fruit exhibited a slower rate of deterioration, compared to uncoated fruit in all tested cultivars.

  6. The protective effect of antioxidants on orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy in response to oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Chieh-Chih; Wu, Shi-Bei; Kao, Shu-Ching; Kau, Hui-Chuan; Lee, Fenq-Lih; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the biphasic effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the orbital fibroblasts of patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) and the relation to antioxidants and proinflammatory cytokines. Methods Proliferation of cultured orbital fibroblasts from patients with GO and normal controls was evaluated in response to various concentrations of H2O2. The effect of low concentrations of H2O2 (6.25 μM) on the cellular proliferation and induction of intracellular proinflammatory cyt...

  7. Heat-shock response and antioxidant defense during air exposure in Patagonian shallow-water limpets from different climatic habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Pöhlmann, Kevin; Koenigstein, Stefan; Alter, Katharina; Abele, Doris; Held, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Climate warming involves not only a rise of air temperature means, but also more frequent heat waves in many regions on earth, and is predicted to intensify physiological stress especially in extremely changeable habitats like the intertidal. We investigated the heat-shock response (HSR) and enzymatic antioxidant defense levels of Patagonian shallow-water limpets, adapted to distinct tidal exposure conditions in the sub- and intertidal. Limpets were sampled in the temperate Northern Patagonia...

  8. Short term supplementation of dietary antioxidants selectively regulates the inflammatory responses during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Na-Young; Lim, Yunsook

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot ulcers are serious complications for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlines the treatment of these diabetic complications remains unclear. We hypothesized that dietary antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, combined either with vitamin E or with vitamin E and NAC, improves delayed wound healing through modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan mo...

  9. Differential Antioxidant Responses and Perturbed Porphyrin Biosynthesis after Exposure to Oxyfluorfen and Methyl Viologen in Oryza sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Nhi-Thi Pham; Jin-Gil Kim; Sunyo Jung

    2015-01-01

    We compared antioxidant responses and regulation of porphyrin metabolism in rice plants treated with oxyfluorfen (OF) or methyl viologen (MV). Plants treated with MV exhibited not only greater increases in conductivity and malondialdehyde but also a greater decline in Fv/Fm, compared to plants treated with OF. MV-treated plants had greater increases in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as transcript levels of SODA and CATA than OF-treated plants after 28 h of...

  10. Differential coral bleaching-Contrasting the activity and response of enzymatic antioxidants in symbiotic partners under thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Thomas; Hawkins, Thomas D; Becker, Susanne; Pontasch, Stefanie; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Leggat, William; Fisher, Paul L; Davy, Simon K

    2015-12-01

    Mass coral bleaching due to thermal stress represents a major threat to the integrity and functioning of coral reefs. Thermal thresholds vary, however, between corals, partly as a result of the specific type of endosymbiotic dinoflagellate (Symbiodinium sp.) they harbour. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in corals under thermal and light stress has been recognised as one mechanism that can lead to cellular damage and the loss of their symbiont population (Oxidative Theory of Coral Bleaching). Here, we compared the response of symbiont and host enzymatic antioxidants in the coral species Acropora millepora and Montipora digitata at 28°C and 33°C. A. millepora at 33°C showed a decrease in photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) and increase in maximum midday excitation pressure on PSII, with subsequent bleaching (declining photosynthetic pigment and symbiont density). M. digitata exhibited no bleaching response and photochemical changes in its symbionts were minor. The symbiont antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase peroxidase showed no significant upregulation to elevated temperatures in either coral, while only catalase was significantly elevated in both coral hosts at 33°C. Increased host catalase activity in the susceptible coral after 5days at 33°C was independent of antioxidant responses in the symbiont and preceded significant declines in PSII photochemical efficiencies. This finding suggests a potential decoupling of host redox mechanisms from symbiont photophysiology and raises questions about the importance of symbiont-derived ROS in initiating coral bleaching. PMID:26310104

  11. Influence of organic selenium supplementation on the accumulation of toxic and essential trace elements involved in the antioxidant system of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Athanasios C; Zoidis, Evangelos; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Demiris, Nikolaos; Surai, Peter F; Fegeros, Konstantinos

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the interactions between selenium (Se) and various trace elements, both toxic and essential, involved in the antioxidant system. A total of 128 day-old chicks (Gallus gallus, broilers) were used to investigate the effect of Se yeast supplementation on the accumulation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). There were four replicates of four dietary treatments: T1 (basal diet with no added Se, analyzed to contain 0.21 mg kg(-1)), T2 (T1 with 0.15 mg kg(-1) Se added), T3 (T1 with 0.3 mg kg(-1) Se) and T4 (T1 with 3.0 mg kg(-1) Se). At week 4 and 6, two chickens per replicate pen were sacrificed for whole blood, breast muscle and liver sampling. Samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. Supplementation with Se-yeast, not only increased Se concentration but also reduced Cd concentration in the tissues. Selenium was negatively correlated with Cd and positively correlated with Zn, Cu and Fe. Cadmium was negatively correlated with Zn and Cu. Zinc was positively correlated with Cu. Iron was negatively correlated with Cu and uncorrelated with Zn and Cd. The balance between Se, Cu, Fe and Zn is important for proper antioxidant defense since they are an integral part of various antioxidant enzymes. PMID:21337231

  12. Modeling Reader's Emotional State Response on Document's Typographic Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios Kouroupetroglou; Dimitrios Tsonos

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an experimental study towards modeling the reader's emotional state variations induced by the typographic elements in electronic documents. Based on the dimensional theory of emotions we investigate how typographic elements, like font style (bold, italics, bold-italics) and font (type, size, color and background color), affect the reader's emotional states, namely, Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance (PAD). An experimental procedure was implemented conforming to Interna...

  13. The effects of Aphis fabae infestation on the antioxidant response and heavy metal content in field grown Philadelphus coronarius plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafel, Alina, E-mail: akafel@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Nadgorska-Socha, Aleksandra [University of Silesia, Department of Ecology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Gospodarek, Janina [Agricultural University of Krakow, Department of Agricultural Environment Protection, Mickiewicza 21, PL 31-120, Krakow (Poland); Babczynska, Agnieszka; Skowronek, Magda [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Kandziora, Marta [University of Silesia, Department of Ecology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Rozpedek, Katarzyna [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland)

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a possible relationship between the soil availability of metals and their concentrations in various parts of Philadelphuscoronarius plants. Moreover, the possible impact of an aphid infestation on the contamination and antioxidant response of plants from the urban environment of Krakow and the reference rural area of Zagaje Stradowskie (southern Poland) was analyzed. The contents of the glutathione, proline, non-protein - SH groups, antioxidants, and phosphorous and the levels of guaiacol peroxidase and catalase activity in leaves and shoots either infested or not by the aphid Aphis fabae Scop., were measured. The potential bioavailability of metals (Cd; Cu; Ni; Pb; Zn) in the soil and their concentrations in P. coronarius plants originating from both sites were compared. The antioxidant responses were generally elevated in the plants in the polluted area. Such reactions were additionally changed by aphid infestation. Generally, the concentrations of metals in the HNO{sub 3} and CaCl{sub 2} extractants of the soils from two layers at the 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths from the polluted area were higher than in those from the reference area. Such differences were found for nickel and lead (in all examined extractants), zinc (in soil extractants from the layer at 20-40 cm) and cadmium (in HNO{sub 3} extractants). Significant positive relationships between the lead concentrations in the soil and in the plants were found. In the parts of plants from the polluted area, higher concentrations of Pb and Zn (leaves and shoots) and Cd (shoots) were recorded. The shoots and leaves of plants infested with aphids had higher concentrations of Zn but lower Pb. Moreover, their leaves had higher contaminations of Cu and Ni. In conclusion, aphids affected not only the antioxidant response of the plants but also their contamination with metals, especially contamination of the leaves.

  14. Responses of Antioxidant Enzymes in Catfish Exposed to Liquid Crystals from E-Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals (LCs are typically elongated organic molecules with a non-uniform distribution of electrical charges leading to a dipole. LCs are widely used in displays of computers and other electronic devices. The rapid obsolescence rate of electronics results in large amounts of liquid crystal displays (LCDs entering the environment. Data on health effects of LCs on living creatures are currently limited to some acute toxicity tests by a few major LC manufacturers. These tests concluded that the vast majority of LCs are not acutely toxic. Since the amount of LCs in electronic devices is very small, the health effects of LCs at low concentrations or doses become important. Catfish were used as the test animals in this study. Four major enzymes of the fish’s antioxidant defense system catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx, and glutathione-Stransferase (GST were chosen as biomarkers to examine effects of LCs, which were taken from obsolete laptop personal computers made in the early 1990s. The catfish were fed with food containing different contents of LCs for 40 days. Activities of the four chosen enzymes in fish livers were assayed. The results showed that there were significant inductions of CAT, SOD, and Se-GPx activities in response to the LC doses. The plots of the enzyme activities versus LC doses suggested an occurrence of oxidative stress when the dose reached about 20 μg LC/g fish·d. It was concluded that LCs can cause pollutant-induced stress to catfish at low doses. CAT, SOD and Se-GPx are effective biomarkers to give early warning on potential health effects of LCs on some aquatic lives including catfish.

  15. Tissue-specific antioxidant responses in pale chub (Zacco platypus) exposed to copper and benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo-Keun; Park, June-Woo; Lim, Eun-Suk; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Jungkon; Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Sang-Woo; Choi, Kyungho; Jung, Jinho

    2014-05-01

    In this study, antioxidant responses including lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were evaluated in the liver, gill and muscle tissues of pale chub (Zacco platypus) exposed to copper (Cu) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Cu exposure induced significant antioxidant responses in Z. platypus, particularly in the liver, whereas BaP exposure had a negligible effect. Following Cu exposure, both SOD and CAT activity increased in a concentration-dependent manner, showing significant correlations with malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as a measure of LPO (r = 0.646 and 0.663, respectively). SOD, CAT and GST mRNA levels were also enhanced following Cu exposure, except at 20 μg L(-1), although significant correlations with antioxidant enzyme activities were not found. The results of this study suggest that combined information on SOD and CAT activities together with LPO levels in the liver could be a useful indicator for assessing oxidative stress in freshwater fish. PMID:24477393

  16. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Responses in Young Leaves of Mulberry Plants Grown Under Nitrogen,Phosphorus or Potassium Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajesh Kumar Tewari; Praveen Kumar; Parma Nand Sharma

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to associate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with induced antioxidant responses and disturbed cellular redox environment in the nltrogen-(N), phosphorus-(P), or potassium-(K) deficient mulberry (Morus alba L. var. Kanva-2) plants. The indicators of oxidative stress and cellular redox environment and antioxidant defense-related parameters were analyzed. Deficiency of N, P or K suppressed growth,accelerated senescence, and decreased concentrations of chloroplastic pigments and glutathione. Lipid peroxidation and activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase were also increased in these N, P, or K deprived plants. Concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased in plants deficient in N or P. Deftciency of N or P particularly altered the cellular redox environment as indicated by changes in the redox couples,namely ascorblc acid/total ascorbate decreased in P-, glutathione sulfydryl/total glutathione decreased in N-, and increased in P-deficient plants. Activity staining of native gels for superoxide dismutase revealed increased activity as indicated by increased intensity of bands, and induction of few new isoforms in P- and K-deficient plants.Differences in the patterns of superoxide dismutase isoforms and redox status (ascorbic acid/total ascorbate and glutathlone sulfydryl/total glutathione) indicate that N-, P-, or K-deficiency altered antioxidant responses to varying extents in mulberry plants.

  17. Differential Antioxidant Responses and Perturbed Porphyrin Biosynthesis after Exposure to Oxyfluorfen and Methyl Viologen in Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhi-Thi Pham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We compared antioxidant responses and regulation of porphyrin metabolism in rice plants treated with oxyfluorfen (OF or methyl viologen (MV. Plants treated with MV exhibited not only greater increases in conductivity and malondialdehyde but also a greater decline in Fv/Fm, compared to plants treated with OF. MV-treated plants had greater increases in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT as well as transcript levels of SODA and CATA than OF-treated plants after 28 h of the treatments, whereas increases in ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity and transcript levels of APXA and APXB were greater in OF-treated plants. Both OF- and MV-treated plants resulted in not only down-regulation of most genes involved in porphyrin biosynthesis but also disappearance of Mg-porphyrins during the late stage of photooxidative stress. By contrast, up-regulation of heme oxygenase 2 (HO2 is possibly part of an efficient antioxidant response to compensate photooxidative damage in both treatments. Our data show that down-regulated biosynthesis and degradation dynamics of porphyrin intermediates have important roles in photoprotection of plants from perturbed porphyrin biosynthesis and photosynthetic electron transport. This study suggests that porphyrin scavenging as well as strong antioxidative activities are required for mitigating reactive oxygen species (ROS production under photooxidative stress caused by OF and MV.

  18. Differential Antioxidant Responses and Perturbed Porphyrin Biosynthesis after Exposure to Oxyfluorfen and Methyl Viologen in Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Nhi-Thi; Kim, Jin-Gil; Jung, Sunyo

    2015-01-01

    We compared antioxidant responses and regulation of porphyrin metabolism in rice plants treated with oxyfluorfen (OF) or methyl viologen (MV). Plants treated with MV exhibited not only greater increases in conductivity and malondialdehyde but also a greater decline in Fv/Fm, compared to plants treated with OF. MV-treated plants had greater increases in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as transcript levels of SODA and CATA than OF-treated plants after 28 h of the treatments, whereas increases in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and transcript levels of APXA and APXB were greater in OF-treated plants. Both OF- and MV-treated plants resulted in not only down-regulation of most genes involved in porphyrin biosynthesis but also disappearance of Mg-porphyrins during the late stage of photooxidative stress. By contrast, up-regulation of heme oxygenase 2 (HO2) is possibly part of an efficient antioxidant response to compensate photooxidative damage in both treatments. Our data show that down-regulated biosynthesis and degradation dynamics of porphyrin intermediates have important roles in photoprotection of plants from perturbed porphyrin biosynthesis and photosynthetic electron transport. This study suggests that porphyrin scavenging as well as strong antioxidative activities are required for mitigating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production under photooxidative stress caused by OF and MV. PMID:26197316

  19. Differential Responses of the Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes to Thermal Stresses between Two Invasive Eupatorium Species in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Lu; Wei-Guo Sang; Ke-Ping Ma

    2008-01-01

    The effect of thermal stress on the antioxidant system was Investigated in two invasive plants, Eupatorlum adenophorum Spreng. and E. odoratum L. The former is sensitive to high temperature, whereas the latter is sensitive to low temperature.Our aim was to explore the relationship between the response of antioxidant enzymes and temperature In the two Invasive weeds with different distribution patterns in China. Plants were transferred from glasshouse to growth chambers at a constant 25 ℃ for 1 week to acclimatize to the environment. For the heat treatments, temperature was Increased stepwise to 30, 35, 38 and finally to 42 ℃. For the cold treatments, temperature was decreased stepwise to 20, 15,10 and finally to 5 ℃.Plants were kept In the growth chambers for 24 h at each temperature step. In E. adenophorum, the coordinated Increase of the activities of antioxidant enzymes was effective In protecting the plant from the eccumulatlon of active oxygen species (AOS) at low temperature, but the activities of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX),glutathione reductase (GR), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) were not accompanied by the Increase of super-oxide dismutase (SOD) during the heat treatments. As a result, the level of lipid peroxidation in E. adenophorum was higher under heat stress than under cold stress. In E. odoratum, however, the lesser degree of membrane damage, as indicated by low monodehydroascorbate content, and the coordinated Increase of the oxygen. Dstoxlfying enzymes were observed in hest-treated plants, but the antioxidant enzymes were unable to operate in cold stress. This indicates that the plants have a higher capacity for scavenging oxygen radicals in heat stress than in cold stress. The different responses of antloxidant enzymes may be one of the possible mechanisms of the differences in temperature sensitivities of the two plant species.

  20. Effects of the amplitude and frequency of salinity fluctuations on antioxidant responses in juvenile tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin O. Khairnar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the tolerance of tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis, to varying salinities, the effects of the amplitude (2, 4, 6 and 8 g/L and frequency (2, 4 and 8 days of salinity fluctuations on the activities of antioxidant responses, including acidic phosphatase (ACP, alkaline phosphatase (AKP, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD from antioxidant system in liver, muscle, gills and kidney, were investigated in this study. The results showed that the antioxidant responses of tongue sole were highly tissue-specific during the varying salinity fluctuations. In all tissues, ACP and AKP activity was found to be highest at moderate salinity fluctuations compared to the control, low and high salinity treatments (p<0.05. SOD and CAT activities had significant effect due to salinity fluctuations in all tissues (p<0.05, except in hepatic and renal tissues. Variations in branchial SOD activity proved that salinity fluctuations had greater impact on tongue sole at moderate and high fluctuating salinities compared to the control and low fluctuating salinities, whereas the branchial CAT activities showed contrasting trend. Further, cortisol levels were significantly affected in lower and higher salinity fluctuations. However, plasma cortisol levels remained low in moderate salinity fluctuations and control (p<0.05. Taken together, the results indicated that salinity fluctuations could effectively stimulate and enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver, kidney, gills and muscle of the juvenile tongue sole, thus effectively eliminating the excessive reactive oxygen species and minimizing the body damage in tongue sole or could be for any other euryhaline teleosts.

  1. Control of antioxidative response by the tumor suppressor protein PML through regulating Nrf2 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuang; Cheng, Xiwen; Lim, Jun-Hee; Liu, Yu; Kao, Hung-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a consequence of an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the ability of the cytoprotective system to detoxify the reactive intermediates. The tumor suppressor promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) functions as a stress sensor. Loss of PML results in impaired mitochondrial complex II activity, increased ROS, and subsequent activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidative pathway. We also demonstrate that sulforaphane (SFN), an antioxidant, regulates Nrf2 activity by controlling abundance and subcellular distribution of PML and that PML is essential for SFN-mediated ROS increase, Nrf2 activation, antiproliferation, antimigration, and antiangiogenesis. Taking the results together, we have uncovered a novel antioxidative mechanism by which PML regulates cellular oxidant homeostasis by controlling complex II integrity and Nrf2 activity and identified PML as an indispensable mediator of SFN activity. PMID:24943846

  2. Immune-associated parameters and antioxidative responses to cadmium in the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanying; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Dong, Feng; Jing, Weixing; Wang, Lan

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal pollutant and is known to exert adverse effects in organisms. In this study, we examined immune-related and antioxidative parameters in crabs exposed to sublethal levels of Cd. The results showed that Cd exposure elicited a significant accumulation in hemolymph, a decrease in total hemocyte counts, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cd treatment also upregulated activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the hemocytes of crabs. Treatment with Cd further decreased the stability of lysosomal membranes in hemocytes and induced substantial changes of immune-related parameters including acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. However, the activity of lysozyme varied weakly throughout the Cd treatment period. Our results suggest that Cd exposure caused immunomodulation, a potentially harmful immunity function and damage in the antioxidant system of Sinopotamon henanense. PMID:27057991

  3. Finite-element impact response of debonded composite turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sudip; Karmakar, Amit

    2014-02-01

    This paper investigates on the transient behavior of debonded composite pretwisted rotating shallow conical shells which could be idealized as turbine blades subjected to low velocity normal impact using finite-element method. Lagrange's equation of motion is used to derive the dynamic equilibrium equation and the moderate rotational speeds are considered neglecting the Coriolis effect. An eight-noded isoparametric plate bending element is employed in the finite element formulation incorporating rotary inertia and effects of transverse shear deformation based on Mindlin's theory. The modified Hertzian contact law which accounts for permanent indentation is utilized to compute the impact parameters. The time-dependent equations are solved by using Newmark's time integration scheme. Parametric studies are performed to investigate the effects of triggering parameters like angle of twist, rotational speed, laminate configuration and location of debonding considering low velocity normal impact at the center of eight-layered graphite-epoxy composite cantilevered conical shells with bending stiff ([0o2/{±} 30o]s), torsion stiff ([45°/-45°/-45°/45°]s) and cross-ply ([0°/90°/0°/90°]s) laminate configurations.

  4. Modeling Reader's Emotional State Response on Document's Typographic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Tsonos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of an experimental study towards modeling the reader's emotional state variations induced by the typographic elements in electronic documents. Based on the dimensional theory of emotions we investigate how typographic elements, like font style (bold, italics, bold-italics and font (type, size, color and background color, affect the reader's emotional states, namely, Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance (PAD. An experimental procedure was implemented conforming to International Affective Picture System guidelines and incorporating the Self-Assessment Manikin test. Thirty students participated in the experiment. The stimulus was a short paragraph of text for which any content, emotion, and/or domain dependent information was excluded. The Analysis of Variance revealed the dependency of (a all the three emotional dimensions on font size and font/background color combinations and (b the Pleasure dimension on font type and font style. We introduce a set of mapping rules showing how PAD vary on the discrete values of font style and font type elements. Moreover, we introduce a set of equations describing the PAD dimensions' dependency on font size. This novel model can contribute to the automated reader's emotional state extraction in order, for example, to enhance the acoustic rendition of the documents, utilizing text-to-speech synthesis.

  5. Accumulation of free polyamines enhances the antioxidant response in fruits of grafted tomato plants under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, E; Romero, L; Ruiz, J M

    2016-01-15

    Polyamines, small aliphatic polycations, have been suggested to play key roles in a number of biological processes. In this paper, attempts were made to investigate the possibility of improving antioxidant response of tomato fruits in relation with endogenous free polyamines content. We studied the reactive oxygen species and polyamines content, and antioxidant and polyamine-biosynthesis enzyme activities in fruits of ungrafted and grafted tomato plants under moderate water stress. We used a drought-tolerant cultivar (Zarina) and drought-sensitive cultivar (Josefina) to obtain reciprocal graft, selfgraft and ungraft plants. Fruits contained higher endogenous polyamine content during the course of the experiment relative to the control, coupled with higher arginine decarboxylase and spermine synthase activities in Zarina ungrafted and ZarxJos. In these cultivars, tomato fruits showed a lower reactive oxygen species generation and higher catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, suggesting that a higher content in polyamines (especially spermine) exerted a positive effect on antioxidant systems. All of these data suggest that spermine leads to more effective reactive oxygen species scavenging (less tissue damage) in tomato fruits, which may function collectively to enhance dehydration tolerance. PMID:26687637

  6. Effect of Two Strains of Probiotics on the Antioxidant Capacity, Oxidative Stress, and Immune Responses of Salmonella-Challenged Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Abudabos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of two strains of probiotics (Bacillus subtilis PB6 and Bacillus Cereus var. toyoi on selected indicators of the antioxidant status and immune responses of broilers before and after challenge with Salmonella enterica subsp. Typhimurium (S. typhimurium. Birds were distributed into the following five treatments: negative control (CTL−; negative control+S. typhimurium (CTL+; antibiotic+S. typhimurium, (AB; Toyocerin(r+S. typhimurium (TOYO; and CloSTATTM+ S. typhimurium (CLOS. Birds in all treatments, except for CTL−, were orally challenged with 3 x109 CFUS. typhimurium at 16 days of age. The results showed that total antioxidant capacity (TAC, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 values were similar among all groups. The antibody titers against S. typhimurium and Newcastle disease (ND were not affected by the treatments (p>0.05. However, S. typhimurium and ND titers were influenced by the interaction between week and treatment (p<0.01, p<0.05, respectively and by week (p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively. In conclusion, S. typhimurium challenge had an impact on anti-Salmonella and NC titers. Both probiotics did not affect the broilers' antioxidant capacity.

  7. Kinetics of the Anti-oxidant Response to Salinity in the Halophyte Cakile maritima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effects of NaCl stress on the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD),ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR)), anti-oxidant molecules (ascorbate and glutathione), and parameters of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage, and H2O2 concentrations) were investigated in Cakile maritima, a halophyte frequent along the Tunisian seashore. Seedlings were grown in the presence of salt (100, 200, and 400 mmol/L NaCl). Plants were harvested periodically over 20 days. Growth was maximal in the presence of 0-100 mmol/L NaCl. At 400 mmol/L NaCl, growth decreased significantly. The salt tolerance of C. maritima, at moderate salinities, was associated with the lowest values of the parameters indicative of oxidative stress, namely the highest activities of POD, CAT, APX, DHAR, and GR and high tissue content of ascorbate and glutathione. However, prolonged exposure to high salinity resulted in a decrease in anti-oxidant activities and high MDA content, electrolyte leakage, and H2O2 concentrations. These results suggest that anti-oxidant systems participate in the tolerance of C. maritima to moderate salinities.

  8. Hormone response element binding proteins: novel regulators of vitamin D and estrogen signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Lisse, Thomas S.; Hewison, Martin; Adams, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Insights from vitamin D-resistant New World primates and their human homologues as models of natural and pathological insensitivity to sterol/steroid action have uncovered a family of novel intracellular vitamin D and estrogen regulatory proteins involved in hormone action. The proteins, known as “vitamin D or estrogen response element-binding proteins”, behave as potent cis-acting, transdominant regulators to inhibit steroid receptor binding to DNA response elements and is responsible for vi...

  9. Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a 20 meter shuttle run test in female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Özgür Bulduk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of physical exercise on oxidant stress and antioxidants has been investigated extensively in the last twenty years. Cells continuously produce free radicals under normal conditions during mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC. Experimental studies have shown elevated metabolic rate by strenuous physical exercise induces oxidative stress and production of excessive amounts of free radicals. Lipid peroxidation occurs when free radicals react with cellular components involving polyunsaturated fatty acid residues of phospholipids which are very sensitive to oxidation. This study aimed to determine plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a 20 meter shuttle run test in female volleyball players. Ten female volleyball players from the same team, and ten sedentary female ages between 18-24 years old volunteered to participate in this study. They were in good health and 48 hours before the test did not receive any drug or alcohol. None of them had any endocrine, orthopedic problems. Before the study, Informed, written consent was obtained from all the participants after full explanation of the procedures involved. All procedures were approved by the Selçuk University Meram Medical School of Ethical Committee. 20 meter shuttle run test was designed to estimate the maximal aerobic power of athletes performing in sports with frequent stops and starts (eg. Basketball, volleyball, fencing and so on. Findings of our study demonstrate that in both female groups 20 meter shuttle run test leads to production of more reactive oxygen species than the antioxidant systems can scavenge. Decrease in the activities of these antioxidant enzymes may be due to their inactivation caused by the higher production of the free radicals. it seems that the vulnerability of the body to oxidative stress is significantly enhanced after strenuous exercise test.

  10. Ecological responsibility of business as public-private partnership element

    OpenAIRE

    I.M. Potravniy; V.V. Gassiy

    2011-01-01

    In the article the questions of social and ecological responsibility of business are considered within the public-private partnership mechanism framework. Methods of the ecological significant project economic regulation are shown in wildlife management and environment protection sphere.

  11. Glyphosate-based herbicide exposure causes antioxidant defence responses in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Lais Mattos; Figueira, Fernanda Hernandes; Gottschalk, Marco Silva; da Rosa, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is a non-selective and post-emergent herbicide that affects plant growth. Animal exposure to this herbicide can lead to adverse effects, such as endocrine disruption, oxidative stress and behavioural disorders. Drosophilids have been utilized previously as an effective tool in toxicological tests. In the present study, the effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup [Original]) were investigated regarding oxidative stress, the antioxidant defence system and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Flies (of both genders) that were 1 to 3days old were exposed to different glyphosate concentrations (0.0mg/L=control, 1.0mg/L, 2.0mg/L, 5.0mg/L and 10.0mg/L) in the diet for 24h and 96h. After the exposure periods, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were quantified. In addition, the mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (i.e., keap1, sod, sod2, cat, irc, gclc, gclm, gss, trxt, trxr-1 and trxr-2) was evaluated via RT-PCR. Additionally, AChE activity was evaluated only after the 96h exposure period. The results indicated that Roundup exposure leads to a reduction in ROS levels in flies exposed for 96h. ACAP levels and gene expression of the antioxidant defence system exhibited an increase from 24h, while LPO did not show any significant alterations in both exposure periods. AChE activity was not affected following Roundup exposure. Our data suggest that Roundup exposure causes an early activation of the antioxidant defence system in D. melanogaster, and this can prevent subsequent damage caused by ROS. PMID:26980113

  12. Antioxidant and oxidative stress responses of sojourners at high altitude in different climatic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sanchari; Singh, Som Nath; Saha, Mantu; Kain, T. C.; Tyagi, A. K.; Ray, Uday Sankar

    2010-01-01

    High altitude (HA) is a multi-stressor environment comprising hypobaric hypoxia and cold. Climatic temperature varies with seasonal variation at HA. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ambient temperature on antioxidant profile among sojourners at HA. The study was conducted on sojourners exposed to an altitude of 4,560 m in two different seasons and categorized into two groups (SOJ 1, n = 63, ambient temp. at HA: -6º to +10ºC; SOJ 2, n = 81, ambient temp. at HA: 3º-22ºC). Blood was collected at sea level (SL) and after 4 weeks of HA exposure. Antioxidant enzymes showed significant upregulation in SOJ 2 at HA. In SOJ 1, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase showed significant upregulation but catalase and glutathione reductase showed significant decrease at HA. Non-enzymatic antioxidants showed significant reduction in SOJ 1 whereas a sustained antioxidant profile was observed in SOJ 2 at HA. Oxidative stress markers showed higher levels in SOJ 1 than SOJ 2 at HA. Differences observed between SOJ 1 and SOJ 2 at HA may be the consequence of different environmental temperatures. Cold stress was higher in SOJ 1 as evidenced from the significantly lower oral temperature in SOJ 1 as compared to SOJ 2. Cold- and hypoxia-induced increase in energy expenditure was significantly high in SOJ 1 than SOJ 2. To conclude, chronic exposure to hypoxia in moderate climatic temperature has a potential preconditioning effect on antioxidant system, but exposure to both cold and hypoxia causes greater oxidative stress due to altered metabolic rate.

  13. Design Process for Integrated Concepts with Responsive Building Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aa, Van der A.; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    An integrated building concept is a prerequisite to come to an energy efficient building with a good and healthy IAQ indoor comfort. A design process that defines the targets and boundary conditions in the very first stage of the design and guarantees them until the building is finished and used is...... needed. The hard question is however: how to make the right choice of the combination of individual measures from building components and building services elements. Within the framework of IEA-ECBCS Annex 44 research has been conducted about the design process for integrated building concepts with...

  14. Optimization of Extraction Condition of Bee Pollen Using Response Surface Methodology: Correlation between Anti-Melanogenesis, Antioxidant Activity, and Phenolic Content

    OpenAIRE

    Seon Beom Kim; Yang Hee Jo; Qing Liu; Jong Hoon Ahn; In Pyo Hong; Sang Mi Han; Bang Yeon Hwang; Mi Kyeong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Bee pollen is flower pollen with nectar and salivary substances of bees and rich in essential components. Bee pollen showed antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity in our assay system. To maximize the antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of bee pollen, extraction conditions, such as extraction solvent, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were optimized using response surface methodology. Regression analysis showed a good fit of this model and yielded the second-order...

  15. Response Pattern of Antioxidants to Lipid Peroxide Concentration in Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepato-Toxicity Is Tightly Logistic in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Alisi C. S.; Ojiako O. A.; Osuagwu C. G.; Onyeze G. O. C.

    2011-01-01

    Logistic response of antioxidants to lipid peroxide concentration in carbon tetrachloride toxicity in rabbit liver was evaluated. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), ethanol extracts of Chromolaena odorata (ETECO), sylimarin (a known hepatoprotective agent) and water, were used to induce variations in the oxidant/antioxidant balance in the test and control animals. This was used as a model to study the delicate balance between the activities and/or the intracellular concentrations of ...

  16. Oxidative Stress and Erythrocyte Membrane Responses During Sarcoptic Mange in Sheep: Evaluating Bio-Organic Therapy and its Supplementation with Antioxidant Tocopherol.

    OpenAIRE

    Umesh Dimri; M C Sharma; Meena Kataria; Sushil Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Sarcoptic mange in sheep, causes heavy losses in quantity and quality of wool and meat production.The present investigation aimed at evaluating the oxidative stress-antioxidant defense and erythrocytic membrane responses during sarcoptic mange in sheep.A bio-organic therapy (BT) was evaluated for its efficacy. Tocopherol was assessed for its antioxidant adjunctive potential. Materials and Methods: Nineteen sheep with sarcoptic mange (aged 9-12 months, with lesions ascribed to Sarcoptes scabie...

  17. Nrf2-Inducing Anti-Oxidation Stress Response in the Rat Liver - New Beneficial Effect of Lansoprazole

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Yasunobu; Ueyama, Takashi; Nishi, Toshio; Yamamoto, Yuta; Kawakoshi, Akatsuki; Sunami, Shogo; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Ueda, Kazuki; Ito, Takao; Tsuruo, Yoshihiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Lansoprazole is a potent anti-gastric ulcer drug that inhibits gastric proton pump activity. We identified a novel function for lansoprazole, as an inducer of anti-oxidative stress responses in the liver. Gastric administration of lansoprazole (10–100 mg/kg) to male Wistar rats produced a dose-dependent increase in hepatic mRNA levels of nuclear factor, erythroid-derived 2, -like 2 (Nrf2), a redox-sensitive transcription factor, at 3 h and Nrf2 immunoreactivity (IR) in whole hepatic lysates a...

  18. Optimization extraction conditions for improving phenolic content and antioxidant activity in Berberis asiatica fruits using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwal, Tarun; Dhyani, Praveen; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer Singh; Pande, Veena

    2016-09-15

    This study for the first time designed to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant potential of Berberis asiatica fruits using response surface methodology (RSM). Solvent selection was done based on the preliminary experiments and a five-factors-three-level, Central Composite Design (CCD). Extraction temperature (X1), sample to solvent ratio (X3) and solvent concentration (X5) significantly affect response variables. The quadratic model well fitted for all the responses. Under optimal extraction conditions, the dried fruit sample mixed with 80% methanol having 3.0 pH in a ratio of 1:50 and the mixture was heated at 80 °C for 30 min; the measured parameters was found in accordance with the predicted values. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis at optimized condition reveals 6 phenolic compounds. The results suggest that optimization of the extraction conditions is critical for accurate quantification of phenolics and antioxidants in Berberis asiatica fruits, which may further be utilized for industrial extraction procedure. PMID:27080887

  19. Structural basis of VDR–DNA interactions on direct repeat response elements

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, Paul L.; Gewirth, Daniel T.

    2002-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) forms homo- or heterodimers on response elements composed of two hexameric half-sites separated by 3 bp of spacer DNA. We describe here the crystal structures at 2.7–2.8 Å resolution of the VDR DNA-binding region (DBD) in complex with response elements from three different promoters: osteopontin (SPP), canonical DR3 and osteocalcin (OC). These structures reveal the chemical basis for the increased affinity of VDR for the SPP response element, and for the poor stab...

  20. Moral Responsibility: The Missing Element in Educational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasillopulos, Christopher; Denney, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    We intend to deepen the understanding of leadership in general and educational leadership in particular by an analysis of Chester Barnard's (1938) concept of executive responsibility. By so doing we believe that we will reveal how an educational leader can foster the environment in which competent teachers can optimize their students' learning…

  1. Ecological responsibility of business as public-private partnership element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Potravniy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article the questions of social and ecological responsibility of business are considered within the public-private partnership mechanism framework. Methods of the ecological significant project economic regulation are shown in wildlife management and environment protection sphere.

  2. Social responsibility as an obligatory element of the institutional system

    OpenAIRE

    Filippova, Irina; Sumcov, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The institute of social responsibility is considered as mandatory addition of market and state institutes, since it reduces the transaction costs of the socio-economic system by eliminating discrimination in the relations. One of the most important missions of the state is the formation and development of the mechanisms of social control.

  3. Alteration in antioxidant potential of spinacia oleracea in response to selected plant growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spinach (Spinacia oleracea) plants treated with certain seed priming (bio-fertilizer and Humic acid) and foliar treatments (Humic acid, Moringa leaf extract, 6-Benzyl amino purine etc.) were tested for total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity. Methanolic extracts of all spinach samples were assessed performing three different protocols including Folin-Ciocalteu, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging assays. TPC value ranged 4.678-13.236 mg GAE/g of dry matter. Reducing power assay showed values (absorbance at lambda max=700nm) in the range of 0.351-1.874 at 10 mg/mL extract concentration. The range of IC 50 values in DPPH radical scavenging assay was 0.499-1.063 mu g/mL extract concentration. The one way ANOVA under CRD showed significant differences among treatments. Among various plant growth regulators, fresh Moringa leaf extract proved as the potent enhancer of antioxidant activity of spinach leaves. (author)

  4. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on insulin sensitivity in response to endurance exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yfanti, Christina; Nielsen, Anders R; Åkerström, Thorbjörn;

    2011-01-01

    assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation during endurance training on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, twenty-one young healthy (age 29±1 y; BMI 25±3 Kg m(-2)) men were randomly assigned into either an antioxidant (AO; 500 mg vitamin C and 400 IU vitamin E (a-tocopherol) daily) or a placebo (PL......While production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) is associated with some of the beneficial adaptations to regular physical exercise, it is not established whether RONS play a role in the improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle obtained by endurance training. To...... before and after the training. Muscle biopsies were obtained for determination of the concentration and activity of proteins regulating glucose metabolism. Although plasma levels of vitamin C (P <0.05) and a-tocopherol (P <0.05) increased markedly in the AO group, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake...

  5. Implications of chronic daily anti-oxidant administration on the inflammatory response to intracortical microelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter-Baker, Kelsey A.; Stewart, Wade G.; Tomaszewski, William H.; Wong, Chun T.; Meador, William D.; Ziats, Nicholas P.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Oxidative stress events have been implicated to occur and facilitate multiple failure modes of intracortical microelectrodes. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the ability of a sustained concentration of an anti-oxidant and to reduce oxidative stress-mediated neurodegeneration for the application of intracortical microelectrodes. Approach. Non-functional microelectrodes were implanted into the cortex of male Sprague Dawley rats for up to sixteen weeks. Half of the animals received a daily intraperitoneal injection of the natural anti-oxidant resveratrol, at 30 mg kg-1. The study was designed to investigate the biodistribution of the resveratrol, and the effects on neuroinflammation/neuroprotection following device implantation. Main results. Daily maintenance of a sustained range of resveratrol throughout the implantation period resulted in fewer degenerating neurons in comparison to control animals at both two and sixteen weeks post implantation. Initial and chronic improvements in neuronal viability in resveratrol-dosed animals were correlated with significant reductions in local superoxide anion accumulation around the implanted device at two weeks after implantation. Controls, receiving only saline injections, were also found to have reduced amounts of accumulated superoxide anion locally and less neurodegeneration than controls at sixteen weeks post-implantation. Despite observed benefits, thread-like adhesions were found between the liver and diaphragm in resveratrol-dosed animals. Significance. Overall, our chronic daily anti-oxidant dosing scheme resulted in improvements in neuronal viability surrounding implanted microelectrodes, which could result in improved device performance. However, due to the discovery of thread-like adhesions, further work is still required to optimize a chronic anti-oxidant dosing regime for the application of intracortical microelectrodes.

  6. Control of antioxidative response by the tumor suppressor protein PML through regulating Nrf2 activity

    OpenAIRE

    GUO Shuang; Cheng, Xiwen; Lim, Jun-Hee; Yu LIU; Kao, Hung-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a consequence of an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the ability of the cytoprotective system to detoxify the reactive intermediates. The tumor suppressor promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) functions as a stress sensor. Loss of PML results in impaired mitochondrial complex II activity, increased ROS, and subsequent activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidative pathway. We also demonstrate that sulforaphane (S...

  7. Optimisation of antioxidant extraction from Solanum tuberosum potato peel waste by surface response methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Amado, I.; Franco, Daniel; Sánchez, Maribel; Zapata, Carlos; Vázquez, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the optimised conditions (temperature, ethanol concentration and processing-time) for antioxidant extraction from potato peel (Agria variety) waste. At short extraction times (34 min), optimal yields of phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (Fv) compounds were reached at 89.9 °C and ethanol concentrations of 71.2% and 38.6%, respectively. The main phenolic compounds identified in the extracts were chlorogenic (Cl) and ferulic (Fer) acids. A significant positive correlation was found ...

  8. Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Response to Cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    A. Saffar; M.B. Bagherieh Najjar; M. Mianabadi

    2009-01-01

    The effects of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd+2) on growth and activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) have been investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana L. seedlings. The concentration of 50 and 100 μM CdCl2 was shown to strongly inhibit the growth of roots and lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation of seedlings shoots rose with increasing concentrations of Cd+2 as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. As Cd+2 concentra...

  9. Nicotine mediates expression of genes related to antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress response in HIV-1 transgenic rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guohua; Nesil, Tanseli; Cao, Junran; Yang, Zhongli; Chang, Sulie L; Li, Ming D

    2016-02-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression of HIV-1 infection. Nicotine can either protect neurons from neurodegeneration or induce oxidative stress, depending on its dose and degree of oxidative stress impairment. However, the relationship between nicotine and oxidative stress in the HIV-1-infected individuals remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of nicotine on expression of genes related to the glutathione (GSH)-centered antioxidant system and oxidative stress in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) and F344 control rats. Adult HIV-1Tg and F344 rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, base, s.c.) or saline injections once per day for 27 days. At the end of treatment, various brain regions including the NAc and VTA were collected from each rat. Following total RNA extraction and complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis of each sample, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis was performed for 43 oxidative-stress-related genes. Compared with F344 control rats, HIV-1Tg rats showed a significant downregulation of genes involved in ATPase and cyctochrome oxidase at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level in both regions. Further, we found a significant downregulation of Gstm5 in the NAc and upregulation of Cox1, Cox3, and Gsta6 in the VTA of HIV-1Tg rats. HIV-1Tg rats showed brain-region-specific responses to chronic nicotine treatment. This response resulted in a change in the expression of genes involved in antioxidant mechanisms including the downregulation of genes such as Atp5h, Calml1, Gpx7, Gstm5, Gsr, and Gsta6 and upregulation of Sod1 in the NAc, as well as downregulation of genes like Cox5a, Gpx4, Gpx6, Gpx7, Gstm5, and Sod1 in the VTA of HIV-1Tg rats. Together, we conclude that chronic nicotine treatment has a dual effect on the antioxidant defense system and oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis signaling in HIV-1Tg rats. These findings suggest that

  10. Characterization of the Nutraceutical Quality and Antioxidant Activity in Bell Pepper in Response to Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Chávez-Mendoza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The grafting of fruits and vegetables influences fruit quality. The aim of the present work was to assess the effect of the rootstock and the scion on the antioxidant activity and the content in vitamin C, total phenols, lycopene and β-carotene of bell pepper. The cultivars Fascinato and Jeanette were used as scion and Terrano was used as rootstock. Four harvests in the production cycle of the vegetable were analyzed in a cultivation system under shading nets. The results indicate statistical differences in the content of these bioactive compounds between the varieties, between grafting and not grafting and between sampling dates (p ≤ 0.05. The vitamin C content, β-carotene, and antioxidant capacity proved significantly higher in Fascinato than in Janette. On average, grafting increased β-carotene and vitamin C concentrations and improved the antioxidant capacity, but had no influence on the total phenol or lycopene contents. It is concluded that grafting to the rootstock Terrano improves the nutritional quality of the fruit produced in both varieties of bell pepper studied.

  11. Divergences in hormonal and enzymatic antioxidant responses of two Chicory ecotypes to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaatiyan, Kimiya; Sadeghi, Hossein

    2015-06-15

    To evaluate the effect of salt stress on seed germination, early growth, antioxidant enzymes activity and ABA content of chicory ecotypes (Cichorium intybus) a factorial experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, Shiraz University in 2014 based on completely randomized design with four replications. The treatments comprised five salinity levels (tapwater, 3, 6, 9, 12 dS m(-1)) of sodium chloride on Shirazi-black and white chicory ecotypes. The results showed that germination characteristics and primary seedling growth were decreased in both ecotypes with increasing in salinity severity. The effects of salinity on radicle and plumule length as well as seedling weight were the same as its effects on seed germination. The effect of salt stress on antioxidant enzymes activity (especially catalase) and ABA content were significant which they were enhanced with increasing salinity level; Black ecotype performs better than the white one under high salinity, as indicated by a lower decreasing in germination characteristics and primary growth and higher antioxidant enzymes activity as well as ABA content. These facts should be taken into consideration in the economic cultivation of this valuable horticultural and medicinal plant and this data would be useful for the crop breeding projects. PMID:26075934

  12. Responses of antioxidant defense system of Lespedeza davurica to enhanced UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different UV-B radiation intensity (CK, T1, T2) on antioxidant defense system and other related indicators of Lespedeza davurica (Laxm.) Schindl. Malonaldehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AsA) and carotenoid (Car) contents, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities of leaves from Lespedeza davurica under different UV-B radiation intensity were investigated. Samples were collected once every three days. The UV-B treatment was continued 15 days. Result indicated that SOD and POD activities decreased, APX and POD activities increased with UV-B radiation enhanced during the whole treatment time. SOD, POD and CAT activities decreased with UV-B radiation intensity increasing. APX activity increased during the first 9-day treatment with radiation intensity increasing then decreased with radiation intensity increasing. UV-B radiation increased AsA content, decreased Car content. Both AsA and Car contents decreased with radiation intensity increasing when compared with control. O2- and MDA increased with radiation intensity increasing. All other tested indicators increased except SOD and POD activity as well as AsA content decreased after UV-B radiation treatment. Comprehensive evaluation of subordinate function showed that UV-B radiation reduced the antioxidant capacity of Lespedeza davurica, and the antioxidant capacity decreased with UV-B radiation intensity increasing. (author)

  13. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 154 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill... Appendix D to Part 154—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The portion of the plan... contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify the activate such organizations....

  14. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 155 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training Elements for Oil Spill.... 155, App. C Appendix C to Part 155—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The... capabilities of the contracted oil spill removal organizations and the procedures to notify and activate...

  15. Acute toxicity of carbamazepine to juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): effects on antioxidant responses, hematological parameters and hepatic EROD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Zlabek, Vladimir; Velisek, Josef; Grabic, Roman; Machova, Jana; Kolarova, Jitka; Li, Ping; Randak, Tomas

    2011-03-01

    Awareness of residual pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the aquatic environment is growing as investigations into these pollutants are increasing and analytical detection techniques are improving. However, the toxicological effects of PhACs have not been adequately researched. In this study, the toxic effects of carbamazepine (CBZ), an anticonvulsant drug commonly present in surface and groundwater, was studied in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, by acute semi-static bioassay. Blood parameters, liver xenobiotic-metabolizing response and tissue antioxidant status were evaluated. Compared to the control group, fish exposed to CBZ (96 h LC50) showed significantly higher Er, Hb, MCHC, monocytes, neutrophil granulocytes and plasma enzymes activity, and significantly lower MCV and lymphocytes. CF and HSI were not significantly different among groups such as hepatic EROD. SOD, CAT, GPx and GR activity was significantly higher in liver of experimental groups, but decreased significantly in brain and gill. In general, antioxidant enzyme activity in intestine and muscle was less evident than in liver. Oxidative stress indices (levels of LPO and CP) were significantly higher in gill and brain, despite a trend to increased values were manifested in the remaining tissues. In short, CBZ-induced stress responses in different tissues were reflected in the oxidant stress indices and hematological parameters. However, before those parameters are used as special biomarkers for monitoring residual pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment, more detailed experiments in laboratory need to be performed in the future. PMID:20971511

  16. Hepatic and Nephric NRF2 Pathway Up-Regulation, an Early Antioxidant Response, in Acute Arsenic-Exposed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic arsenic (iAs, a proven human carcinogen, damages biological systems through multiple mechanisms, one of them being reactive oxygen species (ROS production. NRF2 is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that positively regulates the genes of encoding antioxidant and detoxification enzymes to neutralize ROS. Although NRF2 pathway activation by iAs has been reported in various cell types, however, the experimental data in vivo are very limited and not fully elucidated in humans. The present investigation aimed to explore the hepatic and nephric NRF2 pathway upregulation in acute arsenic-exposed mice in vivo. Our results showed 10 mg/kg NaAsO2 elevated the NRF2 protein and increased the transcription of Nrf2 mRNA, as well as up-regulated NRF2 downstream targets HO-1, GST and GCLC time- and dose-dependently both in the liver and kidney. Acute NaAsO2 exposure also resulted in obvious imbalance of oxidative redox status represented by the increase of GSH and MDA, and the decrease of T-AOC. The present investigation reveals that hepatic and nephric NRF2 pathway expression is an early antioxidant defensive response upon iAs exposure. A better knowledge about the NRF2 pathway involvment in the cellular response against arsenic could help improve the strategies for reducing the cellular toxicity related to this metalloid.

  17. Responses of antioxidant defense system to polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) exposure in liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenguang; Qin, Li; Qu, Ruijuan; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of ten polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) congeners to freshwater fish Carassius auratus, by determining the antioxidative responses and lipid peroxidation in the liver after the fish were injected with two different concentrations (10 and 100 µmol/kg) of individual PFDDs for 3 and 14 days. The results showed that oxidative stress was obviously induced in some PFDDs-treated groups, as implied by the significantly inhibited antioxidants levels (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and glutathione S-transferase) and elevated malondialdehyde content. In addition, the oxidative stress inducing ability was variable for different PFDDs congeners, which was related with the substitution number and position of fluorine atom. Based on the calculated integrated biomarker response (IBR) values, the toxicity was ranked as 2,3,7,8-FDD>Octa-FDD>1,2,3,4,7-FDD>1,3,6,8-FDD>1,2,3,4,6,7-FDD>1,2,6,7-FDD>1,2,7-FDD>DD>2,7-FDD>2-FDD. This study can enhance the general understanding of the PFDDs induced oxidative stress in aquatic organisms. PMID:26761781

  18. Response and adaptation of photosynthesis, respiration, and antioxidant systems to elevated CO2 with environmental stress in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhu eXu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that plant photosynthesis and respiration are two fundamental and crucial physiological processes, while the critical role of the antioxidant system in response to abiotic factors is still a focus point for investigating physiological stress. Although one key metabolic process and its response to climatic change have already been reported and reviewed, an integrative review, including several biological processes at multiple scales, has not been well reported. The current review will present a synthesis focusing on the underlying mechanisms in the responses to elevated CO2 at multiple scales, including molecular, cellular, biochemical, physiological, and individual aspects, particularly, for these biological processes under elevated CO2 with other key abiotic stresses, such as heat, drought, and ozone pollution, as well as nitrogen limitation. The present comprehensive review may add timely and substantial information about the topic in recent studies, while it presents what has been well established in previous reviews. First, an outline of the critical biological processes, and an overview of their roles in environmental regulation, is presented. Second, the research advances with regard to the individual subtopics are reviewed, including the response and adaptation of the photosynthetic capacity, respiration, and antioxidant system to CO2 enrichment alone, and its combination with other climatic change factors. Finally, the potential applications for plant responses at various levels to climate change are discussed. The above issue is currently of crucial concern worldwide, and this review may help in a better understanding of how plants deal with elevated CO2 using other mainstream abiotic factors, including molecular, cellular, biochemical, physiological, and whole individual processes, and the better management of the ecological environment, climate change, and sustainable development.

  19. Light history modulates antioxidant and photosynthetic responses of biofilms to both natural (light) and chemical (herbicides) stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnineau, Chloé; Sague, Irene Gallardo; Urrea, Gemma; Guasch, Helena

    2012-05-01

    In multiple stress situations, the co-occurrence of environmental and chemical factors can influence organisms' ability to cope with toxicity. In this context, the influence of light adaptation on the response of freshwater biofilms to sudden light changes or to herbicides exposure was investigated by determining various parameters: diatom community composition, photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll a content, antioxidant enzyme activities. Biofilms were grown in microcosms under sub-optimal, saturating, and high light intensities and showed already described characteristics of shade/light adaptation (community structure, photosynthetic adaptation, etc.). Light history modulated antioxidant and photosynthetic responses of biofilms to the stress caused by short-term exposure to sudden light changes or to herbicides. First biofilms adapted to sub-optimal light intensity (shade-adapted) were found to be more sensitive to an increase in light intensity than high-light adapted ones to a reduction in light intensity. Second, while light history influenced biofilms' response to glyphosate, it had little influence on biofilms' response to copper and none on its response to oxyfluorfen. Indeed glyphosate exposure led to a stronger decrease in photosynthetic efficiency of shade-adapted biofilms (EC(50) = 11.7 mg L(-1)) than of high-light adapted communities (EC(50) = 35.6 mg L(-1)). Copper exposure led to an activation of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in biofilms adapted to sub-optimal and saturating light intensity while the protein content decreased in all biofilms exposed to copper. Oxyfluorfen toxicity was independent of light history provoking an increase in APX activity. In conclusion this study showed that both previous exposure to contaminants and physical habitat characteristics might influence community tolerance to disturbances strongly. PMID:22407402

  20. Cellular responses induced by environmental stress factors in Arctic Seabird chicks : Responses of the antioxidant defense system and autophagic lysosomal processes related to contaminant exposure and food restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Hegseth, Marit Nøst

    2011-01-01

    The papers of this thesis are not available in Munin: 1. Marit Nøst Hegseth, Lionel Camus, Lisa Bjørnsdatter Helgason, Raffaella Bocchetti, Geir Wing Gabrielsen and Francesco Regoli: 'Hepatic antioxidant responses related to levels of PCBs and metals in chicks of three Arctic seabird species', Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology (2011) 154: 28-35. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2011.02.008 2. Marit Nøst Hegseth, Lionel Camus, Stefania Go...

  1. Responses of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins in drosophila to treatment with a pesticide mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doganlar Oguzhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a mixture of seven pesticides were examined on the expression of antioxidant enzymes, Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione synthetase (GS, and heat shock proteins (HSP 26, 60, 70 and 83 in adult fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster Oregon R. The flies were reared under controlled conditions on artificial diets and treated with a mixture of seven pesticides (molinate, thiobencarb, linuron, phorate, primiphos-methyl, fenvalerate and lambda-cyhalothrin commonly found in water, at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1 parts per billion (ppb for 1 and 5 days. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis of Mn-SOD, CAT and GS expression revealed that the analyzed markers responded significantly to pesticide-induced oxidative stress, in particular on the 5th day of treatment. On the 1st day of treatment, the relative expression of HSP26 and HSP60 genes increased only after exposure to the highest concentrations of pesticides, whereas HSP70 and HSP83 expression increased after exposure to 0.5 and 1 ppb. After five days of treatment, the expression of all HSP genes was increased after exposure to all pesticide concentrations. A positive correlation was determined between the relative expression levels of some HSPs (except HSP60, and antioxidant genes. The observed changes in antioxidant enzyme and HSP mRNA levels in D. melanogaster suggest that the permissible limits of pesticide concentrations for clean drinking water outlined in the regulations of several countries are potentially cytotoxic. The presented findings lend support for reevaluation of these limits.

  2. Antioxidant response of Stevia rebaudiana B. to polyethylene glycol and paclobutrazol treatments under in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajihashemi, Shokoofeh; Ehsanpour, Ali Akbar

    2014-04-01

    This investigation was carried out with the aim of determining the effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ) (0 and 2 mg l(-1)) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) (0, 2, 4 and 6 % w/v of PEG 6000) treatments on antioxidant system of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni under in vitro condition. Analysis of data showed that PEG treatment significantly increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and phenolic contents, while PBZ treatment limited the effect of PEG on them. Our data revealed that PEG treatment significantly increased total antioxidant capacity, catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity, while it inversely decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was not affected by PEG treatment. PBZ treatment induced significantly higher levels of CAT and GR activity and lower levels of SOD activity in PEG-treated plants. PBZ in combination with PEG resulted in no significant difference on APX activity with PEG treatment alone. PBZ treatment prevented the effect of PEG on the PPO activity. PEG (with or without PBZ) treatment increased the ascorbate pool, whereas total glutathione level was not affected by PEG. Our finding indicated that PBZ reduced the negative effect of PEG treatment by quenching H2O2 accumulation and increasing the CAT activity. Collectively, the antioxidant capacity of S. rebaudiana in PEG treatment condition was associated with active enzymatic and non-enzymatic defence systems which partly could be improved by the PBZ treatment. In addition, a higher accumulation of phenolic compounds leads to a more potent reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in S. rebaudiana. PMID:24604127

  3. The use of antioxidant enzymes in freshwater biofilms: temporal variability vs. toxicological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnineau, Chloé; Tlili, Ahmed; Faggiano, Leslie; Montuelle, Bernard; Guasch, Helena

    2013-07-15

    This study aims to investigate the potential of antioxidant enzyme activities (AEA) as biomarkers of oxidative stress in freshwater biofilms. Therefore, biofilms were grown in channels for 38 days and then exposed to different concentrations (0-150 μg L(-1)) of the herbicide oxyfluorfen for 5 more weeks. Under control conditions, the AEA of biofilms were found to change throughout time with a significant increase in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity during the exponential growth and a more important role of catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities during the slow growth phase. Chronic exposure to oxyfluorfen led to slight variations in AEA, however, the ranges of variability of AEA in controls and exposed communities were similar, highlighting the difficulty of a direct interpretation of AEA values. After 5 weeks of exposure to oxyfluorfen, no clear effects were observed on chl-a concentration or on the composition of other pigments suggesting that algal group composition was not affected. Eukaryotic communities were structured clearly by toxicant concentration and both eukaryotic and bacterial richness were reduced in communities exposed to the highest concentration. In addition, during acute exposure tests performed at the end of the chronic exposure, biofilms chronically exposed to 75 and 150 μg L(-1) oxyfluorfen showed a higher CAT activity than controls. Chronic exposure to oxyfluorfen provoked then structural changes but also functional changes in the capacity of biofilm CAT activity to respond to a sudden increase in concentration, suggesting a selection of species with higher antioxidant capacity. This study highlighted the difficulty of interpretation of AEA values due to their temporal variation and to the absence of absolute threshold value indicative of oxidative stress induced by contaminants. Nevertheless, the determination of AEA pattern throughout acute exposure test is of high interest to compare oxidative stress levels

  4. Antioxidant enzymes response induced by static magnetic field in pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that static magnetic fields (MF) affect human health and, in particular, that the incidence of certain types of cancer, depression, and miscarriage might increase among individuals living or working in environments exposed to such fields. However, despite numerous studies concerning MF, the mechanism of its adverse effect still remains unknown. So, our work hypothesis was that abortion effects induced by MF exposure could be due to an over production of reactive oxygen species produced by pregnant rats. The aim of our study was to examine if MF was able to induce an oxidative stress in pregnant-rats. Pregnant female Wistar rats were exposed to MF (128 mT/1h/day) on day 6 to 19 of gestation. Animals were sacrificed three days after delivery and plasma was collected to determine malondialdehyde (MDA), an indirect oxidative stress marker, glutathion peroxidase activity (GPX), an antioxydant enzyme, and the total antioxidant status (TAS). MF exposure had no effects on MDA level (2.97 ± 0.50 μmol/l vs 2.62 ±0.19 μmol/l, p>0.05) and plasma GPX activity (6936.00 ±109.59 U/l vs 6258.00 ±111.12 U/l, p>0.05). Interestingly, MF exposure induced elevation in the total antioxidant status values (0.716 ±0.018 mmol/l vs 0.646 ±0.023 mmol/l, p<0.05). The results indicated that sub-acute exposures to magnetic field during rat pregnancy have no effects on lipid peroxidation, probably related to the protection role of antioxidant enzymes

  5. Prediction of transcriptional regulatory elements for plant hormone responses based on microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi-Shinozaki Kazuko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytohormones organize plant development and environmental adaptation through cell-to-cell signal transduction, and their action involves transcriptional activation. Recent international efforts to establish and maintain public databases of Arabidopsis microarray data have enabled the utilization of this data in the analysis of various phytohormone responses, providing genome-wide identification of promoters targeted by phytohormones. Results We utilized such microarray data for prediction of cis-regulatory elements with an octamer-based approach. Our test prediction of a drought-responsive RD29A promoter with the aid of microarray data for response to drought, ABA and overexpression of DREB1A, a key regulator of cold and drought response, provided reasonable results that fit with the experimentally identified regulatory elements. With this succession, we expanded the prediction to various phytohormone responses, including those for abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, ethylene, brassinosteroid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid, as well as for hydrogen peroxide, drought and DREB1A overexpression. Totally 622 promoters that are activated by phytohormones were subjected to the prediction. In addition, we have assigned putative functions to 53 octamers of the Regulatory Element Group (REG that have been extracted as position-dependent cis-regulatory elements with the aid of their feature of preferential appearance in the promoter region. Conclusions Our prediction of Arabidopsis cis-regulatory elements for phytohormone responses provides guidance for experimental analysis of promoters to reveal the basis of the transcriptional network of phytohormone responses.

  6. Optimization of hydrolysis conditions for the production of antioxidant peptides from fish gelatin using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Lijun; Regenstein, Joe M; Liu, Rui Hai

    2010-08-01

    Fish skin gelatin was hydrolyzed with papain to produce antioxidant peptides. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the hydrolysis conditions (including enzyme to substrate ratio [E/S], hydrolysis time, and temperature). The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) (50.1 +/- 1.1%) was obtained at an E/S of 2% at 56.8 degrees C, 2.11 h, and was not significantly different from the predicted values within a 95% confidence interval. The highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (96.8 +/- 0.9%) and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS(*+)) (9.80 +/- 0.11 mM Trolox [6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethychroman-2-carboxylic acid]) radical-scavenging activities of fish gelatin hydrolyzates were obtained at an E/S of 3% at 52.1 degrees C, 2.65 h, and both DPPH and ABTS(*+) radical-scavenging activities were not significantly different from the predicted values 97.3% and 9.86 mM Trolox within the 95% confidence interval. Therefore, RSM is an efficient way to optimize fish gelatin hydrolysation and the resultant hydrolyzates show promise as antioxidant peptides. Practical Application: There is a growing interest in the use of fish gelatin as an alternative to mammalian gelatin. One potential use is as a source of widely acceptable functional compounds. In this study, a search for antioxidant peptides from fish gelatin prepared by an enzymatic method has been successfully done. This suggests that this is a practical way to obtain bioactive peptides. PMID:20722914

  7. Effect of Large Negative Phase of Blast Loading on Structural Response of RC Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zubair Iman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural response of reinforced concrete (RC elements for analysis and design are often obtained using the positive phase of the blast pressure curve disregarding the negative phase assuming insignificant contribution from the negative phase of the loading. Although, some insight on the effect of negative phase of blast pressure based on elastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF analysis was presented before, the influence of negative phase on different types of resistance functions of SDOF models and on realistic finite element analysis has not been explored. In this study, the effects of inclusion of pulse negative phase on structural response of RC elements from SDOF analysis and from more detailed finite element analysis have been investigated. Investigation of SDOF part has been conducted using MATLAB code that utilizes non-linear resistance functions of SDOF model. Detailed numerical investigation using finite element code DIANA was conducted on the significance of the negative phase on structural response. In the FE model, different support stiffness was used to explore the effect of support stiffness on the structural response due to blast negative phase. Results from SDOF and FE analyses present specific situations where the effect of large negative phase was found to be significant on the structural response of RC elements.

  8. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in placentas of women with low weight birth neonates. Correlation with toxic and essential trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low weight at birth (LWB) is a serious problem in developing countries. Although there are multiple factors contributing to neonates with low LWB, we are interested in those related to placental dysfunction. It is suggested here that mothers having children with LWB could have increased levels of reactive oxygen species, due to an impairment of placental protection mechanisms. This placental protection to oxygen radicals includes an enzymatic system integrated by glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, both of which are dependent on essential trace elements for optimal activity. Then, if toxic trace elements increase in the placenta (as a consequence of environmental exposure), or if essential trace elements decrease (as a consequence of nutritional status with dietary deficiency of essential elements), the protective enzymatic system would be insufficient to eliminate reactive oxygen species. This situation would lead to oxidative damage in placentas with detrimental effect on their functionality. The magnitude of the proposed damage would contribute to LWB, very likely due to foetal growth restriction. (author)

  9. Toxic effects of chlortetracycline on maize growth, reactive oxygen species generation and the antioxidant response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bei Wen; Yu Liu; Peng Wang; Tong Wu; Shuzhen Zhang; Xiaoquan Shan; Jingfen Lu

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of chlortetracycline (CTC) on maize (Zea mays L.) growth and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was studied.The root and shoot lengths and fresh weights of maize seedlings were inhibited by CTC treatment (p < 0.05).Root length was more sensitive than other parameters with the EC10 value of 0.064 mg/L.The spin trapping technique followed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis was used to quantify the ROS production.The ROS generated in maize roots after exposure to CTC was identified as hydroxyl radical (-OH).The EPR signal intensity correlated positively with the logarithm of CTC concentrations exposed (p < 0.05).The dynamic changes of malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and the antioxidative enzyme activities in maize roots were also determined.As compared to the control group,CTC was found to significantly increase MDA content.Treatment of maize roots with the ·OH scavenger sodium benzoate (SB) reduced the MDA content and enhanced the antioxidative enzyme activities.The results demonstrated the harmfulness of CTC at high dose to maize in the early developmental stage,and clarified that the inducement of ·OH is one of the mechanisms of CTC toxicity.

  10. Biochemical composition and antioxidant activities of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis in response to gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Effat Fahmy; Gabr, Mahmoud Ali; Moussa, Helal Ragab; El-Shaer, Enas Ali; Ismaiel, Mostafa M S

    2017-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a blue-green alga, rich with bioactive components and nutrients. To evaluate effect of gamma irradiation, A. platensis was exposed to different doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5kGy. The data showed that the phenolic and proline contents significantly increased with the increase of gamma irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy, above which a reduction was observed. The soluble proteins and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were stimulated by all tested irradiation doses. Furthermore, the vitamins (A, K and B group) and mineral contents (N, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe) were stimulated by the irradiation doses compared with the control. The activities of some N-assimilating and antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased with the irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy. This study suggests the possible use of gamma irradiation as a stimulatory agent to raise the nutritive value and antioxidant activity of A. platensis. PMID:27507509

  11. Antioxidant status of erythrocytes and their response to oxidative challenge in humans with argemone oil poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative damage of biomolecules and antioxidant status in erythrocytes of humans from an outbreak of argemone oil (AO) poisoning in Kannauj (India) and AO intoxicated experimental animals was investigated. Erythrocytes of the dropsy patients and AO treated rats were found to be more susceptible to 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) induced peroxidative stress. Significant decrease in RBC glutathione (GSH) levels (46, 63%) with concomitant enhancement in oxidized glutathione (172, 154%) levels was noticed in patients and AO intoxicated animals. Further, depletion of glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (42-52%) was observed in dropsy patients. Oxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids and proteins was increased (120-144%) in patients and AO treated animals (112-137%) along with 8-OHdG levels in whole blood (180%) of dropsy patients. A significant reduction in α-tocopherol content (68%) was noticed in erythrocytes of dropsy patients and hepatic, plasma and RBCs of AO treated rats (59-70%) thereby indicating the diminished antioxidant potential to scavenge free radicals or the limited transport of α-tocopherol from liver to RBCs leading to enhanced oxidation of lipids and proteins in erythrocytes. These studies implicate an important role of erythrocyte degradation in production of anemia and breathlessness in epidemic dropsy

  12. Antioxidative responses during germination in quinoa grown in vitamin B-rich medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzschke, Andrea; Fraundorfer, Anna; Guggemos, Michael; Fuchs, Norbert

    2015-05-01

    Synthetic vitamin preparations have grown in popularity to combat health risks associated with an imbalanced diet, poor exercise and stress. In terms of bioavailability and diversity, they lack behind vitamins naturally occurring in plants. Solutions to obtain plant-derived vitamins at a larger scale are highly desirable. B vitamins act as precursors of enzymatic cofactors, thereby regulating important metabolic processes both in animals and plants. Because during plant germination, the vitamin content and micronutrient availability increase, sprouts are generally considered a healthier food as compared to dry grains. Germination only occurs if a plant's antioxidant machinery is sufficiently activated to cope with oxidative stress. Seeds of quinoa, an edible gluten-free plant naturally rich in minerals, germinate readily in a solution containing the eight B vitamins. We studied biochemical changes during quinoa germination, with a focus on nutritionally relevant characteristics. The results are considered from a nutritional and plant physiological perspective. Germination of quinoa in vitamin-rich medium is a promising strategy to enhance the nutritional value of this matrix. Additional health-beneficial effects indirectly resulting from the vitamin treatment include elevated levels of the multi-functional amino acid proline and a higher antioxidant capacity. Plant biomolecules can be better protected from oxidative damage in vivo. PMID:25987999

  13. Response of photosynthesis and cellular antioxidants to ozone in Populus leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric ozone causes formation of various highly reactive intermediates (e.g. peroxyl and superoxide radicals, H2O2, etc.) in plant tissues. A plant's productivity in environments with ozone may be related to its ability to scavenge the free radicals formed. The effects of ozone on photosynthesis and some free radical scavengers were measured in the fifth emergent leaf of poplars. Clonal poplars (Populus deltoides x Populus cv caudina) were fumigated with 180 parts per billion ozone for 3 hours. Photosynthesis was measured before, during, and after fumigation. During the first 90 minutes of ozone exposure, photosynthetic rates were unaffected but gluthathione levels and superoxide dismutase activity increased. After 90 minutes of ozone exposure photosynthetic rates began to decline while glutathione and superoxide dismutase continued to increase. Total glutathione (reduced plus oxidized) increased in fumigated leaves throughout the exposure period. The ratio of GSH/GSSG also decreased from 12.8 to 1.2 in ozone exposed trees. Superoxide dismutase levels increased twofold in fumigated plants. After 4 hours of ozone exposure, the photosynthetic rate was approximately half that of controls while flutathione levels and superoxide dismutase activity remained above that of the controls. The elevated antioxidant levels were maintained 21 hours after ozone exposure while photosynthetic rates recovered to about 75% of that of controls. Electron transport and NADPH levels remained unaffected by the treatment. Hence, elevated antioxidant metabolism may protect the photosynthetic apparatus during exposure to ozone

  14. Effect of chromium on accumulation and antioxidants in Cucumis utillissimus L.: Response under enhanced bioavailability condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geetgovind Sinam; Sarita Sinha; Shekhar Mallick

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the accumulation of Ct(VI) and biochemical changes (total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein, malondialdehyde (MDA) and cysteine contents) and roles of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) in tolerance to metal induced stress in Cucumis utillissimus L. grown in Cr contaminated soil (CS) with garden soil (GS). Furthermore, Cr bioavailability was enhanced by ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) addition to the soil to forecast the plant's accumulation pattern at elevated Cr environment. Accumulation of Cr in the leaves of the plant increased with increase in substrate metals concentration. It further increased with the addition of EDTA by 1437% and 487% in GS and CS, respectively at the highest treatment level. The lipid peroxidation increased proportionately with increase in Cr accumulation in the leaves. All the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX and APX) and the level of cysteine increased with dose dependant manner. SOD and cysteine were observed to be higher in the GS than in CS, but APX and GPX were found to be higher in CS than in GS. The increase in GPX and APX activities with the increase in Cr concentration could be assumed that these two enzymes have a major role in the defense mechanism towards stress induced by Cr in C. utillissimus.

  15. Metallothioneins induction and antioxidative response in aquatic worms Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta, Tubificidae) exposed to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Yahia Y; Paris-Palacios, Séverine; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie

    2006-06-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs), are low molecular weight proteins, mainly implicated in metal ion detoxification. Increase in MT contents is considered as a specific biomarker of metal exposure. Recently it has been demonstrated that MTs participate in several cellular functions such as regulation of growth, and antioxidative defences. Tubifex tubifex were exposed to different copper concentrations (50, 100, and 200 microgl(-1)) for 7 and 15 days. MT levels in exposed worms increased significantly (p<0.05) after 7 and 15 days of exposure to different concentrations of copper (maximum +208% for 100 microgl(-1) after 7 days of exposure). Also important perturbation in metal-metallothionein content occurred, along with an increase in total soluble protein content in all treated worms after 7 and 15 days (max. +88.49%). Catalase activities (CAT) in Cu treated-worms were significantly increased, and demonstrated a development of antioxidative defenses. Additionally a reduction of gulathione-S-transferase (GST) was observed in all treated worms after 7 days of exposure to Cu (max. -44.42%). The high induction of MTs observed during T. tubifex exposure to Cu make them potentially useful biomarkers to monitor metal pollution. PMID:16330073

  16. Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Response to Cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saffar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd+2 on growth and activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and polyphenol oxidase (PPO have been investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana L. seedlings. The concentration of 50 and 100 μM CdCl2 was shown to strongly inhibit the growth of roots and lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation of seedlings shoots rose with increasing concentrations of Cd+2 as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA concentration. As Cd+2 concentration increased, catalase (CAT activity declined progressively, while peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activity increased when compared to the untreated plants. Close correlations between increased MDA formation and decreased root growth as well as CAT activity suggests that lipid peroxidation might caused cell damage and death proposing that applied concentrations of Cd+2 could be toxic to cells. It was also noted that Cd+2-induced cell injury and lipid peroxidation correlated with increased peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities, two antioxidant enzymes involved in polyphenol peroxidation as lignification substrates. Together, the results suggest that in Arabidopsis thaliana reactive oxygen species (ROS could be induced by phytotoxic concentrations of Cd+2 leading to increased POD and PPO activities which play a crucial role in detoxification of elevated concentrations of Cd+2 possibly via lignifications and physical barrier formation.

  17. [Effects of exogenous EBR and NO signal on antioxidant system and low response gene expression under cold stress on maize embryo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-hu; Xing, Guo-fang; Yang, Xiao-huan; Wang, Yu-guo; Du, Hui-ling

    2015-05-01

    In this study, Xianyu 335, a maize hybrid, was used to investigate the effects of 24-Epibrassinolide (EBR, a synthetic BR) on antioxidant capacity and low-temperature response gene expression in maize embryo germination under low temperature (LT) stress. The germination rate of maize seeds under LT stress was not affected by EBR, but the seed activity index and seedling growth were improved. EBR increased the activities of some antioxidative enzymes including SOD, POD, CAT and GR, and the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as GSH and proline, and induced the accumulation of nitric oxide (NO). NO scavenging c-PTIO and NOS inhibitor L- NAME decreased but NO donor SNP increased the enzyme activities of CAT and POD, and the content of proline, indicating NO mediated the EBR-induced antioxidant capacity. The gene expression pattern analysis showed that the expression of P5CS1, CBF1, CBF3 and COR15a was induced by LT stress, and further increased by EBR treatment in maize embryo, while their expression was suppressed by c-PTIO and L-NAME, and improved by SNP, which implied LT-responsed genes were regulated by NO. These results demonstrated that NO was involved in the EBR-induced LT tolerance in maize embryo by modulating the antioxidative capacity and the expression of LT-responsive genes. PMID:26571659

  18. Chronic hyperbaric oxygen treatment elicits an anti-oxidant response and attenuates atherosclerosis in apoE knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudchodkar, Bhalchandra J; Pierce, Anson; Dory, Ladislav

    2007-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment inhibits diet-induced atherosclerosis in New Zealand White rabbits. In the present study we investigate the mechanisms that might be involved in the athero-protective effect of HBO treatment in a well-accepted model of atherosclerosis, the apoE knockout (KO) mouse. We examine the effects of daily HBO treatment (for 5 and 10 weeks) on the components of the anti-oxidant defense mechanism and the redox state in blood, liver and aortic tissues and compare them to those of untreated apoE KO mice. HBO treatment results in a significant reduction of aortic cholesterol content and decreased fatty streak formation. These changes are accompanied by a significant reduction of autoantibodies against oxidatively modified LDL and profound changes in the redox state of the liver and aortic tissues. A 10-week treatment significantly reduces hepatic levels of TBARS and oxidized glutathione, while significantly increases the levels of reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase (GR), transferase, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase and catalase (CAT). The effects of HBO treatment are similar in the aortic tissues. These observations provide evidence that HBO treatment has a powerful effect on the redox state of relevant tissues and produces an environment that inhibits oxidation. The anti-oxidant response may be the key to the anti-atherogenic effect of HBO treatment. PMID:16973170

  19. Response of antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate and glutathione metabolism towards cadmium in hyperaccumulator and nonhyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaofen; Yang, Xiaoe; Mahmood, Qaisar; Islam, Ejazul; Liu, Dan; Li, Hong

    2008-08-01

    Hydroponics studies were conducted to investigate the antioxidant adaptations, ascorbate and glutathione metabolism in hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii (HE) exposed to high Cd environment, when compared with its nonhyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Exposure to Cd induced a burst of oxidative stress in both ecotypes which was evident by the sharp increase in hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) contents and lipid peroxidation. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis, did not affect H(2)O(2) concentrations as well as growth of both ecotypes in the absence of Cd. However, compared with Cd application alone, BSO combined with Cd treatment caused a substantial augmentation of H(2)O(2) accumulation accompanied by a reduction in Cd concentrations in roots and leaves of HE at the end of treatment, which may rule out the possibility that GSH biosynthesis may play an important role as a signal of the stress regulation. No efficient and superior enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms against Cd-imposed oxidative stress existed in both NHE and HE, but the essential nonenzymatic components like ascorbic acid (AsA) and GSH played a prominent role in tolerance against Cd. Cadmium stimulated a notable rise in AsA concentration in both ecotypes soon after the application of treatment. A preferential Cd-stress response in HE was suggested to changes in the GSH pool, where acclimation was marked by increased GSH concentrations. PMID:18214940

  20. Optimization of infrared-assisted extraction of Bletilla striata polysaccharides based on response surface methodology and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yan; Li, Chunxue; Zhang, Chen; Zeng, Rui; Fu, Chaomei

    2016-09-01

    Bletilla striata polysaccharides (BSP) have attracted extensive research interest due to their potential medical application. Herein, infrared-assisted technique is employed for the first time to extract BSP from B. striata (Thunb.) Reichb.f. based on a Box-Behnken design (BBD) and response surface methodology, with the optimum extraction parameters as follows: 75°C extraction temperature, 2.5h extraction time; and water to solid ratio (53ml/g). Based on it, 43.95±0.26% yield of crude BSP was obtained. Subsequently, crude BSP was further decolorized, deproteinized, freeze-dried, and purified by a DEAE-52 cellulose column. Furthermore, the micro-structure and a triple-helical structure of BSP were characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed its polysaccharide characterization via typical peaks. In addition, the significant in vitro antioxidant profiles of BSP were demonstrated by superoxide anion radical-scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and chelation of ferrous ions. Taken together, this study provide an efficient extraction technique for BSP as a promising natural antioxidant. PMID:27185148

  1. A study on the dose assessment methodology using the probabilistic characteristics of TL element response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of element responses of Panasonic UD802 personnel dosimeters in the X, β, γ, γ/X,γ/β and γ/neutron mixed fields were assessed. A dose-response algorithm has been developed to decide the high probability of a radiation type and energy by using the distribution in all six ratios of the multi-element TLD. To calculate the 4-element response factors and ratios between te elements of the Panasonic TLDs in the X,β, and γ radiation fields, Panasonic's UD802 TLDs were irradiated with KINS's reference irradiation facility. In the photon radiation field, this study confirms that element-3 (E3) and element-4 (E4) of the Panasonic TLDs show energy dependent both in low-and intermediate-energy range, while element-1 (E1) and element-2 (E2) show little energy dependency in the entire whole range. The algorithm, which was developed in this study, was applied to the Panasonic personnel dosimetry system with UD716AGL reader and UD802 TLDs. Performance tests of the algorithm developed was conducted according to the standards and criteria recommended in the ANSI N13.11. The sum of biases and standard deviations was less than 0.232. The values of biases and standard deviations are distributed within a triangle of a lateral value of 0.3 in the ordinate and abscissa. With the above algorithm, Panasonic TLDs satisfactorily perform optimum dose assessment even under an abnormal response of the TLD elements to the energy imparted. This algorithm can be applied to a more rigorous dose assessment by distinguishing an unexpected dose from the planned dose for the most practical purposes, and is useful in conducting an effective personnel dose control program

  2. A study on the dose assessment methodology using the probabilistic characteristics of TL element response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dae Hyung; Oh, Jang Jin; Han, Seung Jae; Na, Seong Ho; Kwang, Won Guk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Keun [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-09-01

    Characteristics of element responses of Panasonic UD802 personnel dosimeters in the X, {beta}, {gamma}, {gamma}/X,{gamma}/{beta} and {gamma}/neutron mixed fields were assessed. A dose-response algorithm has been developed to decide the high probability of a radiation type and energy by using the distribution in all six ratios of the multi-element TLD. To calculate the 4-element response factors and ratios between te elements of the Panasonic TLDs in the X,{beta}, and {gamma} radiation fields, Panasonic's UD802 TLDs were irradiated with KINS's reference irradiation facility. In the photon radiation field, this study confirms that element-3 (E3) and element-4 (E4) of the Panasonic TLDs show energy dependent both in low-and intermediate-energy range, while element-1 (E1) and element-2 (E2) show little energy dependency in the entire whole range. The algorithm, which was developed in this study, was applied to the Panasonic personnel dosimetry system with UD716AGL reader and UD802 TLDs. Performance tests of the algorithm developed was conducted according to the standards and criteria recommended in the ANSI N13.11. The sum of biases and standard deviations was less than 0.232. The values of biases and standard deviations are distributed within a triangle of a lateral value of 0.3 in the ordinate and abscissa. With the above algorithm, Panasonic TLDs satisfactorily perform optimum dose assessment even under an abnormal response of the TLD elements to the energy imparted. This algorithm can be applied to a more rigorous dose assessment by distinguishing an unexpected dose from the planned dose for the most practical purposes, and is useful in conducting an effective personnel dose control program.

  3. Vibration response mechanism of faulty outer race rolling element bearings for quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lingli; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Feibin; Zhang, Jianyu; Lee, Seungchul

    2016-03-01

    For the quantitative fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings, a nonlinear vibration model for fault severity assessment of rolling element bearings is established in this study. The outer race defect size parameter is introduced into the dynamic model, and vibration response signals of rolling element bearings under different fault sizes are simulated. The signals are analyzed quantitatively to observe the relationship between vibration responses and fault sizes. The impact points when the ball rolls onto and away from the defect are identified from the vibration response signals. Next, the impact characteristic that reflects the fault severity in rolling element bearings is obtained from the time interval between two impact points. When the width of the bearing fault is small, the signals are presented as clear single impact. The signals gradually become double impacts with increasing size of defects. The vibration signals of a rolling element bearings test rig are measured for different outer race fault sizes. The experimental results agree well with the results from simulations. These results are useful for understanding the vibration response mechanism of rolling element bearings under various degrees of fault severity.

  4. Gamma-ray induced ageing mutants of Neurospora crassa: response to some antioxidants and chloramphenicol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several ageing (early senescent) mutants of N. crassa were induced by subjecting the conidia to gamma irradiation. At a culture age of 15 days the conidial viability of the mutants ranged from 0-28per cent, but in case of their wild-type (EM A) it was 95per cent. The effect of antioxidants and free radical scavengers such as vitamin E, vitamin C and sodium selenite on extensional growth behaviour, replication potentialities, biomass production capacity and accumulation of lipoidal substances by these strains were investigated. Studies were also made to see the effect of chloramphenicol; and concentration of malondialdehyde in the culture filtrates was measured. The results show that more biological processes than one are involved in the cellular ageing phenomenon and increased free readical reaction is not the sole factor. (author)

  5. Role of oxidative stress in disrupting the function of negative glucocorticoid response element in daily amphetamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shu-Chen; Yu, Ching-Han; Chen, Pei-Ni; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Kuo, Dong-Yih

    2016-09-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH)-induced appetite suppression is associated with changes in hypothalamic reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidants, neuropeptides, and plasma glucocorticoid. This study explored whether ROS and glucocorticoid response element (GRE), which is the promoter site of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene, participated in neuropeptides-mediated appetite control. Rats were treated daily with AMPH for four days, and changes in food intake, plasma glucocorticoid and expression levels of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), CRH, and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were examined and compared. Results showed that food intake decreased and NPY gene down-regulated, while POMC, SOD, and CRH gene up-regulated during AMPH treatment. GR and GRE-DNA bindings were disrupted on Day 1 and Day 2 when glucocorticoid levels were still high. Pretreatment with GR inhibitor or ROS scavenger modulated mRNA levels in NPY, POMC, SOD and CRH in AMPH-treated rats. We suggest that disruptions of negative GRE (nGRE) on Day 1 and Day 2 are associated with an increase in oxidative stress during the regulation of NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control in AMPH-treated rats. These results advance the understanding of molecular mechanism in regulating AMPH-mediated appetite suppression. PMID:27235634

  6. Antioxidative response to Cd in a newly discovered cadmium hyperaccumulator, Arabis paniculata F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Rong-Liang; Zhao, Xuan; Tang, Ye-Tao; Yu, Fang-Ming; Hu, Peng-Jie

    2008-12-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to study the effect of cadmium (Cd) on growth, Cd accumulation, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and antioxidative enzymes in leaves and roots of Arabis paniculata F., a new Cd hyperaccumuator found in China. The results showed that 22-89 microM Cd in solution enhanced the growth of A. paniculata after three weeks, with 21-27% biomass increase compared to the control. Cd concentrations in shoots and roots increased with increasing Cd supply levels, and reached a maximum of 1662 and 8670 mg kg(-1) Cd dry weight at 178 microM Cd treatment, respectively. In roots, 22-89 microM Cd reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide (O(2)(-1)) and H(2)O(2) as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR). In leaves, the contents of MDA, O(2)(-1) and H(2)O(2) remained unaffected by 22-89 microM Cd, while 178 microM Cd treatment significantly increased the MDA content, 69.5% higher than that of the control; generally, the activities of SOD, catalase (CAT), GPX and APX showed an increasing pattern with increasing Cd supply levels. Our present work concluded that A. paniculata has a great capability of Cd tolerance and accumulation. Moderate Cd treatment (22-89 microM Cd) alleviated the oxidative stress in roots, while higher level of Cd addition (178 microM) could cause an increasing generation of ROS, which was effectively scavenged by the antioxidative system. PMID:18992910

  7. The carvacrol ameliorates acute pancreatitis-induced liver injury via antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakır, Murat; Geyikoglu, Fatime; Colak, Suat; Turkez, Hasan; Bakır, Tulay Ozhan; Hosseinigouzdagani, Mirkhalil

    2016-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) may cause significant persistent multi-organ dysfunction. Carvacrol (CAR) possesses a variety of biological and pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to analyze the hepatic protection of CAR on AP induced by cerulein and to explore the underlying mechanism using in vivo studies. The rats were randomized into groups to receive (1) no therapy; (2) 50 µg/kg cerulein at 1-h intervals by four intraperitoneal injection (i.p.); (3) 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg CAR by one i.p.; and (4) cerulein + CAR after 2 h of cerulein injection. 12 h later, serum was provided to assess the blood AST, ALT and LDH values. Also, liver tissues were obtained for histological and biochemical measurements. Liver oxidative stress markers were evaluated by changes in the amount of lipid peroxides measured as MDA and changes in tissue antioxidant enzyme levels, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px. Histopathological examination was performed using scoring systems. Oxidative damage to DNA was quantitated in studied tissues of experimental animals by measuring the increase in 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formations. We found that the increasing doses of CAR decreased pancreatitis-induced MDA and 8-OH-dG levels. Moreover, the liver SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities in the AP + CAR group were higher than that of the rats in the AP group. In the treatment groups, AST, ALT and LDH were reduced. Besides, necrosis, coagulation and inflammation in the liver were alleviated (p < 0.05). We suggest that CAR could be a safe and potent new drug candidate for treating AP through its antioxidative mechanism of action for the treatment of a wide range of disorders related to hepatic dysfunction. PMID:26350272

  8. Responses of bovine lymphocytes to heat shock as modified by breed and antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwanja, L A; Chase, C C; Gutierrez, J A; Guerriero, V; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Hansen, P J

    1994-02-01

    We tested whether resistance of lymphocytes to heat stress is modified by breed, intracellular glutathione content, and extracellular antioxidants. In the first experiment, lymphocytes from Angus (Bos taurus, non-heat-tolerant), Brahman (B. indicus, heat-tolerant), and Senepol (B. taurus, heat-tolerant) heifers (12 heifers per breed) were cultured at 45 degrees C for 3 h to evaluate thermal killing, at 42 degrees C for 12 h in a 60-h phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferation test, and at 42 degrees C for 1 h to measure induction of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Killing at 45 degrees C was affected by breed x temperature (P Angus than for Brahman or Senepol. For phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes, heating to 42 degrees C reduced [3H]thymidine incorporation equally for all breeds. Viability at the end of culture was affected (P x temperature interaction because the decrease in viability caused by culture at 42 degrees C was greatest for lymphocytes from Angus heifers. Heat shock for 1 h at 42 degrees C caused a two- to threefold increase in intracellular concentrations of HSP70, but there was no interaction of temperature with breed. In another experiment (with lymphocytes harvested from three Holstein cows), buthionine sulfoximine, a glutathione synthesis inhibitor, inhibited (P < .01) proliferation of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes at 38.5 and 42 degrees C. Addition of the antioxidants glutathione or thioredoxin to culture did not reduce the effects of heating to 42 degrees C on proliferation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8157528

  9. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of phase II drug metabolizing/antioxidant enzymes gene response by anticancer agent sulforaphane in rat lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hu; Khor, Tin Oo; Yang, Qian; Huang, Ying; Wu, Tien-Yuan; Saw, Constance Lay-Lay; Lin, Wen; Androulakis, Ioannis P; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2012-10-01

    This study assesses the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of Nrf2-mediated increased expression of phase II drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) and antioxidant enzymes which represents an important component of cancer chemoprevention in rat lymphocytes following intravenous (iv) administration of an anticancer phytochemical sulforaphane (SFN). SFN was administered intravenously to four groups of male Sprague-Dawley JVC rats each group comprising four animals. Blood samples were drawn at selected time points. Plasma were obtained from half of each of the blood samples and analyzed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Lymphocytes were collected from the remaining blood samples using Ficoll-Paque Plus centrifuge medium. Lymphocyte RNAs were extracted and converted to cDNA, quantitative real-time PCR analyses were performed, and fold changes were calculated against those at time zero for the relative expression of Nrf2-target genes of phase II DME/antioxidant enzymes. PK-PD modeling was conducted based on Jusko's indirect response model (IDR) using GastroPlus and bootstrap method. SFN plasma concentration declined biexponentially and the pharmacokinetic parameters were generated. Rat lymphocyte mRNA expression levels showed no change for GSTM1, SOD, NF-κB, UGT1A1, or UGT1A6. Moderate increases (2-5-fold) over the time zero were seen for HO-1, Nrf2, and NQO1, and significant increases (>5-fold) for GSTT1, GPx1, and Maf. PK-PD analyses using GastroPlus and the bootstrap method provided reasonable fitting for the PK and PD profiles and parameter estimates. Our present study shows that SFN could induce Nrf2-mediated phase II DME/antioxidant mRNA expression for NQO1, GSTT1, Nrf2, GPx, Maf, and HO-1 in rat lymphocytes after iv administration, suggesting that Nrf2-mediated mRNA expression in lymphocytes may serve as surrogate biomarkers. The PK-PD IDR model simultaneously linking the plasma concentrations of SFN and the PD response of lymphocyte mRNA expression is

  10. Accumulation of heavy metals and antioxidant responses in Pinus sylvestris L. needles in polluted and non-polluted sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandziora-Ciupa, Marta; Ciepał, Ryszard; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Barczyk, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (cadmium, iron, manganese, lead and zinc) in current-year, 1-year old and 2-year old needles of Pinus sylvestris L. Trees were from three heavily polluted (immediate vicinity of zinc smelter, iron smelter and power plant) and three relatively clean sites (nature reserve, ecologically clean site and unprotected natural forest community) in southern Poland. Analysis also concerned the antioxidant response and contents of protein, proline, total glutathione, non-protein thiols and activity of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) in the needles. Generally, in pine needles from the polluted sites, the concentrations of the metals were higher and increased with the age of needles, and in most cases, antioxidant responses also were elevated. The highest levels of Cd, Pb and Zn were found in 2-year old pine needles collected near the polluted zinc smelter (respectively: 6.15, 256.49, 393.5 mg kg(-1)), Fe in 2-year old pine needles in the vicinity of the iron smelter (206.82 mg kg(-1)) and Mn in 2-year old needles at the ecologically clean site (180.32 mg kg(-1)). Positive correlations were found between Fe, Mn and Pb and the content of proteins and NPTs, between Cd and non-protein -SH groups, and between Zn and proline levels. The activity of GPX increased under the influence of Mn, while glutathione levels tended to decrease as Mn levels rose. The data obtained show that the levels of protein and non-protein -SH groups may be useful in biological monitoring, and that these ecophysiological parameters seem to be good evidence of elevated oxidative stress caused by heavy metals. PMID:27033856

  11. Possible role of glutamine synthetase in the NO signaling response in root nodules by contributing to the antioxidant defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Santos Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is emerging as an important regulatory player in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. The occurrence of NO during several steps of the symbiotic interaction suggests an important, but yet unknown, signaling role of this molecule for root nodule formation and functioning. The identification of the molecular targets of NO is key for the assembly of the signal transduction cascade that will ultimately help to unravel NO function. We have recently shown that the key nitrogen assimilatory enzyme Glutamine Synthetase (GS is a molecular target of NO in root nodules of Medicago truncatula, being post-translationally regulated by tyrosine nitration in relation to nitrogen fixation. In functional nodules of M. truncatula NO formation has been located in the bacteroid containing cells of the fixation zone, where the ammonium generated by bacterial nitrogenase is released to the plant cytosol and assimilated into the organic pools by plant GS. We propose that the NO-mediated GS post-translational inactivation is connected to nitrogenase inhibition induced by NO and is related to metabolite channeling to boost the nodule antioxidant defenses. Glutamate, a substrate for GS activity is also the precursor for the synthesis of glutathione (GSH, which is highly abundant in root nodules of several plant species and known to play a major role in the antioxidant defense participating in the ascorbate/GSH cycle. Existing evidence suggests that upon NO-mediated GS inhibition, glutamate could be channeled for the synthesis of GSH. According to this hypothesis, GS would be involved in the NO-signaling responses in root nodules and the NO-signaling events would meet the nodule metabolic pathways to provide an adaptive response to the inhibition of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by reactive nitrogen species (RNS.

  12. Antioxidative Responses in Calli of Two Populations of Acanthophyllum laxiusculum With and Without B-chromosomes under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Niknam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most significant stresses that affect plant growth and agricultural production. Considerable efforts have therefore been made to investigate how plants respond to salt stress. To investigate the responses of Acanthophyllum to salinity stress, changes on lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in calli of two Acanthophyllum laxiusculum variants, without (variant A and with (variant B B-chromosomes, were analyzed. Under salinity stress, lipid peroxidation and H2O2 content decreased in variant A compared to variant B. Moreover, variant A produced a higher amount of proline under salt stress than variant B. In calli of variant A, salinity stress preferentially enhanced the activities of the superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1, catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11 and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2, whereas it decreased their activity in variant B. Guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7 activity decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations in variant A but its activity increased in variant B. After native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE analysis, calli of both A and B variants had only Mn-SOD and Fe-SOD isoforms. Expression of the isoforms mentioned above, showed marked increase in variant A; while in variant B salinity caused a significant reduction as compared to control. Moreover, changes in the CAT and GPX isoforms pattern of treated plants were in accordance with the activity changes in time. These results suggest that variant A was able to induce better antioxidative responses against salt stress than variant B.

  13. Mycorrhizal-induced calmodulin mediated changes in antioxidant enzymes and growth response of drought-stressed trifoliate orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ming eHuang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L Raf.] is considered highly arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM dependent for growth responses through a series of signal transductions in form of various physiological responses. The proposed study was carried out to evaluate the effect of an AM fungus (Funneliformis mosseae on growth, antioxidant enzyme (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD activities, leaf relative water content (RWC, calmodulin (CaM, superoxide anion (O2•− and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentrations in leaves of the plants exposed to both well-watered (WW and drought stress (DS conditions. A 58-day of DS significantly decreased mycorrhizal colonization by 60% than WW. Compared to non-AM seedlings, AM seedlings displayed significantly higher shoot morphological properties (plant height, stem diameter and leaf number, biomass production (shoot and root fresh weight and leaf RWC, regardless of soil water status. AM inoculation significantly increased CaM and soluble protein concentrations and CAT activity, and significantly decreased O2•− and H2O2 concentration under both WW and DS conditions. The AM seedlings also exhibited significantly higher Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities than the non-AM seedlings under DS but not under WW, which are triggered by higher CaM levels in AM plants on the basis of correlation studies. Further, the negative correlation of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities with O2•− and H2O2 concentration showed the DS-induced ROS scavenging ability of CaM mediated SODs under mycorrhization. Our results demonstrated that AM-inoculation elevated the synthesis of CaM in leaves and up-regulated activities of the antioxidant enzymes, thereby, repairing the possible oxidative damage to plants by lowering the ROS accumulation under DS condition.

  14. Effects of segregation of primary alloying elements on the creep response in magnesium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Y.D.; Dieringa, H.; Hort, N.; Leil, T.A.; Kainer, K.U.; Liu, Yi-Lin

    2008-01-01

    The segregation of primary alloying elements deteriorates the high temperature creep resistance of magnesium alloys. Annealing at high temperatures alleviating their segregations can improve the creep resistance. Present investigation on the effect of segregation of primary alloying elements on the...... creep response may provide some useful information about how to improve the creep resistance of magnesium alloys in the future. (c) 2008 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Response of removable epoxy foam exposed to fire using an element death model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Michael L.

    2004-09-01

    Response of removable epoxy foam (REF) to high heat fluxes is described using a decomposition chemistry model [1] in conjunction with a finite element heat conduction code [2] that supports chemical kinetics and dynamic radiation enclosures. The chemistry model [1] describes the temporal transformation of virgin foam into carbonaceous residue by considering breakdown of the foam polymer structure, desorption of gases not associated with the foam polymer, mass transport of decomposition products from the reaction site to the bulk gas, and phase equilibrium. The finite element foam response model considers the spatial behavior of the foam by using measured and predicted thermophysical properties in combination with the decomposition chemistry model. Foam elements are removed from the computational domain when the condensed mass fractions of the foam elements are close to zero. Element removal, referred to as element death, creates a space within the metal confinement causing radiation to be the dominant mode of heat transfer between the surface of the remaining foam elements and the interior walls of the confining metal skin. Predictions were compared to front locations extrapolated from radiographs of foam cylinders enclosed in metal containers that were heated with quartz lamps [3,4]. The effects of the maximum temperature of the metal container, density of the foam, the foam orientation, venting of the decomposition products, pressurization of the metal container, and the presence or absence of embedded components are discussed.

  16. High Salinity Induces Different Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Responses in Maize Seedlings Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Hegab, Momtaz M; Pandey, Renu; Asard, Han; Abuelsoud, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Salinity negatively affects plant growth and causes significant crop yield losses world-wide. Maize is an economically important cereal crop affected by high salinity. In this study, maize seedlings were subjected to 75 mM and 150 mM NaCl, to emulate high soil salinity. Roots, mature leaves (basal leaf-pair 1,2) and young leaves (distal leaf-pair 3,4) were harvested after 3 weeks of sowing. Roots showed the highest reduction in biomass, followed by mature and young leaves in the salt-stressed plants. Concomitant with the pattern of growth reduction, roots accumulated the highest levels of Na(+) followed by mature and young leaves. High salinity induced oxidative stress in the roots and mature leaves, but to a lesser extent in younger leaves. The younger leaves showed increased electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations only at 150 mM NaCl. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and polyphenol content increased with the increase in salinity levels in roots and mature leaves, but showed no changes in the young leaves. Under salinity stress, reduced ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) content increased in roots, while total tocopherol levels increased specifically in the shoot tissues. Similarly, redox changes estimated by the ratio of redox couples (ASC/total ascorbate and GSH/total glutathione) showed significant decreases in the roots. Activities of enzymatic antioxidants, catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1), increased in all organs of salt-treated plants, while superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), glutathione-s-transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) increased specifically in the roots. Overall, these results suggest that Na(+) is retained and detoxified mainly in roots, and less stress impact is observed in mature and younger leaves. This study also indicates a possible role of ROS in the systemic

  17. High salinity induces different oxidative stress and antioxidant responses in maize seedlings organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada eAbdElgawad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity negatively affects plant growth and causes significant crop yield losses world-wide. Maize is an economically important cereal crop affected by high salinity. In this study, maize seedlings were subjected to two 75 mM and 150 mM NaCl, to emulate high soil salinity. Roots, mature leaves (basal leaf-pair 1,2 and young leaves (distal leaf-pair 3,4 were harvested after 3 weeks of sowing. Roots showed the highest reduction in biomass, followed by mature and young leaves in the salt-stressed plants. Concomitant with the pattern of growth reduction, roots accumulated the highest levels of Na+ followed by mature and young leaves. High salinity induced oxidative stress in the roots and mature leaves, but to a lesser extent in younger leaves. The younger leaves showed increased electrolyte leakage (EL, malondialdehyde (MDA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentrations only at 150 mM NaCl. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC and polyphenol content increased with the increase in salinity levels in roots and mature leaves, but showed no changes in the young leaves. Under salinity stress, reduced ascorbate (ASC and glutathione (GSH content increased in roots, while total tocopherol levels increased specifically in the shoot tissues. Similarly, redox changes estimated by the ratio of redox couples (ASC/total ascorbate and GSH/total glutathione showed significant decreases in the roots. Activities of enzymatic antioxidants, catalase (CAT and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, increased in all organs of salt-treated plants, while superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, glutathione-s-transferase (GST and glutathione reductase (GR increased specifically in the roots. Overall, these results suggest that Na+ is retained and detoxified mainly in roots, and less stress impact is observed in mature and younger leaves. This study also indicates a possible role of ROS in the systemic signaling from roots to leaves, allowing leaves to activate their defense

  18. High Salinity Induces Different Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Responses in Maize Seedlings Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Hegab, Momtaz M.; Pandey, Renu; Asard, Han; Abuelsoud, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Salinity negatively affects plant growth and causes significant crop yield losses world-wide. Maize is an economically important cereal crop affected by high salinity. In this study, maize seedlings were subjected to 75 mM and 150 mM NaCl, to emulate high soil salinity. Roots, mature leaves (basal leaf-pair 1,2) and young leaves (distal leaf-pair 3,4) were harvested after 3 weeks of sowing. Roots showed the highest reduction in biomass, followed by mature and young leaves in the salt-stressed plants. Concomitant with the pattern of growth reduction, roots accumulated the highest levels of Na+ followed by mature and young leaves. High salinity induced oxidative stress in the roots and mature leaves, but to a lesser extent in younger leaves. The younger leaves showed increased electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations only at 150 mM NaCl. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and polyphenol content increased with the increase in salinity levels in roots and mature leaves, but showed no changes in the young leaves. Under salinity stress, reduced ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) content increased in roots, while total tocopherol levels increased specifically in the shoot tissues. Similarly, redox changes estimated by the ratio of redox couples (ASC/total ascorbate and GSH/total glutathione) showed significant decreases in the roots. Activities of enzymatic antioxidants, catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1), increased in all organs of salt-treated plants, while superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), glutathione-s-transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) increased specifically in the roots. Overall, these results suggest that Na+ is retained and detoxified mainly in roots, and less stress impact is observed in mature and younger leaves. This study also indicates a possible role of ROS in the systemic

  19. A hybrid boundary element-finite element approach to modeling plane wave 3D electromagnetic induction responses in the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhengyong; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2014-02-01

    A novel hybrid boundary element-finite element scheme which is accelerated by an adaptive multi-level fast multipole algorithm is presented to simulate 3D plane wave electromagnetic induction responses in the Earth. The remarkable advantages of this novel scheme are the complete removal of the volume discretization of the air space and the capability of simulating large-scale complicated geo-electromagnetic induction problems. To achieve this goal, first the Galerkin edge-based finite-element method (FEM) using unstructured meshes is adopted to solve the electric field differential equation in the heterogeneous Earth, where arbitrary distributions of conductivity, magnetic permeability and dielectric permittivity are allowed for. Second, the point collocation boundary-element method (BEM) is used to solve a surface integral formula in terms of the reduced electrical vector potential on the arbitrarily shaped air-Earth interface. Third, to avoid explicit storage of the system matrix arising from large-scale problems and to reduce the horrendous time complexity of the product of the system matrix with an initial vector of unknowns, the adaptive multilevel fast multipole method is applied. This leads to a matrix-free form suitable for the application of iterative solvers. Furthermore, a highly sparse problem-dependent preconditioner is developed to significantly reduce the number of iterations used by the iterative solvers. The efficacy of the presented hybrid scheme is verified on two synthetic examples against different numerical techniques such as goal-oriented adaptive finite-element methods. Numerical experiments show that at low frequencies, where the quasi-static approximation is applicable, standard FEM methods prove to be superior to our hybrid BEM-FEM solutions in terms of computational time, because the FEM method requires only a coarse discretization of the air domain and offers an advantageous sparsity of the system matrix. At radio

  20. Ultraviolet-B light induced oxidative stress: effects on antioxidant response of Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthi, Sengodan; Sankari, R; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S

    2014-06-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV-B), which emits radiation in the range of 280-315 nm, has been used worldwide in light trapping of insect pests. In this article, we test the hypothesis that one of the duration of UV-B exposure has a differential impact on oxidative stress marker enzymes in Spodoptera litura. Effect of UV-B exposure on total protein and antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidases (POX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were investigated in S. litura. The adults were exposed to UV-B light for various time periods (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min). We found that exposure to UV-B light for 30 and 60 min resulted in increased activities of POX. When the exposure time lasted for 60 and 90 min, the activities of SOD remained significantly higher than the control. However, the POX, CAT and GST activity decreased to control levels at 90 and 120 min. whereas relatively long duration exposure activates the xenobiotics detoxifying enzymes like GST and POX and CAT enzymes. Longer UV-B exposure may interfere with pesticide detoxification mechanism in insects, making them more susceptible to insecticides. PMID:24792567

  1. Antioxidant enzyme level response to prooxidant allelochemicals in larvae of the southern armyworm moth, Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritsos, C A; Ahmad, S; Elliott, A J; Pardini, R S

    1990-01-01

    Larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania, are highly polyphagous feeders which frequently encounter and feed upon plants containing high levels of prooxidant allelochemicals. While ingestion of moderate quantities of prooxidants can be tolerated by these larvae, ingestion of larger quantities can result in toxicity. Studies were conducted to assess the role of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the protection of S. eridania against redox active prooxidant plant allelochemicals. Dietary exposure of mid-fifth-instar larvae to either quercetin (a flavonoid) or xanthotoxin (a photoactive furanocoumarin), which generate superoxide radical, and singlet oxygen, respectively, resulted in an increase in SOD levels. CAT levels increased in all groups of S. eridania including control insects. This may have been due to the sudden exposure to food following an extended fast of 18 h (to insure that larvae would not reject the diet because of the prooxidants' bitter taste) with an eventual lowering of CAT values with time. GR activities did not significantly change except for a slight inhibition at the highest prooxidant concentrations used at 12-h post-ingestion. The data from these studies suggest that SOD responds to prooxidant challenges in these insects and together with CAT and GR contributes to the insect's defense against potentially toxic prooxidant compounds. PMID:2161387

  2. Sodium tungstate induced neurological alterations in rat brain regions and their response to antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Sherry; Pant, Satish C; Kushwaha, Pramod; Bhargava, Rakesh; Flora, Swaran J S

    2015-08-01

    Tungsten, recognized recently as an environmental contaminant, is being used in arms and ammunitions as substitute to depleted uranium. We studied the effects of sodium tungstate on oxidative stress, few selected neurological variables like acetylcholinesterase, biogenic amines in rat brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) and their prevention following co-administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), naringenin and quercetin. Animals were sub-chronically exposed to sodium tungstate (100 ppm in drinking water) and orally co-supplemented with different antioxidants (0.30 mM) for three months. Sodium tungstate significantly decreased the activity of acetylcholinesterase, dopamine, nor-epinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels while it increased monoamine oxidase activity in different brain regions. Tungstate exposure produced a significant increase in biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress while, neurological alterations were more pronounced in the cerebral cortex compared to other regions. Co-administration of NAC and flavonoids with sodium tungstate significantly restored glutathione, prevented changes in the brain biogenic amines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TBARS levels in the different brain regions. The protection was more prominent in the animals co-administered with NAC. We can thus conclude that sodium tungstate induced brain oxidative stress and the alterations in some neurological variables can effectively be reduced by co-supplementation of NAC. PMID:25983264

  3. Antioxidant responses and salt stress tolerance of Aloe vera irrigated by seawater with different salinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The variations of antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7) and catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6), lipid peroxidation and major electrolytes in Aloe vera irrigated for three years with seawater having different salinity were studied. The results indicate that POD activity increased significantly at 10% seawater level, whereas decreased at higher seawater levels. The SOD activity decreased with increasing seawater concentration except for treatment with 100% seawater (denoted as T100% ) under long-term salt stress. Salinity decreased CATactivity,and increased lipid peroxidation and cell membrane injury. In addition, Ca2+ content was high in Aloe irrigated by seawater of low salinity level, but low in Aloe irrigated by seawater of high salinity level. An opposite trend was observed for the effect of seawater on Na + content of plants. K + and Mg2 +contents remain relatively stable under various seawater levels, which benefit plant growth.

  4. Antioxidative responses of the tissues of two wild populations of Pelophylax kl. esculentus frogs to heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokić, Marko D; Borković-Mitić, Slavica S; Krizmanić, Imre I; Mutić, Jelena J; Vukojević, Vesna; Nasia, Mohammed; Gavrić, Jelena P; Despotović, Svetlana G; Gavrilović, Branka R; Radovanović, Tijana B; Pavlović, Slađan Z; Saičić, Zorica S

    2016-06-01

    on the results in this study, we concluded that increased concentrations of heavy metals in frog tissues can alter the AOS, which leads to higher concentrations of GSH and SH groups and lower activities of antioxidative enzymes. The response of the AOS to metal pollutants allowed us to make a distinction between different frog tissues, and to conclude that the liver and skin are more suitable for assessing metal-induced oxidative stress in frogs than muscle. PMID:26874985

  5. Low Root Zone Temperature Exacerbates the Ion Imbalance and Photosynthesis Inhibition and Induces Antioxidant Responses in Tomato Plants Under Salinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; YANG Jing; ZHU Biao; ZHU Zhu-jun

    2014-01-01

    The combined effects of salinity with low root zone temperature (RZT) on plant growth and photosynthesis were studied in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. The plants were exposed to two different root zone temperatures (28/20°C, 12/8°C, day/night temperature) in combination with two NaCl levels (0 and 100 mmol L-1). After 2 wk of treatment, K+and Na+ concentration, leaf photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll lfuorescence and leaf antioxidant enzyme activities were measured. Salinity signiifcantly decreased plant biomass, net photosynthesis rate, actual quantum yield of photosynthesis and concentration of K+, but remarkably increased the concentration of Na+. These effects were more pronounced when the salinity treatments were combined with the treatment of low RZT conditions. Either salinity or low RZT individually did not affect maximal efifciency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), while a combination of these two stresses decreased Fv/Fm considerably, indicating that the photo-damage occurred under such conditions. Non-photochemical quenching was increased by salt stress in accompany with the enhancement of the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, in contrast, this was not the case with low RZT applied individually. Salinity stress individually increased the activities of SOD, APX, GPOD and GR, and decreased the activities of DHAR. Due to the interactive effects of salinity with low RZT, these ifve enzyme activities increased sharply in the combined stressed plants. These results indicate that low RZT exacerbates the ion imbalance, PSII damage and photosynthesis inhibition in tomato plants under salinity. In response to the oxidative stress under salinity in combination with low RZT, the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, APX, GPOD, DHAR and GR were clearly enhanced in tomato plants.

  6. Anti-oxidative and inflammatory responses induced by fly ash particles and carbon black in lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diabate, Silvia; Plaumann, Diana; Uebel, Caroline; Weiss, Carsten [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bergfeldt, Britta [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Technical Chemistry, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Combustion-derived nanoparticles as constituents of ambient particulate matter have been shown to induce adverse health effects due to inhalation. However, the components inducing these effects as well as the biological mechanisms are still not fully understood. The fine fraction of fly ash particles collected from the electrostatic precipitator of a municipal solid waste incinerator was taken as an example for real particles with complex composition released into the atmosphere to study the mechanism of early biological responses of BEAS-2B human lung epithelial cells. The studies include the effects of the water-soluble and -insoluble fractions of the fly ash and the well-studied carbon black nanoparticles were used as a reference. Fly ash induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased the total cellular glutathione (tGSH) content. Carbon black also induced ROS generation; however, in contrast to the fly ash, it decreased the intracellular tGSH. The fly ash-induced oxidative stress was correlated with induction of the anti-oxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 and increase of the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2. Carbon black was not able to induce HO-1. ROS generation, tGSH increase and HO-1 induction were only induced by the insoluble fraction of the fly ash, not by the water-soluble fraction. ROS generation and HO-1 induction were markedly inhibited by pre-incubation of the cells with the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine which confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress. Both effects were also reduced by the metal chelator deferoxamine indicating a contribution of bioavailable transition metals. In summary, both fly ash and carbon black induce ROS but only fly ash induced an increase of intracellular tGSH and HO-1 production. Bioavailable transition metals in the solid water-insoluble matrix of the fly ash mostly contribute to the effects. (orig.)

  7. Optimization of Extraction Condition of Bee Pollen Using Response Surface Methodology: Correlation between Anti-Melanogenesis, Antioxidant Activity, and Phenolic Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon Beom Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen is flower pollen with nectar and salivary substances of bees and rich in essential components. Bee pollen showed antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity in our assay system. To maximize the antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of bee pollen, extraction conditions, such as extraction solvent, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were optimized using response surface methodology. Regression analysis showed a good fit of this model and yielded the second-order polynomial regression for tyrosinase inhibition and antioxidant activity. Among the extraction variables, extraction solvent greatly affected the activity. The optimal condition was determined as EtOAc concentration in MeOH, 69.6%; temperature, 10.0 °C; and extraction time, 24.2 h, and the tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidant activity under optimal condition were found to be 57.9% and 49.3%, respectively. Further analysis showed the close correlation between activities and phenolic content, which suggested phenolic compounds are active constituents of bee pollen for tyrosinase inhibition and antioxidant activity. Taken together, these results provide useful information about bee pollen as cosmetic therapeutics to reduce oxidative stress and hyperpigmentation.

  8. Characterization of a retinoic acid responsive element isolated by whole genome PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-Giomi, M P; Gaub, M P; Chambon, P; Abarzúa, P

    1992-01-01

    We have used whole PCR in an attempt to isolate novel retinoic acid (RA) responsive genes. We cloned several small genomic fragments from total human DNA containing putative retinoic acid responsive elements (RAREs) selected by direct binding to the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha). We report here that an oligonucleotide containing a sequence from one of the cloned human DNA fragments, and referred to as alpha 1, functions as an authentic RARE. It is shown that both RAR alpha and RAR ...

  9. Pounding Effects on the Earthquake Response of Adjacent Reinforced Concrete Structures Strengthened by Cable Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liolios, Angelos; Liolios, Asterios; Hatzigeorgiou, George; Radev, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    A numerical approach for estimating the effects of pounding (seismic interaction) on the response of adjacent Civil Engineering structures is presented. Emphasis is given to reinforced concrete (RC) frames of existing buildings which are seismically strengthened by cable-elements. A double discretization, in space by the Finite Element Method and in time by a direct incremental approach is used. The unilateral behaviours of both, the cable-elements and the interfaces contact-constraints, are taken strictly into account and result to inequality constitutive conditions. So, in each time-step, a non-convex linear complementarity problem is solved. It is found that pounding and cable strengthening have significant effects on the earthquake response and, hence, on the seismic upgrading of existing adjacent RC structures.

  10. Pounding Effects on the Earthquake Response of Adjacent Reinforced Concrete Structures Strengthened by Cable Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liolios Angelos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A numerical approach for estimating the effects of pounding (seismic interaction on the response of adjacent Civil Engineering structures is presented. Emphasis is given to reinforced concrete (RC frames of existing buildings which are seismically strengthened by cable-elements. A double discretization, in space by the Finite Element Method and in time by a direct incremental approach is used. The unilateral behaviours of both, the cable-elements and the interfaces contact-constraints, are taken strictly into account and result to inequality constitutive conditions. So, in each time-step, a non-convex linear complementarity problem is solved. It is found that pounding and cable strengthening have significant effects on the earthquake response and, hence, on the seismic upgrading of existing adjacent RC structures.

  11. STUDY OF THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE AND STATUS OF THE VEHICLE SUSPENSION ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Iontchev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper describes the measurement and analysis of the dynamic response and status of the vehicle suspension elements on the bases of the MEMS inertial system. It consists of an inertial sensor network from at least two sensors, which are situated on the moving elements of the vehicle suspension. The system measures the suspension element accelerations and calculates the frequency response, attenuation time, resonance frequencies and distance between moving parts. The calculated distance is compared with the adjusted clearance and the system accuracy is shown. It is shown that the system is capable to measure the distances from 0.6 to 1.0mm with 0.1mm accuracy. The inertial data scanning is performed with a sampling frequency of 160Hz, according to the expected peak accelerations and translations.

  12. Application of ADINA fluid element for transient response analysis of fluid-structure system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressure propagation and Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) in 3D space were simulated by general purpose finite element program ADINA using the displacement-based fluid element which presumes inviscid and compressible fluid with no net flow. Numerical transient solution was compared with the measured data of an FSI experiment and was found to fairly agree with the measured. In the next step, post analysis was conducted for a blowdown experiment performed with a 1/7 scaled reactor pressure vessel and a flexible core barrel and the code performance was found to be satisfactory. It is concluded that the transient response of the core internal structure of a PWR during the initial stage of LOCA can be analyzed by the displacement-based finite fluid element and the structural element. (orig.)

  13. Responses of trace elements to aerobic maximal exercise in elite sportsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otag, Aynur; Hazar, Muhsin; Otag, Ilhan; Gürkan, Alper Cenk; Okan, Ilyas

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of the organism. In biochemistry, a trace element is also referred to as a micronutrient. Trace elements, such as nickel, cadmium, aluminum, silver, chromium, molybdenum, germanium, tin, titanium, tungsten, scandium, are found naturally in the environment and human exposure derives from a variety of sources, including air, drinking water and food. The Purpose of this study was investigated the effect of aerobic maximal intensity endurance exercise on serum trace elements as well-trained individuals of 28 wrestlers (age (year) 19.64±1.13, weight (Kg) 70.07 ± 15.69, height (cm) 176.97 ± 6.69) during and after a 2000 meter Ergometer test protocol was used to perform aerobic (75 %) maximal endurance exercise. Trace element serum levels were analyzed from blood samples taken before, immediately after and one hour after the exercise. While an increase was detected in Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Molybdenum (Mo) and Titanium (Ti) serum levels immediately after the exercise, a decrease was detected in Aluminum (Al), Scandium (Sc) and Tungsten (W) serum levels. Except for aluminum, the trace elements we worked on showed statistically meaningful responses (P sportsman performance but also in terms of future healthy life plans and clinically. PMID:24762350

  14. Chronic stress differentially affects antioxidant enzymes and modifies the acute stress response in liver of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, J; Djordjevic, A; Adzic, M; Niciforovic, A; Radojcic, M B

    2010-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest close interactions between stressors, particularly those of long duration, and liver diseases, such as hepatic inflammation, that is proposed to occur via reactive oxygen species. In the present study we have used 21-day social isolation of male Wistar rats as a model of chronic stress to investigate protein expression/activity of liver antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutases (SODs), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GLR), and protein expression of their upstream regulators: glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB). We have also characterized these parameters in either naive or chronically stressed animals that were challenged by 30-min acute immobilization. We found that chronic isolation caused decrease in serum corticosterone (CORT) and blood glucose (GLU), increase in NFkB signaling, and disproportion between CuZnSOD, peroxidases (CAT, GPx) and GLR, thus promoting H2O2 accumulation and prooxidative state in liver. The overall results suggested that chronic stress exaggerated responsiveness to subsequent stressor at the level of CORT and GLU, and potentiated GLR response, but compromised the restoration of oxido-reductive balance due to irreversible alterations in MnSOD and GPx. PMID:20406049

  15. Identification and Characterization of Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein H Response Element in the Human Apolipoprotein A5 Gene Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Hoon Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic AMP response element-binding protein H (CREBH plays important roles in hepatic lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and lipolysis under metabolic stress. Here, we report CREBH as a novel regulator of human APOA5. Knockdown of endogenous CREBH expression via small interfering RNA resulted in the downregulation of human APOA5 mRNA expression in human hepatoma cells, HepG2. Sequence analysis suggested that putative CREBH response element (CREBHRE is located in the human APOA5 promoter region and is highly conserved in both human and rodent. To clarify whether the human APOA5 promoter is regulated by CREBH, we analyzed the human APOA5 promoter region using a transient transfection assay and determined that transfection of CREBH induced human APOA5 promoter activity. Moreover, it was shown that CREBH directly regulated human APOA5 gene expression by binding to a unique CREBHRE located in the proximal human APOA5 promoter region, using 5′-deletion and mutagenesis of human APOA5 promoter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Taken together, our results demonstrated that human APOA5 is directly regulated by CREBH via CREBHRE and provided a new insight into the role of this liver-specific bZIP transcription factor in lipoprotein metabolism and triglyceride homeostasis.

  16. The effect of loading time on flexible pavement dynamic response: a finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Solaimanian, Mansour; Kumar, Tanmay; Stoffels, Shelley

    2007-12-01

    Dynamic response of asphalt concrete (AC) pavements under moving load is a key component for accurate prediction of flexible pavement performance. The time and temperature dependency of AC materials calls for utilizing advanced material characterization and mechanistic theories, such as viscoelasticity and stress/strain analysis. In layered elastic analysis, as implemented in the new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG), the time dependency is accounted for by calculating the loading times at different AC layer depths. In this study, the time effect on pavement response was evaluated by means of the concept of “pseudo temperature.” With the pavement temperature measured from instrumented thermocouples, the time and temperature dependency of AC materials was integrated into one single factor, termed “effective temperature.” Via this effective temperature, pavement responses under a transient load were predicted through finite element analysis. In the finite element model, viscoelastic behavior of AC materials was characterized through relaxation moduli, while the layers with unbound granular material were assumed to be in an elastic mode. The analysis was conducted for two different AC mixtures in a simplified flexible pavement structure at two different seasons. Finite element analysis results reveal that the loading time has a more pronounced impact on pavement response in the summer for both asphalt types. The results indicate that for reasonable prediction of dynamic response in flexible pavements, the effect of the depth-dependent loading time on pavement temperature should be considered.

  17. Infrasound-array-element frequency response: in-situ measurement and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielson, T.

    2011-12-01

    Most array elements at the infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System use some variant of a multiple-inlet pipe system for wind-noise suppression. These pipe systems have a significant impact on the overall frequency response of the element. The spatial distribution of acoustic inlets introduces a response dependence that is a function of frequency and of vertical and horizontal arrival angle; the system of inlets, pipes, and summing junctions further shapes that response as the signal is ducted to the transducer. In-situ measurements, using a co-located reference microphone, can determine the overall frequency response and diagnose problems with the system. As of July 2011, the in-situ frequency responses for 25 individual elements at 6 operational stations (I10, I53, I55, I56, I57, and I99) have been measured. In support of these measurements, a fully thermo-viscous model for the acoustics of these multiple-inlet pipe systems has been developed. In addition to measurements at operational stations, comparative analyses have been done on experimental systems: a multiple-inlet radial-pipe system with varying inlet hole size; a one-quarter scale model of a 70-meter rosette system; and vertical directionality of a small rosette system using aircraft flyovers. [Funded by the US Army Space and Missile Defense Command

  18. The importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular response against oxidative/nitrosative stress: current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurutas, Ergul Belge

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable interest has risen in the idea that oxidative/nitrosative stress is mediated in the etiology of numerous human diseases. Oxidative/Nitrosative stress is the result of an disequilibrium in oxidant/antioxidant which reveals from continuous increase of Reactive Oxygen and Reactive Nitrogen Species production. The aim of this review is to emphasize with current information the importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular responce against oxidative/nitrosative stress, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue. Products of lipid peroxidation have commonly been used as biomarkers of oxidative/nitrosative stress damage. Lipid peroxidation generates a variety of relatively stable decomposition end products, mainly α, β-unsaturated reactive aldehydes, such as malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, 2-propenal (acrolein) and isoprostanes, which can be measured in plasma and urine as an indirect index of oxidative/nitrosative stress. Antioxidants are exogenous or endogenous molecules that mitigate any form of oxidative/nitrosative stress or its consequences. They may act from directly scavenging free radicals to increasing antioxidative defences. Antioxidant deficiencies can develop as a result of decreased antioxidant intake, synthesis of endogenous enzymes or increased antioxidant utilization. Antioxidant supplementation has become an increasingly popular practice to maintain optimal body function. However, antoxidants exhibit pro-oxidant activity depending on the specific set of conditions. Of particular importance are their dosage and redox conditions in the cell. PMID:27456681

  19. A three element etched track neutron dosemeter with good angular and energy response characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A weakness of all single element etched track neutron dosemeters is that the sensitivity falls off too rapidly with increasing angle of incidence. This can lead to significant errors in practical situations. A possible solution is to incorporate in a single dosemeter one or more planar etched track detectors set at an angle to the body surface so that the sensitivity to obliquely incident neutrons is enhanced. The response of a dosemeter in which three planar elements are set in a pyramid structure is investigated. Relationships are developed which allow the response to be estimated for any given direction of incidence and any given angle between face and base of the pyramid. The results indicate that the response is close to that required to measure Hp(10) for any given direction of neutron incidence if the angle between face and base is between 30o and 40o. (author)

  20. Hypoxia depresses CYP1A induction and enhances DNA damage, but has minimal effects on antioxidant responses in sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) larvae exposed to dispersed crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Subham; DiGiulio, Richard T; Drollette, Brian D; L Plata, Desire; Brownawell, Bruce J; McElroy, Anne E

    2016-08-01

    The growing incidence of hypoxic regions in coastal areas receiving high volumes of anthropogenic discharges requires more focused risk assessment of multiple stressors. One area needing further study is the combined effect of hypoxia and oil exposure. This study examined the short-term sublethal effects of co-exposure to hypoxia and water accommodated fractions (WAF) and chemically enhanced WAFs (CEWAFs) of Southern Louisiana Crude oil on detoxification, antioxidant defenses and genotoxicity in early life stage sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus). CYP1A induction (evaluated by measuring EROD activity), activity of a number of key antioxidant enzymes (GST, GR, GPx, SOD, CAT, and GCL), levels of antioxidants (tGSH, GSH, and GSSG), evidence of lipid peroxidation (evaluated using the TBARS assay), and DNA damage (evaluated using the comet assay) provided a broad assessment of responses. Contaminant detoxification pathways induced by oil exposure were inhibited by co-exposure to hypoxia, indicating a maladaptive response. The interactive effects of oil and hypoxia on antioxidant defenses were mixed, but generally indicated less pronounced alterations, with significant increases in lipid peroxidation not observed. Hypoxia significantly enhanced DNA damage induced by oil exposure indicating the potential for significant deleterious effects post exposure. This study demonstrates the importance of considering hypoxia as an enhanced risk factor in assessing the effects of contaminants in areas where seasonal hypoxia may be prevalent. PMID:27315012

  1. Expression analysis of antioxidant genes in response to drought stress in the fl ag leaf of two Indonesian rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refli R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analysis the expression of antioxidant genes in response to droughtstress in Indonesian rice. The malondialdehyde (MDA content and the expression of Cu-ZnSod1, cCu-ZnSod2,MnSod1, cApxa, cApxb, chl-sApx, Cat1, Cat2, Cat3, Gr1, Gr2, and Gr3 genes were assayed in the rice fl ag leaf ofCiherang and Situ Bagendit cultivars subjected to control, mild and severe drought during the grain fi llingphase. Increase in MDA content of Ciherang treated to mild and severe drought was almost two-fold andthree-fold respectively, while MDA content in Situ Bagendit subjected to mild and severe drought increasedapproximately one-fold and two-fold as compared to the control. The semi quantitative reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (sqRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of cCu-ZnSod1, MnSod1, Cat2, Gr3genes of Ciherang, and cCu-ZnSod2, MnSod1, cApxa, cApxb, chl-sAPX, Cat2 and Gr1 genes of Situ Bagendit increasedin fl ag leaf of plant treated to drought. Expressions of cApxb, chl-sApx, Cat3 of Ciherang and Cu-ZnSod1 and Gr2genes of Situ Bagendit were not changed signifi cantly by drought stress. Decreased expression was shownby cCu-ZnSod2, cApxa, Cat1, Gr1 and Gr2 genes of Ciherang, and Cat1, Cat3 and Gr3 genes of Situ Bagendit. Theresults indicated that the activity of oxidative defense was regulated by four genes; cCu-ZnSod1, MnSod1, Cat2,Gr3 in Ciherang, and eight genes; cCu-ZnSod1, cCu-ZnSod2, MnSod1, cApxa, cApxb, chl-sApx, Cat2 and Gr1 in SituBagendit. Therefore, differences in the number of antioxidant genes controlling oxidative defense systemmight determine the difference of the oxidative defense capacity between both cultivars in response to droughtstress during grain fi lling.

  2. Effects of in ovo injection with selenium on immune and antioxidant responses during experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Jang, S I; Jeong, M S; Xu, S Z; Kim, J B; Park, H J; Kim, H R; Lillehoj, E P; Bravo, D M

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo injection of Se on modulating the immune system and antioxidant responses in broiler chickens with experimental necrotic enteritis. Broiler eggs were injected at 18 d of embryo age with either 100 μL of PBS alone or sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) in PBS, providing 0 (SS0), 10 (SS10), or 20 (SS20) μg of Se/egg. At 14 d posthatch, PBS-treated and uninfected chickens were kept as the control group, whereas the remaining chickens were orally infected with 1.0 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima (SS0, SS10, SS20). At 18 d posthatch, E. maxima-infected chickens were orally infected with 1.0 × 10(9) cfu of Clostridium perfringens. Infected control SS0 group showed significantly decreased BW compared with the uninfected control. However, SS20 group showed significantly increased BW compared with the infected control SS0 group, whereas the BW were similar among uninfected control and infected SS10 and SS20 groups. The SS10 group showed significantly lower intestinal lesions compared with the SS0 group, and oocyst production was decreased in both SS10 and SS20 groups. Serum malondialdehyde level and catalase activity were also decreased in both SS10 and SS20 groups, whereas the superoxide dismutase level was significantly lower in the SS10 group compared with the SS0 group. The SS20 group showed significantly higher levels of transcripts for IL-1β and IL-6 in intestine, and SS10 and SS20 groups had higher levels of transcripts for IL-8 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and decreased glutathione peroxidase 7 mRNA levels compared with the SS0 group. The SS10 and SS20 groups also showed increased serum antibody levels to C. perfringens α-toxin and NetB toxin compared with the SS0 group. These collective results suggest that the injection of Se into the amniotic cavity of developing eggs may be beneficial for enhancing immune and antioxidant responses in the hatched chickens exposed to the

  3. Dynamic Stationary Response of Reinforced Plates by the Boundary Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Facundo Sanches

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct version of the boundary element method (BEM is developed to model the stationary dynamic response of reinforced plate structures, such as reinforced panels in buildings, automobiles, and airplanes. The dynamic stationary fundamental solutions of thin plates and plane stress state are used to transform the governing partial differential equations into boundary integral equations (BIEs. Two sets of uncoupled BIEs are formulated, respectively, for the in-plane state (membrane and for the out-of-plane state (bending. These uncoupled systems are joined to form a macro-element, in which membrane and bending effects are present. The association of these macro-elements is able to simulate thin-walled structures, including reinforced plate structures. In the present formulation, the BIE is discretized by continuous and/or discontinuous linear elements. Four displacement integral equations are written for every boundary node. Modal data, that is, natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes of reinforced plates, are obtained from information contained in the frequency response functions (FRFs. A specific example is presented to illustrate the versatility of the proposed methodology. Different configurations of the reinforcements are used to simulate simply supported and clamped boundary conditions for the plate structures. The procedure is validated by comparison with results determined by the finite element method (FEM.

  4. The MYC 3' Wnt-Responsive Element Drives Oncogenic MYC Expression in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennoll, Sherri A; Eshelman, Melanie A; Raup-Konsavage, Wesley M; Kawasawa, Yuka Imamura; Yochum, Gregory S

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway drive colorectal cancer (CRC) by deregulating expression of downstream target genes including the c-MYC proto-oncogene (MYC). The critical regulatory DNA enhancer elements that control oncogenic MYC expression in CRC have yet to be fully elucidated. In previous reports, we correlated T-cell factor (TCF) and β-catenin binding to the MYC 3' Wnt responsive DNA element (MYC 3' WRE) with MYC expression in HCT116 cells. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 to determine whether this element is a critical driver of MYC. We isolated a clonal population of cells that contained a deletion of a single TCF binding element (TBE) within the MYC 3' WRE. This deletion reduced TCF/β-catenin binding to this regulatory element and decreased MYC expression. Using RNA-Seq analysis, we found altered expression of genes that regulate metabolic processes, many of which are known MYC target genes. We found that 3' WRE-Mut cells displayed a reduced proliferative capacity, diminished clonogenic growth, and a decreased potential to form tumors in vivo. These findings indicate that the MYC 3' WRE is a critical driver of oncogenic MYC expression and suggest that this element may serve as a therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:27223305

  5. HPV-16 L1 genes with inactivated negative RNA elements induce potent immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction of point mutations in the 5' end of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) L1 gene specifically inactivates negative regulatory RNA processing elements. DNA vaccination of C57Bl/6 mice with the mutated L1 gene resulted in improved immunogenicity for both neutralizing antibodies as well as for broad cellular immune responses. Previous reports on the activation of L1 by codon optimization may be explained by inactivation of the regulatory RNA elements. The modified HPV-16 L1 DNA that induced anti-HPV-16 immunity may be seen as a complementary approach to protein subunit immunization against papillomavirus

  6. Antenatal Antioxidant Prevents Nicotine-Mediated Hypertensive Response in Rat Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, DaLiao; Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Yong; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Lubo

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that perinatal nicotine exposure increased blood pressure (BP) in adult offspring. However, the underlying mechanisms were unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that perinatal nicotine-induced programming of hypertensive response is mediated by enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vasculature. Nicotine was administered to pregnant rats via subcutaneous osmotic mini-pumps from Day 4 of gestation to Day 10 after birth, in the absence or presence of the ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in the drinking water. Experiments were conducted in 8-mo-old male offspring. Perinatal nicotine treatment resulted in a significant increase in arterial ROS production in offspring, which was abrogated by NAC. Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced BP responses were significantly higher in nicotine-treated group than in saline-treated control group, and NAC treatment blocked the nicotine-induced increase in BP response. Consistent with that, the nicotine treatment significantly increased both Ang II-induced and phorbol [12, 13]-dibutyrate (PDBu, a Prkc activator)-induced arterial contractions in adult offspring, which were blocked by NAC treatment. In addition, perinatal nicotine treatment significantly attenuated acetylcholine-induced arterial relaxation in offspring, which was also inhibited by NAC treatment. Results demonstrate that inhibition of ROS blocks the nicotine-induced increase in arterial reactivity and BP response to vasoconstrictors in adult offspring, suggesting a key role for increased oxidative stress in nicotine-induced developmental programming of hypertensive phenotype in male offspring. PMID:26224008

  7. Seismic response of three-dimensional rockfill dams using the Indirect Boundary Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Indirect Boundary Element Method (IBEM) is used to compute the seismic response of a three-dimensional rockfill dam model. The IBEM is based on a single layer integral representation of elastic fields in terms of the full-space Green function, or fundamental solution of the equations of dynamic elasticity, and the associated force densities along the boundaries. The method has been applied to simulate the ground motion in several configurations of surface geology. Moreover, the IBEM has been used as benchmark to test other procedures. We compute the seismic response of a three-dimensional rockfill dam model placed within a canyon that constitutes an irregularity on the surface of an elastic half-space. The rockfill is also assumed elastic with hysteretic damping to account for energy dissipation. Various types of incident waves are considered to analyze the physical characteristics of the response: symmetries, amplifications, impulse response and the like. Computations are performed in the frequency domain and lead to time response using Fourier analysis. In the present implementation a symmetrical model is used to test symmetries. The boundaries of each region are discretized into boundary elements whose size depends on the shortest wavelength, typically, six boundary segments per wavelength. Usually, the seismic response of rockfill dams is simulated using either finite elements (FEM) or finite differences (FDM). In most applications, commercial tools that combine features of these methods are used to assess the seismic response of the system for a given motion at the base of model. However, in order to consider realistic excitation of seismic waves with different incidence angles and azimuth we explore the IBEM.

  8. Finite element model updating of a RC building considering seismic response trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, F.; Omenzetter, P.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a study on the seismic response trends evaluation and finite element model updating of a reinforced concrete building monitored for a period of more than two years. The three story reinforced concrete building is instrumented with five tri-axial accelerometers and a free-field tri-axial accelerometer. The time domain N4SID system identification technique was used to obtain the frequencies and damping ratios considering flexible base models taking into account the soil-structure-interaction using 50 earthquakes. Trends of variation of seismic response were developed by correlating the peak response acceleration at the roof level with identified frequencies and damping ratios. A general trend of decreasing frequencies was observed with increased level of shaking. To simulate the varying behavior of the building with response levels, a series of three dimensional finite element models were calibrated considering several points on the developed frequency-response amplitude trend lines as targets for updating. To incorporate real in-situ conditions, soil underneath the foundation and around the building was modeled using spring elements and nonstructural components (claddings and partitions) were also included. Sensitivity based model updating technique was applied taking into account concrete, soil and cladding stiffness as updating parameters. It was concluded from the investigation that knowledge of the variation of seismic response of buildings is necessary to better understand their behavior during earthquakes, and also that the participation of soil and non-structural components is significant towards the seismic response of the building and these should be considered in models to simulate the real behavior.

  9. Response of testicular antioxidant enzymes to hexachlorocy—clohexane is species specific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LunaSamanta; G·B·N·Chainy

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To find out whether the response of testicular oxidative stess parameters to hexachlorocyclohexane(HCH)is species specific.Methods:In rats and mice(n=5in each group).HCHwas administered at a dose of 20mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for 30daysin0.1ml of refined rgoundnut oil.The control groups received equal volume of the vehicle.Animals were sacrificed 24hours after the last injection and various oxidative stress parameters were measured immediately.Results:The level of both endogenous as well as FeSO4and ascorbic acid-stimulated lipid peroxidation was increased significantly in the HCH-treated rats,whereas the pattern was just the reverse in case of mice.Although the level of H2O2content increased inresponse to HCHinboth groups,a totally different trend was observed for the activity of the principal H2O2-metabolising emzyme,catalase,In case of rats,a significant decline inthe activity of catalase was recorded in response to HCH whereas a sharp augmentation in the enzyme activity was noticed im mice,Similarly,the decreased activity of superoxide dismutase observed in rast remained unaltered in mice.Conclusion:HCH induces oxidative stress in the testis of both rats and mice,However,the pattern of response of testicular oxidative stress parameters seems to be species specific.

  10. Optimization extraction of polysaccharide from Tunisian Zizyphus lotus fruit by response surface methodology: Composition and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkadmini Hammi, Khaoula; Hammami, Majdi; Rihouey, Christophe; Le Cerf, Didier; Ksouri, Riadh; Majdoub, Hatem

    2016-12-01

    Response surface methodology using a Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize extraction temperature, extraction time and ratio of water to material to obtain a maximum polysaccharide yield with high uronic acid content and antioxidant property from edible Zizyphus lotus fruit. The optimal conditions were: extraction time of 3h 15min, extraction temperature of 91.2°C and water to solid ratio of 39mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental extraction yield, uronic acid content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging ability (IC50) were 18.88%, 41.89 and 0.518mg/mL, respectively. Chemical analysis revealed that the extract was composed of 97.92% carbohydrate of which 41.89% is uronic acid. The extracted polysaccharides, with an average molecular weight of 2720kDa, are composed of arabinose, rhamnose, glucose, fructose, galactose and xylose. Moreover, the polysaccharides exhibited a significant reducing power and anti-lipid peroxidation activities. PMID:27374558

  11. Influence of environmental related concentrations of heavy metals on motility parameters and antioxidant responses in sturgeon sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Dzyuba, Borys; Randak, Tomas

    2010-12-01

    The effects of heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Cd+Cr) on the motility parameters and oxidative stress of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) sperm were investigated in vitro. Sturgeon sperm were exposed for 2h to heavy metals at environmental related concentrations (0.1mgL(-1) Cr, 0.001mgL(-1) Cd, 0.1mgL(-1) Cr+0.001mgL(-1) Cd) and higher concentrations (5.0mgL(-1) Cr, 0.05mgL(-1) Cd, 5.0mgL(-1) Cr+0.05mgL(-1) Cd). Results revealed that environmental concentrations of heavy metals had no significant influence on motility parameters and antioxidant responses indices in sturgeon sperm, except for LPO level and SOD activity. But higher concentrations of these metals induced oxidative tress in sturgeon sperm in vitro, associated with sperm motility parameters inhibition. Our results suggest that using of sperm in vitro assays may provide a novel and efficiently means for evaluating the effects of residual heavy metals in aquatic environment on sturgeon. PMID:20836996

  12. Antioxidant Systems from Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.: Involvement in the Response to Temperature Changes in Ripe Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Corpas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sweet pepper is susceptible to changes in the environmental conditions, especially temperatures below 15 °C. In this work, two sets of pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L. which underwent distinct temperature profiles in planta were investigated. Accordingly, two harvesting times corresponding to each set were established: Harvest 1, whose fruits developed and ripened at 14.9 °C as average temperature; and Harvest 2, with average temperature of 12.4 °C. The oxidative metabolism was analyzed in all fruits. Although total ascorbate content did not vary between Harvests, a shift from the reduced to the oxidized form (dehydroascorbate, accompanied by a higher ascorbate peroxidase activity, was observed in Harvest 2 with respect to Harvest 1. Moreover, a decrease of the ascorbate-generating enzymatic system, the γ-galactono-lactone dehydrogenase, was found at Harvest 2. The activity values of the NADP-dependent dehydrogenases analyzed seem to indicate that a lower NADPH synthesis may occur in fruits which underwent lower temperature conditions. In spite of the important changes observed in the oxidative metabolism in fruits subjected to lower temperature, no oxidative stress appears to occur, as indicated by the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation profiles. Thus, the antioxidative systems of pepper fruits seem to be involved in the response against temperature changes.

  13. The Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Fitness-Related Traits and Antioxidant Responses in the Wolf Spider, Pardosa pseudoannulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Chun; Li, Guo-Yuan; Yun, Yue-Li; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Zeng-Tao; Peng, Yu

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the ecotoxicological responses of Pardosa pseudoannulata to a common environmental pollutant, cadmium. Third-instar spiderlings and adult spiders were exposed to sublethal concentrations of CdCl2 solution in their drinking water. The Cd content in P. pseudoannulata adults increased significantly with the number of days of exposure to a 0.2 mM CdCl2 solution, when exposed to 2 mM CdCl2 solution, the Cd content in the spiders increased sharply in the first two (male) or three (female) weeks, and then no significant changes were recorded following with the next three (male) or two (female) weeks exposure. Exposure of spiders to Cd contaminated drinking water resulted in reduced body mass, delayed development, fewer eggs and increased mortality. Significantly higher activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were recorded in the spiders after 7 day exposure to 0.2 mM CdCl2 solution. However, longer-term exposures or increased Cd concentrations did not result in significantly higher antioxidant enzyme activity relative to control treatment. PMID:27194251

  14. Antioxidant and gene expression responses of Eisenia fetida following repeated exposure to BDE209 and Pb in a soil-earthworm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuangqing; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jing; Lin, Kuangfei; Ji, Rong

    2016-06-15

    This study first adopted repeated treatment model to investigate stress responses in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) following exposure to decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) and lead (Pb), which are the mainly co-existed contaminants at e-waste recycling sites. We evaluated the impacts of BDE209-Pb on antioxidative enzyme (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and transcriptional levels of three target genes (SOD, CAT and Hsp70), and further explored the relationships among these biomarkers. Results demonstrated that almost all the parameters were generally induced and the responses followed certain dose-effect relationships. Compared to the controls, a significant (P0.64). The observations could provide important information of ecotoxicological effects of BDE209-Pb in a soil-earthworm system as well as the mechanism of antioxidant defense. PMID:26971217

  15. Growth Responses and Leaf Antioxidant Metabolism of Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Genotypes under Salinity Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Dibyendu Talukdar

    2013-01-01

    Response of six improved grass pea genotypes to prolonged salinity stress was investigated on seedlings grown in pot experiment using 150 mM NaCl up to 60 days of growth after commencement of treatment (DAC). NaCl exposure significantly reduced growth potential of varieties PUSA-90-2 and WBK-CB-14, but no such effect was observed in varieties B1, BioL-212 and in two mutant lines LR3 and LR4. A time-bound measurement at 15, 30 and 60 DAC revealed significant reduction in plant dry matter produ...

  16. Antioxidants Enhancement to the Immune Response of NIH Mice to Vero Cell Grown Rabies Virus Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Aly Fahmy Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Rabies cell culture vaccine (Vero-Rab) showed to be more immunogenic and a higher and faster release of antibody titer could be detected than in case of using Fermi type vaccine, DEV and CECV. Result: The immune response of NIH mice immunized intramuscularly using both vE - Se adjuvated and non adjuvated Vero cell rabies virus vaccine (Vero-Rab) showed an elevation of antibody level of vaccinated mice groups more than the limits decided by WHO for a potent rabies virus vaccine. ...

  17. Flavonoids Extraction from Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion): Optimisation Using Response Surface Methodology and Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Zongxi Sun; Ruiqiang Su; Jianwei Qiao; Zhiquan Zhao; Xinsheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    The Box-Behnken design combined with response surface method was employed to optimize ultrasonic-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Taraxacum officinale. The optimized results showed that the highest extraction yield with ultrasonic-assisted extraction could reach 2.62% using 39.6% (v/v) ethanol and 59.5 : 1 (mL/g) liquid-solid ratio for 43.8 min. The crude extract was then purified by HPD-100 macroporous adsorption resin, and the flavonoids content in the purified extract increased to 54...

  18. Effects of friction on the unconfined compressive response of articular cartilage: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, R L; Suh, J K; Mow, V C

    1990-05-01

    A finite element analysis is used to study a previously unresolved issue of the effects of platen-specimen friction on the response of the unconfined compression test; effects of platen permeability are also determined. The finite element formulation is based on the linear KLM biphasic model for articular cartilage and other hydrated soft tissues. A Galerkin weighted residual method is applied to both the solid phase and the fluid phase, and the continuity equation for the intrinsically incompressible binary mixture is introduced via a penalty method. The solid phase displacements and fluid phase velocities are interpolated for each element in terms of unknown nodal values, producing a system of first order differential equations which are solved using a standard numerical finite difference technique. An axisymmetric element of quadrilateral cross-section is developed and applied to the mechanical test problem of a cylindrical specimen of soft tissue in unconfined compression. These studies show that interfacial friction plays a major role in the unconfined compression response of articular cartilage specimens with small thickness to diameter ratios. PMID:2345443

  19. Mineral elements of subtropical tree seedlings in response to elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen addition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Huang

    Full Text Available Mineral elements in plants have been strongly affected by increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations and nitrogen (N deposition due to human activities. However, such understanding is largely limited to N and phosphorus in grassland. Using open-top chambers, we examined the concentrations of potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, aluminum (Al, copper (Cu and manganese (Mn in the leaves and roots of the seedlings of five subtropical tree species in response to elevated CO2 (ca. 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1 and N addition (100 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 from 2005 to 2009. These mineral elements in the roots responded more strongly to elevated CO2 and N addition than those in the leaves. Elevated CO2 did not consistently decrease the concentrations of plant mineral elements, with increases in K, Al, Cu and Mn in some tree species. N addition decreased K and had no influence on Cu in the five tree species. Given the shifts in plant mineral elements, Schima superba and Castanopsis hystrix were less responsive to elevated CO2 and N addition alone, respectively. Our results indicate that plant stoichiometry would be altered by increasing CO2 and N deposition, and K would likely become a limiting nutrient under increasing N deposition in subtropics.

  20. Photosynthetic and antioxidant responses of Liquidambar formosana and Schima superba seedlings to sulfuric-rich and nitric-rich simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Wang, Wen-Hua; Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2013-03-01

    To study whether differential responses occur in photosynthesis and antioxidant system for seedlings of Liquidambar formosana, an acid rain (AR)-sensitive tree species and Schima superba, an AR-tolerant tree species treated with three types of pH 3.0 simulated AR (SiAR) including sulfuric-rich (S-SiAR), nitric-rich (N-SiAR), sulfate and nitrate mixed (SN-SiAR), we investigated the changes of leaf necrosis, chlorophyll content, soluble protein and proline content, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, reactive oxygen species production, membrane lipid peroxidation, small molecular antioxidant content, antioxidant enzyme activities and related protein expressions. Our results showed that SiAR significantly caused leaf necrosis, inhibited photosynthesis, induced superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide generation, aggravated membrane lipid peroxidation, changed antioxidant enzyme activities, modified related protein expressions such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), l-ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1. 11. 1. 11), glutathione S transferase (GST, EC 2. 5. 1. 18) and Rubisco large subunit (RuBISCO LSU), altered non-protein thiols (NPT) and glutathione (GSH) content in leaves of L. formosana and S. superba. Taken together, we concluded that the damages caused by SiAR in L. formosana were more severe and suffered from more negative impacts than in S. superba. S-SiAR induced more serious damages for the plants than did SN-SiAR and N-SiAR. PMID:23353765

  1. Oxidative and antioxidative responses in the wheat-Azospirillum brasilense interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Gómez, Manuel; Castro-Mercado, Elda; Alexandre, Gladys; García-Pineda, Ernesto

    2016-03-01

    Azospirillum is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) able to enhance the growth of wheat. The aim of this study was to test the effect of Azospirillum brasilense cell wall components on superoxide (O2·(-)) production in wheat roots and the effect of oxidative stress on A. brasilense viability. We found that inoculation with A. brasilense reduced O2·(-) levels by approx. 30 % in wheat roots. Inoculation of wheat with papain-treated A. brasilense, a Cys protease, notably increased O2·(-) production in all root tissues, as was observed by the nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction. However, a 24-h treatment with rhizobacteria lipopolysaccharides (50 and 100 μg/mL) alone did not affect the pattern of O2·(-) production. Analysis of the effect of plant cell wall components on A. brasilense oxidative enzyme activity showed no changes in catalase activity but a decrease in superoxide dismutase activity in response to polygalacturonic acid treatment. Furthermore, A. brasilense growth was only affected by high concentrations of H2O2 or paraquat, but not by sodium nitroprusside. Our results suggest that rhizobacterial cell wall components play an important role in controlling plant cell responses and developing tolerance of A. brasilense to oxidative stress produced by the plant. PMID:25952083

  2. Antioxidants Enhancement to the Immune Response of NIH Mice to Vero Cell Grown Rabies Virus Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Fahmy Mohamed

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rabies cell culture vaccine (Vero-Rab showed to be more immunogenic and a higher and faster release of antibody titer could be detected than in case of using Fermi type vaccine, DEV and CECV. Result: The immune response of NIH mice immunized intramuscularly using both vE - Se adjuvated and non adjuvated Vero cell rabies virus vaccine (Vero-Rab showed an elevation of antibody level of vaccinated mice groups more than the limits decided by WHO for a potent rabies virus vaccine. Also, two different immunization regimens were achieved, 5 single doses and 3 double doses of vE-selenium adjuvated and non adjuvated Vero cell rabies virus vaccine. The antibodies developed against rabies virus vaccine could be detected 14 days post immunization using ELISA and IFA. The antibody level developed in sera of mice immunized, with either adjuvated and non adjuvanted Vero-Rab., using different immunization regimens, could protect mice against the challenge with 100 MICLD50 of the challenge virus standard (CVS after the end of the experiment, (6 months of the prim-vaccination.Conclusion: vE-Se as immune potentiator can enhance the immune response and single dose immunization regimen without vE-Se as immune stimulant was preferred than double dose regimen.

  3. Antioxidant responses and renal crystal formation in rainbow trout treated with melamine administered individually or in combination with cyanuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Nicole; Prearo, Marino; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brizio, Paola; Dörr, Ambrosius Josef Martin; Reimschuessel, Renate; Andersen, Wendy; Gasco, Laura; Righetti, Marzia; Elia, Antonia Concetta

    2013-01-01

    In 2007 and 2008, renal stone formation and kidney damage in human infants were linked to consumption of melamine (MEL)-contaminated infant formula, as well as renal failure and death in pets due to pet food containing both MEL and cyanuric acid (CYA). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of MEL and CYA administered individually or in combination on concentrations of certain metabolites and enzyme activities that serve as markers for oxidative stress in kidney and liver of rainbow trout. In addition, the levels of muscle MEL and renal crystal formation were determined. Trout were fed MEL and/or CYA for 8 wk at 250, 500, or 1000 mg of each compound/kg in feed. Fish muscle residues of MEL exhibited a dose-response relationship. Coexposure of trout to MEL and CYA at the highest dose led to lower MEL residue concentrations in muscle compared to exposure to MEL alone. Renal MEL-CYA complexes were found in kidneys of fish treated with combined MEL and CYA. A dose response was evident with respect to both (1) number of trout displaying renal crystals and (2) number of crystals per fish. Changes in concentration of antioxidant parameters, such as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase, were recorded in both tissues of MEL- and CYA-dosed trout. Lipid peroxidation was more pronounced in kidney than liver. Therefore, feed contaminated with both MEL and CYA could be problematic for fish, as MEL administered to trout, individually or in combination with CYA, may facilitate the onset of oxidative damage in trout. PMID:23721584

  4. Green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate triggered hepatotoxicity in mice: Responses of major antioxidant enzymes and the Nrf2 rescue pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongxu; Wang, Yijun; Wan, Xiaochun [Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry & Biotechnology, School of Tea & Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui 230036 (China); Yang, Chung S. [Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Zhang, Jinsong, E-mail: zjs@ahau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry & Biotechnology, School of Tea & Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui 230036 (China)

    2015-02-15

    (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a constituent of green tea, has been suggested to have numerous health-promoting effects. On the other hand, high-dose EGCG is able to evoke hepatotoxicity. In the present study, we elucidated the responses of hepatic major antioxidant enzymes and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) rescue pathway to high-dose levels of EGCG in Kunming mice. At a non-lethal toxic dose (75 mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments markedly decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. As a rescue response, the nuclear distribution of Nrf2 was significantly increased; a battery of Nrf2-target genes, including heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and those involved in glutathione and thioredoxin systems, were all up-regulated. At the maximum tolerated dose (45 mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments did not disturb the major antioxidant defense. Among the above-mentioned genes, only HO1, NQO1, and GST genes were significantly but modestly up-regulated, suggesting a comprehensive and extensive activation of Nrf2-target genes principally occurs at toxic levels of EGCG. At a lethal dose (200 mg/kg, i.p.), a single EGCG treatment dramatically decreased not only the major antioxidant defense but also the Nrf2-target genes, demonstrating that toxic levels of EGCG are able to cause a biphasic response of Nrf2. Overall, the mechanism of EGCG-triggered hepatotoxicity involves suppression of major antioxidant enzymes, and the Nrf2 rescue pathway plays a vital role for counteracting EGCG toxicity. - Highlights: • EGCG at maximum tolerated dose does not disturb hepatic major antioxidant defense. • EGCG at maximum tolerated dose modestly upregulates hepatic Nrf2 target genes. • EGCG at toxic dose suppresses hepatic major antioxidant enzymes. • EGCG at non-lethal toxic dose pronouncedly activates hepatic Nrf2 rescue response. • EGCG at

  5. Green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate triggered hepatotoxicity in mice: Responses of major antioxidant enzymes and the Nrf2 rescue pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a constituent of green tea, has been suggested to have numerous health-promoting effects. On the other hand, high-dose EGCG is able to evoke hepatotoxicity. In the present study, we elucidated the responses of hepatic major antioxidant enzymes and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) rescue pathway to high-dose levels of EGCG in Kunming mice. At a non-lethal toxic dose (75 mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments markedly decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. As a rescue response, the nuclear distribution of Nrf2 was significantly increased; a battery of Nrf2-target genes, including heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and those involved in glutathione and thioredoxin systems, were all up-regulated. At the maximum tolerated dose (45 mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments did not disturb the major antioxidant defense. Among the above-mentioned genes, only HO1, NQO1, and GST genes were significantly but modestly up-regulated, suggesting a comprehensive and extensive activation of Nrf2-target genes principally occurs at toxic levels of EGCG. At a lethal dose (200 mg/kg, i.p.), a single EGCG treatment dramatically decreased not only the major antioxidant defense but also the Nrf2-target genes, demonstrating that toxic levels of EGCG are able to cause a biphasic response of Nrf2. Overall, the mechanism of EGCG-triggered hepatotoxicity involves suppression of major antioxidant enzymes, and the Nrf2 rescue pathway plays a vital role for counteracting EGCG toxicity. - Highlights: • EGCG at maximum tolerated dose does not disturb hepatic major antioxidant defense. • EGCG at maximum tolerated dose modestly upregulates hepatic Nrf2 target genes. • EGCG at toxic dose suppresses hepatic major antioxidant enzymes. • EGCG at non-lethal toxic dose pronouncedly activates hepatic Nrf2 rescue response. • EGCG at

  6. Radiation damage to specific complexes of DNA with proteins: estrogen response element DNA - estrogen receptor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štísová, Viktorie; Běgusová, Marie; Goffinont, S.; Spotheim-Maurizot, M.

    Legnaro-Padova: INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 2005. [International Symposium on Microdosimetry /14./. 13.11.2005-18.11.2005, Venezia] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05OC085; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/H031 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : DNA-protein complex * radiation damage * estrogen receptor * estrogen response element DNA Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  7. Prediction of the nonlinear dynamic response of structural components using finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three finite element computer programs (EURDYN) for nonlinear dynamic analysis of two- and three-dimensional structures are described. The convected co-ordinate technique suggested by Belytschko, combined with a lumped-explicit scheme for marching in time, results in a very efficient tool for obtaining nonlinear dynamic responses due to blast loading. Although only simple examples are discussed in the present paper, the program capabilities do cover a large range of problems in the field of fast-reactor engineering. (orig.)

  8. Farnesoid X Receptor Inhibits the Transcriptional Activity of Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein in Human Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Sandrine; Huaman Samanez, Carolina; Dehondt, Hélène; Ploton, Maheul; Briand, Olivier; Lien, Fleur; Dorchies, Emilie; Dumont, Julie; Postic, Catherine; Cariou, Bertrand; Lefebvre, Philippe; Staels, Bart

    2013-01-01

    The glucose-activated transcription factor carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) induces the expression of hepatic glycolytic and lipogenic genes. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear bile acid receptor controlling bile acid, lipid, and glucose homeostasis. FXR negatively regulates hepatic glycolysis and lipogenesis in mouse liver. The aim of this study was to determine whether FXR regulates the transcriptional activity of ChREBP in human hepatocytes and to unravel the...

  9. What type of controlling investors impact on which elements of corporate social responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, William; Rodionova, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    Using a large sample of 3541 companies drawn from 30 countries over a period from 2002 to 2010, we analysed the impact of strategic shareholdings on different elements of corporate social responsibility (CSR). We find that total strategic or closely held equity holdings adversely affect the environmental, social and governance scores provided by ASSET4. However, this effect is largely driven by entrenched and undiversified holdings such as family and corporate cross-holdings, whereas diversif...

  10. Finite element response sensitivity and reliability analysis of Soil-Foundation-Structure-Interaction (SFSI) systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Quan

    2008-01-01

    Performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) has emerged as a powerful method of analysis and design philosophy in earthquake engineering and is leading the way to a new generation of seismic design guidelines. PBEE requires a comprehensive understanding of the earthquake response of Soil-Foundation-Structure-Interaction (SFSI) systems when damage occurs in the structural system during the earthquake. In the context of PBEE, this research combines finite element (FE) modeling and seismic r...

  11. Reactor calculation in coarse mesh by finite element method applied to matrix response method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The finite element method is applied to the solution of the modified formulation of the matrix-response method aiming to do reactor calculations in coarse mesh. Good results are obtained with a short running time. The method is applicable to problems where the heterogeneity is predominant and to problems of evolution in coarse meshes where the burnup is variable in one same coarse mesh, making the cross section vary spatially with the evolution. (E.G.)

  12. Structural and functional analysis of the visna virus Rev-response element.

    OpenAIRE

    Tiley, L S; Cullen, B R

    1992-01-01

    The distantly related lentiviruses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and visna virus each encode a posttranscriptional regulatory protein, termed Rev, that is critical for expression of the viral structural proteins. We genetically mapped the cis-acting target sequence for visna virus Rev, the visna virus Rev-response element or RRE-V, to a complex 176-nucleotide RNA stem-loop structure that coincides with sequences encoding the N terminus of the transmembrane component of envelope....

  13. Comparison of finite element and experimental simulation of human head response to impact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroušek, Ondřej; Jíra, J.

    Dusseldorf: VDI Verlag GmbH, 2005, s. 463-472 ISBN 3-18-091899-3. ISSN 0083-5560. [GESA-Symposium 2005 Strukturanalyse. Saarbrucken (DE), 21.09.2005-22.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/05/1020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : human head response * finite element method * head injury criteria Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics

  14. Investigation of the incremental response of soils using a discrete element model

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Marroquín, F.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2004-01-01

    The incremental stress-strain relation of dense packings of polygons is investigated here by using molecular dynamics simulations. The comparison of the simulation results to the continuous theories is performed using explicit expressions for the averaged stress and strain over a representative volume element. The discussion of the incremental response raises two important questions of soil deformation: Is the incrementally non-linear theory appropriate to describe the soil mechanical respons...

  15. Verification of Advective Bar Elements Implemented in the Aria Thermal Response Code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Brantley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A verification effort was undertaken to evaluate the implementation of the new advective bar capability in the Aria thermal response code. Several approaches to the verification process were taken : a mesh refinement study to demonstrate solution convergence in the fluid and the solid, visually examining the mapping of the advective bar element nodes to the surrounding surfaces, and a comparison of solutions produced using the advective bars for simple geometries with solutions from commercial CFD software . The mesh refinement study has shown solution convergence for simple pipe flow in both temperature and velocity . Guidelines were provided to achieve appropriate meshes between the advective bar elements and the surrounding volume. Simulations of pipe flow using advective bars elements in Aria have been compared to simulations using the commercial CFD software ANSYS Fluent (r) and provided comparable solutions in temperature and velocity supporting proper implementation of the new capability. Verification of Advective Bar Elements iv Acknowledgements A special thanks goes to Dean Dobranich for his guidance and expertise through all stages of this effort . His advice and feedback was instrumental to its completion. Thanks also goes to Sam Subia and Tolu Okusanya for helping to plan many of the verification activities performed in this document. Thank you to Sam, Justin Lamb and Victor Brunini for their assistance in resolving issues encountered with running the advective bar element model. Finally, thanks goes to Dean, Sam, and Adam Hetzler for reviewing the document and providing very valuable comments.

  16. Optimisation, by response surface methodology, of degree of hydrolysis and antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of whey protein hydrolysates obtained with cardoon extract

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, T. G.; Contreras, M. M.; Amorim, M; Martín-Álvarez, P. J.; Pintado, M. E.; Recio, I.; Malcata, F.X.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrolysis of bovine whey protein concentrate (WPC), a-lactalbumin (a-La) and caseinomacropeptide (CMP), by aqueous extracts of Cynara cardunculus, was optimized using response surface methodology. Degree of hydrolysis (DH), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity were used as objective functions, and hydrolysis time and enzyme/substrate ratio as manipulated parameters. The model was statistically appropriate to describe ACE-inhibitory activi...

  17. Supplementation with Sodium Selenite and Selenium-Enriched Microalgae Biomass Show Varying Effects on Blood Enzymes Activities, Antioxidant Response, and Accumulation in Common Barbel (Barbus barbus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouba, A.; Velíšek, J.; Stará, A.; Masojídek, Jiří; Kozák, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, Article ID 408270 (2014). ISSN 2314-6141 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/09/0656; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA MŠk LO1205; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0024 Grant ostatní: GA JU(CZ) 087/2013/Z Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : selenite * selenium * antioxidant response Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  18. Tpo1-mediated spermine and spermidine export controls cell cycle delay and times antioxidant protein expression during the oxidative stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Antje; Vowinckel, Jakob; Mülleder, Michael; Grote, Phillip; Capuano, Floriana; Bluemlein, Katharina; Ralser, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Cells counteract oxidative stress by altering metabolism, cell cycle and gene expression. However, the mechanisms that coordinate these adaptations are only marginally understood. Here we provide evidence that timing of these responses in yeast requires export of the polyamines spermidine and spermine. We show that during hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure, the polyamine transporter Tpo1 controls spermidine and spermine concentrations and mediates induction of antioxidant proteins, including H...

  19. Finite element simulation for mechanical response of surface mounted solder joints under different temperature cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鑫; 钱乙余

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear finite element simulation for mechanical response of surface mounted solder joint under different temperature cycling was carried out. Seven sets of parameters were used in order to evaluate the influence of temperature cycling profile parameters. The results show that temperature cycling history has significant effect on the stress response of the solder joint. Based on the concept of relative damage stress proposed by the authors, it is found that enough high temperature holding time is necessary for designing the temperature cycling profile in accelerated thermal fatigue test.

  20. Isolation of transcription factors binding auxin response elements using a yeast one-hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐眉; 黄美娟; 陈凡

    2002-01-01

    Plant hormones play an important role during higher plant embryogenesis. Auxin is central to the development of vascular tissues, formation of lateral and adventitious roots, control of apical dominance, and tropic responses. Auxin response element (AuxRE), present in the promoters of many auxin-induced genes, can confer auxin responsiveness. Using carrot somatic embryo under specific developmental phase, a cDNA expression library was constructed. Several plasmids were recombined containing the tetramer of AuxRE as a bait. After screening by a yeast one-hy- brid system, one positive clone was confirmed and characterized. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that AxRF1 protein expressed in yeast cell could bind AuxRE in vitro. It suggests that AxRF1 participates in regulation of the expression of auxin responsive gene during carrot somatic embryogenesis.

  1. Three-dimensional dynamic response modelling for floating nuclear power plants using finite element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modelling technique which can be used to obtain the dynamic response of a floating nuclear plant (FNP) moored in an artificial basin is presented. Hydrodynamic effects of the seawater in the basin have a significant impact on the response of the FNP and must be included. A three dimensional model of the platform and mooring system (using beam elements) is used, with the hydrodynamic effects represented by added mass and damping. For an essentially square plant in close proximity to the site structures, the three dimensional nature of the basin must be considered in evaluating the added mass and damping. A method for estimating these effects from planer finite element analyses is developed. The accuracy of the planar finite element model in obtaining two-dimensional added mass and damping is shown through comparison with existing the documented results. In addition, a comparison is shown for open ocean added mass and damping with a three-dimensional solution using velocity potential functions. It is concluded that the overall technique results in a reasonable and conservative calculation of the dynamic response of the floating nuclear plant. (orig./HP)

  2. Hyperactivity of the Ero1α Oxidase Elicits Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress but No Broad Antioxidant Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Gram; Schmidt, Jonas Damgard; Soltoft, Cecilie Lutzen;

    2012-01-01

    Oxidizing equivalents for the process of oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of mammalian cells are mainly provided by the Ero1α oxidase. The molecular mechanisms that regulate Ero1α activity in order to harness its oxidative power are quite well understood. However, the...... overall cellular response to oxidative stress generated by Ero1α in the lumen of the mammalian ER is poorly characterized. Here we investigate the effects of overexpressing a hyperactive mutant (C104A/C131A) of Ero1α. We show that Ero1α hyperactivity leads to hyperoxidation of the ER oxidoreductase ERp57...... the cellular glutathione redox buffer, we conclude that the observed effects of Ero1α-C104A/C131A overexpression are likely caused by an oxidative perturbation of the ER glutathione redox buffer. In accordance, we show that Ero1α hyperactivity affects cell viability when cellular glutathione levels...

  3. Development of a rapidly deployed Department of Energy emergency response element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to maintain a viable, timely, and fully documented response option capable of supporting the responsible Lead Federal Agency in the event of a radiological emergency impacting any state or United States territory (e.g., CONUS). In addition, the DOE maintains a response option to support radiological emergencies outside the continental United States (OCONUS). While the OCONUS mission is not governed by the FRERP, this response is operationally similar to that assigned to the DOE by the FRERP. The DOE is prepared to alert, activate, and deploy radiological response teams to augment the Radiological Assistance Program and/or local responders. The Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (RMAC) is a phased response that integrates with the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) in CONUS environments and represents a stand-alone DOE response for OCONUS environments. The FRMAC/RMAC Phase I was formally stood up as an operational element in April 1999. The FRMAC/RMAC Phase II proposed stand-up date is midyear 2000

  4. Development of a Rapidly Deployed Department of Energy Emergency Response Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to maintain a viable, timely, and fully documented response option capable of supporting the responsible Lead Federal Agency in the event of a radiological emergency impacting any state or US territory (e.g., CONUS). In addition, the DOE maintains a response option to support radiological emergencies outside the continental US (OCONUS). While the OCUNUS mission is not governed by the FREP, this response is operationally similar to that assigned to the DOE by the FREP. The DOE is prepared to alert, activate, and deploy radiological response teams to augment the Radiological Assistance Program and/or local responders. The Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (RMAC) is a phased response that integrates with the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) in CONUS environments and represents a stand-alone DOE response for OCONUS environments. The FRMAC/RMAC Phase I was formally ''stood up'' as an operational element in April 1999. The FRMAC/RMAC Phase II proposed ''stand-up'' date is midyear 2000

  5. Rearing effect of biofloc on antioxidant and antimicrobial transcriptional response in Litopenaeus stylirostris shrimp facing an experimental sub-lethal hydrogen peroxide stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Emilie; Saulnier, Denis; Lorgeoux, Bénédicte; Chim, Liet; Gueguen, Yannick

    2015-08-01

    This study compares the antioxidant and antimicrobial transcriptional expression of blue shrimps reared according to two different systems, BioFloc Technology (BFT) and Clear sea Water (CW) and their differential responses when facing an experimental sublethal hydrogen peroxide stress. After 30 days of rearing, juvenile shrimps were exposed to H2O2 stress at a concentration of 30 ppm during 6 h. The oxidative stress caused by H2O2 was examined in the digestive glands of the shrimp, in which antioxidant enzyme (AOE) and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that rearing conditions did not affect the expression of genes encoding AOEs or AMPs. However, H2O2 stress induced a differential response in expression between shrimps from the two rearing treatments (BFT and CW). Comparative analysis of the expression profiles indicates that catalase transcripts were significantly upregulated by H2O2 stress for BFT shrimps while no change was observed for CW shrimps. In contrast, H2O2 caused down-regulation of superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase transcripts and of the three AMP transcripts studied (penaeidin 2 and 3, and crustin) for CW shrimps, while no effect was observed on BFT shrimp transcript levels. These results suggested that BFT shrimps maintained antioxidant and AMP responses after stress and therefore can effectively protect their cells against oxidative stress, while CW shrimp immune competence seems to decrease after stress. PMID:26052010

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANTS FROM TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS L.) FRUIT PEEL BIOMASS USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Xu; Jinsong Bao; Junjie Gao; Tao Zhou; Yuefei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) fruit peel, the main byproduct during the manufacture of tea seed oil, was used as raw material for the recovery of phenolic antioxidants. The effect of ethanol concentration, extraction time, and extraction temperature on total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the extracts from tea fruit peel was investigated. The maximum predicted TPC (47.5 mg GAE/g dry peel) was obtained under the optimum recovery conditions (43% ethanol, 60°...

  7. Use of response surface methodology to evaluate the reducing power in binary solutions of ascorbic acid with natural polyphenolic antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Aoun; Dimitris P. Makris

    2013-01-01

    Natural polyphenols, ferulic acid (FA) and hesperetin (Hp) were tested for their Fe3+-reducing power, using the TPTZ methodology, as a first step to rank them according to their antioxidant potential. Ranking also included quercetin (Qt), a very well-studied natural, polyphenolic antioxidant, and ascorbic acid (AA). All phenolics considered were also tested in binary mixtures with AA, to illustrate possible mixture effects. By employing a simple linear regression approach, combinations of AA ...

  8. Antioxidant response to titanium dioxide nanoparticles by Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in different carbon sources and heat-shock conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Capela-Pires, J; Ferreira, R.; Alves-Pereira, I

    2004-01-01

    The physicochemical properties that make nanomaterials unique, also equip them with potential for affect environment adversely, causing oxidative injuries in the living beings. However, organisms also had to develop antioxidant defences to protect their cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Failure in the cell antioxidant defences, due to the contact with xenobiotic, results in stress causing oxidatives damages leading to loss of cell viability. Yeasts can contribute to understand the tox...

  9. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Fansheng Kong; Shujuan Yu; Zeng Feng; Xinlan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To optimization of extraction of antioxidant compounds from guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves and showed that the guava leaves are the potential source of antioxidant compounds. Materials and Methods: The bioactive polysaccharide compounds of guava leaves (P. guajava L.) were obtained using ultrasonic assisted extraction. Extraction was carried out according to Box Behnken central composite design, and independent variables were temperature (20–60°C), time (20–40 min) and power (20...

  10. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2015-11-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers

  11. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers

  12. Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness Mapping technique for identifying nonlinear structural elements from frequency response functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Zheng, G. T.

    2016-02-01

    A simple and general Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness Mapping technique is proposed for identifying the parameters or the mathematical model of a nonlinear structural element with steady-state primary harmonic frequency response functions (FRFs). The Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness is defined as the complex ratio between the internal force and the displacement response of unknown element. Obtained with the test data of responses' frequencies and amplitudes, the real and imaginary part of Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness are plotted as discrete points in a three dimensional space over the displacement amplitude and the frequency, which are called the real and the imaginary Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness map, respectively. These points will form a repeatable surface as the Equivalent Dynamic stiffness is only a function of the corresponding data as derived in the paper. The mathematical model of the unknown element can then be obtained by surface-fitting these points with special functions selected by priori knowledge of the nonlinear type or with ordinary polynomials if the type of nonlinearity is not pre-known. An important merit of this technique is its capability of dealing with strong nonlinearities owning complicated frequency response behaviors such as jumps and breaks in resonance curves. In addition, this technique could also greatly simplify the test procedure. Besides there is no need to pre-identify the underlying linear parameters, the method uses the measured data of excitation forces and responses without requiring a strict control of the excitation force during the test. The proposed technique is demonstrated and validated with four classical single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) numerical examples and one experimental example. An application of this technique for identification of nonlinearity from multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems is also illustrated.

  13. Genomic Regulation of the Response of an Agroecosystem to Elements of Global Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLucia, Evan, H.

    2011-06-03

    This document outlines some of the major accomplishments from this project: (1) New tools for analyzing and visualizing microarray data from soybean gene expression experiments; (2) Physiological, biochemical, and gene array evidence that acclimation of carbon metabolism to elevated CO{sub 2} is governed in significant part by changes in gene expression associated with respiratory metabolism; (3) Increased carbon assimilation in soybeans grown at elevated CO{sub 2} altered pools of carbohydrates and transcripts that control growth and expansion of young leaves; (4) Growth at elevated CO{sub 2} increases the abundance of transcripts controlling cell wall polysaccharide synthesis but not transcripts controlling lignin synthesis; (5) The total antioxidant capacity of soybeans varies among cultivars and in response to atmospheric change; (6) Accelerated leaf senescence at elevated O{sub 3} coincides with reduced abundance of transcripts controlling protein synthesis; (7) Growth under elevated CO{sub 2} increases the susceptibility of soybean to insect herbivores by increasing insect lifespan and fecundity through altered leaf chemistry and by defeating molecular induction of plant defenses; (8) Exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} alters flavonoid metabolism in soybean; (9) Exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} or O{sub 3} conferred resistance to soybean mosaic virus by cross inducing defense- and stress-related signaling pathways; and (10) Exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} accelerates decomposition by changing chemical and biotic properties of the soil.

  14. The effects of arsenic and seawater acidification on antioxidant and biomineralization responses in two closely related Crassostrea species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Anthony; Figueira, Etelvina; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Freitas, Rosa

    2016-03-01

    Ocean acidification processes are major threats to marine calcifying organisms, mostly affecting biomineralization related processes. Abiotic stressors acting on marine systems do not act alone, rather in a combination of multiple stressors, especially in coastal habitats such as estuaries, where anthropogenic and environmental pressures are high. Arsenic (As) is a widely distributed contaminant worldwide and its toxicity has been studied on a variety of organisms. However, the effect of low pH on the toxicity of As on marine organisms is unknown. Here, we studied the combined effects of ocean acidification and As exposure on two closely related oyster species (Crassostrea angulata and Crassostrea gigas), by use of a biochemical approach. Oxidative stress related parameters were studied along with the assessment of biomineralization enzymes activity after 28days of exposure. Results showed that both species were sensitive to all tested conditions (low pH, As and pH+As), showing enhancement of antioxidant and biotransformation defenses and impairment of biomineralization processes. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) activity were significantly higher in oysters exposed to As, showing activation of detoxification mechanisms, and a lower GSTs activity was observed in low pH+As condition, indicating an impact on the oysters capacity to detoxify As in a low pH scenario. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity was significantly lower in all tested conditions, showing to be affected by both As and low pH, whereas the combined effect of low pH+As was not different from the effect of low pH alone. Multivariate analysis of biochemical data allowed for the comparison of both species performance, showing a clear distinction of response in both species. C. gigas presented overall higher enzymatic activity (GSTs; superoxide dismutase; catalase; CA and acid phosphatase) and higher cytosolic GSH content in As exposed oysters than C. angulata. Results obtained indicate a higher tolerance

  15. Two-Dimensional Finite Element Ablative Thermal Response Analysis of an Arcjet Stagnation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, John A.; Laub, Bernard; Braun, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    The finite element ablation and thermal response (FEAtR, hence forth called FEAR) design and analysis program simulates the one, two, or three-dimensional ablation, internal heat conduction, thermal decomposition, and pyrolysis gas flow of thermal protection system materials. As part of a code validation study, two-dimensional axisymmetric results from FEAR are compared to thermal response data obtained from an arc-jet stagnation test in this paper. The results from FEAR are also compared to the two-dimensional axisymmetric computations from the two-dimensional implicit thermal response and ablation program under the same arcjet conditions. The ablating material being used in this arcjet test is phenolic impregnated carbon ablator with an LI-2200 insulator as backup material. The test is performed at the NASA, Ames Research Center Interaction Heating Facility. Spatially distributed computational fluid dynamics solutions for the flow field around the test article are used for the surface boundary conditions.

  16. Analysis of resonance response performance of C-band antenna using parasitic element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, M R; Islam, M T; Misran, N; Mandeep, J S

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the resonance response improvement of a planar C-band (4-8 GHz) antenna is proposed using parasitic element method. This parasitic element based method is validated for change in the active and parasitic antenna elements. A novel dual-band antenna for C-band application covering 5.7 GHz and 7.6 GHz is designed and fabricated. The antenna is composed of circular parasitic element with unequal microstrip lines at both sides and a rectangular partial ground plane. A fractional bandwidth of 13.5% has been achieved from 5.5 GHz to 6.3 GHz (WLAN band) for the lower band. The upper band covers from 7.1 GHz to 8 GHz with a fractional bandwidth of 12%. A gain of 6.4 dBi is achieved at the lower frequency and 4 dBi is achieved at the upper frequency. The VSWR of the antenna is less than 2 at the resonance frequency. PMID:24895643

  17. Anti-cancer and potential chemopreventive actions of ginseng by activating Nrf2 (NFE2L2) anti-oxidative stress/anti-inflammatory pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Qing; Saw Constance; Kong Ah-Ng Tony

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This article reviews recent basic and clinical studies of ginseng, particularly the anti-cancer effects and the potential chemopreventive actions by activating the transcriptional factor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2 or NFE2L2)-mediated anti-oxidative stress or anti-inflammatory pathways. Nrf2 is a novel target for cancer prevention as it regulates the antioxidant responsive element (ARE), a critical regulatory element in the promoter region of genes encoding cel...

  18. INDUCES OF ANTIOXIDANT COMPOUNDS AND SALT TOLERANCE IN WHEAT PLANT, IRRIGATED WITH SEAWATER AS RESPONSE TO APPLICATION OF MICROALGAE SPRAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa H. Abd El Baky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Giza 168 irrigated with either 10 or 20% of Seawater (SW were treated with aqueous extracts of green microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and blue green algae Spirulina platensis (AESO and AESP 20 g (dry weight/L in order to increase wheat salt tolerance. Treated plants showed higher ability to tolerate salt stress (10 or 20% SW by significant (p>0.5% increasing of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll: Chlorophyll total, chlorophyll a and b types and antioxidant low-molecular compounds (glutathione and carotenoids contents. The increase of these contents was associated with increasing activities of antioxidant enzyme systems Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX, Catalase (CAT and total Peroxidase (POD. In addition, this observation was significantly correlated with decreasing of lipid peroxide products (TBARs and sodium ions concentrations. However, wheat plant exposed to salt stress showed significant changes in all growth parameter and antioxidant low-molecular compounds and antioxidant enzyme activities compared with that in plants irrigated with regular water (tap water. In addition, plants treated with oxalic acid as bioregulator agent implied a moderate changes on growth parameters, antioxidant capacity includes non-enzyme and enzymatic systems compared with that in wheat plants treated with algae extracts. This study indicates that the algae extracts could be used as a promising plant growth enhancer for treating wheat plants irrigated with brackish water.

  19. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Ablative Thermal Response and Thermostructural Design of Thermal Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, John A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    A finite element ablation and thermal response program is presented for simulation of three-dimensional transient thermostructural analysis. The three-dimensional governing differential equations and finite element formulation are summarized. A novel probabilistic design methodology for thermal protection systems is presented. The design methodology is an eight step process beginning with a parameter sensitivity study and is followed by a deterministic analysis whereby an optimum design can determined. The design process concludes with a Monte Carlo simulation where the probabilities of exceeding design specifications are estimated. The design methodology is demonstrated by applying the methodology to the carbon phenolic compression pads of the Crew Exploration Vehicle. The maximum allowed values of bondline temperature and tensile stress are used as the design specifications in this study.

  20. AN ENHANCED ELEMENT-FREE GALERKIN METHOD FOR DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF POROELASTIC SEABED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Lei-na; YU Xi-ping

    2009-01-01

    This study presents an effective numerical model for the dynamic response of poroelastic seabed under wave action with enhanced performance. The spatial discretization is based on the Element-Free Galerkin (EFG) method and the time integration based on the GN11 scheme. A stability strategy that adopts a smaller number of nodes for the pore water pressure compared with those for the displacements of the soil skeleton is suggested to resolve the similar difficulty as encountered in the finite element method for a problem with mixed formulation when the pore water is incompressible and the soil skeleton impervious. The accuracy of the numerical model is verified through applying it to a typical case with critical permeability. Good agreement between computational and analytical solutions is obtained.

  1. Identification of two novel functional p53 responsive elements in the Herpes Simplex Virus-1 genome

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Jui-Cheng; Kuta, Ryan; Armour, Courtney R.; Boehmer, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) genome reveals two candidate p53 responsive elements (p53RE), located in proximity to the replication origins oriL and oriS, referred to as p53RE-L and p53RE-S, respectively. The sequences of p53RE-L and p53RE-S conform to the p53 consensus site and are present in HSV-1 strains KOS, 17, and F. p53 binds to both elements in vitro and in virus-infected cells. Both p53RE-L and p53RE-S are capable of conferring p53-dependent transcriptional activatio...

  2. Antioxidant Capacity of Macaronesian Traditional Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Tavares

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav. Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill. Rivas-Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago arborescens Poir. subsp. maderensis (Dcne. A. Hans. et Kunk.. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of most diseases traditionally treated by these plants, it is important to assess their antioxidant capacity and determine the molecules responsible for this capacity. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of these plants against two of the most important reactive species in human body (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals was determined. To trace the antioxidant origin total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the polyphenolic profile and the amount of trace elements were determined. There was a wide variation among the species analysed in what concerns their total leaf phenol and flavonoid contents. From the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC electrochemically detected peaks it was possible to attribute to flavonoids the antioxidant capacity detected in A. barbujana, O. foetens, R. maderensis and P. azorica extracts. These potential reactive flavonoids were identified for A. barbujana, R. maderensis and P. azorica. For R. maderensis a high content (7 mg g-1 dry weight of L-ascorbic acid, an already described antioxidant phytomolecule, was found. A high content in selenomethionine (414.35 μg g-1 dry weight was obtained for P. arborescens subsp. maderensis extract. This selenocompound is already described as a hydroxyl radical scavenger is reported in this work as also possessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. This work is a good illustration

  3. Antioxidant measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Anikó; Rosta, Klára; Pusztai, Péter; Tulassay, Zsolt; Nagy, Géza

    2007-04-01

    Chemical reactions, including oxidation and reduction of molecules, occur in every cell. These reactions can lead to the production of free radicals. Free radicals react with organic substrates such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. Through oxidation free radicals cause damage to these molecules, disturbing their normal function, and may therefore contribute to a variety of diseases. The anti-oxidation system, which consists of enzymatic antioxidants and non-enzymatic antioxidants, defends against oxidative stress. The aim of this review is to summarize general aspects of methods to measure the antioxidant defence system all in one (total antioxidant capacity) and discuss a number of methods which are currently used for detection of antioxidant properties. PMID:17395989

  4. Altered response hierarchy and increased T-cell breadth upon HIV-1 conserved element DNA vaccination in macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viraj Kulkarni

    Full Text Available HIV sequence diversity and potential decoy epitopes are hurdles in the development of an effective AIDS vaccine. A DNA vaccine candidate comprising of highly conserved p24(gag elements (CE induced robust immunity in all 10 vaccinated macaques, whereas full-length gag DNA vaccination elicited responses to these conserved elements in only 5 of 11 animals, targeting fewer CE per animal. Importantly, boosting CE-primed macaques with DNA expressing full-length p55(gag increased both magnitude of CE responses and breadth of Gag immunity, demonstrating alteration of the hierarchy of epitope recognition in the presence of pre-existing CE-specific responses. Inclusion of a conserved element immunogen provides a novel and effective strategy to broaden responses against highly diverse pathogens by avoiding decoy epitopes, while focusing responses to critical viral elements for which few escape pathways exist.

  5. Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Effect of Hibiscus rosasinensis Flower Extract on Streptozotocin Induced Experimental Rats-a Dose Response Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirunalini SANKARAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of Hibiscus rosasinensis against streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (STZ was administered as a single dose (40 mg/kg to induce diabetes. The hypoglycemic activity of Hibiscus rosasinensis extract (HRSEt was investigated in a dose dependent manner such as (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg bwt by evaluating various biochemical parameters. The levels of blood glucose, carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, TBARS, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and lipid profiles were found to be significantly increased in diabetic rats when compared to control groups. Administration of extract in the treated groups showed altered changes in the above mentioned parameters and found that among the three doseses, 250 mg/kg showed best result when compared to other two doses. HRSEt possess antioxidant, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity against streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. However the detailed mechanism(s of action will require elucidating in further studies.

  6. Comparison of gamma- and beta radiation stress responses on anti-oxidative defense system and DNA modifications in Lemna minor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    in a dosimetric model derived from ERICA tool. This enabled a reliable comparison of dose-dependent endpoints between gamma- and beta radiation. Dose rates varied from 15 and 1500 mGy/hr, and 19 from 19000 μGy/hr for gamma- and beta radiation respectively. The classic growth related endpoints, like biomass and frond area, were measured and compared with biochemical and molecular endpoints. Therefore, DNA modifications were analyzed to evaluate biological DNA damage and ROS accumulation in plants together with activities of anti-oxidative enzymes to evaluate oxidative stress response. A dose-response curve with 60 percent growth inhibition was determined for gamma radiation and morphological growth effects in root system were observed for beta radiation. Preliminary results showed similar responses in peroxidase activities between both radiation types. These results and ongoing investigations will help to unravel the differences and similarities in response mechanisms for various radiation types in plant systems. As multiple levels in biological organisation of the organism were considered, and also different dose rates taken into account, this approach allows a better understanding the toxic mode of action of radiation stress in higher plants. This research was supported by the European Commission Contract Fission-2010-3.5.1-269672 to Strategy for Allied Radioecology (www.star-radioecology.org) and a project of the Fund for Scientific Research (FWO-Vlaanderen, G.A040.11N) (authors)

  7. Comparison of gamma- and beta radiation stress responses on anti-oxidative defense system and DNA modifications in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoeck, Arne [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; Vandenhove, Hildegarde [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); Knapen, Dries; Blust, Ronny [University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    frond have been implemented in a dosimetric model derived from ERICA tool. This enabled a reliable comparison of dose-dependent endpoints between gamma- and beta radiation. Dose rates varied from 15 and 1500 mGy/hr, and 19 from 19000 μGy/hr for gamma- and beta radiation respectively. The classic growth related endpoints, like biomass and frond area, were measured and compared with biochemical and molecular endpoints. Therefore, DNA modifications were analyzed to evaluate biological DNA damage and ROS accumulation in plants together with activities of anti-oxidative enzymes to evaluate oxidative stress response. A dose-response curve with 60 percent growth inhibition was determined for gamma radiation and morphological growth effects in root system were observed for beta radiation. Preliminary results showed similar responses in peroxidase activities between both radiation types. These results and ongoing investigations will help to unravel the differences and similarities in response mechanisms for various radiation types in plant systems. As multiple levels in biological organisation of the organism were considered, and also different dose rates taken into account, this approach allows a better understanding the toxic mode of action of radiation stress in higher plants. This research was supported by the European Commission Contract Fission-2010-3.5.1-269672 to Strategy for Allied Radioecology (www.star-radioecology.org) and a project of the Fund for Scientific Research (FWO-Vlaanderen, G.A040.11N) (authors)

  8. Identification and characterization of the retinoic acid response elements in the human RIG1 gene promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expression of retinoic acid-induced gene 1 (RIG1), a class II tumor suppressor gene, is induced in cells treated with retinoids. RIG1 has been shown to express ubiquitously and the increased expression of this gene appears to suppress cell proliferation. Recent studies also demonstrated that this gene may play an important role in cell differentiation and the progression of cancer. In spite of the remarkable regulatory role of this protein, the molecular mechanism of RIG1 expression induced by retinoids remains to be clarified. The present study was designed to study the molecular mechanism underlying the all-trans retinoic acid (atRA)-mediated induction of RIG1 gene expression. Polymerase chain reaction was used to generate a total of 10 luciferase constructs that contain various fragments of the RIG1 5'-genomic region. These constructs were then transfected into human gastric cancer SC-M1 and breast cancer T47D cells for transactivation analysis. atRA exhibited a significant induction in luciferase activity only through the -4910/-5509 fragment of the 5'-genomic region of RIG1 gene relative to the translation initiation site. Further analysis of this promoter fragment indicated that the primary atRA response region is located in between -5048 and -5403 of the RIG1 gene. Within this region, a direct repeat sequence with five nucleotide spacing, 5'-TGACCTctattTGCCCT-3' (DR5, -5243/-5259), and an inverted repeat sequence with six nucleotide spacing, 5'-AGGCCAtggtaaTGGCCT-3' (IR6, -5323/-5340), were identified. Deletion and mutation of the DR5, but not the IR6 element, abolished the atRA-mediated activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with nuclear extract from atRA-treated cells indicated the binding of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimers specifically to this response element. In addition to the functional DR5, the region contains many other potential sequence elements that are required to maximize the at

  9. Spatially dependent burnup implementation into the nodal program based on the finite element response matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a spatial burnup scheme and feedback effects has been implemented into the FERM ( 'Finite Element Response Matrix' )program. The spatially dependent neutronic parameters have been considered in three levels: zonewise calculation, assembly wise calculation and pointwise calculation. Flux and power distributions and the multiplication factor were calculated and compared with the results obtained by CITATIOn program. These comparisons showed that processing time in the Ferm code has been hundred of times shorter and no significant difference has been observed in the assembly average power distribution. (Author)

  10. Estrogen Actions in the Male Reproductive System Involve Estrogen Response Element-Independent Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Jeffrey; Bernhardt, Miranda L.; Laronda, Monica M.; Hurley, Lisa A.; Glidewell-Kenney, Christine; Pillai, Suresh; Tong, Minghan; Korach, Kenneth S.; Jameson, J. Larry

    2008-01-01

    The estrogen receptor-α (ERα) acts through multiple pathways, including estrogen response element (ERE)-dependent (classical) and ERE-independent (nonclassical) mechanisms. We previously created a mouse model harboring a two-amino-acid mutation of the DNA-binding domain (E207A, G208A) that precludes direct binding of ERα to an ERE. After crossing heterozygous mutant mice with an ERα knockout (ERKO) line, it was possible to assess the degree of physiological rescue by the isolated ERα nonclass...

  11. Nuclear toxicology file: cell response to the steady or radioactive chemical elements exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cellular response to an exposure in a toxic element is made at different levels. The first level is the agent detoxication by its elimination or its neutralization. The second level is the repair of the damages caused by this agent (for example the DNA repair). The third level is the control of the cellular death programmed to eliminate the irreparably damaged cells.Finally, the hurt cell can inform the nearby cells by producing molecular effectors inducing an abscopal or bystander effect. (N.C.)

  12. Finite element model validation of bridge based on structural health monitoring—Part I: Response surface-based finite element model updating

    OpenAIRE

    Zhouhong Zong; Xiaosong Lin; Jie Niu

    2015-01-01

    In the engineering practice, merging statistical analysis into structural evaluation and assessment is a tendency in the future. As a combination of mathematical and statistical techniques, response surface (RS) methodology has been successfully applied to design optimization, response prediction and model validation. With the aid of RS methodology, these two serial papers present a finite element (FE) model updating and validation method for bridge structures based on structural health monit...

  13. Study of dynamic response of piping system with gasketed flanged joints using finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic response of piping system with gasketed flanged joints at various temperatures is studied using finite element analysis. FE simulation with thermo-mechanical analysis is performed, followed by modal and harmonic analysis. Important parameters affecting the vibration are discussed. Temperature of internal fluid induces thermal stresses which influence the natural frequencies significantly. A comparison has been made between metal gasket and spiral wound gasket. Results show that the natural frequencies corresponding to particular modes are influenced by the type of gasket used. - Highlights: ► We examine dynamic response of piping system at various temperatures. ► Thermo-mechanical analysis is performed followed by modal and harmonic analysis. ► The temperature of internal fluid influences the natural frequencies significantly. ► Natural frequencies and modes are also influenced by type of gasket used. ► Natural frequency is varied by12.3% for first bending mode shape.

  14. Mean annual response of lichen Parmelia sulcata to environmental elemental availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichens collected in an area previously identified as unpolluted, were transplanted to six different places located in polluted areas near Power Plants (both fuel and coal powered). A total of 26 lichen transplants were made for each place, each transplant weighing about 2g. Two were analysed as zero or reference and the remain 24 were hanged in nylon net bags in order to be able to collect two transplants each month, out of every station during a one year period. Besides the 24 lichen samples, each station was provided with two total deposition collection 10 litter buckets (with 25 cm diameter funnels) and an aerosol sampler. Concentration in both lichens and aerosols were measured by PIXE and INAA at ITN. Total deposition residues were analysed by ICP-MS at the The Netherlands Geological Survey. On this work we present the results obtained by looking for correlation between lichens elemental concentrations and annual averages of elemental availability variables such as concentration in suspension in the atmosphere and concentration in total deposition samples, for a total of 40 elements. In order to access both the limitations and the reliability of the results a discussion on the details of handling this data set is presented. A mathematical function which tentatively represents the lichen up-take response to water availability is also proposed. (author)

  15. Multi-response optimisation of the extraction solvent system for phenolics and antioxidant activities from fermented soy flour using a simplex-centroid design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Cíntia Ladeira; de Lima, Fernando Sanches; Guelfi, Marcela Fernanda Geton; Georgetti, Sandra Regina; Ida, Elza Iouko

    2016-04-15

    A simplex-centroid design comprising three solvents (water, ethanol and methanol) was used to optimise the extraction mixture for phenolics and antioxidant activities from defatted soy flour fermented with Monascus purpureus or Aspergillus oryzae. Total phenolics were more efficiently extracted using only water for both samples. The highest antioxidant activities by the DPPH and ABTS methods were obtained using extraction mixtures containing at least 75 wt% water. Specific water:ethanol:methanol ratios promoted the joint optimisation of the total phenolic and isoflavone contents as well as antioxidant activities: 0.5:0.375:0.125 (wt/wt/wt) and 0.5:0.3:0.2 (wt/wt/wt) from defatted soy flour fermented with M. purpureus or A. oryzae, respectively. However, a water:ethanol ratio of 0.5:0.5 (wt/wt) was deemed optimal because it is comprised of green solvents and yielded results that were greater than 90% of the multi-response maximum values. Both the solvents and the sample matrix strongly influenced the extractability of total phenolics and isoflavones. PMID:26616938

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF TOTAL FLAVONOIDS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES FROM TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM SEEDS WITH RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaileyee Das

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Trigonella foenum-graecum is an annual plant in the family Fabaceae. The distinctive cuboid-shaped, yellow to amber coloured fenugreek seeds are frequently encountered in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent. In this study, Trigonella foenum-graecum is used as an experimental matrix. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of total flavonoids from Trigonella foenum-graecum is studied with dual wavelength UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Effects of various factors including ratio of material to liquid, ultrasonic time, methanol concentration and extraction times on extraction yield of total flavonoids are evaluated. Then, optimization of total flavonoid compound (TFC extraction from Trigonella foenum-graecum seed is investigated using response surface methodology (RSM in this paper. Statistical analysis of the experiments indicated that Ratio of material to liquid and methanol concentration significantly affected TFC extraction (p < 0.01. The Box-Behnken experiment design shows that polynomial regression models are in good agreement with the experimental results, with the coefficients of multiple determination of 0.9758 for TFC yield. The optimal conditions for maximum TFC yield are 70% methanol, 50min and 30 (v/w liquid to solid ratios with a 2 time extraction time. Extracts from these conditions showed a moderate antioxidant value from 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay, Ferric chloride reducing assay and hydrogen peroxide reducing assay. Fenugreek flavonoids have direct and potent antioxidant activities, might be developed and utilized as natural antioxidant.

  17. The Role of Antioxidant Enzymes in Adaptive Responses to Sheath Blight Infestation under Different Fertilization Rates and Hill Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheath blight of rice, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. No rice cultivar has been found to be completely resistant to this fungus. Identifying antioxidant enzymes activities (activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, and catalase (CAT and malondialdehyde content (MDA responding to sheath blight infestation is imperative to understand the defensive mechanism systems of rice. In the present study, two inoculation methods (toothpick and agar block method were tested in double-season rice. Toothpick method had greater lesion length than agar block method in late season. A higher MDA content was found under toothpick method compared with agar block method, which led to greater POD and SOD activities. Dense planting caused higher lesion length resulting in a higher MDA content, which also subsequently stimulated higher POD and SOD activity. Sheath blight severity was significantly related to the activity of antioxidant enzyme during both seasons. The present study implies that rice plants possess a system of antioxidant protective enzymes which helps them in adaptation to sheath blight infection stresses. Several agronomic practices, such as rational use of fertilizers and optimum planting density, involved in regulating antioxidant protective enzyme systems can be regarded as promising strategy to suppress the sheath blight development.

  18. Effect of ZnO nanoparticles on Brassica nigra seedlings and stem explants: growth dynamics and antioxidative response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hira eZafar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have diverse properties in comparison to respective chemicals due to structure, surface area ratio, morphology, and reactivity. Toxicological effects of metallic NPs to organisms including plants have been reported. However, to the authors’ knowledge there is no report on the effect of NPs on in vitro culture of plant explants. In this study, ZnO NPs at 500-1500 mg/L badly affected Brassica nigra seed germination and seedling growth and raised antioxidative activities and antioxidants concentrations. On the other hand, culturing the stem explants of B. nigra on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium in presence of low concentration of ZnO NPs (1-20 mg/L produced white thin roots with thick root hairs. At 10 mg/L ZnO NPs shoots emergence was also observed. The developed calli/roots showed 79% DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activity at 10 mg/L. While total antioxidant and reducing power potential were also significantly different in presence of ZnO NPs. Non enzymatic antioxidative molecules, phenolics (up to 0.15 µg GAE/mg FW and flavonoids (up to 0.22 µg QE/mg FW, also raised and found NPs concentration dependent. We state that ZnO NPs may induce roots from explants cultured on appropriate medium and can be cultured for production of valuable secondary metabolites.

  19. Adipokinetic hormone-induced enhancement of antioxidant capacity of Pyrrhocoris apterus hemolymph in response to oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeřa, J.; Krishnan, Natraj; Alquicer, Glenda; Kodrík, Dalibor; Socha, Radomír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 146, - (2007), s. 336-342. ISSN 1532-0456 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0788 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * antioxidant activity * oxidative stress Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.345, year: 2007

  20. The role of antioxidant enzymes in adaptive responses to sheath blight infestation under different fertilization rates and hill densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Wan, Xuejie; Shah, Farooq; Fahad, Shah; Huang, Jianliang

    2014-01-01

    Sheath blight of rice, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. No rice cultivar has been found to be completely resistant to this fungus. Identifying antioxidant enzymes activities (activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT)) and malondialdehyde content (MDA) responding to sheath blight infestation is imperative to understand the defensive mechanism systems of rice. In the present study, two inoculation methods (toothpick and agar block method) were tested in double-season rice. Toothpick method had greater lesion length than agar block method in late season. A higher MDA content was found under toothpick method compared with agar block method, which led to greater POD and SOD activities. Dense planting caused higher lesion length resulting in a higher MDA content, which also subsequently stimulated higher POD and SOD activity. Sheath blight severity was significantly related to the activity of antioxidant enzyme during both seasons. The present study implies that rice plants possess a system of antioxidant protective enzymes which helps them in adaptation to sheath blight infection stresses. Several agronomic practices, such as rational use of fertilizers and optimum planting density, involved in regulating antioxidant protective enzyme systems can be regarded as promising strategy to suppress the sheath blight development. PMID:25136671

  1. A dual-band flexible frequency selective surface with miniaturized elements and maximally flat (Butterworth) response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dual-band flexible frequency selective surface (FSS) with miniaturized elements and maximally flat (Butterworth) response is presented in this paper. It is composed of three metallic layers, which are fabricated on thin flexible polyimide substrates and bonded together using thin bonding films. The overall thickness of the proposed structure is only about 0.3 mm, making it an attractive choice for conformal FSS applications. All the three layers can constitute a miniaturized-element FSS (MEFSS) and produce the first pass-band with miniaturization property, while the up and bottom layers can constitute a symmetric biplanar FSS and produce the second pass-band with maximally flat (Butterworth) response. The two pass-bands are independent and there is a wide band spacing up to 30 GHz between them. The principles of operation, the simulated results by using the vector modal matching method, and the experimental values of the fabricated prototype are also presented and discussed. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  2. HIV-1 gp120 induces antioxidant response element-mediated expression in primary astrocytes: Role in HIV associated neurocognitive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Pichili Vijaya Bhaskar; Gandhi, Nimisha; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Saiyed, Zainulabedin; Agudelo, Marisela; Yndart, Adriana; Khatavkar, Pradnya; Nair, Madhavan PN

    2011-01-01

    HIV infection affects the central nervous system resulting in HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), which is characterized by depression, behavioral and motor dysfunctions. The HIV-1 viral envelope protein gp120 is known to induce the release of neurotoxic factors which lead to apoptotic cell death. Although the exact mechanisms involved in HIV-1 gp120-induced neurotoxicity are not completely understood, oxidative stress is suggested to play a vital role in the neuropathogenesis of H...

  3. Finite element analysis of the impact response of reinforced concrete structures using DYNA3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinforced concrete structures in nuclear installations are potentially subject to accidental impact from external or internally generated hazards. These include: soft impacts such as aircraft crash on containment structures; and hard impacts such as heavy dropped loads on pond floors, or plant-generated fragments on structural and protective walls. The explicit finite element code DYNA3D has been used extensively for analysis of the response of structures to dynamic loadings, and a constitutive material model for reinforced concrete has been developed within DYNA3D to represent local cracking and crushing due to impact loads, as well as treating the elastic and plastic global response modes of the structure. This model has been extensively validated against impact tests for simulated aircraft impact on containment structures, but more recent interest has concentrated on analysis of hard impacts on floors and walls. Whilst a simplified constitutive model is adequate for the response to soft impacts, in which the dominant response mode is flexural, the local damage and high rates experienced in hard impacts have required further development of the material model. This paper describes the main features of the constitutive model, and presents the results of a validation case of a heavy dropped load on a reinforced concrete floor. (author)

  4. Characterization of a retinoic acid responsive element isolated by whole genome PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, M P; Gaub, M P; Chambon, P; Abarzúa, P

    1992-01-01

    We have used whole PCR in an attempt to isolate novel retinoic acid (RA) responsive genes. We cloned several small genomic fragments from total human DNA containing putative retinoic acid responsive elements (RAREs) selected by direct binding to the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha). We report here that an oligonucleotide containing a sequence from one of the cloned human DNA fragments, and referred to as alpha 1, functions as an authentic RARE. It is shown that both RAR alpha and RAR beta produced in Cos cells as well as in vitro translated RAR alpha bind directly and sequence-specifically to the alpha 1RARE. By mutational analysis it is demonstrated that the alpha 1RARE consists of an imperfect direct repeat of the estrogen- and thyroid hormone-related AGGTCA half-site motif separated by a 5 bp spacer. The orientation and spacing of the half-site repeats are shown to play a critical role in RAR recognition. When cloned upstream of a TK-Luc reporter, the alpha 1RARE is shown to confer responsiveness to RA in an orientation-independent fashion in F9 and CV-1 cells. The magnitude of the RA response mediated by the alpha 1RARE differed in these cell lines. Images PMID:1320257

  5. DYNA3D, 3-D Finite Elements for Dynamic Response of Inelastic Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: DYNA3D is an explicit, three- dimensional, finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic response of inelastic solids and structures. DYNA3D contain 30 material models and 10 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic plasticity, thermo-elastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, Blatz-Ko rubber, high explosive burn, hydrodynamic without deviatoric stresses, elastoplastic hydrodynamic, temperature dependent elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic, isotropic elastoplastic with failure, soil and crushable foam with failure, Johnson/Cook plasticity model, pseudo TENSOR geological model, elastoplastic with fracture, power law isotropic plasticity, strain rate dependent plasticity, rigid, thermal orthotropic, composite damage model, thermal orthotropic with 12 curves, piecewise linear isotropic plasticity, and inviscid two invariant geologic cap, orthotropic crushable model, Moonsy-Rivlin rubber, resultant plasticity, closed form update shell plasticity, and Frazer-Nash rubber model. The IBM 3090 version does not contain the last two models mentioned. The hydrodynamic material models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of ten equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack 'Tuesday' high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, tabulated, and TENSOR pore collapse. DYNA3D generates three binary output databases. One contains information for complete states at infrequent intervals; 50 to 100 states is typical. The second contains information for a subset of nodes and elements at frequent intervals; 1,000 to 10,000 states is typical. The last contains interfaces data for contact surfaces. 2 - Method of solution: A contact

  6. Application of an online post-column derivatization HPLC-DPPH assay to detect compounds responsible for antioxidant activity in Sonchus oleraceus L. leaf extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Zong-Quan; Schmierer, David M; Rades, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    To use an online assay to identify key antioxidants in Sonchus oleraceus leaf extracts and to investigate the effect of leaf position and extraction conditions on antioxidant concentration and activity.......To use an online assay to identify key antioxidants in Sonchus oleraceus leaf extracts and to investigate the effect of leaf position and extraction conditions on antioxidant concentration and activity....

  7. Effect of the ingestion of a mousse with cinnamon C. Burmannii on the postprandial blood glucose response of healthy subjects and its antioxidant power

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Catarina Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Nutrição Clínica Background: Cinnamon has been shown to reduce postprandial glycaemia and enhance insulin sensitivity in healthy adults. Aims: To study the effect of C. burmannii on the postprandial blood glucose response of healthy subjects and its antioxidant capacity in a semi-solid food. Design: Twenty four apparently healthy subjects participated in this study. They were randomly assigned in group A (reference meal) or grou...

  8. Oxidative Stress and Erythrocyte Membrane Responses During Sarcoptic Mange in Sheep: Evaluating Bio-Organic Therapy and its Supplementation with Antioxidant Tocopherol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Dimri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoptic mange in sheep, causes heavy losses in quantity and quality of wool and meat production.The present investigation aimed at evaluating the oxidative stress-antioxidant defense and erythrocytic membrane responses during sarcoptic mange in sheep.A bio-organic therapy (BT was evaluated for its efficacy. Tocopherol was assessed for its antioxidant adjunctive potential. Materials and Methods: Nineteen sheep with sarcoptic mange (aged 9-12 months, with lesions ascribed to Sarcoptes scabiei var. ovis were divided into 2 groups of 8 (group1 and 11(group2 respectively.Group1 was sprayed with the BT (Topicure: Natural Remedies Private Limited, Bangalore, India; containing extracts and distillates of Eucalyptus globulus, Cedrus deodara and Pinus longifolia.In Group2, BT plus tocopherol (E-care Se: Health Line Private Limited, Bangalore, India; containing tocopherol-50mg, selenium-1.5mg; two intramuscular injections at 7 days gap were advocated.The animals were free from other pathogenic microorganisms.Ecto-parasites were identified by standard procedures.(aResponse to treatment: was noted each day through grade codes (0 to 4.(bMite count:Skin scrapings were examined for mites on 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,14,21 and 28 days post treatment (PT.(cOxidative stress- antioxidant defense, erythrocyte membrane responses: In erythrocytes (days ¿0¿ and 28 PT, lipid peroxidation (LP, reduced glutathione (GSH, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-s-transferase, adenosine triphosphatases (total ATPase, Na+ K+-`ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase & protein were estimated.(dHaematology:total erythrocyte count (TEC, haemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit (H were estimated in blood (days 0 and 28. (e Statistical analysis was as per standard procedures. Results: (a Clinical observations: BT was effective and with tocopherol it was effective just within 2 days of start of therapy with an effectiveness of 77.5%. (b Mite count: BT was good and with tocopherol it was effective against

  9. A Multi-Element Approach to Location Inference of Twitter: A Case for Emergency Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Laylavi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception, Twitter has played a major role in real-world events—especially in the aftermath of disasters and catastrophic incidents, and has been increasingly becoming the first point of contact for users wishing to provide or seek information about such situations. The use of Twitter in emergency response and disaster management opens up avenues of research concerning different aspects of Twitter data quality, usefulness and credibility. A real challenge that has attracted substantial attention in the Twitter research community exists in the location inference of twitter data. Considering that less than 2% of tweets are geotagged, finding location inference methods that can go beyond the geotagging capability is undoubtedly the priority research area. This is especially true in terms of emergency response, where spatial aspects of information play an important role. This paper introduces a multi-elemental location inference method that puts the geotagging aside and tries to predict the location of tweets by exploiting the other inherently attached data elements. In this regard, textual content, users’ profile location and place labelling, as the main location-related elements, are taken into account. Location-name classes in three granularity levels are defined and employed to look up the location references from the location-associated elements. The inferred location of the finest granular level is assigned to a tweet, based on a novel location assignment rule. The location assigned by the location inference process is considered to be the inferred location of a tweet, and is compared with the geotagged coordinates as the ground truth of the study. The results show that this method is able to successfully infer the location of 87% of the tweets at the average distance error of 12.2 km and the median distance error of 4.5 km, which is a significant improvement compared with that of the current methods that can predict the location

  10. A new cAMP response element in the transcribed region of the human c-fos gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Härtig, E; Loncarević, I F; Büscher, M.; Herrlich, P; Rahmsdorf, H J

    1991-01-01

    In NIH 3T3 cells the c-fos gene is induced rapidly and transiently by cAMP. As shown by the analysis of 3T3 cells stably transfected with promoter mutants of the human c-fos gene this induction does not depend on the dyad symmetry element (position -320 to -300), but involves at least two other non-related sites: an element located around position -60 resembling the cAMP response element of the fibronectin and somatostatin genes (which has been described before), and an element located betwee...

  11. Dose-response effects of lycopene on selected drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S. T.; Daneshvar, B.;

    2000-01-01

    -metabolizing enzymes involved in the protection against oxidative stress and cancer. The fact that these enzymatic activities are induced at all of these very low plasma levels, could be taken to suggest that modulation of antioxidant and drug-metabolizing enzymes map indeed be relevant to humans, which in general......The administration of lycopene to female rats at doses ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 g/kg b.w, per day for 2 weeks was found to alter the drug-metabolizing capacity and antioxidant status of the exposed animals. An investigation of four cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes revealed that benzyloxyresorufin...... detoxification enzymes provided evidence that lycopene was capable of inducing hepatic quinone reductase, approximately two-fold, at doses between 0.001 and 0.05 g/kg b.w, per day, whereas no effect was observed at the remaining doses tested. Glutathione transferase, using the two substrates, 2...

  12. Levels of antioxidant substances, acute phase response and lipid peroxidation in the left and right abomasum displacement in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamak, N; Devrim, A K; Aksit, H; Aytekin, I; Yildiz, R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess metabolic changes occurring in Holstein cows with left or right abomasal displacement. Total sialic acid (TSA) values of the left abomasal displacement (LDA) group were elevated significantly (p displacement (RDA) groups (p displacement. In this regard, anti-cytokine and anti-oxidant therapies developed in human medicine may also play a potential therapeutic role in the fatty liver and abomasal displacement in cattle. PMID:24597309

  13. Effects of Tributyrin on Intestinal Energy Status, Antioxidative Capacity and Immune Response to Lipopolysaccharide Challenge in Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiaolong; Hou, Yongqing; Yi, Dan; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Hongyi; Ding, Binying; Gong, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of tributyrin (TB) on the growth performance, pro-inflammatory cytokines, intestinal morphology, energy status, disaccharidase activity, and antioxidative capacity of broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 160 one-day-old Cobb broilers were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments, with 4 replicated pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. The experiment consisted of a 2×2 factorial arrangements of treatments with TB supplemen...

  14. Response of Antioxidant Substances and Enzymes Activities as a Defense Mechanism Against Root-Knot Nematode Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hossam Saad EL-BELTAGI; Ahmed A FARAHAT; Alsayed A. ALSAYED; Nomer M. MAHFOUD

    2012-01-01

    The organic amendments, composts (1, 2, 3), neem and poultry as well as inorganic fertilizers (NPK compound and commercial, Athree®) and the nematicide nemacur 10 G applied singly were effective in reducing M. incognita number of galls, nematode reproductionand fecundity. The effectiveness seemed to be material origin dependent. Neem, compost 1, 3 (5 g/pot) gave the best results. Yet, achievedresults were less than those of nemacur 10% G. The antioxidant substances content and enzymes activit...

  15. Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ehsan Karimi; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol−1) on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed ...

  16. Effect of ZnO Nanoparticles on Brassica nigra Seedlings and Stem Explants: Growth Dynamics and Antioxidative Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Hira; Ali, Attarad; Ali, Joham S.; Haq, Ihsan U.; Zia, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have diverse properties when compared to respective chemicals due to their structure, surface to volume ratio, morphology, and reactivity. Toxicological effects of metallic NPs on organisms including plants have been reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is still not any report on the effect of NPs on in vitro culture of plant explants. In this study, ZnO NPs concentration ranging from 500 to 1500 mg/L adversely affects the Brassica nigra seed germination and seedling growth and also lead to an increase in the antioxidative activities and non-enzymatic antioxidants. While, culturing the stem explants of B. nigra on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium at lower concentration of ZnO NPs (1–20 mg/L) resulted in the production of white thin roots with thick root hairs. At 10 mg/L ZnO NPs, shoots emergence is also observed. The developed calli/roots showed 79% DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) radical scavenging activity at 10 mg/L. The total antioxidant and reducing power potential also significantly affected in presence of ZnO NPs. Moreover, an increase in non-enzymatic antioxidative molecules, phenolics (up to 0.15 μg GAE/mg FW) and flavonoids (up to 0.22 μg QE/mg FW), depending on NPs concentration is also observed. We conclude that ZnO NPs may induce roots from explants cultured on appropriate medium that can be used for production of valuable secondary metabolites. PMID:27148347

  17. Physiological responses of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars to water deficit stress: status of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Singh, Amrit L.; Kalariya, Kuldeep A.; Goswami, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    From a field experiment, the changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities was studied in six Spanish peanut cultivars subjected to water deficit stress at two different stages viz. pegging and pod development stages. Imposition of water deficit stress significantly reduced relative water content, membrane stability and total carotenoid content in all the cultivars, whereas total chlorophyll content increased at initially and decreased at later stage. Chlorophyll a/b ratio inc...

  18. Degradation by radiation of the response of a thermocouple of a fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the TRIGA Mark III Reactor of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, is necessary to use an instrumented fuel element for measurement the fuel temperature during pulses of power. This fuel element is exposed to daily temperature gradient of order to 390 Centigrade degrees in normal condition of reactor operation at 1 MW. The experience which this instrumented fuel elements is that useful life of the thermocouples is less then the fuel, because they show important changes in their chemistry composition and electrical specifications, until the point they don't give any response. So is necessary to know the factors that influenced in the shortening of the thermocouples life. The change in composition affects the thermocouple calibration depends on where the changes take place relative to the temperature gradient. The change will be dependent on the neutron flux and so the value of the neutron flux may be used as a measure or the composition change. If there is no neutron flux within the temperature gradient, there will be no composition change, and so the thermocouple calibration will no change. If the neutron flux varies within the region in which a temperature gradients exists, the composition of the thermocouple will vary and the calibration will change. But the maximum change in calibration will occur if the neutron flux is high and constant within the region of the temperature gradient. In this case, a composition change takes place which is uniform throughout the gradient and so the emf output can be expected to change. In this reactor, the thermocouples are in the second case. Then, the relative position of the thermal and neutron flux gradients are the most important factor that explain the composition change after or 2,500 times of exposing the thermocouples to the temperature gradients of order to 390 Centigrade degrees. (Author)

  19. Pycnogenol® inhibits lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production associated with antioxidant enzyme responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Seo, Min-Jung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2012-03-01

    Pycnogenol® is a group of flavonoids with antioxidant effects. Adipogenesis is the process of adipocyte differentiation. It causes the increase of lipids as well as ROS (reactive oxygen species). Lipid accumulation and ROS production were determined in 3 T3-L1 adipocyte, and the effect of Pycnogenol® was evaluated. Lipid accumulation was elevated in adipocyte treated with hydrogen peroxide, one of the ROS. Pycnogenol® showed an inhibitory effect on the lipid accumulation and ROS production during the adipogenesis. We also investigated the molecular events associated with ROS production and lipid accumulation. Our results showed that Pycnogenol® inhibited the mRNA expression of pro-oxidant enzymes, such as NOX4 (NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen) oxidase 4), and the NADPH-producing G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) enzyme. In addition, Pycnogenol® suppressed the mRNA abundance of adipogenic transcription factors, PPAR-γ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) and C/EBP-α (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α), and their target gene, aP2 (adipocyte protein 2) responsible for fatty acid transportation. On the other hand, Pycnogenol® increased the abundance of antioxidant proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD (copper-zinc superoxide dismutase), Mn-SOD (manganese superoxide dismutase), GPx (glutathione peroxidase) and GR (glutathione reductase). Our results suggest that Pycnogenol® inhibits lipid accumulation and ROS production by regulating adipogenic gene expression and pro-/antioxidant enzyme responses in adipocytes. PMID:21796705

  20. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Lotfi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L− 1 on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L. plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm and performance index (PI of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  1. Boron influences immune and antioxidant responses by modulating hepatic superoxide dismutase activity under calcium deficit abiotic stress in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasker, T Vijay; Gowda, N K S; Mondal, S; Krishnamoorthy, P; Pal, D T; Mor, A; Bhat, S Karthik; Pattanaik, A K

    2016-07-01

    The influence of Boron (B) supplementation on immune and antioxidant status of rats with or without abiotic stress induced by dietary calcium (Ca) restriction was studied in a feeding trial of 90 days. Wistar strain rats (3-4 wk age, n=84) were divided into 7 dietary groups (4 replicates of 3 each) viz., normal-calcium (100%) basal diet alone (NC, control) or supplemented with B at 5 (NCB-5), 10 (NCB-10), 20 (NCB-20) and 40ppm (NCB-40) levels; low-calcium (50%) basal diet alone (LC) or supplemented with 40ppm B (LCB-40). After 75 days of experimental feeding, rats were challenged with intraperitoneal injection of sheep RBCs to assess their humoral immunity. At the end of the trial, cell-mediated immunity was assessed as foot pad reaction to sheep RBCs injected into the hind leg paws. Eight rats from each group were sacrificed to collect blood for estimation of minerals and total antioxidant activity, and liver for superoxide dismutase gene expression analysis. Supplementation of graded levels of B (5, 10, 20 and 40ppm) as borax in NC diets significantly increased (Pcopper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) remained similar among the dietary groups, while the manganese (Mn) content was significantly decreased (P<0.01) with increased levels of dietary B. In conclusion, B supplementation increased the hepatic mRNA expression levels of both SOD isoenzymes, thereby improving the immune and antioxidant status. PMID:27259355

  2. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin; Lotfi; Mohammad; Pessarakli; Puriya; Gharavi-Kouchebagh; Hossein; Khoshvaghti

    2015-01-01

    The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid(0, 300, and 600 mg L-1) on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed(Brassica napus L.) plant under water stress(60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan) was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid(FA) improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII(Fv/Fm)and performance index(PI) of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Foto Fmand the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species(ROS) is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  3. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress:Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin Lotfi; Mohammad Pessarakli; Puriya Gharavi-Kouchebagh; Hossein Khoshvaghti

    2015-01-01

    The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L−1) on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan) was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA) improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and performance index (PI) of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  4. Effect of nickel-stresses on uptake, pigments and antioxidative responses of water lettuce, Pistia stratiotes L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavita; Pandey, S N

    2011-05-01

    Water lettuce plants were exposed to various concentrations (0, 0.01,0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 ppm) of nickel as nickel sulphate in nutrient medium. The effect of graded nickel (Ni +2) concentrations on visible symptoms of toxicity, pigments (chlorophyll a, b and total) and antioxidative attributes were evaluated. Plants exposed to high nickel (1.0 and 10.0 ppm) showed visible toxicity symptoms, such as wilting, chlorosis in young leaves, browning of root tips and broken off roots, observed at 6 days after treatment. Nickel was accumulated more in root (863.3 microg g-1 dry weight) than leaves (116.2 microg g-1 dry weight) at 6 days of treatment. Nickel exposure decreased chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll contents. Relative water content decreased at high nickel (1.0 and 10.0 ppm).Antioxidants, such as proline content and peroxidase activity increased with increase in nickel concentrations, whereas, other carotenoids and protein contents at 1.0 ppm and activity of catalase at 10 ppm of nickel were decreased. The low level of nickel stimulates photosynthetic pigments and antioxidative attributes. The study may be helpful in phytoremedial strategies and biological indication of nickel toxicity in aquatic plants. PMID:22167955

  5. Finite element analysis of structural response of superconducting magnet for a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the proposal Tokamak fusion reactor, the superconducting unit consists of an assembly of D-shaped magnets standing vertically and arranged in a toroidal configuration. Each magnet is a composite structure comprised of Nb-22%Ti and Nb-48%Ti, and stabilizing metals such as copper and aluminum or stainless steel held together by reinforced epoxies which also serve as insulators and spacers. The magnets are quite large, typically 15-20 meters in diameter with rectangular cross sections around 0.93x2m. Under static loading condition, the magnet is subjected to dead weight and large magnetic field forces, which may induce high stresses in the structure. Furthermore, additional stresses due to earthquake must also be considered for the design of the component. Both static and dynamic analyses of a typical field magnet have been performed by use of the finite element method. The magnet was assumed to be linearly elastic with equivalent homogeneous material properties. Various finite element models have been considered in order to better represent the structure for a particular loading case. For earthquake analysis, the magnet was assumed to be subjected to 50% of the El Centro 1940 earthquake and the dynamic response was obtained by the displacement spectrum analysis procedure. In the paper, numerical results are presented and the structure behavior of the magnet under static and dynamic loading conditions is discussed

  6. Response Surface Analysis of Elemental Composition and Energy Properties of Corn Stover During Torrefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Richard D. Boardman; Christopher T. Wright

    2012-02-01

    This research studied the effects of torrefaction temperature (250-250 C) and time (30-120 minutes) on elemental composition and energy properties changes in corn stover. Torrefied material was analyzed for moisture content, moisture-free carbon (%), hydrogen (%), nitrogen (%), sulfur (%), and higher heating value (MJ/kg). Results at 350 C and 120 minutes indicated a steep decrease in moisture content to a final value of about 1.48% - a reduction of about 69%. With respect to carbon content, the increase was about 23%, while hydrogen and sulfur content decreased by about 46.82% and 66.6%, respectively. The hydrogen-to-carbon ratio decreased as torrefaction temperature and time increased, with the lowest value of 0.6 observed at 350 C and 120 minutes. Higher heating value measured at 350 C and 60 minutes increased by about 22% and the maximum degree of carbonization observed was about 1.21. Further, the regression models developed for chemical composition in terms of torrefaction temperature and time adequately described the process with coefficient of determination values (R2) in the range of 0.92-0.99 for the elemental composition and energy properties studied. Response surface plots indicated that increasing both torrefaction temperature and time resulted in decreased moisture content, hydrogen content, and the hydrogen to-carbon ratio, and increased carbon content and higher heating value. This effect was more significant at torrefaction temperatures and times >280 C and >30 minutes.

  7. Formation of a Polycomb-Domain in the Absence of Strong Polycomb Response Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Sandip; Mitra, Apratim; Cheng, Yuzhong; Pfeifer, Karl; Kassis, Judith A

    2016-07-01

    Polycomb group response elements (PREs) in Drosophila are DNA-elements that recruit Polycomb proteins (PcG) to chromatin and regulate gene expression. PREs are easily recognizable in the Drosophila genome as strong peaks of PcG-protein binding over discrete DNA fragments; many small but statistically significant PcG peaks are also observed in PcG domains. Surprisingly, in vivo deletion of the four characterized strong PREs from the PcG regulated invected-engrailed (inv-en) gene complex did not disrupt the formation of the H3K27me3 domain and did not affect inv-en expression in embryos or larvae suggesting the presence of redundant PcG recruitment mechanism. Further, the 3D-structure of the inv-en domain was only minimally altered by the deletion of the strong PREs. A reporter construct containing a 7.5kb en fragment that contains three weak peaks but no large PcG peaks forms an H3K27me3 domain and is PcG-regulated. Our data suggests a model for the recruitment of PcG-complexes to Drosophila genes via interactions with multiple, weak PREs spread throughout an H3K27me3 domain. PMID:27466807

  8. A novel human polycomb binding site acts as a functional polycomb response element in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Cuddapah

    Full Text Available Polycomb group (PcG proteins are key chromatin regulators implicated in multiple processes including embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, and germ cell differentiation. The PcG proteins recognize target genomic loci through cis DNA sequences known as Polycomb Response Elements (PREs, which are well characterized in Drosophila. However, mammalian PREs have been elusive until two groups reported putative mammalian PREs recently. Consistent with the existence of mammalian PREs, here we report the identification and characterization of a potential PRE from human T cells. The putative human PRE has enriched binding of PcG proteins, and such binding is dependent on a key PcG component SUZ12. We demonstrate that the putative human PRE carries both genetic and molecular features of Drosophila PRE in transgenic flies, implying that not only the trans PcG proteins but also certain features of the cis PREs are conserved between mammals and Drosophila.

  9. Small molecule screen for inhibitors of expression from canonical CREB response element-containing promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton, Bryan; Hsu, Katie; Dutta, Ritika; Tiu, Bruce C.; Cox, Nick; McLure, Kevin G.; Chae, Hee-Don; Smith, Mark; Eklund, Elizabeth A.; Solow-Cordero, David E.; Sakamoto, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor CREB (cAMP Response Element Binding Protein) is an important determinant in the growth of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) cells. CREB overexpression increases AML cell growth by driving the expression of key regulators of apoptosis and the cell cycle. Conversely, CREB knockdown inhibits proliferation and survival of AML cells but not normal hematopoietic cells. Thus, CREB represents a promising drug target for the treatment of AML, which carries a poor prognosis. In this study, we performed a high-throughput small molecule screen to identify compounds that disrupt CREB function in AML cells. We screened ∼114,000 candidate compounds from Stanford University's small molecule library, and identified 5 molecules that inhibit CREB function at micromolar concentrations, but are non-toxic to normal hematopoietic cells. This study suggests that targeting CREB function using small molecules could provide alternative approaches to treat AML. PMID:26840025

  10. Thyroid hormone response element half-site organization and its effect on thyroid hormone mediated transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A Paquette

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH exerts its effects by binding to the thyroid hormone receptor (TR, which binds to TH response elements (TREs to regulate target gene expression. We investigated the relative ability of liganded homodimers TR and retinoid X receptor (RXR, and the heterodimer TR/RXR, to regulate gene expression for the TRE half-site organizations: direct repeat 4 (DR4, inverted repeat 0 (IR0 and everted repeat 6 (ER6. Luciferase reporter assays using a DR4 TRE suggest that both the TR homodimer and TR/RXR heterodimer regulate luciferase expression in the presence of their respective ligands. However, in the presence of the IR0 TRE, transfection with TR/RXR and RXR alone increased luciferase activity and there was no effect of TR alone. The presence of 9-cis-retinoic acid was necessary for luciferase expression, whereas TH treatment alone was insufficient. For the ER6 TRE, transfection with TR/RXR, TR alone and RXR alone (in the presence of their respective ligands all caused a significant increase in luciferase activity. When both ligands were present, transfection with both TR/RXR caused more activation. Finally, we investigated the efficacy of the TR-antagonist 1-850 in inhibiting transcription by TR or TR/RXR at DR4 and ER6 TREs. We found that 1-850 did not suppress luciferase activation in the presence of TR/RXR for the ER6 TRE, suggesting conformational changes of the ligand binding domain of the TR when bound to different TRE half-site organizations. Collectively, the findings indicate that there are fundamental differences between TRE configurations that affect nuclear receptor interactions with the response element and ability to bind ligands and antagonists.

  11. Thyroid Hormone Response Element Half-Site Organization and Its Effect on Thyroid Hormone Mediated Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Martin A.; Atlas, Ella; Wade, Mike G.; Yauk, Carole L.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) exerts its effects by binding to the thyroid hormone receptor (TR), which binds to TH response elements (TREs) to regulate target gene expression. We investigated the relative ability of liganded homodimers TR and retinoid X receptor (RXR), and the heterodimer TR/RXR, to regulate gene expression for the TRE half-site organizations: direct repeat 4 (DR4), inverted repeat 0 (IR0) and everted repeat 6 (ER6). Luciferase reporter assays using a DR4 TRE suggest that both the TR homodimer and TR/RXR heterodimer regulate luciferase expression in the presence of their respective ligands. However, in the presence of the IR0 TRE, transfection with TR/RXR and RXR alone increased luciferase activity and there was no effect of TR alone. The presence of 9-cis-retinoic acid was necessary for luciferase expression, whereas TH treatment alone was insufficient. For the ER6 TRE, transfection with TR/RXR, TR alone and RXR alone (in the presence of their respective ligands) all caused a significant increase in luciferase activity. When both ligands were present, transfection with both TR/RXR caused more activation. Finally, we investigated the efficacy of the TR-antagonist 1–850 in inhibiting transcription by TR or TR/RXR at DR4 and ER6 TREs. We found that 1–850 did not suppress luciferase activation in the presence of TR/RXR for the ER6 TRE, suggesting conformational changes of the ligand binding domain of the TR when bound to different TRE half-site organizations. Collectively, the findings indicate that there are fundamental differences between TRE configurations that affect nuclear receptor interactions with the response element and ability to bind ligands and antagonists. PMID:24971931

  12. Nitric oxide is involved in dehydration/drought tolerance in Poncirus trifoliata seedlings through regulation of antioxidant systems and stomatal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qi-Jun; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a component of the repertoire of signals implicated in plant responses to environmental stimuli. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exogenous application of NO-releasing donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) on dehydration and drought tolerance of Poncirus trifoliata. The endogenous NO level was enhanced by SNP pretreatment, but decreased by L-NAME, in the hydroponic or potted plants with or without stresses. Under dehydration, leaves from the SNP-treated hydroponic seedlings displayed less water loss, lower electrolyte leakage and reactive oxygen species accumulation, higher antioxidant enzyme activities and smaller stomatal apertures as compared with the control (treated with water). In addition, pretreatment of the potted plants with SNP resulted in lower electrolyte leakage, higher chlorophyll content, smaller stomatal conductance and larger photosynthetic rate relative to the control. By contrast, the inhibitor treatment changed these physiological attributes or phenotypes in an opposite way. These results indicate that NO in the form of SNP enhanced dehydration and drought tolerance, whereas the inhibitor makes the leaves or plants more sensitive to the stresses. The stress tolerance by NO might be ascribed to a combinatory effect of modulation of stomatal response and activation of the antioxidant enzymes. Taken together, NO is involved in dehydration and drought tolerance of P. trifoliata, implying that manipulation of this signal molecule may provide a practical approach to combat the environmental stresses. PMID:21938448

  13. The FPIN2 code - an application of the finite element method to the analysis of the transient response of oxide and metal fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FPIN2 code simulates the thermal-mechanical response of fast reactor fuel pins to transient events. Temperatures of the fuel pin and coolant are calculated using a simple pin-in-a-pipe geometry. The mechanical analysis uses an implicit finite element formulation with linear shape functions which allow for general material behavior in the fuel and cladding including cracking and melting. This formulation provides a very convenient structure for implementing different models and improvements in algorithms. The paper summarizes the FPIN2 methodology and presents results for the transient response of both oxide and metallic fuel pins under similar overpower transients. (author)

  14. Glutathione Reductase/Glutathione Is Responsible for Cytotoxic Elemental Sulfur Tolerance via Polysulfide Shuttle in Fungi*

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Ikuo; Shimatani, Kanami; Fujita, Kensaku; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Motoyuki; Fujii, Tatsuya; Hoshino, Takayuki; Takaya, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Fungi that can reduce elemental sulfur to sulfide are widely distributed, but the mechanism and physiological significance of the reaction have been poorly characterized. Here, we purified elemental sulfur-reductase (SR) and cloned its gene from the elemental sulfur-reducing fungus Fusarium oxysporum. We found that NADPH-glutathione reductase (GR) reduces elemental sulfur via glutathione as an intermediate. A loss-of-function mutant of the SR/GR gene generated less sulfide from elemental sulf...

  15. Effect of Supplementing Organic Forms of Zinc, Selenium and Chromium on Performance, Anti-Oxidant and Immune Responses in Broiler Chicken Reared in Tropical Summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S V Rama; Prakash, B; Raju, M V L N; Panda, A K; Kumari, R K; Reddy, E Pradeep Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of supplementing organic forms of zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and chromium (Cr) on performance, anti-oxidant activities and immune responses in broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age, which were reared in cyclic heat-stressed condition under tropical summer in open-sided poultry house. A total of 200 (experiment I) and 450-day-old (experiment II) broiler male chicks (Cobb 400) were randomly distributed in stainless steel battery brooders (610 mm × 762 mm × 475 mm) at the rate of five birds per pen. A maize-soybean meal-based control diet (CD) containing recommended (Vencobb 400, Broiler Management Guide) concentrations of inorganic trace minerals and other nutrients was prepared. The CD was supplemented individually with organic form of selenium (Se, 0.30 mg/kg), chromium (Cr, 2 mg/kg) and zinc (Zn, 40 mg/kg) in experiment I. In experiment II, two concentrations of each Zn (20 and 40 mg/kg), Se (0.15 and 0.30 mg/kg) and Cr (1 and 2 mg/kg) were supplemented to the basal diet in 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. A group without supplementing inorganic trace minerals was maintained as control group in both experiments. Each diet was allotted randomly to ten replicates in both experiments and fed ad libitum from 1 to 21 days of age. At 19th day of age, blood samples were collected for estimation of anti-oxidant and immune responses. Supplementation of Se, Cr and Zn increased (P  0.05) by the interaction between levels of Zn, Se and Cr in broiler diet. The FE improved (P  0.05) the immune responses (Newcastle disease titre and cell-mediated immune response to phytohaemagglutinin-P) in both the experiments. Based on the results, it is concluded that supplementation of organic form of Se, Cr and Zn (0.30, 2 and 40 mg/kg, respectively) either alone or in combination significantly improved performance and anti-oxidant responses (reduced LP and increased superoxide dismutase) in commercial

  16. Seismic response of continuous span bridges through fiber-based finite element analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiara Casarotti; Rui Pinho

    2006-01-01

    It is widely recognized that nonlinear time-history analysis constitutes the most accurate way to simulate the response of structures subjected to strong levels of seismic excitation. This analytical method is based on sound underlying principles and has the capability to reproduce the intrinsic inelastic dynamic behavior of structures. Nonetheless,comparisons with experimental results from large-scale testing of structures are still needed, in order to ensure adequate levels of confidence in this numerical methodology. The fiber modelling approach employed in the current endeavor inherently accounts for geometric nonlinearities and material inelasticity, without a need for calibration of plastic hinges mechanisms,typical in concentrated plasticity models. The resulting combination of analysis accuracy and modelling simplicity, allows thus to overcome the perhaps not fully justifiable sense of complexity associated to nonlinear dynamic analysis. The fiberbased modelling approach is employed in the framework of a finite element program downloaded from the Internet for seismic response analysis of framed structures. The reliability and accuracy of the program are demonstrated by numerically reproducing pseudo-dynamic tests on a four span continuous deck concrete bridge. Modelling assumptions are discussed,together with their implications on numerical results of the nonlinear time-history analyses, which were found to be in good agreement with experimental results.

  17. Production, characterization, and selection of the heating elements for the response stabilization of the CUORE bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the critical issues while operating bolometric detectors over periods of time of 1 year or more consists of keeping their response stable within a 0.1% level, despite the unavoidable temperature fluctuations of the cryogenic set-up. By using an energy pulser, which periodically delivers a fixed amount of energy in the absorber, it is possible to stabilize the response of the bolometers. A stabilization technique using heating devices, made up of heavily doped semiconductor material (well above the metal-to-insulator transition), has been developed in the framework of the CUORE experiment. In this paper we describe in detail the procedure for the realization of the heating elements, based on silicon planar technology. We then report on the multi-step low temperature characterization (77 K, 4.2 K, 1.5 K, 35 mK) of the heaters. Finally, an example of achieved stabilization for a CUORE-like detector is reported. The ∼1500 heaters tested at ∼1.5K show less than 0.5% change in resistance between 30μV and 3 mV, and less than 1% change in value between 50 mK and 800 mK. In particular, the resistance change between 4.2 K and 1.5 K is less than 0.1%.

  18. Responses of plant calmodulin to endocytosis induced by rare earth elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihong; Cheng, Mengzhu; Chu, Yunxia; Li, Xiaodong; Chen, David D Y; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Qing

    2016-07-01

    The wide application of rare earth elements (REEs) have led to their diffusion and accumulation in the environment. The activation of endocytosis is the primary response of plant cells to REEs. Calmodulin (CaM), as an important substance in calcium (Ca) signaling systems, regulating almost all of the physiological activities in plants, such as cellular metabolism, cell growth and division. However, the response of CaM to endocytosis activated by REEs remains unknown. By using immunofluorescence labeling and a confocal laser scanning microscope, we found that trivalent lanthanum [La(III)], an REE ion, affected the expression of CaM in endocytosis. Using circular dichroism, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and computer simulations, we demonstrated that a low concentration of La(III) could interact with extracellular CaM by electrostatic attraction and was then bound to two Ca-binding sites of CaM, making the molecular structure more compact and orderly, whereas a high concentration of La(III) could be coordinated with cytoplasmic CaM or bound to other Ca-binding sites, making the molecular structure more loose and disorderly. Our results provide a reference for revealing the action mechanisms of REEs in plant cells. PMID:27081794

  19. Finite element modeling of human brain response to football helmet impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, T; Muthuswamy, J; Rajan, S D

    2016-10-01

    The football helmet is used to help mitigate the occurrence of impact-related traumatic (TBI) and minor traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in the game of American football. While the current helmet design methodology may be adequate for reducing linear acceleration of the head and minimizing TBI, it however has had less effect in minimizing mTBI. The objectives of this study are (a) to develop and validate a coupled finite element (FE) model of a football helmet and the human body, and (b) to assess responses of different regions of the brain to two different impact conditions - frontal oblique and crown impact conditions. The FE helmet model was validated using experimental results of drop tests. Subsequently, the integrated helmet-human body FE model was used to assess the responses of different regions of the brain to impact loads. Strain-rate, strain, and stress measures in the corpus callosum, midbrain, and brain stem were assessed. Results show that maximum strain-rates of 27 and 19 s(-1) are observed in the brain-stem and mid-brain, respectively. This could potentially lead to axonal injuries and neuronal cell death during crown impact conditions. The developed experimental-numerical framework can be used in the study of other helmet-related impact conditions. PMID:26867124

  20. ZAP-70 and p72syk are signaling response elements through MHC class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanner, S B; Grosmaire, L S; Blake, J;

    1995-01-01

    -activated human T-cells. In both tonsillar B-lymphocytes and B-cell leukemia lines, p72syk was rapidly phosphorylated on tyrosine residues following HLA-DR cross-linking. Tyrosine phosphorylation of p72syk induced through ligation of either the B-cell antigen receptor or class II molecules was potently inhibited...... intracellular calcium. Similar responses have been observed in B-cells following stimulation of MHC class II molecules, including the increased production of intracellular cAMP. In this report, we demonstrate that the ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase is a responsive signaling element following cross-linking of HLA-DR in...... antibody induced receptor ligation, bacterial superantigen (SEA and SEB) treatment of HLA-DR+ T-cells stimulated ZAP-70 tyrosine phosphorylation, consistent with class II transmembrane signaling by ligation of HLA-DR and V beta in cis. Modulation of the TCR/CD3 led to abrogation of class II induced ZAP-70...

  1. Identification of two novel shear stress responsive elements in rat angiotensin I converting enzyme promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Ayumi Aurea; de Lourdes Junqueira, Maria; Krieger, José Eduardo

    2004-04-13

    Mechanical forces contribute to maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis via the control of release and production of vasoactive substances. We demonstrated previously that shear stress decreases rat ACE activity and expression. Using a reporter gene approach and mutagenesis, we show now that the classic shear stress responsive element or SSRE (GAGACC) contained within 1,274 bp of this promoter is not functional in response to shear stress (15 dyn/cm2, 18 h) [for the wild-type ACE promoter (WLuc), static control (C) = 107 +/- 6.5%, shear stress (SS) = 65.9 +/- 9.4%, n = 8; for the promoter with the classic SSRE mutated (WSS-mut), C = 100 +/- 8.2%, SS = 60.2 +/- 5.2%, n = 10, respectively]. Analysis of progressive deletion mutants unraveled a 57-bp fragment, position -251 to -195, from the transcription start site, containing functional SSRE (for WLuc, C = 107 +/- 6.5%, SS = 65.9 +/- 9.4%, n = 8; for 378, C = 100 +/- 6.4%, SS = 60.4 +/- 4.3%, n = 11; for 251, C = 99.7 +/- 2.6%, SS = 63.2 +/- 5.5%, n = 7; for 194, C = 104.6 +/- 8.1%, SS = 92.4 +/- 6.9%, n = 9). This fragment responded to shear stress even in the context of a heterologous promoter. Finally, functional analysis of mutated candidate regulatory elements identified by gel shift, DNase I footprint, and conservation of aligned sequences revealed that only the double mutant (Barbie/GAGA-mut) but not isolated disruption of the Barbie (WBarbie-mut) or the GAGA (WGAGA-mut) prevented the shear-stress-induced response (for Barbie/GAGA-mut, C = 97.9 +/- 5%, SS = 99.4 +/- 7.2%, n = 6; for WBarbie-mut, C = 106.1 +/- 8.6%, SS = 65.9 +/- 9.4%, n = 6; for WGAGA-mut, C = 100.1 +/- 2.9%, SS = 66.7 +/- 1.6, n = 6;). Taken together, these data provide direct evidence for the new role of Barbie and GAGA boxes in mediating the shear-stress-induced downregulation of rat ACE expression and demonstrate that the classic SSRE (GAGACC) is not functional under the experimental conditions tested. PMID:14872008

  2. Barley responses to combined waterlogging and salinity stress: separating effects of oxygen deprivation and elemental toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanrong; Shabala, Lana; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping; Shabala, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Salinity and waterlogging are two major factors affecting crop production around the world and often occur together (e.g., salt brought to the surface by rising water tables). While the physiological and molecular mechanisms of plant responses to each of these environmental constraints are studied in detail, the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to their combined stress are much less understood. In this study, whole-plant physiological responses to individual/combined salinity and waterlogging stresses were studied using two barley varieties grown in either vermiculite (semi-hydroponics) or sandy loam. Two weeks of combined salinity and waterlogging treatment significantly decreased plant biomass, chlorophyll content, maximal quantum efficiency of PSII and water content (WC) in both varieties, while the percentage of chlorotic and necrotic leaves and leaf sap osmolality increased. The adverse effects of the combined stresses were much stronger in the waterlogging-sensitive variety Naso Nijo. Compared with salinity stress alone, the combined stress resulted in a 2-fold increase in leaf Na(+), but a 40% decrease in leaf K(+) content. Importantly, the effects of the combined stress were more pronounced in sandy loam compared with vermiculite and correlated with changes in the soil redox potential and accumulation of Mn and Fe in the waterlogged soils. It is concluded that hypoxia alone is not a major factor determining differential plant growth under adverse stress conditions, and that elemental toxicities resulting from changes in soil redox potential have a major impact on genotypic differences in plant physiological and agronomical responses. These results are further discussed in the context of plant breeding for waterlogging stress tolerance. PMID:23967003

  3. C/EBPBeta and Elk-1 synergistically transactivate the c-fos serum response element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bundy Linda M

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serum response element (SRE in the c-fos promoter is a convergence point for several signaling pathways that regulate induction of the c-fos gene. Many transcription factors regulate the SRE, including serum response factor (SRF, ternary complex factor (TCF, and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta (C/EBPβ. Independently, the TCFs and C/EBPβ have been shown to interact with SRF and to respond to Ras-dependent signaling pathways that result in transactivation of the SRE. Due to these common observations, we addressed the possibility that C/EBPβ and Elk-1 could both be necessary for Ras-stimulated transactivation of the SRE. Results In this report, we demonstrate that Elk-1 and C/EBPβ functionally synergize in transactivation of both a Gal4 reporter plasmid in concert with Gal4-SRF and in transactivation of the SRE. Interestingly, this synergy is only observed upon activation of Ras-dependent signaling pathways. Furthermore, we show that Elk-1 and C/EBPβ could interact both in an in vitro GST-pulldown assay and in an in vivo co-immunoprecipitation assay. The in vivo interaction between the two proteins is dependent on the presence of activated Ras. We have also shown that the C-terminal domain of C/EBPβ and the N-terminal domain of Elk-1 are necessary for the proteins to interact. Conclusions These data show that C/EBPβ and Elk-1 synergize in SRF dependent transcription of both a Gal-4 reporter and the SRE. This suggests that SRF, TCF, and C/EBPβ are all necessary for maximal induction of the c-fos SRE in response to mitogenic signaling by Ras.

  4. Melatonin and schistosomal antigens ameliorate the anti-oxidative and biochemical response to Schistosoma mansoni infection in hamster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahla S.El-SHENAWY; Maha F.M.SOLIMAN; Shimaa E.Abel-RAHMAN

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the potential protective effect of melatonin as an antioxidant separately or in combination with antigens (cercarial; CAP or soluble worm; SWAP) against Schistosoma mansoni infection in hamsters. Each hamster was sensitized with an initial immunization of 0.6 ml of the extracted antigen (30 μg protein/mL). After four days, a second injection of 0.4 mL was given (20 μg protein/mL). Then, each hamster was exposed to 260±20 S.mansoni cercariae followed with melatonin treatment (3.5 mg/kg) for thirty days from the 1st day of post infection. Levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, catalase (CAT) activity, hepatic glutathione (GSH) and biochemical changes in the liver and kidneys functions were investigated. The results revealed a high significant increasing of LPO and decreasing of CAT and GSH in liver of infected hamsters. Biochemical observations showed severe damage in the liver enzyme activities and increasing cholesterol level in infected animals. Melatonin co-treatment with antigen to the infected-hamster attenuated the increase of LPO and restored the activity of CAT and levels of hepatic GSH. Also, the biochemical damages in the liver and kidneys functions were reduced. The present study suggests that melatonin may be useful in combating free radical-induced damage due to infection toxicity. The immunization with previous antigens resulted in a remarkable improvement on the liver enzyme activities, which were increased after infection. Thus, vaccination of hamsters with antigens (both CAP and SWAP) and melatonin treatment has more potent effect on the enhancement of antioxidant and biochemical of S.mansoni infected-hamster than each treatment separately. Immunization of the hamster with SWAP followed by melatonin was the best way among the other regime treatments to improve the biochemical and antioxidant parameters of the infected-hamsters[Current Zoology 55(2):165-172,2009].

  5. Unraveling the mechanism responsible for the contrasting tolerance of Synechocystis and Synechococcus to Cr(VI): Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Alka [Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ballal, Anand, E-mail: aballal@barc.gov.in [Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 40085 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Cr(VI) accumulation generates higher ROS in Synechocystis than in Synechococcus. • Synechococcus exhibits better photosynthetic activity in response to Cr(VI). • Synechococcus has higher enzymatic/non-enzymatic antioxidants than Synechocystis. • Synechococcus shows better tolerance to other oxidative stresses than Synechocystis. • Differential detoxification of ROS is responsible for the contrasting tolerance to Cr(VI) - Abstract: Two unicellular cyanobacteria, Synechocystis and Synechococcus, showed contrasting tolerance to Cr(VI); with Synechococcus being 12-fold more tolerant than Synechocystis to potassium dichromate. The mechanism responsible for this differential sensitivity to Cr(VI) was explored in this study. Total content of photosynthetic pigments as well as photosynthetic activity decreased at lower concentration of Cr(VI) in Synechocystis as compared to Synechococcus. Experiments with {sup 51}Cr showed Cr to accumulate intracellularly in both the cyanobacteria. At lower concentrations, Cr(VI) caused excessive ROS generation in Synechocystis as compared to that observed in Synechococcus. Intrinsic levels of enzymatic antioxidants, i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase and 2-Cys-peroxiredoxin were considerably higher in Synechococcus than Synechocystis. Content of total thiols (both protein as well as non-protein) and reduced glutathione (GSH) was also higher in Synechococcus as compared to Synechocystis. This correlated well with higher content of carbonylated proteins observed in Synechocystis than Synechococcus. Additionally, in contrast to Synechocystis, Synechococcus exhibited better tolerance to other oxidative stresses like high intensity light and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The data indicate that the disparity in the ability to detoxify ROS could be the primary mechanism responsible for the differential tolerance of these cyanobacteria to Cr(VI)

  6. Unraveling the mechanism responsible for the contrasting tolerance of Synechocystis and Synechococcus to Cr(VI): Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cr(VI) accumulation generates higher ROS in Synechocystis than in Synechococcus. • Synechococcus exhibits better photosynthetic activity in response to Cr(VI). • Synechococcus has higher enzymatic/non-enzymatic antioxidants than Synechocystis. • Synechococcus shows better tolerance to other oxidative stresses than Synechocystis. • Differential detoxification of ROS is responsible for the contrasting tolerance to Cr(VI) - Abstract: Two unicellular cyanobacteria, Synechocystis and Synechococcus, showed contrasting tolerance to Cr(VI); with Synechococcus being 12-fold more tolerant than Synechocystis to potassium dichromate. The mechanism responsible for this differential sensitivity to Cr(VI) was explored in this study. Total content of photosynthetic pigments as well as photosynthetic activity decreased at lower concentration of Cr(VI) in Synechocystis as compared to Synechococcus. Experiments with 51Cr showed Cr to accumulate intracellularly in both the cyanobacteria. At lower concentrations, Cr(VI) caused excessive ROS generation in Synechocystis as compared to that observed in Synechococcus. Intrinsic levels of enzymatic antioxidants, i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase and 2-Cys-peroxiredoxin were considerably higher in Synechococcus than Synechocystis. Content of total thiols (both protein as well as non-protein) and reduced glutathione (GSH) was also higher in Synechococcus as compared to Synechocystis. This correlated well with higher content of carbonylated proteins observed in Synechocystis than Synechococcus. Additionally, in contrast to Synechocystis, Synechococcus exhibited better tolerance to other oxidative stresses like high intensity light and H2O2. The data indicate that the disparity in the ability to detoxify ROS could be the primary mechanism responsible for the differential tolerance of these cyanobacteria to Cr(VI)

  7. Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid increment hepatic n-3 LCPUFA, modulating the fatty acid metabolism and antioxidant response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Barrera, Cynthia; Espinosa, Alejandra; Marambio, Macarena; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the metabolic precursor of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from the n-3 family with relevant physiological and metabolic roles: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). Western diet lacks of suitable intake of n-3 LCPUFA and there are recommendations to increase the dietary supply of such nutrients. Seed oils rich in ALA such as those from rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubis) and chia (Salvia hispanica) may constitute an alternative that merits research. This study evaluated hepatic and epididymal accretion and biosynthesis of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, the expression and DNA-binding activity of PPAR-α and SREBP-1c, oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in rats fed sunflower oil (SFO, 1% ALA) as control group, canola oil (CO, 10% ALA), rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, 33% ALA), sacha inchi oil (SIO, 49% ALA) and chia oil (ChO, 64% ALA) as single lipid source. A larger supply of ALA increased the accretion of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of desaturases, the antioxidative status, the expression and DNA-binding of PPAR-α, the oxidation of fatty acids and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, whereas the expression and DNA-binding activity of SREBP-1c transcription factor and the biosynthetic activity of fatty acids declined. Results showed that oils rich in ALA such as SIO and ChO may trigger metabolic responses in rats such as those produced by n-3 PUFA. PMID:26995676

  8. Transcriptome analysis of the Tan sheep testes: Differential expression of antioxidant enzyme-related genes and proteins in response to dietary vitamin E supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenchen; Zuo, Zhaoyun; Liu, Kun; Jia, Huina; Zhang, Yuwei; Luo, Hailing

    2016-03-15

    Gene-chip technology was employed to study the effect of dietary vitamin E on gene expression in sheep testes based on our previous research. Thirty-five male Tan sheep (20-30 days after weaning) with similar body weight were randomly allocated into five groups and supplemented 0, 20, 100, 200 and 2,000 IU sheep(-1)day(-1) vitamin E (treatments denoted as E0, E20, E100, E200, and E2000, respectively) for 120 days. At the end of the study the sheep were slaughtered and the testis samples were immediately collected and stored in liquid nitrogen. Differences in gene expression between different treated groups were identified. Based on GO enrichment analysis and the KEGG database to evaluate the gene expression data we found that vitamin E might affect genes in the testes by modulating the oxidation level, by affecting the expression of various receptors and transcription factors in biological pathways, and by regulating the expression of metabolism-associated genes. The effect of vitamin E supplementation on the expression of oxidative enzyme-related genes was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. The results show that dietary vitamin E, at various doses, can significantly increase (P<0.05) the mRNA and protein expression of Glutathione peroxidase 3 and Glutathione S-transferase alpha 1. In addition, the results of qRT-PCR of the antioxidant enzyme genes were consistent with those obtained using the gene chip microarray analysis. In summary, the dietary vitamin E treatment altered the expression of a number of genes in sheep testes. The increase in the mRNA and protein levels of antioxidant enzyme genes, coupled with the elevation in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes were primarily responsible for the improved reproductive performance promoted by dietary vitamin E. PMID:26723511

  9. Involvement of MEK-ERK1-2 pathway in the anti-oxidant response in C6 glioma cells after diesel exhaust particles exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Francesca; Milani, Chiara; Botto, Laura; Lonati, Elena; Bulbarelli, Alessandra; Palestini, Paola

    2016-05-27

    Ultrafine particles translocate to the central nervous system and activate oxidative stress-related pathways. The transcription factor Nrf2 activation by ERK1-2 has been suggested as a key regulator of cellular response to oxidative stress. C6 glioma cells have been treated with different doses of diesel exhaust particles (25μg/ml, DEP25, and 50μg/ml, DEP50), for different times. Cells have been screened for oxidative stress and inflammatory markers, and for the activation of the MEK-ERK1-2 pathway. The same markers have been examined after inhibition of MEK, the kinase upstream to ERK1-2. 3h and 24h of DEP25 and DEP50 induced a significant increase in HO-1 levels. After 24h, DEP25 and DEP50 induced an increase in HO-1 and Cyp1b1 levels, while increase in OGG1 level was observed only with DEP25. After 5h of treatment with DEP25, ERK1-2 resulted phosphorylated, concomitantly with a significant increase in HO-1 levels, no changes in iNOS levels, and decreased levels of anti-oxidant enzymes. After treatment with MEK inhibitor U0126, ERK1-2 showed no activation, with a consequent decrease in Nrf2, no increase in HO-1 and a significant increase of iNOS. MEK inhibitor is able to deplete anti-oxidant enzymes. In conclusion, the MEK-ERK1-2 pathway is involved in regulating the anti-oxidant strategies to compensate the oxidative status induced by DEP treatment. PMID:27091075

  10. A new orphan member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that interacts with a subset of retinoic acid response elements.

    OpenAIRE

    Baes, M.; Gulick, T; Choi, H. S.; Martinoli, M G; Simha, D; Moore, D D

    1994-01-01

    We have identified and characterized a new orphan member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, called MB67, which is predominantly expressed in liver. MB67 binds and transactivates the retinoic acid response elements that control expression of the retinoic acid receptor beta 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genes, both of which consist of a direct repeat hexamers related to the consensus AGGTCA, separated by 5 bp. MB67 binds these elements as a heterodimer with the 9-cis-retinoic acid rec...

  11. A wave finite element-based formulation for computing the forced response of structures involving rectangular flat shells

    OpenAIRE

    Mencik, Jean-Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    International audience The harmonic forced response of structures involving several noncoplanar rectangular flat shells is investigated by using the Wave Finite Element method. Such flat shells are connected along parallel edges where external excitation sources as well as mechanical impedances are likely to occur. Also, they can be connected to one or several coupling elements whose shapes and dynamics can be complex. The dynamic behavior of the connected shells is described by means of n...

  12. Altered Response Hierarchy and Increased T-Cell Breadth upon HIV-1 Conserved Element DNA Vaccination in Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Viraj Kulkarni; Antonio Valentin; Margherita Rosati; Candido Alicea; Singh, Ashish K; Rashmi Jalah; Broderick, Kate E.; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Sylvie Le Gall; Beatriz Mothe; Christian Brander; Morgane Rolland; Mullins, James I.; Pavlakis, George N.; Felber, Barbara K.

    2014-01-01

    HIV sequence diversity and potential decoy epitopes are hurdles in the development of an effective AIDS vaccine. A DNA vaccine candidate comprising of highly conserved p24(gag) elements (CE) induced robust immunity in all 10 vaccinated macaques, whereas full-length gag DNA vaccination elicited responses to these conserved elements in only 5 of 11 animals, targeting fewer CE per animal. Importantly, boosting CE-primed macaques with DNA expressing full-length p55(gag) increased both magnitude o...

  13. Predicting the response of high damping rubber bearings using simplified models and finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has initiated a co-ordinated research programme on implementation of base-isolation for nuclear structures. This paper discusses two areas relevant to modelling elastomeric base-isolators. These are the use of simplified models to predict the response of isolated structures to earthquake inputs and finite element analysis for calculating the stress distributions within the isolators. In the former, a curvilinear hysteretic model of the high damping natural rubber able to accommodate the stiffening of the rubber at large shear deflections is presented. Its predictions of structural accelerations and bearing displacement produced by design earthquakes and those above the design level are compared with those using a linear spring and dashpot model. A comparison has been made between two finite element analyses using MARC and ABAQUS of the force-deformation behaviour of a single disc of rubber bonded on both sides. The disc was loaded both in compression and shear. Two forms of strain energy functions were used namely Mooney-RivIin and Ogden. The agreement between MARC and ABAQUS for the Mooney-Rivlin model for the material was very good. This was not however the case for the Ogden model and a difference of 25% in the maximum vertical deflection of the disc under 200kN load was observed. The need for a 'benchmark' problem is identified. This could be used to establish the accuracy of the finite element solvers. A problem based on the work of Rivlin on the force-deformation behaviour of cylinder of rubber under torsion is nominated. An appraisal of strain energy functions based on Mooney-RivIin formulations is carried out. It is shown that even for a five term series the strain energy function is incapable of catering for the rapid change of modulus at small strains both for simple and pure shear modes of deformation. This function models tension/compression data much better. The work identifies the need for evaluating other forms

  14. Effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure processing on mineral elements, amino acids and antioxidants in vitro bioaccessibility, as well as starch digestibility in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiang; Wang, Liping; Xu, Congcong; Mei, Jun; Li, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    The effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on the in vitro bioaccessibility of mineral elements, amino acids (AAs), antioxidants and starch in brown rice (BR) were investigated. Germinated BR (GBR) was obtained by incubating at 37°C for 36h and then subjected to HHP treatments at 0.1, 100, 300 and 500MPa for 10min. The in vitro bioaccessibility of calcium and copper was increased by 12.59-52.17% and 2.87-23.06% after HHP, respectively, but bioaccessible iron was decreased. In addition, HHP significantly improved individual AAs, particularly indispensable AAs and gama-aminobutyric acid, as well as bioaccessible total antioxidant activities and starch resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, germination greatly increased starch digestibility. Atomic force microscopy characterization suggested an obvious structural change in bran fraction at pressures above 300MPa. These results can help to understand the effects of germination and HHP technologies on nutrients bioaccessibility and develop appropriate processing conditions. PMID:27507507

  15. Response of Antioxidant Substances and Enzymes Activities as a Defense Mechanism Against Root-Knot Nematode Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Saad EL-BELTAGI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The organic amendments, composts (1, 2, 3, neem and poultry as well as inorganic fertilizers (NPK compound and commercial, Athree® and the nematicide nemacur 10 G applied singly were effective in reducing M. incognita number of galls, nematode reproductionand fecundity. The effectiveness seemed to be material origin dependent. Neem, compost 1, 3 (5 g/pot gave the best results. Yet, achievedresults were less than those of nemacur 10% G. The antioxidant substances content and enzymes activities due to nematode infectionand application of organic and inorganic fertilizers pointed to significant increase of lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide as aresult of nematode infection and nemacur treatment. While all organic and inorganic fertilizers reduced such materials with significantdifferences among treatments. Likewise, nematode infection resulted in slight but significant increase in glutathione and ascorbic acidin tomato shoots and roots. All treatments increased antioxidant substances comparing to healthy and infected plants. Glutathione-Stransferaseactivity highly increased in infected roots but the lowest activities were achieved by organic fertilizers. Nematode infectionand nemacur treatment increased slightly phenylalaine ammonia lyase activity but enormous increase was observed in shoots and rootsof treated plants with organic fertilizers followed by NPK treatments.

  16. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa L. Peel Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Fang Deng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. is a popular tropical fruit and its peel is a municipal waste. An ultrasound-assisted extraction method was developed for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. Central composite design was used to optimize solvent concentration (13.2%–46.8%, ultrasonic time (33.2–66.8 min, and temperature (43.2–76.8 °C for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. The second-order polynomial models demonstrated a good fit of the quadratic models with the experimental results in respect to total phenolic content (TPC, R2 = 0.9524, p < 0.0001, FRAP (R2 = 0.9743, p < 0.0001, and TEAC (R2 = 0.9610, p < 0.0001 values. The optimal extraction conditions were 20:1 (mL/g of solvent-to-solid ratio, 32.68% acetone, and 67.23 °C for 42.54 min under ultrasonic irradiation. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of total phenolic content was 26.81 (mg GA/g FW. The experimental results obtained under optimal conditions agreed well with the predicted results. The application of ultrasound markedly decreased extraction time and improved the extraction efficiency, compared with the conventional methods.

  17. The characterization of two peroxiredoxin genes in Dunaliella viridis provides insights into antioxidative response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huijuan; Meng, Xiangzong; Gao, Qiang; Qu, Wufei; Xu, Tengjiao; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2011-08-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), a group of antioxidant enzymes, are an important component of the oxidative defense system and have been demonstrated to function as peroxidases, sensors of H(2)O(2)-mediated signaling and/or chaperones. In this study, a cDNA library was constructed from a halotolerant alga, Dunaliella viridis, and was used in a functional complementation screen for antioxidative genes in an oxidative sensitive yeast mutant. Two Prx genes, DvPrx1 and DvPrx2, were obtained from this screen. These two genes were classified as type II Prx and 2-Cys Prx based on amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analysis. When over-expressed in yeast cells, both Prx genes were able to confer better oxidative tolerance and decrease the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Subcellular localization experiments in tobacco cells revealed that both DvPrx1 and DvPrx2 were localized in the cytosol. The transcription of DvPrx1 and DvPrx2 can be induced by hypersalinity shock, but is not obviously affected by treatment with high levels of oxidant. Our results shed light on the function and regulation of Prx genes from Dunaliella and their potential roles in salt tolerance. PMID:21431909

  18. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa L.) Peel Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) is a popular tropical fruit and its peel is a municipal waste. An ultrasound-assisted extraction method was developed for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. Central composite design was used to optimize solvent concentration (13.2%-46.8%), ultrasonic time (33.2-66.8 min), and temperature (43.2-76.8 °C) for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. The second-order polynomial models demonstrated a good fit of the quadratic models with the experimental results in respect to total phenolic content (TPC, R²=0.9524, p<0.0001), FRAP (R²=0.9743, p<0.0001), and TEAC (R²=0.9610, p<0.0001) values. The optimal extraction conditions were 20:1 (mL/g) of solvent-to-solid ratio, 32.68% acetone, and 67.23 °C for 42.54 min under ultrasonic irradiation. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of total phenolic content was 26.81 (mg GA/g FW). The experimental results obtained under optimal conditions agreed well with the predicted results. The application of ultrasound markedly decreased extraction time and improved the extraction efficiency, compared with the conventional methods. PMID:26593890

  19. Leaf Age-Dependent Photoprotective and Antioxidative Response Mechanisms to Paraquat-Induced Oxidative Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julietta Moustaka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana young and mature leaves to the herbicide paraquat (Pq resulted in a localized increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in the leaf veins and the neighboring mesophyll cells, but this increase was not similar in the two leaf types. Increased H2O2 production was concomitant with closed reaction centers (qP. Thirty min after Pq exposure despite the induction of the photoprotective mechanism of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ in mature leaves, H2O2 production was lower in young leaves mainly due to the higher increase activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX. Later, 60 min after Pq exposure, the total antioxidant capacity of young leaves was not sufficient to scavenge the excess reactive oxygen species (ROS that were formed, and thus, a higher H2O2 accumulation in young leaves occurred. The energy allocation of absorbed light in photosystem II (PSII suggests the existence of a differential photoprotective regulatory mechanism in the two leaf types to the time-course Pq exposure accompanied by differential antioxidant protection mechanisms. It is concluded that tolerance to Pq-induced oxidative stress is related to the redox state of quinone A (QA.

  20. Antioxidant Enzymes and Physiological Responses of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. to Iron Application, under Water Deficit Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayvan Fathi AMIRKHIZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil and foliar iron (Fe application on the activity of some antioxidant enzymes and plant metabolites of Carthamus tinctorius L. (IL111, under water stress conditions was tested. The results showed that under drought stress conditions, the activity of ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase and catalase enzymes increased with soil application of Fe. In contrast, the activity of peroxidase enzyme under drought conditions increased with foliar application of Fe treatments. In general, leaf total soluble proteins, proline and malondialdehyde amounts were affected by interaction effects of drought stress and Fe. The results showed that leaf total soluble proteins had a positive reaction to soil and foliar applications of Fe. The result of this interaction effects showed that soil application of Fe is able to decrease malondialdehyde amount under water stress conditions. In addition, it was indicated that soil application of Fe in drought stress conditions lead to increasing proline. In conclusion, soil and foliar application of Fe during drought stress may counteract negative effects of such stress and enhance safflower tolerance to drought by increasing some antioxidant enzymes and plant metabolites (organic compounds such as proline and soluble proteins.

  1. Antioxidants and biological radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, by combatting oxygen radical-mediated radiation-induced oxidative stress, may prevent the accumulation of damage involved in tumor initiation, promotion and progression, and thus serve to protect us against ionizing radiation. We are testing the possible role of dietary antioxidants, and other biological response modifiers, in determining individual radiation response. These experiments use the fluorescent protein beta-phycoerythrin as a target and biomolecular marker for radiation-induced oxidative stress. Antioxidants are ranked according to their radioprotectiveness by their ability to compete with beta-phycoerythrin for radiolytic oxygen radicals. Samples of blood serum from cancer patients have been analyzed using this technique. There is a trend towards decreasing antioxidant levels with increasing donor age, and this is consistent with data showing an increasing radiosensitivity with age. We are presently monitoring antioxidant and antioxidant enzyme levels in atomic radiation workers and the general public, in order to assess whether they influence individual radiosensitivity. Knowledge of this source of biological response modification will be useful in applying radiation protection practices to those individuals or groups most at risk, and for estimating individual risks associated with radiation exposure. (author)

  2. Antioxidants and biological radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenten, K.J.; Greenstock, C.L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, by combatting oxygen radical-mediated radiation-induced oxidative stress, may prevent the accumulation of damage involved in tumor initiation, promotion and progression, and thus serve to protect us against ionizing radiation. We are testing the possible role of dietary antioxidants, and other biological response modifiers, in determining individual radiation response. These experiments use the fluorescent protein beta-phycoerythrin as a target and biomolecular marker for radiation-induced oxidative stress. Antioxidants are ranked according to their radioprotectiveness by their ability to compete with beta-phycoerythrin for radiolytic oxygen radicals. Samples of blood serum from cancer patients have been analyzed using this technique. There is a trend towards decreasing antioxidant levels with increasing donor age, and this is consistent with data showing an increasing radiosensitivity with age. We are presently monitoring antioxidant and antioxidant enzyme levels in atomic radiation workers and the general public, in order to assess whether they influence individual radiosensitivity. Knowledge of this source of biological response modification will be useful in applying radiation protection practices to those individuals or groups most at risk, and for estimating individual risks associated with radiation exposure. (author)

  3. Identification of a peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE)-like cis-element in mouse plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAI-1 is expressed and secreted by adipose tissue which may mediate the pathogenesis of obesity-associated cardiovascular complications. Evidence is presented in this report that PAI-1 is not expressed by preadipocyte, but significantly induced during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and the PAI-1 expression correlates with the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). A peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE)-like cis-element (-206TCCCCCATGCCCT-194) is identified in the mouse PAI-1 gene promoter by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) combined with transient transfection experiments; the PPRE-like cis-element forms a specific DNA-protein complex only with adipocyte nuclear extracts, not with preadipocyte nuclear extracts; the DNA-protein complex can be totally competed away by non-labeled consensus PPRE, and can be supershifted with PPARγ antibody. Mutation of this PPRE-like cis-element can abolish the transactivation of mouse PAI-1 promoter mediated by PPARγ. Specific PPARγ ligand Pioglitazone can significantly induce the PAI-1 expression, and stimulate the secretion of PAI-1 into medium

  4. Effects of waterborne Cu and Cd on anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and heavy metals accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yanju; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on survival, anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and metal accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Experimental animals (initial weight: 7.49 g ± 0.01 g) were exposed to graded concentrations of waterborne Cu (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 mg L-1) or Cd (0.025, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 mg L-1) for 28 days, respectively. Activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidases, GPx; glutathione S-transferase, GST), contents of the reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondiadehyde (MDA) in the hepatopancreas, and metal accumulation in hepatopancreas and muscles were analyzed after 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28 days of metal exposure, respectively. Results showed that 0.04 mg L-1, 0.06 mg L--1 and 0.08 mg L-1 Cu caused 100% death of abalone on the 21st, 10th and 6th day, respectively. However, no dead abalone was found during the 28-day waterborne Cd exposure at all experimental concentrations. Generally, activities of SOD and GST in hepatopancreas under all Cu concentrations followed a decrease trend as the exposure time prolonged. However, these activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Activities of CAT in all Cu exposure treatments were higher than those in the control. These activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Contents of MDA in hepatopancreas in all Cu treatments significantly increased first and then decreased to the control level. However, the MDA contents in hepatopancreas were not significantly changed during the 28-day Cd exposure. The metals accumulation in both hepatopancreas and muscles of abalone significantly increased with the increase of waterborne metals concentration and exposure time. These results indicated that H. discus hannai has a positive anti-oxidative defense

  5. Tamarind seed coat extract restores reactive oxygen species through attenuation of glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme expression in human skin fibroblasts in response to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oranuch Nakchat

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: TSCE exhibited antioxidant activities by scavenging ROS, attenuating GSH level that could protect human skin fibroblast cells from oxidative stress. Our results highlight the antioxidant mechanism of tamarind seed coat through an antioxidant enzyme system, the extract potentially benefits for health food and cosmeceutical application of tamarind seed coat.

  6. The French national inventory of radioactive waste. Elements of openness and responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Article 13 of the Waste Act of 30 December 1991 calls for the Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs (ANDRA) ''to register the condition and location of all radioactive waste on national territory''. The establishment of a national inventory of radioactive waste and the broad distribution of inventory report to ensure that it becomes a matter of public record constitute a new approach to public information and an effective means of fulfilling the responsibility of the present generation vis-a-vis posterity. The National Waste Register goes beyond the low level radioactive waste disposal facilities to encompass 'all' waste, wherever it may be, including waste in storage at sites where waste is produced. As a result, the Register is multi-faceted, containing information on a variety of elements, from highly radioactive waste to hospital waste collected by ANDRA and to repositories with very low level radioactive material. Information must be provided about all of these widely divergent components. ANDRA has already published two inventories, which demonstrates the durability of its new mission. The Register now contains the inventory of radioactive waste generated by some activities connected with the defence programme. Data collection for the Register involves contacting the generators of waste and working with these entities, whether they are nuclear industry companies, defence organizations, non-nuclear industries, or the 25 Regional Directorates of Industry, Research and Environment, the control institutions or the environmental protection organizations. The yearly exchange of information among all partners involved in radioactive waste management is one of the basic tools of ANDRA, allowing it to be recognized as open and responsible, and to be more credible, fulfilling in this way one of the essential criteria for acceptability. (author). 4 refs

  7. Elucidation of lead-induced oxidative stress in Talinum triangulare roots by analysis of antioxidant responses and DNA damage at cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Prasad, M N V; Mohan Murali Achary, V; Panda, Brahma B

    2013-07-01

    Hydroponic experiments were performed with Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd. focusing the root cellular biochemistry with special emphasis on DNA damage, structural, and elemental analyses in Pb(NO3)2 exposed with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 mM for 7 days. Lead (Pb) increased reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, cell death, and DNA damage and decreased the protein content in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, a dose-dependent induction of antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase by Pb was evident. Ascorbate peroxidase on the other hand responded biphasically to Pb treatments by showing induction at low (0.25 and 0.50) and repression at high (0.75-1.25 mM) concentrations. The estimation of proline content also indicated a similar biphasic trend. Scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed that 1.25 mM Pb treatment resulted in ultrastructural modifications in roots and stem tissue that was marked by the change in the elemental profile. The findings pointed to the role of oxidative stress in the underlying Pb phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in T. triangulare. PMID:23263755

  8. Killing of Brain Tumor Cells by Hypoxia-Responsive Element Mediated Expression of BAX1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Hangjun; Wang, Jingli; Hu, Lily; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Deen, Dennis F

    1999-01-01

    Abstract The presence of radioresistant hypoxic cells in human brain tumors limits the overall effectiveness of conventional fractionated radiation therapy. Tumor-specific therapies that target hypoxic cells are clearly needed. We have investigated the expression of suicide genes under hypoxia by a hypoxia-responsive element (HRE), which can be activated through hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). We transfected plasmids containing multiple copies of HRE into U-87 MG and U-251 MG-NCI human brain tumor cells and tested their ability to induce LacZ gene expression under anoxia. Gene expression under anoxia versus oxia was increased about 12-fold for U-87 MG cells and about fourfold for U-251 MG-NCI cells. At intermediate hypoxic conditions, increased LacZ gene expression in U-87 MG cells was induced by the plasmid that contained three HREs, but not by the plasmid with two HREs. Lastly, when we placed a suicide gene BAX under the control of HREs, cells transfected with the BAX plasmids were preferentially killed through apoptosis under anoxia. Our studies demonstrate that HRE-regulated gene expression is active in brain tumor cells, and that the amount of increased gene expression obtained is dependent on the cell line, the HRE copy number, and the degree of hypoxia. PMID:10933058

  9. Killing of Brain Tumor Cells by Hypoxia-Responsive Element Mediated Expression of BAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangjun Ruan

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of radioresistant hypoxic cells in human brain tumors limits the overall effectiveness of conventional fractionated radiation therapy. Tumor-specific therapies that target hypoxic cells are clearly needed. We have investigated the expression of suicide genes under hypoxia by a hypoxia-responsive element (HRE, which can be activated through hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1. We transfected plasmids containing multiple copies of HIRE into U-87 MG and U-251 MG-NCI human brain tumor cells and tested their ability to induce LacZ gene expression under anoxia. Gene expression under anoxia versus oxia was increased about 12-fold for U-87 MG cells and about fourfold for U-251 MG-NCI cells. At intermediate hypoxic conditions, increased LacZ gene expression in U-87 MG cells was induced by the plasmid that contained three HREs, but not by the plasmid with two HREs. Lastly, when we placed a suicide gene BAX under the control of HREs, cells transfected with the BAX plasmids were preferentially killed through apoptosis under anoxia. Our studies demonstrate that HRE-regulated gene expression is active in brain tumor cells, and that the amount of increased gene expression obtained is dependent on the cell line, the HIRE copy number, and the degree of hypoxia.

  10. cAMP-response-element-binding protein positively regulates breast cancer metastasis and subsequent bone destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jieun; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Ha-Neui; Ha, Hyunil, E-mail: hyunil74@hotmail.com; Lee, Zang Hee, E-mail: zang1959@snu.ac.kr

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} CREB is highly expressed in advanced breast cancer cells. {yields} Tumor-related factors such as TGF-{beta} further elevate CREB expression. {yields} CREB upregulation stimulates metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. {yields} CREB signaling is required for breast cancer-induced bone destruction. -- Abstract: cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) signaling has been reported to be associated with cancer development and poor clinical outcome in various types of cancer. However, it remains to be elucidated whether CREB is involved in breast cancer development and osteotropism. Here, we found that metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exhibited higher CREB expression than did non-metastatic MCF-7 cells and that CREB expression was further increased by several soluble factors linked to cancer progression, such as IL-1, IGF-1, and TGF-{beta}. Using wild-type CREB and a dominant-negative form (K-CREB), we found that CREB signaling positively regulated the proliferation, migration, and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, K-CREB prevented MDA-MB-231 cell-induced osteolytic lesions in a mouse model of cancer metastasis. Furthermore, CREB signaling in cancer cells regulated the gene expression of PTHrP, MMPs, and OPG, which are closely involved in cancer metastasis and bone destruction. These results indicate that breast cancer cells acquire CREB overexpression during their development and that this CREB upregulation plays an important role in multiple steps of breast cancer bone metastasis.

  11. Finite Element Analysis of the Random Response Suppression of Composite Panels at Elevated Temperatures using Shape Memory Alloy Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.; Zhong, Z. W.; Mei, Chuh

    1994-01-01

    A feasibility study on the use of shape memory alloys (SMA) for suppression of the random response of composite panels due to acoustic loads at elevated temperatures is presented. The constitutive relations for a composite lamina with embedded SMA fibers are developed. The finite element governing equations and the solution procedures for a composite plate subjected to combined acoustic and thermal loads are presented. Solutions include: 1) Critical buckling temperature; 2) Flat panel random response; 3) Thermal postbuckling deflection; 4) Random response of a thermally buckled panel. The preliminary results demonstrate that the SMA fibers can completely eliminate the thermal postbuckling deflection and significantly reduce the random response at elevated temperatures.

  12. Antioxidant responses to benzo[a]pyrene,tributyltin and their mixture in the spleen of Sebasticus marmoratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    It has been repotted that there is an interaction between Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP),a widespread carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon,and tributyltin (TBT),an organometal used as an antifouling biocide.This study was therefore designed to examine the potential in vivo influence of BaP,TBT and their mixture on splenic antioxidant defense systems of Sebastiscus marmoratus.The fish were exposed to water containing euvironmentally relevant concentrations of BaP,TBT and their mixture.Spleens were collected for biochemical analysis after exposure for 7,25,50 d and after recovery for 7,20 d.Cotreatment with BaP and TBT for 7 d potentiated the induction of glutathione pemxidase (GPx) activity by BaP or TBT alone.The cotreatment for 25 and 50 d resulted in inhibition of GPx activity,which was similar to the effect of TBT.Splenic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly elevated in S.marmoratus exposed to BaP starting from 7d and remained high up to 25 d.However,no further activity change was found with prolonged exposure.Cotreatment of BaP and TBT primarily inhibited the GST activity,which was similar to the effect of TBT.Cotreatment with BaP and TBT for 25 or 50 d potentiated the depletion of GSH (glutathione) by BaP or TBT alone.MDA (malondialdehyde) contents in spleen of S.marmoratus were not significantly altered compared with the control during the test period.Spleen,as an immune organ,is sensitive to exposure of BaP or TBT.It should have an effective mechanism to counteract oxidative damage.Antioxidative defense systems in spleen of S.marmoratus should be considered as potential biomarkers.Short-term exposure of BaP or TBT could result in induction of antioxidant defense system.A significant decrease of these indices.such as GSH,GST,GPx might indicate more severe contamination.

  13. Nutritional Status as the Key Modulator of Antioxidant Responses Induced by High Environmental Ammonia and Salinity Stress in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sinha

    Full Text Available Salinity fluctuation is one of the main factors affecting the overall fitness of marine fish. In addition, water borne ammonia may occur simultaneously with salinity stress. Additionally, under such stressful circumstances, fish may encounter food deprivation. The physiological and ion-osmo regulatory adaptive capacities to cope with all these stressors alone or in combination are extensively addressed in fish. To date, studies revealing the modulation of antioxidant potential as compensatory response to multiple stressors are rather lacking. Therefore, the present work evaluated the individual and combined effects of salinity challenge, ammonia toxicity and nutritional status on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in a marine teleost, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax. Fish were acclimated to normal seawater (32 ppt, to brackish water (20 ppt and 10 ppt and to hypo-saline water (2.5 ppt. Following acclimation to different salinities for two weeks, fish were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 20 mg/L representing 50% of 96h LC50 value for ammonia for 12 h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h, and were either fed (2% body weight or fasted (unfed for 7 days prior to HEA exposure. Results show that in response to decreasing salinities, oxidative stress indices such as xanthine oxidase activity, levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA increased in the hepatic tissue of fasted fish but remained unaffected in fed fish. HEA exposure at normal salinity (32 ppt and at reduced salinities (20 ppt and 10 ppt increased ammonia accumulation significantly (84 h-180 h in both feeding regimes which was associated with an increment of H2O2 and MDA contents. Unlike in fasted fish, H2O2 and MDA levels in fed fish were restored to control levels (84 h-180 h; with a concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, components of the glutathione redox cycle (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and

  14. Dose-response effects of lycopene on selected drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S. T.; Daneshvar, B.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2000-01-01

    The administration of lycopene to female rats at doses ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 g/kg b.w, per day for 2 weeks was found to alter the drug-metabolizing capacity and antioxidant status of the exposed animals. An investigation of four cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes revealed that benzyloxyresorufin...... O-dealkylase activity in the liver was significantly induced in a dose-dependent fashion at all lycopene doses investigated. Likewise, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity was induced, although only at the two highest lycopene concentrations tested. An investigation of selected phase 2...... detoxification enzymes provided evidence that lycopene was capable of inducing hepatic quinone reductase, approximately two-fold, at doses between 0.001 and 0.05 g/kg b.w, per day, whereas no effect was observed at the remaining doses tested. Glutathione transferase, using the two substrates, 2...

  15. Acupuncture ameliorates cognitive impairment and hippocampus neuronal loss in experimental vascular dementia through Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Rui; Shi, Guang-Xia; Yang, Jing-Wen; Yan, Chao-Qun; Lin, Li-Ting; Du, Si-Qi; Zhu, Wen; He, Tian; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Xu, Qian; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests acupuncture could exert neuroprotection in the vascular dementia via anti-oxidative effects. However, the involvement of Nrf2, a master regulator of antioxidant defense, in acupuncture-induced neuroprotection in vascular dementia remains undetermined. The goal of our study was to investigate the contribution of Nrf2 in acupuncture and its effects on vascular dementia. Morris water maze and Nissl staining were used to assess the effect of acupuncture on cognitive function and hippocampal neurodegeneration in experimental vascular dementia. The distribution of Nrf2 in neurons in hippocampus, the protein expression of Nrf2 in both cytosol and nucleus, and the protein and mRNA levels of its downstream target genes NQO1 and HO-1 were detected by double immunofluorescent staining, Western blotting and realtime PCR analysis respectively. Cognitive function and microglia activation were measured in both wild-type and Nrf2 gene knockout mice after acupuncture treatment. We found that acupuncture could remarkably reverse the cognitive deficits, neuron cell loss, reactive oxygen species production, and decreased cerebral blood flow. It was notable that acupuncture enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in neurons and up-regulate the protein and mRNA levels of Nrf2 and its target genes HO-1 and NQO1. Moreover, acupuncture could significantly down-regulated the over-activation of microglia after common carotid artery occlusion surgery. However, the reversed cognitive deficits, neuron cell loss and microglia activation by acupuncture were abolished in Nrf2 gene knockout mice. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that the neuroprotection of acupuncture in models of vascular dementia was via the Nrf2 activation and Nrf2-dependent microglia activation. PMID:26546103

  16. Effects of Tributyrin on Intestinal Energy Status, Antioxidative Capacity and Immune Response to Lipopolysaccharide Challenge in Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaolong; Hou, Yongqing; Yi, Dan; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Hongyi; Ding, Binying; Gong, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of tributyrin (TB) on the growth performance, pro-inflammatory cytokines, intestinal morphology, energy status, disaccharidase activity, and antioxidative capacity of broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 160 one-day-old Cobb broilers were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments, with 4 replicated pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. The experiment consisted of a 2×2 factorial arrangements of treatments with TB supplementation (0 or 500 mg/kg) and LPS challenge (0 or 500 μg/kg body weight [BW]). On days 22, 24, and 26 of the trial, broilers received an intraperitoneal administration of 500 μg/kg BW LPS or saline. Dietary TB showed no effect on growth performance. However, LPS challenge decreased the average daily gain of broilers from day 22 to day 26 of the trial. Dietary TB supplementation inhibited the increase of interleukin-1β (in the jejunum and ileum), interleukin-6 (in the duodenum and jejunum), and prostaglandin E2 (in the duodenum) of LPS-challenged broilers. Similar inhibitory effects of TB in the activities of total nitric oxide synthase (in the ileum) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (in the jejunum) were also observed in birds challenged with LPS. Additionally, TB supplementation mitigated the decrease of ileal adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate and total adenine nucleotide and the reduction of jejunal catalase activity induced by LPS. Taken together, these results suggest that the TB supplementation was able to reduce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and improve the energy status and anti-oxidative capacity in the small intestine of LPS-challenged broilers. PMID:26580447

  17. Non-linear finite element analysis for prediction of seismic response of buildings considering soil-structure interaction

    OpenAIRE

    E. Çelebi; F. Göktepe; Karahan, N

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper focuses primarily on the numerical approach based on two-dimensional (2-D) finite element method for analysis of the seismic response of infinite soil-structure interaction (SSI) system. This study is performed by a series of different scenarios that involved comprehensive parametric analyses including the effects of realistic material properties of the underlying soil on the structural response quantities. Viscous artificial boundaries, simulating the process of w...

  18. Ectopic expression of dehydration responsive element binding proteins (StDREB2) confers higher tolerance to salt stress in potato

    OpenAIRE

    Bouaziz, Donia; Pirrello, Julien; Ben Amor, Hela; Hammami, Asma; Charfeddine, Mariam; Dhieb, Amina; Bouzayen, Mondher; Gargouri-Bouzid, Radhia

    2012-01-01

    Dehydration responsive element binding proteins (DREB) are members of a larger family of transcription factors, many of which have been reported to contribute to plant responses to abiotic stresses in several species. While, little is known about their role in potato (Solanum tuberosum). This report describes the cloning and characterization of a DREB transcription factor cDNA, StDREB2, isolated from potato(cv Nicola) plants submitted to salt treatment. Based on a multiple sequence alignment,...

  19. Process Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Arabinogalactan from Dihydroquercetin Extracted Residues by Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaizhi Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound was used for the extraction of larch arabinogalactan from Larix gmelinii. The optimal conditions for ultrasound extraction were determined by response surface methodology. Specifically, the Box-Behnken design was employed to evaluate the effects of three independent variables: ultrasound time, temperature, and liquid-solid ratio. The highest arabinogalactan yield (11.18% was obtained under the optimal extraction condition (extraction temperature 41.5°C, extraction time 24.3 min, and liquid-solid ratio 40 mL/g. In addition, the antioxidant activity of arabinogalactan that was extracted from dihydroquercetin extraction residues exhibited a moderate and concentration-dependent hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity, ferric-reducing power, and reducing power. The wood material was characterized before and after processing by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

  20. Responses of Nigella sativa L. to Zinc Excess: Focus on Germination, Growth, Yield and Yield Components, Lipid and Terpene Metabolism, and Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marichali, Ahmed; Dallali, Sana; Ouerghemmi, Saloua; Sebei, Houcine; Casabianca, Hervé; Hosni, Karim

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the responses of Nigella sativa L. to elevated zinc concentrations was assessed in pot experiments. Zn excess supply did not affect the germination but drastically reduced radicle elongation. A concentration-dependent reduction in all growth parameters, yield, and yield components was observed. With the increasing Zn concentrations, total lipid contents decreased and changes in fatty composition toward the production of saturated ones were underscored. Despite the reduction in the seeds essential oil yield, a redirection of the terpene metabolism toward the synthesis of oxygenated compounds has been evidenced. A significant increase in the total phenols and flavonoids contents concomitant with improved antioxidant activities has also been found. Collectively, these results highlight the possible use of N. sativa L. in phytoremediation applications, on the one hand, and that Zn excess could represent an excellent alternative to improve the nutritional attributes of this important species, on the other hand. PMID:26853463

  1. The Indirect Boundary Element Method (IBEM) for Seismic Response of Topographical Irregularities in Layered Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Zazueta, M. A.; Perton, M.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Sánchez-Alvaro, E.

    2013-12-01

    The seismic hazard assessment of extended developments, such as a dam, a bridge or a pipeline, needs the strong ground motion simulation taking into account the effects of surface geology. In many cases the incoming wave field can be obtained from attenuation relations or simulations for layered media using Discrete Wave Number (DWN). Sometimes there is a need to include in simulations the seismic source as well. A number of methods to solve these problems have been developed. Among them the Finite Element and Finite Difference Methods (FEM and FDM) are generally preferred because of the facility of use. Nevertheless, the analysis of realistic dynamic loading induced by earthquakes requires a thinner mesh of the entire domain to consider high frequencies. Consequently this may imply a high computational cost. The Indirect Boundary Element Method (IBEM) can also be employed. Here it is used to study the response of a site to historical seismic activity. This method is particularly suited to model wave propagation through wide areas as it requires only the meshing of boundaries. Moreover, it is well suited to represent finely the diffraction that can occur on a fault. However, the IBEM has been applied mainly to simple geometrical configurations. In this communication significant refinements of the formulation are presented. Using IBEM we can simulate wave propagation in complex geometrical configurations such as a stratified medium crossed by thin faults or having a complex topography. Two main developments are here described; one integrates the DWN method inside the IBEM in order to represent the Green's functions of stratified media with relatively low computational cost but assuming unbounded parallel flat layers, and the other is the extension of IBEM to deal with multi-regions in contact which allows more versatility with a higher computational cost compared to the first one but still minor to an equivalent FEM formulation. The two approaches are fully

  2. Metastasized lung cancer suppression by Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaf compared to Erlotinib via anti-inflammatory, endogenous antioxidant responses and apoptotic gene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Swee-Ling; Mustapha, Noordin M; Goh, Yong-Meng; Bakar, Nurul Ain Abu; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-05-01

    Metastasized lung and liver cancers cause over 2 million deaths annually, and are amongst the top killer cancers worldwide. Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaves are traditionally consumed as vegetables in the tropics. The macro and micro effects of M. citrifolia (Noni) leaves on metastasized lung cancer development in vitro and in vivo were compared with the FDA-approved anti-cancer drug Erlotinib. The extract inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549 cells (IC50 = 23.47 μg/mL) and mouse Lewis (LL2) lung carcinoma cells (IC50 = 5.50 μg/mL) in vitro, arrested cancer cell cycle at G0/G1 phases and significantly increased caspase-3/-8 without changing caspase-9 levels. The extract showed no toxicity on normal MRC5 lung cells. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549-induced BALB/c mice were fed with 150 and 300 mg/kg M. citrifolia leaf extract and compared with Erlotinib (50 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days. It significantly increased the pro-apoptotic TRP53 genes, downregulated the pro-tumourigenesis genes (BIRC5, JAK2/STAT3/STAT5A) in the mice tumours, significantly increased the anti-inflammatory IL4, IL10 and NR3C1 expression in the metastasized lung and hepatic cancer tissues and enhanced the NFE2L2-dependent antioxidant responses against oxidative injuries. The extract elevated serum neutrophils and reduced the red blood cells, haemoglobin, corpuscular volume and cell haemoglobin concentration in the lung cancer-induced mammal. It suppressed inflammation and oedema, and upregulated the endogenous antioxidant responses and apoptotic genes to suppress the cancer. The 300 mg/kg extract was more effective than the 50 mg/kg Erlotinib for most of the parameters measured. PMID:27106908

  3. Oxidative stress in deep scattering layers: Heat shock response and antioxidant enzymes activities of myctophid fishes thriving in oxygen minimum zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Rita; Trübenbach, Katja; Teixeira, Tatiana; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Pires, Vanessa; Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2013-12-01

    Diel vertical migrators, such as myctophid fishes, are known to encounter oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) during daytime in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and, therefore, have to cope with temperature and oxidative stress that arise while ascending to warmer, normoxic surface waters at night-time. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant defense strategies and heat shock response (HSR) in two myctophid species, namely Triphoturus mexicanus and Benthosema panamense, at shallow and warm surface waters (21 kPa, 20-25 °C) and at hypoxic, cold (≤1 kPa, 10 °C) mesopelagic depths. More specifically, we quantified (i) heat shock protein concentrations (HSP70/HSC70) (ii) antioxidant enzyme activities [including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)], and (iii) lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels]. HSP70/HSC70 levels increased in both myctophid species at warmer, well-oxygenated surface waters probably to prevent cellular damage (oxidative stress) due to increased oxygen demand under elevated temperatures and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. On the other hand, CAT and GST activities were augmented under hypoxic conditions, probably as preparatory response to a burst of oxyradicals during the reoxygenation phase (while ascending). SOD activity decreased under hypoxia in B. panamense, but was kept unchanged in T. mexicanus. MDA levels in B. panamense did not change between the surface and deep-sea conditions, whereas T. mexicanus showed elevated MDA and HSP70/HSC70 concentrations at warmer surface waters. This indicated that T. mexicanus seems to be not so well tuned to temperature and oxidative stress associated to diel vertical migrations. The understanding of such physiological strategies that are linked to oxygen deprivation and reoxygenation phases may provide valuable information about how different species might respond to the impacts of environmental stressors (e.g. expanding mesopelagic hypoxia

  4. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julin Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst and catalase (cat genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48–96 h (p < 0.05 and an increase in SOD activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p < 0.05. The transcription was altered similarly to enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage.

  5. Initial response and subsequent course of Crohn's disease treated with elemental diet or prednisolone.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorard, D A; Hunt, J. B.; Payne-James, J J; Palmer, K R; Rees, R. G.; Clark, M L; Farthing, M. J.; Misiewicz, J J; Silk, D. B.

    1993-01-01

    Elemental diet is as effective as corticosteroids in the treatment of previously untreated Crohn's disease. It is unclear whether a poor nutritional state is a prerequisite for efficacy of elemental diet, whether previously treated patients respond as well, or how duration of remission using elemental diet compares with corticosteroid induced remission. Forty two patients with active Crohn's disease were stratified for nutritional state and randomised to receive Vivonex TEN 2.1 l/day for four...

  6. Soil solution chemistry and element fluxes in three European heathlands and their responses to warming and drought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, I.K.; Tietema, A.; Williams, D.;

    2004-01-01

    Soil water chemistry and element budgets were studied at three northwestern European Calluna vulgaris heathland sites in Denmark (DK), The Netherlands (NL), and Wales (UK). Responses to experimental nighttime warming and early summer drought were followed during a two-year period. Soil solution...... chemistry measured below the organic soil layer and below the rooting zone and water fluxes estimated with hydrological models were combined to calculate element budgets. Remarkably high N leaching was observed at the NL heath with 18 and 6.4 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) of NO3-N and NH4-N leached from the control...... first year, but, because of high retention of N in the vegetation or mineral soil, there were no significant effects of warming on seepage water NO3-N and NH4-N. Retention of P was high at all three sites. In several cases, drought increased concentrations of elements momentarily, but element fluxes...

  7. Response of nuclear power plant civil structures to travelling seismic waves by the rigid finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents only the results related to the first part of the research program directed toward the development of engineering methods and computer programs for assessing the effects of travelling seismic waves on the response of nuclear power plant civil structures. Phenomena related to travelling seismic waves are briefly summarized on the basis of many foregoing studies. Two basic approximate methods - direct and indirect - currently being used in a dynamic analysis and taking structure-soil interaction and travelling wave effects into account are discussed as well. In the second part of the paper, the rigid or hybrid finite element model and method are proposed for this purpose. Both the structure and the soil are modelled not only by means of conventional deformable finite elements, but as well considerably using rigid finite elements in a single system. The hybrid finite element method proposed herein is basically the direct method which can efficiently simulate structure-soil interaction and travelling wave effects. The corresponding single finite element system has three differently discretizated subsystems: the structure, the near-field and the far-field of the soil. An accurate using of the rigid finite elements in the structure and in the far-field of the soil permits to reduce essentially the total number of degrees of freedom for all the system which is the most important advantage in comparison with the classical finite element modelling. (orig./HP)

  8. HIV-1 p24(gag derived conserved element DNA vaccine increases the breadth of immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viraj Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Viral diversity is considered a major impediment to the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Despite this diversity, certain protein segments are nearly invariant across the known HIV-1 Group M sequences. We developed immunogens based on the highly conserved elements from the p24(gag region according to two principles: the immunogen must (i include strictly conserved elements of the virus that cannot mutate readily, and (ii exclude both HIV regions capable of mutating without limiting virus viability, and also immunodominant epitopes located in variable regions. We engineered two HIV-1 p24(gag DNA immunogens that express 7 highly Conserved Elements (CE of 12-24 amino acids in length and differ by only 1 amino acid in each CE ('toggle site', together covering >99% of the HIV-1 Group M sequences. Altering intracellular trafficking of the immunogens changed protein localization, stability, and also the nature of elicited immune responses. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with p55(gag DNA induced poor, CD4(+ mediated cellular responses, to only 2 of the 7 CE; in contrast, vaccination with p24CE DNA induced cross-clade reactive, robust T cell responses to 4 of the 7 CE. The responses were multifunctional and composed of both CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells with mature cytotoxic phenotype. These findings provide a method to increase immune response to universally conserved Gag epitopes, using the p24CE immunogen. p24CE DNA vaccination induced humoral immune responses similar in magnitude to those induced by p55(gag, which recognize the virus encoded p24(gag protein. The inclusion of DNA immunogens composed of conserved elements is a promising vaccine strategy to induce broader immunity by CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells to additional regions of Gag compared to vaccination with p55(gag DNA, achieving maximal cross-clade reactive cellular and humoral responses.

  9. Prolonged inorganic arsenite exposure suppresses insulin-stimulated AKT S473 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: Involvement of the adaptive antioxidant response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → In 3T3-L1 adipocytes iAs3+ decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. → iAs3+ attenuates insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT S473. → iAs3+ activates the cellular adaptive oxidative stress response. → iAs3+ impairs insulin-stimulated ROS signaling. → iAs3+ decreases expression of adipogenic genes and GLUT4. -- Abstract: There is growing evidence that chronic exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic, a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). One critical feature of T2D is insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, especially in mature adipocytes, the hallmark of which is decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU). Despite the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), they have been recognized as a second messenger serving an intracellular signaling role for insulin action. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a central transcription factor regulating cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. This study proposes that in response to arsenic exposure, the NRF2-mediated adaptive induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes blunts insulin-stimulated ROS signaling and thus impairs ISGU. Exposure of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells to low-level (up to 2 μM) inorganic arsenite (iAs3+) led to decreased ISGU in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Concomitant to the impairment of ISGU, iAs3+ exposure significantly attenuated insulin-stimulated intracellular ROS accumulation and AKT S473 phosphorylation, which could be attributed to the activation of NRF2 and induction of a battery of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. In addition, prolonged iAs3+ exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in significant induction of inflammatory response genes and decreased expression of adipogenic genes and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), suggesting chronic inflammation and reduction in GLUT4 expression may also be involved in arsenic-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes

  10. Prolonged inorganic arsenite exposure suppresses insulin-stimulated AKT S473 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: Involvement of the adaptive antioxidant response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Peng [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Hou, Yongyong; Zhang, Qiang; Woods, Courtney G.; Yarborough, Kathy; Liu, Huiyu [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Sun, Guifan [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Andersen, Melvin E. [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Pi, Jingbo, E-mail: jpi@thehamner.org [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} In 3T3-L1 adipocytes iAs{sup 3+} decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} attenuates insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT S473. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} activates the cellular adaptive oxidative stress response. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} impairs insulin-stimulated ROS signaling. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} decreases expression of adipogenic genes and GLUT4. -- Abstract: There is growing evidence that chronic exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic, a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). One critical feature of T2D is insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, especially in mature adipocytes, the hallmark of which is decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU). Despite the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), they have been recognized as a second messenger serving an intracellular signaling role for insulin action. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a central transcription factor regulating cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. This study proposes that in response to arsenic exposure, the NRF2-mediated adaptive induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes blunts insulin-stimulated ROS signaling and thus impairs ISGU. Exposure of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells to low-level (up to 2 {mu}M) inorganic arsenite (iAs{sup 3+}) led to decreased ISGU in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Concomitant to the impairment of ISGU, iAs{sup 3+} exposure significantly attenuated insulin-stimulated intracellular ROS accumulation and AKT S473 phosphorylation, which could be attributed to the activation of NRF2 and induction of a battery of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. In addition, prolonged iAs{sup 3+} exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in significant induction of inflammatory response genes and decreased expression of adipogenic genes and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), suggesting chronic inflammation and reduction in GLUT4

  11. Glucose Enhances Basal or Melanocortin-Induced cAMP-Response Element Activity in Hypothalamic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, Andreas; Wicht, Kristina; Boekhoff, Ingrid; Glas, Evi; Lauffer, Lisa; Mückter, Harald; Gudermann, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)-induced activation of the cAMP-response element (CRE) via the CRE-binding protein in hypothalamic cells promotes expression of TRH and thereby restricts food intake and increases energy expenditure. Glucose also induces central anorexigenic effects by acting on hypothalamic neurons, but the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. It has been proposed that glucose activates the CRE-binding protein-regulated transcriptional coactivator 2 (CRTC-2) in hypothalamic neurons by inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinases (AMPKs), but whether glucose directly affects hypothalamic CRE activity has not yet been shown. Hence, we dissected effects of glucose on basal and MSH-induced CRE activation in terms of kinetics, affinity, and desensitization in murine, hypothalamic mHypoA-2/10-CRE cells that stably express a CRE-dependent reporter gene construct. Physiologically relevant increases in extracellular glucose enhanced basal or MSH-induced CRE-dependent gene transcription, whereas prolonged elevated glucose concentrations reduced the sensitivity of mHypoA-2/10-CRE cells towards glucose. Glucose also induced CRCT-2 translocation into the nucleus and the AMPK activator metformin decreased basal and glucose-induced CRE activity, suggesting a role for AMPK/CRTC-2 in glucose-induced CRE activation. Accordingly, small interfering RNA-induced down-regulation of CRTC-2 expression decreased glucose-induced CRE-dependent reporter activation. Of note, glucose also induced expression of TRH, suggesting that glucose might affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis via the regulation of hypothalamic CRE activity. These findings significantly advance our knowledge about the impact of glucose on hypothalamic signaling and suggest that TRH release might account for the central anorexigenic effects of glucose and could represent a new molecular link between hyperglycaemia and thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27144291

  12. Genetic and functional analysis of HIV-1 Rev Responsive Element (RRE sequences from North-India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchu Ajay

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV-1 Rev protein regulates the expression of HIV-1 transcripts by binding to a highly structured stem loop structure called the Rev Responsive Element (RRE present in the genomic and partially spliced RNAs. Genetic variation in this structure is likely to affect binding of Rev protein and ultimately overall gene expression and replication. We characterized RRE sequences from 13 HIV-1 infected individuals from North India which also included two mother-child pairs following vertical transmission. We observed high degree of conservation of sequences, including the 9-nt (CACUAUGGG long sequence in stem-loop B, required for efficient binding of Rev protein. All of our 13 RRE sequences possessed G to A (position 66 mutation located in the critical branched-stem-loop B which is not present in consensus C or B sequence. We derived a consensus RRE structure which showed interesting changes in the stem-loop structures including the stem-loop B. Mother-Child RRE sequences showed conservation of unique polymorphisms as well as some new mutations in child RRE sequences. Despite these changes, the ability to form multiple essential stem-loop structures required for Rev binding was conserved. RRE RNA derived from one of the samples, VT5, retained the ability to bind Rev protein under in vitro conditions although it showed alternate secondary structure. This is the first study from India describing the structural and possible functional implications due to very unique RRE sequence heterogeneity and its possible role in vertical transmission and gene expression.

  13. Characterization and localization of metal-responsive-element-binding transcription factors from tilapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Andrew Pok-Lap; Au, Candy Yee-Man; Chan, William Wai-Lun [Department of Biochemistry, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Chan, King Ming, E-mail: kingchan@cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Biochemistry, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2010-08-01

    Two isoforms of MTF-1, MTF-1L (long form) and MTF-1S (short form), were cloned in tilapia (Ti) and characterized in a tilapia liver cell line, Hepa-T1. The cloned tiMTF-1L has the characteristics of all of the tiMTF-1S identified so far with the zinc finger domain having six fingers, the acidic-rich, proline-rich, and serine/threonine-rich domains; however, the short form encodes for the zinc finger domain with five zinc fingers only and no other domains. The transient transfection of tiMTF-1L into human HepG2 cells showed both constitutive and zinc-induced metal-responsive-element (MRE)-driven reporter gene expression. However, the transfection of tiMTF-1S (which lacks all three transactivation domains) into a human cell line showed reduced transcriptional activities compared with an endogenous control in both basal- and Zn{sup 2+}-induced conditions. The tiMTF-1 isoforms were tagged with GFP and transfected into Hepa-T1 cells (tilapia hepatocytes). The nuclear translocation of tiMTF-1L was observed when the cells were exposed to a sufficient concentration of metals for 6 h. However, tiMTF-1S, was localized in the nucleus with or without metal treatment. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that both of the isoforms were able to bind to the MRE specifically in vitro. Tissue distribution studies showed that tiMTF-1L was more abundant than tiMTF-1S in all of the tissues tested.

  14. Tumour necrosis factor alpha downregulates human hemojuvelin expression via a novel response element within its promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salama Mohamed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron homeostasis is chiefly regulated by hepcidin whose expression is tightly controlled by inflammation, iron stores, and hypoxia. Hemojuvelin (HJV is a bone morphogenetic protein co-receptor that has been identified as a main upstream regulator of hepcidin expression; HJV mutations are associated with a severe form of iron overload (Juvenile haemochromatosis. Currently however, there is no information on how HJV is regulated by inflammation. Methods To study the regulation of Hjv expression by inflammation and whether Hfe has a role in that regulation, control and LPS-injected wild type and Hfe KO mice were used. Moreover, human hepatoma cells (HuH7 were used to study the effect of IL-6 and TNF-α on HJV mRNA expression. Results Here we show that LPS repressed hepatic Hjv and BMPs, while it induced hepcidin 1 expression in wild-type and Hfe KO mice with no effect on hepatic pSMAD 1, 5, 8 protein levels. In addition, exogenous TNF-α (20 ng/mL decreased HJV mRNA and protein expression to 40% of control with no effect on hepcidin mRNA expression in 24 hours. On the other hand, IL-6 induced hepcidin mRNA and protein expression with no effect on HJV mRNA expression levels. Moreover, using the HJV promoter-luciferase reporter fusion construct (HJVP1.2-luc, we showed that the basal luciferase activity of HJVP1.2-luc was inhibited by 33% following TNF-α treatment of HuH7 transfected cells suggesting that the TNF-α down-regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level. Additionally, mutation of a canonical TNF- alpha responsive element (TNFRE within HJVP1.2-luc abolished TNF-α response suggesting that this TNFRE is functional. Conclusions From these results, we conclude that TNF-α suppresses HJV transcription possibly via a novel TNFRE within the HJV promoter. In addition, the results suggest that the proposed link between inflammation and BMP-SMAD signalling is independent of HJV and BMP ligands.

  15. Hypoxia-induced endothelial NO synthase gene transcriptional activation is mediated through the tax-responsive element in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jiho; Jin, Yoon-Mi; Moon, Je-Sung; Sung, Min-Sun; Jo, Sangmee Ahn; Jo, Inho

    2006-06-01

    Although hypoxia is known to induce upregulation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) gene expression, the underlying mechanism is largely unclear. In this study, we show that hypoxia increases eNOS gene expression through the binding of phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein (pCREB) to the eNOS gene promoter. Hypoxia (1% O2) increased both eNOS expression and NO production, peaking at 24 hours, in bovine aortic endothelial cells, and these increases were accompanied by increases in pCREB. Treatment with the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 or transfection with dominant-negative inhibitor of CREB reversed the hypoxia-induced increases in eNOS expression and NO production, with concomitant inhibition of the phosphorylation of CREB induced by hypoxia, suggesting an involvement of protein kinase A/pCREB-mediated pathway. To map the regulatory elements of the eNOS gene responsible for pCREB binding under hypoxia, we constructed an eNOS gene promoter (-1600 to +22 nucleotides) fused with a luciferase reporter gene [pGL2-eNOS(-1600)]. Hypoxia (for 24-hour incubation) increased the promoter activity by 2.36+/-0.18-fold in the bovine aortic endothelial cells transfected with pGL2-eNOS(-1600). However, progressive 5'-deletion from -1600 to -873 completely attenuated the hypoxia-induced increase in promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift, anti-pCREB antibody supershift, and site-specific mutation analyses showed that pCREB is bound to the Tax-responsive element (TRE) site, a cAMP-responsive element-like site, located at -924 to -921 of the eNOS promoter. Our data demonstrate that the interaction between pCREB and the Tax-responsive element site within the eNOS promoter may represent a novel mechanism for the mediation of hypoxia-stimulated eNOS gene expression. PMID:16651461

  16. Antioxidant effects of green tea

    OpenAIRE

    Forester, Sarah C.; Lambert, Joshua D

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidant...

  17. Feasibility of using neural networks to unfold the response of multi-element TLD for mixed field dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant advances have been made in recent years to improve calibration methodology and dose calculation algorithm in the fields of TL dosimetry. This process was accelerated in the past decade particularly in the Republic of Korea by the need to meet mandatory national accreditation requirements. The objective of this study is to develop a new algorithm to replace the simplistic decision tree algorithms by the more sophisticated neural networks in hopes of achieving a higher degree of accuracy and precision in personnel dosimetry system. The original hypothesis of this work is that the spectral information of an X and γ-ray fields may be obtained by the analysis of the response of a multi-element system. In this study, a feed forward neural network using the error back-propagation method with Bayesian optimization was designed for the response unfolding procedure. The response functions of the single element to photons were calculated by application of a computational Monte-Carlo model for an energy range from 10 keV to 2 MeV with different spectral proportions. The training of the artificial neural network was based on the computation of responses of a four-element system for the back-propagation method. The validation of the proposed algorithm was investigated by unfolding the 10 computed responses for arbitrary mixed gamma fields and the spectra resulting from the unfolding procedure agree well with the original spectra. (author)

  18. An approach to unfold the response of a multi-element system using an artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An unfolding procedure is proposed which aims at obtaining spectral information of a neutron radiation field by the analysis of the response of a multi-element system consisting of converter type semiconductors. For the unfolding procedure an artificial neural network (feed forward network), trained by the back-propagation method, was used. The response functions of the single elements to neutron radiation were calculated by application of a computational model for an energy range from 10-2 eV to 10 MeV. The training of the artificial neural network was based on the computation of responses of a six-element system for a set of 300 neutron spectra and the application of the back-propagation method. The validation was performed by the unfolding of 100 computed responses. Two unfolding examples were pointed out for the determination of the neutron spectra. The spectra resulting from the unfolding procedure agree well with the original spectra used for the response computation

  19. A quantitative proteomic profile of the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response of macrophages to oxidized LDL determined by multiplexed selected reaction monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S Kinter

    Full Text Available The loading of macrophages with oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL is a key part of the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Oxidized LDL contains a wide ranging set of toxic species, yet the molecular events that allow macrophages to withstand loading with these toxic species are not completely characterized. The transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 is a master regulator of the cellular stress response. However, the specific parts of the Nrf2-dependent stress response are diverse, with both tissue- and treatment-dependent components. The goal of these experiments was to develop and use a quantitative proteomic approach to characterize the Nrf2-dependent response in macrophages to oxidized LDL. Cultured mouse macrophages, the J774 macrophage-like cell line, were treated with a combination of oxidized LDL, the Nrf2-stabilizing reagent tert- butylhydroquinone (tBHQ, and/or Nrf2 siRNA. Protein expression was determined using a quantitative proteomics assay based on selected reaction monitoring. The assay was multiplexed to monitor a set of 28 antioxidant and stress response proteins, 6 housekeeping proteins, and 1 non-endogenous standard protein. The results have two components. The first component is the validation of the multiplexed, quantitative proteomics assay. The assay is shown to be fundamentally quantitative, precise, and accurate. The second component is the characterization of the Nrf2-mediated stress response. Treatment with tBHQ and/or Nrf2 siRNA gave statistically significant changes in the expression of a subset of 11 proteins. Treatment with oxidized LDL gave statistically significant increases in the expression of 7 of those 11 proteins plus one additional protein. All of the oxLDL-mediated increases were attenuated by Nrf2 siRNA. These results reveal a specific, multifaceted response of the foam cells to the incoming toxic oxidized LDL.

  20. Optimization of Reflux Conditions for Total Flavonoid and Total Phenolic Extraction and Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity in Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was applied to optimization of the conditions for reflux extraction of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. in order to achieve a high content of total flavonoids (TF, total phenolics (TP, and high antioxidant capacity (AC in the extracts. Central composite experimental design with three factors and three levels was employed to consider the effects of the operation parameters, including the methanol concentration (MC, 40%–80%, extraction temperature (ET, 40–70°C, and liquid-to-solid ratio (LS ratio, 20–40 mL/g on the properties of the extracts. Response surface plots showed that increasing these operation parameters induced the responses significantly. The TF content and AC could be maximized when the extraction conditions (MC, ET, and LS ratio were 78.8%, 69.5°C, and 32.4 mL/g, respectively, whereas the TP content was optimal when these variables were 75.1%, 70°C, and 31.8 mL/g, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the experimental TF and TP content and AC were 1.78, 6.601 mg/g DW, and 87.38%, respectively. The optimized model was validated by a comparison of the predicted and experimental values. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with the predicted values, indicating the suitability of the model for optimizing the conditions for the reflux extraction of Pandan.

  1. Lipoic Acid Exerts Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effects in Response to Heat Shock in C2C12 Myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Tse; Chang, Li-Ching; Wu, Pei-Fung

    2016-06-01

    This study explored that lipoic acid treatment for 24 h significantly upregulated and promoted heat shock-induced catalase expression and downregulated GPx1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, indicating that lipoic acid exhibits antioxidant activity in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by upregulating catalase expression. Moreover, lipoic acid treatment for 3 h increased and promoted heat shock-induced interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA and protein levels and that for 24 h downregulated IL-6 mRNA expression, suggesting a dual effect of lipoic acid on IL-6 regulation. Lipoic acid alone failed to increase or reduce tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA and protein levels, whereas heat shock alone downregulated TNF-α mRNA and protein expression. These data suggest that lipoic acid does not have a proinflammatory role and that heat shock acts as an anti-inflammatory agent by downregulating TNF-α expression in C2C12 myotubes. Moreover, lipoic acid or heat shock alone upregulated the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R-α) and glycoprotein 130 (gp130) mRNA expression followed by IL-6 expression; these data indicate that the regulation of lipoic acid or heat shock is mediated by IL-6R signaling, thus suggesting that C2C12 myotubes possesses a mechanism for regulating IL-6R and gp130 expression following lipoic acid treatment or heat shock. PMID:27086282

  2. Response of growth and antioxidant enzymes in Azolla plants (Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides) exposed to UV-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Amjad; Zeeshan, M; Abraham, G

    2008-06-01

    Effect of ultravilolet-B (0.4 Wm(-2)) irradiation on growth, flavonoid content, lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation and activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase was comparatively analysed in Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides. Growth measured as increment in dry weight reduced considerably due to all UV-B treatments. However, the reduction was found to be severe in A. filiculoides as compared to A. pinnata. The level of UV-absorbing compound flavonoids increased significantly in A. pinnata plants whereas only a slight increase in the flavonoid content was observed in A. filiculoides. UV-B exposure led to enhanced production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage in A. filiculoides than A. pinnata. Proline accumulation also showed a similar trend. Marked differences in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) was noticed in both the plants exposed to UV-B. Our comparative studies indicate A. pinnata to be better tolerant to UV-B as compared with A. filiculoides which appears to be sensitive. PMID:18637563

  3. The MYC 3′ Wnt-Responsive Element Drives Oncogenic MYC Expression in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennoll, Sherri A.; Eshelman, Melanie A.; Raup-Konsavage, Wesley M.; Kawasawa, Yuka Imamura; Yochum, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway drive colorectal cancer (CRC) by deregulating expression of downstream target genes including the c-MYC proto-oncogene (MYC). The critical regulatory DNA enhancer elements that control oncogenic MYC expression in CRC have yet to be fully elucidated. In previous reports, we correlated T-cell factor (TCF) and β-catenin binding to the MYC 3′ Wnt responsive DNA element (MYC 3′ WRE) with MYC expression in HCT116 cells. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 to determine whether this element is a critical driver of MYC. We isolated a clonal population of cells that contained a deletion of a single TCF binding element (TBE) within the MYC 3′ WRE. This deletion reduced TCF/β-catenin binding to this regulatory element and decreased MYC expression. Using RNA-Seq analysis, we found altered expression of genes that regulate metabolic processes, many of which are known MYC target genes. We found that 3′ WRE-Mut cells displayed a reduced proliferative capacity, diminished clonogenic growth, and a decreased potential to form tumors in vivo. These findings indicate that the MYC 3′ WRE is a critical driver of oncogenic MYC expression and suggest that this element may serve as a therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:27223305

  4. The MYC 3′ Wnt-Responsive Element Drives Oncogenic MYC Expression in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri A. Rennoll

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway drive colorectal cancer (CRC by deregulating expression of downstream target genes including the c-MYC proto-oncogene (MYC. The critical regulatory DNA enhancer elements that control oncogenic MYC expression in CRC have yet to be fully elucidated. In previous reports, we correlated T-cell factor (TCF and β-catenin binding to the MYC 3′ Wnt responsive DNA element (MYC 3′ WRE with MYC expression in HCT116 cells. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 to determine whether this element is a critical driver of MYC. We isolated a clonal population of cells that contained a deletion of a single TCF binding element (TBE within the MYC 3′ WRE. This deletion reduced TCF/β-catenin binding to this regulatory element and decreased MYC expression. Using RNA-Seq analysis, we found altered expression of genes that regulate metabolic processes, many of which are known MYC target genes. We found that 3′ WRE-Mut cells displayed a reduced proliferative capacity, diminished clonogenic growth, and a decreased potential to form tumors in vivo. These findings indicate that the MYC 3′ WRE is a critical driver of oncogenic MYC expression and suggest that this element may serve as a therapeutic target for CRC.

  5. RelA is a potent transcriptional activator of the CD28 response element within the interleukin 2 promoter.

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, J. H.; HORVATH, G; Subleski, J; Bruder, J.; P. Ghosh; Tan, T H

    1995-01-01

    T-cell activation requires two different signals. The T-cell receptor's recognition of a specific antigen on antigen-presenting cells provides one, and the second signal comes from costimulatory molecules such as CD28. In contrast, T cells that are stimulated with antigen in the absence of the CD28 costimulatory signal can become anergic (nonresponsive). The CD28 response element (CD28RE) has been identified as the DNA element mediating interleukin 2 (IL-2) gene activation by CD28 costimulati...

  6. Red meat and colorectal cancer: Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response contributes to the resistance of preneoplastic colon cells to fecal water of hemoglobin- and beef-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surya, Reggie; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Martin, Océane C; Gauthier, Thierry; Guéraud, Françoise; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Jouanin, Isabelle; Chantelauze, Céline; Durand, Denys; Joly, Charlotte; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Pierre, Fabrice H; Huc, Laurence

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated red meat intake with risk of colorectal cancer. Experimental studies explain this positive association by the oxidative properties of heme iron released in the colon. This latter is a potent catalyst for lipid peroxidation, resulting in the neoformation of deleterious aldehydes in the fecal water of heme-fed rats. The toxicity of fecal water of heme-fed rats was associated to such lipid peroxidation. This study demonstrated that fecal water of hemoglobin- and beef-fed rats preferentially induced apoptosis in mouse normal colon epithelial cells than in those carrying mutation on Apc (Adenomatous polyposis coli) gene, considered as preneoplastic. Highlighting the importance of lipid peroxidation and neoformation of secondary aldehydes like 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), we optimized the depletion of carbonyl compounds in the fecal water which turned out to abolish the differential apoptosis in both cell lines. To explain the resistance of preneoplastic cells towards fecal water toxicity, we focused on Nrf2, known to be activated by aldehydes, including HNE. Fecal water activated Nrf2 in both cell lines, associated with the induction of Nrf2-target genes related to aldehydes detoxification. However, the antioxidant defense appeared to be higher in preneoplastic cells, favoring their survival, as evidenced by Nrf2 inactivation. Taken together, our results suggest that Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response was involved in the resistance of preneoplastic cells upon exposure to fecal water of hemoglobin- and beef-fed rats. This difference could explain the promoting effect of red meat and heme-enriched diet on colorectal cancer, by initiating positive selection of preneoplastic cells. PMID:26992899

  7. Responses of hematological parameters, beta-endorphin, cortisol, reactive oxygen metabolites, and biological antioxidant potential in horses participating in a traditional tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzola, M; Pira, E; Sedda, G; Vacca, G M; Cocco, R; Sechi, S; Bonelli, P; Nicolussi, P

    2015-04-01

    Several concerns have been raised over the health of animals used in equestrian games that have their origins in historical or religious events and are currently held in many countries. This study investigated physiological stress response and health status of horses participating in the Sartiglia, a historical horse tournament held in the city of Oristano, Italy, which is principally based on the attempts of masked horsemen at a gallop to run a sword through a hole in a suspended silver star. Blood samples were collected from 21 horses the day before the tournament (D0), during the tournament (D1), and the day after the tournament (D2). Samples were analyzed for complete blood count and biochemical, hormonal, and oxidative stress assays. Data were analyzed using the mixed effect model with sampling session as one of the fixed effects. On the whole, blood parameters evidenced an optimal health status of horses at D0. Significant dehydration and increase of circulating glucose, enzymes, cortisol, and β-endorphin were registered at D1 (P < 0.001) with a complete recovery of physiological values just at D2. The reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM), from which the prooxidant activity can be evaluated, showed an increase from D0 to D1 and D2. Concentration of biological antioxidant potential, which measured the antioxidant capacity, was characterized by the maximum level registered during the tournament and counteracted the simultaneous increase of d-ROM. It can be hypothesized that the tournament played an important role in causing high levels of oxidant markers not only because of the physical exercise represented by the gallop but also because the emotional stressors. In conclusion, the tournament caused significant changes of most parameters, which rapidly recovered to baseline values within the day after. These data will certainly be useful for a future implementation of tests in equine medicine and for the improvements of knowledge of changes of blood parameters

  8. Evaluation, prediction and optimization the ultrasound-assisted extraction method using response surface methodology: antioxidant and biological properties of Stachys parviflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashi, Davoud Salar; Dowom, Samaneh Attaran; Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh Fazly; Khanzadeh, Farhad; Soheili, Vahid; Mohammadpour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): To optimize the extraction method using response surface methodology, extract the phenolic compounds, and identify the antioxidant and biological properties of Stachys parviflora L. extracts. Materials and Methods: Maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) (4, 7, 10 min treatment time, 40, 70, 100 % high-intensity and 60, 80, 100 % (v v-1) methanol purity) were applied to obtain the extracts. SEM was conducted to provide the microstructure of the extracted plant. MICs (colorimetric assay), MFCs (colony diameter), total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, radical scavenging capacity and extraction efficiency were determined. HPLC analysis was applied to measure the existent phenolic compounds. Results: A quadratic model (4 min treatment time, 74.5 % high-intensity and 74.2 % solvent purity) was suggested as the best (TPC: 20.89 mg GAE g-1 d.m., TFC: 6.22 mg QEs g-1 d.m., DPPH IC50: 21.86 µg ml-1 and EE: 113.65 mg g-1 d.m.) UAE extraction model. The optimized UAE extract was generally more effective against Gram-positive microorganisms (MIC: 10-20; MBC: 10-40 (mg ml-1)) than Gram-negative ones (MIC: 40; MBC: >40 (mg ml-1)). Moreover, it (MGI: 2.32-100 %) revealed more anti-mold activity than maceration (MGI: <28.77 %). Explosive disruption of the cell walls, therefore, enhanced extraction yield by acoustic cavitation, was elucidated using SEM. Caffeic acid, tannic acid, quercetin, trans ferulic acid and rosmarinic acid were determined as the phenolic compounds in the optimized extract. Conclusion: RSM optimization was successfully applied for UAE from S. parviflora. The considerable antioxidant and biological properties were attributed to the phenolic compounds. PMID:27403260

  9. Modeling and assessment of the response of super-light elements to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Campeanu, B.M.; Giraudo, M.;

    2013-01-01

    of its mechanical properties at temperatures commonly reached by structural elements during a fire in a building. As a consequence, several multi-story concrete buildings have collapsed or suffered major structural damages because of fire, and caused injuries and casualties among the occupants. Even...... in those cases, where a safe evacuation of the building is ensured, the high costs associated with the downtime and reparation of the building can be very high and not acceptable in the view of a safe and sustainable design of structures. In this respect, the newly patented building technology...... of superlight elements invented at DTU seems very promising in reducing the weight of the elements and improving their structural integrity in case of fire or other accidental actions. In particular, the behaviour under fire of a superlight floor slab element (SL-deck) is investigated in this paper...

  10. Modeling and assessment of the response of super-light elements to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Campeanu, B.M.; Giraudo, M.;

    of its mechanical properties at temperatures commonly reached by structural elements during a fire in a building. As a consequence, several multi-story concrete buildings have collapsed or suffered major structural damages because of fire, and caused injuries and casualties among the occupants. Even...... in those cases, where a safe evacuation of the building is ensured, the high costs associated with the downtime and reparation of the building can be very high and not acceptable in the view of a safe and sustainable design of structures. In this respect, the newly patented building technology...... of superlight elements invented at DTU seems very promising in reducing the weight of the elements and improving their structural integrity in case of fire or other accidental actions. In particular, the behaviour under fire of a superlight floor slab element (SL-deck) is investigated in this paper...

  11. Variation of climatic elements and thermoregulatory responses of goats in the Brazilian semi-arid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vinícius Barbosa Roberto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the influence of climate elements in different times of day on the thermoregulatory mechanisms of Saanen goats pure and crossbred ¼ saanen+ ¾ Boer, reared in intensive system in semi-arid of Paraiba. Sixteen goats were used, eight females pure Saanen and eight crossbred ¼ Saanen + ¾ Boer, distributed in a DIC in a factorial scheme 2x12 (two races and twelve different times. Evaluated the environmental and physiological parameters in the different times: from 6 to 17 hours. In the environmental parameters is observed that IBGT increase during the day reaching its maximum value (84.16 at 13 hours. After 10 h of ambient temperatures exceeded the ZCT for goats. For TR observed that there was statistical difference between the genetic groups in times of 7, 10 and 16 hours, and the highest means found in the crossbreed and times of 13, 14,15 and 17 hours. For FR, the group of pure saanen and times of 14h showed the highest means. In the TS there was no effect of genetic groups. The variation of environmental temperature influences directly the physiological responses of animals. The group saanen is less tolerant than the crossbred, to semi-arid.

  12. Initial response and subsequent course of Crohn's disease treated with elemental diet or prednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, D A; Hunt, J B; Payne-James, J J; Palmer, K R; Rees, R G; Clark, M L; Farthing, M J; Misiewicz, J J; Silk, D B

    1993-09-01

    Elemental diet is as effective as corticosteroids in the treatment of previously untreated Crohn's disease. It is unclear whether a poor nutritional state is a prerequisite for efficacy of elemental diet, whether previously treated patients respond as well, or how duration of remission using elemental diet compares with corticosteroid induced remission. Forty two patients with active Crohn's disease were stratified for nutritional state and randomised to receive Vivonex TEN 2.1 l/day for four weeks, or 0.75 mg prednisolone/kg/day for two weeks and subsequent reducing doses. Nine of 22 (41%) patients assigned to nutritional treatment were intolerant of the diet. Thirty patients completed four weeks treatment. Disease activity decreased on elemental diet from mean (SEM) 4.8 (0.9) to 1.7 (0.6), p < 0.05, and on prednisolone from 5.3 (0.5) to 1.9 (0.6), p < 0.05. For each treatment, nourished and malnourished patients responded similarly. Patients with longstanding disease responded as well as newly diagnosed patients. The probability of maintaining remission at six months was 0.67 after prednisolone, 0.28 after elemental diet, and at one year was 0.35 after prednisolone and 0.09 after elemental diet, p < 0.05. When tolerated, elemental diet is as effective in the short term as prednisolone in newly and previously diagnosed Crohn's disease, and its benefit is independent of nutritional state. The subsequent relapse rate after elemental diet induced remission, however, is greater than after treatment with prednisolone. PMID:8406153

  13. Antioxidant responses to benzo[a]pyrene and Aroclor 1254 exposure in the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis (L.), was exposed to two concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (0.3 μg l-1; 3 μg l-1) and two concentrations of Aroclor 1254 (0.5 μg l-1; 5 μg l-1). In addition, a mixture of the contaminants was used (0.3 μg l-1 B[a]P+0.5 μg l-1 Aroclor 1254; 3 μg l-1 B[a]P+5 μg l-1 Aroclor 1254). All concentrations were nominal. A suite of enzymes [glutathione S transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR)], glutathione (GSH) level and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the mussel gill and hepatopancreas were monitored over 18 days. CAT and GSH in gill tissue were positively correlated with concentration of Aroclor 1254. Activity of hepatic GST and SOD was significantly related to body burden of Aroclor 1254. LPO, GR and GPx in gill and hepatopancreas and hepatic GST were positively correlated with B[a]P concentration. The results indicate the importance of using biomarkers specific to the type of contaminant(s) that are likely to be present. Controlled laboratory experiments, such as this study, are useful in ascertaining biomarkers suitable for use with complex contaminant mixtures in the marine environment. - Benzo[a]pyrene and Aroclor 1254 separately and in combination caused specific induction in a number of antioxidant parameters in the gill and hepatopancreas of green-lipped mussels

  14. Accumulation and detoxification dynamics of microcystin-LR and antioxidant responses in male red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Julin; Gu, Zhimin; Zheng, Yao; Zhang, Yingying; Gao, Jiancao; Chen, Shu; Wang, Zaizhao

    2016-08-01

    MC-LR is one of major microcystin isoforms with potent hepatotoxicity. In the present study, we aim to: 1) explore the dynamics of MC-LR accumulation and elimination in different tissues of male red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii; 2) reveal the mechanisms underlying hepatic antioxidation and detoxification. In the semi-static toxicity tests under the water temperature of 25±2°C, P. clarkii were exposed to 0.1, 1, 10 and 100μg/L MC-LR for 7days for accumulation and subsequently relocated to freshwater for another 7days to depurate MC-LR. MC-LR was measured in the hepatopancreas, intestine, abdominal muscle and gill by HPLC. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), content of glutathione (GSH), and transcripts of Mn-sod, cat, gpx1, Mu-gst, heat shock protein90 (hsp90), hsp70 and hsp60 in hepatopancreas were detected. The results showed that P. clarkii accumulated more MC-LR in intestine, and less in abdominal muscle and gill during accumulation period and eliminated the toxin more quickly in gill and abdominal muscle, and comparatively slowly in intestine during depuration period. The fast increase of SOD and CAT activities at early stage, subsequent decrease at later stage of accumulation period and then fast increase during depuration period were partially consistent with the transcriptional changes of their respective genes. GPx was activated by longer MC-LR exposure and gpx1 mRNA expression showed uncoordinated regulation pattern compared with its enzyme. Hsp genes were up-regulated when P. clarkii was exposed to MC-LR. PMID:27218425

  15. Phenolics and flavonoids compounds, phenylanine ammonia lyase and antioxidant activity responses to elevated CO₂ in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Karimi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO₂ (400, 800 and 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO₂ concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO₂ levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO₂ (1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101-111%), whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%), followed closely by alata (201%). Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO₂ conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100%) and pumila (298~433%). Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 μg·g⁻¹ DW) and pumila (25 μg·g⁻¹ DW), respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO₂ enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO₂ levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila under high CO₂ enrichment conditions. PMID:22634843

  16. Finite element model validation of bridge based on structural health monitoring—Part I: Response surface-based finite element model updating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouhong Zong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the engineering practice, merging statistical analysis into structural evaluation and assessment is a tendency in the future. As a combination of mathematical and statistical techniques, response surface (RS methodology has been successfully applied to design optimization, response prediction and model validation. With the aid of RS methodology, these two serial papers present a finite element (FE model updating and validation method for bridge structures based on structural health monitoring. The key issues to implement such a model updating are discussed in this paper, such as design of experiment, parameter screening, construction of high-order polynomial response surface model, optimization methods and precision inspection of RS model. The proposed procedure is illustrated by a prestressed concrete continuous rigid-frame bridge monitored under operational conditions. The results from the updated FE model have been compared with those obtained from online health monitoring system. The real application to a full-size bridge has demonstrated that the FE model updating process is efficient and convenient. The updated FE model can relatively reflect the actual condition of Xiabaishi Bridge in the design space of parameters and can be further applied to FE model validation and damage identification.

  17. Antioxidative defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  18. SANTOS - a two-dimensional finite element program for the quasistatic, large deformation, inelastic response of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C.M.

    1997-07-01

    SANTOS is a finite element program designed to compute the quasistatic, large deformation, inelastic response of two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric solids. The code is derived from the transient dynamic code PRONTO 2D. The solution strategy used to compute the equilibrium states is based on a self-adaptive dynamic relaxation solution scheme, which is based on explicit central difference pseudo-time integration and artificial mass proportional damping. The element used in SANTOS is a uniform strain 4-node quadrilateral element with an hourglass control scheme to control the spurious deformation modes. Finite strain constitutive models for many common engineering materials are included. A robust master-slave contact algorithm for modeling sliding contact is implemented. An interface for coupling to an external code is also provided. 43 refs., 22 figs.

  19. First-principles study on the effect of alloying elements on the elastic deformation response in β-titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical deformation response of hypothetical β-titanium alloys was investigated using first-principles calculation technique under periodic boundary conditions. Simulation was carried out on hypothetical 54-atom supercell of Ti–X (X = Cr, Mn, Fe, Zr, Nb, Mo, Al, and Sn) binary alloys. The results showed that the strength of Ti increases by alloying, except for Cr. The most effective alloying elements are Nb, Zr, and Mo in the current simulation. The mechanism of bond breaking was revealed by studying the local structure around the alloying element atom with respect to volume change. Moreover, the effect of alloying elements on bulk modulus and admissible strain was investigated. It was found that Zr, Nb, and Mo have a significant effect to enhance the admissible strain of Ti without change in bulk modulus

  20. First-principles study on the effect of alloying elements on the elastic deformation response in β-titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouda, Mohammed K., E-mail: mohamed.kamal@ejust.edu.eg; Gepreel, Mohamed A. H. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology, Borg El Arab, Alexandria 21934 (Egypt); Nakamura, Koichi [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology, Borg El Arab, Alexandria 21934 (Egypt); Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2015-06-07

    Theoretical deformation response of hypothetical β-titanium alloys was investigated using first-principles calculation technique under periodic boundary conditions. Simulation was carried out on hypothetical 54-atom supercell of Ti–X (X = Cr, Mn, Fe, Zr, Nb, Mo, Al, and Sn) binary alloys. The results showed that the strength of Ti increases by alloying, except for Cr. The most effective alloying elements are Nb, Zr, and Mo in the current simulation. The mechanism of bond breaking was revealed by studying the local structure around the alloying element atom with respect to volume change. Moreover, the effect of alloying elements on bulk modulus and admissible strain was investigated. It was found that Zr, Nb, and Mo have a significant effect to enhance the admissible strain of Ti without change in bulk modulus.

  1. Synergy between phenotypic modulation and ROS neutralization in reduction of inflammatory response of hypoxic microglia by using phosphatidylserine and antioxidant containing liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosain, Md Zahangir; Mori, Takeshi; Kishimura, Akihiro; Katayama, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Neuroinflammation caused by microglial activation is a key contributing factor in neurological disorders such as those involving ischaemia. Excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) stimulates the inflammatory response during ischaemia, significantly damaging cells. Inhibition of inflammatory activation of microglia is a promising potential treatment approach for neurological diseases. In this study, we introduce α-tocopherol and phosphatidylserine (PS) containing liposomes (PST-liposomes) to inhibit the microglial inflammatory response. PS is known to have anti-inflammatory effects on microglia by modulating the microglial phenotype, while α-tocopherol is an antioxidant, known to neutralize ROS. We found that both PS-containing liposomes (PS-liposomes) and PST-liposomes, as compared with phosphatidylcholine containing liposomes, significantly increased viability of hypoxia-treated microglia. The PST-liposomes functioned better than the PS-liposomes and we attribute this superior effect to a synergy between PS and α-tocopherol. This synergic action of PST-liposomes was illustrated in their ability, when incubated with microglia, to reduce NO and pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) production and increase anti-inflammatory cytokine (TGF-β1) production. Thus, the improved viability of hypoxia-treated microglia when treated with PST-liposomes involved anti-inflammatory effects, including ROS neutralization, as well as induction of a microglial phenotypic change. Our results suggest that PST-liposomes represent a potential therapeutic approach to reducing ischaemic injury in the brain. PMID:26689775

  2. Elemental analysis of brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) extracts by neutron activation and its bioassay for antioxidant, radio protective and anti-lipid peroxidation activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) leaves, known as nervine tonic in Ayurveda, and its aqueous (BA), methanolic (BM) and aqueous-methanolic (BAM) extracts were analyzed for 7 minor (Al, Fe, Na, K, Ca, P, Cl) and 18 trace (As, Au, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cu, Hf, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Se, Sm, Sr, Th, V, Zn) elements by INAA. BAM extract showed maximum contents of Na, K, Cl and significant amounts of Mn, Co, Zn. It was also found as effective scavenger of DPPH radicals with 33.5% total phenolic content, highest γ-ray radioprotective effect and higher anti lipid peroxidation activity. (author)

  3. Photosynthetic Characteristics and Antioxidative Metabolism of Flag Leaves in Responses to Nitrogen Application During Grain Filling of Field-Grown Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Rui-guo; WANG Zhen-lin; ZHANG Min; YIN Yan-ping; WANG Ping; ZHANG Ti-bin; GU Feng; DAI Zhong-min; LIANG Tai-bo; WU Yun-hai

    2008-01-01

    A two-factorial experiment was conducted with two wheat cultivars,SN1391(large spike and large grain)and GC8901(multiple spike and medium grain),and two nitrogen(N)application rates(12 and 24 g N m-2),to investigate the responses of photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidative metabolism to nitrogen rates in flag leaves of field-grown wheat during grain filling.The results showed that the content of N and chlorophyll(Chl)in wheat flag leaves decreased after anthesis and the net photosynthetic rate(Pn),effective quantum yield of PS II(ΦPS Ⅱ),efficiency of excitation capture by open PS H reaction centers(Fv'/Fm'),and photochemical quenching coefficient(qp)began to decrease at 14 days after anthesis.However,the maximal efficiency of PS II photochemistry(Fv/Fm)decreased slightly until the late period of senescence and the nonphotochemical quenching coefficient(NPQ)increased during flag leaves' senescence.As a result,a conflict came into being between absorption and utilization to light energy in flag leaves during senescence,which might accelerate the senescence of flag leaves.Compared with GC8901,the lower plant population of SN1391during grain filling was helpful to maintain the higher content of photosynthetic pigment,activity of PS U,and Pn in flag leaves during senescence.The delayed decrease in antioxidative enzyme activity and the lower degree of membrane lipid peroxidation in the senescing leaves of SN1391 were beneficial to protect the photosynthetic apparatus,which lead to the prolonged duration of CO2 assimilation.With the increase of N application,the Chl content of SN1391 flag leaves and the efficiency of excitation captured by open PS II centers increased.At the same time,the thermal dissipation in SN1391 flag leaves at high N(HN)treatment decreased and ?PsⅡimproved greatly,which were favorable to the increase of Pn.The SOD,POD,CAT and APX activities in the flag leaves of SN1391 increased markedly at HN treatment,indicating that these enzymes

  4. Temperature, stress, and corrosive sensing apparatus utilizing harmonic response of magnetically soft sensor element (s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Craig A. (Inventor); Ong, Keat Ghee (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A temperature sensing apparatus including a sensor element made of a magnetically soft material operatively arranged within a first and second time-varying interrogation magnetic field, the first time-varying magnetic field being generated at a frequency higher than that for the second magnetic field. A receiver, remote from the sensor element, is engaged to measure intensity of electromagnetic emissions from the sensor element to identify a relative maximum amplitude value for each of a plurality of higher-order harmonic frequency amplitudes so measured. A unit then determines a value for temperature (or other parameter of interst) using the relative maximum harmonic amplitude values identified. In other aspects of the invention, the focus is on an apparatus and technique for determining a value for of stress condition of a solid analyte and for determining a value for corrosion, using the relative maximum harmonic amplitude values identified. A magnetically hard element supporting a biasing field adjacent the magnetically soft sensor element can be included.

  5. A negative retinoic acid response element in the rat oxytocin promoter restricts transcriptional stimulation by heterologous transactivation domains.

    OpenAIRE

    Lipkin, S. M.; Nelson, C. A.; Glass, C K; Rosenfeld, M G

    1992-01-01

    Retinoic acid receptors are ligand-dependent transcription factors that stimulate gene transcription from promoters containing retinoic acid or thyroid hormone response elements. We describe a high-affinity binding site from the rat oxytocin promoter that mediates negative transcriptional regulation by the retinoic acid receptor. To examine whether strong, constitutive transactivation domains would be capable of stimulating gene transcription when bound to this DNA binding site that normally ...

  6. Enhancement of DNA vaccine-induced immune responses by a 72-bp element from SV40 enhancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hai-shan; XU Jian-qing; HONG Kun-xue; SHAO Yi-ming; LIU Yong; LI Ding-feng; ZHANG Ran-ran; TANG Hai-li; ZHANG Yu-wei; HUANG Wei; LIU Ying; PENG Hong

    2007-01-01

    Background Although DNA vaccine is considered as the next generation of vaccine, most DNA vaccine candidates are still suffering from the relatively weak immunogenicity despite the increased dosage of plasmid DNA administered. In order to enhance the immune responses elicited by a codon-optimized HIV gag DNA vaccine, a modified plasmid vector pDRVI1.0 and a booster immunization with replicating Tiantan vaccinia (RTV) strain expressing the same gene were employed.Methods Vector pDRVI1.0 was constructed through inserting the 72-bp element from the SV40 enhancer, which was reported promoting nuclear transport of plasmid DNA, to the upstream of cytomegalovirus enhancer/promoter region of the plasmid vector pVR1012. Gene expression levels from expression plasmids based on pDRVI1.0 and pVR1012 were tested. Humoral and cellular immune responses induced by DNA vaccine alone or DNA prime-RTV boost regimen were determined in mice.Results It was shown that the 72-bp element significantly enhanced the gene expression level in non-dividing cells.gag-specific humoral and cellular immune responses induced by DNA vaccination were both significantly improved, while the Th1/Th2 balance was not obviously affected by the 72-bp element. RTV boosting further significantly enhanced DNA vaccine-primed antibody and T cell responses in a Th1-biased manner.Conclusions The 72-bp SV40 enhancer element should be included in the DNA vaccine vector and RTV strain is a very efficient live vector for boosting immunization.

  7. Brain Response to Primary Blast Wave Using Validated Finite Element Models of Human Head and Advanced Combat Helmet

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Liying; Makwana, Rahul; Sharma, Sumit

    2013-01-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury has emerged as a “signature injury” in combat casualty care. Present combat helmets are designed primarily to protect against ballistic and blunt impacts, but the current issue with helmets is protection concerning blasts. In order to delineate the blast wave attenuating capability of the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH), a finite element (FE) study was undertaken to evaluate the head response against blast loadings with and without helmet using a partially va...

  8. The antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounous, Gustavo; Molson, John H

    2003-01-01

    The glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system is the principal protective mechanism of the cell and is a crucial factor in the development of the immune response by the immune cells. Experimental data demonstrate that a cysteine-rich whey protein concentrate represents an effective cysteine delivery system for GSH replenishment during the immune response. Animal experiments showed that the concentrates of whey protein also exhibit anticancer activity. They do this via the GSH pathway, the induction of p53 protein in transformed cells and inhibition of neoangiogenesis. PMID:12820403

  9. cAMP response element binding protein (CREB activates transcription via two distinct genetic elements of the human glucose-6-phosphatase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Luisa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase catalyzes the dephosphorylation of glucose-6-phosphatase to glucose, the final step in the gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic pathways. Expression of the glucose-6-phosphatase gene is induced by glucocorticoids and elevated levels of intracellular cAMP. The effect of cAMP in regulating glucose-6-phosphatase gene transcription was corroborated by the identification of two genetic motifs CRE1 and CRE2 in the human and murine glucose-6-phosphatase gene promoter that resemble cAMP response elements (CRE. Results The cAMP response element is a point of convergence for many extracellular and intracellular signals, including cAMP, calcium, and neurotrophins. The major CRE binding protein CREB, a member of the basic region leucine zipper (bZIP family of transcription factors, requires phosphorylation to become a biologically active transcriptional activator. Since unphosphorylated CREB is transcriptionally silent simple overexpression studies cannot be performed to test the biological role of CRE-like sequences of the glucose-6-phosphatase gene. The use of a constitutively active CREB2/CREB fusion protein allowed us to uncouple the investigation of target genes of CREB from the variety of signaling pathways that lead to an activation of CREB. Here, we show that this constitutively active CREB2/CREB fusion protein strikingly enhanced reporter gene transcription mediated by either CRE1 or CRE2 derived from the glucose-6-phosphatase gene. Likewise, reporter gene transcription was enhanced following expression of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA in the nucleus of transfected cells. In contrast, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2, known to compete with CREB for binding to the canonical CRE sequence 5'-TGACGTCA-3', did not transactivate reporter genes containing CRE1, CRE2, or both CREs derived from the glucose-6-phosphatase gene. Conclusions Using a constitutively active CREB2

  10. A topology-motivated mixed finite element method for dynamic response of porous media

    OpenAIRE

    Lotfian, Zahrasadat; Sivaselvan, Mettupalayam

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a numerical method for computing solutions to Biot's fully dynamic model of incompressible saturated porous media [Biot;1956]. Our spatial discretization scheme is based on the three-field formulation (u-w-p) and the coupling of a lowest order Raviart-Thomas mixed element [Raviart,Thomas;1977] for fluid variable fields (w, p ) and a nodal Galerkin finite element for skeleton variable field (u). These mixed spaces are constructed based on the natural topology of the v...

  11. Dis3- and exosome subunit-responsive 3 Prime mRNA instability elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, Daniel L.; Hou, Dezhi [Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Gross, Robert H. [Dartmouth College, Department of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Center 343, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Andrulis, Erik D., E-mail: exa32@case.edu [Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successful use of a novel RNA-specific bioinformatic tool, RNA SCOPE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identified novel 3 Prime UTR cis-acting element that destabilizes a reporter mRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Show exosome subunits are required for cis-acting element-mediated mRNA instability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Define precise sequence requirements of novel cis-acting element. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Show that microarray-defined exosome subunit-regulated mRNAs have novel element. -- Abstract: Eukaryotic RNA turnover is regulated in part by the exosome, a nuclear and cytoplasmic complex of ribonucleases (RNases) and RNA-binding proteins. The major RNase of the complex is thought to be Dis3, a multi-functional 3 Prime -5 Prime exoribonuclease and endoribonuclease. Although it is known that Dis3 and core exosome subunits are recruited to transcriptionally active genes and to messenger RNA (mRNA) substrates, this recruitment is thought to occur indirectly. We sought to discover cis-acting elements that recruit Dis3 or other exosome subunits. Using a bioinformatic tool called RNA SCOPE to screen the 3 Prime untranslated regions of up-regulated transcripts from our published Dis3 depletion-derived transcriptomic data set, we identified several motifs as candidate instability elements. Secondary screening using a luciferase reporter system revealed that one cassette-harboring four elements-destabilized the reporter transcript. RNAi-based depletion of Dis3, Rrp6, Rrp4, Rrp40, or Rrp46 diminished the efficacy of cassette-mediated destabilization. Truncation analysis of the cassette showed that two exosome subunit-sensitive elements (ESSEs) destabilized the reporter. Point-directed mutagenesis of ESSE abrogated the destabilization effect. An examination of the transcriptomic data from exosome subunit depletion-based microarrays revealed that mRNAs with ESSEs are found in every up-regulated mRNA data set but are

  12. Structure of a Thyroid Hormone Receptor DNA-Binding Domain Homodimer Bound to an Inverted Palindrome DNA Response Element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi; Young, Matthew A. (Michigan)

    2010-10-22

    Thyroid hormone receptor (TR), as a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, can recognize and bind different classes of DNA response element targets as either a monomer, a homooligomer, or a heterooligomer. We report here the first crystal structure of a homodimer TR DNA-binding domain (DBD) in complex with an inverted repeat class of thyroid response element (TRE). The structure shows a nearly symmetric structure of the TR DBD assembled on the F2 TRE where the base recognition contacts in the homodimer DNA complex are conserved relative to the previously published structure of a TR-9-cis-retinoic acid receptor heterodimer DNA complex. The new structure also reveals that the T-box region of the DBD can function as a structural hinge that enables a large degree of flexibility in the position of the C-terminal extension helix that connects the DBD to the ligand-binding domain. Although the isolated TR DBDs exist as monomers in solution, we have measured highly cooperative binding of the two TR DBD subunits onto the inverted repeat DNA sequence. This suggests that elements of the DBD can influence the specific TR oligomerization at target genes, and it is not just interactions between the ligand-binding domains that are responsible for TR oligomerization at target genes. Mutational analysis shows that intersubunit contacts at the DBD C terminus account for some, but not all, of the cooperative homodimer TR binding to the inverted repeat class TRE.

  13. Bimodal responses of cells to trace elements: insights into their mechanism of action using a biospectroscopy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llabjani, Valon; Hoti, Valmira; Pouran, Hamid M; Martin, Francis L; Zhang, Hao

    2014-10-01

    Understanding how organisms respond to trace elements is important because some are essential for normal bodily homeostasis, but can additionally be toxic at high concentrations. The inflection point for many of these elements is unknown and requires sensitive techniques capable of detecting subtle cellular changes as well as cytotoxic alterations. In this study, we treated human cells with arsenic (As), copper or selenium (Se) in a dose-response manner and used attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) microspectroscopy combined with computational analysis to examine cellular alterations. Cell cultures were treated with As(V), Cu(2+) or Se(IV) at concentrations ranging from 0.001 mg L(-1) to 1000 mg L(-1) and their effects were spectrochemically determined. Results show that As(V) and Cu(2+) induce bimodal dose-response effects on cells; this is in line with hormesis-driven responses. Lipids and proteins seem to be the main cell targets for all the elements tested; however, each compound produced a unique fingerprint of effect. Spectral biomarkers indicate that all test agents generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which could either stimulate repair mechanisms or induce damage in cells. PMID:25048930

  14. The neurogenic basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor NeuroD6 confers tolerance to oxidative stress by triggering an antioxidant response and sustaining the mitochondrial biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Uittenbogaard

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Preserving mitochondrial mass, bioenergetic functions and ROS (reactive oxygen species homoeostasis is key to neuronal differentiation and survival, as mitochondria produce most of the energy in the form of ATP to execute and maintain these cellular processes. In view of our previous studies showing that NeuroD6 promotes neuronal differentiation and survival on trophic factor withdrawal, combined with its ability to stimulate the mitochondrial biomass and to trigger comprehensive antiapoptotic and molecular chaperone responses, we investigated whether NeuroD6 could concomitantly modulate the mitochondrial biomass and ROS homoeostasis on oxidative stress mediated by serum deprivation. In the present study, we report a novel role of NeuroD6 as a regulator of ROS homoeostasis, resulting in enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress. Using a combination of flow cytometry, confocal fluorescence microscopy and mitochondrial fractionation, we found that NeuroD6 sustains mitochondrial mass, intracellular ATP levels and expression of specific subunits of respiratory complexes upon oxidative stress triggered by withdrawal of trophic factors. NeuroD6 also maintains the expression of nuclear-encoded transcription factors, known to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, such as PGC-1α (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α, Tfam (transcription factor A, mitochondrial and NRF-1 (nuclear respiratory factor-1. Finally, NeuroD6 triggers a comprehensive antioxidant response to endow PC12-ND6 cells with intracellular ROS scavenging capacity. The NeuroD6 effect is not limited to the classic induction of the ROS-scavenging enzymes, such as SOD2 (superoxide dismutase 2, GPx1 (glutathione peroxidase 1 and PRDX5 (peroxiredoxin 5, but also to the recently identified powerful ROS suppressors PGC-1α, PINK1 (phosphatase and tensin homologue-induced kinase 1 and SIRT1. Thus our collective results support the concept that the NeuroD6–PGC-1α–SIRT1

  15. On the antioxidant properties of erythropoietin and its association with the oxidative–nitrosative stress response to hypoxia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D M; Lundby, C; Berg, R M G;

    2014-01-01

    ˙) radicals was evaluated in-vitro. The relationship between the erythopoietic and oxidative-nitrosative stress response to poikilocapneic hypoxia was determined separately in-vivo by sampling arterial blood from eleven males in normoxia and following 12 h exposure to 13% oxygen. Electron paramagnetic...... in nitric oxide, indicative of oxidative-nitrosative stress. The latter was confirmed by an increased systemic formation of A˙(-) , PBN-OR, 3-NT and corresponding loss of NO2- (P stress responses were consistently related (r = -0.52 to 0...

  16. Study of the Internal Mechanical response of an asphalt mixture by 3-D Discrete Element Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huan; Pettinari, Matteo; Hofko, Bernhard;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the viscoelastic behavior of asphalt mixture was investigated by employing a three-dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM). The cylinder model was filled with cubic array of spheres with a specified radius, and was considered as a whole mixture with uniform contact properties for ...

  17. State-of-the-art Review : Vol. 2A. Responsive Building Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blümel, Ernst; Haghighat, Fariborz; Li, Yuguo;

    researchers in the field and gives an overview of how these elements work together with available performance data. It is hoped, that this report will be helpful for researchers in their search for new solutions to the problem of designing and constructing sustainable buildings....

  18. Response to the Report of the Transfermium Working Group ''Discovery of the Transfermium Elements''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the opinion of the authors the report of the Transfermium Working Group (TWG) ''Discovery of the Transfermium Elements'' is riddled with errors of omission and commission. Many relevant references and much relevant data were omitted as a result of the selective use of references and data. There were only two members representing the International Union of Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) on the TWG ( and these were not nuclear chemists) while there were seven members representing the International Union of Applied Physics (IUPAP). Much of the experimental evidence is of a basically chemical nature and its proper evaluation would have benefited from the presence of more nuclear chemists on the TWG. Especially grievous is the rejection of the Berkeley claim to the 1955 discovery of element 101 which was based on a clear-cut chemical identification. Our most serious quarrel with the TWG report is their treatment of the discovery of element 104. It is clearly a waste of time and effort to reopen the cases of elements 102 and 103, which were discovered more than 30 years ago with the approval of the suggested names by the IUPAC according to the standards of that era. (Author)

  19. Small intestinal response to 'elemental' and 'complete' liquid feeds in the rat: effect of dietary bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxton, D G; Cynk, E U; Thompson, R P

    1987-06-01

    The effect of oral isocaloric feeding on small intestinal structure and function was studied in the rat. The liquid 'elemental' enteral feed Vivonex HN, the liquid 'complete' feed Ensure and the same liquid complete feed with 9% bulk Enrich were compared with solid chow containing 21% bulk (normal rat chow), all given for four weeks. Weight gain was significantly less in the group fed Vivonex HN than that of any other groups. The bulkless Vivonex HN and Ensure increased proximal jejunal mass compared to Enrich with 9% bulk or to normal rat chow. Jejunal mucosal DNA and protein levels also tended to be higher in Ensure and Vivonex HN fed animals, as was jejunal sugar absorption. In the terminal ileum, however, total weight was decreased by both elemental and complete feeds with and without bulk, but particularly by the elemental diet. Bulkless feeds therefore increase jejunal and reduce terminal ileal mass. The striking atrophy of the terminal ileum produced by the elemental diet may be important for its efficacy in treating inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:3040541

  20. ParCYCLIC: finite element modelling of earthquake liquefaction response on parallel computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Lu, Jinchi; Law, Kincho H.; Elgamal, Ahmed

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents the computational procedures and solution strategy employed in ParCYCLIC, a parallel non-linear finite element program developed based on an existing serial code CYCLIC for the analysis of cyclic seismically-induced liquefaction problems. In ParCYCLIC, finite elements are employed within an incremental plasticity, coupled solid-fluid formulation. A constitutive model developed for simulating liquefaction-induced deformations is a main component of this analysis framework. The elements of the computational strategy, designed for distributed-memory message-passing parallel computer systems, include: (a) an automatic domain decomposer to partition the finite element mesh; (b) nodal ordering strategies to minimize storage space for the matrix coefficients; (c) an efficient scheme for the allocation of sparse matrix coefficients among the processors; and (d) a parallel sparse direct solver. Application of ParCYCLIC to simulate 3-D geotechnical experimental models is demonstrated. The computational results show excellent parallel performance and scalability of ParCYCLIC on parallel computers with a large number of processors. Copyright

  1. Seismic response analysis of full-scale boiling water reactor using three-dimensional finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the three-dimensional finite element seismic response analysis of full-scale boiling water reactor BWR5 at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station subjected to the Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake that occurred on 16 July 2007. During the earthquake, the automatic shutdown system of the reactors was activated successfully. Although the monitored seismic acceleration significantly exceeded the design level, it was found that there were no significant damages of the reactor cores or other important systems, structures and components through in-depth investigation. In the seismic design commonly used in Japan, a lumped mass model is employed to evaluate the seismic response of structures and components. Although the lumped mass model has worked well so far for a seismic proof design, it is still needed to develop more precise methods for the visual understanding of response behaviors. In the present study, we propose the three-dimensional finite element seismic response analysis of the full-scale and precise BWR model in order to directly visualize its dynamic behaviors. Through the comparison between both analysis results, we discuss the characteristics of both models. The stress values were also found to be generally under the design value. (author)

  2. Seismic response analysis of full-scale boiling water reactor using three-dimensional finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present the three-dimensional finite element seismic response analysis of the full-scale boiling water reactor BWR5 at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant subjected to the Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki (NCO) earthquake that occurred on 16th July 2007. During the earthquake, the automatic shutdown of the reactors was performed successfully. Although the monitored seismic acceleration significantly exceeded the design level, it was found through in-depth investigation that there was no significant damage of the reactor cores or other important systems, structures and components (SSCs). In the seismic design commonly used in Japan, a lumped mass model is employed to evaluate the seismic response of SSCs. Although the lumped mass model has worked well so far for a seismic proof design, more precise methods should be developed to understand response behaviors visually. In the present study, we propose the three-dimensional finite element seismic response analysis of the full-scale and precise BWR model in order to directly visualize the dynamic behaviors of this model. Through the comparison of the analysis results, we discuss the characteristics of both models. The stress values were also found to be generally under the design value. (author)

  3. Response surface methodology for evaluation and optimization of process parameter and antioxidant capacity of rice flour modified by enzymatic extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Pan, Xiaowei; Wu, Zhengzong; Long, Jie; Li, Jingpeng; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2016-12-01

    For the purpose of investigating the effect of enzyme concentration (EC), barrel temperature (BT), moisture content (MC), and screw speed (SS) on processing parameters (product temperature, die pressure and special mechanical energy (SME)) and product responses (extent of gelatinization (GE), retention rate of total phenolic content (TPC-RR)), rice flour extruded with thermostable α-amylase was analyzed by response surface methodology. Stepwise regression models were computed to generate response surface and contour plots, revealing that both TPC-RR and GE increased as increasing MC while expressed different sensitivities to BT during enzymatic extrusion. Phenolics preservation was benefited from low SME. According to multiple-factor optimization, the conditions required to obtain the target SME (10kJ/kg), GE (100%) and TPC-RR (85%) were: EC=1.37‰, BT=93.01°C, MC=44.30%, and SS=171.66rpm, with the actual values (9.49kJ/kg, 99.96% and 87.10%, respectively) showing a good fit to the predicted values. PMID:27374518

  4. β-Radiation Stress Responses on Growth and Antioxidative Defense System in Plants: A Study with Strontium-90 in Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Arne; Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; Knapen, Dries; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Blust, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    In the following study, dose dependent effects on growth and oxidative stress induced by β-radiation were examined to gain better insights in the mode of action of β-radiation induced stress in plant species. Radiostrontium (⁹⁰Sr) was used to test for β-radiation induced responses in the freshwater macrophyte Lemna minor. The accumulation pattern of 90Sr was examined for L. minor root and fronds separately over a seven-day time period and was subsequently used in a dynamic dosimetric model to calculate β-radiation dose rates. Exposing L. minor plants for seven days to a ⁹⁰Sr activity concentration of 25 up to 25,000 kBq·L⁻¹ resulted in a dose rate between 0.084 ± 0.004 and 97 ± 8 mGy·h⁻¹. After seven days of exposure, root fresh weight showed a dose dependent decrease starting from a dose rate of 9.4 ± 0.5 mGy·h⁻¹. Based on these data, an EDR10 value of 1.5 ± 0.4 mGy·h⁻¹ was estimated for root fresh weight and 52 ± 17 mGy·h⁻¹ for frond fresh weight. Different antioxidative enzymes and metabolites were further examined to analyze if β-radiation induces oxidative stress in L. minor. PMID:26198226

  5. Responses of antioxidant enzyme and photosynthesis in rape seedling to the combined stresses of acid rain and ultraviolet-B radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Chan-juan; HUANG Xiao-hua; TAO Wen-yi; ZHOU Qing

    2005-01-01

    Effects of the simulated acid rain(AR) and ultraviolet-B(UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation with a single or two ways simultaneously (AR + UV-B) on the antioxidant enzyme and photosynthesis of the rape seedlings were investigated by the hydroponic culture. The results of static experiment indicated that the tolerance of rape seedling to single stress(AR or UV-B) is stronger than that to dual stresses(AR +UV-B). Furthermore, the dual stresses had additive effect on catalase activity, and a synergistic effect on MDA content, net photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency as well as intercellular CO2 concentration. Meanwhile, it has an independent effect on chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate as well as membrane permeability. During 64 h restoration course, the dynamic change in the curves of physiological and biochemical indices were not identical, and none of them show a simple linear variation.According to the static and dynamic experiments, it was found that a responsive sequence of catalase activity, membrane permeability,M DA content and photosynthetic characteristics to the above-mentioned stresses was as follows: AR + UV-B > UV-B > AR.

  6. β-Radiation Stress Responses on Growth and Antioxidative Defense System in Plants: A Study with Strontium-90 in Lemna minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Arne; Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; Knapen, Dries; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Blust, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    In the following study, dose dependent effects on growth and oxidative stress induced by β-radiation were examined to gain better insights in the mode of action of β-radiation induced stress in plant species. Radiostrontium (90Sr) was used to test for β-radiation induced responses in the freshwater macrophyte Lemna minor. The accumulation pattern of 90Sr was examined for L. minor root and fronds separately over a seven-day time period and was subsequently used in a dynamic dosimetric model to calculate β-radiation dose rates. Exposing L. minor plants for seven days to a 90Sr activity concentration of 25 up to 25,000 kBq·L−1 resulted in a dose rate between 0.084 ± 0.004 and 97 ± 8 mGy·h−1. After seven days of exposure, root fresh weight showed a dose dependent decrease starting from a dose rate of 9.4 ± 0.5 mGy·h−1. Based on these data, an EDR10 value of 1.5 ± 0.4 mGy·h−1 was estimated for root fresh weight and 52 ± 17 mGy·h−1 for frond fresh weight. Different antioxidative enzymes and metabolites were further examined to analyze if β-radiation induces oxidative stress in L. minor. PMID:26198226

  7. β-Radiation Stress Responses on Growth and Antioxidative Defense System in Plants: A Study with Strontium-90 in Lemna minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Van Hoeck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the following study, dose dependent effects on growth and oxidative stress induced by β-radiation were examined to gain better insights in the mode of action of β-radiation induced stress in plant species. Radiostrontium (90Sr was used to test for β-radiation induced responses in the freshwater macrophyte Lemna minor. The accumulation pattern of 90Sr was examined for L. minor root and fronds separately over a seven-day time period and was subsequently used in a dynamic dosimetric model to calculate β-radiation dose rates. Exposing L. minor plants for seven days to a 90Sr activity concentration of 25 up to 25,000 kBq·L−1 resulted in a dose rate between 0.084 ± 0.004 and 97 ± 8 mGy·h−1. After seven days of exposure, root fresh weight showed a dose dependent decrease starting from a dose rate of 9.4 ± 0.5 mGy·h−1. Based on these data, an EDR10 value of 1.5 ± 0.4 mGy·h−1 was estimated for root fresh weight and 52 ± 17 mGy·h−1 for frond fresh weight. Different antioxidative enzymes and metabolites were further examined to analyze if β-radiation induces oxidative stress in L. minor.

  8. A topology-motivated mixed finite element method for dynamic response of porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Lotfian, Zahrasadat

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a numerical method for computing solutions to Biot's fully dynamic model of incompressible saturated porous media [Biot;1956]. Our spatial discretization scheme is based on the three-field formulation (u-w-p) and the coupling of a lowest order Raviart-Thomas mixed element [Raviart,Thomas;1977] for fluid variable fields (w, p ) and a nodal Galerkin finite element for skeleton variable field (u). These mixed spaces are constructed based on the natural topology of the variables; hence, are physically compatible and able to exactly model the kind of continuity which is expected. The method automatically satisfies the well known LBB (inf-sup) stability condition and avoids locking that usually occurs in the numerical computations in the incompressible limit and very low hydraulic conductivity. In contrast to the majority of approaches, our three-field formulation can fully capture dynamic behavior of porous media even in high frequency loading phenomena with considerable fluid acceleratio...

  9. Natural antioxidants in meat and poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Liz; Lopez, Keyla; Getty, Kelly J K

    2013-06-01

    In response to recent claims that synthetic antioxidants have the potential to cause toxicological effects and consumers' increased interest in purchasing natural products, the meat and poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants. Due to their high phenolic compound content, fruits and other plant materials provide a good alternative to conventional antioxidants. Plum, grape seed extract, cranberry, pomegranate, bearberry, pine bark extract, rosemary, oregano, and other spices functions as antioxidants in meat and poultry products. Pomegranate, pine bark extract, cinnamon, and cloves have exhibited stronger antioxidant properties than some synthetic options. Plum products, grape seed extract, pine bark extract, rosemary, and some spices all have been shown to affect the color of finished meat or poultry products; however, in some products such as pork sausage or uncured meats, an increase in red color may be desired. When selecting a natural antioxidant, sensory and quality impact on the product should be considered to achieve desired traits. PMID:23501254

  10. Small intestinal response to 'elemental' and 'complete' liquid feeds in the rat: effect of dietary bulk.

    OpenAIRE

    Maxton, D. G.; Cynk, E U; Thompson, R P

    1987-01-01

    The effect of oral isocaloric feeding on small intestinal structure and function was studied in the rat. The liquid 'elemental' enteral feed Vivonex HN, the liquid 'complete' feed Ensure and the same liquid complete feed with 9% bulk Enrich were compared with solid chow containing 21% bulk (normal rat chow), all given for four weeks. Weight gain was significantly less in the group fed Vivonex HN than that of any other groups. The bulkless Vivonex HN and Ensure increased proximal jejunal mass ...

  11. Geological occurrence response to trace elemental migration in coal liquefaction based on SPSS: take no. 11 coalbed in Antaibao mine for example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Qin, Yong; Yang, Weifeng

    2013-03-01

    Coal liquefaction is an adoptable method to transfer the solid fossil energy into liquid oil in large scale, but the dirty material in which will migrate to different step of liquefaction. The migration rule of some trace elements is response to the react activity of macerals in coal and the geological occurrence of the element nature of itself. In this paper, from the SPSS data correlation analysis and hierarchical clustering dendrogram about the trace elements with macerals respond to coal liquefaction yield, it shows the trace elements in No.11 Antaibao coal seam originated from some of lithophile and sulphophle elements. Correlation coefficient between liquefaction yield of three organic macerals and migration of the elements in liquefaction residue indicated that the lithophile are easy to transfer to residue, while sulphophle are apt to in the liquid products. The activated macerals are response to sulphophle trace elements. The conclusion is useful to the coal blending and environmental effects on coal direct liquefaction.

  12. Responsibility of non-stomatal limitations for the reduction of photosynthesis-response of photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme characteristics in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings to water stress and rehydration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenrao; ZHANG Suiqi; SHAN Lun

    2007-01-01

    Water stress by polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 solution (Ψs=0.2 MPa,stress time:48 h,rehydration time:48 h) was performed in leaves of two alfalfa cultivar (Long-Dong and Algonquin) seedlings.Gas exchange parameters,chlorophyll fluorescence parameters,activity of antioxidant enzyme and photosynthetic pigment concentrations were measured to investigate the available photosynthetic and antioxidant enzyme response to variable water conditions as well as stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis.The results showed that non-stomatal limitations were responsible for the reduction of photosynthesis during water stress.At the beginning of water stress (12 h),water was lost and then the stomata closed rapidly,which resulted in a decrease of transpiration,net photosynthesis and CO2 diffusion.Therefore,when intercellular CO2 concentration and carboxylation efficiency decrease,water use efficiency and value of stomatal limitation would increase.However,the decline of net photosynthetic rate was faster than transpiration rate.At the same time,the maximal photochemical efficiency,potential activity of PSII reaction center and photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence declined significantly,the activity of antioxidant enzyme increased rapidly and the photosynthetic pigment concentrations changed slightly.The results also indicated that,at the initial period of stress,neither oxidative stress nor membrane lipid peroxidation was induced,nor were photosynthetic structures damaged,but photosynthetic functions were partly inhibited.Therefore,the stomatal limitation and non-stomatal limitations had the same responsibility for the reduction of photosynthesis.At the mid-late stage of water stress,net photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance,maximal photochemical efficiency,potential activity of PSII reaction center and photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence decreased linearly with the decline of the relative water content.And the relative electron

  13. Seasonal variation in antioxidative responses and acetylcholinesterase activity in Perna viridis in eastern oceanic and western estuarine waters of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, P. S.; Wong, H. L.; Garrigues, Ph.

    2004-10-01

    A year-round study was conducted to assess the seasonal variations and potential influence of the riverine discharge from the Pearl River on biomarker responses in Hong Kong waters. A suite of biomarkers including antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), a Phase II detoxification enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the neural transmitter enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the green mussel, Perna viridis, were monitored from three coastal sites, Port Shelter, Tung Chung and Tai O, stretching from the east to the west of Hong Kong. Despite of the seasonal variations, the total protein profiles suggested that mussels from the three sites had a growth cycle that was in phase with each other. This implied that intrinsic variation between sites due to a different phase of growth was minimal. Seasonal variations of the biomarker responses in the mussels were found to be significant (Tukey multiple comparison test, p<0.05) with a summer minimum and winter maximum. On top of seasonal variations, the western site, Tai O, was further subjected to the reduced salinity effect of the Pearl River discharge in the summer wet season. This was demonstrated by the significant July minimum in all the biomarker responses at Tai O in relation to the extreme low salinity of 8‰. Mussels from the western site also revealed a higher oxidative stress than those from the eastern side throughout the year (Tukey multiple comparison test, p<0.05), which could be caused by chemical pollutants from the Pearl River discharge. ANOVAs of the year-round dataset suggested that size was a minor factor in affecting the biomarker responses. Gill tissues of the mussels were more advantageous for biomarker studies or monitoring because their protein levels were less sensitive to seasonal variations and they yielded a higher protein normalized biomarker response than the whole body tissues. This increases their

  14. Thyroid hormone-regulated gene expression in juvenile mouse liver: identification of thyroid response elements using microarray profiling and in silico analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paquette Martin A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disruption of thyroid hormone signalling can alter growth, development and energy metabolism. Thyroid hormones exert their effects through interactions with thyroid receptors that directly bind thyroid response elements and can alter transcriptional activity of target genes. The effects of short-term thyroid hormone perturbation on hepatic mRNA transcription in juvenile mice were evaluated, with the goal of identifying genes containing active thyroid response elements. Thyroid hormone disruption was induced from postnatal day 12 to 15 by adding goitrogens to dams' drinking water (hypothyroid. A subgroup of thyroid hormone-disrupted pups received intraperitoneal injections of replacement thyroid hormones four hours prior to sacrifice (replacement. An additional group received only thyroid hormones four hours prior to sacrifice (hyperthyroid. Hepatic mRNA was extracted and hybridized to Agilent mouse microarrays. Results Transcriptional profiling enabled the identification of 28 genes that appeared to be under direct thyroid hormone-regulation. The regulatory regions of the genome adjacent to these genes were examined for half-site sequences that resemble known thyroid response elements. A bioinformatics search identified 33 thyroid response elements in the promoter regions of 13 different genes thought to be directly regulated by thyroid hormones. Thyroid response elements found in the promoter regions of Tor1a, 2310003H01Rik, Hect3d and Slc25a45 were further validated by confirming that the thyroid receptor is associated with these sequences in vivo and that it can bind directly to these sequences in vitro. Three different arrangements of thyroid response elements were identified. Some of these thyroid response elements were located far up-stream (> 7 kb of the transcription start site of the regulated gene. Conclusions Transcriptional profiling of thyroid hormone disrupted animals coupled with a novel bioinformatics search

  15. Metallothionein induction, antioxidative responses, glycogen and growth changes in Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaete) exposed to the fungicide, fenhexamid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Yahia Y; Paris-Palacios, Séverine; Couderchet, Michel; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie; Vernet, Guy

    2005-05-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of different concentrations of fenhexamid (0.1, 1, and 10 mg L(-1)) on growth, oxidative stress, protein, glycogen, and metallothionein (MT) contents in Tubifex tubifex after an exposure of 2, 4, and 7 days. In addition, residues of the fungicide were followed in water and in the worms. In water, fenhexamid concentration decreased slowly (maximum -2 +/- 0.03% after 2 days for 1 mg L(-1)). In the worms, it increased after 4 days and decreased thereafter, confirming that the worms were exposed to the fungicide and not to a degradation product. LC50 values were between 95.22 +/- 5.36 and 32.11 +/- 1.8 mg L(-1) depending on exposure time. Exposure to fenhexamid had a negative effect on T. tubifex growth (maximum effect -12.2 +/- 0.8% after 7 days with 10 mg L(-1)) demonstrating the toxic effect of the pesticide. This growth rate decrease was accompanied by a reduction in protein and glycogen contents. The activity of catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) increased in response to the fungicide demonstrating an oxidative stress in the worms. In contrast glutathion-S-transferase activity (GST) decreased. Exposure to fenhexamid also induced synthesis of MT (maximum +78 +/- 8% after 2 days for 10 mg L(-1)). The specificity of MT concentration increase in response to metals is discussed. PMID:15701394

  16. Metallothionein induction, antioxidative responses, glycogen and growth changes in Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaete) exposed to the fungicide, fenhexamid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of different concentrations of fenhexamid (0.1, 1, and 10 mg L-1) on growth, oxidative stress, protein, glycogen, and metallothionein (MT) contents in Tubifex tubifex after an exposure of 2, 4, and 7 days. In addition, residues of the fungicide were followed in water and in the worms. In water, fenhexamid concentration decreased slowly (maximum - 2±0.03% after 2 days for 1 mg L-1). In the worms, it increased after 4 days and decreased thereafter, confirming that the worms were exposed to the fungicide and not to a degradation product. LC50 values were between 95.22±5.36 and 32.11±1.8 mg L-1 depending on exposure time. Exposure to fenhexamid had a negative effect on T. tubifex growth (maximum effect -12.2±0.8% after 7 days with 10 mg L-1) demonstrating the toxic effect of the pesticide. This growth rate decrease was accompanied by a reduction in protein and glycogen contents. The activity of catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) increased in response to the fungicide demonstrating an oxidative stress in the worms. In contrast glutathion-S-transferase activity (GST) decreased. Exposure to fenhexamid also induced synthesis of MT (maximum +78±8% after 2 days for 10 mg L-1). The specificity of MT concentration increase in response to metals is discussed. - Exposure to the fungicide fenhexamid increased metallothionein levels in Tubifex tubifex