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Sample records for antioxidant proteins protect

  1. Protection of naturally occurring antioxidants against oxidative damages to protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongping; Zhang Zhaoxia; Hao Shumei; Wang Wenfeng; Yao Side

    2006-01-01

    One of the most compelling theories explaining age-related deterioration is the free radical theory of aging. It has been shown that reactive oxygen species are involved in oxidative damages to biomolecules and this is related to a number of diseases. Proteins, the second most abundant components of cells (next to water by weight), are now increasingly recognized as major biological targets of oxidative damages. Convincing evidences have indicated that damages to protein have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancer, and aging. Antioxidant has been the subject of great attention because they are known to lower the risk of cardiovascular and other diseases. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HCAs) are antioxidants abundant in tea, red wine, fruits, beverages and various medicinal plants. Results showed that they exhibit remarkable activity for scavenging oxidizing radicals and triplet states. The protective effects of four kinds of HCAs on oxidative damages to lysozyme were investigated in our lab. Protein damages induced by two different paradigms: riboflavin-sensitized photooxidation and hydroxyl ( . OH)-mediated oxidation, were investigated using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. HCAs were found to inhibit the cross-linking of protein induced by riboflavin-mediated photooxidation. HCAs also exhibited protection effect on lysozyme damage induced by γ-ray irradiation. The rate constants for quenching triplet state of riboflavin by lysozyme and HCAs were obtained using laser flash photolysis. The protective mechanism was proposed based on the dynamic study. HCAs were found to protect protein against oxidation by scavenging oxidizing species and repairing the damaged protein. (authors)

  2. Antioxidants: Protecting Healthy Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Nutrients Antioxidants - Protecting Healthy Cells Print Email Antioxidants - Protecting Healthy Cells Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, ... to cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Antioxidants — such as vitamins C and E and carotenoids, ...

  3. Aldose Reductase Inhibitor Protects against Hyperglycemic Stress by Activating Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtikar Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have shown earlier that pretreatment of cultured cells with aldose reductase (AR inhibitors prevents hyperglycemia-induced mitogenic and proinflammatory responses. However, the effects of AR inhibitors on Nrf2-mediated anti-inflammatory responses have not been elucidated yet. We have investigated how AR inhibitor fidarestat protects high glucose- (HG- induced cell viability changes by increasing the expression of Nrf2 and its dependent phase II antioxidant enzymes. Fidarestat pretreatment prevents HG (25 mM-induced Thp1 monocyte viability. Further, treatment of Thp1 monocytes with fidarestat caused a time-dependent increase in the expression as well as the DNA-binding activity of Nrf2. In addition, fidarestat augmented the HG-induced Nrf2 expression and activity and also upregulated the expression of Nrf2-dependent proteins such as hemeoxygenase-1 (HO1 and NQO1 in Thp1 cells. Similarly, treatment with AR inhibitor also induced the expression of Nrf2 and HO1 in STZ-induced diabetic mice heart and kidney tissues. Further, AR inhibition increased the HG-induced expression of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and catalase and activation of AMPK-α1 in Thp1 cells. Our results thus suggest that pretreatment with AR inhibitor prepares the monocytes against hyperglycemic stress by overexpressing the Nrf2-dependent antioxidative proteins.

  4. Aldose Reductase Inhibitor Protects against Hyperglycemic Stress by Activating Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kirtikar; Pal, Pabitra Bikash; Sonowal, Himangshu; Srivastava, Satish K; Ramana, Kota V

    2017-01-01

    We have shown earlier that pretreatment of cultured cells with aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors prevents hyperglycemia-induced mitogenic and proinflammatory responses. However, the effects of AR inhibitors on Nrf2-mediated anti-inflammatory responses have not been elucidated yet. We have investigated how AR inhibitor fidarestat protects high glucose- (HG-) induced cell viability changes by increasing the expression of Nrf2 and its dependent phase II antioxidant enzymes. Fidarestat pretreatment prevents HG (25 mM)-induced Thp1 monocyte viability. Further, treatment of Thp1 monocytes with fidarestat caused a time-dependent increase in the expression as well as the DNA-binding activity of Nrf2. In addition, fidarestat augmented the HG-induced Nrf2 expression and activity and also upregulated the expression of Nrf2-dependent proteins such as hemeoxygenase-1 (HO1) and NQO1 in Thp1 cells. Similarly, treatment with AR inhibitor also induced the expression of Nrf2 and HO1 in STZ-induced diabetic mice heart and kidney tissues. Further, AR inhibition increased the HG-induced expression of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and catalase and activation of AMPK- α 1 in Thp1 cells. Our results thus suggest that pretreatment with AR inhibitor prepares the monocytes against hyperglycemic stress by overexpressing the Nrf2-dependent antioxidative proteins.

  5. Selenium and zinc protect brain mitochondrial antioxidants and electron transport chain enzymes following postnatal protein malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Olusegun L; Adenuga, Gbenga A; Sandhir, Rajat

    2016-05-01

    Selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) are trace elements required for optimal brain functions. Thus, the role of Se and Zn against protein malnutrition induced oxidative stress on mitochondrial antioxidants and electron transport chain (ETC) enzymes from rats' brain were investigated. Normal protein (NP) and low protein (LP) rats were fed with diets containing 16% and 5% casein respectively for a period of 10weeks. Then the rats were supplemented with Se and Zn at a concentration of 0.15mgL(-1) and 227mgL(-1) in drinking water for 3weeks after which the rats were sacrificed. The results obtained from the study showed significant (p<0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), ROS production, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels and mitochondrial swelling and significant (p<0.05) reductions in catalase (CAT) and Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activities, glutathione (GSH) levels, GSH/GSSG ratio and MTT reduction as a result of LP ingestion. The activities of mitochondrial ETC enzymes were also significantly inhibited in both the cortex and cerebellum of LP-fed rats. Supplementation with either Se or Zn restored the alterations in all the parameters. The study showed that Se and Zn might be beneficial in protecting mitochondrial antioxidants and ETC enzymes against protein malnutrition induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiple antioxidant proteins protect Chlorobaculum tepidum against oxygen and reactive oxygen species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hui; Jubelirer, Sara; Garcia Costas, Amaya M

    2009-01-01

    of the mutants relative to wild type. Treatments with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) and methyl viologen resulted in more severe effects in most of the mutants than in the wild type. The results demonstrated that these putative antioxidant proteins combine to form an effective...

  7. Identification of a Protein with Antioxidant Activity that is Important for the Protection against Beer Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming J.; Clarke, Frank M.; Rogers, Peter J.; Young, Paul; Sales, Narelle; O’Doherty, Patrick J.; Higgins, Vincent J.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out with fresh Australian lager beer which was sampled directly off the production line, the same samples aged for 12 weeks at 30 °C, and the vintage beer which was kept at 20 °C for 5 years. Characteristic Australian lager flavour was maintained in the fresh and vintage beers but was lost in the aged beer. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and free thiol group labelling analyses of beer proteins found that this flavour stability correlated with the presence of an unknown 10 kilodaltons (kDa) protein with a higher level of free thiols. The protein was purified by size-exclusion chromatography, then peptide sequencing and database matching identified it as the barley lipid transfer protein (LTP1). Further characterisation using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based antioxidant screening assay demonstrated that the LTP1 protein was active in DPPH reduction and antioxidant activity. The absence of free thiol in the aged beer indicates that the thiol functional groups within the LTP1 protein were saturated and suggests that it is important in the flavour stability of beer by maintaining reduction capacity during the ageing process. PMID:22016646

  8. Antioxidant activity and protective role on protein glycation of synthetic aminocoumarins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Aminjafari

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: By the analogues, in vitro ascertained AO and AG properties of 4-ACD may be recognized as rationale for their protective role against oxidative changes of proteins, thereby precluding diabetic complications in humans.

  9. Partial Support Ventilation and Mitochondrial-Targeted Antioxidants Protect against Ventilator-Induced Decreases in Diaphragm Muscle Protein Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Hudson

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation (MV is a life-saving intervention in patients in respiratory failure. Unfortunately, prolonged MV results in the rapid development of diaphragm atrophy and weakness. MV-induced diaphragmatic weakness is significant because inspiratory muscle dysfunction is a risk factor for problematic weaning from MV. Therefore, developing a clinical intervention to prevent MV-induced diaphragm atrophy is important. In this regard, MV-induced diaphragmatic atrophy occurs due to both increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis. While efforts to impede MV-induced increased proteolysis in the diaphragm are well-documented, only one study has investigated methods of preserving diaphragmatic protein synthesis during prolonged MV. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of two therapeutic interventions that, conceptually, have the potential to sustain protein synthesis in the rat diaphragm during prolonged MV. Specifically, these experiments were designed to: 1 determine if partial-support MV will protect against the decrease in diaphragmatic protein synthesis that occurs during prolonged full-support MV; and 2 establish if treatment with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant will maintain diaphragm protein synthesis during full-support MV. Compared to spontaneously breathing animals, full support MV resulted in a significant decline in diaphragmatic protein synthesis during 12 hours of MV. In contrast, diaphragm protein synthesis rates were maintained during partial support MV at levels comparable to spontaneous breathing animals. Further, treatment of animals with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant prevented oxidative stress during full support MV and maintained diaphragm protein synthesis at the level of spontaneous breathing animals. We conclude that treatment with mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants or the use of partial-support MV are potential strategies to preserve diaphragm protein synthesis during prolonged MV.

  10. Human Anti-Oxidation Protein A1M—A Potential Kidney Protection Agent in Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Ahlstedt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT has been in clinical use for 15 years to treat metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. PRRT is limited by reabsorption and retention of the administered radiolabeled somatostatin analogues in the proximal tubule. Consequently, it is essential to develop and employ methods to protect the kidneys during PRRT. Today, infusion of positively charged amino acids is the standard method of kidney protection. Other methods, such as administration of amifostine, are still under evaluation and show promising results. α1-microglobulin (A1M is a reductase and radical scavenging protein ubiquitously present in plasma and extravascular tissue. Human A1M has antioxidation properties and has been shown to prevent radiation-induced in vitro cell damage and protect non-irradiated surrounding cells. It has recently been shown in mice that exogenously infused A1M and the somatostatin analogue octreotide are co-localized in proximal tubules of the kidney after intravenous infusion. In this review we describe the current situation of kidney protection during PRRT, discuss the necessity and implications of more precise dosimetry and present A1M as a new, potential candidate for renal protection during PRRT and related targeted radionuclide therapies.

  11. New natural antioxidants for protecting omega-3 rich products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    antioxidants from yoghurt, potato peel, fish protein hydrolysates and seaweed, which were able to protect highly unsaturated fish oil from oxidation. These antioxidant extracts may have potential for commercial exploitation. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim....... to oxidation because of their unsaturated nature. Addition of antioxidants is one method. to prevent lipid oxidation. As synthetic antioxidants may have carcinogenic effects at higher levels, the replacement of synthetic antioxidants with natural antioxidants is now in demand. We have isolated natural...

  12. Protection against ionizing radiation by antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Joseph F.; Landauer, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of antioxidants to reduce the cellular damage induced by ionizing radiation has been studied in animal models for more than 50 years. The application of antioxidant radioprotectors to various human exposure situations has not been extensive although it is generally accepted that endogenous antioxidants, such as cellular non-protein thiols and antioxidant enzymes, provide some degree of protection. This review focuses on the radioprotective efficacy of naturally occurring antioxidants, specifically antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals, and how they might influence various endpoints of radiation damage. Results from animal experiments indicate that antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin E and selenium compounds, are protective against lethality and other radiation effects but to a lesser degree than most synthetic protectors. Some antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals have the advantage of low toxicity although they are generally protective when administered at pharmacological doses. Naturally occurring antioxidants also may provide an extended window of protection against low-dose, low-dose-rate irradiation, including therapeutic potential when administered after irradiation. A number of phytochemicals, including caffeine, genistein, and melatonin, have multiple physiological effects, as well as antioxidant activity, which result in radioprotection in vivo. Many antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals have antimutagenic properties, and their modulation of long-term radiation effects, such as cancer, needs further examination. In addition, further studies are required to determine the potential value of specific antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals during radiotherapy for cancer

  13. Protection against ionizing radiation by antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.F.; Landauer, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The potential of antioxidants to reduce the cellular damage induced by ionizing radiation has been studied in animal models for more than 50 years. The application of antioxidant radioprotectors to various human exposure situations has not been extensive although it is generally accepted that endogenous antioxidants, such as cellular non-protein thiols and antioxidant enzymes, provide some degree of protection. This review focuses on the radioprotective efficacy of naturally-occurring antioxidants, specifically antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals, and how they might influence various endpoints of radiation damage. Results from animal experiments indicate that antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin E and selenium compounds, are protective against lethality and other radiation effects but to a lesser degree than most synthetic protectors. Some antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals have the advantage of low toxicity although they are generally protective when administered at pharmacological doses. Naturally-occurring antioxidants also may provide an extended window of protection against low-dose, low-dose-rate irradiation, including therapeutic potential when administered after irradiation. A number of phytochemicals, including caffeine, genistein, and melatonin, have multiple physiological effects, as well as antioxidant activity, which result in radioprotection in vivo. Many antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals have antimutagenic properties, and their modulation of long-term radiation effects, such as cancer, needs further examination. In addition, further studies are required to determine the potential value of specific antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals during radiotherapy for cancer

  14. Antioxidant Protection in Blood against Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bognar, G.; Meszaros, G.; Koteles, G. J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The quantities of the antioxidants in the human blood are important indicators of health status. The routine determinations of activities/capacities of antioxidant compounds would be of great importance in assessing individual sensitivities against oxidative effects. We have investigated the sensitivities of those antioxidant elements against various doses of ionising radiation tested by the RANDOX assays. Our results show dose-dependent decreases of antioxidant activities caused by the different doses. The total antioxidant status value linearly decreased up to 1 Gy, but further increase of dose (2 Gy) did not influence the respective values although the test system still indicated their presence. It means that the human blood retains 60-70% of its total antioxidant capacity. Radiation induced alterations of the antioxidant enzymes: glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase have been also investigated. The activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased linearly upon the effects of various doses of ionising radiation till 1 Gy. Between 1 and 2 Gy only further mild decreases could be detected. In this case the human blood retained 40-60% of these two antioxidant enzymes. These observations suggest either the limited response of antioxidant system against ionising radiation, or the existence of protection system of various reactabilities. (author)

  15. [Antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    titova, M E; Komolov, S A; Tikhomirova, N A

    2012-01-01

    The process of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in biological membranes of cells is carried out by free radical mechanism, a feature of which is the interaction of radicals with other molecules. In this work we investigated the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate, obtained by the cation-exchange chromatography on KM-cellulose from raw cow's milk, in vitro and in vivo. In biological liquids, which are milk, blood serum, fetal fluids, contains a complex of biologically active substances with a unique multifunctional properties, and which are carrying out a protective, antimicrobial, regenerating, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, regulatory and others functions. Contents of the isolate were determined electrophoretically and by its biological activity. Cationic whey protein isolate included lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, pancreatic RNase, lysozyme and angeogenin. The given isolate significantly has an antioxidant effect in model experimental systems in vitro and therefore may be considered as a factor that can adjust the intensity of lipid oxidation. In model solutions products of lipid oxidation were obtained by oxidation of phosphatidylcholine by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a source of iron. The composition of the reaction mixture: 0,4 mM H2O2; 50 mcM of hemin; 2 mg/ml L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine from soybean (Sigma, German). Lipid peroxidation products were formed during the incubation of the reaction mixture for two hours at 37 degrees C. In our studies rats in the adaptation period immediately after isolation from the nest obtained from food given orally native cationic whey protein isolate at the concentration three times higher than in fresh cow's milk. On the manifestation of the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate in vivo evidence decrease of lipid peroxidation products concentration in the blood of rats from the experimental group receipt whey protein isolate in dos 0,6 mg/g for more than 20% (pisolate has an antioxidant

  16. Protection of β-carotene from chemical degradation in emulsion-based delivery systems using antioxidant interfacial complexes: Catechin-egg white protein conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Luping; Su, Yujie; Zhang, Mengqi; Chang, Cuihua; Li, Junhua; McClements, David Julian; Yang, Yanjun

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to fabricate catechin-egg white protein (CT-EWP) conjugates as novel food-grade antioxidant emulsifiers designed to improve the physicochemical stability of β-carotene (BC) emulsions. CT-EWP conjugates were synthesized using free radical grafting, and the formation of conjugates was confirmed by electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The physicochemical stability of BC emulsions was characterized by measuring alterations in particle size, ζ-potential and BC retention. The particle size and ζ-potential changed more rapidly at 37°C than at 4 or 25°C, however no creaming or oiling-off were observed at any of the storage temperatures, suggesting all emulsions were physically stable throughout the 30-day storage period. Compared to emulsions stabilized by EWP or CT+EWP physical mixtures (no conjugation), CT-EWP conjugate-stabilized emulsions had better resistance to environmental stresses, such as thermal processing and high ionic strengths, which was attributed to a stronger steric repulsion between the oil droplets. CT-EWP conjugates also significantly reduced the degradation rate of BC in emulsions during storage (pantioxidant and interfacial activities. These results indicate that CT-EWP conjugates can be utilized to develop food-grade delivery systems to protect chemically labile lipophilic bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pulmonary antioxidants exert differential protective effects against ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    fractions than on the PM2⋅5–0⋅1 fractions, supporting the previous findings that respirable PM and urban samples contain fewer free radical sources than inhalable PM and industrial samples. [Greenwell L L, Moreno T and Richards R J 2003 Pulmonary antioxidants exert differential protective effects against urban and ...

  18. PROTEIN OXIDATION AND ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS IN LEPROSY

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Girish

    2011-01-01

    Methods: Total 30 leprosy cases were studied. Patients were subjected to various tests like, serum protein carbonyl as an index of protein oxidation, while serum Vitamin C and Vitamin E levels as endogenous antioxidants.Aims The presence of carbonyl groups in proteins has been used as a marker of ROS-mediated protein oxidation. The present work was undertaken to study the importance of endogenous antioxidants like Vitamin C and vitamin E in different types of leprosy patients.Results: An i...

  19. The role of antioxidant-protein interactions in biological membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGillivray, Duncan J; Singh, Rachna; Melton, Laurence D.; Worcester, David L.; Gilbert, Elliot P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Oxidative damage of cellular membranes has been linked to a variety of disease pathologies, including cardiac disease, Alzheimer's and complications due to diabetes. The oxidation of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid chains found in cellular membranes leads to significant alteration in membrane physical properties, including lipid orientation and membrane permeability, which ultimately affect biological function. Polyphenols are naturally occurring phytochemicals present in a number of fruit and vegetables that are of interest for their anti-oxidative powers. These polyphenols inhibit lipid oxidation in cellular membrane surfaces, although the mechanism of this inhibition is not entirely clear. Moreover, the polyphenols have significant binding affinity for proteins, which can lead to the formation of soluble and insoluble protein-polyphenol complexes Significantly, in the presence of casein proteins the oxidation inhibition the polyphenols in the membrane is significantly enhanced (as assessed by Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition Capacity assays). Thus the antioxidant pathway appears to involve these protein/polyphenol complexes, as well as direct antioxidant action by the polyphenol. Here we discuss neutron and x-ray scattering results from phospholipid membranes, looking at the positioning of two examples of polyphenolic antioxidants in phospholipid membranes, quercetin and phloretin, the antioxidants' impact on the membrane organisation, and the interaction between antioxidant and extra-membranous protein. This information sheds light on the mechanism of antioxidant protection in these systems, which may be used to understand biological responses to oxidative stress.

  20. Assessment of the Antioxidant Activity of Silybum marianum Seed Extract and Its Protective Effect against DNA Oxidation, Protein Damage and Lipid Peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Serçe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Silybum marianum (milk thistle seeds was investigated. We have also investigated the protein damage activated by oxidative Fenton reaction and its prevention by Silybum marianum seed extract. Antioxidant potential of Silybum marianum seed ethanol extract was measured using diff erent in vitro methods, such as lipid peroxidation, 1,1–diphenyl–2–picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and ferric reducing power assays. The extract significantly decreased DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals. Protein damage induced by hydroxyl radicals was also effi ciently inhibited, which was confirmed by the presence of protein damage markers, such as protein carbonyl formation and by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE. The present study shows that milk thistle seeds have good DPPH free radical scavenging activity and can prevent lipid peroxidation. Therefore, Silybum marianum can be used as potentially rich source of antioxidants and food preservatives. The results suggest that the seeds may have potential beneficial health effects providing opportunities to develop value-added products.

  1. Macrophage antioxidant protection within atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieseg, Steven P; Leake, David S; Flavall, Elizabeth M; Amit, Zunika; Reid, Linzi; Yang, Ya-Ting

    2009-01-01

    Macrophage cells within inflammatory lesions are exposed to a wide range of degrading and cytotoxic molecules including reactive oxygen species. Unlike neutrophils, macrophages do not normally die in this environment but continue to generate oxidants, phagocytose cellular remains, and release a range of cyto-active agents which modulate the immune response. It is this potential of the macrophage cell to survive in an oxidative environment that allows the growth and complexity of advanced atherosclerotic plaques. This review will examine the oxidants encountered by macrophages within an atherosclerotic plaque and describe some of the potential antioxidant mechanisms which enable macrophages to function within inflammatory lesions. Ascorbate, a-tocopherol, and glutathione appear to be central to the protection of macrophages yet additional antioxidant mechanisms appear to be involved. Gamma-Interferon causes macrophages to generate 7,8-dihydroneopterin, neopterin and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid both of which have antioxidant properties. Manganese superoxide dismutase is also upregulated in macrophages. The evidence that these antioxidants provide further protection, so allowing the macrophage cells to survive within sites of chronic inflammation such as atherosclerotic plaques, will be described.

  2. Antioxidant Activity of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Protein Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zheng, Yajun; Zhang, Yufeng; Xu, Jianguo; Gao, Gang

    2018-03-20

    Coconut cake is an abundant and good potential edible protein source. However, until now it has not been extensively used in the food industry. To promote its usage, the characterization, nutrition value and antioxidant activity of coconut cake protein fractions (albumin, globulin, prolamine, glutelin-1 and glutelin-2) were studied. Results revealed that all the albumin, globulin, glutelin-1 and glutelin-2 fractions showed a high nutrition value. The prolamine, glutelin-1 and glutelin-2 all exhibited good radical scavenging activity and reducing power, and the globulin and prolamine showed high ion chelating ability (89.14-80.38%). Moreover, all the fractions except glutelin-2 could effectively protect DNA against oxidative damage. Several peptides containing five to eight amino acids with antioxidant activity were also identified by LC-MS/MS from the globulin and glutelin-2 fractions. The results demonstrated that the coconut cake protein fractions have potential usages in functional foods.

  3. Antioxidative Activity of Tobacco Leaf Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Rao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Discarded tobacco leaf protein hydrolysate (DTLPH was prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis using papain and then separated using ultrafiltration (UF membranes with molecular mass cut-off (MMCO of 10, 5, 3 and 1 kDa. Four permeate fractions including 10-K, 5-K, 3-K and 1-K (the permeate fractions from 10, 5, 3 and 1 kDa hydrolysate fractions were obtained. The 5-K hydrolysate fraction had high oxidation inhibilitory ratio (42.62 %, which was about twofold higher than the original hydrolysate and as high as that of vitamin E (α-tocopherol. The fractionated hydrolysates were superior to the original hydrolysate in the antioxidative activity tested. Moreover, these separated hydrolysates showed the enhanced functional property. The amino acid composition of 5-K hydrolysate was analyzed and the results show that the high antioxidative activity of 5-K hydrolysate was derived from high content of histidine, methionine, cystine and tryptophan.

  4. Remote ischemic postconditioning protects against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by activation of T-LAK-cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK)/PTEN/Akt signaling pathway mediated anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Sumin; Zhu, Yi; Li, Haobo; Xia, Zhengyuan; Wu, Qingping; Yao, Shanglong; Wang, Tingting; Yuan, Shiying

    2016-09-01

    Recent clinical and animal studies suggested that remote limb ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) can invoke potent cardioprotection or neuroprotection. However, the effect and mechanism of RIPostC against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) are poorly understood. T-LAK-cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) is crucial for the proliferation and migration of tumor cells. However, the function of TOPK and the molecular mechanism underlying renal protection remain unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the role of TOPK in renoprotection induced by RIPostC. The renal IRI model was induced by left renal pedicle clamping for 45min followed by 24h reperfusion and right nephrectomy. All mice were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle, TOPK inhibitor HI-TOPK-032 or Akt inhibitor LY294002. After 24h reperfusion, renal histology, function, and inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress were assessed. The proteins were measured by Western blotting. The results showed that RIPostC significantly protected the kidneys against IRI. The protective effects were accompanied by the attenuation of renal dysfunction, tubular damage, inflammation and oxidative stress. In addition, RIPostC increased the phosphorylation of TOPK, PTEN, Akt, GSK3β and the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and decreased the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. However, all of the above renoprotective effects of RIPostC were eliminated either by the inhibition of TOPK or Akt with HI-TOPK-032 or LY294002. The current data reveal that RIPostC protects against renal IRI via activation of TOPK/PTEN/Akt signaling pathway mediated anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pulmonary antioxidants exert differential protective effects against ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    When repeated in the presence of a low molecular weight fraction of fresh pulmonary lavage fluid, as well as in artificial lung lining fluid (200 M urate, glutathione and ascorbate), the DNA damage was significantly reduced in all cases ( < 0.05). The antioxidants exerted a greater effect on the industrial samples than on ...

  6. Effects of antioxidants consumption and low protein diets on liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of two types of antioxidants, a natural antioxidant (Eselenium) and a synthetic antioxidant (loxidan) in diets containing protein value lower than essential requirements, on performance and histopathological changes in the liver and intestine of Japanese quails. The experimental diets were: ...

  7. New antioxidant protein in seaweed (Porphyra yezoensis Ueda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyosaki, Toshiyuki; Iwabuchi, Mitsunobu

    2009-01-01

    Gel filtration was used to partially purify the antioxidizing component of a crude extracted solution of seaweed (Porphyra yezoensis Ueda), and its properties were studied. The antioxidizing effect did not decrease after dialysis or heating. The finding of no change after dialysis suggested that the compound was of high molecular weight, estimated at 52.2 kDa by gel filtration chromatography. The antioxidizing effect decreased with irradiation, accompanied by a parallel decrease in the riboflavin content. The antioxidizing component of this 52.2-kDa fraction may be a protein-bound riboflavin. The structural of protein-bound riboflavin in seaweed was analyzed with hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance, and the results suggested that the 52.2-kDa fraction was riboflavin. We found an antioxidizing component in seaweed (P. yezoensis Ueda). This antioxidizing component is estimated at 52.2 kDa and may be a protein-bound riboflavin.

  8. The protective effect of plasma antioxidants during ozone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... the gas left the cell and entered the syringe containing the blood. The blood was then briefly mixed with the gas.To determine the protective effect of plasma antioxidants, the plasma was removed by centrifugation. Briefly, the blood was centrifuged for 15 min at. 180 x g. The plasma was then carefully ...

  9. Antioxidative and proline potentials as a protective mechanism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress can define as all negative factors affecting plant growth. One of the most important problems among stress factors is salt stress. Antioxidant responses are tested in Soybean (Glycine max. L.) cv., “A3935” grown under 0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl in order to investigate the plants protective mechanisms against salt ...

  10. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. protein hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarine Amaral do EVANGELHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by electrophoresis and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the capturing methods of free radicals ABTS●+ and DPPH. Electrophoretic results showed that the bands above 50 kDa disappeared, when the beans protein was subjected to hydrolysis with pepsin. The bean protein hydrolysate obtained by hydrolysis with alcalase enzyme, showed higher antioxidant activity for inhibition of the radical ABTS●+. However, the hydrolysates obtained by hydrolysis with pepsin had higher antioxidant activity for inhibition of the radical DPPH. The use of pepsin and alcalase enzymes, under the same reaction time, produced black bean protein hydrolysates with different molecular weight profiles and superior antioxidant activity than the native bean protein.

  11. Antioxidants Protect against Arsenic Induced Mitochondrial Cardio-Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Pace

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a potent cardiovascular toxicant associated with numerous biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases in exposed human populations. Arsenic is also a carcinogen, yet arsenic trioxide is used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of acute promyelotic leukemia (APL. The therapeutic use of arsenic is limited due to its severe cardiovascular side effects. Many of the toxic effects of arsenic are mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction and related to arsenic’s effect on oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of antioxidants against arsenic induced cardiovascular dysfunction. A growing body of evidence suggests that antioxidant phytonutrients may ameliorate the toxic effects of arsenic on mitochondria by scavenging free radicals. This review identifies 21 antioxidants that can effectively reverse mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in cardiovascular cells and tissues. In addition, we propose that antioxidants have the potential to improve the cardiovascular health of millions of people chronically exposed to elevated arsenic concentrations through contaminated water supplies or used to treat certain types of leukemias. Importantly, we identify conceptual gaps in research and development of new mito-protective antioxidants and suggest avenues for future research to improve bioavailability of antioxidants and distribution to target tissues in order reduce arsenic-induced cardiovascular toxicity in a real-world context.

  12. Natural antioxidants for protection and radiation effects treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafafi, Y.A.

    2010-01-01

    Since many degenerative human diseases have been recognized as being a consequence of free radical damage, there have been many studies undertaken on how to delay or prevent the onset of these diseases. The most likely and practical way to fight against degenerative diseases is to improve body antioxidant status which could be achieved by higher consumption of vegetables and fruits. Foods from plant origin usually contain natural antioxidants that can scavenge free radicals. It is clear that vitamin C and antioxidant capacity are not directly related and thus that vitamin C is not the only antioxidant in juices with high content of vitamin C. Antioxidant capacity may also arise from phenolics / flavonoids found in plants. Three major antioxidant nutrients are vitamin C, vitamin E and beta carotene. Intake of these nutrients has an inverse relationship with degenerative disease risk. In an elderly study, it was found that high consumption of flavonoids correlated with low risk of coronary heart disease. Some evidence showed that flavonoids could protect membrane lipid from oxidation. A major source of flavonoids are vegetables and fruits. (author)

  13. Justification for antioxidant preconditioning (or how to protect insulin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Insulin resistance is characterized by impaired glucose utilization in the peripheral tissues, accelerated muscle protein degradation, impaired antioxidant defences and extensive cell death. Apparently, both insulin and IGF-1 at physiological concentrations support cell survival by phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-dependent ...

  14. Protective Action of Antioxidants on Hepatic Damage Induced by Griseofulvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. del C. Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP is a disease associated with ferrochelatase deficiency and characterized by the accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PROTO IX in erythrocytes, liver, and skin. In some cases, a severe hepatic failure and cholestasis were observed. Griseofulvin (Gris develops an experimental EPP with hepatic manifestations in mice such as PROTO IX accumulation followed by cellular damage as wells as necrotic and inflammatory processes. The antioxidant defense system was also altered. The aim was to evaluate the possible protective effect of different antioxidant compounds: trolox (Tx, ascorbic acid (Asc, the combination Tx and Asc, melatonin (Mel, and the polyphenols: ellagic acid, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid, and ferulic acid on liver damage and oxidative stress markers in a mouse model of EPP. Coadministration of Gris with Tx, Asc, and its combination, or Mel mainly affected heme biosynthetic pathway, resulting in a decrease in ALA-S activity which was increased by Gris, while the tested polyphenols exerted a protective effect on oxidative stress, decreasing lipid peroxidation and the activity of some antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, antioxidant compounds can only protect partially against the liver damage induced by Gris, reducing oxidative stress or acting on heme regulation.

  15. Protective action of antioxidants on hepatic damage induced by griseofulvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M del C; Afonso, S G; Buzaleh, A M; Batlle, A

    2014-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is a disease associated with ferrochelatase deficiency and characterized by the accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PROTO IX) in erythrocytes, liver, and skin. In some cases, a severe hepatic failure and cholestasis were observed. Griseofulvin (Gris) develops an experimental EPP with hepatic manifestations in mice such as PROTO IX accumulation followed by cellular damage as wells as necrotic and inflammatory processes. The antioxidant defense system was also altered. The aim was to evaluate the possible protective effect of different antioxidant compounds: trolox (Tx), ascorbic acid (Asc), the combination Tx and Asc, melatonin (Mel), and the polyphenols: ellagic acid, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid, and ferulic acid on liver damage and oxidative stress markers in a mouse model of EPP. Coadministration of Gris with Tx, Asc, and its combination, or Mel mainly affected heme biosynthetic pathway, resulting in a decrease in ALA-S activity which was increased by Gris, while the tested polyphenols exerted a protective effect on oxidative stress, decreasing lipid peroxidation and the activity of some antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, antioxidant compounds can only protect partially against the liver damage induced by Gris, reducing oxidative stress or acting on heme regulation.

  16. Fermented goat milk improves antioxidant status and protects from oxidative damage to biomolecules during anemia recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Diaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, María Jm; Boesch, Christine; Nestares, Teresa; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2017-03-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world, and it is accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is altered during IDA. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of fermented goat and cow milks on enzymatic antioxidant activities and gene expression, and their role in protecting from oxidative damage during anemia recovery. After feeding the fermented milks-based diets (cow or goat), a significant elevation of some antioxidant endogenous enzymes was found, together with an increase in total antioxidant status (TAS), and a decrease in 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was recorded in animals consuming fermented goat milk-based diet. In contrast, DNA strand breaks, hydroperoxides, 15-F2t-isoprostanes and protein carbonyl groups were lower in some tissues in animals fed fermented goat milk-based diet, revealing an improvement in both systemic and cellular antioxidant activity of plasma and tissues due to fermented goat milk consumption. Fermented goat milk consumption induces a protective increase in TAS together with lower oxidative damage biomarkers, revealing that the milk protects main cell bioconstituents (lipids, protein, DNA, prostaglandins) from evoked oxidative damage during anemia recovery. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Protective Role for Antioxidants in Acute Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M. Dennis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury causes significant morbidity and mortality in the community and clinic. Various pathologies, including renal and cardiovascular disease, traumatic injury/rhabdomyolysis, sepsis, and nephrotoxicity, that cause acute kidney injury (AKI, induce general or regional decreases in renal blood flow. The ensuing renal hypoxia and ischemia promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS such as superoxide radical anions, peroxides, and hydroxyl radicals, that can oxidatively damage biomolecules and membranes, and affect organelle function and induce renal tubule cell injury, inflammation, and vascular dysfunction. Acute kidney injury is associated with increased oxidative damage, and various endogenous and synthetic antioxidants that mitigate source and derived oxidants are beneficial in cell-based and animal studies. However, the benefit of synthetic antioxidant supplementation in human acute kidney injury and renal disease remains to be realized. The endogenous low-molecular weight, non-proteinaceous antioxidant, ascorbate (vitamin C, is a promising therapeutic in human renal injury in critical illness and nephrotoxicity. Ascorbate may exert significant protection by reducing reactive oxygen species and renal oxidative damage via its antioxidant activity, and/or by its non-antioxidant functions in maintaining hydroxylase and monooxygenase enzymes, and endothelium and vascular function. Ascorbate supplementation may be particularly important in renal injury patients with low vitamin C status.

  18. Invited review: Whey proteins as antioxidants and promoters of cellular antioxidant pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrochano, Alberto R; Buckin, Vitaly; Kelly, Phil M; Giblin, Linda

    2018-03-28

    Oxidative stress contributes to cell injury and aggravates several chronic diseases. Dietary antioxidants help the body to fight against free radicals and, therefore, avoid or reduce oxidative stress. Recently, proteins from milk whey liquid have been described as antioxidants. This review summarizes the evidence that whey products exhibit radical scavenging activity and reducing power. It examines the processing and treatment attempts to increase the antioxidant bioactivity and identifies 1 enzyme, subtilisin, which consistently produces the most potent whey fractions. The review compares whey from different milk sources and puts whey proteins in the context of other known food antioxidants. However, for efficacy, the antioxidant activity of whey proteins must not only survive processing, but also upper gut transit and arrival in the bloodstream, if whey products are to promote antioxidant levels in target organs. Studies reveal that direct cell exposure to whey samples increases intracellular antioxidants such as glutathione. However, the physiological relevance of these in vitro assays is questionable, and evidence is conflicting from dietary intervention trials, with both rats and humans, that whey products can boost cellular antioxidant biomarkers. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Soybean Extract Antioxidant Protective Activity Against Copper-Induced Cytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour I. Almansour

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of soybean crude extract against induced oxidative damage has been achieved through quails Coturnix coturnix treatment with various copper sulphate concentrations alone or with a protective dose of soybean crude extract. Several parameters of oxidative stress together with liver and kidney function tests in serum and liver tissue homogenate were studied. Hematologic indices and liver copper content were determined. Obtained data showed a significant increase in...

  20. Erythrocyte Antioxidant Protection of Rose Hips (Rosa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Widén

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rose hips are popular in health promoting products as the fruits contain high content of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate whether health benefits are attributable to ascorbic acid, phenols, or other rose-hip-derived compounds. Freeze-dried powder of rose hips was preextracted with metaphosphoric acid and the sample was then sequentially eluted on a C18 column. The degree of amelioration of oxidative damage was determined in an erythrocyte in vitro bioassay by comparing the effects of a reducing agent on erythrocytes alone or on erythrocytes pretreated with berry extracts. The maximum protection against oxidative stress, 59.4±4.0% (mean ± standard deviation, was achieved when incubating the cells with the first eluted meta-phosphoric extract. Removal of ascorbic acid from this extract increased the protection against oxidative stress to 67.9±1.9%. The protection from the 20% and 100% methanol extracts was 20.8±8.2% and 5.0±3.2%, respectively. Antioxidant uptake was confirmed by measurement of catechin by HPLC-ESI-MS in the 20% methanol extract. The fact that all sequentially eluted extracts studied contributed to protective effects on the erythrocytes indicates that rose hips contain a promising level of clinically relevant antioxidant protection.

  1. Erythrocyte antioxidant protection of rose hips (Rosa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widén, C; Ekholm, A; Coleman, M D; Renvert, S; Rumpunen, K

    2012-01-01

    Rose hips are popular in health promoting products as the fruits contain high content of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate whether health benefits are attributable to ascorbic acid, phenols, or other rose-hip-derived compounds. Freeze-dried powder of rose hips was preextracted with metaphosphoric acid and the sample was then sequentially eluted on a C(18) column. The degree of amelioration of oxidative damage was determined in an erythrocyte in vitro bioassay by comparing the effects of a reducing agent on erythrocytes alone or on erythrocytes pretreated with berry extracts. The maximum protection against oxidative stress, 59.4 ± 4.0% (mean ± standard deviation), was achieved when incubating the cells with the first eluted meta-phosphoric extract. Removal of ascorbic acid from this extract increased the protection against oxidative stress to 67.9 ± 1.9%. The protection from the 20% and 100% methanol extracts was 20.8 ± 8.2% and 5.0 ± 3.2%, respectively. Antioxidant uptake was confirmed by measurement of catechin by HPLC-ESI-MS in the 20% methanol extract. The fact that all sequentially eluted extracts studied contributed to protective effects on the erythrocytes indicates that rose hips contain a promising level of clinically relevant antioxidant protection.

  2. Protection of lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage by 0.1-2.8 kDa antioxidative peptides isolated from whey protein hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Baohua; Peng, Xinyan; Xiong, Youling L; Zhao, Xinhuai

    2012-11-15

    Antioxidative peptides (0.1-2.8 kDa) obtained from gel filtration of Alcalase-hydrolysed whey protein were subjected to individual peptide isolation by RP-HPLC. The sub-fraction P4 and a prominent pentapeptide identified by mass spectrometry (Val-His-Leu-Lys-Pro) (P4c) were found to be highly antioxidative, therefore, used to assess the efficacy against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cell oxidative injury. MRC-5 cells were damaged by incubation with H(2)O(2), but cell death was significantly reduced when exposed to P4 and P4c (PMRC-5 cells against the toxicity caused by H(2)O(2). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Uric acid contributes greatly to hepatic antioxidant capacity besides protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, T; Sorimachi, M

    2017-12-20

    Uric acid is the end-product of purine nucleotide metabolism and an increase in uric acid concentration in the body results in hyperuricemia, ultimately leading to gout. However, uric acid is a potent antioxidant and interacts with reactive oxygen species (ROS) to be non-enzymatically converted to allantoin. Uric acid accounts for approximately 60 % of antioxidant capacity in the plasma; however, its contribution to tissue antioxidant capacity is unknown. In this study, the contribution of uric acid to tissue antioxidant capacity and its conversion to allantoin by scavenging ROS in tissue were examined. The results showed that a decrease in hepatic uric acid content via allopurinol administration significantly reduced hepatic total-radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) content in protein-free cytosol. Additionally, treating protein-free cytosol with uricase led to a further reduction of hepatic TRAP content. Allantoin was also detected in the solution containing protein-free cytosol that reacted with ROS. These findings suggest that in the absence of protein, uric acid contributes greatly to antioxidant capacity in the liver, where uric acid is converted to allantoin by scavenging ROS.

  4. Antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates obtained from the housefly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Ai-Jun; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Ji-Hong; Qin, Qi-Lian; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2016-09-01

    The housefly is an important resource insect and the housefly larvae are ideal source of food additives. The housefly larvae protein hydrolysates were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis by alcalase and neutral proteinase. Their antioxidant activities were investigated, including the superoxide and hydroxyl radicalscavenging activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating activity. The antioxidant activities of both hydrolysates increased with their increasing concentrations. The alcalase hydrolysate (AH) showed higher scavenging activities against hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical at low concentrations and higher metal-chelating activity than the neutral proteinase hydrolysate (NPH). The NPH exhibited higher scavenging activity against DPPH free radical and higher reducing power than the AH. Both hydrolysates showed more than 50% superoxide anion radical-scavenging activity at 10 μg/mL. These results indicate that both housefly larvae protein hydrolysates display high antioxidant activities and they could serve as potential natural antioxidant food additives.

  5. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of peanut protein hydrolysate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tang

    Full Text Available Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2-12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2-5 g/100 ml than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive.

  6. ANTIOXIDATIVE ROLE OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA LEAF PROTEIN AGAINST ELA INDUCED MICE

    OpenAIRE

    R.SANTHI*AND S.ANNAPOORANI

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of Terminalia catappa were quantified using non-enzymic, enzymic antioxidants and livermarker enzyme. The activity of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants increased significantly by the intraperitonealinjection of plant protein fraction compared to ELA induced mice whereas it was reversed for liver marker enzymes.Terminalia catappa protein fraction can be considered as a potential free radical scavenging antioxidant.

  7. Preparation of antioxidative corn protein hydrolysates, purification and evaluation of three novel corn antioxidant peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Du-Xin; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Zheng, Xi-Qun; Wang, Xiao-Jie; He, Jun-Fang

    2016-08-01

    Corn gluten meal is a major co-product of corn wet milling. Corn gluten meal was hydrolyzed with Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Alcalase+Flavourzyme and Flavourzyme+Alcalase. At the substrate concentration of 10%, corn protein hydrolysate catalyzed by Alcalase had a degree of hydrolysis of 17.83%, which was higher than that by Flavourzyme (3.65%). The hydrolysate catalyzed by Alcalase+Flavourzyme exhibited better antioxidant activities and was further purified. Three novel antioxidant peptides were purified by a series of chromatographic techniques. Sequences of the three peptides were identified as Cys-Ser-Gln-Ala-Pro-Leu-Ala, Tyr-Pro-Lys-Leu-Ala-Pro-Asn-Glu and Tyr-Pro-Gln-Leu-Leu-Pro-Asn-Glu, respectively. Among the three peptides, Cys-Ser-Gln-Ala-Pro-Leu-Ala exhibited good reducing power and excellent scavenging capacities for DPPH radical and superoxide anion radical, with IC50 values of 0.116 and 0.39mg/ml, respectively. The results from our study indicate antioxidant potency of corn protein hydrolysates and peptides separated from corn gluten meal and can provide basic understanding for the application of corn protein hydrolysates as natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetically increased antioxidative protection and decreased chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Klaus; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Marklund, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    RATIONALE: Increased oxidative stress is involved in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, plasma and bronchial lining fluid contains the antioxidant extracellular superoxide dismutase. Approximately 2% of white individuals carry the R213G polymorphism in the gene encoding.......5 (0.3-6.6) among nonsmokers and 0.4 (0.2-0.8) among smokers (p value for interaction=0.10). The adjusted hazard ratio for COPD hospitalization or death during follow-up in heterozygotes versus noncarriers was 0.3 (0.1-0.8). CONCLUSIONS: Extracellular superoxide dismutase R213G heterozygosity protects...... against development of COPD in the Danish general population. This was observed in smokers, but not in nonsmokers....

  9. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Ampelopsin and Its Protective Effect in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Oxidative Stress Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiang; Zhang, Jingfei; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Ziwei; Wang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant potential of ampelopsin (APS) by using various methods in vitro, as well as to determine effects of APS on LPS-induced oxidative stress in piglets. The results showed that APS exhibited excellent free radical scavenging by DPPH, ABTS, O2•−, H2O2 and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Ampelopsin also protected pig erythrocytes against AAPH-induced apoptosis and hemolysis, decreased total superoxide dismutase activity, and increased lipid peroxidation. Furthermore the results demonstrated that APS enhanced the total antioxidant capacity and decreased the malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in LPS-treated piglets. The results of the present investigation suggest that APS possesses a strong antioxidant activity and alleviates LPS-induced oxidative stress, possibly due to its ability to prevent reactive oxygen species. PMID:25268121

  10. The antioxidant system of the respiratory tract. The intracellular antioxidant protection in the respiratory tract (part 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Abaturov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature review presents the current data about peroxiredoxin system in the functioning of the intracellular antioxidant protection in the respiratory tract. We present a model of the molecular structure of certain peroxiredoxins. The peroxiredoxin-dependent oxidation reactions, antiapoptotic action and other physiological effects of peroxiredoxins system are considered in detail. Model of the molecular structure and biological function of the antioxidant factors with an indirect effect (APEX nuclease 1/Ref-1 are described.

  11. An Antioxidant Screen Identifies Candidates for Protection of Cochlear Hair Cells from Gentamicin Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Noack

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species are important elements in ototoxic damage to hair cells (HCs, appearing early in the damage process. Higher levels of natural antioxidants are positively correlated with resistance to ototoxins and many studies have shown that exogenous antioxidants can protect HCs from damage. While a very wide variety of antioxidants with different characteristics and intracellular targets exist, most ototoxicity studies have focused upon one or a few well-characterized compounds. Relatively little research has attempted to determine the comparative efficacy of large variety of different antioxidants. This has been in part due to the lack of translation between cell culture and in vivo measures of efficacy. To circumvent this limitation, we used an in vitro assay based on micro-explants from the basal and middle turns of the neonatal mouse organ of Corti to screen a commercial redox library of diverse antioxidant compounds for their ability to protect mammalian HCs from a high dose of the ototoxic antibiotic gentamicin. The library included several antioxidants that have previously been studied as potential treatments for HC damage, as well as many antioxidants that have never been applied to ototoxicity. The micro-explants were treated with 200 μM gentamicin alone, gentamicin plus one of three dosages of a redox compound, the highest dosage of compound alone, or were untreated. HC counts were determined before the gentamicin insult and at 1, 2, and 3 days afterward to evaluate the HC survival. From a total of 81 antioxidant compounds, 13 exhibited significant protection of HCs. These included members of a variety of antioxidant classes with several novel antioxidants, not previously tested on HCs, appearing to alleviate the damaging gentamicin effect. Some compounds previously shown to be protective of HCs were correspondingly protective in this in vitro screen, while others were not. Finally, one of the three pro-oxidant compounds

  12. Protective and antioxidant activities of turnip root ethanolic extract against cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Mohajeri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cisplatin is an antineoplastic drug and at high doses is hepatotoxic. Oxidative stress has been proven to be involved in cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. Because of antioxidant potential of turnip (Brassica rapa. L root, the objective of this study was to examine the protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract (TREE, on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity in rat.Materials and Method: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four equal groups. Group 1 was used as control; groups 2 and 4 were orally treated with TREE (200 mg/kg for 15 consecutive days. Groups 3 and 4 received a single intraperitoneal dose of cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg on the 10th day of the experiment. At the end of experiment, serum levels of aspartate and alanine transaminases, lactate dehydogenase and total bilirubin, albumin and total proteins were assessed. Malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were assayed in liver homogenates. Finally, the biochemical findings were matched with histopathological verifications.Results: In group 4, TREE significantly (p=0.0001 decreased the elevated levels of serum biomarkers of hepatic injury and total bilirubin; and significantly increased the reduced levels of serum albumin and total proteins (respectively p=0.001, p=0.032. In this group, TREE significantly (p=0.0001 decreased the lipid peroxidation and elevated the decreased values of hepatic antioxidants. Histopathologically, the changes were in the same direction with biochemical findings.Conclusion: Because of anti-oxidant potentials of TREE, it may have a protective effect against cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity in rats

  13. Random copolymers that protect proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; Van Lehn, Reid C.

    2018-03-01

    Scientists have tried and in some limited cases succeeded to harness proteins to do chemistry (1) or use them in functional materials. However, most proteins only function correctly if they fold into specific conformations, which typically occurs with the assistance of other proteins (such as chaperones, translocons, or transporters) that mediate structure formation, membrane insertion, and intracellular trafficking (2, 3). Several methods have been used to improve protein stability in nonbiological environments—including micelle encapsulation, polymer conjugation, and sol-gel trapping (4)—but for most intended applications, they suffer from low levels of functionality, difficult chemical postfunctionalization, or the requirement of very specific solvent environments. On page 1239 of this issue, Panganiban et al. (5) introduce an approach for stabilizing proteins in disparate solvent environments that does not suffer from these drawbacks.

  14. Oxidative changes in lipids, proteins, and antioxidants in yogurt during the shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citta, Anna; Folda, Alessandra; Scalcon, Valeria; Scutari, Guido; Bindoli, Alberto; Bellamio, Marco; Feller, Emiliano; Rigobello, Maria Pia

    2017-11-01

    Oxidation processes in milk and yogurt during the shelf life can result in an alteration of protein and lipid constituents. Therefore, the antioxidant properties of yogurt in standard conditions of preservation were evaluated. Total phenols, free radical scavenger activity, degree of lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation were determined in plain and skim yogurts with or without fruit puree. After production, plain, skim, plain berries, and skim berries yogurts were compared during the shelf life up to 9 weeks. All types of yogurts revealed a basal antioxidant activity that was higher when a fruit puree was present but gradually decreased during the shelf life. However, after 5-8 weeks, antioxidant activity increased again. Both in plain and berries yogurts lipid peroxidation increased until the seventh week of shelf life and after decreased, whereas protein oxidation of all yogurts was similar either in the absence or presence of berries and increased during shelf life. During the shelf life, a different behavior between lipid and protein oxidation takes place and the presence of berries determines a protection only against lipid peroxidation.

  15. The protective role of Scoparia dulcis on tissue antioxidant defense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-16

    May 16, 2007 ... However, no significant effect was observed in the antioxidant enzyme activities and MDA levels in the ... exposed to this heavy metal by measuring the extent of oxidative damage and the status of two antioxidant enzymes, catalase and super oxide dismutase. METHOD ..... Isolation and characterization of.

  16. Manganese Provides Antioxidant Protection for Sperm Cryopreservation that May Offer New Consideration for Clinical Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjna S. Cheema

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are generated by sperm metabolism. While, ROS are required for maturation, capacitation and acrosome reaction, they also modify many peroxidable cellular compounds. There is production of ROS during cryopreservation and frozen spermatozoa are highly sensitive to lipid peroxidation (LPO. Antioxidants exert a protective effect on the plasma membrane of frozen bovine sperm preserving both metabolic activity and cellular viability. Manganese (Mn++ is proved to be a chain breaking antioxidant in biological system. Therefore, we examined the role of (Mn++ during cryopreservation of cattle bull semen. Semen was divided into four parts and cryopreserved in egg-yolk-citrate extender + glycerol (EYC-G, EYC-G + 100 µM of Mn++, EYC-G + 150 µM of Mn++ and EYC-G + 200 µM of Mn++. After four hours of cooling and 24 hrs of freezing, the spermatozoa were examined for percentage motility, Hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS, LPO and protein leakage. Addition of manganese to the semen during cryopreservation showed a protective effect and accounted for an increase in semen quality parameters [percentage motility, HOS percent and decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA production and protein leakage]. The effect of manganese on motility and HOS was non-significant (p < 0.05 in cooled spermatozoa but significant with 150 µM of Mn++ in frozen-thawed spermatozoa. MDA production and protein leakage decreased to a significant and maximum level (p < 0.05 on addition of 200 µM of manganese. The addition of manganese to EYC-G dilutor will improve the quality/fertility of semen, which will result in improvement of in vitro fertilization and artificial insemination success rate.

  17. Resveratrol, an antioxidant, protects spinal cord injury in rats by suppressing MAPK pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Fu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in various plants, including grapes, plums and peanuts has shown various medIRInal properties, including antioxidant, protection of cardiovascular disease and cancer risk. However, the effects of resveratrol on spinal cord reperfusion injury have not been investigated. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/p38MAPK signaling pathway and to elucidate its regulating effect on the protection of spinal cord injury. Spinal cord ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI was performed by the infrarenal abdominal aorta with mini aneurysm clip model. The expressions of iNOS and p38MAPK and the levels of biochemical parameters, including nitrite/nitrate, malondialdehyde (MDA, advanced oxidation products (AOPP, reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were measured in control and experimental groups. IRI-induced rats treated with 10 mg/kg resveratrol protected spinal cord from ischemia injury as supported by improved biological parameters measured in spinal cord tissue homogenates. The resveratrol treatment significantly decreased the levels of plasma nitrite/nitrate, iNOS mRNA and protein expressions and phosphorylation of p38MAPK in IRI-induced rats. Further, IRI-produced free radicals were reduced by resveratrol treatment by increasing enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant levels such as GSH, SOD and CAT. Taken together, administration of resveratrol protects the damage caused by spinal cord ischemia with potential mechanism of suppressing the activation of iNOS/p38MAPK pathway and subsequent reduction of oxidative stress due to IRI.

  18. Identification of potent antioxidant bioactive peptides from goat milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed S; El-Bassiony, Tawfik; Elmalt, Laila M; Ibrahim, Hisham R

    2015-08-01

    Goat milk proteins have gained increasing attention especially the bioactive peptides released from the parent proteins by digestive enzymes. Specifically, the interest in bioactives of goat milk is intensifying due to its reduced allergenicity compared to bovine milk. In this study, proteins of goat milk were fractionated into caseins (GCP) and whey proteins (GWP), hydrolyzed by pepsin and the generated peptides were examined for radical scavenging activities. The hydrolysates of whey (P-GWP) and casein (P-GCP) proteins exhibited potent superoxide anion (O 2 ・- ) scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner, as investigated using the natural xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XOD) system. The P-GWP and P-GCP dramatically quenched the O 2 ・- flux but had negligible effect on the catalytic function of the enzyme, indicating specificity to scavenge O 2 ・- but not oxidase inhibition. Further, both P-GWP and P-GCP were able to remarkably quench the chemical DPPH radical. Fractionation of hydrolysates by size-exclusion chromatography produced four fractions (F1-F4) from both hydrolysates, with variable O 2 ・- scavenging activities. However, the slow eluting fractions (F4) of both hydrolysates and fast eluting fraction (F2) of P-GCP contained peptides with the highest scavenging activities. Peptides in the active fractions of P-GWP and P-GCP, isolated by reversed phase-HPLC, exhibited significantly strong O 2 ・- scavenging activities. MALDI-TOF-MS allowed the identification of several antioxidant peptides derived from both caseins and whey proteins, with β-casein and β-lactoglobulin being the major contributors, respectively. The results demonstrate that digestion with pepsin generates multiple soluble peptides from goat milk protein fractions with remarkable ability to scavenge superoxide radicals and thus providing a fascinating opportunity for their potential candidacy as antioxidant bioactive peptides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Protective effect of different antioxidant agents in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Salucci

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin cells can respond to UVB-induced damage either by tolerating it, or restoring it through antioxidant activation and DNA repair mechanisms or, ultimately, undergoing programmed cell death, when damage is massive. Nutritional factors, in particular, food antioxidants, have attracted much interest because of their potential use in new preventive, protective, and therapeutic strategies for chronic degenerative diseases, including skin inflammation and cancer. Some polyphenols, present in virgin olive oil, well tolerated by organism after oral administration, show a variety of pharmacological and clinical benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and neuro-protective activities. Here, the protective effects of antioxidant compounds against UV-induced apoptosis have been described in HaCat cell line. Human keratinocytes were pre-treated with antioxidants before UVB exposure and their effects have been evaluated by means of ultrastructural analyses. After UVB radiation, a known cell death trigger, typical apoptotic features, absent in control condition and in antioxidant alone-treated cells, appear. An evident numerical decrease of ultrastructural apoptotic patterns and TUNEL positive nuclei can be observed when natural antioxidants were supplied before cell death induction. These data have been confirmed by molecular investigation of caspase activity. In conclusion, this paper highlights antioxidant compound ability to prevent apoptotic cell death in human keratinocytes exposed to UVB, suggesting, for these molecules, a potential role in preventing skin damage. 

  20. [The protective properties of the endotoxin protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, V I; Belkin, Z P; Egorova, T P

    1991-08-01

    The isolation and properties of endotoxin protein, or lipid A-associated protein (LAP), from Shigella sonnei were described earlier (Zh. mikrobiol. epidemiol. immunobiol., 1991, No. 4, pp. 11-17, and No. 7). In this report the data on its protective activity are presented. In experiments on mice one nanogram of LAP injected i. v. protected 50% of the animals against i. p. challenge with 40 LD50 of virulent S. sonnei. Guinea pigs injected s. c. with 10 micrograms of LAP were protected against local (keratoconjunctival) challenge with S. sonnei, the efficiency of immunization being 58%. LAP preparations containing no detectable amounts of O-antigen (less than 0.003%) were found to have a protective effect. Hyperimmune anti-LAP rabbit serum prevented local infection when incubated with S. sonnei challenge inoculum before injection into guinea pigs. Both active and passive protection induced by LAP was specific since no effect was observed in animals challenged with Shigella flexneri. In the homologous system the protective effect of anti-LAP serum was abolished by the addition of protein-free LPS. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that the protective activity of LAP depends on the presence of minute amounts of O-antigen whose immunogenic effect is greatly amplified by the protein component of the natural endotoxin complex.

  1. Gamma irradiation effect on soy protein modification, protein - phenolic interaction and antioxidant activity in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumari, Sweta; Dahuja, Anil; Vinutha, T.; Singh, Bhupinder

    2014-01-01

    Soy protein is one of the most important sources of protein to feed the world population in the future. Consumption of soybean quality protein and their texture is dependent on the protein modification. In the present study, four soybean genotypes PL5039 (black), EC 472143 (black), Pusa 9814 (yellow) and SL525 (yellow), differing in their seed coat colour were gamma irradiated at 0.5,1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 kGy and the extent of protein modification and parameters affecting it viz. free phenolics, bound phenolics, lip oxygenase and antioxidant activity were analysed. Modifications of soybean proteins were investigated by chemical analysis and electrophoresis. The irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy showed decreased turbidity, protein oxidation, surface hydrophobicity but increased solubility and sulfhydryl and disulfide contents in all the genotypes. Further, SDS PAGE profile of treated soybean seeds revealed remarkable difference in electrophoretic bands as compared to the untreated seeds. Lipoxygense activity in all the genotypes decreased with increased exposure of gamma irradiation, which produced peroxide products that changes the structural characteristics of soy protein. Free phenolics, bound phenolics and total antioxidant activity measured in terms of FRAP in all the genotypes increased significantly at a dose of 2.0 kGy and it declined at a dose of 5.0 kGy. Antioxidant potential measured in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity showed an increasing trend with dose, indicating that radiation processing as a method of food preservation has a positive nutritional implication. Hence, it is suggested that, mild gamma irradiation upto 2.0 kGy may reduce the protein oxidation, enhance the antioxidant activity and improve the soybean protein quality compared to higher dose 5.0 kGy, which reduced the protein quality. (author)

  2. Variations in native protein glycation and plasma antioxidants in several birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Tana; Zuck, Jessica; Borges, Chad R; Redig, Patrick; Sweazea, Karen L

    2017-08-01

    Birds are an anomaly among vertebrates as they are remarkably long-lived despite having naturally high blood glucose and metabolic rates. For mammals, hyperglycemia leads to oxidative stress and protein glycation. In contrast, many studies have shown that domestic and wild birds are relatively resistant to these glucose-mediated pathologies. Surprisingly very little research has examined protein glycation in birds of prey, which by nature consume a diet high in protein and fat that promotes gluconeogenesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate protein glycation and antioxidant concentrations in serum samples from several birds of prey (bald eagle (BAEA), red-tailed hawk (RTHA), barred owl (BAOW), great horned owl (GHOW)) as protein glycation can accelerate oxidative stress and vice versa. Serum glucose was measured using a commercially available assay, native albumin glycation was measured by mass spectrometry and various antioxidants (uric acid, vitamin E, retinol and several carotenoids) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Although glucose concentrations were not significantly different between species (p=0.340), albumin glycation was significantly higher (p=0.004) in BAEA (23.67±1.90%) and BAOW (24.28±1.43%) compared to RTHA (14.31±0.63%). Of the antioxidants examined, lutein was significantly higher in BAOW (p=0.008). BAEA had the highest beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene concentrations (pbirds of prey relative to other birds likely helps protect from complications that may otherwise arise from having high glucose and protein glycation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Protein S is protective in pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urawa, M; Kobayashi, T; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, C N; Fujimoto, H; Toda, M; Roeen, Z; Hinneh, J A; Yasuma, T; Takei, Y; Taguchi, O; Gabazza, E C

    2016-08-01

    Essentials Epithelial cell apoptosis is critical in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Protein S, a circulating anticoagulant, inhibited apoptosis of lung epithelial cells. Overexpression of protein S in lung cells reduced bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Intranasal therapy with exogenous protein S ameliorated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Background Pulmonary fibrosis is the terminal stage of interstitial lung diseases, some of them being incurable and of unknown etiology. Apoptosis plays a critical role in lung fibrogenesis. Protein S is a plasma anticoagulant with potent antiapoptotic activity. The role of protein S in pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. Objectives To evaluate the clinical relevance of protein S and its protective role in pulmonary fibrosis. Methods and Results The circulating level of protein S was measured in patients with pulmonary fibrosis and controls by the use of enzyme immunoassays. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced with bleomycin in transgenic mice overexpressing human protein S and wild-type mice, and exogenous protein S or vehicle was administered to wild-type mice; fibrosis was then compared in both models. Patients with pulmonary fibrosis had reduced circulating levels of protein S as compared with controls. Inflammatory changes, the levels of profibrotic cytokines, fibrosis score, hydroxyproline content in the lungs and oxygen desaturation were significantly reduced in protein S-transgenic mice as compared with wild-type mice. Wild-type mice treated with exogenous protein S showed significant decreases in the levels of inflammatory and profibrotic markers and fibrosis in the lungs as compared with untreated control mice. After bleomycin infusion, mice overexpressing human protein S showed significantly low caspase-3 activity, enhanced expression of antiapoptotic molecules and enhanced Akt and Axl kinase phosphorylation as compared with wild-type counterparts. Protein S also inhibited apoptosis of alveolar

  4. Role of MAPK/AP-1 signaling pathway in the protection of CEES-induced lung injury by antioxidant liposome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sutapa; Mukherjee, Shyamali; Stone, William L.; Smith, Milton; Das, Salil K.

    2009-01-01

    We have recently reported that antioxidant liposomes can be used as antidotes for mustard gas induced lung injury in guinea pigs. The maximum protection was achieved with a liposome composed of tocopherols (α, γ, δ) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) when administered after 5 min of exposure of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a half sulfur mustard gas. We also reported an association of mustard gas-induced lung injury with an activation of MAPK/AP-1 signaling pathway and cell proliferation. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether CEES-induced MAPKs/AP-1 signaling pathway is influenced by antioxidant liposome therapy. A single dose (200 μl) of the antioxidant liposome was administered intratracheally after 5 min of exposure of CEES (0.5 mg/kg). The animals were sacrificed after 1 h and 30 days of CEES exposure. Although the liposome treatment did not have any significant effect on the activation of the MAPKs family (ERK1/2, p38 and JNK1/2), it significantly counteracted the CEES-induced activation of AP-1 transcription factors and corresponding increase in the protein levels of Fos, ATF and Jun family members. The liposome treatment significantly blocked the CEES-induced increase in the protein levels of cyclin D1, a cell cycle protein and PCNA, a cell differentiation marker. Furthermore, it protected lung against CEES-induced inflammation and infiltration of neutrophils, eosinophils and erythrocytes in the alveolar space. This suggests that the protective effect of antioxidant liposome against CEES-induced lung damage is mediated via control of AP-1 signaling.

  5. Antioxidative and proline potentials as a protective mechanism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-04

    Jul 4, 2011 ... The plants were uprooted randomly on 30 DAS and the enzymatic antioxidant potentials were analyzed. The fresh and dry weights and the chlorophyll content are reduced with increasing NaCl concentration. Proline concentration increased at high salinity compared to untreated plants. Moreover, salinity ...

  6. Antioxidative and proline potentials as a protective mechanism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-04

    Jul 4, 2011 ... Stress can define as all negative factors affecting plant growth. One of the most important problems among stress factors is salt stress. Antioxidant responses ... High-salt stress disrupts the homeostasis in water potential and ion distribution at both the cellular and the whole plant levels (Errabii et al., 2007).

  7. The protective role of Scoparia dulcis on tissue antioxidant defense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possible antioxidant property of aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis was tested in rats exposed to cadmium. Different groups of animals were treated with CdCl2 alone or in combination with graded levels of S. dulcis (i.e. 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body wt, respectively). Cadmium, a known prooxidant was administered ...

  8. Protein degradation and protection against misfolded or damaged proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Alfred L.

    2003-12-01

    The ultimate mechanism that cells use to ensure the quality of intracellular proteins is the selective destruction of misfolded or damaged polypeptides. In eukaryotic cells, the large ATP-dependent proteolytic machine, the 26S proteasome, prevents the accumulation of non-functional, potentially toxic proteins. This process is of particular importance in protecting cells against harsh conditions (for example, heat shock or oxidative stress) and in a variety of diseases (for example, cystic fibrosis and the major neurodegenerative diseases). A full understanding of the pathogenesis of the protein-folding diseases will require greater knowledge of how misfolded proteins are recognized and selectively degraded.

  9. Chemical structure, comparison antioxidant capacity and separation antioxidant of hen, duck and quail egg white protein hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatah, A.; Meihu, M.; Ning, Q.; Setiani, B. E.; Bintoro, V. P.

    2018-01-01

    Amino acid linkages as proteins are nutritional substance which important for diet intake. Purification protein procesing undergo heating procedure process followed by additional of proteolytic enzymes or acid had been resulting in protein hydrolysates. A protein hydrolysate describe as many free amino acids bound together through a complex mixture of peptides. Egg white protein hydrolysates is one of subject interested to study for human health or industry product. The objectives of the research are to determine and identification the antioxidant derived from egg white hydrolysate protein. Identification of chemical structure of albumen and albumen protein hydrolysate was examine using IR Spectrophotometry. While comparison of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant separation egg albumen was also investigate using FTIR method (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). Hen, duck and quail albumen egg white and on hydrolisate form were used as research materials. The results were showing that different time and enzyme of hydrolysis were not influence at secondary structure of hydrolysate albumen protein. Phytochemical content such as alcohol and hydroxyl compound which have potential as functional group of antioxidant were detected in all of the samples. Their results of radical scavenging activities samples hydrolyzed by pepsin were respectively 89.40%, 50.25% and 85.13%. Whereas the radical scavenging activities of hydrolysates hydrolyzed by papain were 72.85%, 61% and 76.45% respectively.

  10. Protective effect of Withania somnifera root powder on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyanthi, Thangavel; Subramanian, Perumal

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the protective effect of Withania somnifera root powder (used in ayurvedic medicine in India) on gentamicin (GEN) induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats. The root powder was administered orally to rats for 14 days before GEN treatment and thereafter with GEN for 8 days. Nephrotoxicity was manifested in GEN-treated rats as significant increases in urea, creatinine, uric acid, non protein nitrogen, urinary protein, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, followed by a significant reduction in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione in liver and kidney tissues, histopathologically confirmed by tubular necrosis. W. somnifera treatment altered the antioxidant status and significantly reversed the levels as seen microscopically. The results show that the root powder of W. somnifera with the presence of natural antioxidants, bioflavanoids, and other bioactive compounds scavenged the free radicals generated by GEN and ameliorated the severity of GEN-induced nephrotoxicity by enhancing the antioxidant system and protecting the cellular integrity of kidney and liver tissues.

  11. Skin cell protection against UVA by Sideroxyl, a new antioxidant complementary to sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pygmalion, Marie-Jocelyne; Ruiz, Laetitia; Popovic, Evelyne; Gizard, Julie; Portes, Pascal; Marat, Xavier; Lucet-Levannier, Karine; Muller, Benoit; Galey, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-12-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from photosensitized ROS production in skin is widely accepted as the main contributor to the deleterious effects of UVA exposure. Among the mechanisms known to be involved in UVA-induced oxidative damage, iron plays a central role. UVA radiation of skin cells induces an immediate release of iron, which can then act as a catalyst for uncontrolled oxidation reactions of cell components. Such site-specific damage can scarcely be counteracted by classical antioxidants. In contrast, iron chelators potentially offer an effective way to protect skin against UVA insults. However, iron chelation is very difficult to achieve without disturbing iron homeostasis or inducing iron depletion. A novel compound was developed to avoid these potentially harmful side effects. Sideroxyl was designed to acquire its strong chelating capability only during oxidative stress according to an original process of intramolecular hydroxylation. Herein, we describe in vitro results demonstrating the protective efficiency of Sideroxyl against deleterious effects of UVA at the molecular, cellular, and tissular levels. First, the Sideroxyl diacid form protects a model protein against UVA-induced photosensitized carbonylation. Second, intracellular ROS are dose-dependently decreased in the presence of Sideroxyl in both human cultured fibroblasts and human keratinocytes. Third, Sideroxyl protects normal human fibroblasts against UVA-induced DNA damage as measured by the comet assay and MMP-1 production. Finally, Sideroxyl provides protection against UVA-induced alterations in human reconstructed skin. These results suggest that Sideroxyl may prevent UVA-induced damage in human skin as a complement to sunscreens, especially in the long-wavelength UVA range. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel vanillin derivatives: Synthesis, anti-oxidant, DNA and cellular protection properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipioni, Matteo; Kay, Graeme; Megson, Ian; Kong Thoo Lin, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Antioxidants have been the subject of intense research interest mainly due to their beneficial properties associated with human health and wellbeing. Phenolic molecules, such as naturally occurring Resveratrol and Vanillin, are well known for their anti-oxidant properties, providing a starting point for the development of new antioxidants. Here we report, for the first time, the synthesis of a number of new vanillin through the reductive amination reaction between vanillin and a selection of amines. All the compounds synthesised, exhibited strong antioxidant properties in DPPH, FRAP and ORAC assays, with compounds 1b and 2c being the most active. The latter also demonstrated the ability to protect plasmid DNA from oxidative damage in the presence of the radical initiator AAPH. At cellular level, neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were protected from oxidative damage (H 2 O 2 , 400 μM) with both 1b and 2c. The presence of a tertiary amino group, along with the number of vanillin moieties in the molecule contribute for the antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the delocalization of the electron pair of the nitrogen and the presence of an electron donating substituent to enhance the antioxidant properties of this new class of compounds. In our opinion, vanillin derivatives 1b and 2c described in this work can provide a viable platform for the development of antioxidant based therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Protective effect of the antioxidant enzyme on sperm from Bubalus bubalis type after cryoconservation

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanov R.; Sabev M.; Ivanova-Kicheva M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies were carried out in order to determine the presence of damaged intracellular proteins in sperm from water buffalo as a result of toxic action of free radicals and their attitude towards the vitality of the gametes. Experiments were performed with thawed semen samples as the trial has been added antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase. It was found that added to the test sample exogenous antioxidant makes inoffensive much of the available free radica...

  14. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  15. Genetically increased antioxidative protection and decreased chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Klaus; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Marklund, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    RATIONALE: Increased oxidative stress is involved in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, plasma and bronchial lining fluid contains the antioxidant extracellular superoxide dismutase. Approximately 2% of white individuals carry the R213G polymorphism in the gene encoding......-sectionally and prospectively (during 24 yr) 9,258 individuals from the Danish general population genotyped for R213G. MEASUREMENTS: We determined plasma extracellular superoxide dismutase concentration, pulmonary function and COPD diagnosed by means of spirometry or through national hospitalization and death registers. MAIN...

  16. Antioxidant and DNA damage protective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts from Hibiscus and Ocimum: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biswatrish; Kumar, Dhananjay; Sasmal, Dinakar; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin extracts (AEs) from Ocimum tenuiflorum (leaf), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (petal) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) were investigated and compared for in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of the AEs were determined and the major anthocyanins were characterised. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, 2-deoxy-D-ribose degradation assay and lipid peroxidation assay. The protective property of the AEs was also examined against oxidative DNA damage by H2O2 and UV using pUC19 plasmid. All the AEs particularly those from O. tenuiflorum demonstrated efficient antioxidant activity and protected DNA from damage. Strong correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC was observed. Significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC ascertained that phenolics and anthocyanins were the major contributors of antioxidant activity.

  17. Oenanthe Javanica Extract Protects Against Experimentally Induced Ischemic Neuronal Damage via its Antioxidant Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Ha Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica as a popular traditional medicine in Asia shows various biological properties including antioxidant activity. In this study, we firstly examined the neuroprotective effect of Oenanthe javanica extract (OJE in the hippocampal cornus ammonis 1 region (CA1 region of the gerbil subjected to transient cerebral ischemia. Methods: Gerbils were established by the occlusion of common carotid arteries for 5 min. The neuroprotective effect of OJE was estimated by cresyl violet staining. In addition, 4 antioxidants (copper, zinc superoxide dismutase [SOD], manganese SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase immunoreactivities were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Results: Pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region showed neuronal death at 5 days postischemia; at this point in time, all antioxidants immunoreactivities disappeared in CA1 pyramidal neurons and showed in many nonpyramidal cells. Treatment with 200 mg/kg, not 100 mg/kg, OJE protected CA1 pyramidal neurons from ischemic damage. In addition, 200 mg/kg OJE treatment increased or maintained antioxidants immunoreactivities. Especially, among the antioxidants, glutathione peroxidase immunoreactivity was effectively increased in the CA1 pyramidal neurons of the OJE-treated sham-operated and ischemia-operated groups. Conclusion: Our present results indicate that treatment with OJE can protect neurons from transient ischemic damage and that the neuroprotective effect may be closely associated with increased or maintained intracellular antioxidant enzymes by OJE.

  18. Antioxidants protect keratinocytes against M. ulcerans mycolactone cytotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvar Grönberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of necrotizing skin ulcerations in distinctive geographical areas. M. ulcerans produces a macrolide toxin, mycolactone, which has been identified as an important virulence factor in ulcer formation. Mycolactone is cytotoxic to fibroblasts and adipocytes in vitro and has modulating activity on immune cell functions. The effect of mycolactone on keratinocytes has not been reported previously and the mechanism of mycolactone toxicity is presently unknown. Many other macrolide substances have cytotoxic and immunosuppressive activities and mediate some of their effects via production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. We have studied the effect of mycolactone in vitro on human keratinocytes--key cells in wound healing--and tested the hypothesis that the cytotoxic effect of mycolactone is mediated by ROS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effect of mycolactone on primary skin keratinocyte growth and cell numbers was investigated in serum free growth medium in the presence of different antioxidants. A concentration and time dependent reduction in keratinocyte cell numbers was observed after exposure to mycolactone. Several different antioxidants inhibited this effect partly. The ROS inhibiting substance deferoxamine, which acts via chelation of Fe(2+, completely prevented mycolactone mediated cytotoxicity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that mycolactone mediated cytotoxicity can be inhibited by deferoxamine, suggesting a role of iron and ROS in mycolactone induced cytotoxicity of keratinocytes. The data provide a basis for the understanding of Buruli ulcer pathology and the development of improved therapies for this disease.

  19. Selenium in bone health: roles in antioxidant protection and cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and several findings suggest that dietary Se intake may be necessary for bone health. Such findings may relate to roles of Se in antioxidant protection, enhanced immune surveillance and modulation of cell proliferation. Elucidation ...

  20. Protective roles of nitric oxide on antioxidant systems in tall fescue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... (PTIO) before light treatment. Pronounced increases of NO production were found in tall fescue leaves after exposure to high-light stress. The results suggested that high-light stress elevated NO level and that NO might act as a signalling molecule to enhance antioxidant enzyme activities, further protecting.

  1. Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates from raw and heat-treated yellow string beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaś, Monika; Jakubczyk, Anna; Szymanowska, Urszula; Materska, Małgorzata; Zielińska, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, legume plants have been considered not only a source of valuable proteins necessary for the proper functioning and growth of the body but also a source of bioactive compounds such as bioactive peptides, that may be beneficial to human health and protect against negative change in food. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heat treatment on the release of antioxidant peptides obtained by hydrolysis of the yellow string beans protein. The antioxidant properties of the hydrolysates were evaluated through free radical scavenging activities (DPPH and ABTS) and inhibition of iron activities (chelation of Fe2+). The results show that the heat treatment had influence on both increased peptides content and antioxidant activity after pepsin hydrolysis of string bean protein. The peptides content after protein hydrolysis derived from raw and heat treated beans were noted 2.10 and 2.50 mg·ml-1, respectively. The hydrolysates obtained from raw (PHR) and heat treated (PHT) beans showed better antioxidant properties than protein isolates (PIR and PIT). Moreover, the hydrolysates obtained from heat treated beans showed the higher ability to scavenge DPPH• (46.12%) and ABTS+• (92.32%) than obtained from raw beans (38.02% and 88.24%, correspondingly). The IC50 value for Fe2+ chelating ability for pepsin hydrolysates obtained from raw and heat treatment beans were noted 0.81 and 0.19 mg·ml-1, respectively. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the heat treatment string beans caused increase in the antioxidant activities of peptide-rich hydrolysates.

  2. Proteomic analysis of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare under glutathione reveals high demand for thiamin transport and antioxidant protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ma

    Full Text Available Ketogulonicigenium vulgare, though grows poorly when mono-cultured, has been widely used in the industrial production of the precursor of vitamin C with the coculture of Bacillus megaterium. Various efforts have been made to clarify the synergic pattern of this artificial microbial community and to improve the growth and production ability of K. vulgare, but there is still no sound explanation. In previous research, we found that the addition of reduced glutathione into K. vulgare monoculture could significantly improve its growth and productivity. By performing SEM and TEM, we observed that after adding GSH into K. vulgare monoculture, cells became about 4-6 folds elongated, and formed intracytoplasmic membranes (ICM. To explore the molecular mechanism and provide insights into the investigation of the synergic pattern of the co-culture system, we conducted a comparative iTRAQ-2-D-LC-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis of K. vulgare grown under reduced glutathione. Principal component analysis of proteomic data showed that after the addition of glutathione, proteins for thiamin/thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP transport, glutathione transport and the maintenance of membrane integrity, together with several membrane-bound dehydrogenases had significant up-regulation. Besides, several proteins participating in the pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were also up-regulated. Additionally, proteins combating intracellular reactive oxygen species were also up-regulated, which similarly occurred in K. vulgare when the co-cultured B. megaterium cells lysed from our former research results. This study reveals the demand for transmembrane transport of substrates, especially thiamin, and the demand for antioxidant protection of K. vulgare.

  3. Influence of polyphenol-plasma protein interaction on the antioxidant properties of polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dengfeng; Xie, Aize

    2013-05-01

    Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants. Polyphenols are known to non-covalent interact with plasma proteins in blood through hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions. It was found that the effect of polyphenol-plasma protein interaction (PpPI) on the bioavailability of polyphenols is not equivocal. Because the conclusion of individual reports are contradictory to each other; therefore, it is very difficult to give a univocal comment on the influence of PpPI on antioxidant property of polyphenols. The influence of PpPI on the antioxidant activity of polyphenols is decided by the antioxidant assay, the structure characteristics of polyphenols, as well as the proteins. This mini review mainly focused on the influence of PpPI on the antioxidant properties of polyphenols.

  4. Antioxidant Effects of Sheep Whey Protein on Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthalia Kerasioti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS may cause endothelial dysfunction and consequently vascular disease. In the present study, the possible protective effects of sheep whey protein (SWP from tert-butyl hydroperoxide- (tBHP- induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells (EA.hy926 were assessed using oxidative stress biomarkers. These oxidative stress biomarkers were glutathione (GSH and ROS levels determined by flow cytometry. Moreover, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, protein carbonyls (CARB, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG were determined spectrophotometrically. The results showed that SWP at 0.78, 1.56, 3.12, and 6.24 mg of protein mL−1 increased GSH up to 141%, while it decreased GSSG to 46.7%, ROS to 58.5%, TBARS to 52.5%, and CARB to 49.0%. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated for the first time that SWP protected endothelial cells from oxidative stress. Thus, SWP may be used for developing food supplements or biofunctional foods to attenuate vascular disturbances associated with oxidative stress.

  5. The protective effect of plasma antioxidants during ozone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ozone (O3) therapy forms part of a group of complementary and alternative medical therapies and is gaining more and more interest worldwide. There is, however, some concern regarding O3-toxicity and uncertainty about the effectiveness of O3-therapy. In this study we investigated the possible protective effects of the ...

  6. Protective effect of some chelating agents and antioxidants on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Heavy metals that normally cause problems are mercury (HgCl2) and lead acetate (LA). Chelating and inhibitor agents are the target to treat and overcome metal toxicity. The current study has been carried out to evaluate the protective effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and meso 2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid ...

  7. Development of Active Films From Pectin and Fruit Extracts: Light Protection, Antioxidant Capacity, and Compounds Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eça, Kaliana S; Machado, Mariana T C; Hubinger, Miriam D; Menegalli, Florencia C

    2015-11-01

    Pectin films containing fruit extracts were developed and tested in relation to ultraviolet light transmission, phytochemical contents, and antioxidant capacity during 90 d shelf life storage. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts from 5 different fruits (acerola, cashew apple, papaya, pequi, and strawberry) were obtained. Because the alcoholic extracts from acerola, cashew apple, and strawberry presented the highest phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity, they were incorporated into pectin films individually or as a mixture. Incorporation of these extracts into pectin films provided antioxidant capacity while retaining the physical properties. The pectin films containing fruit extract acted as adequate light barrier and prevented photooxidation. Among the prepared films, the pectin film containing acerola extract afforded the highest antioxidant capacity, with a half-life of 99 d. Overall, the results revealed that incorporation of fruit extracts into pectin films potentially produces antioxidant films and coatings for different food applications. The production of pectin films incorporated with fruit extract is based on combination of the antioxidant activity, natural color, and optical barrier properties from fruit phytochemical components to the active film. This film could be potentially used as active packing on food products in order to protect their nutrients against free radicals action and photooxidation and, hence, preserve the quality, integrity, and safety of food during the storage period. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Antioxidant and Protective Effects of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Against Doxorubicin-Induced Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Paola Dos Santos da; Campos, Jaqueline Ferreira; Nunes-Souza, Valéria; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Boleti, Ana Paula de Araújo; Rabelo, Luiza Antas; Dos Santos, Edson Lucas; de Picoli Souza, Kely

    2018-03-01

    Doxorubicin is an anticancer drug whose toxic effects on non-cancer cells are associated with increased oxidative stress. This study investigated the chemical composition, antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi leaves (MESL) as well as effects against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in human erythrocytes, K562 human erythroleukemia cells, and mouse hearts. The chemical composition indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, and ascorbic acid. MESL showed antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals and inhibiting hemolysis and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes incubated with an oxidizing agent, and was able to increase the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in human erythrocytes, without influencing the activity of enzyme catalase. The increase of oxidative hemolysis and malondialdehyde levels in erythrocytes incubated with doxorubicin was reduced by treatment with MESL. The cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin in erythroleukemia cells treated with MESL was unmodified. Additionally, the extract protected mice against the doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. In conclusion, the MESL exhibits antioxidant activity, reducing doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress without changing the anticancer action of the drug, and protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Hence, these findings suggest that these effects are via anti-oxidative by inhibiting free radicals, decreased oxidative stress, and increased antioxidant enzyme activity.

  9. Piper species protect cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Akinfiresoye, Luli; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert; Vinson, Joe A

    2012-10-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies points to the use of antioxidants as an effective measure to reduce the progression of oxidative stress related disorders. The present study evaluate the effect of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) for the protection of cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters were classified into eight groups: a normal control, atherogenic control and six other experimental groups (fed atherogenic diet supplemented with different doses of P. nigrum, P. guineense and P. umbellatum (1 and 0.25 g/kg) for 12 weeks. At the end of the feeding period the heart, liver and kidney from each group were analyzed for lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. Atherogenic diet induced a significant (PPiper species significantly inhibited the alteration effect of atherogenic diet on the lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. The Piper extracts may possess an antioxidant protective role against atherogenic diet induced oxidative stress in cardiac, hepatic and renal tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Total anti-oxidant status and C-reactive protein values in Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total anti-oxidant status and C-reactive protein values in Nigerians with symptomatic primary osteoarthritis of the knee joint – an initial report. ... Informed consent, biodata and body mass indices were obtained after which venous blood samples were obtained from each subject. Total plasma antioxidant status (TAS) was ...

  11. Effects of gamma irradiation on chickpea seeds vis-a-vis total seed storage proteins, antioxidant activity and protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagyawant, S S; Gupta, N; Shrivastava, N

    2015-10-23

    The present work describes radiation—induced effects on seed composition vis—à—vis total seed proteins, antioxidant levels and protein profiling employing two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D—GE) in kabuli and desi chickpea varities. Seeds were exposed to the radiation doses of 1,2,3,4 and 5 kGy. The total protein concentrations decreased and antioxidant levels were increased with increasing dose compared to control seed samples. Radiation induced effects were dose dependent to these seed parameters while it showed tolerance to 1 kGy dose. Increase in the dose was complimented with increase in antioxidant levels, like 5 kGy enhanced % scavenging activities in all the seed extracts. Precisely, the investigations reflected that the dose range from 2 to 5 kGy was effective for total seed storage proteins, as depicted quantitatively and qualitative 2D—GE means enhance antioxidant activities in vitro.

  12. Justification for antioxidant preconditioning (or how to protect insulin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Insulin resistance is characterized by impaired glucose utilization in the peripheral tissues, accelerated muscle protein degradation ... increased susceptibility of muscle cells and cardiomycoytes to oxidative stress is among the harmful complica- ...... by insulin and contraction in rat skeletal muscle; Diabetes 49. 1794–1800.

  13. Effects of different treatments of fly ash and mining soil on growth and antioxidant protection of Indian wild rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisoi, Sidhanta Sekhar; Mishra, Swati S; Barik, Jijnasa; Panda, Debabrata

    2017-05-04

    The aim of the present study was investigation of the effects of fly ash and mining soil on growth and antioxidant protection of two cultivars of Indian wild rice (Oryza nivara and Oryza rufipogon) for possible phytoremediation and restoration of metal-contaminated site. In this study, Indian wild rice showed significant changes in germination, growth, and biochemical parameters after exposure to different ratio of fly ash and mining soil with garden soil. There was significant reduction of germination, fresh weight, dry weight, leaf chlorophyll content, leaf area, Special Analysis Device Chlorophyll (SPAD) Index, proteins, and activities of antioxidant enzymes in both cultivars of the wild rice grown in 100% fly ash and mining soil compared to the plants grown in 100% garden soil. Results from this study showed that in both cultivars of wild rice, all growth and antioxidant parameters increased when grown in 50% fly ash and mining soil. Taken together, Indian wild rice has the capacity to tolerate 50% of fly ash and mining soil, and can be considered as a good candidate for possible phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  14. Factors affecting antioxidant activity of soybean meal and caseine protein hydrolysates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korczak, J.

    1998-01-01

    Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysates was dependent on the raw material, condition of hydrolysis and lipid substrate used in model systems. Soybean meal hydrolysate was more active in lard and in linoleic acid emulsion than caseine hydrolysate, whereas caseine was more active in vegetable oils. Antioxidant activity of evaluated protein hydrolysates in all lipid systems, with or without oxidation catalysts, suggests them as natural food additives for lipid stabilization, thus for improvement of its nutritional value and sensory properties

  15. Protein profiling reveals antioxidant and signaling activities of NAP (Davunetide) in rodent hippocampus exposed to hypobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Sharma, Narendra Kumar; Das, Mainak; Bhargava, Kalpana

    2014-11-01

    NAP (davunetide) is a clinical octapeptide and reportedly possesses neuroprotective, neurotrophic and cognitive protective properties. The information for NAP-mediated neuroproteome changes and associated signaling pathways during hypoxia will help in drug development programmes across the world. In the present study, we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of NAP in rat hippocampus exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (25,000 ft, 282 mm Hg) for 3, 6 and 12 h respectively. Using 2D-gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry, we have identified altered expression of 80 proteins in NAP-supplemented hippocampus after hypoxia. Pathway analysis revealed that NAP supplementation significantly regulated oxidative stress response, oxidoreductase activity and cellular response to stress pathways during hypoxia. Additionally, NAP supplementation also regulated energy production pathways along with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and signaling by Rho family GTPases pathways. We observed higher expression of antioxidant Sod1, Eno1, Prdx2 and Prdx5 proteins that were subsequently validated by Western blotting. A higher level of Prdx2 was also observed by immunohistochemistry in NAP-supplemented hippocampus during hypoxia. In corroboration, we are able to detect significant lower level of protein carbonyls in NAP-supplemented hypoxic hippocampus suggesting amelioration of oxidant molecules by NAP supplementation. These results emphasize the antioxidant and signaling properties of NAP in rodent hippocampus during hypobaric hypoxia.

  16. Protection of Astaxanthin in Astaxanthin Nanodispersions Using Additional Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Ping Tan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on astaxanthin in astaxanthin nanodispersions produced via a solvent-diffusion technique and stabilized by a three-component stabilizer system, were studied either individually or in combination by using response surface methodology. Generally, both α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid could retard the astaxanthin degradation in astaxanthin nanodispersions. The results showed that the using α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid can be more efficient in increasing the chemical stability of nanodispersions in comparison to using them individually. Using a response surface methodology (RSM response optimizer, it was seen that addition of ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid/astaxanthin w/w and α-tocopherol (α-tocopherol/astaxanthin w/w in proportions of 0.4 and 0.6, respectively, would give the maximum chemical stability to the studied astaxanthin nanodispersions.

  17. Phytochemicals in Human Milk and Their Potential Antioxidative Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apollinaire Tsopmo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Diets contain secondary plant metabolites commonly referred to as phytochemicals. Many of them are believed to impact human health through various mechanisms, including protection against oxidative stress and inflammation, and decreased risks of developing chronic diseases. For mothers and other people, phytochemical intake occurs through the consumption of foods such as fruits, vegetables, and grains. Research has shown that some these phytochemicals are present in the mother’s milk and can contribute to its oxidative stability. For infants, human milk (HM represents the primary and preferred source of nutrition because it is a complete food. Studies have reported that the benefit provided by HM goes beyond basic nutrition. It can, for example, reduce oxidative stress in infants, thereby reducing the risk of lung and intestinal diseases in infants. This paper summarizes the phytochemicals present in HM and their potential contribution to infant health.

  18. DNA damage protection against free radicals of two antioxidant neolignan glucosides from sugarcane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikin, Yonathan; Takahashi, Makoto; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Oku, Hirosuke; Wada, Koji

    2016-03-15

    Sugarcane molasses is a potential by-product of the sugarcane manufacturing industry that is rich in antioxidant materials. The present study aimed to obtain antioxidative compounds from sugarcane molasses and to evaluate their ability to protect DNA from oxidative damage. Two neolignan glucosides were isolated from sugarcane molasses using bioassay and UV spectra monitoring-guided fractionation. The compounds were elucidated as (7R,8S)-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-O-β-d-glucoside (1) and (7S,8R)-simulanol-9'-O-β-d-glucoside (2). Neolignan glucoside 2 protected against DNA damage caused by free radicals more effectively than did neolignan glucoside 1 (13.62 and 9.08 µmol L(-1) for peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals, respectively, compared to 48.07 and 14.42 µmol L(-1) ). Additionally, neolignan glucoside 2 exhibited superior DNA protection against free radicals compared with various known antioxidative compounds, including p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid and epigallocatechin gallate. The isolated neolignan glucosides from sugarcane molasses are able to protect DNA from oxidative damage caused by free radicals. This is the first identification of these two compounds in sugarcane molasses. The sugarcane molasses can therefore be used as potential nutraceutical preventative agents, and the findings may foster the utilization of this by-product as a bioresource-based product. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. Copyright © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Protective effect of thymoquinone against lead-induced antioxidant defense system alteration in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Aymen

    2017-09-01

    Alteration of the antioxidant system may be related to lead (Pb) hepatotoxicity. This study was carried out to investigate the possible beneficial effect of thymoquinone (TQ), the major active ingredient of volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds, against Pb-induced liver antioxidant defense system impairment. Adult male rats were randomized into four groups: control group received no treatment, Pb group was exposed to 2000 ppm of Pb acetate in drinking water, Pb-TQ group was cotreated with Pb plus TQ (5 mg/kg/day, per os) and TQ group receiving only TQ. All treatments were applied for five weeks. TQ alone did not induce any significant changes in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status. By contrast, Pb exposure significantly decreased not only reduced glutathione level, but also superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase activities in the liver tissue. Interestingly, when coadministrated with Pb, TQ significantly improved the affected antioxidant parameters. In conclusion, our results indicate a protective effect of TQ against Pb-induced liver antioxidant capacity impairment and suggest that this component might be a clinically promising alternative in Pb hepatotoxicity.

  20. Antioxidant protection from HIV-1 gp120-induced neuroglial toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh Kimberley A

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 (gp120 associated neuroglial toxicity remains unresolved, but oxidative injury has been widely implicated as a contributing factor. In previous studies, exposure of primary human central nervous system tissue cultures to gp120 led to a simplification of neuronal dendritic elements as well as astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia; neuropathological features of HIV-1-associated dementia. Gp120 and proinflammatory cytokines upregulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, an important source of nitric oxide (NO and nitrosative stress. Because ascorbate scavenges reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, we studied the effect of ascorbate supplementation on iNOS expression as well as the neuronal and glial structural changes associated with gp120 exposure. Methods Human CNS cultures were derived from 16–18 week gestation post-mortem fetal brain. Cultures were incubated with 400 μM ascorbate-2-O-phosphate (Asc-p or vehicle for 18 hours then exposed to 1 nM gp120 for 24 hours. The expression of iNOS and neuronal (MAP2 and astrocytic (GFAP structural proteins was examined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM. Results Following gp120 exposure iNOS was markedly upregulated from undetectable levels at baseline. Double label CSLM studies revealed astrocytes to be the prime source of iNOS with rare neurons expressing iNOS. This upregulation was attenuated by the preincubation with Asc-p, which raised the intracellular concentration of ascorbate. Astrocytic hypertrophy and neuronal injury caused by gp120 were also prevented by preincubation with ascorbate. Conclusions Ascorbate supplementation prevents the deleterious upregulation of iNOS and associated neuronal and astrocytic protein expression and structural changes caused by gp120 in human brain cell cultures.

  1. Assessment of Protective and Antioxidant Properties of Tribulus Terrestris Fruits against Testicular Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was carried out to assess the protective and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits (METT against sodium valproate (SVP-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Material and methods: Fifty mature male rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups (n=10. Group 1 was used normal (negative control, and the other four groups were intoxicated with SVP (500 mg/kg-1, orally during the last week of experiment. Group 2 was kept intoxicated (positive control and groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally pretreated with METT in daily doses 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg-1 for 60 days, respectively. Weights of sexual organs, serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels, semen picture, testicular antioxidant capacity and histopathology of testes were the parameters used in this study. Results: Oral pretreatment with METT significantly increased weights of testes and seminal vesicles; serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels and sperm motility, count and viability in SVP-intoxicated rats. METT enhanced the activity of testicular antioxidant enzymes and partially alleviated degenerative changes induced by SVP in testes. Conclusion: The pretreatment with METT has protective and antioxidant effects in SVP-intoxicated rats. Mechanisms of this protective effect against testicular toxicity may be due to the increased release of testosterone, FSH and LH and the enhanced tissue antioxidant capacity. These results affirm the traditional use of Tribulus terrestris fruits as an aphrodisiac for treating male sexual impotency and erectile dysfunction in patients. The study recommends that Tribulus terrestris fruits may be beneficial for male patients suffering from infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 113-118

  2. Phytochemical evaluation and in vitro antioxidant and photo-protective capacity of Calendula officinalis L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C.K.N. DEUSCHLE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The plant Calendula officinalis L. is widely applied due to its medicinal properties, which are mainly dermatological and ornamental. The goal of this study is to assess the phytochemical components in a hydroethanolic extract (HECO from the leaves of Calendula officinalis L. using UV-VIS spectrophotometry and thin layer chromatography (TLC, as well as to identify and quantify the components related to its antioxidant capacity employing high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC. The antioxidant capacity evaluation was performed using the DPPH method for superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The photo-protective capacity was evaluated by UVspectrophotometry in order to determine the in vitro Sun Protection Factor(SPF. The results show the plant’s strong antioxidant activity (DPPH and hydroxyl methods, which we believe to be related to the presence of flavonoids (24.67 mg/g, polyphenols (33.90 mg/g, condensed tannins (27.30 mg/g, and the amount of rutin (37.25 mg/g, and quercetin (6.09 mg/g found during the study. The HECO presented a good antioxidant capacity, most likely due to the polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in its contents. However, the obtained SPF of 1.89 ± 0.05 does not allow the plant to be classified as a stand-alone sunscreen, and more studies are needed in order to test its ability to enhance sunscreens in existing cosmetic formulations.

  3. The importance of antioxidants in the protection against mycotoxicoses in farm animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović-Todorović Mirjana Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are biologically active substances that are synthesized by saprophytic and parasitic fungi, and which, when taken into organism by ingestion, can provoke intoxications known as mycotoxicoses. Farm animals show different susceptibility to mycotoxins depending on various factors: genetic (species and breeds, physiological (age and obesity and environmental (hygienic and climatic. One of the mechanisms of mycotoxin activities is peroxidation of lipids brought about directly by the production of free radicals or by increased sensitivity of tissue to peroxidation. Peroxidation of lipids provoked by mycotoxins is caused by low level of natural antioxidants, so they have a crucial role in the protection against mycotoxins. Nutritive stress can influence negatively the relationship between antioxidants/pro-oxidants, and mycotoxins are nowadays regarded as leading factors of stress induced by nutrition. This optimal relationship can be regulated by the use of antioxidants in food (selenium, vitamin E, carotenoids, etc. known to prevent tissue damages caused by free radicals. Selenium and vitamin E are essential nutrients which contribute to the preservation of animal health by realizing mutual biological activities in the organism. This paper presents the findings on mechanisms of the action of different species of mycotoxins and the importance of antioxidative protection in farm animals, as well as the results of our investigations of influence of mycotoxins on the occurrence of some reproductive disorders in pigs.

  4. Effects of antioxidants on post-thawed bovine sperm and oxidative stress parameters: antioxidants protect DNA integrity against cryodamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucak, Mustafa Numan; Tuncer, Pürhan Barbaros; Sarıözkan, Serpil; Başpınar, Nuri; Taşpınar, Mehmet; Coyan, Kenan; Bilgili, Ali; Akalın, Pınar Peker; Büyükleblebici, Serhat; Aydos, Sena; Ilgaz, Seda; Sunguroğlu, Asuman; Oztuna, Derya

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of methionine, inositol and carnitine on sperm (motility, abnormality, DNA integrity and in vivo fertility) and oxidative stress parameters (lipid peroxidation, total glutathione and antioxidant potential levels) of bovine semen after the freeze-thawing process. Nine ejaculates, collected with the aid of an artificial vagina twice a week from each Simmental bovine, were included in the study. Each ejaculate, splitted into seven equal groups and diluted in Tris-based extender containing methionine (2.5 and 7.5 mM), carnitine (2.5 and 7.5 mM), inositol (2.5 and 7.5 mM) and no additive (control), was cooled to 5 °C and then frozen in 0.25 ml straws. Frozen straws were then thawed individually at 37 °C for 20s in a water bath for the evaluation. The extender supplemented with 7.5 mM doses of carnitine and inositol led to higher subjective motility percentages (61.9±1.3% and 51.3±1.6%) compared to the other groups. The addition of methionine and carnitine at doses of 2.5 and 7.5 mM and inositol at doses of 7.5mM provided a greater protective effect in the percentages of total abnormality in comparison to the control and inositol 2.5 mM (P control, thus reducing the DNA damage (P control group (P > 0.05). The maintenance of AOP level in methionine 2.5 mM was demonstrated to be higher (5.06±0.38 mM) than that of control (0.96±0.29 mM) following the freeze-thawing (P process protected the DNA integrity against the cryodamage. Furthermore, future research should focus on the molecular mechanisms of the antioxidative effects of the antioxidants methionine, carnitine and inositol during cryopreservation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant potential and neuro-protective effect from Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz.) Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rulan; Zhao, Ying; Zhao, Yudan; Zhou, Wanrong; Lv, Chongning; Lu, Jincai

    2016-12-01

    Three new phenolic compounds (1-3), along with five known compounds (4-8) were isolated from the rhizome of Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz.) Maxim. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR and HR-MS techniques. DPPH method and protective effect on PC12 cells against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative damage model were carried to evaluate the antioxidant capability of these compounds. Compound 5 showed significant antioxidant activity with IC 50 values 9.33μM in DPPH assay and compound 2 displayed marked neuro-protective effect with 87.65% cell viability at the concentration of 10μM. Additionally, the possible structure-activity relationships of these phenolic compounds were tentatively discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. MnTM-4-PyP modulates endogenous antioxidant responses and protects primary cortical neurons against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kuo-Yuan; Guo, Fei; Lu, Jia-Qi; Cao, Yuan-Zhao; Wang, Tian-Chang; Yang, Qi; Xia, Qing

    2015-05-01

    Oxidative stress is a direct cause of injury in various neural diseases. Manganese porphyrins (MnPs), a large category of superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics, shown universally to have effects in numerous neural disease models in vivo. Given their complex intracellular redox activities, detailed mechanisms underlying the biomedical efficacies are not fully elucidated. This study sought to investigate the regulation of endogenous antioxidant systems by a MnP (MnTM-4-PyP) and its role in the protection against neural oxidative stress. Primary cortical neurons were treated with MnTM-4-PyP prior to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. MnTM-4-PyP increased cell viability, reduced intracellular level of reactive oxygen species, inhibited mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and ameliorated endoplasmic reticulum function. The protein levels and activities of endogenous SODs were elevated, but not those of catalase. SOD2 transcription was promoted in a transcription factor-specific manner. Additionally, we found FOXO3A and Sirt3 levels also increased. These effects were not observed with MnTM-4-PyP alone. Induction of various levels of endogenous antioxidant responses by MnTM-4-PyP has indispensable functions in its protection for cortical neurons against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Chromosomal damage by low doses of radiation: protection by combination of dietary antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Lakshmi; Abraham, S.K.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1994-01-01

    Mice which were fed antioxidants, consisting of a combination of β-carotene, αtocopherol and ascorbic acid, or curcumin, ascorbic acid and chlorogenic acid are substantially protected against γ-ray induced micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes obtained from bone-marrow. In this context, the relevance of a more balanced intake of food material especially those with anti carcinogens/anti mutagenic principles for human health care needs no over-emphasis. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  8. Protective and Antioxidant Effects of a Chalconoid from Pulicaria incisa on Brain Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Elmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the brain, protect neurons from reactive oxygen species (ROS and provide them with trophic support, such as glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF. Thus, any damage to astrocytes will affect neuronal survival. In the present study, by activity-guided fractionation, we have purified from the desert plant Pulicaria incisa two protective compounds and determined their structures by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were found to be new chalcones—pulichalconoid B and pulichalconoid C. This is the first study to characterize the antioxidant and protective effects of these compounds in any biological system. Using primary cultures of astrocytes, we have found that pulichalconoid B attenuated the accumulation of ROS following treatment of these cells with hydrogen peroxide by 89% and prevented 89% of the H2O2-induced death of astrocytes. Pulichalconoid B exhibited an antioxidant effect both in vitro and in the cellular antioxidant assay in astrocytes and microglial cells. Pulichalconoid B also caused a fourfold increase in GDNF transcription in these cells. Thus, this chalcone deserves further studies in order to evaluate if beneficial therapeutic effect exists.

  9. Bioactive Peptides from Cartilage Protein Hydrolysate of Spotless Smoothhound and Their Antioxidant Activity In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment, crude proteins from spotless smoothhound (Mustelus griseus, cartilages were isolated by HCl-Guanidine buffer, and its hydrolysate was prepared using trypsin at pH 8.0, 40 °C with a total enzyme dose of 2.5%. Subsequently, three antioxidant peptides were purified from the hydrolysate using membrane ultrafiltration, anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The amino acid sequences of isolated peptides were identified as Gly-Ala-Glu-Arg-Pro (MCPE-A; Gly-Glu-Arg-Glu-Ala-Asn-Val-Met (MCPE-B; and Ala-Glu-Val-Gly (MCPE-C with molecular weights of 528.57, 905.00, and 374.40 Da, respectively, using protein amino acid sequence analyzer and mass spectrum. MCPE-A, MCPE-B and MCPE-C exhibited good scavenging activities on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH• (EC50 3.73, 1.87, and 2.30 mg/mL, respectively, hydroxyl radicals (HO• (EC50 0.25, 0.34, and 0.06 mg/mL, respectively, 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals (ABTS+• (EC50 0.10, 0.05, and 0.07 mg/mL, respectively and superoxide anion radicals ( O 2 − • (EC50 0.09, 0.33, and 0.18 mg/mL, respectively. MCPE-B showed similar inhibiting ability on lipid peroxidation with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT in a linoleic acid model system. Furthermore, MCPE-A, MCPE-B, and MCPE-C could protect H2O2-induced HepG2 cells from oxidative stress by decreasing the content of malonaldehyde (MDA and increasing the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and glutathione reductase (GSH-Rx. Glu, Gly, Met, and Pro in their sequences and low molecular weight could be attributed to the antioxidant activities of three isolated peptides. These results suggested that GAERP (MCPE-A, GEREANVM (MCPE-B, and AEVG (MCPE-C from cartilage protein hydrolysate of spotless smoothhound might serve as potential antioxidants and be used in the pharmaceutical and

  10. Taurine protects methamphetamine-induced developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Xue; Hu, Zhengtao; Hu, Chunyan; Bu, Qian; Yan, Guangyan [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Deng, Pengchi [Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Lv, Lei [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wu, Dan [College of Basic and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Deng, Yi; Zhao, Jinxuan; Zhu, Ruiming; Li, Yan; Li, Hongyu; Xu, Youzhi; Yang, Hanshuo; Zhao, Yinglan [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Cen, Xiaobo, E-mail: xbcenalan@vip.sina.com [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2012-05-01

    Investigations have characterized addictive drug-induced developmental cardiovascular malformation in human, non-human primate and rodent. However, the underlying mechanism of malformation caused by drugs during pregnancy is still largely unknown, and preventive and therapeutic measures have been lacking. Using {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, we profiled the metabolites from human embryo endothelial cells exposed to methamphetamine (METH) and quantified a total of 226 peaks. We identified 11 metabolites modified robustly and found that taurine markedly increased. We then validated the hypothesis that this dramatic increase in taurine could attribute to its effect in inhibiting METH-induced developmental angiogenesis defect. Taurine supplement showed a more significant potential than other metabolites in protecting against METH-induced injury in endothelial cells. Taurine strongly attenuated METH-induced inhibition of proliferation and migration in endothelial cells. Furthermore, death rate and vessel abnormality of zebrafish embryos treated with METH were greatly reversed by taurine. In addition, taurine supplement caused a rapid decrease in reactive oxygen species generation and strongly attenuated the excitable arise of antioxidase activities in the beginning of METH exposure prophase. Dysregulations of NF-κB, p-ERK as well as Bax, which reflect apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and oxidative stress in vascular endothelium, were blocked by taurine. Our results provide the first evidence that taurine prevents METH-caused developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism. Taurine could serve as a potential therapeutic or preventive intervention of developmental vascular malformation for the pregnant women with drug use. Highlights: ► Metabonomics findings. ► Abnormal development. ► Dysregulations of key proteins.

  11. Antioxidant, anti-alpha-glucosidase and pancreatic beta-cell protective effects of methanolic extract of Ensete superbum Cheesm seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Habtemariam

    2017-02-01

    Conclusions: The reputed antidiabetic therapeutic uses of the seeds extract of E. superbum may be justified on the basis of inhibition of carbohydrate enzymes, antioxidant effects and pancreatic β-cell protection.

  12. Effects of salt stress on the expression of antioxidant genes and proteins in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Maria C; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Clemente, Maria R; Becana, Manuel

    2009-03-01

    Salt stress negatively affects many physiological processes in plants. Some of these effects may involve the oxidative damage of cellular components, which can be promoted by reactive oxygen species and prevented by antioxidants. The protective role of antioxidants was investigated in Lotus japonicus exposed to two salinization protocols: S1 (150 mM NaCl for 7 d) and S2 (50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl, each concentration for 6 d). Several markers of salt stress were measured and the expression of antioxidant genes was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and, in some cases, immunoblots and enzyme activity assays. Leaves of S1 plants suffered from mild osmotic stress, accumulated proline but noNa+, and showed induction of many superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase genes. Leaves of S2 plants showed increases in Na+ and Ca2+, decreases in K+, and accumulation of proline and malondialdehyde. In leaves and roots of S1 and S2 plants, the mRNA, protein and activity levels of the ascorbate-glutathione enzymes remained constant, with a few exceptions. Notably, there was consistent up-regulation of the gene encoding cytosolic dehydroascorbate reductase, and this was possibly related to its role in ascorbate recycling in the apoplast. The overall results indicate that L. japonicus is more tolerant to salt stress than other legumes, which can be attributed to the capacity of the plant to prevent Na+reaching the shoot and to activate antioxidant defenses.

  13. Is the protection against ischemia induced by red wine linked to its antioxidant capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Susana M; Schinella, Guillermo R; Tournier, Horacio A; Cingolani, Horacio E

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish whether the total antioxidant capacity of nonalcoholic extracts of three Argentine red wines (RWE) is correlated with their protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. ANIMALS AND METHODS: The antioxidant properties of three RWE were determined using different free radical-generating systems. To examine the effects of these RWE during a 20 min global ischemic period followed by 30 min of reperfusion, isolated rat hearts received 50 μg/mL of RWE 1 (cabernet-sauvignon), RWE 2 (malbec) or RWE 3 (a commercial mixture of cabernet-sauvignon, malbec and merlot) 10 min before and after ischemia. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), maximal velocity of rise of left ventricular pressure (+dP/dtmax) and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were used to assess contractility and diastolic function. RESULTS: All RWE inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by the Cl4C/NADPH system in a similar proportion (42±4%, 47±9% and 43±14% for RWE 1, RWE 2 and RWE 3, respectively). The scavenging activity of superoxide anion and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical was about the same with the three RWE. In hearts without RWE treatment, LVDP and +dP/dtmax were 61±4% and 62±5%, respectively, at the end of the reperfusion period. Infusion of RWE 1 and RWE 2 significantly improved postischemic recovery (LVDP and +dP/dtmax were 102±4% and 101±4% for RWE 1 and 92±5% and 91±5% for RWE 2, respectively) and attenuated the increase of LVEDP. RWE 3 did not improve either systolic or diastolic dysfunction. CONCLUSION: These data show that although the three non-alcoholic RWE exhibit a similar total antioxidant capacity, only two of them protect the heart against myocardial stunning, suggesting that the protective effect is not primarily linked to the anti-oxidant properties of the extracts. PMID:20428256

  14. In Vitro Protective Effect and Antioxidant Mechanism of Resveratrol Induced by Dapsone Hydroxylamine in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Rosyana V; Malcher, Nívea S; Amado, Lílian L; Coleman, Michael D; Dos Santos, Danielle C; Borges, Rosivaldo Sa; Valente, Sebastião Aldo S; Valente, Vera C; Monteiro, Marta Chagas

    2015-01-01

    Dapsone (DDS) hydroxylamine metabolites cause oxidative stress- linked adverse effects in patients, such as methemoglobin formation and DNA damage. This study evaluated the ameliorating effect of the antioxidant resveratrol (RSV) on DDS hydroxylamine (DDS-NHOH) mediated toxicity in vitro using human erythrocytes and lymphocytes. The antioxidant mechanism was also studied using in-silico methods. In addition, RSV provided intracellular protection by inhibiting DNA damage in human lymphocytes induced by DDS-NHOH. However, whilst pretreatment with RSV (10-1000 μM significantly attenuated DDS-NHOH-induced methemoglobinemia, but it was not only significantly less effective than methylene blue (MET), but also post-treatment with RSV did not reverse methemoglobin formation, contrarily to that observed with MET. DDS-NHOH inhibited catalase (CAT) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, but did not alter superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in erythrocytes. Pretreatment with RSV did not alter these antioxidant enzymes activities in erythrocytes treated with DDS-NHOH. Theoretical calculations using density functional theory methods showed that DDS-NHOH has a pro-oxidant effect, whereas RSV and MET have antioxidant effect on ROS. The effect on methemoglobinemia reversion for MET was significantly higher than that of RSV. These data suggest that the pretreatment with resveratrol may decrease heme-iron oxidation and DNA damage through reduction of ROS generated in cells during DDS therapy.

  15. Antioxidant and protective effect of inulin and catechin grafted inulin against CCl4-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Lu, Jian-feng; Wen, Xiao-yuan; Kan, Juan; Jin, Chang-hai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effect of inulin and catechin grafted inulin (catechin-g-inulin) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury were investigated. Results showed that both inulin and catechin-g-inulin had moderate scavenging activity on superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and H2O2, as well as lipid peroxidation inhibition effect. The antioxidant activity decreased in the order of Vc > catechin >catechin-g-inulin > inulin. Administration of inulin and catechin-g-inulin could significantly reduce the elevated levels of serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase as compared to CCl4 treatment group. Moreover, inulin and catechin-g-inulin significantly increased the levels of hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity, whereas markedly decreased the malondialdehyde level when compared with CCl4 treatment group. Notably, catechin-g-inulin showed higher hepatoprotective effect than inulin. In addition, the hepatoprotective effect of catechin-g-inulin was comparable to positive standard of silymarin. Our results suggested that catechin-g-inulin had potent antioxidant activity and potential protective effect against CCl4-induced acute liver injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In Vitro Protective Effect and Antioxidant Mechanism of Resveratrol Induced by Dapsone Hydroxylamine in Human Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosyana V Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Dapsone (DDS hydroxylamine metabolites cause oxidative stress- linked adverse effects in patients, such as methemoglobin formation and DNA damage. This study evaluated the ameliorating effect of the antioxidant resveratrol (RSV on DDS hydroxylamine (DDS-NHOH mediated toxicity in vitro using human erythrocytes and lymphocytes. The antioxidant mechanism was also studied using in-silico methods. In addition, RSV provided intracellular protection by inhibiting DNA damage in human lymphocytes induced by DDS-NHOH. However, whilst pretreatment with RSV (10-1000 μM significantly attenuated DDS-NHOH-induced methemoglobinemia, but it was not only significantly less effective than methylene blue (MET, but also post-treatment with RSV did not reverse methemoglobin formation, contrarily to that observed with MET. DDS-NHOH inhibited catalase (CAT activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, but did not alter superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in erythrocytes. Pretreatment with RSV did not alter these antioxidant enzymes activities in erythrocytes treated with DDS-NHOH. Theoretical calculations using density functional theory methods showed that DDS-NHOH has a pro-oxidant effect, whereas RSV and MET have antioxidant effect on ROS. The effect on methemoglobinemia reversion for MET was significantly higher than that of RSV. These data suggest that the pretreatment with resveratrol may decrease heme-iron oxidation and DNA damage through reduction of ROS generated in cells during DDS therapy.

  17. The Protective Role of Antioxidants in the Defence against ROS/RNS-Mediated Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljšak, Borut; Fink, Rok

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can result from exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ionising and nonionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation, elevated concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke, asbestos, particulate matter, pesticides, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and many other compounds present in the environment. It appears that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is often neglected mechanism by which environmental pollutants affect human health. Oxidation of and oxidative damage to cellular components and biomolecules have been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of several chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and aging. Several studies have demonstrated that the human body can alleviate oxidative stress using exogenous antioxidants. However, not all dietary antioxidant supplements display protective effects, for example, β-carotene for lung cancer prevention in smokers or tocopherols for photooxidative stress. In this review, we explore the increases in oxidative stress caused by exposure to environmental pollutants and the protective effects of antioxidants. PMID:25140198

  18. Pretreatment of flaxseed protein isolate by high hydrostatic pressure: Impacts on protein structure, enzymatic hydrolysis and final hydrolysate antioxidant capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Véronique; Hénaux, Loïc; Bazinet, Laurent; Doyen, Alain

    2017-04-15

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on flaxseed protein structure and peptide profiles, obtained after protein hydrolysis, was investigated. Isolated flaxseed protein (1%, m/v) was subjected to HHP (600MPa, 5min or 20min at 20°C) prior to hydrolysis with trypsin only and trypsin-pronase. The results demonstrated that HHP treatment induced dissociation of flaxseed proteins and generated higher molecular weight aggregates as a function of processing duration. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that HHP treatment, as well as processing duration, had an impact on flaxseed protein structure since exposition of hydrophobic amino acid tyrosine was modified. Except for some specific peptides, the concentrations of which were modified, similar peptide profiles were obtained after hydrolysis of pressure-treated proteins using trypsin. Finally, hydrolysates obtained using trypsin-pronase had a greater antioxidant capacity (ORAC) than control samples; these results confirmed that HHP enhanced the generation of antioxidant peptides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of Different Proteases to Obtain Flaxseed Protein Hydrolysates with Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamać, Magdalena; Kosińska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Kulczyk, Anna

    2016-06-29

    The antioxidant activity of flaxseed protein hydrolysates obtained using five different enzymes was evaluated. Proteins were isolated from flaxseed cake and were separately treated with papain, trypsin, pancreatin, Alcalase and Flavourzyme. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) was determined as the percentage of cleaved peptide bonds using a spectrophotometric method with o-phthaldialdehyde. The distribution of the molecular weights (MW) of the hydrolysis products was profiled using Tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Tricine-SDS-PAGE) and size exclusion-high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) separations. The antioxidant activities of the protein isolate and hydrolysates were probed for their radical scavenging activity using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical cation (ABTS(•+)) and photochemiluminescence (PCL-ACL) assays, and for their ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ability to bind Fe(2+). The hydrolysates were more effective as antioxidants than the protein isolate in all systems. The PCL-ACL values of the hydrolysates ranged from 7.2 to 35.7 μmol Trolox/g. Both the FRAP and ABTS(•+) scavenging activity differed among the hydrolysates to a lower extent, with the ranges of 0.20-0.24 mmol Fe(2+)/g and 0.17-0.22 mmol Trolox/g, respectively. The highest chelating activity (71.5%) was noted for the pancreatin hydrolysate. In general, the hydrolysates obtained using Alcalase and pancreatin had the highest antioxidant activity, even though their DH (15.4% and 29.3%, respectively) and the MW profiles of the peptides varied substantially. The O₂(•-) scavenging activity and the ability to chelate Fe(2+) of the Flavourzyme hydrolysate were lower than those of the Alcalase and pancreatin hydrolysates. Papain was the least effective in releasing the peptides with antioxidant activity. The study showed that the type of enzyme used for flaxseed protein hydrolysis determines the antioxidant activity

  20. Hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yust, María del Mar; Millán-Linares, María del Carmen; Alcaide-Hidalgo, Juan María; Millán, Francisco; Pedroche, Justo

    2012-07-01

    Some dietary proteins possess biological properties which make them potential ingredients of functional or health-promoting foods. Many of these properties are attributed to bioactive peptides that can be released by controlled hydrolysis using exogenous proteases. The aim of this work was to test the improvement of hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of chickpea protein isolate by means of hydrolysis with alcalase and flavourzyme. All hydrolysates tested exhibited better hypocholesterolaemic activity when compared with chickpea protein isolate. The highest cholesterol micellar solubility inhibition (50%) was found after 60 min of treatment with alcalase followed by 30 min of hydrolysis with flavourzyme. To test antioxidant activity of chickpea proteins three methods were used: β-carotene bleaching method, reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect since antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates may not be attributed to a single mechanism. Chickpea hydrolysates showed better antioxidant activity in all assays, especially reducing power and DPPH scavenging effect than chickpea protein isolate. The results of this study showed the good potential of chickpea protein hydrolysates as bioactive ingredients. The highest bioactive properties could be obtained by selecting the type of proteases and the hydrolysis time. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Plant responses to stresses: role of ascorbate peroxidase in the antioxidant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Caverzan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When plants are exposed to stressful environmental conditions, the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS increases and can cause significant damage to the cells. Antioxidant defenses, which can detoxify ROS, are present in plants. A major hydrogen peroxide detoxifying system in plant cells is the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, in which, ascorbate peroxidase (APX enzymes play a key role catalyzing the conversion of H2O2 into H2O, using ascorbate as a specific electron donor. Different APX isoforms are present in distinct subcellular compartments, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisome, and cytosol. The expression of APX genes is regulated in response to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as during plant development. The APX responses are directly involved in the protection of plant cells against adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, mutant plants APX genes showed alterations in growth, physiology and antioxidant metabolism revealing those enzymes involvement in the normal plant development.

  2. Protective role of grape seed proanthocyanidin antioxidant properties on heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Khorsandi, Layasadat; Abdollahzade Fard, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) bears a very powerful antioxidant effects. Studies demonstrated that proanthocyanidins protect against free radicals mediated cardiovascular and renal disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effect of GSP on the heart of diabetic rats. Forty rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each: Group I: control, Group II: control group were given GSP, Group III: diabetic group, Group IV: diabetic group treated with GSP. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin, and then GSP (200 mg kg(-1) body weight) was administrated for four weeks. Blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and also the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were examined in the heart tissues of all groups. Oral administration of GSP to diabetic rats significantly reduced (p GSP could be useful for prevention or early treatment of cardiac disorder caused by diabetes.

  3. Amentoflavone protects hippocampal neurons: anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amentoflavone is a natural biflavone compound with many biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and neuroprotective effects. We presumed that amentoflavone exerts a neuroprotective effect in epilepsy models. Prior to model establishment, mice were intragastrically administered 25 mg/kg amentoflavone for 3 consecutive days. Amentoflavone effectively prevented pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in a mouse kindling model, suppressed nuclear factor-κB activation and expression, inhibited excessive discharge of hippocampal neurons resulting in a reduction in epileptic seizures, shortened attack time, and diminished loss and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. Results suggested that amentoflavone protected hippocampal neurons in epilepsy mice via anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and antiapoptosis, and then effectively prevented the occurrence of seizures.

  4. Protections of bovine serum albumin protein from damage on functionalized graphene-based electrodes by flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Bolu; Gou, Yuqiang; Xue, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Xiaoping; Ma, Yuling; Hu, Fangdi; Zhao, Wanghong

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive electrochemical sensor based on bovine serum albumin (BSA)/poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) functionalized graphene nanosheets (PDDA-G) composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (BSA/PDDA-G/GCE) had been developed to investigate the oxidative protein damage and protections of protein from damage by flavonoids. The performance of this sensor was remarkably improved due to excellent electrical conductivity, strong adsorptive ability, and large effective surface area of PDDA-G. The BSA/PDDA-G/GCE displayed the greatest degree of BSA oxidation damage at 40 min incubation time and in the pH 5.0 Fenton reagent system (12.5 mM FeSO 4 , 50 mM H 2 O 2 ). The antioxidant activities of four flavonoids had been compared by fabricated sensor based on the relative peak current ratio of SWV, because flavonoids prevented BSA damage caused by Fenton reagent and affected the BSA signal in a solution containing Co(bpy) 3 3+ . The sensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV–vis spectrophotometry and FTIR were also used to investigate the generation of hydroxyl radical and BSA damage, respectively. On the basis of results from electrochemical methods, the order of the antioxidant activities of flavonoids is as follows: (+)-catechin > kaempferol > apigenin > naringenin. A novel, direct SWV analytical method for detection of BSA damage and assessment of the antioxidant activities of four flavonoids was developed and this electrochemical method provided a simple, inexpensive and rapid detection of BSA damage and evaluation of the antioxidant activities of samples. - Highlights: • Hydroxyl radicals were produced by Fenton reagents. • An electrochemical bovine serum albumin (BSA) damage sensor was successfully fabricated. • The proposed biosensor can assess the antioxidant capacity of four flavonoids. • The order of antioxidant activities of flavonoids

  5. Protections of bovine serum albumin protein from damage on functionalized graphene-based electrodes by flavonoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Bolu [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gou, Yuqiang [Lanzhou Military Command Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Xue, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Xiaoping; Ma, Yuling [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Hu, Fangdi, E-mail: hufd@lzu.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhao, Wanghong, E-mail: wanghongzhao@sina.com [Department of Stomatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 51515 (China)

    2016-05-01

    A sensitive electrochemical sensor based on bovine serum albumin (BSA)/poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) functionalized graphene nanosheets (PDDA-G) composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (BSA/PDDA-G/GCE) had been developed to investigate the oxidative protein damage and protections of protein from damage by flavonoids. The performance of this sensor was remarkably improved due to excellent electrical conductivity, strong adsorptive ability, and large effective surface area of PDDA-G. The BSA/PDDA-G/GCE displayed the greatest degree of BSA oxidation damage at 40 min incubation time and in the pH 5.0 Fenton reagent system (12.5 mM FeSO{sub 4}, 50 mM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The antioxidant activities of four flavonoids had been compared by fabricated sensor based on the relative peak current ratio of SWV, because flavonoids prevented BSA damage caused by Fenton reagent and affected the BSA signal in a solution containing Co(bpy){sub 3}{sup 3+}. The sensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV–vis spectrophotometry and FTIR were also used to investigate the generation of hydroxyl radical and BSA damage, respectively. On the basis of results from electrochemical methods, the order of the antioxidant activities of flavonoids is as follows: (+)-catechin > kaempferol > apigenin > naringenin. A novel, direct SWV analytical method for detection of BSA damage and assessment of the antioxidant activities of four flavonoids was developed and this electrochemical method provided a simple, inexpensive and rapid detection of BSA damage and evaluation of the antioxidant activities of samples. - Highlights: • Hydroxyl radicals were produced by Fenton reagents. • An electrochemical bovine serum albumin (BSA) damage sensor was successfully fabricated. • The proposed biosensor can assess the antioxidant capacity of four flavonoids. • The order of antioxidant

  6. Antioxidant activities and functional properties of protein and peptide fractions isolated from salted herring brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taheri, Ali; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    In the present study proteins isolated from herring brine, which is a by-product of marinated herring production were evaluated for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Herring brine was collected from the local herring industry and proteins were precipitated by adjusting the p......H to 4.5 and the obtained supernatant was further fractionated by using ultrafiltration membranes with molecular weight cut offs of 50, 10 and 1kDa. The obtained >50kDa, 50–10kDa, 10–1kDa fractions and pH precipitated fraction were studied for their functional properties and antioxidant activity...... to delay iron catalyzed lipid oxidation in 5% fish oil in water emulsions and the 10–50kDa fraction was the best. These results show the potential of proteins and peptide fractions recovered from waste water from the herring industry as source of natural antioxidants for use in food products....

  7. Indonesian honey protein isolation Apis dorsata dorsata and Tetragonula sp. as antibacterial and antioxidant agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlan, Muhamad; Damayanti, Vina; Azizah, Nurul; Hakamada, Kazuaki; Yohda, Masafumi; Hermansyah, Heri; Wijanarko, Anondho; Rohmatin, Etin

    2018-02-01

    Honey is a natural product that has many properties and been widely used for many theurapeutic purposes. Research on honey has been very rapid but not yet for Indonesia. Like local Indonesian honey Apis dorsata dorsata and Tetragonula sp. which has been widely consumed by the public but not yet known for certain efficacy of each content. The function of honey as antibacterial and antioxidant has not been specifically explained by the components contained in honey. Protein is one of the content of honey that turned out to have activity as an antibacterial and antioxidant in certain types of honey because of it antimicrobial peptide. Testing of honey activity as antibacterial and antioxidant through several stages including isolation, SDS-PAGE analysis, Bradford test, antibacterial activity test with well diffusion method and antioxidant activity test by DPPH method. Bacteria used were gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and gram negative Escherichia coli. After some experiment finally got protein isolation method that is in the form of further concentration using Millipore membrane for honey Tetragonula sp. and membrane filtration dot blot for honey Apis dorsata dorsata. The Bradford assay showed that Apis dorsata dorsata honey contains protein antioxidant and antibacterial activity (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli), whereas honey protein isolates Tetragonula sp. has antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli.

  8. Characterization of protein fractions and antioxidant activity of Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvetoslava Kačmárová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L. is an annual herbaceous plant categorized under Lamiaceae family. Chia seeds were investigated as a source of proteins and natural antioxidants. It is a potential alternative source of high quality protein, fats, carbohydrates, high dietary fibre, vitamins and mineral elements. The objective of this study was to evaluate chia seed from protein content and antioxidant acivity and highlight the quality of this pseudocereal. A crude protein, moisture content, content of protein fractions, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and superoxide dismutase activity of chia seeds and food products containing chia seeds were determined. The protein content of chia seeds ranged from 2.9% to 4.6% dry matter from that albumins and globulins ranged from 54.6% to 62.8%. Chia is poor in a prolamines (<15%. Various chia seeds showed differences in their SOD activity and exhibited the high antiradical activity against 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS. The highest antioxidant capacity was found in sample chia seeds from Bolivia (1.46 mM TEAC.g-1 in the dry matter and the lowest values of antioxidant activity was estimated in sample chia seeds from Argentina (1.05 mM TEAC.g-1 in the dry matter. The highest SOD activity was determined in sample chia from Argentina (2191.8 U.g-1 in the dry matter. The lowest SOD activity was found in sample chia-bio from Argentina (754.0 U.g-1 in the dry matter.. It makes them potentially suitable for use in the gluten-free diet of coeliac people and it can be used as a potential ingredient in health food because of its high antioxidant activity.

  9. Degrees of Antioxidant Protection: A 2-Year Study of the Bioactive Properties of Organic Milk in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppel, Kamila; Sakowski, Tomasz; Kuczyńska, Beata; Grodkowski, Grzegorz; Gołębiewski, Marcin; Barszczewski, Jerzy; Wróbel, Barbara; Budziński, Arkadiusz; Kapusta, Aleksandra; Balcerak, Marek

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional value of organic milk in Poland, investigate the influence of diet on antioxidant capacity and degree of antioxidant protection (DAP), and to examine the effect of season on the bioactive properties of milk from organic farms. From 2014 to 2015, 820 milk samples were collected from 6 organic farms during indoor feeding season (IDS) and pasture feeding season (PS). Pasture feeding season + corn grain (PSCG) cows' daily ration during pasture feeding season was enriched with 4 kg a day of corn to improve dietary energy balance. Milk obtained during PS was found to have a higher fat content, slight but significantly lower protein content compared with milk from IDS. The study showed that the content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in milk fat was strongly linked to the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and, to a lesser extent, on the supply of MUFA. The IDS data (concentration of vitamin E, A, and β-carotene) showed the lowest values compared with the PS and PSCG groups. Total antioxidant status (TAS) and DAP showed an increasing trend in organic milk. PSCG was associated with highest level of DAP (9% higher than PS and 79% higher than IDS) and TAS (37% higher than PS and 79% higher than IDS). The results obtained show that supplementation of the basic ration with corn grain improved both TAS and DAP. The higher DAP and TAS value is responsible for product stability, considering the risk factor related to levels of cholesterol-oxide intake in humans. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Multifunctional AgNPs@Wool: colored, UV-protective and antioxidant functional textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Mohd; Mohammad, Faqeer

    2018-02-01

    Nanomaterials have great impact on textile industry for multifunctional and smart clothing as per the need of present, and further, green nanotechnology is the current hotspot of research and industrial developments. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are synthesized (in situ) by using natural compounds of plant extracts (naphthoquinones, phenolics/flavonoids, polyphenols) as reducing or stabilizing agents, and simultaneously deposited on wool fabric for coloration, UV protection and antioxidant properties. UV-visible spectroscopy is used to monitor the route of biosynthesis of nanoparticles and transmission electron microscopy for morphological characteristics of synthesized AgNPs. Spherical and almost oval-shaped AgNPs were synthesized by naphthoquinones, polyphenols and flavonoids, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used for the AgNPs@Wool fabrics characterization. SEM-EDX analysis and XRD patterns confirmed the successful deposition of silver nanoparticles on wool. Coloration characteristics in terms of color strength (K/S) and CIEL*a*b*c*h° values, UV protection abilities in terms of UV transmittance and UV protection factor, and % antioxidant activity of AgNPs@Wool are suggestive of good-to-excellent results.

  11. Isolation of 62 kda protein with antioxidant properties from natural honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, S.E.A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Fourteen natural honey samples from Libya, Sudan and Pakistan were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by employing 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay. The scavenging activity of honey samples were in the range of 18-32% when compared to control. A 62 kDa protein was isolated from honey by gel filtration chromatography followed by reverse phase HPLC showed significant radical scavenging activity. The research pointed out the antioxidative role of honey proteins and possibility of their contribution to the therapeutic value of the natural honey. (author)

  12. Polymorphous light eruption (PLE) and a new potent antioxidant and UVA-protective formulation as prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadshiew, I M; Treder-Conrad, C; v Bülow, R; Klette, E; Mann, T; Stäb, F; Moll, I; Rippke, F

    2004-08-01

    Polymorphous light eruption (PLE) is the most common photodermatosis. While its etiology still remains elusive, pathogenesis seems to involve UVA-induced oxidative stress and subsequent deregulation of antioxidative immune responses. Only few and often ineffective prophylactic and therapeutic measures exist to date. In our randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, we compared the efficacy of a new topical formulation, consisting of 0.25%alpha-glucosylrutin (AGR) (a natural, modified flavonoid), 1% tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E) and a broad-spectrum, highly UVA-protective sunscreen (SPF 15) in a hydrodispersion gel vehicle, to a sunscreen-only gel and vehicle. Thirty patients with a history of PLE were pretreated with either the above formulation, a similar preparation (with the same concentration for vitamin E and AGR, but a different UV filter system), placebo or a SPF 15 sunscreen-only gel, 30 min prior to daily photoprovocation with UVA irradiations of 60-100 J/cm(2) to 5 x 5 cm(2) areas on the upper arms. After 4 days, results revealed a statistically highly significant difference (PPLE. While only one patient developed clinical signs of PLE with accompanying itch in the area treated with the new antioxidant UV-protective gel formulation, 62.1% of the placebo-treated areas and 41.3% of the sunscreen-only treated areas showed mild to moderate signs of PLE. Combining a potent antioxidant with a broad-spectrum, highly UVA-protective sunscreen is far more effective in preventing PLE than sunscreen alone or placebo and should thus be employed as the prophylaxis of choice for PLE.

  13. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by e...

  14. Dietary antioxidants protect gut epithelial cells from oxidant-induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrowski Paul

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of ascorbic acid and two botanical decoctions, green tea and cat's claw, to limit cell death in response to oxidants were evaluated in vitro. Methods Cultured human gastric epithelial cells (AGS or murine small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-18 were exposed to oxidants – DPPH (3 μM, H2O2 (50 μM, peroxynitrite (300 μM – followed by incubation for 24 hours, with antioxidants (10 μg/ml administered as a 1 hour pretreatment. Cell number (MTT assay and death via apoptosis or necrosis (ELISA, LDH release was determined. The direct interactions between antioxidants and DPPH (100 μM or H2O2 (50 μM were evaluated by spectroscopy. Results The decoctions did not interact with H2O2, but quenched DPPH although less effectively than vitamin C. In contrast, vitamin C was significantly less effective in protecting human gastric epithelial cells (AGS from apoptosis induced by DPPH, peroxynitrite and H2O2 (P 2O2, but green tea was more effective than cat's claw in reducing DPPH-induced apoptosis (P 2O2, and was attenuated both by cat's claw and green tea (P Conclusions These results indicate that dietary antioxidants can limit epithelial cell death in response to oxidant stress. In the case of green tea and cat's claw, the cytoprotective response exceed their inherent ability to interact with the injurious oxidant, suggestive of actions on intracellular pathways regulating cell death.

  15. Hematological, antioxidant and protective performance of Usnea longissima on chemical induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animals

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    Pritt Verma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigated the hematological, antioxidant and protective performance of Usnea longissima (U. longissima on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animals. Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced by CCl4 (1 mL/kg body weigt 1:1 CCl4 i.p., ethanolic U. longissima extracts at a doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weigt were administered to and compared with Silymarin (25 mg/kg body weigt and hematological, antioxidant and enzymatic, non-enzymatic parameters were assessed through the liver functions test. All the observation was also supplemented with histopathological examination of liver sections. Results: Phytochemical investigation showed that ethanolic extract contains poly phenolic compounds tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins and acute toxicity study shows that ethanolic extract was safe up to 2 000 mg/kg body weight. The toxicant induced a rise in the plasma enzyme levels of ALT, AST, ALP and total bilirubin level. This increased level was significantly decreased by the extract at 400 mg/kg body weight than 200 mg/kg body weight. The animals were prevented (partly or fully which was showed in the histopathological changes using ethonolic U. longissima extract. Conclusions: The outcome of this study reveals that, there is a powerful antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of U. longissima. It is believed that the present constituents are responsible for courting the hepatic disease and alternative components have the power to act as free radical scavenging properties.

  16. Vaccination with antioxidant enzymes confers protective immunity against challenge infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip T LoVerde

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni, an intravascular parasite, lives in a hostile environment in close contact with host humoral and cellular cytotoxic factors. To establish itself in the host, the parasite has evolved a number of immune evasion mechanisms, such as antioxidant enzymes. Our laboratory has demonstrated that the expression of antioxidant enzymes is developmentally regulated, with the highest levels present in the adult worm, the stage least susceptible to immune elimination, and the lowest levels in the larval stages, the most susceptible to immune elimination. Vaccination of mice with naked DNA constructs containing Cu/Zn cytosolic superoxide dismutase (CT-SOD, signal-peptide containing SOD or glutathione peroxidase (GPX showed significant levels of protection compared to a control group. We have further shown that vaccination with SmCT-SOD but not SmGPX results in elimination of adult worms. Anti-oxidant enzyme vaccine candidates offer an advance over existing vaccine strategies that all seem to target the larval developmental stages in that they target adult worms and thus may have therapeutic as well as prophylactic value. To eliminate the potential for cross-reactivity of SmCT-SOD with human superoxide dismutase, we identified parasite-specific epitope-containing peptides. Our results serve as a basis for developing a subunit vaccine against schistosomiasis.

  17. The dual effects of Maillard reaction and enzymatic hydrolysis on the antioxidant activity of milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, N S; Lee, H A; Lee, J Y; Joung, J Y; Lee, K B; Kim, Y; Lee, K W; Kim, S H

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the enhanced effects on the biological characteristics and antioxidant activity of milk proteins by the combination of the Maillard reaction and enzymatic hydrolysis. Maillard reaction products were obtained from milk protein preparations, such as whey protein concentrates and sodium caseinate with lactose, by heating at 55°C for 7 d in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The Maillard reaction products, along with untreated milk proteins as controls, were hydrolyzed for 0 to 3h with commercial proteases Alcalase, Neutrase, Protamex, and Flavorzyme (Novozymes, Bagsværd, Denmark). The antioxidant activity of hydrolyzed Maillard reaction products was determined by reaction with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and the ability to reduce ferric ions. Further characteristics were evaluated by the o-phthaldialdehyde method and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. The degree of hydrolysis gradually increased in a time-dependent manner, with the Alcalase-treated Maillard reaction products being the most highly hydrolyzed. Radical scavenging activities and reducing ability of hydrolyzed Maillard reaction products increased with increasing hydrolysis time. The combined products of enzymatic hydrolysis and Maillard reaction showed significantly greater antioxidant activity than did hydrolysates or Maillard reaction products alone. The hydrolyzed Maillard reaction products generated by Alcalase showed significantly higher antioxidant activity when compared with the other protease products and the antioxidant activity was higher for the whey protein concentrate groups than for the sodium caseinate groups. These findings indicate that Maillard reaction products, coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis, could act as potential antioxidants in the pharmaceutical, food, and dairy industries. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association

  18. Antioxidant and protective effects of Royal jelly on histopathological changes in testis of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ghanbari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease. It has adverse effects on male reproductive function. Royal Jelly (RJ has antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects and show protective effects against diabetes. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of RJ on histopathological alterations of the testicular tissue in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (C, royal jelly (R, diabetic (D and RJ-treated diabetic (D+R groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at 50 mg/kg body weight (BW. The rats from the R and D+R groups received daily RJ (100 mg/kg BW for 6 wks orally. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining was used to analyze histopathological changes including: tunica albuginea thickness (TAT, seminiferous tubules diameter (STsD, Johnsen’s score, tubular differentiation index (TDI, spermiogenesis index (SPI, Sertoli cell index (SCI, meiotic index (MI, and mononuclear immune cells (MICs in testes. The antioxidant status was examined by evaluating testicular levels of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and catalase (CAT activity. Results: Histological results of the testis from diabetic rats showed significant decrease in STsD, Johnsen’s score, TDI, SPI, SCI and MI, and significant increase in TAT and MICs, while administration of RJ significantly reverted these changes (p<0.05. RJ treatment markedly increased activity of CAT and FRAP. There were significant differences in FRAP levels among C (13.0±0.5, RJ (13.4±0.3, D (7.8±0.6 and D+R (12.4±0.7 groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: RJ improved diabetes-induced impairment in testis, probably through its antioxidant property.

  19. Involvement of endogenous antioxidant systems in the protective activity of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damages in cultured rat astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douiri, Salma; Bahdoudi, Seyma; Hamdi, Yosra; Cubì, Roger; Basille, Magali; Fournier, Alain; Vaudry, Hubert; Tonon, Marie-Christine; Amri, Mohamed; Vaudry, David; Masmoudi-Kouki, Olfa

    2016-06-01

    Astroglial cells possess an array of cellular defense mechanisms, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase antioxidant enzymes, to prevent damages caused by oxidative stress. Nevertheless, astroglial cell viability and functionality can be affected by significant oxidative stress. We have previously shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a potent glioprotective agent that prevents hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced apoptosis in cultured astrocytes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of PACAP against oxidative-generated alteration of astrocytic antioxidant systems. Incubation of cells with subnanomolar concentrations of PACAP inhibited H2 O2 -evoked reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial respiratory burst, and caspase-3 mRNA level increase. PACAP also stimulated SOD and catalase activities in a concentration-dependent manner, and counteracted the inhibitory effect of H2 O2 on the activity of these two antioxidant enzymes. The protective action of PACAP against H2 O2 -evoked inhibition of antioxidant systems in astrocytes was protein kinase A, PKC, and MAP-kinase dependent. In the presence of H2 O2 , the SOD blocker NaCN and the catalase inhibitor 3-aminotriazole, both suppressed the protective effects of PACAP on SOD and catalase activities, mitochondrial function, and cell survival. Taken together, these results indicate that the anti-apoptotic effect of PACAP on astroglial cells can account for the activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and reduction in respiration rate, thus preserving mitochondrial integrity and preventing caspase-3 expression provoked by oxidative stress. Considering its powerful anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative properties, the PACAPergic signaling system should thus be considered for the development of new therapeutical approaches to cure various pathologies involving oxidative neurodegeneration. We propose the following cascade for the

  20. Protective potential of antioxidant enzymes as vaccines for schistosomiasis in a non-human primate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eCarvalho-Queiroz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a major cause of morbidity in the world. The challenge today is not so much in the clinical management of individual patients, but rather in population-based control of transmission in endemic areas. Recent large-scale efforts aimed at limiting schistosomiasis have produced limited success. There is an urgent need for complementary approaches, such as vaccines. We demonstrated previously that anti-oxidant enzymes such as Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione S peroxidase (GPX, when administered as DNA-based vaccines induced significant levels of protection in inbred mice, greater than the target 40% reduction in worm burden compared to controls set as a minimum by the WHO. These results led us to investigate if immunization of non-human primates with antioxidants would stimulate an immune response that could confer protection, as a prelude for human trials. Issues of vaccine toxicity and safety that were difficult to address in mice were also investigated. All baboons in the study were examined clinically throughout the study and no adverse reactions occurred to the immunization. When our outbred baboons were vaccinated with two different formulations of SOD (SmCT-SOD and SmEC-SOD or one of GPX (SmGPX, they showed a reduction in worm number to varying degrees, when compared with the control group. More pronounced, vaccinated animals showed decreased bloody diarrhea, days of diarrhea and egg excretion (transmission, as well as reduction of eggs in the liver tissue and in the large intestine (pathology compared to controls. Specific IgG antibodies were present in sera after immunizations and 10 weeks after challenge infection compared to controls. PBMC, mesenteric and inguinal node cells from vaccinated animals proliferated and produced high levels of cytokines and chemokines in response to crude and recombinant antigens compared with controls. These data demonstrate the potential of antioxidants as vaccine

  1. Antioxidant enzymes in Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval): are they enhanced to protect gut tissues during oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Natraj; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2006-01-01

    The Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis is a polyphagous insect attacking a number of plant species including those belonging to the Solanaceae and Cruciferaceae families. Its digestive physiology must therefore adapt to the food plant to ensure maximum extraction of nutrients with minimum trade-off in terms of growth retardation by pro-oxidant allelochemicals. To investigate this, the caterpillars of S. littoralis were fed on a semi-artificial diet (Manduca Premix-Heliothis Premix) and for 24 h on potato plants (Solanum tuberosum), respectively, at the mature 6th instar, and the levels of oxidative radicals and antioxidant enzymes in their guts were compared. The gut pH, standard redox potential (Eh) and electron availability (pe) revealed that oxidizing conditions prevail which promote oxidation of pro-oxidant allelochemicals in foliage. Oxidative stress in the foregut and midgut tissue and the gut contents was assessed from the generation of superoxide radical, total peroxide content and protein carbonyl content. Antioxidant defense was measured by the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) and glutathione S-transferase peroxidase (GSTpx). A significant (p enzymes SOD (in midgut tissues), CAT (in foregut, midgut tissue and contents), APOX (in foregut contents, midgut tissue and contents) and GSTpx (in foregut tissues) was recorded on the plant diet in comparison to the semi-artificial diet. The pro-oxidant allelochemicals in the plant diet are thus eliminated by the insect at the expense of up-regulation of antioxidative enzymes in response to increased oxidative stress from oxidizable allelochemicals. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that increased concentrations of antioxidants form an important component of the defense of herbivorous insects against both exogenous and endogenous oxidative radicals.

  2. The in vitro antioxidant properties of alcalase hydrolysate prepared from silkie fowl (Gallus gallus) blood protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fu-Yuan; Lai, I-Chun; Lin, Liang-Chuan; Sakata, Ryoichi

    2016-07-01

    Two types of proteins including blood plasma protein and blood cell protein were isolated from silkie fowl (Gallus gallus) blood and hydrolyzed using alcalase for 0, 2, 4 and 6 h. The blood plasma protein hydrolysate (BPH) and blood cell protein hydrolysate (BCH) were analyzed for pH value, peptide content and antioxidative properties. The significantly higher peptide contents were observed in BPH than that of BCH, which showed that blood plasma protein was more suitable to hydrolysis by alcalase than blood cell protein. Both BPH and BCH showed strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and Fe(2+) chelating ability. BPH at 4 h of hydrolysis (BPH4) demonstrated significantly higher antioxidant capacity than those treated by alcalase in most of the assays. The BPH4 was separated using ultra-filtration and assessment of the fractions and indicated that low molecular weight of peptides (< 3 kDa) possessed greater DPPH scavenging activity, Fe(2+) chelating ability and inhibitory activity of lipid peroxidation. These results show that BPH has the potential to be ingredients in the food industry as a replacement of synthetic antioxidants. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Protective Effect of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum), Juice in Rats Consuming Aspartame Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, M.M.; Osman, N.N.; Farag, M.F.S.

    2009-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum) has been traditionally used as medicine in many countries due to its high antioxidant activity, which has been related to beneficial health properties. Aspartame (ASP) is a widely used artificial sweetener that may be harmful at abuse levels. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of pomegranate juice (PJ) in protecting tissues from the possible damage induced by aspartame. ASP treated rats were given ASP, by gavages, at a dose of 250 mg/kg /day for 28 days. PJ-ASP treated rats were given PI at a dose of 1ml /kg body weight/day along with ASP. The data obtained indicate that ASP administration results in no significant change in the concentration of serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (Tc), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) and glucose while significant decreases have been recorded for insulin. The results demonstrated also that aspartame promotes lipid peroxidation and decreases the level of antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents in serum and liver tissues. Significant elevations in the activities of serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (AL T) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also observed. Administration of PI in parallel with aspartame protected rats from aspartame-induced oxidative injury and ameliorated liver function

  4. Total anti-oxidant status and C-reactive protein values in Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    influence of age; body mass index, total antioxidant status (an indirect measure of total free radicals) and c-reactive protein. (an acute ... African Journal of Biomedical Research, Volume 12, Number 1 (January 2009) muscles. However, taking into cognizance the initiation of the events leading to the observed joint changes ...

  5. In vitro protective effects of Thymus quinquecostatus Celak extracts on t-BHP-induced cell damage through antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yon-Suk; Lee, Seung-Jae; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Seong-Eun; Kim, Ee-Hwa; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byung-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative activities of water and 70% ethanolic extracts from the Thymus quinquecostatus Celak (TQC) for natural antioxidant source. The antioxidant activities were compared with other natural and synthetic antioxidants. The levels of total polyphenols and flavonoids were also determined. The extracts were found to have different levels of antioxidant properties in a few kind of assay. The results showed that higher radical scavenging activity, reducing power and antioxidant capacity in FRAP than those of BHT as a positive control. In addition, the extracts from the TQC leaf and stem showed stronger antioxidant activity than that of vitamin C, α-tocopherol in ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) methods. Cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic effect of water extracts from TQC was also prevented t-BHP-induced toxicity in Chang liver cells. Therefore, these results indicate that TQC extracts have antioxidant properties through its ability to enhance the cell viability, reduction of production of ROS, inhibition of oxidative damage, mitochondria dysfunction and ultimately inhibition of cell apoptosis. Based on the results described above, it is suggested that TQC has the potential to protect liver on t-BHP-induced cell damage and should be considered as a prospective functional food. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Purification and Characterization of a Novel ~18 kDa Antioxidant Protein from Ginkgo biloba Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba seeds are widely used as a food and traditional medicine in China. In the present study, a novel antioxidant protein named GBSP was purified from Ginkgo biloba seeds. The protein (GBSP was purified by homogenization of Ginkgo biloba seed powder in saline solution, 70% ammonium sulphate precipitation, filtration on a DEAE-Cellulose52 anion exchange column, gel filtration on a Sephadex G-50 column, and preparative chromatography on a C18 column using RP-HPLC. GBSP showed an apparent molecular weight of 18 kDa by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS analyses. The amino acid sequence obtained by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis showed GBSP was a novel protein, as no matching protein in was found the database. The protein exhibited significant antioxidant activities against free radicals such as DPPH, ABTS and superoxide anion and showed higher activity than α-tocopherol in a linoleic acid emulsion assay system. Furthermore, GBSP exhibited notable reducing power and a strong chelating effect on Cu2+and Fe2+. Therefore, the present study demonstrates, for the first time, that this novel protein from Ginkgo biloba seeds is an excellent antioxidant.

  7. Resveratrol protects the ovary against chromium-toxicity by enhancing endogenous antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting metabolic clearance of estradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, Sakhila K.; Stanley, Jone A.; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (RVT), a polyphenolic component in grapes and red wine, has been known for its cytoprotective actions against several diseases. However, beneficial effects of RVT against early exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have not been understood. EDCs are linked to several ovarian diseases such as premature ovarian failure, polycystic ovary syndrome, early menopause and infertility in women. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a heavy metal EDC, and widely used in > 50 industries. Environmental contamination with CrVI in the US is rapidly increasing, predisposing the human to several illnesses including cancers and still birth. Our lab has been involved in determining the molecular mechanism of CrVI-induced female infertility and intervention strategies to mitigate CrVI effects. Lactating mother rats were exposed to CrVI (50 ppm potassium dichromate) from postpartum days 1–21 through drinking water with or without RVT (10 mg/kg body wt., through oral gavage daily). During this time, F1 females received respective treatments through mother's milk. On postnatal day (PND) 25, blood and the ovary, kidney and liver were collected from the F1 females for analyses. CrVI increased atresia of follicles by increasing cytochrome C and cleaved caspase-3; decreasing antiapoptotic proteins; decreasing estradiol (E 2 ) biosynthesis and enhancing metabolic clearance of E 2 , increasing oxidative stress and decreasing endogenous antioxidants. RVT mitigated the effects of CrVI by upregulating cell survival proteins and AOXs; and restored E 2 levels by inhibiting hydroxylation, glucuronidation and sulphation of E 2 . This is the first study to report the protective effects of RVT against any toxicant in the ovary. - Highlights: • Resveratrol (RVT) protects the ovary against CrVI-toxicity. • RVT mitigated CrVI-induced apoptosis and follicle atresia. • RVT restored estradiol level against CrVI-toxicity. • RVT inhibited metabolic clearance of estradiol in the

  8. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Yousr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF. Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y and tryptophan (W, in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23 and KLSDW (EYGF-33, contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56 was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69% and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL. The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL. In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33 (10 mg/mL had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk.

  9. Fish protein improves the total antioxidant status of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukortt, Farida Ouda; Girard, Aurélie; Prost, Josiane L; Ait-Yahia, Dalila; Bouchenak, Malika; Belleville, Jacques

    2004-11-01

    We measured the effects of fish protein (FP) on blood pressure, glycemia and antioxidant status in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes (STZ). Two groups of 12 rats each were fed 20% casein (C) or FP for 2 months. The total antioxidant status of blood and organs (liver, kidney and heart) was measured by the KRL test. Antioxidant enzyme activities (G-Px, G-Red, and SOD) and antioxidant substances (GSH, NO) were determined in organs, and vitamin C in plasma. FP lowered blood pressure in SH rats, but not in SH-STZ. Blood and plasma antioxidant status increased 35% and 9%, respectively, with FP in SH-STZ compared to SH rats; when compared to C, these values were more enhanced. SOD activity values were elevated with FP in SH-STZ rats, compared to the C diet, regardless of organ. Higher kidney NO and heart GSH values were noted in SH-STZ rats than SH. In SH rats fed FP, the GSH value was 2.26 times higher in liver, and NO was 3 times higher in heart. Higher NO was noted in kidney (1.84 times) and heart (1.91 times), GSH in heart (1.79 times), and vitamin C in plasma (+46%) in SH-STZ rats with FP than with C. Fish protein has a beneficial effect on blood pressure in SH rats but not in SH-STZ, and plays an important role in antioxidative defense. This protein may be useful in future treatments of such diseases as diabetes and hypertension.

  10. Naringin Protects Against High Glucose-Induced Human Endothelial Cell Injury Via Antioxidation and CX3CL1 Downregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilin Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The induction of endothelial injury by hyperglycemia in diabetes has been widely accepted. Naringin is a bio-flavonoid. Some studies showed that naringin alleviates diabetic complications, but the exact mechanisms by which naringin improves diabetic anomalies are not yet fully understood. The aim of this research was to study the protective effect of naringin on high glucose-induced injury of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Methods: HUVECs were cultured with or without high glucose in the absence or presence of naringin for 5 days. The expression of CX3CL1 was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR and western blot. The cellular bioenergetic analysis oxygen consumption rate (OCR was measured with a Seahorse Bioscience XF analyzer. Results: The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, the expression of CX3CL1 and the level of AKT phosphorylation were increased in HUVECs cultured with high glucose compared with controls. However, naringin rescued these increases in ROS production, CX3CL1 expression and AKT phosphorylation. Nitric oxide (NO production and OCR were lower in the high glucose group, and naringin restored the changes induced by high glucose. Molecular docking results suggested that Naringin might interact with the CX3CL1 protein. Conclusion: Naringin protects HUVECs from high-glucose-induced damage through its antioxidant properties by downregulating CX3CL1 and by improving mitochondrial function.

  11. New insight into multifunctional role of peroxiredoxin family protein: Determination of DNA protection properties of bacterioferritin comigratory protein under hyperthermal and oxidative stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangmin, E-mail: taeinlee2011@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, 1 Kangwondaehak-gil, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, 24341, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jeong Min [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, 1 Kangwondaehak-gil, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, 24341, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Hyung Joong; Won, Jonghan [Advanced Nano Surface Research Group, Korea Basic Science Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hyun Suk, E-mail: hsjung@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, 1 Kangwondaehak-gil, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, 24341, South Korea (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-22

    Bacterioferritin comigratory protein (BCP) is a monomeric conformer acting as a putative thiol-dependent bacterial peroxidase, however molecular basis of DNA-protection via DNA-binding has not been clearly understood. In this study, we characterized the DNA binding properties of BCP using various lengths and differently shaped architectures of DNA. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and electron microscopy analysis showed that recombinant TkBCP bound to DNA of a circular shape (double-stranded DNA and single-stranded DNA) and a linear shape (16–1000 bp) as well as various architectures of DNA. In addition, DNA protection experiments indicated that TkBCP can protect DNA against hyperthermal and oxidative stress by removing highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) or by protecting DNA from thermal degradation. Based on these results, we suggest that TkBCP is a multi-functional DNA-binding protein which has DNA chaperon and antioxidant functions. - Highlights: • Bacterioferritin comigratory protein (BCP) protects DNA from oxidative stress by reducing ROS. • TkBCP does not only scavenge ROS, but also protect DNA from hyperthermal stress. • BCP potentially adopts the multi-functional role in DNA binding activities and anti-oxidant functions.

  12. Characterisation of powerful antioxidants and synthetic iron ligands, as protective agents against oxidative damages, using new high throughput screening assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, St.

    2002-12-01

    This work was devoted to the development of pertinent high throughput screening assays in the aim of studying oxidative stress. Three screening assays have been developed for the evaluation of protective agents toward ROS generated by gamma irradiation, UV or by a Fenton-like system. 24 natural extracts and a library of 120 pure compounds, containing among the most powerful antioxidants known to date, have been readily studied using, these new techniques. We found that two pulvinic acid derivatives possess excellent protective properties, and especially a pigment of fungus named norbadione A. Beyond its in vitro activity, this molecule displays remarkable biological properties. In the aim of studying an alternative pathway of protection against oxidation induced by iron, ligands able to modify the redox properties of this metal, have been synthesised. We have developed a parallel synthesis allowing the variation of the architecture, denticity, chelating moieties and hydrophobicity of iron chelates. Using this strategy, 47 potential Fe(III) ligands were obtained. Their protective capacities have been studied using a fourth screening assay, demonstrating the effectiveness of some ligands. Finally, the immunoassay technique called SPI-RAD has been used in order to study a particular consequence of drastic oxidative stress, namely covalent crosslinks between proteins. Our results demonstrate that these linkages occur in the presence of metals (FeII or CuII) and hydrogen peroxide, as well as in the presence of NO . radical. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that tyrosines residues and disulfide bridges play an important role in these phenomena. (author)

  13. Selective protection of zidovudine-induced DNA-damage by the antioxidants WR-1065 and tempol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, Ofelia A; Ongele, Michael O; Braun, Hannan M; Marrogi, Ariadna; Divi, Kathyiani; Mitchell, James B; Poirier, Miriam C

    2014-08-01

    The cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN) assay, introduced by Fenech, was used to demonstrate different types of DNA damage in MOLT-3 human lymphoblastoid cells exposed to 10 μM zidovudine (AZT). In addition, we explored the cytoprotective potential of two antioxidants, WR-1065 and Tempol, to decrease AZT-induced genotoxicity. Binucleated cells, arrested by Cytochalasin B (Cyt B), were evaluated for micronuclei (MN), caused by DNA damage or chromosomal loss, and chromatin nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs), caused by telomere attrition. Additionally, nuclear buds (NBUDs), caused by amplified DNA, and apoptotic and necrotic (A/N) cells were scored. We hypothesized that AZT exposure would increase the frequency of genotoxic end points, and that the antioxidants Tempol and WR-1065 would protect against AZT-induced genotoxicity. MOLT-3 cells were exposed to 0 or 10 µM AZT for a total of 76 hr. After the first 24 hr, 0 or 5 µM WR-1065 and/or 0 or 200 µM Tempol were added for the remainder of the experiment. For the last 28 hr (of 76 hr), Cyt B was added to arrest replication after one cell division, leaving a predominance of binucleated cells. The nuclear division index (NDI) was similar for all treatment groups, indicating that the exposures did not alter cell viability. MOLT-3 cells exposed to AZT alone had significant (P Tempol and WR-1065 protected against AZT-induced MN formation (P Tempol, reduced the levels of A/N (P = 0.041). In cells exposed to AZT/Tempol there were significantly reduced levels of NBUDs, compared to cells exposed to AZT alone (P = 0.015). Cells exposed to AZT/WR-1065 showed reduced levels of NPBs, compared to cells exposed to AZT alone (P = 0.037). Thus WR-1065 and Tempol protected MOLT-3 cells against specific types of AZT-induced DNA damage. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Antioxidant and Anti-aging Activities of Silybum Marianum Protein Hydrolysate in Mice Treated with D-galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu Yun; Jiang, Ning; Tu, Jie; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Yue

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant and anti-aging effects of Silybum marianum protein hydrolysate (SMPH) in D-galactose-treated mice. D-galactose (500 mg/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally injected daily for 7 weeks to accelerate aging, and SMPH (400, 800, 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively) was simultaneously administered orally. The antioxidant and anti-aging effects of SMPH in the liver and brain were measured by biochemical assays. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to study the ultrastructure of liver mitochondri. SMPH decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the D-galactose-treated mice. It significantly elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), which were suppressed by D-galactose. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as well as the concentrations of caspase-3 and 8-OHdG in the liver and brain were significantly reduced by SMPH. Moreover, it increased Bcl-2 levels in the liver and brain. Furthermore, SMPH significantly attenuated D-galactose-induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction by improving the activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and fluidity. TEM showed that the degree of liver mitochondrial damage was significantly decreased by SMPH. The results indicated that SMPH protects against D-galactose-induced accelerated aging in mice through its antioxidant and anti-aging activities. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of freezing down to 77.15 K on structure and antioxidant power of some proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanova, S. L.; Narozhnyi, S. V.; Nardid, O. A.

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the present work was to investigate influence of different freeze-thawing protocols on structure and antioxidant properties of isolated proteins. In our experiments we have studied human serum albumin, human hemoglobin and cytochrome C derived from equine heart frozen down to 77.15 K with 1-2 deg/min and 300 deg/min rate with following thawing on a water bath at 293.15 K. Native proteins were assumed as a control. Influence of freeze-thawing protocols on protein structure was investigated using spectrophotometric and fluorescent assays. Antioxidant activities of isolated proteins were estimated by their ability to reduce ABTS+ radical. It has been established that unfolding derived from freeze-thawing exposure leads to protein antioxidant activity increasing while decreasing of such an activity may be connected with macromolecule aggregation. Character of freeze-thawing influence on antioxidant activity of proteins depends on molecule structure peculiarities and freezing protocols.

  16. Use of Different Proteases to Obtain Flaxseed Protein Hydrolysates with Antioxidant Activity

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    Magdalena Karamać

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of flaxseed protein hydrolysates obtained using five different enzymes was evaluated. Proteins were isolated from flaxseed cake and were separately treated with papain, trypsin, pancreatin, Alcalase and Flavourzyme. The degree of hydrolysis (DH was determined as the percentage of cleaved peptide bonds using a spectrophotometric method with o-phthaldialdehyde. The distribution of the molecular weights (MW of the hydrolysis products was profiled using Tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Tricine-SDS-PAGE and size exclusion-high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC separations. The antioxidant activities of the protein isolate and hydrolysates were probed for their radical scavenging activity using 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate radical cation (ABTS•+ and photochemiluminescence (PCL-ACL assays, and for their ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and ability to bind Fe2+. The hydrolysates were more effective as antioxidants than the protein isolate in all systems. The PCL-ACL values of the hydrolysates ranged from 7.2 to 35.7 μmol Trolox/g. Both the FRAP and ABTS•+ scavenging activity differed among the hydrolysates to a lower extent, with the ranges of 0.20–0.24 mmol Fe2+/g and 0.17–0.22 mmol Trolox/g, respectively. The highest chelating activity (71.5% was noted for the pancreatin hydrolysate. In general, the hydrolysates obtained using Alcalase and pancreatin had the highest antioxidant activity, even though their DH (15.4% and 29.3%, respectively and the MW profiles of the peptides varied substantially. The O2•− scavenging activity and the ability to chelate Fe2+ of the Flavourzyme hydrolysate were lower than those of the Alcalase and pancreatin hydrolysates. Papain was the least effective in releasing the peptides with antioxidant activity. The study showed that the type of enzyme used for flaxseed protein hydrolysis determines the antioxidant

  17. Characteristics and enhanced antioxidant activity of glycated Morchella esculenta protein isolate

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    Qiang ZHANG

    Full Text Available Abstract Morchella esculenta (L Pers. is a highly valued edible and medicinal fungus that remains underutilized. For this study, the effects of glycation treatment on antioxidant activity and characteristics of the M. esculenta protein isolate (MPI were investigated via the Maillard reaction. Conjugation between MPI and xylose was proven via UV-vis, FT-IR, intrinsic fluorescence analysis, and SDS-PAGE. Amino acid analysis revealed involvement of lysine, arginine and tyrosine in MPI, forming a covalent cross-link with xylose. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results showed that glycated MPI (MPIG possesses a more favorable thermal stability compared to native MPI (MPIN, heated MPI (MPIH and an unheated mixture of MPI and xylose (MPI-XM. MPIG exhibited significantly enhanced antioxidant activity compared to MPIN, MPIH, and MPI-XM. These results indicate MPIG can serve as a promising novel source of nutraceutical and functional ingredients that exert antioxidant activity.

  18. Antioxidative properties of milk protein preparations fermented by Polish strains of Lactobacillus helveticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, Katarzyna W; Gustaw, Waldemar Z; Jabłońska-Ryś, Ewa D; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Sławińska, Aneta; Radzki, Wojciech P; Gustaw, Klaudia M; Waśko, Adam D

    2017-01-01

    The increasing significance of food products containing substances with antioxidative activi- ties is currently being observed. This is mainly due to the fact that pathogenic changes underlying some diseases are related to the carcinogenic effects of free radicals. Antioxidative compounds play an important role in supporting and enhancing the body’s defense mechanisms, which is useful in preventing some civili- zation diseases. Unfortunately, it has been already proved that some synthetic antioxidants pose a potential risk in vivo. Therefore, antioxidant compounds derived from a natural source are extremely valuable. Milk is a source of biologically active precursors, which when enclosed in structural protein sequences are inactive. The hydrolysis process, involving bacterial proteolytic enzymes, might release biopeptides that act in various ways, including having antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant properties of milk protein preparations fermented by Polish strains of L. helveticus. The research also focused on evaluating the dynamics of milk acidification by these strains and analyzing the textural properties of the skim milk fermented products obtained. The research studied Polish strains of L. helveticus: B734, 141, T80 and T105, which have not yet been used industrially. The antioxidant properties of 1% (w/v) solutions of milk protein preparations (skim milk powder, caseinoglycomacropeptide and α-lactoalbumin) fermented by these strains were determined by neutralizing the free radicals with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙). Moreover, solutions of skim milk powder (SMP) fermented by the microorganisms being tested were analyzed on gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The dynamics of milk acidification by these microorganisms was also analyzed L. helveticus strains were used to prepare fermented regenerated skim milk products that were subjected to texture profile analysis (TPA) performed using a TA-XT2i

  19. Analysis of trace elements responsible for antioxidant protection by SRXFA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchar, A.; Kolmogorov, Yu; Dikalova, A.; Yelinova, V.; Kondratev, V.

    2001-09-01

    The possibilities of using the energy dispersion synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXFA) for control of blood plasma and liver trace element (TE) content in rats with hyperproduction of oxygen radicals and hair TE content in women with mammary hyperplasia and cancer are demonstrated. Our data show that activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in the blood and liver depends on the amount of TE incorporated into the structure of the active center of these enzymes, which are responsible for antioxidant protection. A decrease of activity of these enzymes is accompanied by an increase of production of free OH radicals in the tissues. Clinical data demonstrated that scalp hair of patients with oncological mammary pathology was characterized by a significant decrease of concentrations of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) and by an increase of chromium (Cr). The Se deficit was more pronounced in patients with cancer than in those with mammary hyperplasia ( p<0.05). The SRXFA method permits one to carry out a controllable correction of TE imbalance in many diseases whose development is caused by oxygen radical injury.

  20. Antioxidant Potential of ulva rigida c. Agardh Extract: Protection from Oxidative Stress Hypothyroidism

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    S. TAŞ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Ulva rigida C. Agardh, one of the green algae, on and antioxidative system in the propylthiouracil (PTU-induced hypothyroid rats. Thirty-two rats randomly divided into four groups: control (C, control+U. rigida extract (C+UR, hypothyroid (H and hypothyroid+U. rigida extract (H+UR. U. rigida (2% was administered in drinking water for 5 weeks after the induction of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroid rats were under oxidative stress as reflected by icreased plasma and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA levels. U. rigida reduced serum total cholesterol and,- triglyceride levels and plasma and heart skeletal muscle, liver and,- kidney tissue MDA levels in the H+UR group. Serum total cholesterol and tissues MDA levels were reduced in the C+UR group. Whole blood glutathione peroxidase and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were increased in the H+UR and C+UR groups compared with those of te respective control groups. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were lower in the H group and U. rigida increased paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in C+UR and H+UR groups. We conclude that hypothyroidism is associated with oxidative stress and, U. rigida extract might have a potential use as a protective antioxidant agent in hypothroidism.

  1. Food-Derived Bioactives Can Protect the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Cortisol with Antioxidant-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms

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    Erik J. B. Ruijters

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In chronic inflammatory diseases the anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoids (GCs is often decreased, leading to GC resistance. Inflammation is related with increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to oxidative stress which is thought to contribute to the development of GC resistance. Plant-derived compounds such as flavonoids are known for their ability to protect against ROS. In this exploratory study we screened a broad range of food-derived bioactives for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in order to investigate whether their antioxidant effects are associated with the ability to preserve the anti-inflammatory effects of cortisol. The anti-inflammatory potency of the tested compounds was assessed by measuring the oxidative stress–induced GC resistance in human macrophage-like cells. Cells were pre-treated with H2O2 (800 µM with and without bioactives and then exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS (10 ng/mL and cortisol (100 nM. The level of inflammation was deducted from the concentration of interleukin-8 (IL-8 in the medium. Intracellular oxidative stress was measured using the fluorescent probe 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH. We found that most of the dietary bioactives display antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action through the protection of the cortisol response. All compounds, except for quercetin, revealing antioxidant activity also protect the cortisol response. This indicates that the antioxidant activity of compounds plays an important role in the protection of the GC response. However, next to the antioxidant activity of the bioactives, other mechanisms also seem to be involved in this protective, anti-inflammatory effect.

  2. Aqueous extract of Crataegus azarolus protects against DNA damage in human lymphoblast Cell K562 and enhances antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Nadia; Bouhlel, Inès; Chaabane, Fadwa; Bzéouich, Imèn Mokdad; Ghedira, Kamel; Hennebelle, Thierry; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2014-02-01

    The present study was carried out to characterize the cellular antioxidant effect of the aqueous extract of Crataegus azarolus and its antigenotoxic potential using human myelogenous cells, K562. The antioxidant capacity of this extract was evaluated by determining its cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) in K562 cells. Also, preceding antigenotoxicity assessment, its eventual genotoxicity property was investigated by evaluating its capacity to induce the DNA degradation of treated cell nuclei. As no genotoxicity was detected at different exposure times, its ability to protect cell DNA against H2O2 oxidative effect was investigated, using the "comet assay." It appears that 800 μg/mL of extract inhibited the genotoxicity induced by H2O2 with a rate of 41.30 %, after 4 h of incubation. In addition, this extract revealed a significant cellular antioxidant capacity against the reactive oxygen species in K562 cells.

  3. Optimization of the Extraction and Stability of Antioxidative Peptides from Mackerel (Pneumatophorus japonicus Protein

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    Xueqin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study optimizes the preparation conditions for mackerel protein hydrolysate (MPH by response surface methodology (RSM and investigates the stability of the antioxidant activity of MPHs (<2.5 kDa. The optimal conditions were as follows: enzyme concentration of 1726.85 U/g, pH of 7.00, temperature of 39.55°C, time of 5.5 h, and water/material ratio of 25 : 1, and the maximum DPPH scavenging activity was 79.14%. The MPHs indicated significant cellular antioxidant activity at low concentrations. Furthermore, the temperature and freeze-thaw cycles had little effect on the antioxidative stability while pH had significant effect on the antioxidative stability. In addition, the MPHs were sensitive to the metal ions, such as Fe2+, Fe3+, Zn2+, and Cu2+. Notably, when the concentrations of Fe2+ and Fe3+ were 5 mM, the DPPH scavenging activities were only 1.1% and 0.6%, respectively; furthermore, Cu2+ at a 5 mM concentration could completely inhibit the DPPH scavenging activity of MPHs. In contrast, K+ and Mg2+ had no notable effect on the antioxidant activity of MPHs. These results may provide a scientific basis for the processing and application of MPHs.

  4. Bioactive Peptides from Angelica sinensis Protein Hydrolyzate Delay Senescence in Caenorhabditis elegans through Antioxidant Activities

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    Qiangqiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS is known to be associated with aging and age-related diseases, strategies modulating ROS level and antioxidant defense systems may contribute to the delay of senescence. Here we show that the protein hydrolyzate from Angelica sinensis was capable of increasing oxidative survival of the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans intoxicated by paraquat. The hydrolyzate was then fractionated by ultrafiltration, and the antioxidant fraction (<3 kDa was purified by gel filtration to obtain the antioxidant A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps, which were mostly composed of peptides with <20 amino acid residues. Further studies demonstrate that AsiPeps were able to reduce the endogenous ROS level, increase the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, and decrease the content of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in nematodes treated with paraquat or undergoing senescence. AsiPeps were also shown to reduce age pigments accumulation and extend lifespan but did not affect the food-intake behavior of the nematodes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps are able to delay aging process in C. elegans through antioxidant activities independent of dietary restriction.

  5. Activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway contributes to the protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides in the rodent retina after ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage.

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    Meihua He

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP, extracts from the wolfberries, are protective to retina after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R. The antioxidant response element (ARE-mediated antioxidant pathway plays an important role in maintaining the redox status of the retina. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, combined with potent AREs in its promoter, is a highly effective therapeutic target for the protection against neurodegenerative diseases, including I/R-induced retinal damage. The aim of our present study was to investigate whether the protective effect of LBP after I/R damage was mediated via activation of the Nrf2/HO-1-antioxidant pathway in the retina. Retinal I/R was induced by an increase in intraocular pressure to 130 mm Hg for 60 minutes. Prior to the induction of ischemia, rats were orally treated with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1 mg/kg once a day for 1 week. For specific experiments, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, 20 mg/kg, an HO-1 inhibitor, was intraperitoneally administered at 24 h prior to ischemia. The protective effects of LBP were evaluated by quantifying ganglion cell and amacrine cell survival, and by measuring cell apoptosis in the retinal layers. In addition, HO-1 expression was examined using Western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses. Cytosolic and nuclear Nrf2 was measured using immunofluorescent staining. LBP treatment significantly increased Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and HO-1 expression in the retina after I/R injury. Increased apoptosis and a decrease in the number of viable cells were observed in the ganglion cell layer (GCL and inner nuclear layer (INL in the I/R retina, which were reversed by LBP treatment. The HO-1 inhibitor, ZnPP, diminished the LBP treatment-induced protective effects in the retina after I/R. Taken together, these results suggested that LBP partially exerted its beneficial neuroprotective effects via the activation of Nrf2 and an increase in HO-1 protein expression.

  6. Hypothyroidism attenuates protein tyrosine nitration, oxidative stress and renal damage induced by ischemia and reperfusion: effect unrelated to antioxidant enzymes activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio-Velázquez, Verónica M; Barrera, Diana; Franco, Martha; Tapia, Edilia; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2005-01-01

    Background It has been established that hypothyroidism protects rats against renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR) oxidative damage. However, it is not clear if hypothyroidism is able to prevent protein tyrosine nitration, an index of nitrosative stress, induced by IR or if antioxidant enzymes have involved in this protective effect. In this work it was explored if hypothyroidism is able to prevent the increase in nitrosative and oxidative stress induced by IR. In addition the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase was studied. Control and thyroidectomized (HTX) rats were studied 24 h of reperfusion after 60 min ischemia. Methods Male Wistar rats weighing 380 ± 22 g were subjected to surgical thyroidectomy. Rats were studied 15 days after surgery. Euthyroid sham-operated rats were used as controls (CT). Both groups of rats underwent a right kidney nephrectomy and suffered a 60 min left renal ischemia with 24 h of reperfusion. Rats were divided in four groups: CT, HTX, IR and HTX+IR. Rats were sacrificed and samples of plasma and kidney were obtained. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were measured in blood plasma. Kidney damage was evaluated by histological analysis. Oxidative stress was measured by immunohistochemical localization of protein carbonyls and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal modified proteins. The protein carbonyl content was measured using antibodies against dinitrophenol (DNP)-modified proteins. Nitrosative stress was measured by immunohistochemical analysis of 3-nitrotyrosine modified proteins. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase was measured by spectrophotometric methods. Multiple comparisons were performed with ANOVA followed by Bonferroni t test. Results The histological damage and the rise in plasma creatinine and BUN induced by IR were significantly lower in HTX+IR group. The increase in protein carbonyls and in 3-nitrotyrosine and 4

  7. Protection of riboflavin and UVB sensitized degradation of DNA and RNA bases by natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prakash C; Gray, Thomas A; Keane, Thomas C

    2012-04-01

    Riboflavin (RF) is a potent photosensitizer producing extensive degradation of purine and pyrimidine derivatives of nucleic acids under UVA, UVB and sunlight. In this study we have demonstrated that reactive O(2) species generated by photosensitized RF under UVB were responsible for the degradation of DNA and RNA bases. While (1)O(2) accounted for the degradation of adenine, guanine, thymine and uracil, O(2)(-·)also contributed to partial degradation of adenine. Cytosine remained unaffected by the synergistic action of RF and UVB. Ascorbic acid, glutathione, glycolic acid and quercetin showed remarkable protection (88-100%) against photodegradation of bases. Sorbitol was effective in preventing photodegradation of guanine. These naturally occurring antioxidants are potential candidates for prevention against oxidative stress caused by photosensitization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidant activity of Coriandrum sativum and protection against DNA damage and cancer cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Esther L H; Rajarajeswaran, Jayakumar; Fung, Shin Yee; Kanthimathi, M S

    2013-12-09

    Coriandrum sativum is a popular culinary and medicinal herb of the Apiaceae family. Health promoting properties of this herb have been reported in pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies. However, studies on C. sativum have always focused on the aerial parts of the herb and scientific investigation on the root is limited. The aim of this research was to investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of C. sativum root, leaf and stem, including its effect on cancer cell migration, and its protection against DNA damage, with special focus on the roots. Powdered roots, leaves and stems of C. sativum were extracted through sequential extraction using hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Total phenolic content, FRAP and DPPH radical scavenging activities were measured. Anti-proliferative activitiy on the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, was assayed using the MTT assay. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and of the caspases-3, -8 and -9 were assayed on treatment with the extract. Cell cycle progression was analysed using flow cytometry. The scratch motility assay was used to assess inhibition of MCF-7 cell migration. DNA damage in 3 T3-L1 fibroblasts was evaluated by the comet assay. The components in the extract were identified by HPLC and GC-MS. The ethyl acetate extract of C. sativum roots showed the highest antiproliferative activity on MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 200.0 ± 2.6 μg/mL) and had the highest phenolic content, FRAP and DPPH scavenging activities among the extracts. C. sativum root inhibited DNA damage and prevented MCF-7 cell migration induced by H2O2, suggesting its potential in cancer prevention and inhibition of metastasis. The extract exhibited anticancer activity in MCF-7 cells by affecting antioxidant enzymes possibly leading to H2O2 accumulation, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and apoptotic cell death by the death receptor and

  9. Antioxidant properties of lutein contribute to the protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in mice

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    Yao Xin-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lutein is an important eye-protective nutrient. This study investigates the protective effects and mechanisms of lutein on lipopolysaccharides (LPS-induced uveitis in mice. Methods Lutein, suspended in drinking water at a final concentration of 12.5 and 25 mg/mL, was administered to mice at 0.1 mL/10 g body weight for five consecutive days. Control and model group received drinking water only. Uveitis was induced by injecting LPS (100 mg per mouse into the footpad in the model and lutein groups on day 5 after the last drug administration. Eyes of the mice were collected 24 hours after the LPS injection for the detection of indicators using commercial kits and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results LPS-induced uveitis was confirmed by significant pathological damage and increased the nitric oxide level in eye tissue of BALB/C mice 24 hours after the footpad injection. The elevated nitric oxide level was significantly reduced by oral administration of lutein (125 and 500 mg/kg/d for five days before LPS injection. Moreover, lutein decreased the malondialdehyde content, increased the oxygen radical absorbance capacity level, glutathione, the vitamin C contents and total superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Lutein further increased expressions of copper-zinc SOD, manganese SOD and GPx mRNA. Conclusion The antioxidant properties of lutein contribute to the protection against LPS-induced uveitis, partially through the intervention of inflammation process.

  10. Antioxidant activity measurement and potential antioxidant peptides exploration from hydrolysates of novel continuous microwave-assisted enzymolysis of the Scomberomorus niphonius protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yipeng; Ruan, Guihua; Qin, Zhijun; Li, Haiyun; Zheng, Yanjie

    2017-05-15

    A novel continuous microwave-assisted enzymatic digestion (cMAED) method is proposed for the digestion of protein from Scomberomorus niphonius to obtain potential antioxidant peptides. In this study, bromelain was found to have a high capacity for the digestion of the Scomberomorus niphonius protein. The following cMAED conditions were investigated: protease species, microwave power, temperature, bromelain content, acidity of the substrate solution, and incubation time. At 400W, 40°C, 1500U·g -1 bromelain, 20% substrate concentration, pH 6.0 and 5min incubation, the degree of hydrolysis and total antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates were 15.86% and 131.49μg·mL -1 , respectively. The peptide analyses showed that eight of the potential antioxidant peptide sequences, which ranged from 502.32 to 1080.55Da with 4-10 amino acid residues, had features typical of well-known antioxidant proteins. Thus, the new cMAED method can be useful to obtain potential antioxidant peptides from protein sources, such as Scomberomorus niphonius. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Purification and characterization of antioxidative peptides from round scad (Decapterus maruadsi) muscle protein hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haiping; Tong, Tianzhe; Sun, Jianhua; Xu, Yuanjin; Zhao, Zhongxing; Liao, Dankui

    2014-07-01

    Muscle protein from round scad (Decapterus maruadsi) was hydrolyzed with five commercial proteases, namely, Alcalase, neutral protease, papain, pepsin, and trypsin. Round scad hydrolysate (RSH) prepared with Alcalase demonstrated high antioxidative activity. After ultrafiltration, RSH-III fraction (MW<5kDa) exhibited the strongest activity. Then, RSH-III was purified by gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-15) and separated into four fractions (A, B, C, and D), of which fraction B showed the highest antioxidative activity and was further purified using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography twice. The purified peptides were identified as His-Asp-His-Pro-Val-Cys (706.8Da) and His-Glu-Lys-Val-Cys (614.7Da) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Subsequently, the identified peptides were synthesized, and their antioxidative activities were verified. Results indicated that the two novel peptides isolated from round scad muscle protein can be developed into antioxidative ingredients in functional foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Production of Defatted Palm Kernel Cake Protein Hydrolysate as a Valuable Source of Natural Antioxidants

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    Mohammad Zarei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to produce a valuable protein hydrolysate from palm kernel cake (PKC for the development of natural antioxidants. Extracted PKC protein was hydrolyzed using different proteases (alcalase, chymotrypsin, papain, pepsin, trypsin, flavourzyme, and bromelain. Subsequently, antioxidant activity and degree of hydrolysis (DH of each hydrolysate were evaluated using DPPH• radical scavenging activity and O-phthaldialdehyde spectrophotometric assay, respectively. The results revealed a strong correlation between DH and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates, where among these, protein hydrolysates produced by papain after 38 h hydrolysis exhibited the highest DH (91 ± 0.1% and DPPH• radical scavenging activity (73.5 ± 0.25% compared to the other hydrolysates. In addition, fractionation of the most effective (potent hydrolysate by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography indicated a direct association between hydrophobicity and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates. Isoelectric focusing tests also revealed that protein hydrolysates with basic and neutral isoelectric point (pI have the highest radical scavenging activity, although few fractions in the acidic range also exhibited good antioxidant potential.

  13. Circulating Protein Carbonyls, Antioxidant Enzymes and Related Trace Minerals among Preterms with Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed El-Abd; Abd-Elmawgood, Eman Ahmed; Hassan, Mohammed H

    2017-07-01

    Information about oxidative stress in preterms with Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) is defective, so various researches in this area are required, which may open new roads in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease, hence provide additional helpful therapeutic approaches. To assess and compare the plasma level of protein carbonyls as a marker for oxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes; Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and the related trace minerals in the form of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and Selenium (Se) as markers for antioxidant status, in preterms with and without RDS. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted on fifty-seven preterm neonates (37 preterms with RDS and 20 preterms without RDS) admitted to neonatal intensive care unit of Qena University Hospitals after approval of the University Hospital Ethical Committee. Plasma protein carbonyls assay was done using commercially available ELISA assay kit. Plasma Cu, Zn, Se, erythrocyte SOD and GPx activities assays were done using commercially available colorimetric assay kits. Significant higher plasma levels of protein carbonyls and oxidant/antioxidants ratio (protein carbonyls/{SOD+GPx}) with significant lower plasma levels of Zn, Cu, Se, erythrocyte SOD and GPx activities were found in the preterms with RDS when compared with the preterms without RDS (p<0.001 for all measured markers for both groups). In terms of birth weights and gestational ages, they were negatively correlated with both plasma protein carbonyls and oxidant/antioxidants ratio and positively correlated with plasma copper, zinc, selenium, erythrocyte SOD and GPx activities in a statistically significant manner. Non-significant correlations were found between the measured oxidative stress markers and the severity of RDS. Oxidative stress may have a contributory role in the development of RDS among preterms. Lower birth weight and prematurity may increase the susceptibity to oxidative stress among

  14. Influence of the bee pollen pellets on an organism’s antioxidant protection system under radiation-toxicological exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Severynovs’ka

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of adaptogen (bee pollen pellets in a regulation of antioxidant protection of rat’s brain tissues under influence of low dose radiation and heavy metals mixture was studied. Complex of negative ecological factors deplete the fermentative chain of antioxidant protection that may result in decrease of organism’s adaptation capabilities. Application of bee pollen pellets as an adaptogen increases the level of general antioxidant activity in all brain parts under separate and combineв influence of heavy metals and radiation. Distinctions of the pollen pellets’ stimulating effect in different brain parts are caused by structure-functioning peculiarities of theу parts and their reactions to environmental factors.

  15. Sodium phenylbutyrate controls neuroinflammatory and antioxidant activities and protects dopaminergic neurons in mouse models of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avik Roy

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress underlie the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders. Here we demonstrate that sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB, an FDA-approved therapy for reducing plasma ammonia and glutamine in urea cycle disorders, can suppress both proinflammatory molecules and reactive oxygen species (ROS in activated glial cells. Interestingly, NaPB also decreased the level of cholesterol but involved only intermediates, not the end product of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway for these functions. While inhibitors of both geranylgeranyl transferase (GGTI and farnesyl transferase (FTI inhibited the activation of NF-κB, inhibitor of GGTI, but not FTI, suppressed the production of ROS. Accordingly, a dominant-negative mutant of p21(rac, but not p21(ras, attenuated the production of ROS from activated microglia. Inhibition of both p21(ras and p21(rac activation by NaPB in microglial cells suggests that NaPB exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects via inhibition of these small G proteins. Consistently, we found activation of both p21(ras and p21(racin vivo in the substantia nigra of acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Oral administration of NaPB reduced nigral activation of p21(ras and p21(rac, protected nigral reduced glutathione, attenuated nigral activation of NF-κB, inhibited nigral expression of proinflammatory molecules, and suppressed nigral activation of glial cells. These findings paralleled dopaminergic neuronal protection, normalized striatal neurotransmitters, and improved motor functions in MPTP-intoxicated mice. Consistently, FTI and GGTI also protected nigrostriata in MPTP-intoxicated mice. Furthermore, NaPB also halted the disease progression in a chronic MPTP mouse model. These results identify novel mode of action of NaPB and suggest that NaPB may be of therapeutic benefit for neurodegenerative disorders.

  16. Protection of DPPC phospholipid liposomal membrane against radiation oxidative damage by antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marathe, D.L.; Pandey, B.N.; Mishra, K.P [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2000-05-01

    Investigations in our laboratory on egg lecithin liposomes have recently showed a marked protection against damage by gamma radiation when cholesterol was present in the composition of vesicles suggesting a role of bilayer molecular architecture in the mechanism of free radical mediated lipid peroxidation. Present study was designed to determine the changes in bilayer permeability in DPPC unilamelar vesicles after exposure to gamma radiation by monitoring the leakage of pre-loaded carboxyfluorescein (CF), a marker loaded in aqueous interior of vesicle and fluidity alterations in the bilayer using fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH), a membrane bilayer probe. It was found that radiation doses of an order of magnitude higher were required to produce detectable changes in vesicles of DPPC than in the vesicles of egg lecithin suggesting a modulating role of chemical nature of composition in the membrane radiation sensitivity. It was significant to find that the leakage of CF from and incorporation of DPH into vesicle bilayer showed similar response pattern to radiation doses (0.1-6 kGy) which was also found to be dose rate dependent. Presence of antioxidants; alpha-tocopherol (0.15 mole %) in the bilayer membrane or ascorbic acid (0.1 mM) in the aqueous region significantly protected DPPC vesicles from radiation damage as determined from DPH uptake kinetics suggesting involvement of reactive free radicals of lipids as well as water radicals in the mechanism of membrane peroxidative damage. The magnitude of protection was found to increase with the increasing concentration of both these antioxidants but comparisons showed that {alpha}-tocopherol was far more effective in protecting the vesicles than ascorbic acid. These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of radiation oxidative damage and its modification by radical scavenging and/or organizational modulation which emphasize the importance of structure and composition of

  17. Protections of bovine serum albumin protein from damage on functionalized graphene-based electrodes by flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bolu; Gou, Yuqiang; Xue, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Xiaoping; Ma, Yuling; Hu, Fangdi; Zhao, Wanghong

    2016-05-01

    A sensitive electrochemical sensor based on bovine serum albumin (BSA)/poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) functionalized graphene nanosheets (PDDA-G) composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (BSA/PDDA-G/GCE) had been developed to investigate the oxidative protein damage and protections of protein from damage by flavonoids. The performance of this sensor was remarkably improved due to excellent electrical conductivity, strong adsorptive ability, and large effective surface area of PDDA-G. The BSA/PDDA-G/GCE displayed the greatest degree of BSA oxidation damage at 40 min incubation time and in the pH 5.0 Fenton reagent system (12.5 mM FeSO4, 50 mM H2O2). The antioxidant activities of four flavonoids had been compared by fabricated sensor based on the relative peak current ratio of SWV, because flavonoids prevented BSA damage caused by Fenton reagent and affected the BSA signal in a solution containing Co(bpy)3(3+). The sensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV-vis spectrophotometry and FTIR were also used to investigate the generation of hydroxyl radical and BSA damage, respectively. On the basis of results from electrochemical methods, the order of the antioxidant activities of flavonoids is as follows: (+)-catechin>kaempferol>apigenin>naringenin. A novel, direct SWV analytical method for detection of BSA damage and assessment of the antioxidant activities of four flavonoids was developed and this electrochemical method provided a simple, inexpensive and rapid detection of BSA damage and evaluation of the antioxidant activities of samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Aspirin-Mediated Acetylation Protects Against Multiple Neurodegenerative Pathologies by Impeding Protein Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Balasubramaniam, Meenakshisundaram; Kakraba, Samuel; Alla, Ramani; Mehta, Jawahar L; Shmookler Reis, Robert J

    2017-12-10

    Many progressive neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease (PD), are characterized by accumulation of insoluble protein aggregates. In prospective trials, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) reduced the risk of AD and PD, as well as cardiovascular events and many late-onset cancers. Considering the role played by protein hyperphosphorylation in aggregation and neurodegenerative diseases, and aspirin's known ability to donate acetyl groups, we asked whether aspirin might reduce both phosphorylation and aggregation by acetylating protein targets. Aspirin was substantially more effective than salicylate in reducing or delaying aggregation in human neuroblastoma cells grown in vitro, and in Caenorhabditis elegans models of human neurodegenerative diseases in vivo. Aspirin acetylates many proteins, while reducing phosphorylation, suggesting that acetylation may oppose phosphorylation. Surprisingly, acetylated proteins were largely excluded from compact aggregates. Molecular-dynamic simulations indicate that acetylation of amyloid peptide energetically disfavors its association into dimers and octamers, and oligomers that do form are less compact and stable than those comprising unacetylated peptides. Hyperphosphorylation predisposes certain proteins to aggregate (e.g., tau, α-synuclein, and transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 [TDP-43]), and it is a critical pathogenic marker in both cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. We present novel evidence that acetylated proteins are underrepresented in protein aggregates, and that aggregation varies inversely with acetylation propensity after diverse genetic and pharmacologic interventions. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that aspirin inhibits protein aggregation and the ensuing toxicity of aggregates through its acetyl-donating activity. This mechanism may contribute to the neuro-protective, cardio-protective

  19. Antimutagenic and antioxidant activity of a protein fraction from aerial parts of Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sotto, Antonella; Mazzanti, Gabriela; Savickiene, Nijole; Staršelskytė, Rasa; Baksenskaite, Vaida; Di Giacomo, Silvia; Vitalone, Annabella

    2015-06-01

    Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae), stinging nettle, has been employed as a folklore remedy for a wide spectrum of ailments, including urinary disorders, prostatic hyperplasia, and liver diseases. It has been also used traditionally for cancer treatment. To evaluate the potential chemopreventive properties of a protein fraction from the aerial part of Urtica dioica (namely UDHL30). UDHL30 has been tested for the antimutagenic activity in bacteria (50-800 μg/plate; Ames test by the preincubation method) and for the cytotoxicity on human hepatoma HepG2 cells (0.06-2 mg/mL; 24 and 48 h incubation). Moreover, the antioxidant activity of UDHL30 (0.1-1200 μg/mL; ABTS and superoxide-radical scavenger assays) was evaluated as potential protective mechanisms. UDHL30 was not cytotoxic on HepG2 cells up to 2 mg/mL; conversely, it exhibited a strong antimutagenic activity against the mutagen 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) in all strains tested (maximum inhibition of 56, 78, and 61% in TA98, TA100, and WP2uvrA strains, respectively, at 800 μg/plate). In addition, a remarkable scavenging activity against ABTS radical and superoxide anion (IC50 values of 19.9 ± 1.0 μg/mL and 75.3 ± 0.9 μg/mL, respectively) was produced. UDHL30 possesses antimutagenic and radical scavenging properties. Being 2AA a pro-carcinogenic agent, we hypothesize that the antimutagenicity of UDHL30 can be due to the inhibition of CYP450-isoenzymes, involved in the mutagen bioactivation. The radical scavenger ability could contribute to 2AA-antimutagenicity. These data encourage further studies in order to better define the potential usefulness of UDHL30 in chemoprevention.

  20. Production and characterisation of whey protein hydrolysate having antioxidant activity from cheese whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athira, Syamala; Mann, Bimlesh; Saini, Prerna; Sharma, Rajan; Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Ashish Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cheese whey is a rich by-product in nutritional terms, possessing components with high biological value, excellent functional properties, and an inert flavour profile. In the present study, mozzarella cheese whey was ultra-filtrated to remove lactose and mineral. The retentate was hydrolysed with food-grade enzyme alcalase and the hydrolysis conditions (pH, temperature and time) were optimised for maximum antioxidant activity using response surface methodology. Whey protein hydrolysed for 8 h at pH 9 and 55 °C showed a maximum antioxidant activity of 1.18 ± 0.015 µmol Trolox mg(-1) protein. The antioxidant peptides were further enriched by ultra-filtration through a 3 kDa membrane. Seven peptides - β-Lg f(123-131), β-Lg f(122-131), β-Lg f(124-131), β-Lg f(123-134), β-Lg f(122-131), β-Lg f(96-100) and β-Lg f(94-100) - were identified by LC-MS/MS in the 3 kDa permeate of the hydrolysate. The incorporation of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) in lemon whey drink (5-10 g L(-1)) increased the antioxidant activity from 76% to 90% as compared to control. Hydrolysis of ultra-filtrated retentate of whey can be an energy- and cost-effective method for the direct production of WPH from whey compared to the industrial production of WPH from whey protein concentrate. This study suggests that WPH with good nutritional and biological properties can be effectively used in health-promoting foods as a biofunctional ingredient. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Tanshinone I Activates the Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Response and Protects Against As(III)-Induced Lung Inflammation In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shasha; Zheng, Yi; Lau, Alexandria; Jaramillo, Melba C.; Chau, Binh T.; Lantz, R. Clark; Wong, Pak K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway regulates the cellular antioxidant response and activation of Nrf2 has recently been shown to limit tissue damage from exposure to environmental toxicants, including As(III). In an attempt to identify improved molecular agents for systemic protection against environmental insults, we have focused on the identification of novel medicinal plant-derived Nrf2 activators. Results: Tanshinones [tanshinone I (T-I), tanshinone IIA, dihydrotanshinone, cryptotanshinone], phenanthrenequinone-based redox therapeutics derived from the medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza, have been tested as experimental therapeutics for Nrf2-dependent cytoprotection. Using a dual luciferase reporter assay overexpressing wild-type or mutant Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1), we demonstrate that T-I is a potent Keap1-C151-dependent Nrf2 activator that stabilizes Nrf2 by hindering its ubiquitination. In human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to As(III), T-I displays pronounced cytoprotective activity with upregulation of Nrf2-orchestrated gene expression. In Nrf2 wild-type mice, systemic administration of T-I attenuates As(III) induced inflammatory lung damage, a protective effect not observed in Nrf2 knockout mice. Innovation: Tanshinones have been identified as a novel class of Nrf2-inducers for antioxidant tissue protection in an in vivo As(III) inhalation model, that is relevant to low doses of environmental exposure. Conclusion: T-I represents a prototype Nrf2-activator that displays cytoprotective activity upon systemic administration targeting lung damage originating from environmental insults. T-I based Nrf2-directed systemic intervention may provide therapeutic benefit in protecting other organs against environmental insults. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1647–1661. PMID:23394605

  2. Antioxidant activity and protein-polyphenol interactions in a pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigueros, Lorena; Wojdyło, Aneta; Sendra, Esther

    2014-07-09

    Pomegranate juice (PGJ) is rich in phenolics which are potent antioxidants but also prone to interact with proteins. A yogurt rich in PGJ (40%) made from arils was elaborated (PGY) to determine the antioxidant activity and to estimate the phenolics-proteins interaction during 28 days of cold storage. Juice, yogurts, and protein-free permeates were analyzed for phenolic composition. Yogurt fermentation modified the anthocyanin profile of the initial PGJ, especially the content in cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. During storage, individual anthocyanin content in PGY decreased but it did not modify yogurt color. The analysis of permeates revealed that the degree of phenol-protein interaction depends on the type of phenolic, ellagic acid and dephinidin-3,5-O-diglucoside being the least bound phenolic compounds. The presence of PGJ in yogurt enhanced radical scavenging performance, whereas all the observed ferric reducing power ability of PGY was strictly due to the PGJ present. The 84.73% of total anthocyanins remained bound to proteins at the first day of storage and 90.06% after 28 days of cold storage, revealing the high affinity of anthocyanins for milk proteins.

  3. Effect of the incorporation of antimicrobial/antioxidant proteins on the properties of potato starch films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Olga; Atarés, Lorena; Chiralt, Amparo

    2015-11-20

    Glycerol plasticized potato starch films containing bioactive proteins (lactoferrin (LF) and/or lysozyme (LZ), at 0.1 and 0.2 ratio with respect to starch) were obtained by casting method and characterized as to their microstructural, thermal and physical (water content, mechanical, water and oxygen barrier, optical) properties. The bioactive properties, named antioxidant and antimicrobial, of the proteins and the films were also characterized. The incorporation of proteins affected the structural and physical properties of potato starch films, while modifying their thermal behavior and increasing the glass transition temperature. Both proteins showed a certain degree of compatibility with starch chains through the bond formations (increase in Tg), while a part is separated and migrates to the film surface. Their incorporation, especially that of lactoferrin, greatly increased the film's brittleness, regardless of the films water content, although they enhance the water vapor and oxygen barrier properties, whatever the age of the film. Protein also reduced the film's transparency and gloss, while lactoferrin induced color changes. The thermal degradation of blend films and isolated proteins occurred at temperatures of over 250°C, which means that blend starch films can be thermoprocessed, according to their thermoplastic properties and following the usual practices of the plastics industries. A synergistic antimicrobial action against Escherichia coli and coliforms was observed when both LZ and LF were simultaneously applied. Both of these exhibited antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Fractionation and identification of antioxidant peptides from an enzymatically hydrolysed Palmaria palmata protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnedy, Pádraigín A; O'Keeffe, Martina B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2017-10-01

    Proteins derived from the macroalgal species Palmaria palmata have emerged as potential substrates for the generation of bioactive peptides. The aim of this study was to fractionate, identify and characterize antioxidant peptides from a P. palmata protein hydrolysate. The P. palmata protein hydrolysate generated with the food-grade proteolytic enzyme Corolase PP was sequentially fractionated using solid phase extraction and semi-preparative (SP) RP-HPLC. The most active SP-RP-HPLC peptide fraction (SP-RP-HPLC-30-F26) was analysed by ESI-MS/MS. Seventeen novel peptide sequences were identified in this fraction. Of the peptides selected for synthesis, Ser-Asp-Ile-Thr-Arg-Pro-Gly-Gly-Asn-Met, showed the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activity with values of 152.43±2.73 and 21.23±0.90nmolTE/μmol peptide, respectively. The results presented herein indicate that P. palmata derived peptides may have potential applications as health enhancing ingredients and as food preservatives due to their antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ursolic acid protects against ulcerative colitis via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baohai; Piao, Xuehua; Guo, Lianyi; Liu, Shanshan; Chai, Fang; Gao, Leming

    2016-06-01

    Ursolic acid (UA) has been reported to have a protective effect in colitis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, experimental ulcerative colitis was induced in male BALB/c mice by the administration of 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7 days, followed by treatment with UA for another 7 days. Hematoxylin & eosin staining was performed to evaluate colon tissue damage, and enzyme assays were used to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in colon homogenate. In addition, serum levels of interleukin (IL)‑1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α were measured using an ELISA, and the level of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB p65 in the colonic tissues was assessed by western blotting. The 7‑day DSS administration induced marked colon damage, increased the serum levels of IL‑1β and TNF‑α, increased MDA content and decreased SOD activity in the colon homogenate. These changes were significantly improved by treatment with UA. UA also reduced the DSS‑stimulated high nuclear level of NF‑κB p65 in the colon tissues. These results demonstrate a protective role of UA in ulcerative colitis, and suggest that anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities are involved in the underlying mechanisms.

  6. The Protective Effect of Antioxidants on Oxidative Stress in Rats Exposed to the 950 MHz Electromagnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.K.; Gharib, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies have linked cell phone radiation to health problems such as headaches, high blood pressure, cancer and more. There is a latency period for most diseases and it may take years and more studies before the required weight of evidence is established. But the effects are cumulative and precautions should be taken now before it is too late. The aim of the present study was to investigate if supplementation with antioxidants would protect heart and liver tissues from harmful radiation emitted by cell phone. Thirty two male albino rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: I- Control, II- Antioxidants treated group, III- 950 MHz EMR, IV- 950 MHz EMR + antioxidants. A 950 MHz EMR radiation (217-Hz pulse rate, 2-W maximum peak power, SAR Specific Absorption Rate 1 .6 W/Kg) was applied to groups III and IV 60 min/day, for 30 days using an experimental exposure device. Antioxidants supplement (Vitamins A, E and C + Se) was administered to rats daily, by gavages, during the period of exposure to EMR. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were used as markers of oxidative damage. Catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activities were studied to evaluate the changes of antioxidant status. Biochemical analysis performed at the end of EMR exposure showed that supplementation with antioxidants has significantly attenuated EMR-induced oxidative stress signified by a decrease in the amount of MDA and an increase the activity of CAT and GSHPx in heart and liver tissues. Amelioration of oxidative damage was substantiated by significant amelioration in the activity of serum enzymes creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). According to the results obtained in the present study, it could be concluded that antioxidants supplementation may protect from mobile phone-induced oxidative damage in heart and liver tissues

  7. Antioxidant, Liver Protective and Angiotensin I-converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Old Laying Hen Hydrolysate in Crab Meat Analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Keun Jin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative activities of Crab meat analogue prepared with protein hydrolysates obtained from mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM from spent laying hens. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH radical-scavenging activity was increased by adding MDCM hydrolysates during storage, and activity correlated with the concentration of DPPH added up to 6 weeks of storage. Hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity was increased in all analogues containing MDCM hydrolysates. At 0 days of storage, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-inhibitory activity was increased by the addition of MDCM hydrolysates. Activity did not correlate after 6 weeks of storage, in which ACE-inhibitory activity was increased with low concentrations of MDCM hydrolysates, but no ACE-inhibitory activity was observed at higher concentrations. The liver-protecting activity of crab meat analogue was shown to be around 60% of the positive control; however, it was not significantly different among the samples during storage. These results support the use of MDCM as a source of health-promoting constituents in crab meat analogue.

  8. Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Protein Hydrolysate from Muscle of Barbel (Barbus callensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaad Sila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities of barbel muscle protein hydrolysate prepared with Alcalase. The barbel muscle protein hydrolysate displayed a high ACE inhibitory activity (CI50=0.92 mg/mL. The antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysate at different concentrations were evaluated using various in vitro antioxidant assays, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical method and reducing power assay. The barbel muscle protein hydrolysate exhibited an important radical scavenging effect and reducing power. These results obtained by in vitro systems obviously established the antioxidant potency of barbel hydrolysate to donate electron or hydrogen atom to reduce the free radical. Furthermore, these bioactive substances can be exploited into functional foods or used as source of nutraceuticals.

  9. Characterization of a novel annexin gene from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv CRI 35) and antioxidative role of its recombinant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lu; Duan, Jin; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Heng-Mu; Duan, Ming-Xing; Liu, Jin-Yuan

    2011-05-01

    Plant annexins represent a multigene family involved in cellular elongation and development. A cDNA encoding a novel annexin was isolated from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cDNA library and designated GhAnx1. This gene encodes a 316 amino acid protein with a theoretical molecular mass of 36.06 kDa and a theoretical pI of 6.19. At the amino acid level, it shares high sequence similarity and has evolutionary relationships with annexins from higher plants. The purified recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli was used to investigate its physicochemical properties. Circular dichroism spectrum analyses showed a positive peak rising to the maximum at 196 nm and a broad negative band rounding 215 nm, suggesting that the GhAnx1 protein was prominently α-helical. The fluorescence measurements indicated that it could bind to Ca(2+) in vitro. These results demonstrated that GhAnx1 was a typical annexin protein in cotton. A bioassay experiment was conducted to analyze its potential function and showed that E. coli cells expressing GhAnx1 were protected from tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBH) stress, suggesting that it had a potential antioxidative role. Northern blot analyses revealed that GhAnx1 was highly expressed in fibers, especially during the elongation stage, suggesting that it might be important for fiber elongation. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Antioxidant, anti-diabetic and renal protective properties of Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanna, Naveen; Naika, Mahadev; Khanum, Farhath; Kaul, Vijay K

    2013-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni has been used for the treatment of diabetes in, for example, Brazil, although a positive effect on antidiabetic and its complications has not been unequivocally demonstrated. This herb also has numerous therapeutic properties which have been proven safe and effective over hundreds of years. Streptozotocin is a potential source of oxidative stress that induces genotoxicity. We studied the effects of stevia leaves and its extracted polyphenols and fiber on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. We hypothesize that supplementation of polyphenols extract from stevia to the diet causes a reduction in diabetes and its complications. Eighty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups; a standard control diet was supplemented with either stevia whole leaves powder (4.0%) or polyphenols or fiber extracted from stevia separately and fed for one month. Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight, i.p) was injected to the diabetic groups on the 31st day. Several indices were analyzed to assess the modulation of the streptozotocin induced oxidative stress, toxicity and blood glucose levels by stevia. The results showed a reduction of blood glucose, ALT and AST, and increment of insulin level in the stevia whole leaves powder and extracted polyphenols fed rats compared to control diabetic group. Its feeding also reduced the MDA concentration in liver and improved its antioxidant status through antioxidant enzymes. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were improved by their feeding. Streptozotocin was also found to induce kidney damage as evidenced by decreased glomerular filtration rate; this change was however alleviated in the stevia leaves and extracted polyphenol fed groups. The results suggested that stevia leaves do have a significant role in alleviating liver and kidney damage in the STZ-diabetic rats besides its hypoglycemic effect. It might be adequate to conclude that stevia leaves could protect rats against streptozotocin induced diabetes

  11. Antioxidant activities of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) protein hydrolysates and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arise, Abimbola K; Alashi, Adeola M; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin A; Aluko, Rotimi E; Amonsou, Eric O

    2016-05-18

    In this study, the bambara protein isolate (BPI) was digested with three proteases (alcalase, trypsin and pepsin), to produce bambara protein hydrolysates (BPHs). These hydrolysates were passed through ultrafiltration membranes to obtain peptide fractions of different sizes (3 kDa. This is in agreement with the result obtained for the ferric reducing power, metal chelating and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities where higher molecular weight peptides exhibited better activity (p alcalase and trypsin hydrolysates (82%). These findings show the potential use of BPHs and their peptide fraction as antioxidants in reducing food spoilage or management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders.

  12. Protein hydrolysate from turkey meat and optimization of its antioxidant potential by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daoying; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this research was to optimize antioxidant potential of hydrolyzed protein using Flavourzyme assisted hydrolysis of turkey meat and compare the antioxidant activity of hydrolysates from turkey meat, chicken, and beef. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimal Flavourzyme hydrolysis conditions for preparation of hydrolysate from turkey meat, which were at a temperature of 50.09°C, pH of 5.42, and processing time of 1.08 hours. For comparison, antioxidant activities of the hydrolysate from turkey meat, chicken, and beef under the optimum conditions were determined using reducing power, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation, hydroxyl radical, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity of turkey meat and chicken meat was significantly higher than that of beef (P turkey meat, indicating the potential use of it as a functional food ingredient with shelf-life extension purposes.

  13. Evaluation of Antioxidant and DNA Damage Protection Activity of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Desmostachya bipinnata L. Stapf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendarrao Golla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmostachya bipinnata Stapf (Poaceae/Gramineae is an official drug of ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Various parts of this plant were used extensively in traditional and folklore medicine to cure various human ailments. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and DNA damage protection activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Desmostachya bipinnata both in vitro and in vivo, to provide scientific basis for traditional usage of this plant. The extract showed significant antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 264.18±3.47 μg/mL in H2O2 scavenging assay and prevented the oxidative damage to DNA in presence of DNA damaging agent (Fenton’s reagent at a concentration of 50 μg/mL. Also, the presence of extract protected yeast cells in a dose-dependent manner against DNA damaging agent (Hydroxyurea in spot assay. Moreover, the presence of extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity in vivo by protecting yeast cells against oxidative stressing agent (H2O2. Altogether, the results of current study revealed that Desmostachya bipinnata is a potential source of antioxidants and lends pharmacological credence to the ethnomedical use of this plant in traditional system of medicine, justifying its therapeutic application for free-radical-induced diseases.

  14. Mechanical Stress and Antioxidant Protection in the Retina of Hindlimb Suspended Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Aziza; Theriot, Corey A.; Alway, Stephen E.; Zanello, Susana B.

    2012-01-01

    It has been postulated that hindlimb suspension (HS) causes a cephalad fluid shift in quadrupeds similar to that occurring to humans in microgravity. Therefore, HS may provide a suitable animal model in which to recapitulate the ocular changes observed in the human Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. This work reports preliminary results from a tissue sharing project using 34 week-old Brown Norway rats. Two different experiments compared normal posture controls and HS rats for 2 weeks and rats exposed to HS for 2 weeks but allowed to recover in normal posture for 2 additional weeks. The effects of two nutritional countermeasures, green tea extract (GT) and plant polyphenol resveratrol (Rv), were also evaluated. Green tea contains the antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). qPCR gene expression analysis of selected targets was performed on RNA from isolated retinas, and histologic analysis was done on one fixed eye per rat. The transcription factor early growth response protein 1 (Egr1) was upregulated almost 2-fold in HS retinas relative to controls (P = 0.059), and its expression returned to control levels after 2 weeks of recovery in normal posture (P = 0.023). HS-induced upregulation of Egr1 was attenuated (but not significantly) in retinas from rats fed an antioxidant rich (GT extract) diet. In rats fed the GT-enriched diet, antioxidant enzymes were induced, evidenced by the upregulation of the gene heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) (P = 0.042) and the gene superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2) (P = 0.0001). Egr1 is a stretch-activated transcription factor, and the Egr1 mechanosensitive response to HS may have been caused by a change in the translaminal pressure and/or mechanical deformation of the eye globe. The observed histologic measurements of the various retinal layers in the HS rats were lower in value than those of the control animal (n = 1), however insufficient data were available for statistical analysis. Aquaporin 4, a water

  15. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Contents of Ajwa Date and Their Effect on Lipo-Protein Profile

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    Sumaira Khalid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Dates (Phoenix dactylifera L. are well knownasbothafood and economic crop formany years worldwidedue to its substantial nutritional, health,and economic benefits besides its appeal and environmental value.However, although Datepitsare rich in phenolic and antioxidant contents,they are generally neglected and treated asawaste product. Ethnobotanicalrecords indicatethepotential of Ajwadates pits and fleshhaving phenolics, antioxidants,and some other nutrients. Objective: The purpose of the study wasto extract the phenolic contents andto determinethe antioxidant scavenging activity of Ajwa date flesh and pits in comparison to local date varieties in three different solvents with three different concentrations,and to observe their effect on the high lipo-protein profile of albino mice.Materials and Methods:Three solvents viz. Methanol, Ethanol,and Acetonewereused at concentrationsof 70%, 80%,and 90%to make nutraceutical extracts.These extracts were characterized for numerous nutritional parameters.Correlationofflavonoid with phenolic, DPPH, ABTS,and other parameters were studied. The above extracted Ajwa flesh and pits extracts were then administrated to high cholesterol induced albino mice under three different treatments (10%, 20% and 30% in four different groups where one group was studied as controlResults:Pits appeared to be the richest source for total phenolsand total flavonoid contents. Such extracts from pits were high in DPPH and ABTS activity compared to that of the flesh in all date cultivars, which were thehighest in Ajwa pits (3932.3 mg GAE/100g, 2956.2 mg QEC/100g, 96.3% and 86.2%respectively. In the comparative analysis of solvents, 80% ethanol extractedthehighest antioxidant activity for both DPPH and ABTS assay in all date varieties and their parts. Behaviourof solvent for polyphenol (Total phenols and total flavonoidsextraction was highly variable so that a single solvent cannot be recommendedfor extraction. Highly

  16. Antioxidant activity of pea protein hydrolysates produced by batch fermentation with lactic acid bacteria

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    Stanisavljević Nemanja S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine Lactobacillus strains known for surface proteinase activity were chosen from our collection and tested for their ability to grow in pea seed protein-based medium, and to hydrolyze purified pea proteins in order to produce peptides with antioxidant (AO activity. Two strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 and Lactobacillus zeae LMG17315, exhibited strong proteolytic activity against pea proteins. The AO activity of the pea hydrolysate fraction, MW <10 kDa, obtained by the fermentation of purified pea proteins with Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10, was tested by standard spectrophotometric assays (DPPH, ABTS, Fe3+-reducing capacity and the recently developed direct current (DC polarographic assay. The low molecular weight fraction of the obtained hydrolysate was separated using ion exchange chromatography, while the AO activity of eluted fractions was determined by means of a sensitive DC polarographic assay without previous concentration of samples. Results revealed that the fraction present in low abundance that contained basic peptides possessed the highest antioxidant activity. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 should be further investigated as a candidate strain for large-scale production of bioactive peptides from legume proteins. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173005 i br. 173026

  17. Response Surface Optimisation for the Production of Antioxidant Hydrolysates from Stone Fish Protein Using Bromelain

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    Shehu Muhammad Auwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein hydrolysates produced from different food sources exhibit therapeutic potential and can be used in the management of chronic diseases. This study was targeted to optimise the conditions for the hydrolysis of stone fish protein to produce antioxidant hydrolysates using central composite design (CCD by response surface methodology (RSM. The stone fish protein was hydrolysed under the optimum predicted conditions defined by pH (6.5, temperature (54°C, E/S ratio (1.5%, and hydrolysis time (360 min. The hydrolysates were then evaluated for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH• scavenging activity and ferrous ion- (Fe2+- chelating activity. Results validation showed no significant difference between the experimental values of DPPH• scavenging activity (48.94% and Fe2+-chelating activity (25.12% obtained at 54.62% degree of hydrolysis (DH compared to their corresponding predicted values of 49.79% and 24.08% at 53.08% DH, respectively. The hydrolysates demonstrated non-Newtonian behavior (n<1 with stronger shear-thinning effect and higher viscosities at increasing concentration. Thus, RSM can be considered as a promising strategy to optimise the production of stone fish protein hydrolysates containing antioxidant peptides. It is hoped that this finding will enhance the potential of stone fish protein hydrolysates (SHs as therapeutic bioactive ingredient in functional foods development.

  18. Protective effect of antioxidants on DNA damage in leukocytes from X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Desirèe P; Donida, Bruna; da Rosa, Helen T; Manini, Paula R; Moura, Dinara J; Saffi, Jenifer; Deon, Marion; Mescka, Caroline P; Coelho, Daniella M; Jardim, Laura B; Vargas, Carmen R

    2015-06-01

    Toxic metabolites accumulation and oxidative stress have been associated to the pathophysiology of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), an inborn error of peroxisome metabolism. Parameters of oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in X-ALD patients were already described in literature; however, DNA injuries were not studied yet. Considering that, the aims were to investigate DNA damage by comet assay in heterozygotes and symptomatic X-ALD patients, to look for associations between DNA damage and lipid peroxidation as measured by urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane; and to evaluate the in vitro effect of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), trolox (TRO) and rosuvastatin (RSV) on DNA damage in leukocytes from symptomatic patients. Symptomatic patients presented higher DNA damage levels than those found in heterozygotes and controls; heterozygotes and controls showed similar results. In order to investigate the in vitro antioxidant effect on DNA damage, whole blood cells from symptomatic patients were incubated with NAC (1 and 2.5mM), TRO (25 and 75 μM) and RSV (0.5, 2 and 5 μM) before DNA damage analysis. NAC, TRO and RSV, at all tested concentrations, were all capable to reduce DNA damage in symptomatic X-ALD patients until control levels. Finally, DNA damage correlated with urinary isoprostanes and plasmatic levels of TBA-RS and DCFH-DA, allowing to hypothesize that DNA damage might be induced by lipid peroxidation in symptomatic patients. The present work yields experimental evidence that NAC, TRO and RSV reduce the in vitro DNA injury in symptomatic X-ALD patients, what may suggest that the administration of these antioxidants might be considered as an adjuvant therapy for X-ALD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Conversion of biliverdin to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase contributes to endothelial cell protection by heme oxygenase-1-evidence for direct and indirect antioxidant actions of bilirubin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Thomas; Hortmann, Marcus; Oelze, Matthias; Opitz, Benjamin; Steven, Sebastian; Schell, Richard; Knorr, Maike; Karbach, Susanne; Schuhmacher, Swenja; Wenzel, Philip; Münzel, Thomas; Daiber, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is highly protective in various pathophysiological states such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. HO-1-derived bilirubin is an efficient scavenger of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). It remains to determine whether conversion of biliverdin to bilirubin is an essential step for HO-1-conferred protection of endothelial cells. RONS scavenging activities of biliverdin versus bilirubin were assessed by different RONS generating systems and detection techniques. We also silenced the biliverdin reductase (BVR) or HO-1 gene in cultured primary human endothelial cells (HUVECs) and measured the effect on RONS formation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, effects of bilirubin and biliverdin on expression of GTP-cyclohydrolase were assessed in an endothelial cell line (EA.hy 926). HO-1- and BVR-silenced cells have increased levels of oxidative stress and bilirubin but not biliverdin increased expression of the protective protein GTP-cyclohydrolase. Moreover, protection by hemin-induced HO-1 expression or biliverdin-triggered bilirubin formation was impaired upon silencing of the HO-1 or BVR gene, respectively. Since bilirubin significantly scavenged RONS but chronic treatment was even more protective our observations support direct and indirect antioxidant properties of BVR and bilirubin and an important role for BVR and bilirubin in HO-1 conferred protection of endothelial cells.

  20. Tat-antioxidant 1 protects against stress-induced hippocampal HT-22 cells death and attenuate ischaemic insult in animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Mi; Hwang, In Koo; Yoo, Dae Young; Eum, Won Sik; Kim, Dae Won; Shin, Min Jea; Ahn, Eun Hee; Jo, Hyo Sang; Ryu, Eun Ji; Yong, Ji In; Cho, Sung-Woo; Kwon, Oh-Shin; Lee, Keun Wook; Cho, Yoon Shin; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Choi, Soo Young

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) are responsible for various neuronal diseases. Antioxidant 1 (Atox1) regulates copper homoeostasis and promotes cellular antioxidant defence against toxins generated by ROS. The roles of Atox1 protein in ischaemia, however, remain unclear. In this study, we generated a protein transduction domain fused Tat-Atox1 and examined the roles of Tat-Atox1 in oxidative stress-induced hippocampal HT-22 cell death and an ischaemic injury animal model. Tat-Atox1 effectively transduced into HT-22 cells and it protected cells against the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced toxicity including increasing of ROS levels and DNA fragmentation. At the same time, Tat-Atox1 regulated cellular survival signalling such as p53, Bad/Bcl-2, Akt and mitogen-activate protein kinases (MAPKs). In the animal ischaemia model, transduced Tat-Atox1 protected against neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region. In addition, Tat-Atox1 significantly decreased the activation of astrocytes and microglia as well as lipid peroxidation in the CA1 region after ischaemic insult. Taken together, these results indicate that transduced Tat-Atox1 protects against oxidative stress-induced HT-22 cell death and against neuronal damage in animal ischaemia model. Therefore, we suggest that Tat-Atox1 has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced ischaemic damage. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  1. How Egg Case Proteins Can Protect Cuttlefish Offspring?

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    Valérie Cornet

    Full Text Available Sepia officinalis egg protection is ensured by a complex capsule produced by the female accessory genital glands and the ink bag. Our study is focused on the proteins constituting the main egg case. De novo transcriptomes from female genital glands provided essential databases for protein identification. A proteomic approach in SDS-PAGE coupled with MS unveiled a new egg case protein family: SepECPs, for Sepia officinalis Egg Case Proteins. N-glycosylation was demonstrated by PAS staining SDS-PAGE gels. These glycoproteins are mainly produced in the main nidamental glands. SepECPs share high sequence homology, especially in the signal peptide and the three cysteine-rich domains. SepECPs have a high number of cysteines, with conserved motifs involved in 3D-structure. SDS-PAGE showed that SepECPs could form dimers; this result was confirmed by TEM observations, which also revealed a protein network. This network is similar to the capsule network, and it associates these structural proteins with polysaccharides, melanin and bacteria to form a tight mesh. Its hardness and elasticity provide physical protection to the embryo. In addition, SepECPs also have bacteriostatic antimicrobial activity on GRAM- bacteria. By observing the SepECP / Vibrio aestuarianus complex in SEM, we demonstrated the ability of these proteins to agglomerate bacteria and thus inhibit their growth. These original proteins identified from the outer egg case ensure the survival of the species by providing physical and chemical protection to the embryos released in the environment without any maternal protection.

  2. Enrichment of antioxidants in black garlic juice using macroporous resins and their protective effects on oxidation-damaged human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying; Zhao, Mouming; Yang, Kun; Lin, Lianzhu; Wang, Yong

    2017-08-15

    The black garlic juice is popular for its nutritive value. Enrichment of antioxidants is needed to make black garlic extract an effective functional ingredient. Five macroporous resins were evaluated for their capacity in adsorbing antioxidants in black garlic juice. XAD-16 resin was chosen for further study due to its high adsorption and desorption ratios. Pseudo-second-order kinetics (q e =625μmol Trolox equiv/g dry resin, k 2 =0.0001463) and Freundlich isotherm models (ΔH=-10.1547kJ/mol) were suitable for describing the whole exothermic and physical adsorption processes of the antioxidants from black garlic juice on XAD-16 resin. The antioxidants and phenolics were mostly enriched in 40% ethanol fraction by XAD-16 resin column chromatography. The black garlic extract and its fractions could protect erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis in dose-dependent manners. The pretreatment of AAPH-damaged erythrocytes with 40% ethanol fractions (2.5mg/mL) significantly decreased the hemolysis ratios from 53.58% to 3.79%. The 40% ethanol fraction possessing strong intracellular antioxidant activity could be used as a functional food ingredient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phytochemicals enhance antioxidant enzyme expression to protect against NSAID-induced oxidative damage of the gastrointestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2017-06-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa provides the first protective barrier for digested food and xenobiotics, which are easily attacked by toxic substances. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including aspirin, diclofenac, indomethacin, and ketoprofen, are widely used in clinical medicine, but these drugs may cause oxidative stress, leading to GI damage such as ulcers. Lansoprazol, omeprazole, and other clinical drugs are widely used to treat duodenal and gastric ulcers and have been shown to have multiple biological functions, such as antioxidant activity and the ability to upregulate antioxidant enzymes in vivo. Therefore, the reduction of oxidative stress may be an effective curative strategy for preventing and treating nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced ulcers of the GI mucosa. Phytochemicals, such as dietary phenolic compounds, phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavonoids, gingerols, carotenes, and organosulfur, are common antioxidants in fruits, vegetables, and beverages. A large amount of evidence has demonstrated that natural phytochemicals possess bioactivity and potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial benefits, and they can prevent digestive disease processes. In this review, we summarize the literature on phytochemicals with biological effects, such as angiogenic, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antiulceration effects, and their related mechanisms are also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Transduction with the antioxidant enzyme catalase protects human T cells against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takashi; Mimura, Kousaku; Johansson, C Christian; Hanson, Mikael G; Mougiakakos, Dimitrios; Larsson, Charlotte; Martins da Palma, Telma; Sakurai, Daiju; Norell, Håkan; Li, Mingli; Nishimura, Michael I; Kiessling, Rolf

    2008-12-15

    Patients with diseases characterized by chronic inflammation, caused by infection or cancer, have T cells and NK cells with impaired function. The underlying molecular mechanisms are diverse, but one of the major mediators in this immune suppression is oxidative stress caused by activated monocytes, granulocytes, or myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Reactive oxygen species can seriously hamper the efficacy of active immunotherapy and adoptive transfer of T and NK cells into patients. In this study, we have evaluated whether enhanced expression of the antioxidant enzyme catalase in human T cells can protect them against reactive oxygen species. Human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells retrovirally transduced with the catalase gene had increased intracellular expression and activity of catalase. Catalase transduction made CD4(+) T cells less sensitive to H(2)O(2)-induced loss-of-function, measured by their cytokine production and ability to expand in vitro following anti-CD3 stimulation. It also enhanced the resistance to oxidative stress-induced cell death after coculture with activated granulocytes, exposure to the oxidized lipid 4-hydroxynonenal, or H(2)O(2). Expression of catalase by CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells saved cells from cell death and improved their capacity to recognize CMV peptide-loaded target cells when exposed to H(2)O(2). These findings indicate that catalase-transduced T cells potentially are more efficacious for the immunotherapy of patients with advanced cancer or chronic viral infections.

  5. Antioxidant and DNA damage protecting potentials of polysaccharide extracted from Phellinus baumii using a delignification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qun-Li; Zhang, Zuo-Fa; Lv, Guo-Ying; Cai, Wei-Ming; Cheng, Jun-Wen; Wang, Jian-Gong; Fan, Lei-Fa

    2016-11-05

    A delignification method was employed to extract the polysaccharide from the fruiting body of Phellinus baumii. The three parameters, processing temperature, ratio of water to raw material and amount of acetic acid every time were optimized using the Box-Behnken design. As a result, the optimal extraction conditions were: processing temperature 70.3°C, ratio of water to raw material of 34.7mL/g and amount of acetic acid of 0.32mL every time. Under these conditions, the highest yield of polysaccharide (10.28%) was obtained. The main fraction (PPB-2) purified from PPB was composed of fucose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose and mannose, while glucose was the predominant monosaccharide. PPB-2 exhibited noticeable antioxidant activity and strong protection against oxidative DNA damage. These findings implied that acid-chlorite delignification was a superior method to extract the polysaccharide from P. baumii and PPB-2 may be useful for cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Potent antioxidative and UVB protective effect of water extract of Eclipta prostrata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chin-Feng; Huang, Wen-Ying; Guo, Hong-Yi; Wang, Bo Rong

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress, including Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced skin damage, is involved in numerous diseases. This study demonstrates that water extract of Eclipta prostrata L. (WEP) has a potent effect in scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide radicals, and chelating ferrous ion, exhibiting IC50 values of 0.23 mg/mL, 0.48 mg/mL, and 1.25 mg/mL, respectively. The WEP total phenol content was 176.45 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g sample. Chlorogenic acid, a component of the plant's active ingredients, was determined by HPLC and antioxidative assay. However, no caffeic acid, stigmasterol, or wedelolactone was present in WEP. WEP absorbs both UVA and UVB irradiation, and furthermore, the extract shows a dose-dependent response in the protection of HaCaT human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts 3T3 cells against UVB-induced cytotoxicity, which may result from a synergistic effect between chlorogenic acid and other active components present in WEP.

  7. Resveratrol, a Natural Antioxidant, Has a Protective Effect on Liver Injury Induced by Inorganic Arsenic Exposure

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    Zhigang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (Rev can ameliorate cytotoxic chemotherapy-induced toxicity and oxidative stress. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3 is a known cytotoxic environmental toxicant and a potent chemotherapeutic agent. However, the mechanisms by which resveratrol protects the liver against the cytotoxic effects of As2O3 are not known. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the mechanisms involved in the action of resveratrol using a cat model in which hepatotoxicity was induced by means of As2O3 treatment. We found that pretreatment with resveratrol, administered using a clinically comparable dose regimen, reversed changes in As2O3-induced morphological and liver parameters and resulted in a significant improvement in hepatic function. Resveratrol treatment also improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes and attenuated As2O3-induced increases in reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde production. In addition, resveratrol attenuated the As2O3-induced reduction in the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione and the retention of arsenic in liver tissue. These findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms whereby resveratrol modulates As2O3-induced changes in liver function and tissue morphology. They also provide a stronger rationale for the clinical utilization of resveratrol for the reduction of As2O3-induced hepatotoxicity.

  8. Assessment of protective and anti-oxidant properties of Tribulus terrestris fruits against testicular toxicity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Hammouda, Ashraf Abd El-Khalik

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study was carried out to assess the protective and anti-oxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits (METT) against sodium valproate (SVP)-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty mature male rats were randomly divided into five equal groups (n = 10). Group 1 was used normal (negative) control, and the other four groups were intoxicated with SVP (500 mg/kg–1, orally) during the last week of the experiment. Group 2 was kept intoxicated (positive) control, and Groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally pre-treated with METT in daily doses 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/kg–1 for 60 days, respectively. Weights of sexual organs, serum testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, semen picture, testicular anti-oxidant capacity and histopathology of testes were the parameters used in this study. Results: Oral pre-treatment with METT significantly increased weights of testes and seminal vesicles; serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels and sperm motility, count and viability in SVP-intoxicated rats. METT enhanced the activity of testicular anti-oxidant enzymes and partially alleviated degenerative changes induced by SVP in testes. Conclusion: The pre-treatment with METT has protective and anti-oxidant effects in SVP-intoxicated rats. Mechanisms of this protective effect against testicular toxicity may be due to the increased release of testosterone, FSH and LH and the enhanced tissue anti-oxidant capacity. These results affirm the traditional use of T. terrestris fruits as an aphrodisiac for treating male sexual impotency and erectile dysfunction in patients. The study recommends that T. terrestris fruits may be beneficial for male patients suffering from infertility. PMID:26401358

  9. Assessment of protective and anti-oxidant properties of Tribulus terrestris fruits against testicular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Hammouda, Ashraf Abd El-Khalik

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the protective and anti-oxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits (METT) against sodium valproate (SVP)-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Fifty mature male rats were randomly divided into five equal groups (n = 10). Group 1 was used normal (negative) control, and the other four groups were intoxicated with SVP (500 mg/kg(-1), orally) during the last week of the experiment. Group 2 was kept intoxicated (positive) control, and Groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally pre-treated with METT in daily doses 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/kg(-1) for 60 days, respectively. Weights of sexual organs, serum testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, semen picture, testicular anti-oxidant capacity and histopathology of testes were the parameters used in this study. Oral pre-treatment with METT significantly increased weights of testes and seminal vesicles; serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels and sperm motility, count and viability in SVP-intoxicated rats. METT enhanced the activity of testicular anti-oxidant enzymes and partially alleviated degenerative changes induced by SVP in testes. The pre-treatment with METT has protective and anti-oxidant effects in SVP-intoxicated rats. Mechanisms of this protective effect against testicular toxicity may be due to the increased release of testosterone, FSH and LH and the enhanced tissue anti-oxidant capacity. These results affirm the traditional use of T. terrestris fruits as an aphrodisiac for treating male sexual impotency and erectile dysfunction in patients. The study recommends that T. terrestris fruits may be beneficial for male patients suffering from infertility.

  10. ABC-F Proteins Mediate Antibiotic Resistance through Ribosomal Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Liam K R; Edwards, Thomas A; O'Neill, Alex J

    2016-03-22

    Members of the ABC-F subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins mediate resistance to a broad array of clinically important antibiotic classes that target the ribosome of Gram-positive pathogens. The mechanism by which these proteins act has been a subject of long-standing controversy, with two competing hypotheses each having gained considerable support: antibiotic efflux versus ribosomal protection. Here, we report on studies employing a combination of bacteriological and biochemical techniques to unravel the mechanism of resistance of these proteins, and provide several lines of evidence that together offer clear support to the ribosomal protection hypothesis. Of particular note, we show that addition of purified ABC-F proteins to anin vitrotranslation assay prompts dose-dependent rescue of translation, and demonstrate that such proteins are capable of displacing antibiotic from the ribosomein vitro To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first direct evidence that ABC-F proteins mediate antibiotic resistance through ribosomal protection.IMPORTANCEAntimicrobial resistance ranks among the greatest threats currently facing human health. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which microorganisms resist the effect of antibiotics is central to understanding the biology of this phenomenon and has the potential to inform the development of new drugs capable of blocking or circumventing resistance. Members of the ABC-F family, which includelsa(A),msr(A),optr(A), andvga(A), collectively yield resistance to a broader range of clinically significant antibiotic classes than any other family of resistance determinants, although their mechanism of action has been controversial since their discovery 25 years ago. Here we present the first direct evidence that proteins of the ABC-F family act to protect the bacterial ribosome from antibiotic-mediated inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Sharkey et al.

  11. Protective Effects of Essential Oils as Natural Antioxidants against Hepatotoxicity Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheweita, Salah A; El-Hosseiny, Lobna S; Nashashibi, Munther A

    2016-01-01

    Clinical application of cyclophosphamide (CP) as an anticancer drug is often limited due to its toxicity. CP is metabolized mainly in the liver by cytochrome P450 system into acrolein which is the proximate toxic metabolite. Many different natural antioxidants were found to alleviate the toxic effects of various toxic agents via different mechanisms. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the role of essential oils extracted from fennel, cumin and clove as natural antioxidants in the alleviation of hepatotoxicity induced by CP through assessment of hepatotoxicity biomarkers (AST, ALT, ALP), histopathology of liver tissues as well as other biochemical parameters involved in the metabolism of CP. The data of the present study showed that treatment of male mice with cyclophosphamide (2.5 mg/Kg BW) as repeated dose for 28 consecutive days was found to induce hepatotoxicity through the elevation in the activities of AST, ALT, and ALP. Combined administration of any of these oils with CP to mice partially normalized the altered hepatic biochemical markers caused by CP, whereas administration of fennel, clove or cumin essential oils alone couldn't change liver function indices. Moreover, CP caused histological changes in livers of mice including swelling and dilation in sinusoidal space, inflammation in portal tract and hepatocytes, as well as, hyperplasia in Kuppfer cells. However, co-administration of any of the essential oils with CP alleviated to some extent the changes caused by CP but not as the normal liver. CP was also found to induce free radical levels (measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and inhibited the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase as well as activities and protein expressions of both glutathione S-transferase (GSTπ) and glutathione peroxidase. Essential oils restored changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GR, GST, and GPx) caused by CP to their normal levels compared

  12. ABC proteins protect the human body and maintain optimal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2011-01-01

    Human MDR1, a multi-drug transporter gene, was isolated as the first of the eukaryote ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) proteins from a multidrug-resistant carcinoma cell line in 1986. To date, over 25 years, many ABC proteins have been found to play important physiological roles by transporting hydrophobic compounds. Defects in their functions cause various diseases, indicating that endogenous hydrophobic compounds, as well as water-soluble compounds, are properly transported by transmembrane proteins. MDR1 transports a large number of structurally unrelated drugs and is involved in their pharmacokinetics, and thus is a key factor in drug interaction. ABCA1, an ABC protein, eliminates excess cholesterol in peripheral cells by generating HDL. Because ABCA1 is a key molecule in cholesterol homeostasis, its function and expression are highly regulated. Eukaryote ABC proteins function on the body surface facing the outside and in organ pathways to adapt to the extracellular environment and protect the body to maintain optimal health.

  13. Natural antioxidant betanin protects rats from paraquat-induced acute lung injury interstitial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junyan; Ma, Deshun; Zhang, Miao; Yang, Xuelian; Tan, Dehong

    2015-01-01

    The effect of betanin on a rat paraquat-induced acute lung injury (ALI) model was investigated. Paraquat was injected intraperitoneally at a single dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, and betanin (25 and 100 mg/kg/d) was orally administered 3 days before and 2 days after paraquat administration. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last betanin dosage, and lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected. In rats treated only with paraquat, extensive lung injury characteristic of ALI was observed, including histological changes, elevation of lung : body weight ratio, increased lung permeability, increased lung neutrophilia infiltration, increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced claudin-4 and zonula occluden-1 protein levels, increased BALF interleukin (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels, reduced BALF IL-10 levels, and increased lung nuclear factor kappa (NF-κB) activity. In rats treated with betanin, paraquat-induced ALI was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results indicate that betanin attenuates paraquat-induced ALI possibly via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Thus, the potential for using betanin as an auxilliary therapy for ALI should be explored further.

  14. Antioxidative Effect of Seaweed Extracts in Chilled Storage of Minced Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus): Effect on Lipid and Protein Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhani, Aria; Farvin, K. H Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antioxidant activity of absolute ethanol, 50 % ethanol and water extracts of two species of seaweeds namely, Fucus serratus and Polysiphonia fucoides were evaluated for their ability to retard lipid and protein oxidation in minced mackerel. Mackerel mince added with 0.5 g...... mackerel. Water extract with lowest phenolic content showed no antioxidant effect in minced mackerel. In conclusion, the 50 % ethanolic extracts of P. fucoides can be a potential source of natural antioxidants, as these extracts have antioxidant activities similar to synthetic antioxidants such as BHT....../kg of extracts was prepared. For comparison, BHT at 0.2 g/kg and a control with no added extracts were also prepared. The samples were stored at 5 °C for 8 days, and sampling was done at time 0, 1, 2, 4, 5 and 8 days. The 50 % ethanolic extracts of P. fucoides were found to be very effective in retarding lipid...

  15. Antioxidant Potential and DNA Damage Protection by the Slate Grey Saddle Mushroom, Helvella lacunosa (Ascomycetes), from Kashmir Himalaya (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, Nowsheen; Kamili, Azra N; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Masoodi, F A; Parray, Javid A

    2016-01-01

    This study pertains to the radical scavenging potential of and DNA protection by Helvella lacunosa, an edible mushroom from Kashmir Himalaya (India). Different solvents, on the basis of their polarities, were used to extract all solvent-soluble bioactive compounds. Seven different antioxidant methods were also used to determine extensive radical scavenging activity. The mushroom ethanol extract and butanol extract showed effective scavenging activity of radicals at 95% and 89%, respectively. At 800 µg/mg, the ethanol extract was potent enough to protect DNA from degradation by hydroxyl radicals. It is evident from these findings that the presence of antioxidant substances signifies the use of H. lacunosa as food in the mountainous valleys of the Himalayan region.

  16. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the egg-yolk protein by-product (YP hydrolysates were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, Fe2+chelating effect and ferric reducing power (FRAP. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties of obtained hydrolysates against Bacillus species were studied. The degrees (DHs of hydrolysis for 4h hydrolysates were: 19.1%, 13.5% and 13.0%, for pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. Pepsin was the most effective in producing the free amino groups (1410.3 μmolGly/g. The RP-HPLC profiles of the protein hydrolysates showed differences in the hydrophobicity of the generated peptides.Trypsin hydrolysate obtained after 4h reaction demonstrated the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.85 µmol Troloxeq/mg. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained after 4h reaction exhibited 4 times higher ferric reducing capacity than those treated bypepsin. The hydrolysis products obtained from YP exhibited significant chelating activity. The 4h trypsin hydrolysate exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis B3; B. cereus B512; B. cereus B 3p and B. laterosporum B6.

  17. Fish protein hydrolysates: proximate composition, amino acid composition, antioxidant activities and applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Dinesh Kumar, B; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T

    2012-12-15

    The fish processing industry produces more than 60% by-products as waste, which includes skin, head, viscera, trimmings, liver, frames, bones, and roes. These by-product wastes contain good amount of protein rich material that are normally processed into low market-value products, such as animal feed, fish meal and fertilizer. In view of utilizing these fish industry wastes, and for increasing the value to several underutilised fish species, protein hydrolysates from fish proteins are being prepared by several researchers all over the world. Fish protein hydrolysates are breakdown products of enzymatic conversion of fish proteins into smaller peptides, which normally contain 2-20 amino acids. In recent years, fish protein hydrolysates have attracted much attention of food biotechnologists due to the availability of large quantities of raw material for the process, and presence of high protein content with good amino acid balance and bioactive peptides (antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Improvement of antioxidant properties of egg white protein enzymatic hydrolysates by membrane ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Jelena R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of bioactive peptides from egg white proteins (EWPs and their separation are emerging areas with many new applications. The objective of this study was to compare antioxidant activity of three distinct EWP hydrolysates and their peptide fractions prepared by membrane ultrafiltration using membranes with 30, 10 and 1 kDa molecular weight cut-off. The hydrolysates were obtained by thermal and ultrasound pretreated EWPs hydrolyzed with a bacterial protease, Alcalase. It appeared that the pretreatment significantly affected peptide profiles and antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates measured by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP methods. The hydrolysate prepared using Alcalase and ultrasound pretreatment at 40 kHz - 15 min has shown to be the most effective in scavenging both DPPH and ABTS radicals (28.10±1.38 and 79.44±2.31%, respectively. It has been noticed that this hydrolysate had a nutritionally more adequate peptide profile than the other hydrolysates with a much lower amount of peptides <1 kDa (11.19±0.53 % and the greatest content of the peptide fraction in the molecular weight (MW range of 1-10 kDa (28.80±0.07 %. This peptide fraction has been exactly showed the highest DPPH and ABTS antioxidant activity compared to all other fractions having a potential to be used as a functional food ingredient. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46010

  19. Antioxidant activities of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates as influenced by thermolysin and alcalase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Nur'Aliah; Babji, Abdul Salam; Yusop, Salma Mohamad

    2013-11-01

    The hydrolysis process was performed on fish meat from Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by enzymes thermolysin and alcalase under optimum conditions. The hydrolysis was performed from 0 - 4 hours at 37°C. Hydrolysates after 2 hours incubation with thermolysin and alcalase had degree of hydrolysis of 76.29 % and 63.49 %, respectively. The freeze dried protein hydrolysate was tested for peptide content and characterized with respect to amino acid composition. The result of increased peptide content in Red Tilapia (O. Niloticus) hydrolysates obtained was directly proportional to the increase activities of different proteolytic enzymes. The result of amino acid composition showed that the sample used contained abundant Gly, Ala, Asp, Glu, Lys and Leu in residues or peptide sequences. Both enzymatic hydrolysates were tested for anti-oxidant activity with DPPH and ABTS assay. Alcalase yielded higher anti-oxidative activity than Thermolysin hydrolysates after 1 hour incubation, but both enzymes hydrolysates showed a significant decrease of anti-oxidant activity after 2 hours of incubation. Hydrolysates from Red Tilapia may contribute as a health promoting ingredient in functional foods to reduce oxidation stress caused by accumulated free radicals.

  20. Protective effects of protein transduction domain-metallothionein fusion proteins against hypoxia- and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in an ischemia/reperfusion rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kwang Suk; Cha, Min-Ji; Kim, Jang Kyoung; Park, Eun Jeong; Chae, Ji-Won; Rhim, Taiyoun; Hwang, Ki-Chul; Kim, Yong-Hee

    2013-08-10

    Ischemic heart diseases caused by insufficient oxygen supply to the cardiac muscle require pharmaceutical agents for the prevention of the progress and recurrence. Metallothionein (MT) has a potential as a protein therapeutic for the treatment of this disease due to its anti-oxidative effects under stressful conditions. In spite of its therapeutic potential, efficient delivery systems need to be developed to overcome limitations such as low transduction efficiency, instability and short half-life in the body. To enhance intra-cellular transduction efficiency, Tat sequence as a protein transduction domain (PTD) was fused with MT in a recombinant method. Anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative effects of Tat-MT fusion protein were evaluated under hyperglycemia and hypoxia stress conditions in cultured H9c2 cells. Recovery of cardiac functions by anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic effects of Tat-MT was confirmed in an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rat myocardial infarction model. Tat-MT fusion protein effectively protected H9c2 cells under stressful conditions by reducing intracellular ROS production and inhibiting caspase-3 activation. Tat-MT fusion protein inhibited apoptosis, reduced fibrosis area and enhanced cardiac functions in I/R. Tat-MT fusion protein could be a promising therapeutic for the treatment of ischemic heart diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Antioxidant, cytotoxic and DNA protective properties of Achillea eriophora DC. and Achillea biebersteinii Afan. extracts: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Varasteh-kojourian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Achillea is a traditional medicinal herb which contains different phenol and flavonoid compounds that are responsible for Achillea pharmacological effects. We aimed to determine phenol and flavonoid contents, besides antioxidant activities of different extracts from Achillea eriophoraa (A. eriophora DC. and Achillea biebersteinii (A. biebersteinii Afan. (endemic species in Iran and to investigate their effects on human cells.Materials and Methods: Achillea extracts, were prepared by maceration and shaking methods, from different parts (aerial parts, stem, leaves and inflorescence of two species using methanol and ethanol as solvents. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were measured by spectrophotometry, and antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by DPPH radical scavenging, BCB and TBARS assays. Cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities of the extracts were investigated in Human Foreskin Fibroblast (HFF3 cells using MTT, comet and H2O2 assays.Results: Methanol extracts of A. biebersteinii prepared from leaves and inflorescence by maceration method exhibited maximum phenol (1657.58 ± 36.45 mg GAE/100 g DW and flavonoid (264.00 ± 62.16 mg QUE/100 g DW contents. Leaf methanol extract showed significantly higher antioxidant activity (0.0276 ± 0.003, 0.16 ± 0.016 and 13.96 ± 0.26 mg/ml for DPPH, BCB and TBARS IC50s, respectively than those of the other extracts. Leaf extract of A. biebersteinii was not cytotoxic even at the highest examined dose (512 µg/ml and inhibited cell toxicity induced by H2O2 (98% viability for the cells pretreated with plant extract in the presence of H2O2. Comet assay also confirmed high DNA protective activity of leaf extracts.Conclusion: Achillea extracts possess remarkable antioxidant activity, and could be good natural alternatives to synthetic antioxidants in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  2. Spirulina ameliorates methotrexate hepatotoxicity via antioxidant, immune stimulation, and proinflammatory cytokines and apoptotic proteins modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafaga, Asmaa F; El-Sayed, Yasser S

    2018-03-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is an efficient cytotoxic drug used against various carcinogenic, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases; however, the hepatotoxicity of MTX limits its use. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective and immune-stimulant effect of Spirulina platensis (SP) against MTX acute toxicity. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into the following four groups (n = 8): control, SP (500 mg/kg bwt, oral gavage daily for 21 days), MTX (20 mg/kg bwt, single ip injection), and MTX+SP. Hepatic and splenic histoarchitecture, leukocyte counts and serum immunoglobulins were evaluated. Hepatic oxidant/antioxidant status, proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin 6), and pro-apoptotic proteins (caspase 3 and Bax) immunoexpression were assessed. MTX induced extensive hepatic necrosis and vacuolation, and sever lymphoid depletion in splenic white pulp with increased levels of serum transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase, and hepatic malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin 6; and number of caspase 3- and Bax-positive hepatocytes. A significant decrease in leukocyte counts, serum immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM and IgG) level, and hepatic antioxidant enzymes (GSH, GPx, SOD, and CAT) was also detected. Pretreatment with SP resulted in significant improvements in hepatic and splenic histologic architecture, as well as restoring liver enzymes and reduction of lipid peroxidation product, proinflammatory cytokines, and caspase 3 and Bax immunoexpression. Additionally, a significant increase in antioxidant enzymes, serum immunoglobulins, and total leukocyte counts was demonstrated. SP possesses promising antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immune stimulatory properties against MTX-induced hepatotoxicity and immunosuppression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Fish Protein Hydrolysates in in vitro Assays and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The aim of this study was to screen different protein hydrolysates with respect to their antioxidative properties in order to select the most promising extracts for further evaluation in oil-in-water emulsions. Three fractions of protein hydrolysates (Crude, >5kDa and 5kDa, 3-5kDa and...

  4. Antioxidant activities of two sericin proteins extracted from cocoon of silkworm (Bombyx mori) measured by DPPH, chemiluminescence, ORAC and ESR methods

    OpenAIRE

    TAKECHI, TAYORI; WADA, RITSUKO; FUKUDA, TSUBASA; HARADA, KAZUKI; TAKAMURA, HITOSHI

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts have focused on the use of sericin proteins extracted from cocoons of silkworm as a healthy food source for human consumption. In this study, we focused on the antioxidative properties of sericin proteins. The antioxidative properties were measured in sericin proteins extracted from the shell of the cocoon, designated hereafter as white sericin protein and yellow-green sericin protein, as well as bread without sericin protein and bread to which white sericin powder had been add...

  5. Antihemolytic and antioxidant properties of pearl powder against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced hemolysis and oxidative damage to erythrocyte membrane lipids and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsin-Ling; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Chang, Hebron Chun-Wei; Wu, Chi-Rei; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Pearl powder, a well-known traditional mineral medicine, is reported to be used for well-being and to treat several diseases from centuries in Taiwan and China. We investigated the in vitro antihemolytic and antioxidant properties of pearl powder that could protect erythrocytes against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative damage to membrane proteins/lipids. Human erythrocytes were incubated with different concentrations of pearl powder (50-200 μg/mL) for 30 minutes and then exposed to AAPH for 2-6 hours. We found that AAPH alone time dependently increased the oxidative hemolysis of erythrocytes, while pearl powder pretreatment substantially inhibited the hemolysis in a concentration-/time-dependent manner. AAPH-induced oxidative damage to erythrocyte membrane lipids was evidenced by the elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. However, pearl powder remarkably inhibited the malondialdehyde formation, and the 200 μg/mL concentration showed almost similar malondialdehyde values to the control. Furthermore, pearl powder suppressed the AAPH-induced high-molecular-weight protein formation and concomitantly increased the low-molecular-weight proteins in erythrocytes. Antioxidant potential that was measured as superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione content was significantly dropped by AAPH incubation, which suggests the vulnerability of erythrocytes to AAPH-induced oxidative stress. Noteworthy, erythrocytes pretreated with pearl powder showed restored superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels against AAPH-induced loss. Our findings conclude that pearl powder attenuate free radical-induced hemolysis and oxidative damage to erythrocyte membrane lipids/proteins. The potent antioxidant property of pearl powder may offer protection from free radical-related diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Dietary supplement enriched in antioxidants and omega-3 protects from progressive light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaoula Ramchani-Ben Othman

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have evaluated one of the dietary supplements enriched with antioxidants and fish oil used in clinical care for patient with age-related macular degeneration. Rats were orally fed by a gastric canula daily with 0.2 ml of water or dietary supplement until they were sacrificed. After one week of treatment, animals were either sacrificed for lipid analysis in plasma and retina, or used for evaluation of rod-response recovery by electroretinography (ERG followed by their sacrifice to measure rhodopsin content, or used for progressive light-induced retinal degeneration (PLIRD. For PLIRD, animals were transferred to bright cyclic light for one week. Retinal damage was quantified by ERG, histology and detection of apoptotic nuclei. Animals kept in dim-cyclic-light were processed in parallel. PLIRD induced a thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a reduction of the b-wave amplitude of the ERG in the water group. Retinal structure and function were preserved in supplemented animals. Supplement induced a significant increase in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma by 168% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 142% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA and 19% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and a decrease in the omega-6 fatty acids, DPA by 28%. In the retina, supplement induced significant reduction of linolenic acid by 67% and an increase in EPA and DPA by 80% and 72%, respectively, associated with significant decrease in omega-6 DPA by 42%. Supplement did not affect rhodopsin content or rod-response recovery. The present data indicate that supplement rapidly modified the fatty acid content and induced an accumulation of EPA in the retina without affecting rhodopsin content or recovery. In addition, it protected the retina from oxidative stress induced by light. Therefore, this supplement might be beneficial to slow down progression of certain retinal degeneration.

  7. Dietary supplement enriched in antioxidants and omega-3 protects from progressive light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchani-Ben Othman, Khaoula; Cercy, Christine; Amri, Mohamed; Doly, Michel; Ranchon-Cole, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated one of the dietary supplements enriched with antioxidants and fish oil used in clinical care for patient with age-related macular degeneration. Rats were orally fed by a gastric canula daily with 0.2 ml of water or dietary supplement until they were sacrificed. After one week of treatment, animals were either sacrificed for lipid analysis in plasma and retina, or used for evaluation of rod-response recovery by electroretinography (ERG) followed by their sacrifice to measure rhodopsin content, or used for progressive light-induced retinal degeneration (PLIRD). For PLIRD, animals were transferred to bright cyclic light for one week. Retinal damage was quantified by ERG, histology and detection of apoptotic nuclei. Animals kept in dim-cyclic-light were processed in parallel. PLIRD induced a thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a reduction of the b-wave amplitude of the ERG in the water group. Retinal structure and function were preserved in supplemented animals. Supplement induced a significant increase in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma by 168% for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 142% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and 19% for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and a decrease in the omega-6 fatty acids, DPA by 28%. In the retina, supplement induced significant reduction of linolenic acid by 67% and an increase in EPA and DPA by 80% and 72%, respectively, associated with significant decrease in omega-6 DPA by 42%. Supplement did not affect rhodopsin content or rod-response recovery. The present data indicate that supplement rapidly modified the fatty acid content and induced an accumulation of EPA in the retina without affecting rhodopsin content or recovery. In addition, it protected the retina from oxidative stress induced by light. Therefore, this supplement might be beneficial to slow down progression of certain retinal degeneration.

  8. Diabetic beta-cells can achieve self-protection against oxidative stress through an adaptive up-regulation of their antioxidant defenses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Lacraz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress (OS, through excessive and/or chronic reactive oxygen species (ROS, is a mediator of diabetes-related damages in various tissues including pancreatic beta-cells. Here, we have evaluated islet OS status and beta-cell response to ROS using the GK/Par rat as a model of type 2 diabetes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Localization of OS markers was performed on whole pancreases. Using islets isolated from 7-day-old or 2.5-month-old male GK/Par and Wistar control rats, 1 gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR; 2 insulin secretion rate was measured; 3 ROS accumulation and mitochondrial polarization were assessed by fluorescence methods; 4 antioxidant contents were quantified by HPLC. After diabetes onset, OS markers targeted mostly peri-islet vascular and inflammatory areas, and not islet cells. GK/Par islets revealed in fact protected against OS, because they maintained basal ROS accumulation similar or even lower than Wistar islets. Remarkably, GK/Par insulin secretion also exhibited strong resistance to the toxic effect of exogenous H(2O(2 or endogenous ROS exposure. Such adaptation was associated to both high glutathione content and overexpression (mRNA and/or protein levels of a large set of genes encoding antioxidant proteins as well as UCP2. Finally, we showed that such a phenotype was not innate but spontaneously acquired after diabetes onset, as the result of an adaptive response to the diabetic environment. CONCLUSIONS: The GK/Par model illustrates the effectiveness of adaptive response to OS by beta-cells to achieve self-tolerance. It remains to be determined to what extend such islet antioxidant defenses upregulation might contribute to GK/Par beta-cell secretory dysfunction.

  9. Cassia tora leaves modulates selenite cataract by enhancing antioxidant status and preventing cytoskeletal protein loss in lenses of Sprague Dawley rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelakshmi, V; Abraham, Annie

    2016-02-03

    Cataract is the clouding or opacity that develops in the eye's lens and is considered to be an unavoidable consequence of aging due to irreversible lens damage. Free radicals and oxidant species are reported to be the major factor responsible for the onset and pathology of cataract. No pharmacological measures are formulated to treat cataract blindness and surgical removal of the opaque lens is the only remedy till date. Boosting of antioxidant potential of the lens is proved to prevent cataract and many indigenous plants have been screened for anticataractogenic potential in the last decades. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Cassia tora leaves; the plant employed in traditional medicine for eye rejuvenation and ailments, can prevent cataract in neonatal rats. Cataract was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite at a dose of 4 μg/g body weight on the 10th day and Cassia tora leaves was administered orally from 8th day upto 12th day at a concentration of 5 μg/g body weight. After 30 days; lens morphology, oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium, glutathione metabolism, cytoskeletal protein/gene expressions were monitored. Lens morphology, biochemical analysis and expression studies supported the anticataractogenic effect of Cassia tora leaves. In summary, it can be suggested that the consumption of these leaves afford protection to the lens with its antioxidant action and seems to be a new therapeutic approach against cataract by preventive protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tempol protects blood proteins and lipids against peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ayman G; Bani-Ahmad, Mohammad A; Jaradat, Ahmad Q; Allouh, Mohammed Z

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is characterized by excessive production of various free radicals and reactive species among which, peroxynitrite is most frequently produced in several pathological conditions. Peroxynitrite is the product of the superoxide anion reaction with nitric oxide, which is reported to take place in the intravascular compartment. Several studies have reported that peroxynitrite targets red blood cells, platelets and plasma proteins, and induces various forms of oxidative damage. This in vitro study was designed to further characterize the types of oxidative damage induced in platelets and plasma proteins by peroxynitrite. This study also determined the ability of tempol to protect blood plasma and platelets against peroxynitrite-induced oxidative damage. The ability of various concentrations of tempol (25, 50, 75, and 100 µM) to antagonize peroxynitrite-induced oxidation was evaluated by measuring the levels of protein carbonyl groups and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances in experimental groups. Exposure of platelets and plasma to 100 µM peroxynitrite resulted in an increased levels of carbonyl groups and lipid peroxidation (P Tempol significantly inhibited carbonyl group formation in plasma and platelet proteins (P tempol significantly reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation in both plasma and platelet samples (P tempol has antioxidative properties against peroxynitrite-induced oxidative damage in blood plasma and platelets. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  11. Two Novel Antioxidant Nonapeptides from Protein Hydrolysate of Skate (Raja porosa Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-Yuan Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the preparation conditions of neutrase hydrolysate (SMH from skate (Raja porosa muscle protein were optimized using orthogonal L9(34 tests, and R values indicated that pH was the most important factor affecting HO· scavenging activity of SMH. Under the optimum conditions of pH 7.0, enzymolysis temperature 60 °C, enzyme/substrate ratio (E/S 2%, and enzymolysis time 5 h, EC50 of SMH on HO· was 2.14 ± 0.17 mg/mL. Using ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography, and RP-HPLC, two novel antioxidant nonapeptides (SP-A and SP-B were isolated from SMH and their amino acid sequences were found to be APPTAYAQS (SP-A and NWDMEKIWD (SP-B with calculated molecular masses of 904.98 Da and 1236.38 Da, respectively. Both showed strong antioxidant activities. SP-A and SP-B exhibited good scavenging activities on HO· (EC50 0.390 and 0.176 mg/mL, DPPH· (EC50 0.614 and 0.289 mg/mL, and O2−· (EC50 0.215 and 0.132 mg/mL in a dose-dependent manner. SP-B was also effective against lipid peroxidation in the model system. The aromatic (2Trp, acidic (2Asp and Glu, and basic (Lys amino acid residues within the sequences of SP-B might account for its pronounced antioxidant activity. The results of this study suggested that protein hydrolysate and peptides from skate muscle might be effective as food additives for retarding lipid peroxidation occurring in foodstuffs.

  12. Two novel antioxidant nonapeptides from protein hydrolysate of skate (Raja porosa) muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fa-Yuan; Chi, Chang-Feng; Wang, Bin; Deng, Shang-Gui

    2015-04-03

    In the current study, the preparation conditions of neutrase hydrolysate (SMH) from skate (Raja porosa) muscle protein were optimized using orthogonal L9(3)4 tests, and R values indicated that pH was the most important factor affecting HO· scavenging activity of SMH. Under the optimum conditions of pH 7.0, enzymolysis temperature 60 °C, enzyme/substrate ratio (E/S) 2%, and enzymolysis time 5 h, EC50 of SMH on HO· was 2.14 ± 0.17 mg/mL. Using ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography, and RP-HPLC, two novel antioxidant nonapeptides (SP-A and SP-B) were isolated from SMH and their amino acid sequences were found to be APPTAYAQS (SP-A) and NWDMEKIWD (SP-B) with calculated molecular masses of 904.98 Da and 1236.38 Da, respectively. Both showed strong antioxidant activities. SP-A and SP-B exhibited good scavenging activities on HO· (EC50 0.390 and 0.176 mg/mL), DPPH· (EC50 0.614 and 0.289 mg/mL), and O2-· (EC50 0.215 and 0.132 mg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner. SP-B was also effective against lipid peroxidation in the model system. The aromatic (2Trp), acidic (2Asp and Glu), and basic (Lys) amino acid residues within the sequences of SP-B might account for its pronounced antioxidant activity. The results of this study suggested that protein hydrolysate and peptides from skate muscle might be effective as food additives for retarding lipid peroxidation occurring in foodstuffs.

  13. The protective effect of resveratrols on ischaemia-reperfusion injuries of rat hearts is correlated with antioxidant efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Li-Man; Su, Ming-Jai; Chu, Wing-Keung; Chiao, Chin-Wei; Chan, Wan-Fen; Chen, Jan-Kan

    2002-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants are thought to be beneficial in reducing the incidence of coronary heart disease. In this study, we compared resveratrol and analogues on their antioxidation and free radical scavenging activities to their protective effects on ischaemia-reperfusion induced injuries of rat hearts. Astringinin (3,3′,4′,5-tetrahydroxystilbene) was shown to be a more potent inhibitor than other analogues against Cu2+-induced LDL (low-density lipoprotein) oxidation, as measured by the formation of conjugated diene and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance) and by the electrophoretic mobility of the oxidized LDL. Resveratrol (trans-3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene) and astringinin scavenged the stable free radical DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) with an IC0.200 of 7.1 and 4.3 μM, respectively. Astringinin has a superoxide anion scavenging activity about 160 fold more potent than resveratrol. After a 30 min global ischemia followed by 2 h reperfusion, astringinin (10 μM) significantly reduced infarct size, superoxide anion production and increased functional recovery of the coronary flow in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. The result showed there is a positive correlation between the anti-oxidation and cardioprotective activities among these phenolic compounds. Our finding together with the fact that astringinin is more water-soluble than resveratrol suggest that astringinin could potentially be used as an anti-oxidant and cardioprotective agent in biological systems. PMID:11934802

  14. Phytochemical, antioxidant and protective effect of Rhus tripartitum root bark extract against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Mbarki, Sakhria; Barka, Zeineb B; Feriani, Anwer; Bouoni, Zouhour; Hfaeidh, Najla; Sakly, Mohsen; Tebourbi, Olfa; Rhouma, Khémais B

    2013-03-01

    Rhus tripartitum (sumac) is an Anacardiaceae tree with a wide phytotherapeutic application including the use of its roots in the management of gastric ulcer. In the present study the Rhus tripartitum root barks extract (RTE) was phytochemical studied, in vitro tested for their potential antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay and in vivo evaluated for its ability to prevent ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The RTE was rich in phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and polysaccharide contents and exhibited a low but not weak in vitro antioxidant activity when compared with (+)-catechin. Pre-treatment with RTE at oral doses 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against ethanol-induced ulcer by averting the deep ulcer lesions of the gastric epithelium, by reducing gastric juice and acid output, by enhancing gastric mucus production by preserving normal antioxidant enzymes activities, and inhibiting the lipid peroxidation. The antiulcerogenic activity of RTE might be due to a possible synergistic antioxidant and antisecretory effects.

  15. Transcription and activity of antioxidant proteins after ionization irradiation of radiation-resistant and radiation-sensitive mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardmeier, R.

    1998-03-01

    The involvernent of antioxidant proteins catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH px), and thioredoxin (TRX) in radiobiological processes has been described at the enzyme activity level. We were interested in examining the transcription of these proteins in a mammalian system following ionizing irradiation. In order to answer the question whether radiation effects in sensitive mice (Balb/c) (RS) showed differences at the transcriptional level from radiation effects in resistant mice (C3H) (RR). We exposed the whole body of these strains to X/rays doses of 2, 4, and 6 Gy and sacrificed the animals 5, 15, and 30 minutes after irradiation. The mRNA was isolated from liver and hybrized with probes for antioxidant enzymes and thioredoxin, β-actin was used as a housekeeping gene control. Antioxidant enzyme activities were determined by standard assays. Parameters for aromatic hydroxylation (o-Tyr) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were determined by HPLC methods. Antioxidant transcription was unchanged in contrast to antioxidant activities. SOD and CAT activities were elevated within 15 minutes in RR animals but not in RS at all radiation doses. Glutathione peroxidase activity was not different between RR and RS mice, and was only moderately elevated after irradiation. No significant differences were found between RR and RS animals at the oxidation level, although a radiation dose-dependent increase of oxidation products was detected in both groups. Quantification of thioredoxin mRNA revealed that RR mice transcribed this protein at a significantly higher level at an earlier time point (5 minutes) than did RS mice. This delay may well be responsible for the radioresistance although no quantitative differences were found. As unchanged transcription of antioxidant enzymes could not have been responsible for the increased antioxidant enzyme activities, preformed antioxidant enzymes may have been released by irradiation. This would be in agreement

  16. Protective Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are Affected by Drought in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fghire, Rachid; Ali, Oudou Issa; Anaya, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenoloxydase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), measured at flowering in quinoa, subjected to varying levels of drought stress. Drought levels were 100, 50 and 33% of evapotranspiration (ETc), and rainfed. Compared to full water supply (100%ETc...... increased in all treatments. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative stress in quinoa plant exposed to drought stress....

  17. Protective Effect of Antioxidants on Neuronal Dysfunction and Plasticity in Huntington’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirunavukkarasu Velusamy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD is characterised by movement disorders, cognitive impairments, and psychiatric problems. The abnormal generation of reactive oxygen species and the resulting oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial damage in neurons upon CAG mutations in the HTT gene have been hypothesized as the contributing factors of neurodegeneration in HD. The potential use of antioxidants against free radical toxicity has been an emerging field in the management of ageing and many neurodegenerative disorders. Neural stem cells derived adult neurogenesis represents the regenerative capacity of the adult brain. The process of adult neurogenesis has been implicated in the cognitive functions of the brain and is highly modulated positively by different factors including antioxidants. The supportive role of antioxidants to reduce the severity of HD via promoting the functional neurogenesis and neuroprotection in the pathological adult brain has great promise. This review comprehends the recent studies describing the therapeutic roles of antioxidants in HD and other neurologic disorders and highlights the scope of using antioxidants to promote adult neurogenesis in HD. It also advocates a new line of research to delineate the mechanisms by which antioxidants promote adult neurogenesis in HD.

  18. Protective effect of an intrinsic antioxidant, HMH (5-hydroxy-1-methylhydantoin; NZ-419), against cellular damage of kidney tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ienaga, Kazuharu; Park, Chan Hum; Yokozawa, Takako

    2013-07-01

    HMH (5-hydroxy-1-methylhydantoin; NZ-419) is a mammalian creatinine metabolite and an intrinsic antioxidant. HMH prevents the progression of chronic kidney disease in rats when a sufficient amount is taken orally. We assessed whether intrinsic and higher levels of HMH could protect tubular epithelial cells, LLC-PK(1) cells, against known cellular damage caused by xenobiotics, such as cisplatin and cephaloridine, or by hypoxia/reoxygenation treatment. Both cell damage and peroxidation, monitored as the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively, from cells into the media, were inhibited by HMH in a concentration-dependent manner. The minimum effective concentration of HMH (2.5 μM) seemed to be too low for HMH to only be a direct hydroxyl radical scavenger. Additional antioxidant effect(s) inhibiting reactive oxygen species generation and/or modulating signal transduction pathways were suggested. The possibility that intrinsic HMH could be a protectant for the kidney was indicated. At the same time, for sufficient inhibition, higher concentrations than intrinsic HMH concentrations may be necessary. Patterns of efficacies of HMH on LDH and MDA against different kinds of cellular damage were compared with our reported data on those of corresponding, naturally occurring antioxidants. A common and specific inhibitory mechanism as well as common target(s) in kidney injuries were indicated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Revalorisation of rapeseed pomace extracts: An in vitro study into its anti-oxidant and DNA protective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Franziska; Goua, Marie; Bermano, Giovanna; Russell, Wendy R; Scobbie, Lorraine; Maciel, Patrícia; Kong Thoo Lin, Paul

    2018-01-15

    Rapeseed pomace (RSP) is a waste product obtained after edible oil production from Brassica napus. Analysis of ubiquitous secondary metabolites in RSP samples (two breeds, harvested in 2012/2014 respectively from North East of Scotland) and their ethanol/water (95:5) Soxhlet extracts were carried out. Soxhlet extraction of the RSP (petroleum ether followed by 95% ethanol) gave a solid extract. LC-MS/MS data of the extracts revealed several secondary metabolites, with Sinapic acid being the most abundant. Strong antioxidant activities of the Soxhlet extracts were confirmed from the results obtained in the FRAP, DPPH and ORAC assays. Furthermore, for the very first time, RSP extracts (13.9µg/ml) provided complete DNA protection, from oxidative stress induced by AAPH (3.5mM). Therefore the strong antioxidant and DNA protecting properties demonstrated by the RSP extracts in this study warrants further investigation for their revalorisation and potential use as reliable source of antioxidants in different food applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative analysis of the antioxidant and DNA protection capacities of Anadenanthera colubrina, Libidibia ferrea and Pityrocarpa moniliformis fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luís Cláudio Nascimento; da Silva, Carlos Alberto; de Souza, Renata Maria; José Macedo, Alexandre; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the antioxidant and DNA protection abilities of hydroalcoholic extracts from fruits of Anadenanthera colubrina (ACHE), Libidibia ferrea (LFHE) and Pityrocarpa moniliformis (PMHE). These extracts were tested by five antioxidant methods (phosphomolibdenium and reducing power assays; superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide scavenging) and DNA protection capacity. Total phenolic content was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method. ACHE exhibited the highest phenolic content (578 mg/g GAE), followed by LFHE (460 mg/g GAE) and PMHE (448 mg/g GAE). In phosphomolibdenium assay, ACHE showed 24.81% of activity in relation to ascorbic acid, whereas LFHE and PMHE had 21.08% and 18.05%, respectively. These plants showed high ability to inhibit reactive species tested with IC50 values ranged from 10.66 to 14.37 μg/mL for superoxide radical; 26.05 to 45.43 μg/mL for hydrogen peroxide; 178.42 to 182.98 μg/mL for reducing power; and 199.2 to 283 μg/mL for nitric oxide. Furthermore, these extracts had capacity to break the DNA damage induced by hydroxyl radicals. The antioxidant activity of these plants is related with their higher phenolic content and show that they may be used as source of bioactive compounds, relevant to the maintenance of oxidative stability of the food matrix, cosmetics and/or pharmaceutical preparations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Total antioxidant and oxidant status of plasma and renal tissue of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats: protection by floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pawan Kumar; Raina, Rajinder; Sultana, Mudasir; Singh, Maninder; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of plasma and renal tissue in cisplatin (cDDP) induced nephrotoxic rats and its protection by treatments with floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Treatment with cDDP elevated (p officinalis along with cDDP restored (p > 0.05) CR, albumin, TOS, GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and renal tissue. Ethanolic extract treatments reduced (p officinalis protect cDDP induced nephrotoxicity by restoring antioxidant system of the renal tissue.

  2. In vitro antioxidant potential and deoxyribonucleic acid protecting activity of CNB-001, a novel pyrazole derivative of curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Jayaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free radicals are underpinned to initiate cascade of toxic events leading to oxidative stress and resultant cell death in many neurodegenerative disorders. Now-a-days antioxidants have become mandatory in the treatment of various diseases apart from the drug′s modes of action. CNB-001, a novel hybrid molecule synthesized by combining curcumin and cyclohexyl bisphenol A is known to possess various biological activities, but the antioxidative property of the compound has not yet been elucidated. Aim: The present study is aimed to analyze various free radicals scavenging by employing in vitro antioxidant assays and to evaluate the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA protecting the ability of CNB-001 against hydroxyl radicals. Materials and methods: The in vitro antioxidant potential of CNB-001 was evaluated by analyzing its ability to scavenge DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide radicals and reducing power using spectroscopic method. The DNA protecting activity of CNB-001 was also evaluated on pUC19 plasmid DNA subjected to hydroxyl radicals using standard agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: From the assays, it was observed that CNB-001 scavenged free radicals effectively in a dose dependent manner. CNB-001 scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (IC50 = 44.99 μg/ml, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (IC50 = 17.99 μg/ml, nitric oxide (IC50 = 1.36 μg/ml, superoxide radical (IC50 = 77.17 μg/ml, hydrogen peroxide (IC50 = 492.7 μg/ml, superoxide (IC50 = 36.92 μg/ml and hydroxyl (IC50 = 456.5 μg/ml radicals effectively and the reducing power was found to be 11.53 μg/ml. CNB-001 showed considerable protecting activity against plasmid DNA (pUC19 strand scission by ·OH at dose dependent manner. Conclusion: Results from these assays concluded that CNB-001 has a good antioxidant potential by reducing reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen radicals and it

  3. Protection against retrovirus pathogenesis by SR protein inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Keriel

    Full Text Available Indole derivatives compounds (IDC are a new class of splicing inhibitors that have a selective action on exonic splicing enhancers (ESE-dependent activity of individual serine-arginine-rich (SR proteins. Some of these molecules have been shown to compromise assembly of HIV infectious particles in cell cultures by interfering with the activity of the SR protein SF2/ASF and by subsequently suppressing production of splicing-dependent retroviral accessory proteins. For all replication-competent retroviruses, a limiting requirement for infection and pathogenesis is the expression of the envelope glycoprotein which strictly depends on the host splicing machinery. Here, we have evaluated the efficiency of IDC on an animal model of retroviral pathogenesis using a fully replication-competent retrovirus. In this model, all newborn mice infected with a fully replicative murine leukemia virus (MLV develop erythroleukemia within 6 to 8 weeks of age. We tested several IDC for their ability to interfere ex vivo with MLV splicing and virus spreading as well as for their protective effect in vivo. We show here that two of these IDC, IDC13 and IDC78, selectively altered splicing-dependent production of the retroviral envelope gene, thus inhibiting early viral replication in vivo, sufficiently to protect mice from MLV-induced pathogenesis. The apparent specificity and clinical safety observed here for both IDC13 and IDC78 strongly support further assessment of inhibitors of SR protein splicing factors as a new class of antiretroviral therapeutic agents.

  4. Nucleobase-Based Barbiturates: Their Protective Effect against DNA Damage Induced by Bleomycin-Iron, Antioxidant, and Lymphocyte Transformation Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaveshkumar D. Dhorajiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of nucleobase-based barbiturates have been synthesized by combination of nucleic acid bases and heterocyclic amines and barbituric acid derivatives through green and efficient multicomponent route and one pot reaction. This approach was accomplished efficiently using aqueous medium to give the corresponding products in high yield. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral analysis (FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMBC, and UV spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Representative of all synthesized compounds was tested and evaluated for antioxidant, bleomycin-dependent DNA damage, and Lymphocyte Transformation studies. Compounds TBC > TBA > TBG showed highest lymphocyte transformation assay, TBC > TBA > BG showed inhibitory antioxidant activity using ABTS methods, and TBC > BPA > BAMT > TBA > 1, 3-TBA manifested the best protective effect against DNA damage induced by bleomycin.

  5. High-protein-PUFA supplementation, red blood cell membranes, and plasma antioxidant activity in volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguti, Marco; Baldini, Marta; Angeloni, Cristina; Biagi, Pierluigi; Hrelia, Silvana

    2008-06-01

    The authors evaluated the role of a high-protein, low-calorie, polyunsaturated fatty-acid (PUFA) -supplemented diet on anthropometric parameters, erythrocyte-membrane fatty-acid composition, and plasma antioxidant defenses of nonprofessional volleyball athletes. The athletes were divided in two groups: One (n = 5) followed the Mediterranean diet, and the other (n = 6) followed a high-protein, low-calorie diet with a 3-g/day fish-oil supplementation. All the athletes had anthropometric measurements taken, both at the beginning and at the end of the study, which lasted for 2 months. Body-mass index and total body fat were significantly diminished in the second group, while they remained unchanged in the first. Plasma total antioxidant activity (TAA) was significantly increased in the plasma of both groups, with no differences between the groups, suggesting that physical activity, not the different diets, is the main contributor to the increase of plasma TAA. The second group showed a significant increase in erythrocyte-membrane PUFA content and in the unsaturation index value (UI) because of the fish-oil supplementation.A high-protein, low-carbohydrate, fish-oil-supplemented diet seems to be useful only when the aim of the diet is to obtain weight loss in a short-term period. The significant increase in the UI of erythrocyte membranes indicates the potential for harm, because a high intake of PUFA might increase susceptibility to lipid peroxidation not counterbalanced by a higher increase in TAA. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet seems to be the better choice.

  6. Quantitative iTRAQ Proteomics Revealed Possible Roles for Antioxidant Proteins in Sorghum Aluminum Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dangwei; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Jinbiao; Jiang, Fei; Craft, Eric; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Kochian, Leon V; Liu, Jiping

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity inhibits root growth and limits crop yields on acid soils worldwide. However, quantitative information is scarce on protein expression profiles under Al stress in crops. In this study, we report on the identification of potential Al responsive proteins from root tips of Al sensitive BR007 and Al tolerant SC566 sorghum lines using a strategy employing iTRAQ and 2D-liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to MS/MS (2D-LC-MS/MS). A total of 771 and 329 unique proteins with abundance changes of >1.5 or abundant in the tolerant line than in the sensitive one after Al treatment, while opposite trends were observed for proteins involved in lignin biosynthesis. Higher levels of ROS accumulation in root tips of the sensitive line due to decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes could lead to higher lignin production and hyper-accumulation of toxic Al in cell walls. These results indicated that activities of peroxidases and the balance between production and consumption of ROS could be important for Al tolerance and lignin biosynthesis in sorghum.

  7. Protective effect of taurine against potassium bromate-induced hemoglobin oxidation, oxidative stress, and impairment of antioxidant defense system in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Mahmood, Riaz

    2016-03-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3 ) is widely used as a food-additive and is a major water disinfection by-product. KBrO3 causes severe toxicity in humans and experimental animals. Bromate is considered a probable human carcinogen and a complete carcinogen in animals. We have investigated the potential role of taurine in protecting against KBrO3 -induced oxidative stress in rat blood. Animals were given taurine for 5 days prior to KBrO3 and then sacrificed. Blood was collected and used to prepare hemolysates and plasma, which were then used for the analysis of several biochemical parameters. Administration of single oral dose of KBrO3 alone induced hepato- and nephro-toxicity as evident by elevated marker levels in plasma. Lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were increased both in plasma and erythrocytes, suggesting the induction of oxidative stress. KBrO3 increased methemoglobin, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide levels. It also altered the activities of the major antioxidant enzymes and lowered the antioxidant power of blood. Administration of taurine, prior to treatment with KBrO3 , resulted in significant attenuation in all these parameters but the administration of taurine alone had no effect. These results show that taurine is effective in mitigating the oxidative insult induced in rat blood by KBrO3 . © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The antioxidant effect of β-caryophyllene protects rat liver from carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic stellate cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, Miguel Angel; Vieites, Jose María; Montero-Meléndez, Trinidad; Montero-Meterdez, Trinidad; Torres, María Isabel; Faus, María José; Gil, Angel; Suárez, Antonio

    2013-02-14

    Plant-based whole foods provide thousands of bioactive metabolites to the human diet that reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases. β-Caryophyllene (CAR) is a common constituent of the essential oil of numerous plants, vegetables, fruits and medicinal herbs, and has been used as a flavouring agent since the 1930 s. Here, we report the antioxidant activity of CAR, its protective effect on liver fibrosis and its inhibitory capacity on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. CAR was tested for the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and as a free radical scavenger. CAR had higher inhibitory capacity on lipid peroxidation than probucol, α-humulene and α-tocopherol. Also, CAR showed high scavenging activities against hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion. The activity of 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme that actively participates in fibrogenesis, was significantly inhibited by CAR. Carbon tetrachloride-treated rats received CAR at 2, 20 and 200 mg/kg. CAR significantly improved liver structure, and reduced fibrosis and the expression of Col1a1, Tgfb1 and Timp1 genes. Oxidative stress was used to establish a model of HSC activation with overproduction of extracellular matrix proteins. CAR (1 and 10 μm) increased cell viability and significantly reduced the expression of fibrotic marker genes. CAR, a sesquiterpene present in numerous plants and foods, is as a natural antioxidant that reduces carbon tetrachloride-mediated liver fibrosis and inhibits hepatic cell activation.

  9. Antioxidant effects of crude extracts from Baccharis species: inhibition of myeloperoxidase activity, protection against lipid peroxidation, and action as oxidative species scavenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago O. Vieira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to show a comparison of the antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., Baccharis spicata (Lam. Baill. and Baccharis usterii Heering, Asteraceae, by several techniques covering a range of oxidant species and of biotargets. We have investigated the ability of the plant extracts to scavenge DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical, action against lipid peroxidation of membranes including rat liver microsomes and soy bean phosphatidylcholine liposomes by ascorbyl radical and peroxynitrite. Hydroxyl radical scavenger activity was measured monitoring the deoxyribose oxidation. The hypochlorous acid scavenger activity was also evaluated by the prevention of protein carbonylation and finally the myeloperoxidase (MPO activity inhibition. The results obtained suggest that the Baccharis extracts studied present a significant antioxidant activity scavenging free radicals and protecting biomolecules from the oxidation. We can suggest that the supposed therapeutic efficacy of this plant could be due, in part, to these properties.

  10. High Whey Protein Intake Delayed the Loss of Lean Body Mass in Healthy Old Rats, whereas Protein Type and Polyphenol/Antioxidant Supplementation Had No Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoni, Laurent; Gatineau, Eva; Gatellier, Philippe; Migné, Carole; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier; Rocher, Emilie; Dardevet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1) increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2) use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism). 3) Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidative stress is also effective to improve muscle anabolism). Such comparisons and combinations were never tested before. Nutritional groups were: casein 12% protein, whey 12% protein, whey 18% protein and each of these groups were supplemented or not with polyphenols/antioxidants. During 6 months, we followed changes of weight, food intake, inflammation (plasma fibrinogen and alpha-2-macroglobulin) and body composition (DXA). After 6 months, we measured muscle mass, in vivo and ex-vivo fed and post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis, ex-vivo muscle proteolysis, and oxidative stress parameters (liver and muscle glutathione, SOD and total antioxidant activities, muscle carbonyls and TBARS). We showed that although micronutrient supplementation reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, the only factor that significantly reduced the loss of lean body mass was the increase in whey protein intake, with no detectable effect on muscle protein synthesis, and a tendency to reduce muscle proteolysis. We conclude that in healthy rats, increasing protein intake is an effective way to delay sarcopenia. PMID:25268515

  11. High whey protein intake delayed the loss of lean body mass in healthy old rats, whereas protein type and polyphenol/antioxidant supplementation had no effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Mosoni

    Full Text Available Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1 increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2 use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism. 3 Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidative stress is also effective to improve muscle anabolism. Such comparisons and combinations were never tested before. Nutritional groups were: casein 12% protein, whey 12% protein, whey 18% protein and each of these groups were supplemented or not with polyphenols/antioxidants. During 6 months, we followed changes of weight, food intake, inflammation (plasma fibrinogen and alpha-2-macroglobulin and body composition (DXA. After 6 months, we measured muscle mass, in vivo and ex-vivo fed and post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis, ex-vivo muscle proteolysis, and oxidative stress parameters (liver and muscle glutathione, SOD and total antioxidant activities, muscle carbonyls and TBARS. We showed that although micronutrient supplementation reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, the only factor that significantly reduced the loss of lean body mass was the increase in whey protein intake, with no detectable effect on muscle protein synthesis, and a tendency to reduce muscle proteolysis. We conclude that in healthy rats, increasing protein intake is an effective way to delay sarcopenia.

  12. Soy versus whey protein bars: Effects on exercise training impact on lean body mass and antioxidant status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaknia Ari

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although soy protein may have many health benefits derived from its associated antioxidants, many male exercisers avoid soy protein. This is due partly to a popular, but untested notion that in males, soy is inferior to whey in promoting muscle weight gain. This study provided a direct comparison between a soy product and a whey product. Methods Lean body mass gain was examined in males from a university weight training class given daily servings of micronutrient-fortified protein bars containing soy or whey protein (33 g protein/day, 9 weeks, n = 9 for each protein treatment group. Training used workouts with fairly low repetition numbers per set. A control group from the class (N = 9 did the training, but did not consume either type protein bar. Results Both the soy and whey treatment groups showed a gain in lean body mass, but the training-only group did not. The whey and training only groups, but not the soy group, showed a potentially deleterious post-training effect on two antioxidant-related related parameters. Conclusions Soy and whey protein bar products both promoted exercise training-induced lean body mass gain, but the soy had the added benefit of preserving two aspects of antioxidant function.

  13. A Natural Antibacterial-Antioxidant Film from Soy Protein Isolate Incorporated with Cortex Phellodendron Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin Liang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An active film was prepared by incorporating cortex Phellodendron extract (CPE, an active agent into a soybean protein isolate (SPI. Different concentrations of CPE (0%, 10%, 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, or 22.5%, w/w, based on SPI were mixed into the films characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, tensile tests, and barrier properties. The rheological properties of the solutions were also tested. The effects of the CPE content on the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the films were examined. The results indicated that new hydrogen bonds formed between molecules in the films, and the crystallinity of the films decreased. The incorporation of CPE had no significant influence on the thermal stability of the films. Films containing 15% CPE had the maximum tensile strength of 6.00 MPa. The barrier properties against water vapor, oxygen, and light enhanced with the incorporation of CPE. The antioxidant activity of the SPI film was also improved. The films were effective against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Gram-positive bacteria. These results suggest that the SPI/CPE film can potentially extend the shelf lives of foods.

  14. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid. The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain, with an optimum condition of: (1 ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2 concentration of substrate, 4%; (3 reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4 pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01 under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen.

  15. Antioxidant effectiveness of vegetable powders on the lipid and protein oxidative stability of cooked Turkey meat patties: implications for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Garry; Campbell, Fiona; Bestwick, Charles; Stephen, Sylvia; Russell, Wendy

    2013-04-17

    Lipid and protein oxidation decreases the shelf-life of foods and may result in formation of end-products potentially detrimental for health. Consumer pressure to decrease the use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants has encouraged identification of alternative compounds or extracts from natural sources. We have assessed whether inclusion of dried vegetable powders improves the oxidative stability of turkey meat patties. Such powders are not only potentially-rich sources of phenolic antioxidants, but also may impart additional health benefits, as inadequate vegetable consumption is a risk factor for heart disease and several cancers. In an accelerated oxidation system, six of eleven vegetable powders significantly (p protein carbonyls (r = 0.747, p powders offers an alternative to individual antioxidants for increasing shelf-life of animal-based food products and may also provide additional health benefits associated with increased vegetable intake.

  16. Protective effect of butyrate against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in mice by promoting the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and mucosal defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaming; Wang, Fangyan; Luo, Haihua; Liu, Aihua; Li, Kangxin; Li, Cui; Jiang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcers (GUs) are a common type of peptic ulcer. Alcohol overdose is one of the main causes of GU, which is difficult to prevent. Although the protective effect of butyrate on inflammation-related diseases is well understood, its effect on GUs has not been reported. We investigated the protective effects of butyrate against ethanol-induced lesions to the gastric mucosa in mice and the underlying mechanisms. BALB/c mice were orally pretreated with butyrate for 30min prior to the establishment of the GU model by challenge with absolute ethanol. Ethanol administration produced apparent mucosal injuries with morphological and histological damage, whereas butyrate pretreatment reduced the gastric mucosal injuries in a dose-dependent manner. Butyrate pretreatment also significantly ameliorated contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl proteins, and decreased levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. The Western blot results consistently demonstrated that butyrate pretreatment attenuated the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65, p38 MAPK and ERKs in the gastric tissues. Additionally, gastric wall mucus (GWM), a parameter reflecting mucosal defense, was clearly increased by butyrate pretreatment. Butyrate pretreatment protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced lesions by strengthening the mucosal defense and anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. As a necessary substance for the body, butyrate may be applied to the prevention and treatment of GUs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity and oxidative damage induced by ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1: protective role of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cheli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In animal nutrition, mycotoxins are important feed contaminants. Among them, ochratoxins (OTA and aflatoxins (AF have several biological activities, including acute toxicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, immunotoxicity and carcinogenicity (Creepy, 2002. Obviously, toxicity of mycotoxins is a risk factor not only for animals but for humans, too (Hussein et al., 2001. Deficiencies of certain nutritional factors e.g. micronutrients may predispose or enhance individuals to the toxic effects of mycotoxins (Atroshi et al., 2002. It is well known that antioxidants like vitamin E, protect cellular membranes from oxidative damage.........

  18. Red Sea Suberea mollis Sponge Extract Protects against CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Rats via an Antioxidant Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Aymn T; El-Shitany, Nagla A; Shaala, Lamiaa A; Ali, Soad S; Azhar, Esam I; Abdel-Dayem, Umama A; Youssef, Diaa T A

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that marine sponges and their active constituents exhibited several potential medical applications. This study aimed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective role as well as the antioxidant effect of the Red Sea Suberea mollis sponge extract (SMSE) on carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced acute liver injury in rats. In vitro antioxidant activity of SMSE was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) assay. Rats were orally administered three different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) of SMSE and silymarin (100 mg/kg) along with CCl4 (1 mL/kg, i.p., every 72 hr) for 14 days. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin were measured. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were also measured. Liver specimens were histopathologically examined. SMSE showed strong scavenging activity against free radicals in DPPH assay. SMSE significantly reduced liver enzyme activities. Moreover, SMSE significantly reduced hepatic MDA formation. In addition, SMSE restored GSH, NO, SOD, GPx, and CAT. The histopathological results confirmed these findings. The results of this study suggested a potent protective effect of the SMSE against CCl4-induced hepatic injury. This may be due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

  19. Red Sea Suberea mollis Sponge Extract Protects against CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Rats via an Antioxidant Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymn T. Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that marine sponges and their active constituents exhibited several potential medical applications. This study aimed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective role as well as the antioxidant effect of the Red Sea Suberea mollis sponge extract (SMSE on carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced acute liver injury in rats. In vitro antioxidant activity of SMSE was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH assay. Rats were orally administered three different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of SMSE and silymarin (100 mg/kg along with CCl4 (1 mL/kg, i.p., every 72 hr for 14 days. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and total bilirubin were measured. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, nitric oxide (NO, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase (CAT were also measured. Liver specimens were histopathologically examined. SMSE showed strong scavenging activity against free radicals in DPPH assay. SMSE significantly reduced liver enzyme activities. Moreover, SMSE significantly reduced hepatic MDA formation. In addition, SMSE restored GSH, NO, SOD, GPx, and CAT. The histopathological results confirmed these findings. The results of this study suggested a potent protective effect of the SMSE against CCl4-induced hepatic injury. This may be due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

  20. Protective role of Scoparia dulcis plant extract on brain antioxidant status and lipidperoxidation in STZ diabetic male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha Muniappan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on the occurrence of oxidative stress in the brain of rats during diabetes by measuring the extent of oxidative damage as well as the status of the antioxidant defense system. Methods Aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight and the effect of extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and reduced glutathione (GSH were estimated in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as standard reference drug. Results A significant increase in the activities of plasma insulin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione was observed in brain on treatment with 200 mg/kg body weight of Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt and glibenclamide for 6 weeks. Both the treated groups showed significant decrease in TBARS and hydroperoxides formation in brain, suggesting its role in protection against lipidperoxidation induced membrane damage. Conclusions Since the study of induction of the antioxidant enzymes is considered to be a reliable marker for evaluating the antiperoxidative efficacy of the medicinal plant, these findings suggest a possible antiperoxidative role for Scoparia dulcis plant extract. Hence, in addition to antidiabetic effect, Scoparia dulcis possess antioxidant potential that may be used for therapeutic purposes.

  1. Changes in antioxidative protection in bean cotyledons during natural and continuous irradiation-accelerated senescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Dagmar; Wilhelmová, Naděžda

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2004), s. 33-39 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/03/0312 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Antioxidants * reactive oxygen species * senescence Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.744, year: 2004

  2. Antioxidant enzymes in Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval): Are they enhanced to protect gut tissues during oxidative stress?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krishnan, Natraj; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2006), s. 11-20 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/05/0151 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : antioxidant enzyme * oxidative stress * allelochemicals Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.019, year: 2006

  3. Novel curcumin analogue 14p protects against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury through Nrf2-activating anti-oxidative activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weixin [Department of Cardiology, The 5th Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Lishui, Zhejiang (China); Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wu, Mingchai [Department of Pharmacy, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzou, Zhejiang (China); Tang, Longguang; Pan, Yong; Liu, Zhiguo [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zeng, Chunlai [Department of Cardiology, The 5th Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Lishui, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Jingying [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wei, Tiemin, E-mail: lswtm@sina.com [Department of Cardiology, The 5th Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Lishui, Zhejiang (China); Liang, Guang, E-mail: wzmcliangguang@163.com [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2015-01-15

    Background: Alleviating the oxidant stress associated with myocardial ischemia reperfusion has been demonstrated as a potential therapeutic approach to limit ischemia reperfusion (I/R)-induced cardiac damage. Curcumin, a natural compound with anti-oxidative activity, exerts beneficial effect against cardiac I/R injury, but poor chemical and metabolic stability. Previously, we have designed and synthesized a series of mono-carbonyl analogues of curcumin (MACs) with high stability. This study aims to find new anti-oxidant MACs and to demonstrate their effects and mechanisms against I/R-induced heart injury. Methods: H9c2 cells challenged with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or TBHP were used for in vitro bio-screening and mechanistic studies. The MDA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and SOD levels in H9C2 cells were determined, and the cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Myocardial I/R mouse models administrated with or without the compound were used for in vivo studies. Results: The in vitro cell-based screening showed that curcumin analogues 8d and 14p exhibited strong anti-oxidative effects. Pre-treatment of H9c2 cells with 14p activated Nrf2 signaling pathway, attenuated H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-increased MDA and SOD level, followed by the inhibition of TBHP-induced cell death and Bax/Bcl-2–caspase-3 pathway activation. Silencing Nrf2 significantly reversed the protective effects of 14p. In in vivo animal model of myocardial I/R, administration of low dose 14p (10 mg/kg) reduced infarct size and myocardial apoptosis to the same extent as the high dose curcumin (100 mg/kg). Conclusion: These data support the novel curcumin analogue 14p as a promising antioxidant to decrease oxidative stress and limit myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury via activating Nrf2. - Highlights: • Mono-carbonyl analogue of curcumin, 14p, exhibited better chemical stability. • Compound 14p inhibited TBHP-induced apoptosis through activating Nrf2 in vitro. • Compound 14p limited myocardial ischemia

  4. Properties and Antioxidant Capacity of Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) By-Product Protein Films Containing Thyme Essential Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Sadettin Turhan; Serpil Tural

    2017-01-01

    In this study, some properties and antioxidant capacity of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) by-product protein films with added 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % of thyme essential oil were investigated. The films with thyme essential oil had higher elongation at break, water vapour permeability and oxygen permeability, lower solubility and tensile strength than control film (p

  5. Stabilization of Nrf2 protein by D3T provides protection against ethanol-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Dong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that maternal ethanol exposure induces a moderate increase in Nrf2 protein expression in mouse embryos. Pretreatment with the Nrf2 inducer, 3H-1, 2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T, significantly increases the Nrf2 protein levels and prevents apoptosis in ethanol-exposed embryos. The present study, using PC12 cells, was designed to determine whether increased Nrf2 stability is a mechanism by which D3T enhances Nrf2 activation and subsequent antioxidant protection. Ethanol and D3T treatment resulted in a significant accumulation of Nrf2 protein in PC 12 cells. CHX chase analysis has shown that ethanol treatment delayed the degradation of Nrf2 protein in PC12 cells. A significantly greater decrease in Nrf2 protein degradation was observed in the cells treated with D3T alone or with both ethanol and D3T. In addition, D3T treatment significantly reduced ethanol-induced apoptosis. These results demonstrate that the stabilization of Nrf2 protein by D3T confers protection against ethanol-induced apoptosis.

  6. Engineered Trx2p industrial yeast strain protects glycolysis and fermentation proteins from oxidative carbonylation during biomass propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Pastor Rocío

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the yeast biomass production process, protein carbonylation has severe adverse effects since it diminishes biomass yield and profitability of industrial production plants. However, this significant detriment of yeast performance can be alleviated by increasing thioredoxins levels. Thioredoxins are important antioxidant defenses implicated in many functions in cells, and their primordial functions include scavenging of reactive oxygen species that produce dramatic and irreversible alterations such as protein carbonylation. Results In this work we have found several proteins specifically protected by yeast Thioredoxin 2 (Trx2p. Bidimensional electrophoresis and carbonylated protein identification from TRX-deficient and TRX-overexpressing cells revealed that glycolysis and fermentation-related proteins are specific targets of Trx2p protection. Indeed, the TRX2 overexpressing strain presented increased activity of the central carbon metabolism enzymes. Interestingly, Trx2p specifically preserved alcohol dehydrogenase I (Adh1p from carbonylation, decreased oligomer aggregates and increased its enzymatic activity. Conclusions The identified proteins suggest that the fermentative capacity detriment observed under industrial conditions in T73 wine commercial strain results from the oxidative carbonylation of specific glycolytic and fermentation enzymes. Indeed, increased thioredoxin levels enhance the performance of key fermentation enzymes such as Adh1p, which consequently increases fermentative capacity.

  7. Antioxidant capacity of alcalase hydrolysates and protein profiles of two conventional and seven low glycinin soybean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, Rudy; Bringe, Neal A; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2010-09-01

    Soy protein hydrolysates are considered a potential dietary source of natural antioxidants with important biological activities. This study was conducted to compare the effect of two conventional and seven low glycinin soybean cultivars on the antioxidant capacity (AC) of soy hydrolysates. Nine cultivars were grown in Bloomington, IL, Findlay, OH and Huxley, IA. The hydrolysates were produced enzymatically using alcalase and analyzed for AC using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay and soluble protein. Statistical differences were observed in the protein profiles and AC among the different cultivars tested (P  0.05) had higher AC than purified glycinin (GL) hydrolysate (28.5 μM TE/μg soluble protein) (P alcalase hydrolysis.

  8. Potato peel extract as a natural antioxidant in chilled storage of minced horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus): Effect on lipid and protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Grejsen, Helene Drejer; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to examine the utilisation of potato peel, a waste material, as a source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid and protein oxidation in minced mackerel. Mackerel mince with two different concentrations (2.4 or 4.8g/kg) of water or ethanol extracts of potato...... peel and a control with no added extracts were prepared. The samples were stored at 5°C for 96h and the sampling was done at time points 0, 24, 48 and 96h. The ethanol extracts, which contained high amounts of phenolic compounds, was found to be very effective in retarding lipid and protein oxidation...... as it resulted in low levels of peroxide value, volatiles, carbonyl compounds and protected against the loss of α-tocopherol and tryptophan and tyrosine residues. Water extracts was less efficient especially at higher concentrations, which might be due to lower phenolic content or due to the pro-oxidative nature...

  9. Antioxidant Effectiveness of Vegetable Powders on the Lipid and Protein Oxidative Stability of Cooked Turkey Meat Patties: Implications for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Russell

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and protein oxidation decreases the shelf-life of foods and may result in formation of end-products potentially detrimental for health. Consumer pressure to decrease the use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants has encouraged identification of alternative compounds or extracts from natural sources. We have assessed whether inclusion of dried vegetable powders improves the oxidative stability of turkey meat patties. Such powders are not only potentially-rich sources of phenolic antioxidants, but also may impart additional health benefits, as inadequate vegetable consumption is a risk factor for heart disease and several cancers. In an accelerated oxidation system, six of eleven vegetable powders significantly (p < 0.05 improved oxidative stability of patties by 20%–30% (spinach < yellow pea < onion < red pepper < green pea < tomato. Improved lipid oxidative stability was strongly correlated with the decreased formation of protein carbonyls (r = 0.747, p < 0.01. However, improved lipid stability could not be ascribed to phenolic acids nor recognized antioxidants, such as α- and γ-tocopherol, despite their significant (p < 0.01 contribution to the total antioxidant capacity of the patties. Use of chemically complex vegetable powders offers an alternative to individual antioxidants for increasing shelf-life of animal-based food products and may also provide additional health benefits associated with increased vegetable intake.

  10. Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates from whole anchovy sprat (Clupeonella engrauliformis) prepared using endogenous enzymes and commercial proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovissipour, Mahmoudreza; Rasco, Barbara; Shiroodi, Setareh Ghorban; Modanlow, Maryam; Gholami, Sanaz; Nemati, Mahrokh

    2013-05-01

    The antioxidant activity and chemical properties of fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) prepared from anchovy sprat (Clupeonella engrauliformis) using endogenous enzymes (autolysis) and commercial proteases were investigated. The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) was observed with Alcalase and papain and the highest protein recovery (PR) with Alcalase and bromelain. FPH yield was highest with Alcalase (82.3%) and lowest with autolysis (63.64%). Increased DH resulted in increased FPH yield (R(2) = 0.77). The highest oil recovery was observed with bromelain (6.41%) and the lowest with autolysis (3.58%). Antioxidant activity determined by DPPH, reducing power and ferrous chelation assays was highest in bromelain, Promod and papain FPHs respectively. The highest ABTS activity was observed in Alcalase FPH, followed by Promod and Protamex™ FPHs. The lowest antioxidant activity was observed in autolysed and Flavourzyme FPHs (P > 0.05). Heavy metals (arsenic, lead and mercury) were recorded at levels below the regulatory limits established by the FDA. Anchovy sprat hydrolysates showed high antioxidant activities and amino acid contents and low heavy metal concentrations, indicating that they have high potential for use in human and animal diets. The high antioxidant activities are related to the high levels of hydrophobic amino acids found in this study. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Induction of activation of the antioxidant response element and stabilization of Nrf2 by 3-(3-pyridylmethylidene)-2-indolinone (PMID) confers protection against oxidative stress-induced cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jia-Wei [Tianjin University, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Department of pharmaceutical engineering, Tianjin 300072 (China); Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Liu, Jing [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Kong, Xiang-Zhen [Tianjin University, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Department of pharmaceutical engineering, Tianjin 300072 (China); Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Zhang, Shou-Guo [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Wang, Xiao-Hui [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); State Key laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing 100850 (China); Yu, Miao; Zhan, Yi-Qun; Li, Wei; Xu, Wang-Xiang [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Tang, Liu-Jun [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); State Key laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing 100850 (China); Ge, Chang-Hui [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Wang, Lin, E-mail: wanlin07@sina.com [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Li, Chang-Yan, E-mail: happylichy@yahoo.com.cn [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); State Key laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing 100850 (China); Yang, Xiao-Ming, E-mail: xmyang2@nic.bmi.ac.cn [Tianjin University, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Department of pharmaceutical engineering, Tianjin 300072 (China); Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); State Key laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing 100850 (China)

    2012-03-01

    The antioxidant response elements (ARE) are a cis-acting enhancer sequence located in regulatory regions of antioxidant and detoxifying genes. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a member of the Cap ‘n’ Collar family of transcription factors that binds to the ARE and regulates the transcription of specific ARE-containing genes. Under oxidative stress, Nrf2/ARE induction is fundamental to defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and serves as a key factor in the protection against toxic xenobiotics. 3-(3-Pyridylmethylidene)-2-Indolinone (PMID) is a derivative of 2-indolinone compounds which act as protein kinase inhibitors and show anti-tumor activity. However, the role of PMID in the oxidative stress remains unknown. In the present study, we showed that PMID induced the activation of ARE-mediated transcription, increased the DNA-binding activity of Nrf2 and then up-regulated the expression of antioxidant genes such as HO-1, SOD, and NQO1. The level of Nrf2 protein was increased in cells treated with PMID by a post-transcriptional mechanism. Under CHX treatment, the stability of Nrf2 protein was enhanced by PMID with decreased turnover rate. We showed that PMID reduced the ubiquitination of Nrf2 and disrupted the Cullin3 (Cul3)-Keap1 interaction. Furthermore, cells treated with PMID showed resistance to cytotoxicity by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and pro-oxidant 6-OHDA. PMID also up-regulated the antioxidant level in BALB/c mice. Taken together, the compound PMID induces the ARE-mediated gene expression through stabilization of Nrf2 protein and activation of Nrf2/ARE pathway and protects against oxidative stress-mediated cell death. -- Highlights: ► PMID up-regulates ARE-mediated antioxidant gene expression in vitro and in vivo. ► PMID enhances the stabilization of Nrf2 protein, decreasing Nrf2 turnover rate. ► PMID disrupted the Cullin3 (Cul3)-Keap1 interaction. ► PMID protects against cell death induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and pro-oxidant 6

  12. Soy versus whey protein bars: Effects on exercise training impact on lean body mass and antioxidant status

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Erin C; DiSilvestro, Robert A; Babaknia, Ari; Devor, Steven T

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Although soy protein may have many health benefits derived from its associated antioxidants, many male exercisers avoid soy protein. This is due partly to a popular, but untested notion that in males, soy is inferior to whey in promoting muscle weight gain. This study provided a direct comparison between a soy product and a whey product. Methods Lean body mass gain was examined in males from a university weight training class given daily servings of micronutrient-fortified...

  13. Protective effects of peony glycosides against corticosterone-induced cell death in PC12 cells through antioxidant action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qing-Qiu; Xian, Yan-Fang; Ip, Siu-Po; Tsai, Sam-Hip; Che, Chun-Tao

    2011-02-16

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that total glycosides of peony (TGP) produced antidepressant-like action in various mouse models of behavioral despair. However, the molecular mechanism by which TGP exerts antidepressant-like effect is not fully understood. This study examined the protective effects of TGP against corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells and ts possible mechanisms. The direct antioxidant effect of TGP was investigated by using a 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation-scavenging assay in a cell-free system. PC12 cells were treated with 200 μM of corticosterone in the absence or presence of TGP in varying concentrations for 48 h. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and catalase (CAT) activity were then determined. TGP displayed antioxidant properties in the cell-free system, and the IC50 value in the ABTS radical cation-scavenging assay was 9.9 mg/L. TGP treatment at increasing doses (1-10 mg/L) protected against corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The cytoprotection afforded by TGP treatment was associated with decreases in the intracellular ROS and MDA levels, and increases in the GSH level, SOD activity, and CAT activity in corticosterone-treated PC12 cells. The results suggest that TGP has a neuroprotective effect on corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells, which may be related to its antioxidant action. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the antioxidant and endothelial protective effects of Lysimachia christinae Hance (Jin Qian Cao) extract fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ning-Hua; Ke, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Shan; Yang, Xiao-Song; Chen, Qing-Jie; Huang, Sheng-Tang; Liu, Chao

    2018-04-10

    Lysimachia christinae Hance is a traditional Chinese medicine with diuretic, detumescent, and detoxifying effects. Our aimed to optimize the extraction protocol to maximize the yield of flavonoids from Lysimachia christinae Hance, and evaluate the pharmacological activities of four fractions, namely, petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (NB), and aqueous (AQ) fractions, of the ethanolic extract of Lysimachia christinae Hance. The flavonoid monomers in the crude extract were characterized via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were used as markers for extract quality control and standardization. The total flavonoid, total phenolic, and total polysaccharide contents of each fraction were determined by spectrophotometry. Further, the in vitro free radical (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals) scavenging activities, and antioxidant capacity in endothelial cells were evaluated for each fraction. After optimizing the extraction protocol to maximize the total flavonoid yield from L. christinae Hance, the NB fractions had the highest total flavonoid (39.4 ± 4.55 mg RE/g), total phenolic (41.1 ± 3.07 mg GAE/g) and total polysaccharide (168.1 ± 7.07 mg GE/g); In addition, the NB fraction of the ethanolic extract of L. christinae Hance reveal the strongest radical-scavenging activity, antioxidant activity and protective effects against H 2 O 2 -induced injury in HUVECs. Among the four fractions of L. christinae Hance, the NB fraction showed the most potent antioxidant and endothelial protective effects, which may be attributed to its high flavonoid, phenolic contents and optimal portfolio of different active ingredients of NB fractions of the ethanolic extract of L. christinae Hance. This study might improve our understanding of the pharmacological activities of L. christinae Hance, thereby facilitating its use in disease prevention and treatment.

  15. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, DNA Damage Protective, Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Activities of Cyperus rotundus Rhizomes Essential Oil against Foodborne Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing-Ping; Cao, Xin-Ming; Hao, Dong-Lin; Zhang, Liang-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) is a medicinal herb traditionally used to treat various clinical conditions at home. In this study, chemical composition of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes essential oil, and in vitro antioxidant, DNA damage protective and cytotoxic activities as well as antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens were investigated. Results showed that α-cyperone (38.46%), cyperene (12.84%) and α-selinene (11.66%) were the major components of the essential oil. The essential oil had an excellent antioxidant activity, the protective effect against DNA damage, and cytotoxic effects on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell, as well as antibacterial activity against several foodborne pathogens. These biological activities were dose-dependent, increasing with higher dosage in a certain concentration range. The antibacterial effects of essential oil were greater against Gram-positive bacteria as compared to Gram-negative bacteria, and the antibacterial effects were significantly influenced by incubation time and concentration. These results may provide biological evidence for the practical application of the C. rotundus rhizomes essential oil in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:28338066

  16. Protective Effects of the Flavonoid Chrysin against Methylmercury-Induced Genotoxicity and Alterations of Antioxidant Status, In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Scandinari Manzolli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of phytochemicals has been widely used as inexpensive approach for prevention of diseases related to oxidative damage due to its antioxidant properties. One of dietary flavonoids is chrysin (CR, found mainly in passion fruit, honey, and propolis. Methylmercury (MeHg is a toxic metal whose main toxic mechanism is oxidative damage. Thus, the study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effects of CR against oxidative damage induced by MeHg in Wistar rats. Animals were treated with MeHg (30 µg/kg/bw in presence and absence of CR (0.10, 1.0, and 10 mg/kg/bw by gavage for 45 days. Glutathione (GSH in blood was quantified spectrophotometrically and for monitoring of DNA damage, comet assay was used in leukocytes and hepatocytes. MeHg led to a significant increase in the formation of comets; when the animals were exposed to the metal in the presence of CR, higher concentrations of CR showed protective effects. Moreover, exposure to MeHg decreased the levels of GSH and GSH levels were restored in the animals that received CR plus MeHg. Taken together the findings of the present work indicate that consumption of flavonoids such as CR may protect humans against the adverse health effects caused by MeHg.

  17. Antioxidant enzymatic protection during tobacco leaf ageing is affected by cytokinin depletion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mýtinová, Zuzana; Motyka, Václav; Haisel, Daniel; Lubovská, Zuzana; Trávníčková, Alena; Dobrev, Petre; Holík, Josef; Wilhelmová, Naděžda

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 1 (2011), s. 23-34 ISSN 0167-6903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/03/0312; GA AV ČR IAA600380701; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Ageing * Antioxidant enzymes * Cytokinins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.604, year: 2011

  18. The Protective Effect of Antioxidants Consumption on Diabetes and Vascular Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Dal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and diabetes is generally accompanied by a chronic state of oxidative stress, disequilibrium in the redox balance, implicated in the development and progression of complications such as micro- and macro-angiopathies. Disorders in the inner layer of blood vessels, the endothelium, play an early and critical role in the development of these complications. Blunted endothelium-dependent relaxation and/or contractions are quietly associated to oxidative stress. Thus, preserving endothelial function and oxidative stress seems to be an optimization strategy in the prevention of vascular complications associated with diabetes. Diet is a major lifestyle factor that can greatly influence the incidence and the progression of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications. The notion that foods not only provide basic nutrition but can also prevent diseases and ensure good health and longevity is now attained greater prominence. Some dietary and lifestyle modifications associated to antioxidative supply could be an effective prophylactic means to fight against oxidative stress in diabesity and complications. A significant benefit of phytochemicals (polyphenols in wine, grape, teas, vitamins (ascorbate, tocopherol, minerals (selenium, magnesium, and fruits and vegetables in foods is thought to be capable of scavenging free radicals, lowering the incidence of chronic diseases. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative stress in diabetes and complications, highlight the endothelial dysfunction, and examine the impact of antioxidant foods, plants, fruits, and vegetables, currently used medication with antioxidant properties, in relation to the development and progression of diabetes and cardiovascular complications.

  19. The Protective Effect of Antioxidants Consumption on Diabetes and Vascular Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal, Stéphanie; Sigrist, Séverine

    2016-07-11

    Obesity and diabetes is generally accompanied by a chronic state of oxidative stress, disequilibrium in the redox balance, implicated in the development and progression of complications such as micro- and macro-angiopathies. Disorders in the inner layer of blood vessels, the endothelium, play an early and critical role in the development of these complications. Blunted endothelium-dependent relaxation and/or contractions are quietly associated to oxidative stress. Thus, preserving endothelial function and oxidative stress seems to be an optimization strategy in the prevention of vascular complications associated with diabetes. Diet is a major lifestyle factor that can greatly influence the incidence and the progression of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications. The notion that foods not only provide basic nutrition but can also prevent diseases and ensure good health and longevity is now attained greater prominence. Some dietary and lifestyle modifications associated to antioxidative supply could be an effective prophylactic means to fight against oxidative stress in diabesity and complications. A significant benefit of phytochemicals (polyphenols in wine, grape, teas), vitamins (ascorbate, tocopherol), minerals (selenium, magnesium), and fruits and vegetables in foods is thought to be capable of scavenging free radicals, lowering the incidence of chronic diseases. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative stress in diabetes and complications, highlight the endothelial dysfunction, and examine the impact of antioxidant foods, plants, fruits, and vegetables, currently used medication with antioxidant properties, in relation to the development and progression of diabetes and cardiovascular complications.

  20. Amino acids as antioxidants for frying oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids, proteins and hydrolysates of proteins have been known to protect edible oils from oxidation. While amino acids and related materials have high potential as antioxidants for frying oil, effectiveness of each amino acid and mechanisms of their activities are not well understood yet. Propo...

  1. Galactose alters markers of oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase activity in the cerebrum of rats: protective role of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwing-de Lima, Daniela; Fröhlich, Monique; Dalmedico, Leticia; Aurélio, Juliana Gruenwaldt Maia; Delwing-Dal Magro, Débora; Pereira, Eduardo Manoel; Wyse, Angela T S

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the in vitro effects of galactose at 0.1, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mM on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS), total sulfhydryl content, protein carbonyl content, on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus of rats. We also investigated the influence of the antioxidants (each at 1 mM), α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and glutathione, on the effects elicited by galactose on the parameters tested. Results showed that galactose, at a concentration of 3.0 mM, enhanced TBA-RS levels in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and cerebellum of rats. In the cerebral cortex, galactose at concentrations of 5.0 and 10.0 mM increased TBA-RS and protein carbonyl content, and at 10.0 mM increased CAT activity and decreased AChE activity. In the cerebellum, galactose at concentrations of 5.0 and 10.0 mM increased TBA-RS, SOD and GSH-Px activities. In the hippocampus, galactose at concentrations of 5.0 and 10.0 mM increased TBA-RS and CAT activity and at 10.0 mM decreased GSH-Px. Data showed that at the pathologically high concentration (greater than 5.0 mM), galactose induces lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, alters antioxidant defenses in the cerebrum, and also alters cholinesterase activity. Trolox, ascorbic acid and glutathione addition prevented the majority of alterations in oxidative stress parameters and the decrease in AChE activity that were caused by galactose. Our findings lend support to a potential therapeutic strategy for this condition, which may include the use of appropriate antioxidants for ameliorating the damage caused by galactose.

  2. Vegetable foods: a cheap source of proteins and peptides with antihypertensive, antioxidant, and other less occurrence bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M C; Puchalska, P; Esteve, C; Marina, M L

    2013-03-15

    Despite less explored than foods from animal origin, plant derived foods also contain biologically active proteins and peptides. Bioactive peptides can be present as an independent entity in the food or, more frequently, can be in a latent state as part of the sequence of a protein. Release from that protein requires protein hydrolysis by enzymatic digestion, fermentation or autolysis. Different methodologies have been used to test proteins and peptides bioactivities. Fractionation, separation, and identification techniques have also been employed for the isolation and identification of bioactive proteins or peptides. In this work, proteins and peptides from plant derived foods exerting antihypertensive, antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, antithrombotic, and immunostimulating capacities or ability to reduce food intake have been reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor is necessary to protect fetal human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells against hyperoxic injury: Mechanistic roles of antioxidant enzymes and RelB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shaojie; Patel, Ananddeep; Chu, Chun; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Welty, Stephen E.; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Shivanna, Binoy, E-mail: shivanna@bcm.edu

    2015-07-15

    Hyperoxia contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) protects adult and newborn mice against hyperoxic lung injury by mediating increases in the expression of phase I (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A) and phase II (NADP(H) quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)) antioxidant enzymes (AOE). AhR positively regulates the expression of RelB, a component of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) protein that contributes to anti-inflammatory processes in adult animals. Whether AhR regulates the expression of AOE and RelB, and protects fetal primary human lung cells against hyperoxic injury is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that AhR-deficient fetal human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) will have decreased RelB activation and AOE, which will in turn predispose them to increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell death compared to AhR-sufficient HPMEC upon exposure to hyperoxia. AhR-deficient HPMEC showed increased hyperoxia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and cell death compared to AhR-sufficient HPMEC. Additionally, AhR-deficient cell culture supernatants displayed increased macrophage inflammatory protein 1α and 1β, indicating a heightened inflammatory state. Interestingly, loss of AhR was associated with a significantly attenuated CYP1A1, NQO1, superoxide dismutase 1(SOD1), and nuclear RelB protein expression. These findings support the hypothesis that decreased RelB activation and AOE in AhR-deficient cells is associated with increased hyperoxic injury compared to AhR-sufficient cells. - Highlights: • AhR deficiency potentiates oxygen toxicity in human fetal lung cells. • Deficient AhR signaling increases hyperoxia-induced cell death. • AhR deficiency increases hyperoxia-induced ROS generation and inflammation. • Anti-oxidant enzyme levels are attenuated in AhR-deficient lung cells

  4. Comparative proteomics and protein profile related to phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in germinated Oryza sativa 'KDML105' and Thai brown rice 'Mali Daeng' for better nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksup, Sarunyaporn; Pongpakpian, Sarintip; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Cha-Um, Suriyan; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt

    2018-01-01

    Brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) are considered as prime sources of carbohydrate and bioactive compounds for more than half of the populations worldwide. Several studies have reported on the proteomics of BR and GBR; however, the proteomic profiles related to the synthesis of bioactive compounds are less well documented. In the present study, BR and GBR were used in a comparative analysis of the proteomic and bioactive compound profiles for two famous Thai rice varieties: Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML) and Mali Daeng (MD). The proteomes of KDML and MD revealed differences in the expression patterns of proteins after germination. Total phenolic compound content, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activity of red rice MD was approximately 2.6-, 2.2- and 9.2-fold higher, respectively, compared to that of the white rice KDML. Moreover, GBR of MD showed higher total anthocyanin content and greater antioxidant activity, which is consistent with the increase expression of several proteins involved in the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and protection against oxidative stress. Red rice MD exhibits higher nutrient values compared to white rice KDML and the appropriate germination of brown rice could represent a method for improving health-related benefits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Prooxidant-antioxidant balance, advanced oxidation protein products and lipid peroxidation in Serbian patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletić, Jadranka; Drakulić, Dunja; Pejić, Snežana; Petković, Marijana; Ilić, Tihomir V; Miljković, Milica; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Prostran, Milica; Stojanov, Marina

    2017-12-04

    Biomarkers of oxidative stress are relevant in the evaluation of the disease status and prooxidant-antioxidant balance, advanced oxidation protein products and lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal) are being extensively evaluated regarding their relationship with clinical presentation and disease severity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of the above-mentioned parameters in plasma of 39 men and 17 women with Parkinson's disease, originated from the Republic of Serbia and their relation to clinicopathological characteristics (gender, age at examination, duration of the disease, and Hoehn and Yahr score) and oxidative status. The incidence of disease was 2:1 towards males. The investigated oxidative parameters were gender and Hoehn and Yahr related. Significant association of higher Hoehn and Yahr scores was observed for malondialdehyde (p = 0.01) and prooxidant-antioxidant balance (p = 0.02). Relation between oxidant-antioxidant status was further supported by observed positive correlation between 4-hydroxynonenal (p = 0.04) and prooxidant-antioxidant balance (p = 0.03). Finally, the multivariate analysis indicated that prooxidant-antioxidant balance and malondialdehyde were partially determined by gender (10.6% and 7.6%) and Hoehn and Yahr scores (13.6% and 18.8%), while Hoehn and Yahr scores contributed to the variance of advanced oxidation protein products with 13.2%. Our results indicate the higher level of oxidative stress (oxidant-antioxidant imbalance) and possible relation of several markers with gender and disease stage in patients with Parkinson's disease. The analyzed markers could be used to specify the severity of oxidative stress; however, their potential value should be analyzed in further studies.

  6. Effect of fraxetin on antioxidant defense and stress proteins in human neuroblastoma cell model of rotenone neurotoxicity. Comparative study with myricetin and N-acetylcysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Jimenez, Maria Francisca; Sanchez-Reus, Maria Isabel; Cascales, Maria; Andres, David; Benedi, Juana

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone induces apoptosis through enhancing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. Recently, it has been shown that fraxetin (coumarin) and myricetin (flavonoid) have significant neuroprotective effects against apoptosis induced by rotenone, increase the total glutathione levels in vitro, and inhibit lipid peroxidation. Thus, these considerations prompted us to investigate the way in which fraxetin and myricetin affect the endogenous antioxidant defense system, such as Mn and CuZn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, CuZnSOD), catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) on rotenone neurotoxicity in neuroblastoma cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, was employed as a comparative agent. Also, the expression and protein levels of HSP70 by Northern and Western blot analysis were assayed in SH-SY5Y cells. After incubation for 16 h, rotenone significantly increased the expression and activity of MnSOD, GPx, and catalase. When cells were preincubated with fraxetin, there was a decrease in the protein levels and activity of both MnSOD and catalase, in comparison with the rotenone treatment. The myricetin effect was less pronounced. Activity and expression of GPx were increased by rotenone and pre-treatment with fraxetin did not modify significantly these levels. The significant enhancement in HSP70 expression at mRNA and protein levels induced by fraxetin was observed by pre-treatment of cells 0.5 h before rotenone insult. These data suggest that major features of rotenone-induced neurotoxicity are partially mediated by free radical formation and oxidative stress, and that fraxetin partially protects against rotenone toxicity affecting the main protection system of the cells against oxidative injury

  7. Vicilin-A major storage protein of mungbean exhibits antioxidative potential, antiproliferative effects and ACE inhibitory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    Full Text Available Enzymatic hydrolysates of different food proteins demonstrate health benefits. Search for diet related food protein hydrolysates is therefore of interest within the scope of functional foods. Mungbean is one of the popular foods in India because of rich protein source. In this study, mungbean vicilin protein (MBVP was enzymatically hydrolysed by alcalase and trypsin under optimal conditions. We have studied the antioxidant, antiproliferative and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of mungbean vicilin protein hydrolysate (MBVPH vis-a-vis alcalase-generated mungbean vicilin protein hydrolysate (AMBVPH and trypsin-generated mungbean vicilin protein hydrolysate (TMBVPH. The results showed that MBVPH exhibited higher antioxidant potential, ACE inhibitory and antiproliferative activities than MBVP. The alcalase treated hydrolysate displayed highest ACE inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 0.32 mg protein/ml. The MBVP showed significant antiproliferative activity against both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells at the doses between 0.2-1.0 mg/ml. The data suggested that MBVPH can be utilized as physiologically active functional foods with sufficient antihypertensive activity. The results indicate that mungbean can be utilized as a rich resource of functional foods.

  8. Superoxide activates mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 from the matrix side. Studies using targeted antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echtay, Karim S; Murphy, Michael P; Smith, Robin A J; Talbot, Darren A; Brand, Martin D

    2002-12-06

    Superoxide activates nucleotide-sensitive mitochondrial proton transport through the uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2, and UCP3 (Echtay, K. S., et al. (2002) Nature 415, 1482-1486). Two possible mechanisms were proposed: direct activation of the UCP proton transport mechanism by superoxide or its products and a cycle of hydroperoxyl radical entry coupled to UCP-catalyzed superoxide anion export. Here we provide evidence for the first mechanism and show that superoxide activates UCP2 in rat kidney mitochondria from the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane: (i) Exogenous superoxide inhibited matrix aconitase, showing that external superoxide entered the matrix. (ii) Superoxide-induced uncoupling was abolished by low concentrations of the mitochondrially targeted antioxidants 10-(6'-ubiquinonyl)decyltriphenylphosphonium (mitoQ) or 2-[2-(triphenylphosphonio)ethyl]-3,4-dihydro-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol bromide (mitoVit E), which are ubiquinone (Q) or tocopherol derivatives targeted to the matrix by covalent attachment to triphenylphosphonium cation. However, superoxide-induced uncoupling was not affected by similar concentrations of the nontargeted antioxidants Q(o), Q(1), decylubiquinone, vitamin E, or 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman 2-carboxylic acid (TROLOX) or of the mitochondrially targeted but redox-inactive analogs decyltriphenylphosphonium or 4-chlorobutyltriphenylphosphonium. Thus matrix superoxide appears to be necessary for activation of UCP2 by exogenous superoxide. (iii) When the reduced to oxidized ratio of mitoQ accumulated by mitochondria was increased by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase, it induced nucleotide-sensitive uncoupling that was not inhibited by external superoxide dismutase. Under these conditions quinols are known to produce superoxide, and because mitoQ is localized within the mitochondrial matrix this suggests that production of superoxide in the matrix was sufficient to activate UCP2. Furthermore, the superoxide

  9. Solid-State Fermentation for the Enrichment and Extraction of Proteins and Antioxidant Compounds in Rice Bran by Rhizopus oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Kupski, Larine; Cipolatti, Eliane Pereira; Rocha, Meritaine da; Oliveira, Melissa dos Santos; Soares, Leonorde Almeida Souza; Furlong, Eliana Badiale

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oryzae CCT 7560 of rice bran for the enrichment of proteins and the antioxidant compounds in the fermented biomass. Fermentation was performed in tray bioreactors at 30ºC for 120 h. Protein extraction was done at alkaline pH, followed by precipitation with acetone. Phenolic compounds were extracted with cold methanol. The maximum protein was recovered from after 120 h (26.6%). The content of total phenolic c...

  10. C1q/TNF-Related Protein-9 Ameliorates Ox-LDL-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction via PGC-1α/AMPK-Mediated Antioxidant Enzyme Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijian Sun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL accumulation is one of the critical determinants in endothelial dysfunction in many cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9 is identified to be an adipocytokine with cardioprotective properties. However, the potential roles of CTRP9 in endothelial function remain largely elusive. In the present study, the effects of CTRP9 on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, angiogenesis, nitric oxide (NO production and oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs exposed to ox-LDL were investigated. We observed that treatment with ox-LDL inhibited the proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and the generation of NO, while stimulated the apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS production in HUVECs. Incubation of HUVECs with CTRP9 rescued ox-LDL-induced endothelial injury. CTRP9 treatment reversed ox-LDL-evoked decreases in antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(PH dehydrogenase quinone 1, and glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL, as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. Furthermore, CTRP9 induced activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC1-α and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Of interest, AMPK inhibition or PGC1-α silencing abolished CTRP9-mediated antioxidant enzymes levels, eNOS expressions, and endothelial protective effects. Collectively, we provided the first evidence that CTRP9 attenuated ox-LDL-induced endothelial injury by antioxidant enzyme inductions dependent on PGC-1α/AMPK activation.

  11. Turmerin, the antioxidant protein from turmeric (Curcuma longa) exhibits antihyperglycaemic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekshmi, P C; Arimboor, Ranjith; Raghu, K G; Menon, A Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of proteinaceous inhibitors are present in plants to protect themselves from hydrolytic enzymes. In this study, turmerin, a water-soluble peptide in turmeric rhizomes, was evaluated for its inhibitory potential against glucosidase and its antioxidant (AO) capacity. Turmerin inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities with IC₅₀ values 31 and 192 µg mL⁻¹, respectively. Under the experimental conditions, those values for a standard glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, were 81 and 296 µg mL⁻¹, respectively. The AO capacity of turmerin was evaluated using in vitro assay systems. Turmerin showed good DPPH (IC₅₀ = 29 µg mL⁻¹) and superoxide (IC₅₀ = 48 µg mL⁻¹) and moderate ABTS (IC₅₀ = 83 µg mL⁻¹) radical scavenging and Fe(II) chelation (IC₅₀ = 101 µg mL⁻¹) capacities. The inhibitory potential showed by turmerin against enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes, as well as its moderate AO capacity, could rationalise the traditional usage of turmeric rhizome preparations against diabetes.

  12. Influence of the degree of hydrolysis and type of enzyme on antioxidant activity of okara protein hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ferreira SBROGGIO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates obtained by the enzymatic hydrolysis of okara using an endopeptidase (Alcalase and exopeptidase (Flavourzyme. The reaction was monitored by the pH-stat procedure in which five aliquots were collected during the hydrolysis by each enzyme, corresponding to different degrees of hydrolysis (DH. The antioxidant activities of the aliquots were evaluated by the ABTS, DPPH and FRAP methods. For the hydrolysates obtained using Alcalase, the antioxidant activities increased from: 68.6 to 99.5% (ABTS, 14.5 to 17.7% (DPPH and 222.6 to 684.9 µM Trolox (FRAP, when the DH varied from 0 to 33.6%. With respect to Flavourzyme, the results were: 67.2 to 88.2% (ABTS, 9.5 to 18.5% (DPPH and 168.0 to 360.3 µM Trolox (FRAP, when the DH increased up to 5.8%. The results showed that the protein hydrolysates had antioxidant capacities, which were influenced by the degree of hydrolysis and the type of enzyme.

  13. Recent developments on polyphenol–protein interactions: effects on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Ghosh, Amit K; Ghosh, Chandrasekhar

    2012-06-01

    Tea and coffee are widely consumed beverages across the world and they are rich sources of various polyphenols. Polyphenols are responsible for the bitterness and astringency of beverages and are also well known to impart antioxidant properties which is beneficial against several oxidative stress related diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and aging. On the other hand, proteins are also known to display many important roles in several physiological activities. Polyphenols can interact with proteins through hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions, leading to the formation of soluble or insoluble complexes. According to recent studies, this complex formation can affect the bioavailability and beneficiary properties of both the individual components, in either way. For example, polyphenol-protein complex formation can reduce or enhance the antioxidant activity of polyphenols; similarly it can also affect the digestion ability of several digestive enzymes present in our body. Surprisingly, no review article has been published recently which has focused on the progress in this area, despite numerous articles having appeared in this field. This review summarizes the recent trends and patterns (2005 onwards) in polyphenol-protein interaction studies focusing on the characterization of the complex, the effect of this complex formation on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

  14. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Mito-Tempo Protects Against Aldosterone-Induced Renal Injury In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ding

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Growing evidence suggests mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD and the Nlrp3 inflammasome play critical roles in chronic kidney disease (CKD progression. We previously reported that Aldosterone (Aldo-induced renal injury in vitro is directly caused by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS-mediated activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome. Here we aimed to determine whether a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant (Mito-Tempo could prevent Aldo-induced kidney damage in vivo. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were treated with Aldo and/or Mito-Tempo (or ethanol as a control for 4 weeks. Renal injury was evaluated by Periodic Acid-Schiff reagent or Masson’s trichrome staining and electron microscopy. ROS were measured by DCFDA fluorescence and ELISA. MtD was determined by real-time PCR and electron microscopy. Activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS was detected via western blot. Results: Compared with control mice, Aldo-infused mice showed impaired renal function, increased mtROS production and MtD, Nlrp3 inflammasome activation, and elevated ERS. We showed administration of Mito-Tempo significantly improved renal function and MtD, and reduced Nlrp3 inflammasome activation and ERS in vivo. Conclusion: Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants may attenuate Aldo-infused renal injury by inhibiting MtD, the Nlrp3 inflammasome, and ERS in vivo. Therefore, targeting mtROS might be an effective strategy for preventing CKD.

  15. Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory protection of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shih-Jei; Yin, M-C

    2008-09-01

    PC12 cells were used to examine the in vitro antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA). PC12 cells were pretreated with OA or UA at 20 and 40 microM and followed by exposure of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)) to induce cell injury. Results showed that H(2)O(2)- or MPP(+)-treatment significantly decreased cell viability and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release (P content, and diminished glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities (P < 0.05). The pretreatment from OA or UA significantly retained GSH, and reversed H(2)O(2)- and MPP(+)-induced impairment in catalase and SOD activities (P < 0.05), and decreased MDA formation (P < 0.05). Either H(2)O(2)- or MPP(+)-treatment significantly elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels (P < 0.05). The pretreatments from OA or UA significantly attenuated subsequent H(2)O(2)- or MPP(+)-induced release of IL-6 and TNF-alpha (P < 0.05). Based on the observed antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities from OA and UA, these 2 compounds were potent agents against neurodegenerative disorder.

  16. Theoretical and Kinetic Tools for Selecting Effective Antioxidants: Application to the Protection of Omega-3 Oils with Natural and Synthetic Phenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guitard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Radical-scavenging antioxidants play crucial roles in the protection of unsaturated oils against autoxidation and, especially, edible oils rich in omega-3 because of their high sensitivity to oxygen. Two complementary tools are employed to select, among a large set of natural and synthetic phenols, the most promising antioxidants. On the one hand, density functional theory (DFT calculations provide bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs of 70 natural (i.e., tocopherols, hydroxybenzoic and cinnamic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes, lignans, and coumarins and synthetic (i.e., 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT, 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisol (BHA, and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ phenols. These BDEs are discussed on the basis of structure–activity relationships with regard to their potential antioxidant activities. On the other hand, the kinetic rate constants and number of hydrogen atoms released per phenol molecule are measured by monitoring the reaction of phenols with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• radical. The comparison of the results obtained with these two complementary methods allows highlighting the most promising antioxidants. Finally, the antioxidant effectiveness of the best candidates is assessed by following the absorption of oxygen by methyl esters of linseed oil containing 0.5 mmol L−1 of antioxidant and warmed at 90 °C under oxygen atmosphere. Under these conditions, some natural phenols namely epigallocatechin gallate, myricetin, rosmarinic and carnosic acids were found to be more effective antioxidants than α-tocopherol.

  17. Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of a Fusion Protein Tuberculosis Vaccine Combining Five Esx Family Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zhi-Hao; Sun, Rui-Feng; Lin, Chen; Chen, Fu-Zeng; Mai, Jun-Tao; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Xu, Zi-Yan; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    One strategy to develop the next generation of tuberculosis vaccines is to construct subunit vaccines based on T cell antigens. In this study, we have evaluated the vaccine potential of a fusion protein combining EsxB, EsxD, EsxG, EsxU, and EsxM of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb ). This recombinant protein, named BM, was expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli . Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with purified BM protein formulated in Freund's incomplete adjuvant induced the production of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF, and IL-2) and multifunctional CD4 + T cells. Vaccination of BALB/c mice with BM protein followed by intravenous challenge with Mycobacterium bovis BCG resulted in better levels of protection than the two leading antigens, Ag85A and PPE18. Taken together, these results indicate that BM is a protective antigen. Future studies to combine BM with other antigens and evaluate its effectiveness as a booster of BCG or as a therapeutic vaccine are warranted.

  18. Antioxidants and embryo phenotype: is there experimental evidence for strong integration of the antioxidant system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possenti, Cristina Daniela; Karadas, Filiz; Colombo, Graziano; Caprioli, Manuela; Rubolini, Diego; Milzani, Aldo; Donne, Isabella Dalle; Saino, Nicola; Parolini, Marco

    2017-02-15

    Organisms have evolved complex defense systems against oxidative stress. Bird eggs contain maternally derived antioxidants that protect embryos from oxidative damage. The antioxidant system components are thought to be integrated, but few studies have analyzed the covariation between antioxidant concentrations, embryo 'oxidative status' and morphology. In addition, no study has tested the effects of experimental change in yolk antioxidant concentration on other antioxidants, on their reciprocal relationships and on their relationships with embryo oxidative status or growth, which are expected if antioxidants defenses are integrated. In yellow-legged gull ( Larus michahellis ) embryos, we analyzed the covariation between several antioxidants, markers of 'oxidative status' [total antioxidant capacity (TAC), concentration of pro-oxidants (TOS), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonylation (PC)] in the yolk, liver and brain, and morphology. Yolk and liver antioxidant concentrations were positively correlated reciprocally and with embryo size, and positively predicted TAC but not oxidative status. TOS and LPO were positively correlated in the liver, while TAC and LPO were negatively correlated in the brain. Weak relationships existed between antioxidants and TOS, PC and LPO. The effects of antioxidants on oxidative status and morphology were non-synergistic. An experimental physiological increase in yolk vitamin E had very weak effects on the relationships between other antioxidants or oxidative status and vitamin E concentration, the concentration of other antioxidants or oxidative status; the covariation between other antioxidants and oxidative status, and relationships between morphology or oxidative status and other antioxidants, challenging the common wisdom of strong functional relationships among antioxidants, at least for embryos in the wild. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. NAP (davunetide) protects primary hippocampus culture by modulating expression profile of antioxidant genes during limiting oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, A; Meena, R; Sethy, N K; Das, M; Sharma, M; Bhargava, K

    2015-04-01

    Hypoxia is a well-known threat to neuronal cells and triggers the pathophysiological syndromes in extreme environments such as high altitudes and traumatic conditions such as stroke. Among several prophylactic molecules proven suitable for ameliorating free radical damage, NAP (an octapeptide with initial amino acids: asparagine/N, alanine/A, and proline/P) can be considered superlative, primarily due to its high permeability into brain through blood-brain barrier and observed activity at femtomolar concentrations. Several mechanisms of action of NAP have been hypothesized for its protective role during hypoxia, yet any distinct mechanism is unknown. Oxidative stress is advocated as the leading event in hypoxia; we, therefore, investigated the regulation of key antioxidant genes to understand the regulatory role of NAP in providing neuroprotection. Primary neuronal culture of rat was subjected to cellular hypoxia by limiting the oxygen concentration to 0.5% for 72 h and observing the prophylactic efficacies of 15fM NAP by conventional cell death assays using flow cytometry. We performed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to comprehend the regulatory mechanism. Further, we validated the significantly regulated candidates by enzyme assays and immunoblotting. In the present study, we report that NAP regulates a major clad of cellular antioxidants and there is an involvement of more than one route of action in neuroprotection during hypoxia.

  20. Further Studies on Antioxidant Potential and Protection of Pancreatic β-Cells by Embelia ribes in Experimental Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Bhandari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the antioxidant defense by ethanolic extract of Embelia ribes on streptozotocin-(40 mg/kg, intravenously, single-injection induced diabetes in Wistar rats. Forty days of oral feeding the extract (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg to diabetic rats resulted in significant (P<.01 decrease in blood glucose, blood glycosylated haemoglobin, serum lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and increase in blood glutathione levels as compared to pathogenic diabetic rats. Further, the extract also significantly (P<.01 decreased the pancreatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS levels and significantly (P<.01 increased the superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione levels as compared to above levels in pancreatic tissue of pathogenic diabetic rats. The islets were shrunken in diabetic rats in comparison to normal rats. In the drug-treated diabetic rats, there was expansion of islets. The results of test drug were comparable to gliclazide (25 mg/kg, daily, a standard antihyperglycemic agent. The study concludes that Embelia ribes enhances the antioxidant defense against reactive oxygen species produced under hyperglycemic condition and this protects β-cells against loss, and exhibit antidiabetic property.

  1. Molecular modification of native coffee polysaccharide using subcritical water treatment: Structural characterization, antioxidant, and DNA protecting activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Adane Tilahun; Chun, Byung Soo

    2017-06-01

    Polysaccharides are an abundant resource in coffee beans and have proved to show numerous bioactivities. Despite their abundance, their activities are not always satisfactory mostly due to their structure and large molecular size. Molecular modifications of native polysaccharides can overcome this problem. In this study, we used a novel and green method to modify native coffee polysaccharides using subcritical water (SCW) treatment. The SCW treatment was used at the temperature of 180°C-220°C and pressure of 30-60bar. The molecular and structural modification of the polysaccharides was confirmed using several techniques such as FT-IR, UV spectroscopy, XRD, and TGA. The antioxidant activity of the modified polysaccharides was evaluated using several chemical and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based high throughput assays. The modified polysaccharides showed high antioxidant activities in all tested assays. Moreover, the polysaccharides showed high DNA protection activities. Therefore, SCW could be employed as a green solvent for molecular modification of polysaccharides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Organophosphate pesticides-induced changes in the redox status of rat tissues and protective effects of antioxidant vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vibhuti; Srivastava, Nalini

    2015-04-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) pesticides are among the most toxic synthetic chemicals purposefully added in the environment. The common use of OP insecticides in public health and agriculture results in an environmental pollution and a number of acute and chronic poisoning events. Present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of monocrotophos and quinalphos to effect the redox status and glutathione (GSH) homeostasis in rat tissues and find out whether antioxidant vitamins have some protection on the pesticide-induced alterations. The results showed that these pesticides alone or in combination, caused decrease in the levels of GSH and the corresponding increase in the levels of GSSG, decreasing the GSH/GSSG ratio. The results also showed that NADPH/NADP(+) and NADH/NAD(+) ratios were decreased in the liver and brain of rats on exposure with mococrotophos, quinalphos, and their mixture. These pesticides, alone or in combination, caused alterations in the activities of GSH reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the rat tissues. However, the expression of the GSH recycling enzymes did not show significant alterations as compared to control. From the results, it can be concluded that these pesticides generate oxidative stress but their effects were not synergistic when given together and prior feeding of antioxidant vitamins tend to reduce the toxicities of these pesticides. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cellular prion protein and NMDA receptor modulation: protecting against excitotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie A.G. Black

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although it is well established that misfolding of the cellular prion protein (PrPC into the beta-sheet-rich, aggregated scrapie conformation (PrPSc causes a variety of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, the physiological roles of PrPC are still incompletely understood. There is accumulating evidence describing the roles of PrPC in neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Recently, we identified a functional regulation of NMDA receptors by PrPC that involves formation of a physical protein complex between these proteins. Excessive NMDA receptor activity during conditions such as ischemia mediates enhanced Ca2+ entry into cells and contributes to excitotoxic neuronal death. In addition, NMDA receptors and/or PrPC play critical roles in neuroinflammation and glial cell toxicity. Inhibition of NMDA receptor activity protects against PrPSc-induced neuronal death. Moreover, in mice lacking PrPC, infarct size is increased after focal cerebral ischemia, and absence of PrPC increases susceptibility of neurons to NMDA receptor-dependent death. Recently, PrPC was found to be a receptor for oligomeric beta-amyloid (Abeta peptides, suggesting a role for PrPC in Alzheimer’s disease. Our recent findings suggest that Abeta peptides enhance NMDA receptor current by perturbing the normal copper- and PrPC-dependent regulation of these receptors. Here, we review evidence highlighting a role for PrPC in preventing NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity and inflammation. There is a need for more detailed molecular characterization of PrPC-mediated regulation of NMDA receptors, such as determining which NMDA receptor subunits mediate pathogenic effects upon loss of PrPC-mediated regulation and identifying PrPC binding site(s on the receptor. This knowledge will allow development of novel therapeutic interventions for not only TSEs, but also for Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders involving dysfunction of PrPC.

  4. Physicochemical properties, in vitro digestibility and antioxidant activity of dry-heated egg white protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juntong; Chi, Yujie; Cheng, Yuan; Zhao, Ying

    2018-04-25

    Egg white powder is widely used as a food ingredient instead of fresh eggs. Dry heat treatment plays an essential role in the processing of egg white powder to obtain its excellent functionalities. In this study, the effect of dry heat treatment on egg white protein (EWP) was evaluated by determining its physicochemical properties and in vitro pepsin digestion. The results indicated that dry heat treatment reduced EWP thermal stability and tryptophan fluorescence and increased its surface hydrophobicity. SDS-PAGE revealed that abundant soluble aggregates formed during dry heating, and these aggregates could be digested by pepsin. The digestibility of dry-heated EWP was better than for untreated EWP, and the essential amino acid and low-molecular-weight peptide (Mw < 1 kDa) contents increased with increasing dry heating time. In vitro digests of EWP that were dry heat treated for 9-15 days exhibited excellent antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The protective effect of thymoquinone, an anti-oxidant and anti--inflammatory agent, against renal injury: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragheb Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymoquinone (TQ, 2-Isopropyl-5-methyl-1, 4-benzoquinone, is one of the most active ingredients of Nigella Sativa seeds. TQ has a variety of beneficial properties including anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Studies have provided original observations on the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in the development of renal diseases such as glomerulo-nephritis and drug-induced nephrotoxicity. The renoprotective effects of TQ have been demons-trated in animal models. Also, TQ has been used successfully in treating allergic diseases in humans. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of reactive oxygen species in renal pathophysiology and the intriguing possibility for a role of TQ in the prevention of and/or protection from renal injury in humans.

  6. The Antioxidant Content and Protective Effect of Argan Oil and Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oil in Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Biochemical and Histological Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakour, Meryem; Soulo, Najoua; Hammas, Nawal; Fatemi, Hinde El; Aboulghazi, Abderrazak; Taroq, Amal; Abdellaoui, Abdelfattah; Al-Waili, Noori; Lyoussi, Badiaa

    2018-02-18

    Oxidative stress is an important etiology of chronic diseases and many studies have shown that natural products might alleviate oxidative stress-induced pathogenesis. The study aims to evaluate the effect of Argan oil and Syzygium aromaticum essential oil on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced liver, brain and kidney tissue toxicity as well as biochemical changes in wistar rats. The antioxidant content of Argan oil and Syzygium aromaticum essential oil was studied with the use of gas chromatography. The animals received daily by gavage, for 21 days, either distilled water, Syzygium aromaticum essential oil, Argan oil, H₂O₂ alone, H₂O₂ and Syzygium aromaticum essential oil, or H₂O₂ and Argan oil. Blood samples were withdrawn on day 21 for the biochemical blood tests, and the kidney, liver and brain tissue samples were prepared for histopathology examination. The results showed that the content of antioxidant compounds in Syzygium aromaticum essential oil is higher than that found in Argan oil. H₂O₂ increased level of blood urea, liver enzymes, total cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL-C), Triglycerides (TG) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL), and decreased the total protein, albumin and High Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). There was no significant effect on blood electrolyte or serum creatinine. The histopathology examination demonstrated that H₂O₂ induces dilatation in the central vein, inflammation and binucleation in the liver, congestion and hemorrhage in the brain, and congestion in the kidney. The H₂O₂-induced histopathological and biochemical changes have been significantly alleviated by Syzygium aromaticum essential oil or Argan oil. It is concluded that the Argan oil and especially the mixture of Argan oil with Syzygium aromaticum essential oil can reduce the oxidative damage caused by H₂O 2, and this will pave the way to investigate the protective effects of these natural substances in the diseases attributed

  7. Inhibition of neuroinflammation in BV2 microglia by the biflavonoid kolaviron is dependent on the Nrf2/ARE antioxidant protective mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onasanwo, Samuel A; Velagapudi, Ravikanth; El-Bakoush, Abdelmeneim; Olajide, Olumayokun A

    2016-03-01

    Kolaviron is a mixture of biflavonoids found in the nut of the West African edible seed Garcinia kola, and it has been reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. In this study, we investigated the effects of kolaviron in neuroinflammation. The effects of kolaviron on the expression of nitric oxide/inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)/cyclooxygenase-2, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines were examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Molecular mechanisms of the effects of kolaviron on NF-κB and Nrf2/ARE signalling pathways were analysed by immunoblotting, binding assays and reporter assays. RNA interference was used to investigate the role of Nrf2 in the anti-inflammatory effect of kolaviron. Neuroprotective effect of kolaviron was assessed in a BV2 microglia/HT22 hippocampal neuron co-culture. Kolaviron inhibited the protein levels of NO/iNOS, PGE2/COX-2, cellular ROS and the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-6) in LPS-stimulated microglia. Further mechanistic studies showed that kolaviron inhibited neuroinflammation by inhibiting IκB/NF-κB signalling pathway in LPS-activated BV2 microglia. Kolaviron produced antioxidant effect in BV2 microglia by increasing HO-1 via the Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathway. RNAi experiments revealed that Nrf2 is needed for the anti-inflammatory effects of kolaviron. Kolaviron protected HT22 neurons from neuroinflammation-induced toxicity. Kolaviron inhibits neuroinflammation through Nrf2-dependent mechanisms. This compound may therefore be beneficial in neuroinflammation-related neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Heat shock protein 70, oxidative stress, and antioxidant status in periparturient crossbred cows supplemented with α-tocopherol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anjali; Ashutosh; Chandra, Gulab; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigating the effect of α-tocopherol acetate on heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), oxidative stress, and antioxidant status during periparturient period in medium body condition score crossbred cows. Twenty crossbred Karan Fries cows with confirmed pregnancy were selected 2 months before expected date of calving. The cows were randomly distributed in to two groups: 10 cows were kept as control and 10 were supplemented with α-tocopherol acetate during dry period for 2 months. Blood samples were collected at -20, -10, -5, 0, 5, 10, and 20 days in relation to the expected date of calving. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and total immunoglobulin were significantly higher (P stress, heat shock protein Hsp70 levels, improved antioxidant, and improved immunity status indicating beneficial effect of α-tocopherol acetate treatment.

  9. Development and evaluation of sunscreen creams containing morin-encapsulated nanoparticles for enhanced UV radiation protection and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Pallavi Krishna; Venuvanka, Venkatesh; Jagani, Hitesh Vitthal; Chethan, Gejjalagere Honnappa; Ligade, Virendra S; Musmade, Prashant B; Nayak, Usha Y; Reddy, Meka Sreenivasa; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Udupa, Nayanabhirama; Rao, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna; Mutalik, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of present work was to develop novel sunscreen creams containing polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) of morin. Polymeric NPs containing morin were prepared and optimized. The creams containing morin NPs were also prepared and evaluated. Optimized NPs exhibited particle size of 90.6 nm and zeta potential of -31 mV. The entrapment efficiency of morin, within the polymeric NPs, was found to be low (12.27%). Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed no interaction between morin and excipients. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed that the NPs were spherical in shape with approximately 100 nm diameter. Optimized NPs showed excellent in vitro free radical scavenging activity. Skin permeation and deposition of morin from its NPs was higher than its plain form. Different sunscreen creams (SC1-SC8) were formulated by incorporating morin NPs along with nano zinc oxide and nano titanium dioxide. SC5 and SC8 creams showed excellent sun protection factor values (≈40). In vitro and in vivo skin permeation studies of sunscreen creams containing morin NPs indicated excellent deposition of morin within the skin. Morin NPs and optimized cream formulations (SC5 and SC8) did not exhibit cytotoxicity in Vero and HaCaT cells. Optimized sunscreen creams showed excellent dermal safety. SC5 and SC8 creams demonstrated exceptional in vivo antioxidant effect (estimation of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione) in UV radiation-exposed rats. The optimized sunscreen creams confirmed outstanding UV radiation protection as well as antioxidant properties.

  10. Protection by recombinant viral proteins against a respiratory challenge with virulent avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Parag; Njenga, M Kariuki; Sharma, Jagdev M

    2005-12-15

    Protection by recombinant avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) N or M proteins against a respiratory challenge with virulent aMPV was examined. N, M or N+M proteins were administered intramuscularly (IM) with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) or by the oculonasal (ON) route with cholera toxin-B (CTB). Each turkey received 40 or 80 microg of each recombinant protein. Birds were considered protected against challenge if the challenge virus was not detectable in the choanal swabs by RT-PCR. At a dose of 40 microg/bird, N protein given with IFA by the IM route protected eight out of nine birds. M protein at the same dose protected three out of seven birds, while a combination of N+M proteins (40 microg each) protected three out of four birds. At a dose of 80 microg of each of N and M proteins per bird given with IFA by the IM route, 100% protection was achieved. ON immunization with a mixture of N and M proteins induced partial protection when the proteins were given with CTB; no detectable protection was noted without CTB. N and M proteins induced anti-aMPV antibodies, although protection against virulent virus challenge did not appear to be associated with the level or presence of antibodies.

  11. Enzymatic protein hydrolysates from high pressure-pretreated isolated pea proteins have better antioxidant properties than similar hydrolysates produced from heat pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Chao, Dongfang; Lin, Lin; He, Rong; Jung, Stephanie; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2015-12-01

    Isolated pea protein (IPP) dispersions (1%, w/v) were pretreated with high pressure (HP) of 200, 400, or 600 MPa for 5 min at 24 °C or high temperature (HT) for 30 min at 100 °C prior to hydrolysis with 1% (w/w) Alcalase. HP pretreatment of IPP at 400 and 600 MPa levels led to significantly (P40%) oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) of hydrolysates. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of pea protein hydrolysates were also significantly (P<0.05) improved (25%, 20%, and 40%, respectively) by HP pretreatment of IPP. Protein hydrolysates from HT IPP showed no ORAC, superoxide or hydroxyl scavenging activity but had significantly (P<0.05) improved (80%) ferric reducing antioxidant power. The protein hydrolysates had weaker antioxidant properties than glutathione but overall, the HP pretreatment was superior to HT pretreatment in facilitating enzymatic release of antioxidant peptides from IPP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antioxidant protection of statins in acute kidney injury induced by sepsis

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    Franciele do Nascimento Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective Evaluating the effect of preconditioning with simvastatin in acute kidney injury induced by sepsis. Method Male adult Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: SHAM (control; SHAM+Statin (0.5 mg/kg simvastatin, orally; Sepsis (cecal puncture ligation – CPL; Sepsis+Statin. Physiological parameters, peritoneal fluid culture, renal function, oxidative metabolites, severity of acute kidney injury and animal survival were evaluated. Results The treatment with simvastatin in induced sepsis showed elevation of creatinine clearance with attenuation of generation of oxidative metabolites, lower severity of acute kidney injury and reduced mortality. Conclusion This investigation confirmed the renoprotection with antioxidant principle of the simvastatin in acute kidney injury induced by sepsis in an experimental model.

  13. Protective effect of kombucha on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet is mediated by its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellassoued, Khaled; Ghrab, Ferdaws; Makni-Ayadi, Fatma; Van Pelt, Jos; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Ammar, Emna

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha (KT) is claimed to have various beneficial effects on human health, but there is very little scientific evidence available in the literature. The present study investigates the effects of Camellia sinensis (GT) Linn. (Theaceae) and KT, two natural drinks, on cholesterol and antioxidant status using a hypercholesterolemia rat model. The present study compared the free-radical scavenging abilities and polyphenol levels of GT and KT. Wistar rats fed cholesterol-rich diets were given KT or GT (5 mL/kg body weight per day, po) for 16 weeks, then fasted overnight and sacrificed. The plasma lipid levels, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) serum levels, antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and creatinine and urea rats were examined. KT had a phenolic compound of 955 ± 0.75 mg GAE/g) followed, by GT (788.92 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g). The free radical scavenging activity of KT was higher than GT. Compared with GT, KT induced lowered serum levels of TC, TG, VLDL-C, and LDL-C by 26, 27, 28, and 36%, respectively, and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). KT induced a 55% decrease of TBARS level in liver and 44% in kidney, compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet alone. Moreover, CAT and SOD activities were reduced by 29 and 33%, respectively, in liver and 31 and 35%, respectively, in kidney, after oral administration of KT, compared with those of HCD-fed rats. The findings revealed that KT administration induced attractive curative effects on hypercholesterolemic, particularly in terms of liver-kidney functions in rats. Its effect on humans needs to be studied further.

  14. Protective effects of green tea on antioxidative biomarkers in chemical laboratory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Heidary Shayesteh; Akram, Ranjbar; Azam, Sayadi; Nahid, Zadkhosh

    2015-09-01

    Chemical materials are environmental contaminants, are extensively used in laboratories, and may cause various forms of health hazards in laboratory workers. Therefore, this toxicity most likely is a result of the oxidative metabolism of chemical to reactive products. As green tea (GT) possesses antioxidant effects, the objective of this study was to examine any amelioration oxidative stress in chemical laboratory workers drinking one cup (3 g/300 ml water) of freshly prepared tea once daily. Baseline characteristics including age, sex, smoking, fruit consumption, and duration of exposure were recorded via questionnaire to the subjects. Saliva level oxidative stress parameters such as total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated before and after consumption of GT in these workers. Treatment of subjects with GT induced a significant reduction in saliva GPx activity (406.61 ± 22.07 vs. 238.96 ± 16.26 U/l p = 0.001) and induction in TAC (0.46 ± 0.029 μmol/ml vs. 0.56 ± 0.031, p = 0.016). No statistically significant alteration was found for saliva SOD (0.080 ± 0.0019 vs. 0.079 ± 0.0014, p > 0.05) and CAT (20.36 ± 0.69 vs. 19.78 ± 0.71, p > 0.05) after 28 days treatment by GT. These results demonstrate that drinking GT during chemical exposure can reduce several parameters indicative of oxidative stress. In conclusion, using GT as a dietary supplement can be a rational protocol to control source of hazards in chemical laboratory workers. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Phenolic constituents of Pulicaria undulata (L. C.A. Mey. sub sp. undulata (Asteraceae: Antioxidant protective effects and chemosystematic significances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh R. Hussein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One new naturally isoflavone compound, 5,7,2′,3′,4′ penta hydroxyl isoflavone-4′-O-β-glucopyranoside (1 was isolated from the aqueous methanol extract (AME of Pulicaria undulata subsp. undulata, together with seven known compounds: kaempferol (2, kaempferol 3-O-β-glucoside (3, quercetin (4, quercetin 3-O-β-glucoside (5, quercetin 3-O-β-galactoside (6, quercetin 3,7-di OCH3 (7, and caffeic acid (8. Their structures were established through chemical (acid hydrolysis and spectral analysis (UV, NMR, and ESIM. The AME and some isolated compounds were evaluated as protective agents. Free radical scavenging using a microscaled 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay was used to assess the direct antioxidant properties that were evaluated by the ability to protect murine Hepa1c1c7 liver cells against damage induced by the organic peroxide tert-butyl hydroperoxide. The neutral red uptake assay (NRU was used to record the activity. Results of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay recorded differential scavenging properties in ascending order: 5,7,2′,3′,4′ penta hydroxyl isoflavone-4′-O-β-glucopyranoside>quercetin>quercetin 3-O-galactoside>caffeic acid>quercetin 3,7-di-OCH3>kaempferol with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 3.9 μM, 7.5 μM, 11.4 μM, 12.2 μM, 78.1 μM, and 252.3 μM, respectively. The antioxidative potential reveals the potency of AME, quercetin, and quercetin 3,7-di-OCH3. The latter compound showed full protection at 100 μM (33 μg/mL against the induced toxicant effect where the 50% effective concentration was calculated as 33.6±1.7 μM (11.1 μg/mL. In addition to quercetin, which was extensively shown previously as a cytoprotective agent, AME was less potent; it was capable of protecting 75% at 100 μg/mL with 50% effective concentration of 92.3±4 μg/mL. Moreover, the isolated flavonoids were found to be significantly chemosystematic markers.

  16. Sulforaphane Protects Rodent Retinas against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury through the Activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 Antioxidant Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruixing; Brecha, Nicholas C.; Yu, Albert Cheung Hoi; Pu, Mingliang

    2014-01-01

    Retinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury induces oxidative stress, leukocyte infiltration, and neuronal cell death. Sulforaphane (SF), which can be obtained in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, exerts protective effects in response to oxidative stress in various tissues. These effects can be initiated through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This investigation was designed to elucidate the neural protective mechanisms of SF in the retinal I/R rat model. Animals were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with SF (12.5 mg/kg) or vehicle (corn oil) once a day for 7 consecutive days. Then, retinal I/R was made by elevating the intraocular pressure (IOP) to 130 mmHg for 1 h. To determine if HO-1 was involved in the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway, rats were subjected to protoporphyrin IX zinc (II) (ZnPP, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) treatments at 24 h before retinal ischemia. The neuroprotective effects of SF were assessed by determining the morphology of the retina, counting the infiltrating inflammatory cells and the surviving retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and amacrine cells, and measuring apoptosis in the retinal layers. The expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 was studied by immunofluorescence analysis and western blotting. I/R induced a marked increase of ROS generation, caused pronounced inflammation, increased the apoptosis of RGCs and amacrine cells and caused the thinning of the inner retinal layer (IRL), and these effects were diminished or abolished by SF pretreatment. Meanwhile, SF pretreatment significantly elevated the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and the level of HO-1 expression in the I/R retinas; however, ZnPP reversed the protective effects of SF on I/R retinas. Together, we offer direct evidence that SF had protective effects on I/R retinas, which could be attributed, at least in part, to the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway. PMID:25470382

  17. Sulforaphane protects rodent retinas against ischemia-reperfusion injury through the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Pan

    Full Text Available Retinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury induces oxidative stress, leukocyte infiltration, and neuronal cell death. Sulforaphane (SF, which can be obtained in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, exerts protective effects in response to oxidative stress in various tissues. These effects can be initiated through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2-mediated induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1. This investigation was designed to elucidate the neural protective mechanisms of SF in the retinal I/R rat model. Animals were intraperitoneally (i.p. injected with SF (12.5 mg/kg or vehicle (corn oil once a day for 7 consecutive days. Then, retinal I/R was made by elevating the intraocular pressure (IOP to 130 mmHg for 1 h. To determine if HO-1 was involved in the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway, rats were subjected to protoporphyrin IX zinc (II (ZnPP, 30 mg/kg, i.p. treatments at 24 h before retinal ischemia. The neuroprotective effects of SF were assessed by determining the morphology of the retina, counting the infiltrating inflammatory cells and the surviving retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and amacrine cells, and measuring apoptosis in the retinal layers. The expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 was studied by immunofluorescence analysis and western blotting. I/R induced a marked increase of ROS generation, caused pronounced inflammation, increased the apoptosis of RGCs and amacrine cells and caused the thinning of the inner retinal layer (IRL, and these effects were diminished or abolished by SF pretreatment. Meanwhile, SF pretreatment significantly elevated the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and the level of HO-1 expression in the I/R retinas; however, ZnPP reversed the protective effects of SF on I/R retinas. Together, we offer direct evidence that SF had protective effects on I/R retinas, which could be attributed, at least in part, to the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway.

  18. Protective effects of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents against manganese-induced oxidative damage and neuronal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milatovic, Dejan; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Yu, Yingchun; Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana; Aschner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) levels leads to neurotoxicity, referred to as manganism, which resembles Parkinson's disease (PD). Manganism is caused by neuronal injury in both cortical and subcortical regions, particularly in the basal ganglia. The basis for the selective neurotoxicity of Mn is not yet fully understood. However, several studies suggest that oxidative damage and inflammatory processes play prominent roles in the degeneration of dopamine-containing neurons. In the present study, we assessed the effects of Mn on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, changes in high-energy phosphates and associated neuronal dysfunctions both in vitro and in vivo. Results from our in vitro study showed a significant (p 2 -isoprostanes (F 2 -IsoPs), as well as the depletion of ATP in primary rat cortical neurons following exposure to Mn (500 μM) for 2 h. These effects were protected when neurons were pretreated for 30 min with 100 of an antioxidant, the hydrophilic vitamin E analog, trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), or an anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. Results from our in vivo study confirmed a significant increase in F 2 -IsoPs levels in conjunction with the progressive spine degeneration and dendritic damage of the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of mice exposed to Mn (100 mg/kg, s.c.) 24 h. Additionally, pretreatment with vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p.) or ibuprofen (140 μg/ml in the drinking water for two weeks) attenuated the Mn-induced increase in cerebral F 2 -IsoPs? and protected the MSNs from dendritic atrophy and dendritic spine loss. Our findings suggest that the mediation of oxidative stress/mitochondrial dysfunction and the control of alterations in biomarkers of oxidative injury, neuroinflammation and synaptodendritic degeneration may provide an effective, multi-pronged therapeutic strategy for protecting dysfunctional dopaminergic transmission and slowing of the progression of Mn-induced neurodegenerative

  19. Protective effects of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents against manganese-induced oxidative damage and neuronal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milatovic, Dejan, E-mail: dejan.milatovic@vanderbilt.edu [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Gupta, Ramesh C. [Murray State University, Breathitt Veterinary Center, Hopkinsville, KY (United States); Yu, Yingchun; Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Aschner, Michael [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Pharmacology and the Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) levels leads to neurotoxicity, referred to as manganism, which resembles Parkinson's disease (PD). Manganism is caused by neuronal injury in both cortical and subcortical regions, particularly in the basal ganglia. The basis for the selective neurotoxicity of Mn is not yet fully understood. However, several studies suggest that oxidative damage and inflammatory processes play prominent roles in the degeneration of dopamine-containing neurons. In the present study, we assessed the effects of Mn on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, changes in high-energy phosphates and associated neuronal dysfunctions both in vitro and in vivo. Results from our in vitro study showed a significant (p < 0.01) increase in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F{sub 2}-isoprostanes (F{sub 2}-IsoPs), as well as the depletion of ATP in primary rat cortical neurons following exposure to Mn (500 {mu}M) for 2 h. These effects were protected when neurons were pretreated for 30 min with 100 of an antioxidant, the hydrophilic vitamin E analog, trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), or an anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. Results from our in vivo study confirmed a significant increase in F{sub 2}-IsoPs levels in conjunction with the progressive spine degeneration and dendritic damage of the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of mice exposed to Mn (100 mg/kg, s.c.) 24 h. Additionally, pretreatment with vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p.) or ibuprofen (140 {mu}g/ml in the drinking water for two weeks) attenuated the Mn-induced increase in cerebral F{sub 2}-IsoPs? and protected the MSNs from dendritic atrophy and dendritic spine loss. Our findings suggest that the mediation of oxidative stress/mitochondrial dysfunction and the control of alterations in biomarkers of oxidative injury, neuroinflammation and synaptodendritic degeneration may provide an effective, multi-pronged therapeutic strategy for protecting dysfunctional

  20. Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortilla Made with a Blend of Quality Protein Maize and Black Bean

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    Luis A. Bello-Pérez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The hydrolysis rate (60 to 50% and the predicted glycemic index (88 to 80 of tortilla decreased with the addition of bean in the blend. Extractable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were higher in the tortilla with bean than control tortilla. This pattern produced higher antioxidant capacity of tortilla with bean (17.6 μmol Trolox eq/g than control tortilla (7.8 μmol Trolox eq/g. The addition of bean to tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics.

  1. Oil, protein, antioxidants and free radical scavenging activity of stone from wild olive trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannachi, Hédia; Elfalleh, Walid; Marzouk, Sizaiem

    2013-05-01

    The wild olive trees or oleaster (var. sylvestris) and the cultivated olive trees (var. europaea) constitute the two botanical varieties of Olea europaea L. from Mediterranean. In this study, a partial chemical profile was conducted including the total lipids, the fatty acid profiles, soluble proteins, polyphenols, flavanoids contents and antioxidants activities of stone from six oleaster trees. The comparison was made by two olive cultivars cultivated in the same region. The oleaster and cultivar stones were richer in oil content having an average of 8.99 and 7.38 % dry weight basis (DW), respectively. Qualitatively, all studied oils have the same fatty acids profile with the oleic acid C18:1n-9 as the major fatty acid. The oleaster stone oils were richer in monounsaturated fatty acids having an average of 64.87%. They, also, richer in protein content with an average of 198.86 mg/g DW.The globulin is the major fraction, followed by the albumin, the prolamin and the glutemin fractions. The oleaster stone extracts contain polyphenols, flavonoids with an average of 151.14 and 11.91 mg gallic acid equivalent/100g of DW, respectively. The studied extracts showed antioxidant activity using the free radical scavenging activity determined by DPPH and ABTS. The unexploited oleaster stone seems to be a source of oil with good fatty acids balance, in protein and antioxidants metabolites and would be useful for the formulation of supplements and/or pharmaceutical ingredients.

  2. Antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of human milk

    OpenAIRE

    Živković, Jelena; Sunarić, Slavica; Trutić, Nataša; Denić, Marko; Kocić, Gordana; Jovanović, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Milk contains plenty of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant components that probably account for the vital antioxidant protection of the infants at early stages of life against the development of complications induced by oxygen free radicals. Indigenous milk enzymes play a key role in regulating lactogenesis, including active involution of mammary gland. Moreover, they are essential constituents of antioxidation and the innate immune system of milk. Among antioxidant enzymes, superoxide d...

  3. Tempol, an intracellular antioxidant, inhibits tissue factor expression, attenuates dendritic cell function, and is partially protective in a murine model of cerebral malaria.

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    Ivo M B Francischetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of intracellular radical oxygen species (ROS in pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM remains incompletely understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook testing Tempol--a superoxide dismutase (SOD mimetic and pleiotropic intracellular antioxidant--in cells relevant to malaria pathogenesis in the context of coagulation and inflammation. Tempol was also tested in a murine model of CM induced by Plasmodium berghei Anka infection. Tempol was found to prevent transcription and functional expression of procoagulant tissue factor in endothelial cells (ECs stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. This effect was accompanied by inhibition of IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 production. Tempol also attenuated platelet aggregation and human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells oxidative burst. In dendritic cells, Tempol inhibited LPS-induced production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12p70, downregulated expression of co-stimulatory molecules, and prevented antigen-dependent lymphocyte proliferation. Notably, Tempol (20 mg/kg partially increased the survival of mice with CM. Mechanistically, treated mice had lowered plasma levels of MCP-1, suggesting that Tempol downmodulates EC function and vascular inflammation. Tempol also diminished blood brain barrier permeability associated with CM when started at day 4 post infection but not at day 1, suggesting that ROS production is tightly regulated. Other antioxidants-such as α-phenyl N-tertiary-butyl nitrone (PBN; a spin trap, MnTe-2-PyP and MnTBAP (Mn-phorphyrin, Mitoquinone (MitoQ and Mitotempo (mitochondrial antioxidants, M30 (an iron chelator, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG; polyphenol from green tea did not improve survival. By contrast, these compounds (except PBN inhibited Plasmodium falciparum growth in culture with different IC50s. Knockout mice for SOD1 or phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase (gp91(phox-/- or mice treated with

  4. Tempol, an intracellular antioxidant, inhibits tissue factor expression, attenuates dendritic cell function, and is partially protective in a murine model of cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischetti, Ivo M B; Gordon, Emile; Bizzarro, Bruna; Gera, Nidhi; Andrade, Bruno B; Oliveira, Fabiano; Ma, Dongying; Assumpção, Teresa C F; Ribeiro, José M C; Pena, Mirna; Qi, Chen-Feng; Diouf, Ababacar; Moretz, Samuel E; Long, Carole A; Ackerman, Hans C; Pierce, Susan K; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Waisberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The role of intracellular radical oxygen species (ROS) in pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) remains incompletely understood. We undertook testing Tempol--a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic and pleiotropic intracellular antioxidant--in cells relevant to malaria pathogenesis in the context of coagulation and inflammation. Tempol was also tested in a murine model of CM induced by Plasmodium berghei Anka infection. Tempol was found to prevent transcription and functional expression of procoagulant tissue factor in endothelial cells (ECs) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This effect was accompanied by inhibition of IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) production. Tempol also attenuated platelet aggregation and human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells oxidative burst. In dendritic cells, Tempol inhibited LPS-induced production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12p70, downregulated expression of co-stimulatory molecules, and prevented antigen-dependent lymphocyte proliferation. Notably, Tempol (20 mg/kg) partially increased the survival of mice with CM. Mechanistically, treated mice had lowered plasma levels of MCP-1, suggesting that Tempol downmodulates EC function and vascular inflammation. Tempol also diminished blood brain barrier permeability associated with CM when started at day 4 post infection but not at day 1, suggesting that ROS production is tightly regulated. Other antioxidants-such as α-phenyl N-tertiary-butyl nitrone (PBN; a spin trap), MnTe-2-PyP and MnTBAP (Mn-phorphyrin), Mitoquinone (MitoQ) and Mitotempo (mitochondrial antioxidants), M30 (an iron chelator), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG; polyphenol from green tea) did not improve survival. By contrast, these compounds (except PBN) inhibited Plasmodium falciparum growth in culture with different IC50s. Knockout mice for SOD1 or phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (gp91(phox-/-)) or mice treated with inhibitors of SOD (diethyldithiocarbamate

  5. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate peel extract on lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Sebahattin Serhat; Işıkçı, Fatma; Soyer, Ayla

    2017-07-01

    Antioxidant effect of pomegranate peel extract (PE) to retard lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs was investigated during frozen storage at -18±1°C. Concentrated and freeze dried aqueous extract of pomegranate peel was incorporated into freshly prepared meatball mix at 0.5% and 1.0% concentrations, and compared with 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and control (without any antioxidant). In PE treated samples, particularly in high PE concentration, peroxide, malondialdehyde and carbonyl formation, loss of total protein solubility and sulfhydryl groups were significantly lower than control after 6months of storage. A diminution of both myofibrillar (MP) and sarcoplasmic (SP) proteins of high molecular weight was detected after 6months of the storage according to gel electrophoresis patterns. The 1.0% PE led to maintain colour intensity (C) and hue (h°) value. The results from sensory analyses revealed that PE addition to meatballs was effective on preventing rancid odour formation. Addition of both 0.5 and 1% PE in meatballs reduced lipid and protein oxidation and improved sensory scores. These results indicated that PE was effective on retarding lipid and protein oxidations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antioxidant and Protective Mechanisms against Hypoxia and Hypoglycaemia in Cortical Neurons in Vitro

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    José Joaquín Merino

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we have studied whether cell death could be induced in cortical neurons from rats subjected to different period of O2 deprivation and low glucose (ODLG. This “in vitro” model is designed to emulate the penumbra area under ischemia. In these conditions, cortical neurons displayed loss of mitochondrial respiratory ability however, nor necrosis neither apoptosis occurred despite ROS production. The absence of cellular death could be a consequence of increased antioxidant responses such as superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1 and GPX3. In addition, the levels of reduced glutathione were augmented and HIF-1/3α overexpressed. After long periods of ODLG (12–24 h cortical neurons showed cellular and mitochondrial membrane alterations and did not recuperate cellular viability during reperfusion. This could mean that therapies directed toward prevention of cellular and mitochondrial membrane imbalance or cell death through mechanisms other than necrosis or apoptosis, like authophagy, may be a way to prevent ODLG damage.

  7. Development and evaluation of sunscreen creams containing morin-encapsulated nanoparticles for enhanced UV radiation protection and antioxidant activity

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    Shetty PK

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pallavi Krishna Shetty,1 Venkatesh Venuvanka,1 Hitesh Vitthal Jagani,1 Gejjalagere Honnappa Chethan,1 Virendra S Ligade,1 Prashant B Musmade,1 Usha Y Nayak,1 Meka Sreenivasa Reddy,1 Guruprasad Kalthur,2 Nayanabhirama Udupa,1 Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao,1 Srinivas Mutalik1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Division of Clinical Embryology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India Abstract: The objective of present work was to develop novel sunscreen creams containing polymeric nanoparticles (NPs of morin. Polymeric NPs containing morin were prepared and optimized. The creams containing morin NPs were also prepared and evaluated. Optimized NPs exhibited particle size of 90.6 nm and zeta potential of -31 mV. The entrapment efficiency of morin, within the polymeric NPs, was found to be low (12.27%. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed no interaction between morin and excipients. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed that the NPs were spherical in shape with approximately 100 nm diameter. Optimized NPs showed excellent in vitro free radical scavenging activity. Skin permeation and deposition of morin from its NPs was higher than its plain form. Different sunscreen creams (SC1–SC8 were formulated by incorporating morin NPs along with nano zinc oxide and nano titanium dioxide. SC5 and SC8 creams showed excellent sun protection factor values (≈40. In vitro and in vivo skin permeation studies of sunscreen creams containing morin NPs indicated excellent deposition of morin within the skin. Morin NPs and optimized cream formulations (SC5 and SC8 did not exhibit cytotoxicity in Vero and HaCaT cells. Optimized sunscreen creams showed excellent dermal safety. SC5 and SC8 creams demonstrated exceptional in vivo antioxidant effect (estimation of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione in

  8. Antioxidant Protective Effect of Glibenclamide and Metformin in Combination with Honey in Pancreas of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Omotayo Owomofoyon Erejuwa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia exerts toxic effects on the pancreatic β-cells. This study investigated the hypothesis that the common antidiabetic drugs glibenclamide and metformin, in combination with tualang honey, offer additional protection for the pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats against oxidative stress and damage. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by a single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg; ip. Diabetic rats had significantly elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, up-regulated activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx while catalase (CAT activity was significantly reduced. Glibenclamide and metformin produced no significant effects on TBARS and antioxidant enzymes except GPx in diabetic rats. In contrast, the combination of glibenclamide, metformin and honey significantly up-regulated CAT activity and down-regulated GPx activity while TBARS levels were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that tualang honey potentiates the effect of glibenclamide and metformin to protect diabetic rat pancreas against oxidative stress and damage.

  9. Pomegranate Cultivars: Identification of the New IgE-Binding Protein Pommaclein and Analysis of Antioxidant Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppo, Lisa; Alessandri, Claudia; Pasquariello, Maria Silvia; Petriccione, Milena; Giangrieco, Ivana; Tamburrini, Maurizio; Mari, Adriano; Ciardiello, Maria Antonietta

    2017-04-05

    The consumption of pomegranate is increasing as it is considered a health-promoting food. Nevertheless, it can trigger allergic reactions, sometimes severe. The LTP Pun g 1 is the only pomegranate allergen so far reported. Based on preliminary clinical observations, the main aim of this study was the investigation of still unknown allergens contained in this fruit. Pommaclein, a homologue of peamaclein, the peach allergen Pru p 7, was isolated, identified by protein sequencing, and characterized as an IgE-binding protein by different test systems. RP-HPLC protein profiles revealed significant variations of LTP and pommaclein content in the red pulp of selected cultivars and accessions. Conversely, the mesocarp appeared free of proteins and much richer in antioxidants. In conclusion, a new allergen has been identified, and it could contribute to improving allergy diagnosis. The study highlights that pomegranate mesocarp could represent a rich and safe source of nutraceuticals also for allergic subjects.

  10. Solid-state fermentation for the enrichment and extraction of proteins and antioxidant compounds in rice bran by Rhizopus oryzae

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    Larine Kupski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oryzae CCT 7560 of rice bran for the enrichment of proteins and the antioxidant compounds in the fermented biomass. Fermentation was performed in tray bioreactors at 30ºC for 120 h. Protein extraction was done at alkaline pH, followed by precipitation with acetone. Phenolic compounds were extracted with cold methanol. The maximum protein was recovered from after 120 h (26.6%. The content of total phenolic compounds increased during the fermentation and was maximum after 96 h, which inhibited the DPPH radical by 87%. The promising characteristics of the protein and phenolic extracts of the biomass suggested the application in the coating composition for vegetal tissues preservation.

  11. Protective effect of canolol from oxidative stress-induced cell damage in ARPE-19 cells via an ERK mediated antioxidative pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xin; Li, Zhongrui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Wenjie; Liu, Shuizhong; Fang, Jun; Maeda, Hiroshi; Matsukura, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Oxidative stress damage to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is thought to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of canolol against oxidative stress-induced cell death in ARPE-19 cells and its underlying mechanism. Methods ARPE-19 cells, a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line, were subjected to oxidative stress with 150 μM t-butyl hydroxide (t-BH) in the presence/absence of canolol in different concentrations. Cell viabilities were monitored by a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC and PI staining and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured by a fluorescence spectrophotometer. Gene expression of NF-E2-related factor (Nrf-2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), catalase and glutathione S-transferase-pi (GST-pi) were measured by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) assay. Activation of the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) protein was evaluated by western blot analysis. Results Canolol showed relatively high safety for ARPE-19 cells and recovered the cell death caused by t-BH dose-dependently at a concentration of 50–200 μM. Canolol also reduced t-BH-induced intracellular ROS generation and thus protected ARPE-19 cells from cell apoptosis. HO-1, catalase, GST-pi, and Nrf-2 were elevated in ARPE-19 cells after treatment with different concentrations of canolol for 24 h. Finally, canolol was found to activate extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in ARPE-19 cells under the condition, with or without t-BH. Conclusions Canolol protected ARPE-19 cells from t-BH-induced oxidative damage and the protective mechanism was associated, at least partly, with the upregulation (activation) of antioxidative enzymes, probably through an ERK mediated pathway. This suggests that

  12. Effect of Peptide Size on Antioxidant Properties of African Yam Bean Seed (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) Protein Hydrolysate Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajibola, Comfort F.; Fashakin, Joseph B.; Fagbemi, Tayo N.; Aluko, Rotimi E.

    2011-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysate of African yam bean seed protein isolate was prepared by treatment with alcalase. The hydrolysate was further fractionated into peptide sizes of <1, 1–3, 3–5 and 5–10 kDa using membrane ultrafiltration. The protein hydrolysate (APH) and its membrane ultrafiltration fractions were assayed for in vitro antioxidant activities. The <1 kDa peptides exhibited significantly better (p < 0.05) ferric reducing power, diphenyl-1-picryhydradzyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities when compared to peptide fractions of higher molecular weights. The high activity of <1 kDa peptides in these antioxidant assay systems may be related to the high levels of total hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids. In comparison to glutathione (GSH), the APH and its membrane fractions had significantly higher (p < 0.05) ability to chelate metal ions. In contrast, GSH had significantly greater (p < 0.05) ferric reducing power and free radical scavenging activities than APH and its membrane fractions. The APH and its membrane fractions effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation, results that were concentration dependent. The activity of APH and its membrane fractions against linoleic acid oxidation was higher when compared to that of GSH but lower than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). The results show potential use of APH and its membrane fractions as antioxidants in the management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders and in the prevention of lipid oxidation in food products. PMID:22072912

  13. Effect of Peptide Size on Antioxidant Properties of African Yam Bean Seed (Sphenostylis stenocarpa Protein Hydrolysate Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comfort F. Ajibola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic hydrolysate of African yam bean seed protein isolate was prepared by treatment with alcalase. The hydrolysate was further fractionated into peptide sizes of < 1, 1–3, 3–5 and 5–10 kDa using membrane ultrafiltration. The protein hydrolysate (APH and its membrane ultrafiltration fractions were assayed for in vitro antioxidant activities. The < 1 kDa peptides exhibited significantly better (p < 0.05 ferric reducing power, diphenyl-1-picryhydradzyl (DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities when compared to peptide fractions of higher molecular weights. The high activity of < 1 kDa peptides in these antioxidant assay systems may be related to the high levels of total hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids. In comparison to glutathione (GSH, the APH and its membrane fractions had significantly higher (p < 0.05 ability to chelate metal ions. In contrast, GSH had significantly greater (p < 0.05 ferric reducing power and free radical scavenging activities than APH and its membrane fractions. The APH and its membrane fractions effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation, results that were concentration dependent. The activity of APH and its membrane fractions against linoleic acid oxidation was higher when compared to that of GSH but lower than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT. The results show potential use of APH and its membrane fractions as antioxidants in the management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders and in the prevention of lipid oxidation in food products.

  14. Antioxidant, DNA protective efficacy and HPLC analysis of Annona muricata (soursop) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, V Cijo; Kumar, D R Naveen; Suresh, P K; Kumar, R Ashok

    2015-04-01

    Annona muricata is a naturally occurring edible plant with wide array of therapeutic potentials. In India, it has a long history of traditional use in treating various ailments. The present investigation was carried out to characterize the phytochemicals present in the methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of A. muricata, followed by validation of its radical scavenging and DNA protection activities. The extracts were also analyzed for its total phenolic contents and subjected to HPLC analysis to determine its active metabolites. The radical scavenging activities were premeditated by various complementary assays (DRSA, FRAP and HRSA). Further, its DNA protection efficacy against H2O2 induced toxicity was evaluated using pBR322 plasmid DNA. The results revealed that the extracts were highly rich in various phytochemicals including luteolin, homoorientin, tangeretin, quercetin, daidzein, epicatechin gallate, emodin and coumaric acid. Both the extracts showed significant (p < 0.05) radical scavenging activities, while methanolic extract demonstrated improved protection against H2O2-induced DNA damage when compared to aqueous extract. A strong positive correlation was observed for the estimated total phenolic contents and radical scavenging potentials of the extracts. Further HPLC analysis of the phyto-constituents of the extracts provides a sound scientific basis for compound isolation.

  15. Sleep impairment by diethyldithiocarbamate in rat. Protective effects of pre-conditioning and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi Zucconi, Gigliola; Semprevivo, Massimo; Laurenzi, Maria Assunta; Giuditta, Antonio

    2002-06-07

    Dithiocarbamates, a class of compounds widely used in medicine and agriculture, have been reported to impair sleep structure. These effects have been attributed to the decrease in norepinephrine levels induced by these drugs. However, it has also been recently demonstrated that most of the mechanisms by which dithiocarbamates damage cell function involve changes in oxidative environment. To verify the potential relevance of the latter mechanism in the sleep impairment, we examined the sleep response of adult rats to an acute administration of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC). At the dose of 0.6 g/kg, DDTC induced fragmentation and a decrease in slow wave sleep (SWS), and a dramatic loss of paradoxical sleep (PS). These changes occurred soon after the treatment (day 0), persisted the following day (day 1), partially recovered on day 3, and regained near basal values on day 6. No sleep anomalies were observed with a lower dose of DDTC (0.06 mg/kg). On the other hand, when the higher dose of DDTC was given in association with either one of two antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol or melatonin, the amounts of SWS and PS significantly improved even on day 1, suggesting that the DDTC effects on sleep involved an impairment of the brain oxidative balance. Likewise, administration of the lower dose of DDTC 5 days before the higher dose induced a much earlier recovery of normal sleep, presumably due to the development of a tolerance to DDTC. On the whole, the data suggest that the brain oxidative environment may play a role in the mechanisms subserving sleep regulation.

  16. Up-Regulation of Antioxidant Proteins in the Plasma Proteome during Saturation Diving: Unique Coincidence under Hypobaric Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domoto, Hideharu; Iwaya, Keiichi; Ikomi, Fumitaka; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Tadano, Yutaka; Fujii, Shigenori; Tachi, Kazuyoshi; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Michiya; Inoue, Kimitoshi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Saturation diving (SD) is one of the safest techniques for tolerating hyperbaric conditions for long durations. However, the changes in the human plasma protein profile that occur during SD are unknown. To identify differential protein expression during or after SD, 65 blood samples from 15 healthy Japanese men trained in SD were analyzed by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. The expression of two proteins, one 32.4 kDa with an isoelectric point (pI) of 5.8 and the other 44.8 kDa with pI 4.0, were elevated during SD to 60, 100, and 200 meters sea water (msw). The expression of these proteins returned to pre-diving level when the SD training was completed. The two proteins were identified using in-gel digestion and mass spectrometric analysis; the 32.4 kDa protein was transthyretin and the 44.8 kDa protein was alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1. Oxidation was detected at methionine 13 of transthyretin and at methionine 129 of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 by tandem mass spectrometry. Moreover, haptoglobin was up-regulated during the decompression phase of 200 msw. These plasma proteins up-regulated during SD have a common function as anti-oxidants. This suggests that by coordinating their biological effects, these proteins activate a defense mechanism to counteract the effects of hyperbaric-hyperoxic conditions during SD. PMID:27741252

  17. Glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, show antioxidant and protective effects against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in cultured human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2012-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are biosurfactants known for their versatile interfacial and biochemical properties. To broaden their application in cosmetics, we investigated the antioxidant properties of different MEL derivatives (MEL-A, -B, and -C) by using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine (DPPH) free-radical- and superoxide anion-scavenging assay. All MEL derivatives tested showed antioxidant activity in vitro, but at lower levels than those of arbutin. Of the MELs, MEL-C, which is produced from soybean oil by Pseudozyma hubeiensis, showed the highest rates of DPPH radical scavenging (50.3% at 10 mg/mL) and superoxide anion scavenging (>50% at 1 mg/mL). The antioxidant property of MEL-C was further examined using cultured human skin fibroblasts (NB1RGB cells) under H(2)O(2) induced oxidative stress. Surprisingly, MEL-C had a higher protective activity against oxidative stress than arbutin did: 10 µg/mL of MEL-C and arbutin had protective activities of 30.3% and 13%, respectively. Expression of an oxidative stress marker, cyclooxygenase-2, in these cells was repressed by treatment with MEL-C as well as by arbutin. MEL-C was thus confirmed to have antioxidant and protective effects in cells, and we suggest that MELs have potential as anti-aging skin care ingredients.

  18. Properties and Antioxidant Capacity of Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) By-Product Protein Films Containing Thyme Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural, Serpil; Turhan, Sadettin

    2017-03-01

    In this study, some properties and antioxidant capacity of anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicholus ) by-product protein films with added 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of thyme essential oil were investigated. The films with thyme essential oil had higher elongation at break, water vapour permeability and oxygen permeability, lower solubility and tensile strength than control film (pessential oil affected transparency values of the films, but only the addition of 1.5% of thyme essential oil significantly reduced the transparency (pessential oil addition. The films with thyme essential oil had a heterogeneous surface and a relatively smooth cross-section structure. Slightly higher phase transition and lower glass transition temperatures were observed in films with thyme essential oil. The antioxidant capacity of the films was improved by incorporating thyme essential oil depending on its volume fraction.

  19. Properties and Antioxidant Capacity of Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) By-Product Protein Films Containing Thyme Essential Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural, Serpil

    2017-01-01

    Summary In this study, some properties and antioxidant capacity of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) by-product protein films with added 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of thyme essential oil were investigated. The films with thyme essential oil had higher elongation at break, water vapour permeability and oxygen permeability, lower solubility and tensile strength than control film (pthyme essential oil affected transparency values of the films, but only the addition of 1.5% of thyme essential oil significantly reduced the transparency (pthyme essential oil addition. The films with thyme essential oil had a heterogeneous surface and a relatively smooth cross-section structure. Slightly higher phase transition and lower glass transition temperatures were observed in films with thyme essential oil. The antioxidant capacity of the films was improved by incorporating thyme essential oil depending on its volume fraction. PMID:28559736

  20. Antioxidant Extracts from Acorns (Quercus ilex L.) Effectively Protect Ready-to-Eat (RTE) Chicken Patties Irrespective of Packaging Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Valquíria C S; Morcuende, David; Hérnandez-López, Silvia H; Madruga, Marta S; Silva, Fábio A P; Estévez, Mario

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a phenolic-rich acorn extract (200 ppm gallic acid equivalents) and the concentration of oxygen in the packaging system (low-oxygen modified atmosphere; 5% vs. normal-oxygen; 21%) on lipid and protein oxidation and consumers acceptance of the ready-to-eat chicken patties. Samples were subjected to cooking (electric oven, 170 °C/16 min), cold storage (14 d at 4 °C), and reheating (microwave, 600 mW/1 min). Samples treated with acorn extract kept thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances numbers and lipid-derived volatiles at basal levels throughout the whole processing irrespective of the oxygen concentration in the packaging atmosphere. Consistently, treated patties had lower protein carbonyls than control ones. The acorn extract also controlled color and texture deterioration during chilled storage and reheating and improved the color and odor acceptance of the products. Formulating with acorn extract is a feasible strategy to inhibit the oxidation-driven changes and preserve the quality of reheated samples as if there were freshly cooked. Compared to the effect of the antioxidant extract, the concentration of oxygen in the packaging system was negligible in terms of quality preservation. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. L-malate enhances the gene expression of carried proteins and antioxidant enzymes in liver of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Wu, J; Wu, Q; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory reported L-malate as a free radical scavenger in aged rats. To investigate the antioxidant mechanism of L-malate in the mitochondria, we analyzed the change in gene expression of two malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS)-related carried proteins (AGC, aspartate/glutamate carrier and OMC, oxoglutarate/malate carrier) in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and three antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px) in the mitochondria. The changes in gene expression of these proteins and enzymes were examined by real-time RT-PCR in the heart and liver of aged rats treated with L-malate. L-malate was orally administered in rats continuously for 30 days using a feeding atraumatic needle. We found that the gene expression of OMC and GSH-Px mRNA in the liver increased by 39 % and 38 %, respectively, in the 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment group than that in the control group. The expression levels of SOD mRNA in the liver increased by 39 %, 56 %, and 78 % in the 0.105, 0.210, and 0.630 g/kg L-malate treatment groups, respectively. No difference were observed in the expression levels of AGC, OMC, CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px mRNAs in the heart of rats between the L-malate treatment and control groups. These results predicted that L-malate may increase the antioxidant capacity of mitochondria by enhancing the expression of mRNAs involved in the MAS and the antioxidant enzymes.

  2. An evaluation of anti-oxidative protection for cells against atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Ruonan; Zhang Qian; Feng Hongqing; Liang Yongdong; Li Fangting; Zhu Weidong; Zhang Jue; Fang Jing; Becker, Kurt H.

    2012-01-01

    With the development of plasma medicine, safety issues are emerging as a serious concern. In this study, both intracellular (genetic engineering) and extracellular (scavengers) measures were tested in an effort to determine the best protection for cells against plasma-induced oxidative stress. All results of immediate reactive species detection, short term survival and long term proliferation, suggest that intracellular pathways are superior in reducing oxidative stress and cell death. This work provides a potential mechanism to enhance safety and identifies precautionary measures that should be taken in future clinical applications of plasmas.

  3. Luteolin protects mice from severe acute pancreatitis by exerting HO-1-mediated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jie; Wang, Kezhou; Yuan, Chunxiao; Xing, Rong; Ni, Jianbo; Hu, Guoyong; Chen, Fengling; Wang, Xingpeng

    2017-01-01

    Reseda odorata L. has long been used in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative injury and acute inflammation, such as endotoxemia, acute lung injury, acute myocardial infarction and hepatitis. Luteolin, the main component of Reseda odorata L., which is also widely found in many natural herbs and vege-tables, has been shown to induce heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of luteolin on mice with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Cerulein and lipopolysaccharide were used to induce SAP in male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice in the SAP group. The SAP group was divided into 4 subgroups, as follows: the vehicle, luteolin, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) only, and luteolin (Lut) + ZnPP (luteolin plus zinc protoporphyrin treatment) groups. The wet/dry weight ratios, hematoxylin and eosin staining and pathological scores of pancreatic tissues were assessed and compared to those of the control mice. Amylase, lipase, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and myeloperoxidase activities, and malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and HO-1 levels, as well as the expression of HO-1 were determined in serum and/or pancreatic tissue samples. SAP was successfully induced in male mice compared to normal control mice. The wet/dry weight ratios, pathological scores, and amylase and lipase activity, as well as the levels of TNFα and IL-6 were significantly reduced in the pancreatic tissues of the mice in the Lut group compared with those of the mice in the vehicle group. The Lut group exhibited a significant increase in HO-1 expression in the pancreas and enhanced serum HO-1 and IL-10 levels compared with the vehicle group. The suppression of HO-1 activity in the ZnPP group significantly abolished the protective effects of luteolin. NF-κB expression in

  4. Antioxidant and DNA Damage Protecting Activity of Exopolysaccharides from the Endophytic Bacterium Bacillus cereus SZ1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An endophytic bacterium was isolated from the Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. The phylogenetic and physiological characterization indicated that the isolate, strain SZ-1, was Bacillus cereus. The endophyte could produce an exopolysaccharide (EPS at 46 mg/L. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydracyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of the EPS reached more than 50% at 3–5 mg/mL. The EPS was also effective in scavenging superoxide radical in a concentration dependent fashion with an EC50 value of 2.6 mg/mL. The corresponding EC50 for scavenging hydroxyl radical was 3.1 mg/mL. Moreover, phenanthroline-copper complex-mediated chemiluminescent emission of DNA damage was both inhibited and delayed by EPS. The EPS at 0.7–1.7 mg/mL also protected supercoiled DNA strands in plasmid pBR322 against scission induced by Fenton-mediated hydroxyl radical. The preincubation of PC12 cells with the EPS prior to H2O2 exposure increased the cell survival and glutathione (GSH level and catalase (CAT activities, and decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a pronounced protective effect against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Our study indicated that the EPS could be useful for preventing oxidative DNA damage and cellular oxidation in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  5. Antioxidant and cyto/DNA protective properties of apple pomace enriched bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, M L; Dharmesh, Shylaja M; Pynam, Hasitha; Bhimangouder, Shivaleela V; Eipson, Sushma W; Somasundaram, Rajarathnam; Nanjarajurs, Shashirekha M

    2016-04-01

    Apple pomace (AP), the residue that remains after the extraction of juice from apple accounts for ~25 % of total apple weight. Current study is aimed at identification of phytochemicals and utilization of Dehydrated apple pomace (DAP) in the preparation of bakery products with potential health benefits. DAP was prepared by drying the pomace obtained by crushing peeled apple fruits. DAP was incorporated into bakery products such as bun, muffin and cookies for value addition. Bioactivity such as free radical scavenging, cyto/DNA protectivity was evaluated in these products. DAP contained 17 g/100 g starch, 49.86 g/100 g fructose and 37 g/100 g dietary fibre. The phenolics and flavonoids content was 1.5 mg/g and 3.92 mg/g, respectively. Increase in DAP resulted in decreased volume and enhanced firmness of buns and muffins. DAP at 15 % in buns, 30 % in muffins and 20 % in cookies were found to be acceptable. DAP blended products exhibited better free radical scavenging as well as cyto/DNA protective properties suggesting the retention of bioactivity after baking. Addition of DAP potentially enhanced the bioactivity of the products evaluated.

  6. Development of an iron-selective antioxidant probe with protective effects on neuronal function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpo García-Beltrán

    Full Text Available Iron accumulation, oxidative stress and calcium signaling dysregulation are common pathognomonic signs of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson´s and Alzheimer's diseases, Friedreich ataxia and Huntington's disease. Given their therapeutic potential, the identification of multifunctional compounds that suppress these damaging features is highly desirable. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of N-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethylpropan-2-yl-2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-ylacetamide, named CT51, which exhibited potent free radical neutralizing activity both in vitro and in cells. CT51 bound Fe2+ with high selectivity and Fe3+ with somewhat lower affinity. Cyclic voltammetric analysis revealed irreversible binding of Fe3+ to CT51, an important finding since stopping Fe2+/Fe3+ cycling in cells should prevent hydroxyl radical production resulting from the Fenton-Haber-Weiss cycle. When added to human neuroblastoma cells, CT51 freely permeated the cell membrane and distributed to both mitochondria and cytoplasm. Intracellularly, CT51 bound iron reversibly and protected against lipid peroxidation. Treatment of primary hippocampal neurons with CT51 reduced the sustained calcium release induced by an agonist of ryanodine receptor-calcium channels. These protective properties of CT51 on cellular function highlight its possible therapeutic use in diseases with significant oxidative, iron and calcium dysregulation.

  7. In Vitro Ruminal Degradability of Soybean Meal Protein Protected with Natural Tannin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetiyono, B. W. H. E.; Subrata, A.; Tampoebolon, B. I. M.; Surono; Widiyanto

    2018-02-01

    The influence of tannin from tea waste and gambier as natural tannin sources on ruminal protein degradability was studied in this investigation. The soybean meal was used as protein source in this investigation. There were three treatments in this investigation mainly without protection (NT); protection with tea waste (Tt); and protection with gambier (Tg). The measured parameters consisted of in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), and the ruminal fermentation characteristics. Results of this experiment showed that protection with tannin from tea waste as well as gambier increased (ptannin protection (6690 vs 3790 and 5480 microorganism/ml rumen fluid). The Tt treatment group showed the lowest (ptannin increased IVDMD, IVOMD, RUP. The ruminal protozoa population and ammonia concentration, on the other hand, were decreased by tannin protection from those tannin natural sources. The natural tannin from gambier was the most effective protection agent for soybean meal protein.

  8. Protective Effect of Antenatal Antioxidant on Nicotine-Induced Heart Ischemia-Sensitive Phenotype in Rat Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, DaLiao; Wang, Lei; Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Yong; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Zhang, Lubo

    2016-01-01

    Fetal nicotine exposure increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The present study tested the hypothesis that perinatal nicotine-induced programming of heart ischemia-sensitive phenotype is mediated by enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in offspring. Nicotine was administered to pregnant rats via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps from day 4 of gestation to day 10 after birth, in the absence or presence of a ROS inhibitor, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in drinking water. Experiments were conducted in 8 month old age male offspring. Isolated hearts were perfused in a Langendorff preparation. Perinatal nicotine treatment significantly increased ischemia and reperfusion-induced left ventricular injury, and decreased post-ischemic recovery of left ventricular function and coronary flow rate. In addition, nicotine enhanced cardiac ROS production and significantly attenuated protein kinase Cε (PKCε) protein abundance in the heart. Although nicotine had no effect on total cardiac glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) protein expression, it significantly increased the phosphorylation of GSK3β at serine 9 residue in the heart. NAC inhibited nicotine-mediated increase in ROS production, recovered PKCε gene expression and abrogated increased phosphorylation of GSK3β. Of importance, NAC blocked perinatal nicotine-induced increase in ischemia and reperfusion injury in the heart. These findings provide novel evidence that increased oxidative stress plays a causal role in perinatal nicotine-induced developmental programming of ischemic sensitive phenotype in the heart, and suggest potential therapeutic targets of anti-oxidative stress in the treatment of ischemic heart disease.

  9. Protective Effect of Antenatal Antioxidant on Nicotine-Induced Heart Ischemia-Sensitive Phenotype in Rat Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaLiao Xiao

    Full Text Available Fetal nicotine exposure increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The present study tested the hypothesis that perinatal nicotine-induced programming of heart ischemia-sensitive phenotype is mediated by enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS in offspring. Nicotine was administered to pregnant rats via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps from day 4 of gestation to day 10 after birth, in the absence or presence of a ROS inhibitor, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC in drinking water. Experiments were conducted in 8 month old age male offspring. Isolated hearts were perfused in a Langendorff preparation. Perinatal nicotine treatment significantly increased ischemia and reperfusion-induced left ventricular injury, and decreased post-ischemic recovery of left ventricular function and coronary flow rate. In addition, nicotine enhanced cardiac ROS production and significantly attenuated protein kinase Cε (PKCε protein abundance in the heart. Although nicotine had no effect on total cardiac glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β protein expression, it significantly increased the phosphorylation of GSK3β at serine 9 residue in the heart. NAC inhibited nicotine-mediated increase in ROS production, recovered PKCε gene expression and abrogated increased phosphorylation of GSK3β. Of importance, NAC blocked perinatal nicotine-induced increase in ischemia and reperfusion injury in the heart. These findings provide novel evidence that increased oxidative stress plays a causal role in perinatal nicotine-induced developmental programming of ischemic sensitive phenotype in the heart, and suggest potential therapeutic targets of anti-oxidative stress in the treatment of ischemic heart disease.

  10. Natural Antioxidants Against Arsenic-Induced Genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Munesh; Lalit, Minakshi; Thakur, Rajesh

    2016-03-01

    Arsenic is present in water, soil, and air in organic as well as in inorganic forms. However, inorganic arsenic is more toxic than organic and can cause many diseases including cancers in humans. Its genotoxic effect is considered as one of its carcinogenic actions. Arsenic can cause DNA strand breaks, deletion mutations, micronuclei formation, DNA-protein cross-linking, sister chromatid exchange, and DNA repair inhibition. Evidences indicate that arsenic causes DNA damage by generation of reactive free radicals. Nutritional supplementation of antioxidants has been proven highly beneficial against arsenic genotoxicity in experimental animals. Recent studies suggest that antioxidants protect mainly by reducing excess free radicals via restoring the activities of cellular enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic antioxidants and decreasing the oxidation processes such as lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent literature on arsenic-induced genotoxicity and its mitigation by naturally derived antioxidants in various biological systems.

  11. Antioxidant properties of cumin (Bunium persicum Boiss. extract and its protective role against abiotic stress tested by microRNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Ražná

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bunium persicum Boiss. seeds have been used for medicinal and nutritional properties such as antioxidant, antihelmetic and antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to to tested protective role of cumin extract against abiotic stress by microRNA markers. Secondary also was to evaluate antioxidant activity as well as total polyphenol, flavonoid and phenolic acid content of cumin extract. We observed that cumin DNA itself has not been damaged by sonication teratment. This protective impact indicates that cumin antioxidant properties can efficiently quench free radicals induced by sonication. On the other side, ultrasound-mediated formation of reactive oxygen species did induce the DNA polymorphism of lettuce samples which was detected by miRNAs-based markers. The range of sonication impact was time-dependent. Markers based of miRNA-DNA sequences has proven to be an effective tool. We have confirmed statistically significant differences (p ≤0.01 in miRNAs markers ability to detect the polymorphism due to sonication treatment.  The antioxidant activity was determined by a method using DPPH radical and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin - Ciocalteu reagent, total flavonoid with aluminium-chloride mehod and total phenolic acid with Arnova reagent. Results showed that cumin is rich for biologically active substances and can be used more in different kind of industry as a cheap source of these substances. Antioxidant activity with DPPH method was 1.18 mg TEAC.g-1 (TEAC - Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method 45.23 mg TEAC.g-1. Total polyphenol content achieved value 4.22 mg GAE.g-1 (GAE - gallic acid equivalent per g of sample, total flavonoid content value 10.91 mg QE.g-1 (QE - quercetin equivalent per g of sample and total phenolic acid content value 5.07 mg CAE.g-1 (CAE - caffeic acid equivalent per g of sample.

  12. Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysate produced by alcalase hydrolysis from shrimp waste (Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Satya Sadhan; Dora, Krushna Chandra

    2014-03-01

    Protein hydrolysates prepared by hydrolysis of shrimp waste (Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus) for 90 min. using Alcalase enzyme following pH-stat method. Antioxidative activities of SWPH were assessed determining FRAP, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities, which increased linearly with increasing concentration of protein hydrolysate upto 5 mg/ml maintaining good correlation. SWPH showed high stability over wide ranges of pH (2-11) and temperature (up to 100 °C for 150 min), in which the activity of more than 80% was retained. Protein hydrolysate solution with a concentration of 5 mg/ml significantly lowered TBA values of Croaker fish fillet and maintained yellowishness of skin colour compared to untreated control sample during 10 days of refrigerated storage at 4 °C. SWPH also restricted the increase of PV and FFA values in Croaker fish fillet within acceptable limit.

  13. Improved physicochemical properties and hepatic protection of Maillard reaction products derived from fish protein hydrolysates and ribose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Yong; Lee, Sanghoon; Pyo, Min Cheol; Jeon, Hyeonjin; Kim, Yoonsook; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2017-04-15

    High amounts of waste products generated from fish-processing need to be disposed of despite their potential nutritional value. A variety of methods, such as enzymatic hydrolysis, have been developed for these byproducts. In the current study, we investigated the physicochemical, biological and antioxidative properties of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) conjugated with ribose through the Maillard reaction. These glycated conjugates of FPH (GFPH) had more viscous rheological properties than FPH and exhibited higher heat, emulsification and foaming stability. They also protected liver HepG2 cells against t-BHP-induced oxidative stress with enhanced glutathione synthesis in vitro. Furthermore, it was shown that GFPH induced upregulation of phase II enzyme expression, such as that of HO-1 and γ-GCL, via nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and phosphorylation of ERK. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential of GFPH for use as a functional food ingredient with improved rheological and antioxidative properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antioxidative, DPP-IV and ACE inhibiting peptides from fish protein hydrolysed with intestinal proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Stagsted, Jan; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    and pancreatin + mucosa hydrolysates. No DH was obtained for tissues hydrolysed with only intestinal mucosa extract. Preliminary results showed antioxidant activity and intestinal DPP-IV and ACE inhibiting activity in 10 kDa fraction from both belly flap and skin hydrolysates but with a higher antioxidative...... of secondary marine products. The approach in this study is to hydrolyse skin and belly flap tissue from Salmon with the use of mammalian digestive proteases from pancreas and intestinal mucosa and test hydrolysates for antioxidative capacity, intestinal DPP-IV and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE......) inhibiting properties. 10kDa dialysis bags containing 10ml water were added to homogenized fish tissues, which were subsequently hydrolysed for 24 hours at 37˚C and pH 8 with intestinal mucosa extract and/or pancreatin solution from pig. Dialysis bags were then removed and content were analyzed for free...

  15. Effect of certain natural antioxidants in protecting against damage caused by gamma radiation in ischemic rat intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, T.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in various clinical pathologies one of which is ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)- induced injury. Intestinal I/R enhances production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory mediators and induces apoptosis. In other hand. the intestinal tract shows a high sensitivity to ionizing radiation due to a rapid cell turnover and is often implicated in radiation sickness the radiation damage may either be a consequence of a direct effect resulting in disruption of critical molecule (such as an enzyme or DNA) or an indirect effect through ionization of water molecules and formation of ROS. consequently, supplementation of antioxidants may be a beneficial approach to protect against cellular damages associated with oxidative stress. the current study was aimed to evaluate the possible protective effects of vitamin E (100 mg/kg p.o.), tomato extract (67 mg/kg. p.o.) and turmeric (100 mg/kg, p.o) against ileal injury induced in rats by total occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery for 30 min followed by reperfusion for another 30 min. Furthermore, this protective effect of the mentioned drugs was extended into injury that could happened in ileal tissues of rats exposed to (6 Gy) gamma radiation followed by intestinal I/R. Drugs were administered one daily for 14 consecutive days prior to the ischemic insult. Damage induced by I/R was manifested by depletion of ileal content of reduced glutathion (GSH) as well as Lactate dehydrogenas (LDH) activity, associated with elevation of ileal contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Intestinal ischemic insults were exacerbated by radiation injury on comparing different untreated controls; except the ileal content of GSH which has elevated due to the preconditioning effect of irradiation. Vitamin E provided a significant protection against the decrease in LDH activity as well as the increase in TBARS

  16. Hyperoxia-induced ciliary loss and oxidative damage in an in vitro bovine model: The protective role of antioxidant vitamins E and C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shmgani, Hanady S.; Moate, Roy M. [School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth (United Kingdom); Sneyd, J. Robert [Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Macnaughton, Peter D. [Derriford Critical Care Unit, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Moody, A. John, E-mail: jmoody@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new bovine bronchial model for studying hyperoxia-induced cilia loss is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hyperoxia-induced cilia loss was associated with increased sloughing of cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hyperoxia led to higher epithelial glutathione levels, evidence of oxidative stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hyperoxia led to increased DNA damage (Comet), and lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vitamins C and E partially protected against hyperoxia-induced cilia loss. -- Abstract: Although elevated oxygen fraction is used in intensive care units around the world, pathological changes in pulmonary tissue have been shown to occur with prolonged exposure to hyperoxia. In this work a bovine bronchus culture model has been successfully used to evaluate the effects of hyperoxia on ciliated epithelium in vitro. Samples were cultured using an air interface method and exposed to normoxia, 21% O{sub 2} or hyperoxia, 95% O{sub 2}. Cilial coverage was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Tissue damage (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH, in the medium), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), DNA damage (comet assay), protein oxidation (OxyBlot kit) and antioxidant status (total glutathione) were used to assess whether the hyperoxia caused significant oxidative stress. Hyperoxia caused a time-dependent decline (t{sub Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half} = 3.4 d compared to 37.1 d under normoxia) in cilial coverage (P < 0.0001). This was associated with a significant increase in the number of cells (2.80 {+-} 0.27 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} compared to 1.97 {+-} 0.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} ml{sup -1} after 6 d), many apparently intact, in the medium (P < 0.05); LDH release (1.06 {+-} 0.29 compared to 0.83 {+-} 0.36 {mu}mol min{sup -1} g{sup -1} after 6 d; P < 0.001); lipid peroxidation (352 {+-} 16 versus 247 {+-} 11 {mu}mol MDA g{sup -1} for hyperoxia and

  17. Antioxidant-Induced Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Kross

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in the body is offset when either of these forces prevails. The available evidence on the harmful effects of antioxidants is analyzed in this review. In summary, a hypothesis is presented that “antioxidant-induced stress” results when antioxidants overwhelm the body’s free radicals.

  18. Bmi1 is down-regulated in the aging brain and displays antioxidant and protective activities in neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdouh

    Full Text Available Aging increases the risk to develop several neurodegenerative diseases, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Inactivation of the Polycomb group gene Bmi1 in mice results in growth retardation, cerebellar degeneration, and development of a premature aging-like phenotype. This progeroid phenotype is characterized by formation of lens cataracts, apoptosis of cortical neurons, and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS concentrations, owing to p53-mediated repression of antioxidant response (AOR genes. Herein we report that Bmi1 expression progressively declines in the neurons of aging mouse and human brains. In old brains, p53 accumulates at the promoter of AOR genes, correlating with a repressed chromatin state, down-regulation of AOR genes, and increased oxidative damages to lipids and DNA. Comparative gene expression analysis further revealed that aging brains display an up-regulation of the senescence-associated genes IL-6, p19(Arf and p16(Ink4a, along with the pro-apoptotic gene Noxa, as seen in Bmi1-null mice. Increasing Bmi1 expression in cortical neurons conferred robust protection against DNA damage-induced cell death or mitochondrial poisoning, and resulted in suppression of ROS through activation of AOR genes. These observations unveil that Bmi1 genetic deficiency recapitulates aspects of physiological brain aging and that Bmi1 over-expression is a potential therapeutic modality against neurodegeneration.

  19. Radical-Scavenging Activity of a Sunscreen Enriched by Antioxidants Providing Protection in the Whole Solar Spectral Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carla; Maia Campos, Patrícia; Schanzer, Sabine; Albrecht, Stephanie; Lohan, Silke B; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E; Meinke, Martina C

    2017-01-01

    The main reason for extrinsic skin aging is the negative action of free radicals. The formation of free radicals in the skin has been associated with ultraviolet (UV) exposure and also to visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) irradiations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a sunscreen in the whole solar range. The radical-scavenging activity of a sunscreen in the UV, VIS, and NIR ranges was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Ex vivo penetration profiles were determined using confocal Raman microscopy on porcine ear skin at different time points after application. Compared to the untreated skin, the sunscreen decreased the skin radical formation in the UV and VIS regions. Additional protection in the VIS and NIR ranges was observed for the sunscreen containing antioxidants (AO). The penetration depth of the cream was less than 11.2 ± 3.0 µm for all time points. A sunscreen containing AO improved the photoprotection in the VIS and NIR ranges. The sunscreen was retained in the stratum corneum. Therefore, these results show the possibility of the development of effective and safer sunscreen products. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Hydrocolloids Decrease the Digestibility of Corn Starch, Soy Protein, and Skim Milk and the Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yue; Jeon, Hyeong-Ju; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocolloids have many applications in foods including their use in dysphagia diets. We aimed to evaluate whether hydrocolloids in foods affect the digestibility of starch and protein, and their effects on antioxidant capacity. The thickening hydrocolloids: locust bean gum and carboxymethyl cellulose, and the gel-forming agents: agar agar, konjac-glucomannan, and Hot & Soft Plus were blended with corn starch and soy protein, skim milk, or grape juice and were examined for their in vitro-digestability by comparing the reducing sugar and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptide, for antioxidant capacity by total polyphenol contents and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The hydrocolloids resulted in a decrease in starch digestibility with the gel-forming agents. Hydrocolloids diminished TCA-soluble peptides in skim milk compared to soy protein with the exception of locust bean gum and decreased free radical scavenging capacities and total phenolic contents in grape juice. Our findings may provide evidence for the use of hydro-colloids for people at risk of nutritional deficiencies such as dysphagia patients.

  1. The endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis induces the expression of host antioxidant proteins in an Aedes albopictus cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley J Brennan

    Full Text Available Wolbachia are obligate intracellular bacteria which commonly infect arthropods. They are maternally inherited and capable of altering host development, sex determination, and reproduction. Reproductive manipulations include feminization, male-killing, parthenogenesis, and cytoplasmic incompatibility. The mechanism by which Wolbachia avoid destruction by the host immune response is unknown. Generation of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs and reactive oxygen species (ROS by the host are among the first lines of traditional antimicrobial defense. Previous work shows no link between a Wolbachia infection and the induction of AMPs. Here we compare the expression of protein in a cell line naturally infected with Wolbachia and an identical cell line cured of the infection through the use of antibiotics. Protein extracts of each cell line were analyzed by two dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC/MS/MS. Our results show the upregulation of host antioxidant proteins, which are active against ROS generated by aerobic cell metabolism and during an immune response. Furthermore, flow cytometric and microscopic analysis demonstrates that ROS production is significantly greater in Wolbachia-infected mosquito cells and is associated with endosymbiont-containing vacuoles located in the host cell cytoplasm. This is the first empirical data supporting an association between Wolbachia and the insect antioxidant system.

  2. Evaluation of the anti-oxidant ethylene diurea (EDU) as a protectant against ozone effects on crops (Growth chamber trials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, D.J.; Li, X. [Alberta Research Council, Vegreville, AB (Canada). Environmental Technologies

    2003-02-01

    A field study conducted during the summer of 2000 showed that when the antioxidant ethylene diurea (EDU) was applied to crops there was an increase in several parameters. The authors designed a series of controlled-environment trials to test the following: were the effects of EDU the result of EDU-mediated protection against ozone (O{sub 3}) or were they from the plant growth promoting effects of EDU independent of O{sub 3}. The three major objectives were: (1) to modify an existing gas exposure system to expose plants to O{sub 3} and to test the stability and reliability of the system, (2) to perform O{sub 3} exposure trials using wheat, barley, field pea and canola to observe the effects of O{sub 3}, and (3) to test whether the effects of EDU could be attributed to protection against O{sub 3} injury or to the plant growth promoting effects independent of O{sub 3}. The modification to the gas exposure system involved the installation of an O{sub 3} delivery system and a monitoring system. Stability of the system was tested using radish plants. The symptoms of O{sub 3} injury on radish leaves began after two weeks of exposure. It appeared as mottled bleached areas which became red. Mottled chlorotic areas appeared on wheat and barley, which led to complete chlorosis, necrosis and eventually abscission. After two weeks of exposure, field pea developed tendril curl, and canola plants displayed no visible signs of injury from O{sub 3} exposure. The results of the study indicated that the effects of EDU can be species- and cultivar-specific. 15 refs., 11 tabs., 8 figs.

  3. Antioxidative effects of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate in CCl4-induced liver injury in low-protein fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, C Z; Opoku, A R; Terblanche, S E

    2006-11-01

    The effects of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate on the plasma activity levels of catalase (CA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in liver homogenates and lipid peroxidation (LPO-malondialdehyde-MDA) levels in liver homogenates and liver microsomal fractions against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver injury in low-protein fed Sprague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) were investigated. A group of male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained on a low-protein diet for 5 days were divided into three subgroups. Two subgroups were injected with carbon tetrachloride and the other group with an equivalent amount of olive oil. Two hours after CCl(4) intoxication one of the two subgroups was administered with pumpkin seed protein isolate and thereafter switched onto a 20% pumpkin seed protein isolate diet. The other two groups of rats were maintained on the low-protein diet for the duration of the investigation. Groups of rats from the different subgroups were killed at 24, 48 and 72 h after their respective treatments. After 5 days on the low-protein diet the activity levels of all the enzymes as well as antioxidant levels were significantly lower than their counterparts on a normal balanced diet. However, a low-protein diet resulted in significantly increased levels of lipid peroxidation. The CCl(4) intoxicated rats responded in a similar way, regarding all the variables investigated, to their counterparts on a low-protein diet. The administration of pumpkin seed protein isolate after CCl(4) intoxication resulted in significantly increased levels of all the variables investigated, with the exception of the lipid peroxidation levels which were significantly decreased. From the results of the present study it is concluded that pumpkin seed protein isolate administration was effective in alleviating the detrimental effects associated with protein

  4. Physical chemistry evaluation of stability, spreadability, in vitro antioxidant, and photo-protective capacities of topical formulations containing Calendula officinalis L. leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Cecília Kessler Nunes Deuschle

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Calendula is used widely in cosmetic formulations that present phenolic compounds in their chemical constitution. The objective of our research was to develop and evaluate the stability of topical formulations containing 5% hydro-ethanolic extract of calendula leaves, including spreadability, and in vitro photo-protective, and antioxidant capacity. To evaluate the stability, we used organoleptic characteristics, pH, and viscosity parameters. Antioxidant capacity was measured by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method, and the photo-protective capacity by SPF spectrophotometric measure. All formulations were stable. The calendula extract formulations in gel and cream showed no significant variations in pH, and the cream formulations presented lower viscosity variations than gel formulations. The spreadability of the gel formulations was superior to those in cream. The formulations also presented good antioxidant capacities and an FPS of around 1.75. In accordance with the results, the formulations can be used as antioxidants, but considering the low SPF obtained, calendula cannot be considered as a stand-alone sunscreen, yet may well be tested in future studies towards verifying enhancement of synthetic sunscreens.

  5. Preparation of antioxidant peptide from egg white protein and improvement of its activities assisted by high-intensity pulsed electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Songyi; Guo, Yang; You, Qi; Yin, Yongguang; Liu, Jingbo

    2012-05-01

    Egg white protein powder was hydrolyzed by three proteases-alcalase, trypsin, and pepsin-to produce antioxidant peptides. Three kinds of hydrolysates were prepared under optimal enzymatic parameters that were obtained from the preliminary one-factor-at-a-time test and response surface methodology. Thereafter, three enzymatic hydrolysates were sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration membranes in cut-off MW of 30, 10, and 1 kDa, and tested in terms of their reducing power (RP). Effects of high-intensity pulsed electric field (PEF) were further investigated on the antioxidant peptides to improve their activities. Alcalase hydrolysates possessed stronger RP ability than the other two hydrolysates, particularly for the fraction within alcalase could be regarded as the most appropriate enzyme for preparation of bioactive peptide from egg white protein, with the best antioxidant activity. Also, PEF showed some effects on the peptide and could be further applied to improve its antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Protective effects of soybean protein and egg white protein on the antibacterial activity of nisin in the presence of trypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Dan; Zhang, Dong; Hao, Limin; Lin, Songyang; Kang, Qiaozhen; Liu, Xin; Lu, Laizheng; Lu, Jike

    2018-01-15

    The using of nisin to prevent foodborne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) from contamination has received broad attentions during meat processing. However, the application of nisin has been limited because its antibacterial activity may be inhibited by trypsin. In this study, the protective effects of soybean protein and egg white protein on antibacterial activity of nisin were evaluated. It could be concluded that exogenous trypsin decreased the antibacterial activity of nisin, soybean protein and egg white protein could keep the nisin activity from enzymolysis of trypsin. Trypsin inhibitors in soybean protein and egg white protein could protect the antibacterial activity of nisin. Nisin with soybean protein or egg white protein in cooked meat product presented better quality preservation effects than nisin alone in the presence of trypsin. The total viable counts (TVC) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) of nisin-treated group were significantly higher than these in nisin-soybean protein-treated and nisin-egg white protein-treated groups with trypsin. This study showed the potential of using soybean protein and egg white protein to stabilize the antibacterial activity of nisin under high trypsin conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative Study on Biochemical Properties and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Protein Hydrolysates Produced by Alcalase and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 Proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balti, Rafik; Bougatef, Ali; El Hadj Ali, Nedra; Ktari, Naourez; Jellouli, Kemel; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Dhulster, Pascal; Nasri, Moncef

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidative activities and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) using Alcalase 2.4 L and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 proteases with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were determined. For the biochemical properties, hydrolysis by both enzymes increased protein solubility to above 75% over a wide pH range. The antioxidant activities of cuttlefish protein hydrolysates (CPHs) increase with increasing DH. In addition, all CPHs exhibited antioxidative activity in a concentration-dependent manner. NH1-CPHs generally showed greater antioxidative activity than Alcalase protein hydrolysates (P Alcalase and NH1 protein hydrolysates were able to retard lipid peroxidation and β-carotene-linoleic acid oxidation. Alcalase-CPH (DH = 12.5%) and NH1-CPH (DH = 15%) contained 75.36% and 80.11% protein, respectively, with histidine and arginine as the major amino acids, followed by glutamic acid/glutamine, serine, lysine, and leucine. In addition, CPHs have a high percentage of essential amino acids made up 48.85% and 50.04%. Cuttlefish muscle protein hydrolysates had a high nutritional value and could be used as supplement to poorly balanced dietary proteins.

  8. Honey as a source of dietary antioxidants: structures, bioavailability and evidence of protective effects against human chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Suarez, Josè M; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In the long human tradition honey has been used not only as a nutrient but also as a medicine. Its composition is rather variable and depends on the floral source and on external factors, such as seasonal, environmental conditions and processing. In this review, specific attention is focused on absorption, metabolism, and beneficial biological activities of honey compounds in human. Honey is a supersaturated solution of sugars, mainly composed of fructose (38%) and glucose (31%), containing also minerals, proteins, free amino acids, enzymes, vitamins and polyphenols. Among polyphenols, flavonoids are the most abundant and are closely related to its biological functions. Honey positively affects risk factors for cardiovascular diseases by inhibiting inflammation, improving endothelial function, as well as the plasma lipid profile, and increasing low-density lipoprotein resistance to oxidation. Honey also displays an important antitumoral capacity, where polyphenols again are considered responsible for its complementary and overlapping mechanisms of chemopreventive activity in multistage carcinogenesis, by inhibiting mutagenesis or inducing apoptosis. Moreover, honey positively modulates the glycemic response by reducing blood glucose, serum fructosamine or glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations and exerts antibacterial properties caused by its consistent amount of hydrogen peroxide and non-peroxide factors as flavonoids, methylglyoxal and defensin-1 peptide. In conclusion, the evidence of the biological actions of honey can be ascribed to its polyphenolic contents which, in turn, are usually associated to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, as well as to its cardiovascular, antiproliferative and antimicrobial benefits.

  9. α/β-hydrolase domain containing protein 15 (ABHD15--an adipogenic protein protecting from apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Walenta

    Full Text Available Our knowledge about adipocyte metabolism and development is steadily growing, yet many players are still undefined. Here, we show that α/β-hydrolase domain containing protein 15 (Abhd15 is a direct and functional target gene of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, the master regulator of adipogenesis. In line, Abhd15 is mainly expressed in brown and white adipose tissue and strongly upregulated during adipogenesis in various murine and human cell lines. Stable knockdown of Abhd15 in 3T3-L1 cells evokes a striking differentiation defect, as evidenced by low lipid accumulation and decreased expression of adipocyte marker genes. In preconfluent cells, knockdown of Abhd15 leads to impaired proliferation, which is caused by apoptosis, as we see an increased SubG1 peak, caspase 3/7 activity, and BAX protein expression as well as a reduction in anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein. Furthermore, apoptosis-inducing amounts of palmitic acid evoke a massive increase of Abhd15 expression, proposing an apoptosis-protecting role for ABHD15. On the other hand, in mature adipocytes physiological (i.e. non-apoptotic concentrations of palmitic acid down-regulate Abhd15 expression. Accordingly, we found that the expression of Abhd15 in adipose tissue is reduced in physiological situations with high free fatty acid levels, like high-fat diet, fasting, and aging as well as in genetically obese mice. Collectively, our results position ABHD15 as an essential component in the development of adipocytes as well as in apoptosis, thereby connecting two substantial factors in the regulation of adipocyte number and size. Together with its intricate regulation by free fatty acids, ABHD15 might be an intriguing new target in obesity and diabetes research.

  10. Protective Effect of Fragaria ananassa Crude Extract on Cadmium-Induced Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes Suppression, and Apoptosis in Rat Testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmallah, Mohammed I Y; Elkhadragy, Manal F; Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2017-05-05

    Cadmium is a deleterious environmental pollutant that threats both animals and human health. Oxidative stress and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have recently been reported to be the main cause of cellular damage as a result of cadmium exposure. We investigate, here, the protective effect of strawberry crude extracts on cadmium-induced oxidative damage of testes in rats. Four groups ( n = 8) of 32 adult male Wistar rats weighing 160-180 g were used. The control group received 0.9% saline solution all over the experimental period (5 days). Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg CdCl₂. Group 3 was provided only with an oral administration of strawberry methanolic extract (SME) at a dose of 250 mg/kg. Group 4 was treated with SME before cadmium injection with the same mentioned doses. It was shown that cadmium exposure results in a significant decrease in both relative testicular weight and serum testosterone level. Analyzing the oxidative damaging effect of cadmium on the testicular tissue revealed the induction of oxidative stress markers represented in the elevated level of lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), and a decrease in the reduced glutathione (GSH) content. Considering cadmium toxicity, the level of the antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), and glutathione reductase (GR) were markedly decreased. Moreover, gene expression analysis indicated significant upregulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins, bcl-2-associated-X-protein ( BAX ), and tumor necrosis factor-α ( TNFA ) in response to cadmium intoxication, while significant downregulation of the anti-apoptotic, B-cell lymphoma 2 ( BCL2 ) gene was detected. Immunohistochemistry of the testicular tissue possessed positive immunostaining for the increased level of TNF-α, but decreased number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) stained cells. Administration of SME debilitated the

  11. Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Damegh, Mona Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of electromagnetic radiation from conventional cellular phone use on the oxidant and antioxidant status in rat blood and testicular tissue and determine the possible protective role of vitamins C and E in preventing the detrimental effects of electromagnetic radiation on the testes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The treatment groups were exposed to an electromagnetic field, electromagnetic field plus vitamin C (40 mg/kg/day) or...

  12. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantachoke, Natthinee; Lomarat, Pattamapan; Praserttirachai, Wasin; Khammanit, Ruksinee; Mangmool, Supachoke

    2016-01-01

    The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla , Averrhoa bilimbi , Malpighia glabra , Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape , Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H 2 O 2 -induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress.

  13. Thai Fruits Exhibit Antioxidant Activity and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthinee Anantachoke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cellular antioxidant enzymes play the important role of protecting the cells and organisms from the oxidative damage. Natural antioxidants contained in fruits have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional value. Even though antioxidant activities of many fruits have been reported, the effects of phytochemicals contained in fruits on the induction of antioxidant enzymes in the cells have not been fully defined. In this study, we showed that extracts from Antidesma ghaesembilla, Averrhoa bilimbi, Malpighia glabra, Mangifera indica, Sandoricum koetjape, Syzygium malaccense, and Ziziphus jujuba inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cells. Additionally, these Thai fruit extracts increased the mRNA and protein expressions of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, and manganese superoxide dismutase. The consumption of Thai fruits rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of oxidative stress.

  14. Curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome accelerates rat excisional wound healing: involvement of Hsp70/Bax proteins, antioxidant defense, and angiogenesis activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhollahi, Elham; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Zahedifard, Maryam; Tayeby, Faezeh; Awang, Khalijah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Curcuma purpurascens BI. is a member of Zingiberaceae family. The purpose of this study is to investigate the wound healing properties of hexane extract of C. purpurascens rhizome (HECP) against excisional wound healing in rats. Materials and methods Twenty four rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: A) negative control (blank placebo, acacia gum), B) low dose of HECP, C) high dose of HECP, and D) positive control, with 6 rats in each group. Full-thickness incisions (approximately 2.00 cm) were made on the neck area of each rat. Groups 1–4 were treated two-times a day for 20 days with blank placebo, HECP (100 mg/kg), HECP (200 mg/kg), and intrasite gel as a positive control, respectively. After 20 days, hematoxylin and eosin and Masson’s trichrome stainings were employed to investigate the histopathological alterations. Protein expressions of Bax and Hsp70 were examined in the wound tissues using immunohistochemistry analysis. In addition, levels of enzymatic antioxidants and malondialdehyde representing lipid peroxidation were measured in wound tissue homogenates. Results Macroscopic evaluation of wounds showed conspicuous elevation in wound contraction after topical administration of HECP at both doses. Moreover, histopathological analysis revealed noteworthy reduction in the scar width correlated with the enhanced collagen content and fibroblast cells, accompanied by a reduction of inflammatory cells in the granulation tissues. At the molecular level, HECP facilitates wound-healing process by downregulating Bax and upregulating Hsp70 protein at the wound site. The formation of new blood vessel was observed in Masson’s trichrome staining of wounds treated with HECP (100 and 200 mg/kg). In addition, HECP administration caused a significant surge in enzymatic antioxidant activities and a decline in lipid peroxidation. Conclusion These findings suggested that HECP accelerated wound-healing process in rats via antioxidant activity, angiogenesis

  15. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  16. Effect of topical application of antioxidants and free radical scavengers on protection of hairless mouse skin exposed to chronic doses of ultraviolet B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muizzuddin, N.; Shakoori, A.R.; Marenus, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    Background/aims: Within the past three decades, there has emerged a greater awareness of the molecular effects of solar rays especially ultraviolet radiation (UV-R), to the extent that the harmful effects of solar radiation are recognized not only by molecular biologists and physicians, but also by the general public. Various sunscreen molecules that effectively block the UVB component of the sun are available; however, a large part of Western populations elicits adverse reactions against chemical sunscreens. This study was designed to observe the protective effect of antioxidants against the damaging effects of chronic UVB exposure of skin in an attempt to introduce antioxidants and free radical scavengers as topical sun protective agents. Methods: Jackson hairless mice were exposed to suberythemal doses of UVB, three times a week, and topically treated with a cream containing the anti-oxidants vitamin E, butylated hydroxytoluene, nordihydroguaradinic acid and vitamin C. Results: Treatment with vehicle alone along with UVB exposure resulted in an increase in epidermal thickness showing a 38%, 77% and 112% increase after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively. Chronic UVB exposed skin treated with the material containing free radical scavengers and antioxidants mix (AO mix) exhibited 39%, 73% and 124% thicker epidermis than the untreated control after, respectively, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of treatment. The vehicle did not appear to protect skin against UV irradiation, since there appeared to be more (16%) sunburn cells in vehicle treated skin than the untreated, UV exposed skin after 4 weeks of treatment. After 8 weeks and 12 weeks, there were 33% and 36% less sunburn cells in the vehicle treated skin than the untreated, UV exposed skin. The antioxidant mix was significantly effective (P=<0.001) in protecting against UVB irradiation, having 63%, 71% and 79% fewer sunburn cells than the untreated, UV exposed skin af after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of

  17. Transglutaminase cross-linking effect on sensory characteristics and antioxidant activities of Maillard reaction products from soybean protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Na; Tan, Chen; Huang, Meigui; Liu, Ping; Eric, Karangwa; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xia, Shuqin; Jia, Chengsheng

    2013-01-01

    To improve the yield of Maillard peptides, a microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) was used to increase the content of 1000-5000Da peptides in soybean protein hydrolysates by using a cross-linking reaction. The sensory characteristics and antioxidant activities of corresponding Maillard Reaction Products (MSPC) was then evaluated. After cross-linking treatment the content of 1000-5000Da peptides in protein hydrolysates and the yield of Maillard peptides increased by 21.19% and 8.71%, respectively, which contributed to the improved mouthfulness of MSPC. The bitter amino acids were significantly decreased and the umami acids were markedly increased in MSPC. Volatile compounds identified by GC-MS analysis showed that the content of the important meaty flavour compounds (such as 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulfide) of MSPC were dramatically higher than that of MRPs from uncross-linking peptides. Combined with sensory evaluation, it was confirmed that MTGase cross-linking improved the flavour Characteristics and did not affect the antioxidant activity of MSPC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. LC-ESI-QTOF-MS identification of novel antioxidant peptides obtained by enzymatic and microbial hydrolysis of vegetable proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babini, Elena; Tagliazucchi, Davide; Martini, Serena; Dei Più, Lucilla; Gianotti, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Bioactive antioxidant peptides are more and more attracting the attention of food manufacturers for their potential to transform food in functional food, able to prevent a variety of chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress. In the present study proteins extracted from different vegetable sources (KAMUT® khorasan wheat, emmer, lupine and pea) were hydrolyzed with commercial enzymes and Lactobacillus spp. strains. Hydrolysates were separated by size exclusion chromatography and purified fractions were analyzed for their antioxidant activity. Peptides from the fractions with the highest activity were identified by nanoLC-ESI-QTOF-MS and thirteen peptides were selected for synthesis on the basis of their sequence. Four peptides (VLPPQQQY, TVTSLDLPVLRW, VTSLDLPVLRW, FVPY) were found able to scavenge superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals, organic nitro-radicals (ABTS, DPPH) and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. The impact of this work is targeted to add hydrolysed vegetable proteins to reformulated functional food or to produce health-promoting ingredients and nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reverse-phase HPLC separation of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysate produced peptide fractions with enhanced antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2013-03-01

    Hemp seed protein hydrolysate (HPH) was produced through simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) digestion of hemp seed protein isolate followed by partial purification and separation into eight peptide fractions by reverse-phase (RP)-HPLC. The peptide fractions exhibited higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity as well as scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals when compared to HPH. Radical scavenging activities of the fractionated peptides increased as content of hydrophobic amino acids or elution time was increased, with the exception of hydroxyl radical scavenging that showed decreased trend. Glutathione (GSH), HPH and the RP-HPLC peptide fractions possessed low ferric ion reducing ability but all had strong (>60 %) metal chelating activities. Inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation by some of the HPH peptide fractions was higher at 1 mg/ml when compared to that observed at 0.1 mg/ml peptide concentration. Peptide separation resulted in higher concentration of some hydrophobic amino acids (especially proline, leucine and isoleucine) in the fractions (mainly F5 and F8) when compared to HPH. The elution time-dependent increased concentrations of the hydrophobic amino acids coupled with decreased levels of positively charged amino acids may have been responsible for the significantly higher (p < 0.05) antioxidant properties observed for some of the peptide fractions when compared to the unfractionated HPH. In conclusion, the antioxidant activity of HPH after simulated GIT digestion is mainly influenced by the amino acid composition of some of its peptides.

  20. Novel cytoprotective mechanism of anti-parkinsonian drug deprenyl: PI3K and Nrf2-derived induction of antioxidative proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaso, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Chiharu; Sato, Hiromi; Imamura, Keiko; Takeshima, Takao; Nakashima, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Neuroprotection has received considerable attention as a strategy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Deprenyl (Selegiline) is a promising candidate for neuroprotection; however, its cytoprotective mechanism has not been fully clarified. Here, we report a novel cytoprotective mechanism of deprenyl involving PI3K and Nrf2-mediated induction of oxidative stress-related proteins. Deprenyl increased the expression of HO-1, PrxI, TrxI, TrxRxI, γGCS, and p62/A170 in SH-SY5Y cells. Deprenyl also induced the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and increased the binding activity of Nrf2 to the enhancer region of human genomic HO-1. The Nrf2-mediated induction of antioxidative molecules was controlled by PI3K. Indeed, furthermore, neurotrophin receptor TrkB was identified as an upstream signal for PI3K-Nrf2 activation by deprenyl. These results suggest that the cytoprotective effect of deprenyl is, in part, dependent on Nrf2-mediated induction of antioxidative proteins, suggesting that activation of the PI3K-Nrf2 system may be a useful therapeutic strategy for PD

  1. In vitro studies to evaluate the antioxidant property of salidroside and rosavin and protective effects of electron beam radiation induced damages in human dermal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejashvi, Kedilaya R.; Padma, Shetty K.; Suchetha Kumari, N.

    2014-01-01

    Rosavin and Salidroside are active component of Rhodiola rosea, it is a phenylpropanoid derivative of plant. Rhodiola rosea, also known as 'golden root' or 'roseroot' belongs to the plant family Crassulaceae. Rhodiola grows primarily in dry sandy ground at high altitudes in the arctic areas of Europe and Asia. Plant is rich with phenolic compounds, known to have a strong antioxidant property. Studies have shown that Rhodiola rosea has a capacity to decrease toxicity of Adriamycin (anti-cancer drugs), while it enhances their anti-carcinogenic effects. Enhanced antioxidant activity of Rhodiola rosea play role in the prevention of both chronic disease and aging. Present study is aimed to determine the antioxidant property of Rosavin and Salidroside and dose determination on human dermal fibroblast against dermal fibroblast. Rosavin and Salidroside were dissolved in 10% DMSO. Invitro biochemical assays like DPPH radical scavenging assay, Ferric Anion Reducing Potential using TPTZ, Nitric Oxide scavenging assay, Total antioxidant determination assay, Super Anion Radical Scavenging assays were carried out to know property of the extract. Extracts were then treated on monolayer dermal fibroblast cells survival assay was performed. Salidroside has shown 80% total antioxidant property compare to Rosavin with respect Ascorbic acid as a standard. 100'R concentration of Salidroside and Rosavin has quite equal potential to scavenging DPPH similar like Ascorbic acid. Ferric Anion Reducing Potential using TPTZ, Nitric Oxide scavenging assays have also shown both Salidroside and Rosavin has a good antioxidant property. Invitro studies on dermal fibroblast have shown remarkable protective effect on normal and irradiated groups. (author)

  2. Structure and antioxidant activity of soy protein isolate-dextran conjugates obtained by TiO2 photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bei; Zhou, Xiaosong; Li, Bing; Chen, Caiyan; Zhang, Xiaosa; Chen, Siqiao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the structural characteristics and antioxidant activities of soy protein isolate- (SPI-) dextran conjugates obtained by TiO2 photocatalysis treatment. Results revealed that the UV-vis absorption and the fluorescence intensity increased as the photocatalytic power increased (P photocatalysis. Moreover, significant changes of secondary structure occurred in SPI-dextran conjugates. The α-helix, β-sheet, β-turns, and random coil were changed from approximately 10.6%, 37.9%, 12.9%, and 38.6% to 3.8%, 10.4%, 17.7%, and 68.8%, respectively, after treatment at photocatalytic power of 1000 W. In addition, SPI-dextran conjugates obtained by TiO2 photocatalysis treatment exhibited high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and possessed increased reducing power. All data indicated that TiO2 photocatalysis was an efficient method for promoting protein-polysaccharide copolymerisation.

  3. Insights into enzyme-substrate interaction and characterization of catalytic al intermediates of a Xylella Fastidiosa antioxidant protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcos Antonio de; Cussiol, Jose Renato Rosa; Soares Netto, Luis Eduardo; Guimaraes, Beatriz Gomes; Medrano, Francisco Javier; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar

    2005-01-01

    Plants and animals have developed various strategies to defend themselves from pathogens. One of them is the generation of oxidants such as organic Hydroperoxides (OHP). OHP can be generated through free radicals as well as enzymatic oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. To counteract this oxidative stress, bacteria have evolved several antioxidant mechanisms. Organic hydroperoxide resistance protein (Ohr) was initially identified as a factor involved in the resistance of bacteria, most of them pathogenic, to OHP, but not H 2 O 2 . We have cloned Ohr gene from Xylella fastidiosa and expressed in in Escherichia coli. The biochemical role of Ohr remained unknown for a long time until this work and the work of Nikolov's group (Cornell University, New York) independently showed that these proteins are thiol dependent peroxidases, whose activity is generated by a reactive cysteine. (author)

  4. Insights into enzyme-substrate interaction and characterization of catalytic al intermediates of a Xylella Fastidiosa antioxidant protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcos Antonio de; Cussiol, Jose Renato Rosa; Soares Netto, Luis Eduardo [Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Genetica e Biologia Evolutiva; Guimaraes, Beatriz Gomes; Medrano, Francisco Javier; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biologia Molecular Estrutural

    2005-07-01

    Plants and animals have developed various strategies to defend themselves from pathogens. One of them is the generation of oxidants such as organic Hydroperoxides (OHP). OHP can be generated through free radicals as well as enzymatic oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. To counteract this oxidative stress, bacteria have evolved several antioxidant mechanisms. Organic hydroperoxide resistance protein (Ohr) was initially identified as a factor involved in the resistance of bacteria, most of them pathogenic, to OHP, but not H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. We have cloned Ohr gene from Xylella fastidiosa and expressed in in Escherichia coli. The biochemical role of Ohr remained unknown for a long time until this work and the work of Nikolov's group (Cornell University, New York) independently showed that these proteins are thiol dependent peroxidases, whose activity is generated by a reactive cysteine. (author)

  5. Protein synthesis and antioxidant capacity in aging mice : Effects of long-term voluntary exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Speakman, John R.; Garland, Theodore; Lobley, Gerald E.; Visser, G. Henk

    2008-01-01

    Exercise increases metabolic rate and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) but also elevates protein turnover. ROS cause damage to macromolecules (e. g., proteins) and thereby contribute to aging. Protein turnover removes and replaces damaged proteins. The balance between these two

  6. Protective functions of intracellular heat-shock protein (HSP) 70-expression in patients with severe sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer-Smith, S; Stüber, F; Schroeder, S

    2001-12-01

    Intracellular expression of heat-shock-protein 70 (HSP70) arose early in evolutionary development as a tool to protect cellular homeostasis. HSP70 detects proteins that are incorrectly folded or denatured. They form a complex with such proteins which can lead to correct folding, compartmentalization in organelles, or to proteolytic degradation. HSP70 also appears to protect proteins from degeneration. Intracellular HSP70-expression is induced by a wide variety of stimuli including heat, fever, hypoxia, oxygen radicals, endotoxins, cytokines, and heavy metal ions. Pre-emptive induction of HSP70-expression reduces organ dysfunction and mortality in animal models of sepsis.

  7. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Miranda

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated with and without the extract at 37oC. The IC50 (concentration which causes a 50% reduction of oxidation of the extract in this system was 0.18 mg/ml. The in vivo antioxidant capacity was evaluated in plasma and liver of animals receiving a daily dose of 5 mg for 2 and 7 weeks. Plasma antioxidant capacity was measured in brain homogenate incubated for 1 h at 37oC. The production of oxidized compounds in liver after 2 h of incubation at 37oC was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS in control and experimental groups. Upon treatment, the antioxidant capacity of plasma was 71% for the experimental group and 54% for the control group. Data from liver spontaneous peroxidation studies were not significantly different between groups. The amounts of phenolic acids, a-tocopherol and ß-carotene were determined in Spirulina extracts. The results obtained indicate that Spirulina provides some antioxidant protection for both in vitro and in vivo systems.

  8. Cardiorenal Involvement in Metabolic Syndrome Induced by Cola Drinking in Rats: Proinflammatory Cytokines and Impaired Antioxidative Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Losada, Matilde; Gómez Llambí, Hernán; Ottaviano, Graciela; Cao, Gabriel; Müller, Angélica; Azzato, Francisco; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Milei, José

    2016-01-01

    We report experimental evidence confirming renal histopathology, proinflammatory mediators, and oxidative metabolism induced by cola drinking. Male Wistar rats drank ad libitum regular cola (C, n = 12) or tap water (W, n = 12). Measures. Body weight, nutritional data, plasma glucose, cholesterol fractions, TG, urea, creatinine, coenzyme Q10, SBP, and echocardiograms (0 mo and 6 mo). At 6 months euthanasia was performed. Kidneys were processed for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (semiquantitative). Compared with W, C rats showed (I) overweight (+8%, p < 0.05), hyperglycemia (+11%, p < 0.05), hypertriglyceridemia (2-fold, p < 0.001), higher AIP (2-fold, p < 0.01), and lower Q10 level (-55%, p < 0.05); (II) increased LV diastolic diameter (+9%, p < 0.05) and volume (systolic +24%, p < 0.05), posterior wall thinning (-8%, p < 0.05), and larger cardiac output (+24%, p < 0.05); (III) glomerulosclerosis (+21%, p < 0.05), histopathology (+13%, p < 0.05), higher tubular expression of IL-6 (7-fold, p < 0.001), and TNFα (4-fold, p < 0.001). (IV) Correlations were found for LV dimensions with IL-6 (74%, p < 0.001) and TNFα (52%, p < 0.001) and fully abolished after TG and Q10 control. Chronic cola drinking induced cardiac remodeling associated with increase in proinflammatory cytokines and renal damage. Hypertriglyceridemia and oxidative stress were key factors. Hypertriglyceridemic lipotoxicity in the context of defective antioxidant/anti-inflammatory protection due to low Q10 level might play a key role in cardiorenal disorder induced by chronic cola drinking in rats.

  9. Cardiorenal Involvement in Metabolic Syndrome Induced by Cola Drinking in Rats: Proinflammatory Cytokines and Impaired Antioxidative Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Otero-Losada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report experimental evidence confirming renal histopathology, proinflammatory mediators, and oxidative metabolism induced by cola drinking. Male Wistar rats drank ad libitum regular cola (C, n=12 or tap water (W, n=12. Measures. Body weight, nutritional data, plasma glucose, cholesterol fractions, TG, urea, creatinine, coenzyme Q10, SBP, and echocardiograms (0 mo and 6 mo. At 6 months euthanasia was performed. Kidneys were processed for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (semiquantitative. Compared with W, C rats showed (I overweight (+8%, p<0.05, hyperglycemia (+11%, p<0.05, hypertriglyceridemia (2-fold, p<0.001, higher AIP (2-fold, p<0.01, and lower Q10 level (−55%, p<0.05; (II increased LV diastolic diameter (+9%, p<0.05 and volume (systolic +24%, p<0.05, posterior wall thinning (−8%, p<0.05, and larger cardiac output (+24%, p<0.05; (III glomerulosclerosis (+21%, p<0.05, histopathology (+13%, p<0.05, higher tubular expression of IL-6 (7-fold, p<0.001, and TNFα (4-fold, p<0.001. (IV Correlations were found for LV dimensions with IL-6 (74%, p<0.001 and TNFα (52%, p<0.001 and fully abolished after TG and Q10 control. Chronic cola drinking induced cardiac remodeling associated with increase in proinflammatory cytokines and renal damage. Hypertriglyceridemia and oxidative stress were key factors. Hypertriglyceridemic lipotoxicity in the context of defective antioxidant/anti-inflammatory protection due to low Q10 level might play a key role in cardiorenal disorder induced by chronic cola drinking in rats.

  10. Bone morphogenetic proteins and articular cartilage: To serve and protect or a wolf in sheep clothing's?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, P.M. van der; Davidson, E.N.; Berg, W.B. van den

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Alterations in chondrocyte differentiation and matrix remodeling play a central role in osteoarthritis (OA). Chondrocyte differentiation and remodeling are amongst others regulated by the so-called Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs). Although BMPs are considered protective for articular

  11. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 antioxidant response element pathways protect bovine mammary epithelial cells against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y F; Wu, Z H; Gao, M; Loor, J J

    2018-03-21

    The experiment was conducted to determine the role of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like factor 2 (NFE2L2, formerly Nrf2) antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway in protecting bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress injury. An NFE2L2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) interference or a pCMV6-XL5-NFE2L2 plasmid fragment was transfected to independently downregulate or upregulate expression of NFE2L2. Isolated BMEC in triplicate were exposed to H 2 O 2 (600 μM) for 6 h to induce oxidative stress before transient transfection with scrambled siRNA, NFE2L2-siRNA, pCMV6-XL5, and pCMV6-XL5-NFE2L2. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and necrosis rates, antioxidant enzyme activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) production, protein and mRNA expression of NFE2L2 and downstream target genes, and fluorescence activity of ARE were measured. The results revealed that compared with the control, BMEC transfected with NFE2L2-siRNA3 had proliferation rates that were 9 or 65% lower without or with H 2 O 2 , respectively. These cells also had apoptosis and necrosis rates that were 27 and 3.5 times greater with H 2 O 2 compared with the control group, respectively. In contrast, transfected pCMV6-XL5-NFE2L2 had proliferation rates that were 64.3% greater or 17% lower without or with H 2 O 2 compared with the control group, respectively. Apoptosis rates were 1.8 times lower with H 2 O 2 compared with the control. In addition, compared with the control, production of ROS and MDA and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) increased markedly in cells transfected with pCMV6-XL5-NFE2L2 and without H 2 O 2 . However, compared with the control, production of ROS and MDA and activity of CAT and GSH-Px increased markedly, whereas activities of SOD and GST decreased in cells transfected with pCMV6-XL5-NFE2L2 and incubated with H 2 O 2

  12. Antioxidative potential of Perna viridis and its protective role against ROS induced lipidperoxidation and protein carbonyl

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Jagtap, T.G.; Verlecar, X.N.

    ) represent various forms of oxygen centered molecules (1). In living beings, ROS are formed endogenously during normal cellular metabolism. Exogenously ROS is obtained during exposure to ionization radiations and many xenobiotic substances (1). In cellular... atherogenicity. New England Journal of Medicine, 320: 915-924. 6. Muramatsu, H., Kogawa, K., Tanaka, M., Okumura, K., Koike, K. and Kuga, T. (1995) Superoxide dismutase in SAS human tongue carcinoma cell line is a factor defining invasiveness and cell motility...

  13. In vitro antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds and protective effect against DNA damage provided by leaves, stems and flowers of Portulaca oleracea (Purslane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rúben; Carvalho, Isabel S

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the antioxidant properties of Portulaca oleracea L., known as purslane. The samples (leaves, flowers and stems) were collected at two different locations in Portugal: Tavira (L1) and Vendas Novas (L2). Assays for total antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and ferric-reducing antioxidant power were conducted and, for both locations, significantly higher values (P < 0.05) were observed for stems (508.8 and 982.3 mg AAE/100 g DW, 1008.6 and 2285.5 mg GAE/100 g DW, 121.0 and 166.3 mg TE/100 g DW, respectively for each location), than in leaves or flowers. In the DPPH assay, the three-plant parts from L2 reached the 50% inhibition rate in lower concentrations than plants from L1. On the other hand, higher concentrations of total monomeric anthocyanins were found in samples from L1 (95.5, 88.8 and 86.0 mg/L) than in samples from L2 (81.7, 70.5 and 59.8 mg/L). The same was true for phenolic acids, estimated by liquid-chromatography, where methanol extracts were used. Phenolic extracts from all three-plant parts from both locations showed protective effects on DNA against hydroxyl radicals. This work suggests the possibility of benefit to human health from its consumption, related to the high antioxidant activity of purslane, even the stems, usually discarded in daily consumption.

  14. Roles of Werner syndrome protein in protection of genome integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Marie L; Ghosh, Avik K; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2010-01-01

    Werner syndrome protein (WRN) is one of a family of five human RecQ helicases implicated in the maintenance of genome stability. The conserved RecQ family also includes RecQ1, Bloom syndrome protein (BLM), RecQ4, and RecQ5 in humans, as well as Sgs1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rqh1...... in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and homologs in Caenorhabditis elegans, Xenopus laevis, and Drosophila melanogaster. Defects in three of the RecQ helicases, RecQ4, BLM, and WRN, cause human pathologies linked with cancer predisposition and premature aging. Mutations in the WRN gene are the causative factor of Werner...

  15. Thiol-redox antioxidants protect against lung vascular endothelial cytoskeletal alterations caused by pulmonary fibrosis inducer, bleomycin: comparison between classical thiol-protectant, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, and novel thiol antioxidant, N,N′-bis-2-mercaptoethyl isophthalamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rishi B.; Kotha, Sainath R.; Sauers, Lynn A.; Malireddy, Smitha; Gurney, Travis O.; Gupta, Niladri N.; Elton, Terry S.; Magalang, Ulysses J.; Marsh, Clay B.; Haley, Boyd E.; Parinandi, Narasimham L.

    2012-01-01

    Lung vascular alterations and pulmonary hypertension associated with oxidative stress have been reported to be involved in idiopathic lung fibrosis (ILF). Therefore, here, we hypothesize that the widely used lung fibrosis inducer, bleomycin, would cause cytoskeletal rearrangement through thiol-redox alterations in the cultured lung vascular endothelial cell (EC) monolayers. We exposed the monolayers of primary bovine pulmonary artery ECs to bleomycin (10 µg) and studied the cytotoxicity, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and the macromolecule (fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, 70,000 mol. wt.) paracellular transport in the absence and presence of two thiol-redox protectants, the classic water-soluble N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and the novel hydrophobic N,N′-bis-2-mercaptoethyl isophthalamide (NBMI). Our results revealed that bleomycin induced cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase leak), morphological alterations (rounding of cells and filipodia formation), and cytoskeletal rearrangement (actin stress fiber formation and alterations of tight junction proteins, ZO-1 and occludin) in a dose-dependent fashion. Furthermore, our study demonstrated the formation of reactive oxygen species, loss of thiols (glutathione, GSH), EC barrier dysfunction (decrease of transendothelial electrical resistance), and enhanced paracellular transport (leak) of macromolecules. The observed bleomycin-induced EC alterations were attenuated by both NAC and NBMI, revealing that the novel hydrophobic thiol-protectant, NBMI, was more effective at µM concentrations as compared to the water-soluble NAC that was effective at mM concentrations in offering protection against the bleomycin-induced EC alterations. Overall, the results of the current study suggested the central role of thiol-redox in vascular EC dysfunction associated with ILF. PMID:22409285

  16. Peptide mimics of a conformationally constrained protective epitopes of respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chargelegue, D.; Obeid, O.E.; Shaw, D.M.; Denbury, A.N.; Hobby, P.; Hsu, S.C.; Steward, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    Aims: To identify peptides that mimic (mimotopes) conformational and protective epitopes of RSV fusion protein and to assess their efficacy as immunogens and potential vaccines. Material and methods: An 8-mer solid- phase (TG resin) library was screened with a neutralising and protective RSV fusion

  17. Comparison of membrane-protective activity of antioxidants quercetine and Gratiola Officinalis L. extract under conditions of photodynamic haemolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, N. V.; Bykova, E. V.; Pravdin, A. B.; Navolokin, N. A.; Polukonova, N. V.; Bucharskaya, A. B.; Mudrak, D. A.; Prilepskii, A. Y.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work the effectiveness of antioxidants quercetine (a pure chemical) and Gratiola officinalis extract, which is obtained by a new method of extraction from plant material, is investigated on the model of photodynamic haemolysis that is a rather convenient method to monitor the rate of cell membranes oxidative destruction. The effect of these antioxidants on the rate of photodynamic haemolysis is considered as a measure of membranoprotective efficiency.

  18. Antioxidant Properties and PC12 Cell Protective Effects of a Novel Curcumin Analogue (2E,6E-2,6-Bis(3,5- dimethoxybenzylidenecyclohexanone (MCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Zhen Ao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidative properties of a novel curcumin analogue (2E,6E-2,6-bis(3,5-dimethoxybenzylidenecyclohexanone (MCH were assessed by several in vitro models, including superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and PC12 cell protection from H2O2 damage. MCH displayed superior O2•− quenching abilities compared to curcumin and vitamin C. In vitro stability of MCH was also improved compared with curcumin. Exposure of PC12 cells to 150 µM H2O2 caused a decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities, glutathione (GSH loss, an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA level, and leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, cell apoptosis and reduction in cell viability. Pretreatment of the cells with MCH at 0.63–5.00 µM before H2O2 exposure significantly attenuated those changes in a dose-dependent manner. MCH enhanced cellular expression of transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 at the transcriptional level. Moreover, MCH could mitigate intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, and the increase of cleaved caspase-3 activity induced by H2O2. These results show that MCH protects PC12 cells from H2O2 injury by modulating endogenous antioxidant enzymes, scavenging ROS, activating the Nrf2 cytoprotective pathway and prevention of apoptosis.

  19. Protective effect of antioxidant rich aqueous curry leaf (Murraya koenigii extract against gastro-toxic effects of piroxicam in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Benazir Firdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Piroxicam (chemically 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-2-pyridinyl-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide, a classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID is orally administered to arthritic patients. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 synthesis and subsequent free hydroxyl radical generation in vivo exert gastro-toxic side effects on piroxicam treatment. Leaves of curry plant are rich in antioxidants with prolific free radical scavenging activities. This led us to investigate the efficiency of the use of curry leaves in ameliorating piroxicam induced gastric damage. Piroxicam was orally (30 mg per kg body weight administered in male albino Wistar rats to generate gastric ulcers. These rats were orally fed with graded doses of aqueous extract of curry or Murraya koenigii leaves (Cu LE prior to piroxicam administration. Oxidative stress biomarkers, activities of antioxidant and pro-oxidant enzymes, mucin content and nature, PGE2 level, activities of mitochondrial enzymes and histomorphology of gastric tissues were studied. Piroxicam treatment altered all the above mentioned parameters whereas, curry leaf extract pre-treated animals were protected against piroxicam induced alterations. Hence, the protective action of the antioxidant rich Cu LE was investigated to propose a new combination therapy or dietary management to arthritic patients using piroxicam.

  20. The protective role of Aegle marmelos on aspirin-induced gastro-duodenal ulceration in albino rat model: a possible involvement of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shyamal K; Roy, Chandan

    2012-01-01

    Gastro duodenal ulcer is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Several Indian medicinal plants have been traditionally and extensively used to prevent different diseases. In the present research studies, Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos (AM), family: Rutaceae) which are also called as Bilva in ancient Sanskrit was used as a herbal drug and its antioxidative role in aspirin- induced gastroduodenal ulceration in albino rat was evaluated using essential biochemical parameters. Mucosal thickness (MT), ulcer index (UI), different biochemical parameters, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured in all the groups, to study the possible involvement of antioxidants with gastroduodenal protection. A significant decrease in MT, SOD and CAT activities and GSH level and a significant increase in UI, AST, ALT, and ALP activities and LPO level were observed in aspirin treated stomach and duodenum of albino rats. Pretreatment with AM fruit pulp extract for 14 consecutive days showed the reverse effects of aspirin suggesting gastro-duodenal protective and anti- ulcerogenic properties of AM through its antioxidant mechanism.

  1. The Favorable Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment on the Antioxidant Protective Mechanism in the Corneal Epithelium and Renewal of Corneal Optical Properties Changed after Alkali Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejka, Cestmir; Holan, Vladimir; Trosan, Peter; Zajicova, Alena; Javorkova, Eliska; Cejkova, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and/or corneal limbal epithelial stem cells (LSCs) influence restoration of an antioxidant protective mechanism in the corneal epithelium and renewal of corneal optical properties changed after alkali burns. The injured rabbit corneas (with 0.25 N NaOH) were untreated or treated with nanofiber scaffolds free of stem cells, with nanofiber scaffolds seeded with bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs), with adipose tissue MSCs (Ad-MSCs), or with LSCs. On day 15 following the injury, after BM-MSCs or LSCs nanofiber treatment (less after Ad-MSCs treatment) the expression of antioxidant enzymes was restored in the regenerated corneal epithelium and the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and vascular endothelial factor (VEGF) were low. The central corneal thickness (taken as an index of corneal hydration) increased after the injury and returned to levels before the injury. In injured untreated corneas the epithelium was absent and numerous cells revealed the expressions of iNOS, MMP9, α-SMA, TGF-β1, and VEGF. In conclusion, stem cell treatment accelerated regeneration of the corneal epithelium, restored the antioxidant protective mechanism, and renewed corneal optical properties. PMID:27057279

  2. The 5'-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK Is Involved in the Augmentation of Antioxidant Defenses in Cryopreserved Chicken Sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Mong Diep Nguyen

    Full Text Available Semen cryopreservation is a unique tool for the management of animal genetic diversity. However, the freeze-thaw process causes biochemical and physical alterations which make difficult the restoration of sperm energy-dependent functions needed for fertilization. 5'-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK is a key sensor and regulator of intracellular energy metabolism. Mitochondria functions are known to be severely affected during sperm cryopreservation with deleterious oxidative and peroxidative effects leading to cell integrity and functions damages. The aim of this study was thus to examine the role of AMPK on the peroxidation/antioxidant enzymes defense system in frozen-thawed sperm and its consequences on sperm functions. Chicken semen was diluted in media supplemented with or without AMPK activators (AICAR or Metformin [MET] or inhibitor (Compound C [CC] and then cryopreserved. AMPKα phosphorylation, antioxidant enzymes activities, mitochondrial potential, ATP, citrate, viability, acrosome reaction ability (AR and various motility parameters were negatively affected by the freeze-thaw process while reactive oxygen species (ROS production, lipid peroxidation (LPO and lactate concentration were dramatically increased. AICAR partially restored superoxide dismutase (SOD, Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx and Glutathione Reductase (GR, increased ATP, citrate, and lactate concentration and subsequently decreased the ROS and LPO (malondialdehyde in frozen-thawed semen. Motility parameters were increased (i.e., + 23% for motility, + 34% for rapid sperm as well as AR (+ 100%. MET had similar effects as AICAR except that catalase activity was restored and that ATP and mitochondrial potential were further decreased. CC showed effects opposite to AICAR on SOD, ROS, LPO and AR and motility parameters. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that, upon freeze-thaw process, AMPK stimulated intracellular anti-oxidative defense enzymes through ATP regulation

  3. Dietary total antioxidant capacity from different assays in relation to serum C-reactive protein among young Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Satomi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC from different assays and serum C-reactive protein (CRP has not been assessed in non-Western populations. We examined the association between dietary TAC and serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women using different four TAC assays. Methods The subjects were 443 young Japanese women aged 18–22 years. Dietary TAC was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire and the TAC value of each food using the following four assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP; oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC; Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC; and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP. Serum CRP concentrations were measured by highly sensitive nephelometry. Results The major contributor to dietary TAC was green, barley, and oolong tea (FRAP: 53%, ORAC: 45%, TEAC: 36%, and TRAP: 44%. The prevalence of elevated CRP concentrations (≥ 1 mg/L was 5.6%. TAC from FRAP was inversely associated with serum CRP concentrations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for elevated CRP concentration in high [compared with low] dietary TAC group: 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.16-0.98]; P = 0.04. TAC from ORAC was inversely associated with CRP, although the association was not significant (OR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.20-1.14]; P = 0.10. TAC from TEAC was inversely associated with CRP (OR: 0.32 [95% CI: 0.12-0.82]; P = 0.02, as was TAC from TRAP (OR: 0.31 [95% CI: 0.12-0.81]; P = 0.02. Conclusions Dietary TAC was inversely associated with serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women regardless of assay. Further studies are needed in other populations to confirm these results.

  4. Discordance between in silico & in vitro analyses of ACE inhibitory & antioxidative peptides from mixed milk tryptic whey protein hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Alok; Kanawjia, S K; Khetra, Yogesh; Saini, Prerna

    2015-09-01

    ACE inhibitory and antioxidative peptides identified by LCMS/MS, from mixed milk (Bubalus bubalis and Bos taurus) tryptic whey protein hydrolysate, were compared with the in silico predictions. α la and ß lg sequences, both from Bubalus bubalis and Bos taurus, were used for in silico study. SWISS-PROT and BIOPEP protein libraries were accessed for prediction of peptide generation. Study observed gaps in the prediction versus actual results, which remain unaddressed in the literature. Many peptides obtained in vitro, were not reflected in in silico predictions. Differences in identified peptides in separate libraries were observed too. In in silico prediction, peptides with known biological activities were also not reflected. Predictions, towards generation of bioactive peptides, based upon in silico release of proteins and amino acid sequences from different sources and thereupon validation in relation to actual results has often been reported in research literature. Given that computer aided simulation for prediction purposes is an effective research direction, regular updating of protein libraries and an effectual integration, for more precise results, is critical. The gaps addressed between these two techniques of research, have not found any address in literature. Inclusion of more flexibility with the variables, within the tools being used for prediction, and a hierarchy based database with search options for various peptides, will further enhance the scope and strength of research.

  5. Preclinical and Clinical Studies on Antioxidative, Antihypertensive and Cardioprotective Effect of Marine Proteins and Peptides—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida-Johanne Jensen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High seafood consumption has traditionally been linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, mainly due to the lipid lowering effects of the long chained omega 3 fatty acids. However, fish and seafood are also excellent sources of good quality proteins and emerging documentation show that, upon digestion, these proteins are sources for bioactive peptides with documented favorable physiological effects such as antioxidative, antihypertensive and other cardioprotective effects. This documentation is mainly from in vitro studies, but also animal studies are arising. Evidence from human studies evaluating the positive health effects of marine proteins and peptides are scarce. In one study, a reduction in oxidative stress after intake of cod has been documented and a few human clinical trials have been performed evaluating the effect on blood pressure. The results are, however, inconclusive. The majority of the human clinical trials performed to investigate positive health effects of marine protein and lean fish intake, has focused on blood lipids. While some studies have documented a reduction in triglycerides after intake of lean fish, others have documented no effects.

  6. Subdominant outer membrane antigens in anaplasma marginale: conservation, antigenicity, and protective capacity using recombinant protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts or a well- defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are seve...

  7. Atomic level description of the protecting effect of osmolytes against thermal denaturation of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieraccini, Stefano; Burgi, Luigi; Genoni, Alessandro; Benedusi, Anna; Sironi, Maurizio

    2007-04-01

    The protecting effect of the osmolyte molecule taurine against thermal denaturation of the protein Chimotripsin Inhibitor 2 was modelled using Molecular Dynamics simulations. The protein was simulated in denaturing conditions at different taurine concentrations. Analysis of the molecular details of its behaviour shows that the protective effect of the osmolyte is concentration dependent. Moreover, the influence of taurine on the solvent structure was studied. A concentration dependent ordering effect of taurine on water molecules emerges from solvent structure analysis and is well correlated to the protecting effect observed. Based on these observations an interpretation of the osmoprotective effect is proposed.

  8. Prediction of amino acid residues protected from hydrogen-deuterium exchange in a protein chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovidchenko, N V; Lobanov, M Yu; Garbuzynskiy, S O; Galzitskaya, O V

    2009-08-01

    We have investigated the possibility to predict protection of amino acid residues from hydrogen-deuterium exchange. A database containing experimental hydrogen-deuterium exchange data for 14 proteins for which these data are known has been compiled. Different structural parameters related to flexibility of amino acid residues and their amide groups have been analyzed to answer the question whether these parameters can be used for predicting the protection of amino acid residues from hydrogen-deuterium exchange. A method for prediction of protection of amino acid residues, which uses only the amino acid sequence of a protein, has been elaborated.

  9. Cyanobacterial Oxygenic Photosynthesis is Protected by Flavodiiron Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagut Allahverdiyeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flavodiiron proteins (FDPs, also called flavoproteins, Flvs are modular enzymes widely present in Bacteria and Archaea. The evolution of cyanobacteria and oxygenic photosynthesis occurred in concert with the modulation of typical bacterial FDPs. Present cyanobacterial FDPs are composed of three domains, the β-lactamase-like, flavodoxin-like and flavin-reductase like domains. Cyanobacterial FDPs function as hetero- and homodimers and are involved in the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. Whilst Flv2 and Flv4 proteins are limited to specific cyanobacterial species (β-cyanobacteria and function in photoprotection of Photosystem II, Flv1 and Flv3 proteins, functioning in the “Mehler-like” reaction and safeguarding Photosystem I under fluctuating light conditions, occur in nearly all cyanobacteria and additionally in green algae, mosses and lycophytes. Filamentous cyanobacteria have additional FDPs in heterocyst cells, ensuring a microaerobic environment for the function of the nitrogenase enzyme under the light. Here, the evolution, occurrence and functional mechanisms of various FDPs in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms are discussed.

  10. Antioxidant properties of Taraxacum officinale fruit extract are involved in the protective effect against cellular death induced by sodium nitroprusside in brain of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Dirleise; Arantes, Letícia Priscilla; Rauber, Ricardo; de Mattos, Sérgio Edgar Campos; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira da; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

    2012-07-01

    Taraxacum officinale Weber (Asteraceae), known as dandelion, is used for medicinal purposes due to its choleretic, diuretic, antitumor, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties. We sought to investigate the protective activity of T. officinale fruit extract against sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced decreased cellular viability and increased lipid peroxidation in the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of rats in vitro. To explain the mechanism of the extract's antioxidant activity, its putative scavenger activities against NO, DPPH·, OH·, and H(2)O(2) were determined. Slices of cortex, hippocampus, and striatum were treated with 50 μM SNP and T. officinale fruit ethanolic extract (1-20 µg/mL) to determine cellular viability by MTT reduction assay. Lipid peroxidation was measure in cortical, hippocampal and striatal slices incubates with SNP (5 µM) and T. officinale fruit extract (1-20 µg/mL). We also determined the scavenger activities of T. officinale fruit extract against NO·, DPPH·, OH·, and H(2)O(2), as well as its iron chelating capacity. The extract (1, 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL) protected against SNP-induced decreases in cellular viability and increases in lipid peroxidation in the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of rats. The extract had scavenger activity against DPPH· and NO· at low concentrations and was able to protect against H(2)O(2) and Fe(2+)-induced deoxyribose oxidation. T. officinale fruit extract has antioxidant activity and protects brain slices against SNP-induced cellular death. Possible mechanisms of action include its scavenger activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), which are attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds in the extract.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND OXIDATIVE/ANTIOXIDATIVE STATUS IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE BACTERIAL MENINGITIS

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    IMAD A.J. THANOON

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to compare the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, serum malondialdehyde (MDA, antioxidant parameters [represented by serum ferritin, uric acid and totalantioxidant status (TAS] in children with bacterial meningitis with a control group. Twenty-seven children with bacterial meningitis were included in this study. Thirty apparently healthy childrenwere also included as the control group. Assays of serum CRP, uric acid, ferritin and TAS were performed on samples from controls and from patients prior to antibiotic therapy. After two weeksof antibiotic therapy, assays of the same parameters were repeated in the patients. A significant rise in the serum levels of MDA and CRP, and a significant reduction in serum uric acid levels andTAS were noted in children with acute bacterial meningitis (before therapy compared to controls. Serum ferritin levels showed no significant differences. When measured parameters of children withbacterial meningitis after therapy were compared with those of the controls, highly significant differences in the mean serum levels of uric acid, CRP and TAS were noted. There were no significant differences in the mean serum ferritin levels. Serum oxidative/antioxidative balance shifted to the oxidative side in meningitis patients before therapy, and improved after therapy.Elevation of CRP in cases with bacterial meningitis may reflect its importance as an aid in the diagnosis of such cases.

  12. Characterization of protective immune responses induced by pneumococcal surface protein A in fusion with pneumolysin derivatives.

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    Cibelly Goulart

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA and Pneumolysin derivatives (Pds are important vaccine candidates, which can confer protection in different models of pneumococcal infection. Furthermore, the combination of these two proteins was able to increase protection against pneumococcal sepsis in mice. The present study investigated the potential of hybrid proteins generated by genetic fusion of PspA fragments to Pds to increase cross-protection against fatal pneumococcal infection. Pneumolisoids were fused to the N-terminus of clade 1 or clade 2 pspA gene fragments. Mouse immunization with the fusion proteins induced high levels of antibodies against PspA and Pds, able to bind to intact pneumococci expressing a homologous PspA with the same intensity as antibodies to rPspA alone or the co-administered proteins. However, when antibody binding to pneumococci with heterologous PspAs was examined, antisera to the PspA-Pds fusion molecules showed stronger antibody binding and C3 deposition than antisera to co-administered proteins. In agreement with these results, antisera against the hybrid proteins were more effective in promoting the phagocytosis of bacteria bearing heterologous PspAs in vitro, leading to a significant reduction in the number of bacteria when compared to co-administered proteins. The respective antisera were also capable of neutralizing the lytic activity of Pneumolysin on sheep red blood cells. Finally, mice immunized with fusion proteins were protected against fatal challenge with pneumococcal strains expressing heterologous PspAs. Taken together, the results suggest that PspA-Pd fusion proteins comprise a promising vaccine strategy, able to increase the immune response mediated by cross-reactive antibodies and complement deposition to heterologous strains, and to confer protection against fatal challenge.

  13. Enhancement of curcumin water dispersibility and antioxidant activity using core-shell protein-polysaccharide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Huang, Xulin; Gong, Yushi; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian; Hu, Kun

    2016-09-01

    Curcumin has strong antioxidant activity, but poor water-solubility and chemical stability, which limits its utilization as a nutraceutical in many applications. Previously, we developed a core-shell (zein-pectin) nanoparticle delivery system with high curcumin loading efficiency, high particle yield, and good water dispersibility. However, this system was unstable to aggregation around neutral pH and moderate ionic strengths due to weakening of electrostatic repulsion between nanoparticles. In the current study, we used a combination of alginate (high charge density) and pectin (low charge density) to form the shell around zein nanoparticles. Replacement of 30% of pectin with alginate greatly improved aggregation stability at pH 5 to 7 and at high ionic strengths (2000mM NaCl). Curcumin encapsulated within these core-shell nanoparticles exhibited higher antioxidant and radical scavenging activities than curcumin solubilized in ethanol solutions as determined by Fe (III) reducing power, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH·), and 2, 2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical cation (ABTS· + ) scavenging analysis. These core-shell nanoparticles may be useful for incorporating chemically unstable hydrophobic nutraceuticals such as curcumin into functional foods, dietary supplements, and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Companion Protease Inhibitors for the In Situ Protection of Recombinant Proteins in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Stéphanie; Jutras, Philippe V; Khalf, Moustafa; D'Aoust, Marc-André; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Sainsbury, Frank; Michaud, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    We previously described a procedure for the use of plant protease inhibitors as "companion" accessory proteins to prevent unwanted proteolysis of clinically useful recombinant proteins in leaf crude protein extracts (Benchabane et al. Methods Mol Biol 483:265-273, 2009). Here we describe the use of these inhibitors for the protection of recombinant proteins in planta, before their extraction from leaf tissues. A procedure is first described involving inhibitors co-expressed along-and co-migrating-with the protein of interest in host plant cells. An alternative, single transgene scheme is then described involving translational fusions of the recombinant protein and companion inhibitor. These approaches may allow for a significant improvement of protein steady-state levels in leaves, comparable to yield improvements observed with protease-deficient strains of less complex protein expression hosts such as E. coli or yeasts.

  15. Kinetics and structure-activity relationship of dendritic bridged hindered phenol antioxidants to protect styrene against free radical induced peroxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cui-Qin; Guo, Su-Yue; Wang, Jun; Shi, Wei-Guang; Zhang, Zhi-Qiu; Wang, Peng-Xiang

    2017-12-01

    A series of dendritic poly(amido-amine) (PAMAM) bridged hindered phenols antioxidants were synthesized. The active antioxidant group (3-(3,5-di- tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid) was attached to two generations of PAMAM dendrimers, and their structure was verified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR). The antioxidant abilities of the dendritic phenols to inhibit the oxidation of styrene were evaluated and the relationships between the length of core, the generation of dendrimers and the antioxidant activities were established. The reaction kinetics of scavenging peroxyl radicals was followed by oxygen consumption. The inhibition time ( t inh) values showed the dendritic phenols had the ability of scavenging peroxyl radicals, and that the antioxidant ability increased with the increasing length of the core and the generation. The kinetic analysis demonstrated that dendritic phenols could slow the rate of styrene peroxidation induced by AIBN, as shown by the number of trapping ROO· ( n), and this role was in accordance with that of the t inh values.

  16. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Activity, Antioxidant Properties, Phenolic Content and Amino Acid Profiles of Fucus spiralis L. Protein Hydrolysate Fractions

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    Lisete Paiva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food protein-derived hydrolysates with multi-bioactivities such as antihypertensive and antioxidant properties have recently received special attention since both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. This study reports, for the first time, the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-inhibition and antioxidant properties of ultrafiltrate fractions (UF with different molecular weight ranges (<1, 1–3 and ≥3 kDa obtained from Fucus spiralis protein hydrolysate (FSPH digested with cellulase–bromelain. The amino acids profile, recovery yield, protein, peptide and total phenolic contents of these FSPH-UF, and the in vitro digestibility of F. spiralis crude protein were also investigated. FSPH-UF ≥3 kDa presented remarkably higher ACE-inhibition, yield, peptide and polyphenolic (phlorotannins contents. Antioxidant analysis showed that FSPH-UF <1 kDa and ≥3 kDa exhibited significantly higher scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC activity. FSPH-UF ≥3 kDa had also notably higher ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. Strong correlations were observed between ACE-inhibition and antioxidant activities (FIC and FRAP. The results suggest that ACE-inhibition and antioxidant properties of FSPH-UF may be due to the bioactive peptides and polyphenols released during the enzymatic hydrolysis. In conclusion, this study shows the potential use of defined size FSPH-UF for the prevention/treatment of hypertension and/or oxidative stress-related diseases.

  17. Copper exposure induces oxidative injury, disturbs the antioxidant system and changes the Nrf2/ARE (CuZnSOD) signaling in the fish brain: Protective effects of myo-inositol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Hu, Kai [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Jiang, Jun [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Li, Shu-Hong [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Feng, Lin, E-mail: fenglin@sicau.edu.cn [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Zhou, Xiao-Qiu, E-mail: xqzhouqq@tom.com [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu exposure increased ROS production, lipid and protein oxidation of fish brain. • Cu exposure caused depletion of some antioxidants in the brain of fish. • Cu exposure up-regulated mRNA levels of brain CuZnSOD, GPx1a and GR genes in fish. • Cu exposure induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and binding to ARE in fish brain. • Myo-inositol can inhibit Cu-induced toxic effects in the brain of fish. - Abstract: The brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrates, and homeostasis of the brain is crucial for fish survival. Copper (Cu) is essential for normal cellular processes in most eukaryotic organisms but is toxic in excess. Although Cu is indicated as a potent neurotoxicant, information regarding its threat to fish brain and underlying mechanisms is still scarce. In accordance, the objective of this study was to assess the effects and the potential mechanism of Cu toxicity by evaluating brain oxidative status, the enzymatic and mRNA levels of antioxidant genes, as well as the Nrf2/ARE signaling in the brain of fish after Cu exposure. The protective effects of myo-inositol (MI) against subsequent Cu exposure were also investigated. The results indicate that induction of oxidative stress by Cu is shown by increases in brain ROS production, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, which are accompanied by depletions of antioxidants, including total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) content. Cu exposure increased the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Further molecular results showed that Cu exposure up-regulated CuZnSOD, GPx1a and GR mRNA levels, suggesting an adaptive mechanism against stress. Moreover, Cu exposure increased fish brain Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and increased its ability of binding to ARE (CuZnSOD), which supported the increased CuZnSOD mRNA levels. In addition, Cu exposure caused increases of

  18. Copper exposure induces oxidative injury, disturbs the antioxidant system and changes the Nrf2/ARE (CuZnSOD) signaling in the fish brain: Protective effects of myo-inositol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu exposure increased ROS production, lipid and protein oxidation of fish brain. • Cu exposure caused depletion of some antioxidants in the brain of fish. • Cu exposure up-regulated mRNA levels of brain CuZnSOD, GPx1a and GR genes in fish. • Cu exposure induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and binding to ARE in fish brain. • Myo-inositol can inhibit Cu-induced toxic effects in the brain of fish. - Abstract: The brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrates, and homeostasis of the brain is crucial for fish survival. Copper (Cu) is essential for normal cellular processes in most eukaryotic organisms but is toxic in excess. Although Cu is indicated as a potent neurotoxicant, information regarding its threat to fish brain and underlying mechanisms is still scarce. In accordance, the objective of this study was to assess the effects and the potential mechanism of Cu toxicity by evaluating brain oxidative status, the enzymatic and mRNA levels of antioxidant genes, as well as the Nrf2/ARE signaling in the brain of fish after Cu exposure. The protective effects of myo-inositol (MI) against subsequent Cu exposure were also investigated. The results indicate that induction of oxidative stress by Cu is shown by increases in brain ROS production, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, which are accompanied by depletions of antioxidants, including total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), CuZnSOD, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) content. Cu exposure increased the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Further molecular results showed that Cu exposure up-regulated CuZnSOD, GPx1a and GR mRNA levels, suggesting an adaptive mechanism against stress. Moreover, Cu exposure increased fish brain Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and increased its ability of binding to ARE (CuZnSOD), which supported the increased CuZnSOD mRNA levels. In addition, Cu exposure caused increases of

  19. Polyphenolic-protein-polysaccharide ternary conjugates from Cystoseira barbata Tunisian seaweed as potential biopreservatives: Chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellimi, Sabrine; Benslima, Abdelkarim; Barragan-Montero, Veronique; Hajji, Mohamed; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigated the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of naturally occurring Cystoseira barbata seaweed glyco-conjugates (CBGs), with a view to developing safer food preservatives. CBGs were successfully isolated, then chemically and structurally characterized. CBGs contained a high amount of polysaccharides (49.76%) that consisted mainly of neutral sugars (47.67%) and uronic acids (2.09%). The carbohydrate fraction was sulfated (13.81%) and conjugated with proteins (9.86%) and phenolic compounds (4.98%). Infrared spectroscopy of CBGs showed interactions between polyphenols, proteins and polysaccharides, which were characterized by α-type glycosidic bond and sulfate groups in the axial position of sugar residues. Neutral sugars analysis of CBGs by GC-MS revealed that conjugated polysaccharides were mainly composed of galactose (34.02%), fucose (26.25%) and mannitol (21.25%) with few amounts of other sugars such as glucose (5.78%), rhamnose (4.9%), xylose (3.22%) and mannose (2.22%). Analysis of the amino acid composition of CBGs showed a high level of essential amino acids (40.36%), in which threonine was the most relevant (10.28%). LC-QTOF-MS analysis of the phenolic fraction of CBGs showed a variety of phenolic compounds including flavonoids, phlorotannins and anthraquinone glycosides. CBGs exhibited potent antioxidant activities including radical scavenging activity, chelating ability and reducing power, and displayed noticeable antibacterial and antifungal activities, which may open the way to the development of a natural biopreservation strategy based on algae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Perlindungan Protein Menggunakan Tanin dan Saponin Terhadap Daya Fermentasi Rumen dan Sintesis Protein Mikrob (PROTECTION OFPROTEINUSINGTANNINS AND SAPONINS OF RUMEN DIGESTIBILITYAND MICROBESSYNTHESISPROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Shofi Ani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to examine protection of protein using tannins and saponins toimprove rumen digestibility and microb-mediated protein synthesis in vitro. Rumen fluids used as inoculumwas collected from a composite of two female adult fistulatedongole cattle weighed of ±300 kg with theage of five years old. The experimental design used in this study was a completely randomized design withsix treatments and three replication of each treatment. The six treatments consisted of T0: Proteinconcentrates without protection, T1: protein concentrates protected with 1.2% saponin, T2: proteinconcentrates protected with 0.5% tannin and 0.9% saponin , T3: protein concentrates protected with 1.0%tannin and 0.6% saponin, T4: protein concentrates protected with 1.5 % tannin and 0.3% saponin and T5:protein concentrates protected with 2.0% tannins. The result showed that treatment with tannin, saponinand their combination had a significantly affect (P<0,05 on the level of ammonia (NH3, the total volatilefatty acids (VFA, and total protein. Protection of proteins with combination of 1,0% tannin and 0.6%saponin resulted in best effect on feed protein as shown by its NH3 concentration, total VFA and totalprotein. This indicates the level of protection of feed protein can improve rumen digestibility and microbesmediatedprotein synthesis, as showed in the concentration of N-NH3, total VFA and total protein.

  1. Solvent effects on the antioxidant capacity of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants measured by CUPRAC, ABTS/persulphate and FRAP methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Saliha Esin; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Apak, Reşat

    2010-06-15

    Antioxidants are health beneficial compounds that can protect cells and macromolecules (e.g., fats, lipids, proteins, and DNA) from the damage of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Solvent effect is a crucial parameter on the chemical behaviour of antioxidant compounds but there has been limited information regarding its role on antioxidant capacity and its assays. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of some certain lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, measured in different solvent media such as ethanol (EtOH) (100%), methanol (MeOH) (100%), methanol/water (4:1, v/v), methanol/water (1:1, v/v), dichloromethane (DCM)/EtOH (9:1, v/v). The cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) values of selected antioxidants were experimentally reported in this work as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and compared to those found by reference TAC assays, i.e., 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)/persulphate (ABTS/persulphate) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The TAC values of synthetic mixtures of antioxidants were experimentally measured as trolox equivalents and compared to those theoretically found by making use of the principle of additivity of absorbances assuming no chemical interaction between the mixture constituents. Possible synergistic (e.g., BHT and BHA in DCM/EtOH) or antagonistic behaviours of these synthetic mixtures were investigated in relation to solvent selection.

  2. A Protein Isolate from Moringa oleifera Leaves Has Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Effects in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Paula

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera has been used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. However, few studies have been conducted to relate its antidiabetic properties to proteins. In this study, a leaf protein isolate was obtained from M. oleifera leaves, named Mo-LPI, and the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects on alloxan-induced diabetic mice were assessed. Mo-LPI was obtained by aqueous extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. The electrophoresis profile and proteolytic hydrolysis confirmed its protein nature. Mo-LPI showed hemagglutinating activity, cross-reaction with anti-insulin antibodies and precipitation after zinc addition. Single-dose intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of Mo-LPI (500 mg/kg·bw reduced the blood glucose level (reductions of 34.3%, 60.9% and 66.4% after 1, 3 and 5 h, respectively. The effect of Mo-LPI was also evidenced in the repeated dose test with a 56.2% reduction in the blood glucose level on the 7th day after i.p. administration. Mo-LPI did not stimulate insulin secretion in diabetic mice. Mo-LPI was also effective in reducing the oxidative stress in diabetic mice by a decrease in malondialdehyde level and increase in catalase activity. Mo-LPI (2500 mg/kg·bw did not cause acute toxicity to mice. Mo-LPI is a promising alternative or complementary agent to treat diabetes.

  3. Arctigenin protects against steatosis in WRL68 hepatocytes through activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kung-Yen; Lin, Jui-An; Yao, Han-Yun; Hsu, An-Chih; Tai, Yu-Ting; Chen, Jui-Tai; Hsieh, Mao-Chih; Shen, Tang-Long; Hsu, Ren-Yi; Wu, Hong-Tan; Wang, Guey Horng; Ho, Bing-Ying; Chen, Yu-Pei

    2018-02-11

    Arctigenin (ATG), a lignin extracted from Arctium lappa (L.), exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We hypothesized that ATG exerts a protective effect on hepatocytes by preventing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression associated with lipid oxidation-associated lipotoxicity and inflammation. We established an in vitro NAFLD cell model by using normal WRL68 hepatocytes to investigate oleic acid (OA) accumulation and the potential bioactive role of ATG. The results revealed that ATG inhibited OA-induced lipid accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation in WRL68 hepatocytes, as determined using Oil Red O staining, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay, and inflammation antibody array assays. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that ATG significantly mitigated the expression of acetylcoenzyme A carboxylase 1 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 and significantly increased the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. The 40 targets of the Human Inflammation Antibody Array indicated that ATG significantly inhibited the elevation of the U937 lymphocyte chemoattractant, ICAM-1, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-6sR, IL-7, and IL-8. ATG could activate the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways and could increase the phosphorylation levels of Akt and AMPK to mediate cell survival, lipid metabolism, oxidation stress, and inflammation. Thus, we demonstrated that ATG could inhibit NAFLD progression associated with lipid oxidation-associated lipotoxicity and inflammation, and we provided insights into the underlying mechanisms and revealed potential targets to enable a thorough understanding of NAFLD progression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Dietary Vitamin C, E and β-Carotene Intake Does Not Significantly Affect Plasma or Salivary Antioxidant Indices and Salivary C-Reactive Protein in Older Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Guligowska, Agnieszka; Prymont-Przymińska, Anna; Godala, Małgorzata; Kolmaga, Agnieszka; Nowak, Dariusz; Szatko, Franciszek; Kostka, Tomasz

    2017-07-09

    It is not clear whether habitual dietary intake influences the antioxidant or inflammatory status. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of antioxidative vitamins C, E, and β-carotene obtained from daily food rations on plasma and salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), uric acid and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP). The study involved 80 older subjects (66.9 ± 4.3 years), divided into two groups: group 1 ( n = 43) with lower and group 2 ( n = 37) with higher combined vitamins C, E and β-carotene intake. A 24-h dietary recall was obtained from each individual. TAC was assessed simultaneously with two methods in plasma (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma-FRAP, 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-DPPH) and in saliva (FRAS and DPPHS test). Lower vitamin C intake corresponded to higher FRAS. There were no other correlations between vitamins C, E or β-carotene intake and antioxidant indices. Salivary CRP was not related to any antioxidant indices. FRAS was decreased in group 2 ( p < 0.01) but no other group differences for salivary or for plasma antioxidant parameters and salivary CRP were found. Habitual, not extra supplemented dietary intake does not significantly affect plasma or salivary TAC and salivary CRP.

  5. Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance in Animal Nutrition and Health: The Role of Protein Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Pietro; Gabai, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the role that oxidative stress (OS), and protein oxidation in particular, plays in nutrition, metabolism, and health of farm animals. The route by which redox homeostasis is involved in some important physiological functions and the implications of the impairment of oxidative status on animal health and diseases is also examined. Proteins have various and, at the same time, unique biological functions and their oxidation can result in structural changes and various functional modifications. Protein oxidation seems to be involved in pathological conditions, such as respiratory diseases and parasitic infection; however, some studies also suggest that protein oxidation plays a crucial role in the regulation of important physiological functions, such as reproduction, nutrition, metabolism, lactation, gut health, and neonatal physiology. As the characterization of the mechanisms by which OS may influence metabolism and health is attracting considerable scientific interest, the aim of this review is to present veterinary scientists and clinicians with various aspects of oxidative damage to proteins.

  6. Antioxidant properties of green tea extract protect reduced fat soft cheese against oxidation induced by light exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huvaere, Kevin André Jurgen; Nielsen, Jacob Holm; Bakman, Mette

    2011-01-01

    The effect of two different antioxidants, EDTA and green tea extract (GTE), used individually or in combination, on the light-induced oxidation of reduced fat soft cheeses (0.2 and 6% fat) was investigated. In samples with 0.2% fat, lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products were...... of 50 ppm EDTA to samples with 6% fat was ineffective, but 750 ppm GTE (alone or in combination with EDTA) strongly reduced levels of hexanal and heptanal. Accumulation of primary lipid hydroperoxides was not affected by GTE, hence antioxidative activity was ascribed to scavenging of hexanal...

  7. In Vitro Digestibilities of Six Rumen Protected Fat-Protein Supplement Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Hartati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the research was to evaluate the efficacy of protection method of rumen protected fat-protein supplements. In vitro digestibility test was carried out to examine nutrients digestibility of different supplement formula based on the sources of protein and oil. The research used two sources of fat namely crude palm oil (CPO and fish oil (FO and three sources of protein namely milk skim, soy flour, and soybean meal. Thus there were 6 combinations that subjected in the in vitro digestibility test. The observed variables were the digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude fat (CF, and crude protein (CP. Results indicated that the method for protecting protein and fat was effective. This was showed by low nutrients digestibility in the rumen and high nutrients digestibility in the post rumen. In conclusion the combination between skim milk and CPO gave the best results among the other supplement formula. Keywords: rumen protected nutrient, fat-protein supplement, rumen digestibility, in vitro Animal Production 14(1:1-5, January 2012

  8. A potential role for endogenous proteins as sacrificial sunscreens and antioxidants in human tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Hibbert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR exposure of the skin is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Although both exogenous sunscreens and endogenous tissue components (including melanins and tryptophan-derived compounds reduce UVR penetration, the role of endogenous proteins in absorbing environmental UV wavelengths is poorly defined. Having previously demonstrated that proteins which are rich in UVR-absorbing amino acid residues are readily degraded by broadband UVB-radiation (containing UVA, UVB and UVC wavelengths here we hypothesised that UV chromophore (Cys, Trp and Tyr content can predict the susceptibility of structural proteins in skin and the eye to damage by physiologically relevant doses (up to 15.4 J/cm2 of solar UVR (95% UVA, 5% UVB. We show that: i purified suspensions of UV-chromophore-rich fibronectin dimers, fibrillin microfibrils and β- and γ-lens crystallins undergo solar simulated radiation (SSR-induced aggregation and/or decomposition and ii exposure to identical doses of SSR has minimal effect on the size or ultrastructure of UV chromophore-poor tropoelastin, collagen I, collagen VI microfibrils and α-crystallin. If UV chromophore content is a factor in determining protein stability in vivo, we would expect that the tissue distribution of Cys, Trp and Tyr-rich proteins would correlate with regional UVR exposure. From bioinformatic analysis of 244 key structural proteins we identified several biochemically distinct, yet UV chromophore-rich, protein families. The majority of these putative UV-absorbing proteins (including the late cornified envelope proteins, keratin associated proteins, elastic fibre-associated components and β- and γ-crystallins are localised and/or particularly abundant in tissues that are exposed to the highest doses of environmental UVR, specifically the stratum corneum, hair, papillary dermis and lens. We therefore propose that UV chromophore-rich proteins are localised in regions of high UVR

  9. A Synergistic, Balanced Antioxidant Cocktail, Protects Aging Rats from Insulin Resistance and Absence of Meal-Induced Insulin Sensitization (AMIS Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Helen Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of in vivo and in vitro studies using animal and human models in the past 15 years have demonstrated that approximately 55% (~66% in humans of the glucose disposal effect of an i.v. injection of insulin in the fed state is dependent on the action of a second hormone, hepatic insulin sensitizing substance (HISS, which is released from the liver and stimulates glucose uptake in muscle, heart and kidneys. Sensitization of the insulin response by a meal through release of HISS is called meal-induced insulin sensitization (MIS. Absence of HISS action results in postprandial hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, adiposity, increased free radical stress and a cluster of progressive metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunctions referred to as the AMIS (absence of meal-induced insulin sensitization syndrome. Reduced HISS release accounts for the insulin resistance that occurs with aging and is made worse by physical inactivity and diets high in sucrose or fat. This brief review provides an update of major metabolic disturbances associated with aging due to reduction of HISS release, and the protection against these pathological changes in aging animals using a balanced synergistic antioxidant cocktail SAMEC (S-adenosylmethionine, vitamins E and C. The synergy amongst the components is consistent with the known benefits of antioxidants supplied by a mixed diet and acting through diverse mechanisms. Using only three constituents, SAMEC appears suitable as an antioxidant specifically targeting the AMIS syndrome.

  10. System of Antioxidant Protection of Corn Roots in Case of Adaptation to Combined Action of Herbicides and Soil Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Rossihina

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of antioxidant enzymes in the maize root (Kadr 267 MVhybrid to the combined action of herbicides and soil drought was studied. These conditions activated superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase and coused oscillation in the catalase enzymatic activity.

  11. Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance in Animal Nutrition and Health: The Role of Protein Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Celi, Pietro; Gabai, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the role that oxidative stress (OS), and protein oxidation in particular, plays in nutrition, metabolism, and health of farm animals. The route by which redox homeostasis is involved in some important physiological functions and the implications of the impairment of oxidative status on animal health and diseases is also examined. Proteins have various and, at the same time, unique biological functions and their oxidation can result in structural changes and various functi...

  12. Oxidant/antioxidant balance in animal nutrition and health: the role of protein oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro eCeli; Pietro eCeli; Gianfranco eGabai

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the role that oxidative stress, and protein oxidation in particular, plays in nutrition, metabolism and health of farm animals. The route by which redox homeostasis is involved in some important physiological functions and the implications of the impairment of oxidative status on animal health and diseases is also examined. Proteins have various and, at the same time, unique biological functions and their oxidation can result in structural changes and various functional m...

  13. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, John K [Castro Valley, CA

    2008-10-21

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  14. Haemato-biochemical, non-specific immunity, antioxidant capacity and histopathological changes in Labeo rohita fingerlings fed rubber protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawole, Femi John; Sahu, N P; Jain, K K; Gupta, S; Rajendran, K V; Shamna, N; Poojary, Nalini

    2017-06-01

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the haemato-biochemical, innate immune response, antioxidant capacity and histopathological changes in Labeo rohita fingerlings fed rubber protein isolates (RPI). One hundred and eighty fingerlings (average weight 4.45 ± 0.01 g) were distributed into five experimental groups in triplicate and fed with isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. Soybean protein isolate (SPI) served as the reference diet (Control), and the treatment diets were formulated as RPI 25 , RPI 50 , RPI 75 and RPI 100 replacing 25, 50, 75 and 100% of SPI protein, respectively. The growth performance indices like final body weight (9.54-10.27 g), net weight gain (5.09-5.84 g), metabolic growth rate (4.54-5.02) and feed efficiency ratio (0.60-0.65) among the various groups were not significantly different (P > 0.05). All the haematological parameters, except red blood cells, showed no significant differences compared with the control group (P > 0.05). The immuno-biochemical parameters like albumin, globulin, total immunoglobulin, respiratory burst and lysozyme activities among the various groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). The stress enzyme such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Histopathological examination of the liver revealed no marked changes. In summary, the results showed that RPI was well utilised by the fish and its inclusion did not generate any oxidative-induced stress, thus, RPI may be suggested as a potential replacement for SPI in fish diets without any detrimental effects. Hence, protein isolation offers a unique opportunity for the utilisation of rubber seed meal.

  15. Whey protein concentrate supplementation protects rat brain against aging-induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Geetika; Singh, Sandeep; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2017-12-02

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) is a rich source of sulfur-containing amino acids and is consumed as a functional food, incorporating a wide range of nutritional attributes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of WPC on rat brain during aging. Young (4 months) and old (24 months) male Wistar rats were supplemented with WPC (300 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in terms of ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), lipid hydroperoxide (LHP), total thiol (T-SH), protein carbonyl (PC), reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were measured in brain of control and experimental (WPC supplemented) groups. In addition, gene expression and histopathological studies were also performed. The results indicate that WPC augmented the level of FRAP, T-SH, and AChE in old rats as compared with the old control. Furthermore, WPC-treated groups exhibited significant reduction in LHP, PC, ROS, and NO levels in aged rats. WPC supplementation also downregulated the expression of inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6), and upregulated the expression of marker genes associated with autophagy (Atg3, Beclin-1, LC3B) and neurodegeneration (neuron specific enolase, Synapsin-I, MBP-2). The findings suggested WPC to be a potential functional nutritional food supplement that prevents the progression of age-related oxidative damage in Wistar rats.

  16. Discovering Antioxidant Molecules in the Archaea Domain: Peroxiredoxin Bcp1 from Sulfolobus solfataricus Protects H9c2 Cardiomyoblasts from Oxidative Stress

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    Carmen Sarcinelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxiredoxins (Prxs are ubiquitous thiol peroxidases that are involved in the reduction of peroxides. It has been reported that prokaryotic Prxs generally show greater structural robustness than their eukaryotic counterparts, making them less prone to inactivation by overoxidation. This difference has inspired the search for new antioxidants from prokaryotic sources that can be used as possible therapeutic biodrugs. Bacterioferritin comigratory proteins (Bcps of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus that belong to the Prx family have recently been characterized. One of these proteins, Bcp1, was chosen to determine its antioxidant effects in H9c2 rat cardiomyoblast cells. Bcp1 activity was measured in vitro under physiological temperature and pH conditions that are typical of mammalian cells; the yeast thioredoxin reductase (yTrxR/thioredoxin (yTrx reducing system was used to evaluate enzyme activity. A TAT-Bcp1 fusion protein was constructed to allow its internalization and verify the effect of Bcp1 on H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts subjected to oxidative stress. The results reveal that TAT-Bcp1 is not cytotoxic and inhibits H2O2-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells by reducing the H2O2 content inside these cells.

  17. Effect of urdbean leaf crinkle virus infection on total soluble protein and antioxidant enzymes in blackgram plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, M.; Mughal, S.M.; Khan, A.; Javed, N.; Sahi, S.T.; Shahid, M.

    2010-01-01

    Urdbean leaf crinkle virus (ULCV) is a common, wide spread, destructive and economically important disease causing systemic infection in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), resulting in extreme crinkling, curling, puckering and rugosity of leaves, and yield reductions. Effect of viral infection was investigated on total soluble proteins and antioxidant enzymes activity in two genotypes viz., Mash-88-susceptible and CM-2002-resistant, at different growth stages under both the inoculated and un-inoculated conditions. ULCV infection resulted in significant increase in total soluble protein contents of the leaves in both genotypes. In healthy plant, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (PO) showed similar activity levels. In inoculated plants of Mash-88, SOD and PO activities decreased and increased non-significantly at all growth stages, respectively. The activities of PO and SOD increased and decreased significantly after 15 and 30 days of inoculation in resistant genotype, respectively. No significant changes in catalase (CAT) activity were detected in ULCV-infected leaves over the control. It was concluded that the super oxide dismutase and peroxidases might be associated with resistance/susceptibility to ULCV infection. (author)

  18. Colonization of epidermal tissue by Staphylococcus aureus produces localized hypoxia and stimulates secretion of antioxidant and caspase-14 proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lone , Abdul G.; Atci, Erhan; Renslow, Ryan S.; Beyenal, Haluk; Noh, S.; Fransson, B.; Abu-Lail, Nehal; Park, Jeong-Jin; Gang, David R.; Call, Douglas R.

    2015-08-31

    A partial-thickness epidermal explant model was colonized with GFP-expressing S. aureus and the pattern of S. aureus biofilm growth was characterized using electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Oxygen concentration in explants was quantified using microelectrodes. The relative effective diffusivity and porosity of the epidermis were determined using magnetic resonance imaging, while hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in explant media was measured by using microelectrodes. Secreted proteins were identified and quantified using MSE mass spectrometry. We found that S. aureus biofilm grows predominantly in sebum-rich areas around hair follicles and associated skin folds. Dissolved oxygen was selectively depleted (2-3 fold) in these locations, but the relative effective diffusivity and porosity did not change between colonized and control epidermis. Histological analysis revealed keratinocyte damage across all the layers of colonized epidermis after four days of culture. The colonized explants released significantly (P< 0.01) more anti-oxidant proteins of both epidermal and S. aureus origin, consistent with elevated H2O2 concentration found in the media from the colonized explants (P< 0.001). Caspase-14 was also elevated significantly in media from infected explants. While H2O2 induces primary keratinocyte differentiation, caspase-14 is required for terminal keratinocyte differentiation and desquamation. These results are consistent with a localized biological impact from S. aureus in response to colonization of the skin surface.

  19. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Krill with Antioxidative and Immunomodulating Properties Reduced Plasma Triacylglycerol and Hepatic Lipogenesis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs can change the plasma profile from atherogenic to cardioprotective. In addition, there is growing evidence that proteins of marine origin may have health benefits. We investigated a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC from krill that is hypothesized to influence lipid metabolism, inflammation, and redox status. Male Wistar rats were fed a control diet (2% soy oil, 8% lard, 20% casein, or diets where corresponding amounts of casein and lard were replaced with PPC at 3%, 6%, or 11% (wt %, for four weeks. Dietary supplementation with PPC resulted in significantly lower levels of plasma triacylglycerols in the 11% PPC-fed group, probably due to reduced hepatic lipogenesis. Plasma cholesterol levels were also reduced at the highest dose of PPC. In addition, the plasma and liver content of n-3 PUFAs increased while n-6 PUFAs decreased. This was associated with increased total antioxidant capacity in plasma and increased liver gene expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2. Finally, a reduced plasma level of the inflammatory mediator interleukin-2 (IL-2 was detected in the PPC-fed animals. The present data show that PPC has lipid-lowering effects in rats, and may modulate risk factors related to cardiovascular disease progression.

  20. Oxidant/antioxidant balance in animal nutrition and health: the role of protein oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro eCeli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the role that oxidative stress, and protein oxidation in particular, plays in nutrition, metabolism and health of farm animals. The route by which redox homeostasis is involved in some important physiological functions and the implications of the impairment of oxidative status on animal health and diseases is also examined. Proteins have various and, at the same time, unique biological functions and their oxidation can result in structural changes and various functional modifications. Protein oxidation seems to be involved in pathological conditions such as respiratory diseases and parasitic infection; however some studies also suggest that protein oxidation plays a crucial role in the regulation of important physiological functions such as reproduction, nutrition, metabolism, lactation, gut health and neonatal physiology. As the characterization of the mechanisms by which oxidative stress may influence metabolism and health is attracting considerable scientific interest, the aim of this review is to present veterinary scientists and clinicians with various aspects of oxidative damage to proteins.

  1. Antioxidant, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity and other functional properties of egg white proteins and their derived peptides - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyrathne, E D N S; Huang, X; Ahn, D U

    2018-04-01

    Egg white contains many functionally important proteins: ovalbumin (54%), ovotransferrin (12%), ovomucoid (11%), ovoglobulin (G2 and G3, 8%), ovomucin (3.5%), and lysozyme (3.5%) are major proteins, while ovoinhibitors, ovomacroglobulin, ovoglycoprotein, ovoflavoprotein, thiamine-binding proteins, and avidin are minor proteins present in egg white. These proteins, as well as the peptides derived from the proteins, have been recognized for their functional importance as antioxidant, antimicrobial, metal-chelating, anti-viral, anti-tumour, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities. Among the functional properties of the peptides, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities are important characteristics for food processing while other properties such as ACE-inhibitory activity of the peptides can have important health-related functionalities. Bioactive peptides can be produced from egg white proteins by enzyme hydrolysis, chemical treatments, or thermal treatments at different pH conditions. The effective functional peptides produced from egg white proteins are usually smaller than 2 kDa in molecular size. However, these peptides are known for their beneficial activities in vitro only, and little work has been done to prove their beneficial effects in vivo. Therefore, further studies are needed to see if the bioactive peptides derived from egg white proteins are helpful for humans in the future.

  2. Phytochemicals prevent mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and protect SH-SY5Y cells against apoptosis induced by PK11195, a ligand for outer membrane translocator protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuqiu; Shamoto-Nagai, Masayo; Maruyama, Wakako; Osawa, Toshihiko; Naoi, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies present the beneficial effects of dietary habits on prevention of aging-associated decline of brain function. Phytochemicals, the second metabolites of food, protect neuronal cells from cell death in cellular models of neurodegenerative disorders, and the neuroprotective activity has been ascribed to the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. In this paper, the cellular mechanism of neuroprotection by phytochemicals was investigated, using the cellular model of mitochondrial apoptosis induced by PK11195, a ligand of outer membrane translocator protein, in SH-SY5Y cells. PK11195 induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilization with rapid transit production of superoxide (superoxide flashes) and calcium release from mitochondria, and activated apoptosis signal pathway. Study on the structure-activity relationship of astaxanthin, ferulic acid derivatives, and sesame lignans revealed that these phytochemicals inhibited mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and protected cells from apoptosis. Ferulic acid derivatives and sesame lignans inhibited or enhanced the mitochondrial pore formation and cell death by PK11195 according to their amphiphilic properties, not directly depending on the antioxidant activity. Regulation of pore formation at mitochondrial membrane is discussed as a novel mechanism behind neuroprotective activity of phytochemicals in aging and age-associated neurodegenerative disorders, and also behind dual functions of phytochemicals in neuronal and cancer cells.

  3. Centella asiatica extract protects against amyloid β1–40-induced neurotoxicity in neuronal cells by activating the antioxidative defence system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Li Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica (雷公根 léi gōng gēn is a traditional medicinal herb with high antioxidant activity, which decreases amyloid-β (Aβ deposition in the brain. At the same time, aggregated Aβ-induced oxidative stress is the trigger in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Here, we investigated the ability of C. asiatica ethanol extract (CAE to protect PC12 and IMR32 cells from Aβ1–40-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and concomitant neurotoxicity. Aggregated Aβ1–40 treatment resulted in reduced cell viability, which can be reversed by cotreatment with 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL CAE. Moreover, CAE eliminated the Aβ1–40-mediated increase in ROS production. Thus, CAE-mediated protection against aggregated Aβ1–40-induced neurotoxicity is attributable to modulation of the antioxidative defense system in cells, including the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and levels of glutathione and glutathione disulfide by CAE. This emphasizes the potential therapeutic and preventive value of CAE in the treatment of AD.

  4. Moderate O3/O2therapy enhances enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant in brain and cochlear that protects noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasezadeh, Parvaneh; Shahi, Farshad; Fridoni, Mohammadjavad; Seydi, Enayatollah; Izadi, Morteza; Salimi, Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    Mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). In this study, we examined the protective effect of O 2 /O 3 mixture (ozone/oxygen) therapy against mitochondrial induced damage and oxidative stress by noise exposure in rat brain and cochlear. For this purpose, rats were divided into four groups: 1 - control group; 2 - noise-exposed group (100 dB); 3 - noise + O 2 /O 3 , and 4 - O 2 /O 3 (30 µg/ml). After 14 d, animals were anesthetised. Rat brain and cochlear tissue were removed for evaluation of the histopathological damages, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction in both tissues. Our findings indicated that noise caused pathological damage, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction in rat brain and cochlear. Also, daily administration of an O 2 /O 3 therapy (30 µg/ml intravenous) efficiently increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant in brain and cochlear that this action led to inhibition of pathological damages, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species formation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse, mitochondrial swelling, and cytochrome c release resulting from noise. These findings suggest that the moderate O 2 /O 3 therapy enhances the capacity of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant in brain and cochlear that protects against NIHL.

  5. Role of antioxidants in the protection against the combined effect of Cd, Zn and Ni in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grushko, V.M.; Artuushenko, T.A.; Boldizsar, A.; Kocsy, G.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the combined treatment with Cd , Zn , and Ni on the accumulation of these metals, growth, and contents of antioxidants in wheat roots is studied. The metals were added in two concentrations to the nutrient solution for seedlings, and the higher one had a stronger effect on the studied parameters. The heavy-metal tolerances of 8 wheat varieties are compared in order to select the most tolerant (Kuialnik) and most sensitive one (Sonechko) for biochemical studies. The heavy-metal uptake and, subsequently, the lipid peroxidation are smaller in the tolerant genotype, than in the sensitive one. The higher glutathione concentration in the tolerant genotype under control conditions could contribute to the improved heavy-metal tolerance. The metal-induced decrease in the glutathione content can be an indicator of the increased phytochelatin synthesis. The great tolerance of Kuialnik can be explained by its decreased heavy-metal uptake and the greater glutathione-based antioxidant capacity

  6. Protective role of luteolin on the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense against azoxymethane-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokkumar, Pandurangan; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

    2008-11-01

    The modifying effect of dietary exposure to a flavonoid, luteolin (LUT) during the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis was investigated in this study. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), lipid peroxidation (LPO), enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants and histopathological analysis were performed. Colon carcinogenesis was induced by injecting 15 mg/body kg weight of AOM, intraperitoneally (i.p.), once in a week for 3 weeks in male Balb/c mice. AOM-induced mice were treated with LUT (1.2mg of LUT/kg body weight/day orally). After the experimental period, frequency of ACF, levels of thiobarbutaric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroxy radical (OH ) were found to be increased, whereas glutathione (GSH), Vitamins C, E and A were decreased in the plasma and colon of AOM-induced mice. However, LUT treatment to AOM-induced mice significantly decreased the incidence of ACF, levels of TBARS and OH with a concordant increase in non-enzymic antioxidants in plasma and colon tissue. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were found to be decreased due to the induction of colon cancer in mouse. LUT treatment ameliorated the activities of these antioxidant enzymes. The histological study revealed a significant increase in the enlarged nuclei and hyperchromatism of cells in AOM-induced mice whereas LUT significantly reduced the signs in the colon. The immunohistochemical expression of MDA-DNA adduct was studied. In AOM-induced group, the expression was increased and treatment with LUT decreased significantly. The present study depicts that LUT can act as an effective chemopreventive agent against colon cancer.

  7. Antioxidant properties of Taraxacum officinale leaf extract are involved in the protective effect against hepatoxicity induced by acetaminophen in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Dirleise; Arantes, Leticia Priscilla; Gubert, Priscila; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Teixeira Rocha, João Batista; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

    2012-06-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity has been related to several cases of hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatic transplant. As APAP hepatotoxicity is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and excessive oxidative stress, natural antioxidant compounds have been tested as an alternative therapy to diminish the hepatic dysfunction induced by APAP. Taraxacum officinale Weber (Family Asteraceae), commonly known as dandelion, is used for medicinal purposes because of its choleretic, diuretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of T. officinale leaf extract against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. T. officinale was able to decrease thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels induced by 200 mg/kg APAP (p.o.), as well as prevent the decrease in sulfhydryl levels caused by APAP treatment. Furthermore, histopathological alterations, as well as the increased levels of serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferases caused by APAP, were prevented by T. officinale (0.1 and 0.5 mg/mL). In addition, T. officinale extract also demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro, as well as scavenger activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide radicals. Our results clearly demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of T. officinale against the toxicity induced by APAP. The possible mechanisms involved include its scavenger activities against ROS and reactive nitrogen species, which are attributed to the content of phenolic compounds in the extract.

  8. Antioxidant Activity and Protective Effects of Enzyme-Extracted Oudemansiella radiata Polysaccharides on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuxiu Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was to examine the antioxidation in vitro and hepatoprotective effects of enzyme-extracted Oudemansiella radiata polysaccharides (En-OPS on alcohol-induced liver damage in mice. The antioxidant activities were determined according to the scavenging effects of En-OPS on hydroxyl, superoxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals, and the level of reducing power. En-OPS showed hepatoprotective activities on decreasing the serum levels of aspertate aminotransferase (AST, alamine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, as well as hepatic lipid levels of total cholesterol (TC and triacylglycerols (TG. En-OPS treatment reversed the acute impairment induced by alcohol consumption, including reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, malondialdehyde (MAD, and lipid peroxide (LPO elevation; and superoxide dismutase (SOD, GSH peroxide (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC impairment. The En-OPS effectively ameliorated alcohol metabolism by activating alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH, and reducing cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1 levels. Furthermore, the histopathological observations also displayed that En-OPS could alleviate liver damage. These results indicated that En-OPS could be suitable to be an ingredient of preventing alcoholic liver diseases (ALD. In addition, the preliminary structure characteristics of En-OPS were also analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID.

  9. Antioxidant Properties of Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae Roots Extract and Protective Effects on Astroglial Cell Cultures

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    Agata Campisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae is a bushy-spiny shrub common on Mount Etna (Sicily. We demonstrated that the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl contains prevalently berberine and berbamine, possesses antimicrobial properties, and was able to counteract the upregulation evoked by glutamate of tissue transglutaminase in primary rat astroglial cell cultures. Until now, there are no reports regarding antioxidant properties of B. aetnensis C. Presl collected in Sicily. Air-dried, powdered roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl were extracted, identified, and quantified by HPLC. We assessed in cellular free system its effect on superoxide anion, radicals scavenging activity of antioxidants against free radicals like the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. In primary rat astroglial cell cultures, exposed to glutamate, we evaluated the effect of the extract on glutathione levels and on intracellular production of reactive oxygen species generated by glutamate. The alkaloid extract of B. aetnensis C. Presl inhibited superoxide anion, restored to control values, the decrease of GSH levels, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Potent antioxidant activities of the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl may be one of the mechanisms by which the extract is effective against health disorders associated to oxidative stress.

  10. Antioxidative defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  11. Enhanced production of recombinant proteins by a small molecule protein synthesis enhancer in combination with an antioxidant in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camire, Joseph; Kim, Dongjoo; Kwon, Soonjo

    2017-07-01

    The improvement in the production of recombinant proteins has been linked in a number of small molecules such as carboxylic acids to the inhibition of histone deacetylase, leading to increased transcription of genes. However, carboxylic acids such as pentanoic acid and butanoic acid have been shown to promote an apoptotic response in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture. Supplementation of cultures with antioxidants has shown the ability to reduce the apoptotic response of carboxylic acid supplementation, leading to increased therapeutic protein production. In this study, we showed that pentanoic acid reduced the number of cells entering early apoptosis relative to butanoic acid by 15.4%. Additionally, supplementation of butanoic acid- and pentanoic acid-treated cultures with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) reduced the population of cells entering early apoptosis by 5.3 and 10.0%, respectively, while increasing productivity by 19.5% in the presence of pentanoic acid and NAC. Conversely, a decrease of 5.7% in production was observed in response to combined butanoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine treatment. The results presented herein provide evidence that a culture supplementation method is critical for optimization of biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes.

  12. Characterization of culture supernatant proteins from Brucella abortus and its protection effects against murine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Ju; Lim, Jeong Ju; Kim, Dae Geun; Simborio, Hannah Leah; Kim, Dong Hyeok; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Kim, Dong Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we characterized the secreted proteins of Brucella abortus into the enriched media under the bacterial laboratory growth condition and investigated the pathogenic importance of culture supernatant (CS) proteins to B. abortus infection. CS proteins from stationary phase were concentrated and analyzed using 2D electrophoresis. In MALDI TOF/TOF analysis, more than 27 proteins including CuZn SOD, Dps, Tat, OMPs, Adh, LivF, Tuf, SucC, GroEL and DnaK were identified. Cytotoxic effects of CS proteins were found to increase in a dose-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells. Upon B. abortus challenge into phagocytes, however, CS proteins pre-treated cells exhibited lower bacterial uptake and intracellular replication compared to untreated cells. Immunization with CS proteins induced a strong humoral and cell mediated immune responses and exhibited significant higher degree of protection against virulence of B. abortus infection compared to mice immunized with Brucella broth protein (BBP). Taken together, these results indicate that B. abortus secreted a number of soluble immunogenic proteins under laboratory culture condition, which can promote antibody production resulted in enhancing host defense against to subsequently bacterial infection. Moreover, further analysis of CS proteins may help to understand the pathogenic mechanism of B. abortus infection and host-pathogen interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidants, free radicals, storage proteins, and proteolytic activities in wheat (Triticum durum) seeds during accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleschi, Luciano; Capocchi, Antonella; Ghiringhelli, Silvia; Saviozzi, Franco; Calucci, Lucia; Pinzino, Calogero; Zandomeneghi, Maurizio

    2002-09-11

    Accelerated aging was performed by incubation of wheat seeds at 40 degrees C and 100% relative humidity for 3, 4, 6, 10, and 14 days. The effects of the treatment on seed germinability and on several biochemical characteristics of flour (carotenoids, free radical and protein contents, and proteolytic activity) and gluten (free radical content and flexibility) were evaluated. A decrease of germinability was found during aging, the germination being completely inhibited after 14 days. The lutein content decreased gradually, without going to zero, while that of free radicals increased. A reduction of soluble proteins and a degradation of glutenins and gliadins were observed, associated with a substantial increase of protease activity and a decrease in gluten flexibility. The results were discussed in reference to those previously obtained by natural aging of wheat seeds of the same species and cultivar.

  14. Structural and functional analysis of lysosomal ss-galactosidase and its relation to the protective protein.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Morreau (Hans)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractLysosomal B-galactosidase is the glycosidase, that cleaves B-linked galactosyl mmenes from a variety of natural and synthetic substrates. In normal tissues of various species this enzyme appears to associate with two other hydrolases, N-acetyl-o:-neuraminidase and the protective protein.

  15. Molecular characterization and expression of two putative protective excretory secretory proteins of Haemonchus contortus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D.; van Leeuwen, M. A.; Verstrepen, B. E.; Cornelissen, A. W.

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that vaccination with two low molecular mass excretory secretory (ES) antigens of 15 and 24 kDa, respectively, afforded a substantial degree of protection against Haemonchus contortus to sheep. In vitro cultivation of the parasite usually yields a limited amount of these proteins

  16. Shigella outer membrane protein PSSP-1 is broadly protective against Shigella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Ouk; Rho, Semi; Kim, Su Hee; Kim, Heejoo; Song, Hyo Jin; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Ryang Yeo; Kim, Eun Hye; Sinha, Anuradha; Dey, Ayan; Yang, Jae Seung; Song, Man Ki; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-04-01

    In developing countries, Shigella is a primary cause of diarrhea in infants and young children. Although antibiotic therapy is an effective treatment for shigellosis, therapeutic options are narrowing due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Thus, preventive vaccination could become the most efficacious approach for controlling shigellosis. We have identified several conserved protein antigens that are shared by multiple Shigella serotypes and species. Among these, one antigen induced cross-protection against experimental shigellosis, and we have named it pan-Shigella surface protein 1 (PSSP-1). PSSP-1-induced protection requires a mucosal administration route and coadministration of an adjuvant. When PSSP-1 was administered intranasally, it induced cross-protection against Shigella flexneri serotypes 2a, 5a, and 6, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnei, and Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1. Intradermally administered PSSP-1 induced strong serum antibody responses but failed to induce protection in the mouse lung pneumonia model. In contrast, intranasal administration elicited efficient local and systemic antibody responses and production of interleukin 17A and gamma interferon. Interestingly, blood samples from patients with recent-onset shigellosis showed variable but significant mucosal antibody responses to other conserved Shigella protein antigens but not to PSSP-1. We suggest that PSSP-1 is a promising antigen for a broadly protective vaccine against Shigella. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Flavodoxin-Like Proteins Protect Candida albicans from Oxidative Stress and Promote Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Candida albicans causes lethal systemic infections in humans. To better define how pathogens resist oxidative attack by the immune system, we examined a family of four Flavodoxin-Like Proteins (FLPs in C. albicans. In agreement with previous studies showing that FLPs in bacteria and plants act as NAD(PH quinone oxidoreductases, a C. albicans quadruple mutant lacking all four FLPs (pst1Δ, pst2Δ, pst3Δ, ycp4Δ was more sensitive to benzoquinone. Interestingly, the quadruple mutant was also more sensitive to a variety of oxidants. Quinone reductase activity confers important antioxidant effects because resistance to oxidation was restored in the quadruple mutant by expressing either Escherichia coli wrbA or mammalian NQO1, two distinct types of quinone reductases. FLPs were detected at the plasma membrane in C. albicans, and the quadruple mutant was more sensitive to linolenic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid that can auto-oxidize and promote lipid peroxidation. These observations suggested that FLPs reduce ubiquinone (coenzyme Q, enabling it to serve as an antioxidant in the membrane. In support of this, a C. albicans coq3Δ mutant that fails to synthesize ubiquinone was also highly sensitive to oxidative stress. FLPs are critical for survival in the host, as the quadruple mutant was avirulent in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis under conditions where infection with wild type C. albicans was lethal. The quadruple mutant cells initially grew well in kidneys, the major site of C. albicans growth in mice, but then declined after the influx of neutrophils and by day 4 post-infection 33% of the mice cleared the infection. Thus, FLPs and ubiquinone are important new antioxidant mechanisms that are critical for fungal virulence. The potential of FLPs as novel targets for antifungal therapy is further underscored by their absence in mammalian cells.