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Sample records for antioxidant isoenzyme responses

  1. Antioxidant isoenzyme responses to nickel-induced stress in tobacco cell suspension culture Resposta de isoenzimas antioxidantes ao estresse induzido por níquel em cultura de células em suspensão de fumo

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    Georgia Bertoni Pompeu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to nickel (Ni at high concentrations can lead to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS resulting in oxidative damage at the cellular level. We investigated the antioxidative responses of Nicotiana tabacum cv BY-2 cell suspension to Ni stress (0.075 and 0.75 mM NiCl2 over a 72 h period with special attention to potential alterations in isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione reductase (GR. Two main SOD isoenzymes were observed, a Mn-SOD (band I and a Fe-SOD (band II, as well as one CAT isoenzyme and four GR isoenzymes. Activity staining analysis revealed that CAT activity plays a major role in the early response to Ni-induced oxidative stress, particularly when the Ni concentration used was low, whilst a specific GR isoenzyme appears to respond to the Ni-induced oxidative stress when a much higher Ni concentration was used to induce the stress for the same period of treatment. These results illustrate the importance and advantages of determining individual isoenzyme activities.A exposição ao níquel (Ni, em altas concentrações, pode levar à produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (EAOs, resultando em danos oxidativos em nível celular. Foram investigadas as respostas antioxidativas de células em suspensão do cultivar BY-2 de Nicotiana tabacum submetidas ao estresse por Ni (0.075 e 0.75 mM de NiCl2 por 72 h, com atenção especial às alterações potencias em isoenzimas de superóxido dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT e glutatione redutase (GR. Duas principais isoenzimas de SOD foram observadas, uma Mn-SOD (banda I e outra Fe-SOD (banda II, bem como uma isoenzima CAT e quatro isoenzimas de GR. As análises revelaram que a atividade de CAT tem papel principal no momento inicial de resposta ao estresse oxidativo induzido por Ni, particularmente, quando sua concentração foi mais baixa, enquanto uma isoenzima específica de GR parece responder a este estresse na concentração mais alta de Ni

  2. ALP isoenzyme test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme test ... anything for 10 to 12 hours before the test, unless your health care provider tells you to do so. Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you ...

  3. Evaluation of Ayurvedic plants for stimulating intrinsic antioxidant responses

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    Sunil Dutt Shukla

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage caused by free radicals plays an important role in the causation and progression of many diseases, including aging. Free radical damage is countered by many mechanisms, including both active antioxidant enzymatic activity in our body and passive antioxidants. Antioxidant response of our body can accommodate increased oxidative damage in diseased states to a level but beyond that level, additional antioxidants are required to combat the increased stress. Apart from the regular dietary sources of antioxidants, many traditional herbal medicines demonstrate a potential to boost antioxidant activity. Rasayana chikitsa that deals with rejuvenation and revitalization is a branch of the Indian traditional medical system of Ayurveda. We review some select herbs described in Rasayana chikitsa that have been assessed by modern means for stimulating intrinsic antioxidant responses in humans. A critical evaluation of Rasayana chikitsa will likely provide urgently needed, actual stimulants of our physiological antioxidant responses and not just more passive antioxidants to an already large catalogue.

  4. Antioxidant enzymes activities of Burkholderia spp. strains-oxidative responses to Ni toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, M N; Franco, M R; Peters, L P; Martins, P F; Souza, L A; Piotto, F A; Azevedo, R A

    2015-12-01

    Increased agriculture production associated with intense application of herbicides, pesticides, and fungicides leads to soil contamination worldwide. Nickel (Ni), due to its high mobility in soils and groundwater, constitutes one of the greatest problems in terms of environmental pollution. Metals, including Ni, in high concentrations are toxic to cells by imposing a condition of oxidative stress due to the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which damage lipids, proteins, and DNA. This study aimed to characterize the Ni antioxidant response of two tolerant Burkholderia strains (one isolated from noncontaminated soil, SNMS32, and the other from contaminated soil, SCMS54), by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. Ni accumulation and bacterial growth in the presence of the metal were also analyzed. The results showed that both strains exhibited different trends of Ni accumulation and distinct antioxidant enzymes responses. The strain from contaminated soil (SCMS54) exhibited a higher Ni biosorption and exhibited an increase in SOD and GST activities after 5 and 12 h of Ni exposure. The analysis of SOD, CAT, and GR by nondenaturing PAGE revealed the appearance of an extra isoenzyme in strain SCMS54 for each enzyme. The results suggest that the strain SCMS54 isolated from contaminated soil present more plasticity with potential to be used in soil and water bioremediation. PMID:26289332

  5. Salt tolerance in Solanum pennellii: antioxidant response and related QTL

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    Şığva Hasan Ö

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive soil salinity is an important problem for agriculture, however, salt tolerance is a complex trait that is not easily bred into plants. Exposure of cultivated tomato to salt stress has been reported to result in increased antioxidant content and activity. Salt tolerance of the related wild species, Solanum pennellii, has also been associated with similar changes in antioxidants. In this work, S. lycopersicum M82, S. pennellii LA716 and a S. pennellii introgression line (IL population were evaluated for growth and their levels of antioxidant activity (total water-soluble antioxidant activity, major antioxidant compounds (phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and peroxidase under both control and salt stress (150 mM NaCl conditions. These data were then used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL responsible for controlling the antioxidant parameters under both stress and nonstress conditions. Results Under control conditions, cultivated tomato had higher levels of all antioxidants (except superoxide dismutase than S. pennellii. However, under salt stress, the wild species showed greater induction of all antioxidants except peroxidase. The ILs showed diverse responses to salinity and proved very useful for the identification of QTL. Thus, 125 loci for antioxidant content under control and salt conditions were detected. Eleven of the total antioxidant activity and phenolic content QTL matched loci identified in an independent study using the same population, thereby reinforcing the validity of the loci. In addition, the growth responses of the ILs were evaluated to identify lines with favorable growth and antioxidant profiles. Conclusions Plants have a complex antioxidant response when placed under salt stress. Some loci control antioxidant content under all conditions while others are responsible for antioxidant content only under

  6. Evaluation of Ayurvedic plants for stimulating intrinsic antioxidant responses

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Dutt Shukla; Maheep eBhatnagar; Sukant eKhurana

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage caused by free radicals plays an important role in the causation and progression of many diseases, including aging. Free radical damage is countered by many mechanisms, including both active antioxidant enzymatic activity in our body and passive antioxidants. Antioxidant response of our body can accommodate increased oxidative damage in diseased states to a level but beyond that level, additional antioxidants are required to combat the increased stress. Apart from the regular...

  7. Critical Evaluation of Ayurvedic Plants for Stimulating Intrinsic Antioxidant Response

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Sunil Dutt; Bhatnagar, Maheep; Khurana, Sukant

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage caused by free radicals plays an important role in the causation and progression of many diseases, including aging. Free-radical damage is countered by many mechanisms, including both active antioxidant enzymatic activity in our body and passive antioxidants. Antioxidant response of our body can accommodate increased oxidative damage in diseased states to a level but beyond that level, additional antioxidants are required to combat the increased stress. Apart from the regular...

  8. Antioxidant responses of wheat plants under stress

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    Andréia Caverzan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently, food security depends on the increased production of cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L., which is an important source of calories and protein for humans. However, cells of the crop have suffered from the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which can cause severe oxidative damage to the plants, due to environmental stresses. ROS are toxic molecules found in various subcellular compartments. The equilibrium between the production and detoxification of ROS is sustained by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. In the present review, we offer a brief summary of antioxidant defense and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 signaling in wheat plants. Wheat plants increase antioxidant defense mechanisms under abiotic stresses, such as drought, cold, heat, salinity and UV-B radiation, to alleviate oxidative damage. Moreover, H2O2 signaling is an important factor contributing to stress tolerance in cereals.

  9. Analysis and utilization of plant antioxidative mechanism by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwon, Seock-Yoon; Shin, Seung-Yung [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In an attempt to analysis the POD isoenzymes (swpa1, swpa2, swpa3, and swpn1) expression in response to gamma-irradiation in sweet potato. In suspension cells POD isoenzymes was highly expressed at 6 h postirradiation, and the transcript levels increased at 0 and 6 h at 50 Gy in plants. POD isoenzymes expression in response to irradiation appears not to be regulated in a different manner in cultured cells and plants. The gamma radiation-induced changes of proteins in tobacco suspension cells were investigated by SDS-PAGE. In tobacco cultured cells gamma irradiation did not significantly change the protein patterns. This indicates that the gamma irradiation-induced protein was not highly expressed or might be overlap with others. In the tobacco transgenic plants simultaneously expressing SOD and/or APX in chloroplast, the specific activities of SOD and APX of gamma-irradiated plants increased according to the dose of gamma-irradiation. These results indicate that antioxidative genes depends on antioxidative isoenzymes differently respond to gamma irradiation in transgenic tobacco plant lines. 35 refs., 9 figs. (Author)

  10. Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme of Lens in Fetus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kexi Ding; Yasong Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The LDH isoenzyme patterns were evaluated in lens of fetus to study the metabolism in human lenses.Methods: LDH isoenzyme electrophoresis was performed in 15 lenses of human fetus aged from 4~6 months.Results: There are 5 bands of LDH in fetus lens. LDH4 lever is the highest, and LDH1 is the lowest, especially in the cortex of lens. LDH1 is higher in lens of 4 months of age than in that of 5 and 6 months of age.Conclusions: LDH isoenzyme in lens of fetus shows mainly anaerobic metabolism in development, but there is also aerobic metabolism, especially in younger fetus.

  11. Effect of iron stress on Withania somnifera L.: antioxidant enzyme response and nutrient elemental uptake of in vitro grown plants.

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    Rout, Jyoti Ranjan; Behera, Sadhana; Keshari, Nitin; Ram, Shidharth Sankar; Bhar, Subhajit; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal; Sahoo, Santi Lata

    2015-03-01

    In the present study the response of antioxidant enzyme activities and the level of expression of their corresponding genes on bioaccumulation of iron (Fe) were investigated. In vitro germinated Withania somnifera L. were grown in Murashige and Skoog's liquid medium with increasing concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM) of FeSO4 for 7 and 14 days. Root and leaf tissues analyzed for catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7), have shown an increase in content with respect to exposure time. Isoforms of CAT, SOD and GPX were separated using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and observed that the isoenzymes were greatly affected by higher concentrations of Fe. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis performed by taking three pairs of genes of CAT (RsCat, Catalase1, Cat1) and SOD (SodCp, TaSOD1.2, MnSOD) to find out the differential expression of antioxidant genes under Fe excess. RsCat from CAT and MnSOD from SOD have exhibited high levels of gene expression under Fe stress, which was consistent with the changes of the activity assayed in solution after 7 days of treatment. Analysis by proton induced X-ray emission exhibited an increasing uptake of Fe in plants by suppressing and expressing of other nutrient elements. The results of the present study suggest that higher concentration of Fe causes disturbance in nutrient balance and induces oxidative stress in plant.

  12. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  13. Peroxidase isoenzymes in germinating barley seeds and in seminal roots

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    A. Stroński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Roots and germinating seeds of summer barley of the cv. Alsa, Antałek, Cebeco 7161, Lubuski, Skrzeszowicki and Union were found to differ in the number of peroxidase isoenzymes. In the germinating seeds from 5 to 8 isoenzymes were found whereas in the two-week-old roots – from 10 to 14 isoenzymes. Four isoenzymes in germinating seeds and eight isoenzymes in seminal roots appeared in all the cultivars tested. The cultivars differed also in the relative activity of the isoenzymes in the tested organs.

  14. Increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant response in Lafora disease.

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    Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Aguado, Carmen; García-Giménez, José Luis; Ibáñez-Cabellos, José Santiago; Seco-Cervera, Marta; Pallardó, Federico V; Knecht, Erwin; Sanz, Pascual

    2014-10-01

    Lafora Disease (LD, OMIM 254780, ORPHA501) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of glycogen-like intracellular inclusions called Lafora bodies and caused, in the vast majority of cases, by mutations in either EPM2A or EPM2B genes, encoding respectively laforin and malin. In the last years, several reports have revealed molecular details of these two proteins and have identified several processes affected in LD, but the pathophysiology of the disease still remains largely unknown. Since autophagy impairment has been reported as a characteristic treat in both Lafora disease cell and animal models, and as there is a link between autophagy and mitochondrial performance, we sought to determine if mitochondrial function could be altered in those models. Using fibroblasts from LD patients, deficient in laforin or malin, we found mitochondrial alterations, oxidative stress and a deficiency in antioxidant enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Similar results were obtained in brain tissue samples from transgenic mice deficient in either the EPM2A or EPM2B genes. Furthermore, in a proteomic analysis of brain tissue obtained from Epm2b-/- mice, we observed an increase in a modified form of peroxirredoxin-6, an antioxidant enzyme involved in other neurological pathologies, thus corroborating an alteration of the redox condition. These data support that oxidative stress produced by an increase in ROS production and an impairment of the antioxidant enzyme response to this stress play an important role in development of LD. PMID:26461389

  15. Leukemic cell creatine kinase and its isoenzymes.

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    Fang, S R; Yao, E G; Wei, S Z; Fan, H; Dong, Z R

    1989-06-01

    Using malachite green single agent coloration and acetate membrane electrophoresis, we studied the cellular creatine kinase (CK) activity and its isoenzymes in 7 normal controls and 26 leukemia patients. The leukemic cellular CK activity was 12.62 +/- 4.86 u/mg protein, 2.2 times higher than the normal value (5.73 +/- 2.66 u/mg protein, p less than 0.05). Only 2 of 5 normal leukocyte samples showed '+' CK isoenzyme MM. 22 leukemia patients had CK isoenzyme. CK-BB appeared mainly in acute granulocytic leukemic, and CK-MM mainly in other types. CK-MB was also found in 6 patients. The recurrence of CK-BB may indicate atavism, and the enhanced anaerobic glycolysis and the accelerated energetic turnover may be on of the metabolic characteristics of leukemic cell. PMID:2512061

  16. Tandem antioxidant enzymes confer synergistic protective responses in experimental filariasis.

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    Prince, P R; Madhumathi, J; Anugraha, G; Jeyaprita, P J; Reddy, M V R; Kaliraj, P

    2014-12-01

    Helminth parasites use antioxidant defence strategies for survival during oxidative stress due to free radicals in the host. Accordingly, tissue-dwelling filarial parasites counteract host responses by releasing a number of antioxidants. Targeting these redox regulation proteins together, would facilitate effective parasite clearance. Here, we report the combined effect of protective immune responses trigged by recombinant Wuchereria bancrofti thioredoxin (WbTRX) and thioredoxin peroxidase (WbTPX) in an experimental filarial model. The expression of WbTRX and WbTPX in different stages of the parasite and their cross-reactivity were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The immunogenicity of recombinant proteins and their protective efficacy were studied in animal models when immunized in single or cocktail mode. The antigens showed cross-reactive epitopes and induced high humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. Further, parasite challenge against Brugia malayi L3 larvae in Mastomys coucha conferred significant protection of 57% and 62% against WbTRX and WbTPX respectively. The efficacy of L3 clearance was significantly higher (71%) (P filariasis.

  17. The effect of gamma irradiation on the formation of alpha-amylase isoenzymes in germinating wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosynthesis of alpha-amylase during seedling growth commenced after a prolonged lag-period in wheat (cv. Vijay), irradiated at a high dose (200 krad). Also, a different requirement for exogenous gibberellins (GA) to stimulate the enzyme synthesis was noted in control and irradiated seeds. Further, the developmental patterns of three major isoenzymes of alpha-amylase (designated as α1, α2- and α3) during germination were different. It was observed that α1-isoenzyme which appeared on the fourth day of germination of control seeds, was delayed in its development and was undetectable up to 4 days in samples irradiated with 200 krad. However, α1-isoenzyme appeared after 6 days or after 4 days in GA-treated samples in germinating seeds exposed to a high dose. These results suggested that two systems differing in their radiosensitivity and response to GA application were operating in germinating wheat for the synthesis of functional alpha-amylase molecules. (author)

  18. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants

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    SALWA A. ORABI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orabi SA, Talaat IM, Balbaa LK. 2014. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 118-125. Two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of tryptophan, nicotinamide and α-tocopherol (each at 50 and 100 mg/L on plant growth, essential oil yield and its main constituents. All treatments significantly promoted plant height, and increased fresh and dry mass (g/plant of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.. The treatment with 100 mg/L nicotinamide showed increasing in total potassium mainly in the first cut. Total soluble sugars, oil percentage and oil yield and protein recorded increments with tryptophan treatments. Treatment of Thymus plants with 100 mg/L nicotinamide observed the highest percentage of thymol (67.61%. Oxygenated compounds recorded the highest value with 50 mg/L α-tocopherol treatment, while the maximum non-oxygenated ones resulted from the application of 100 mg/L nicotinamide. All treatments under study significantly affected the activity of oxidoreductase enzymes (POX and PPO. Nicotinamide at the concentration of 100 mg/L recorded the highest increments in APX and GR and the lowest values in oxidoreductase enzyme activities added to the lowest values of lipid peroxidation to enhance the best protection of thyme plants.

  19. Antioxidant responses in Mesopodopsis zeylanica at varying salinity to detect mercury influence in culture ponds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Das, P.B.; Jena, K.; Maharana, D.; Desai, S.R.

    Antioxidant responses in the estuarine mysid, Mesopodopsis zeylanica, were used to assess mercury (Hg) metal contamination in relation to salinity. Natural mysids acclimatized at 5 psu were subjected to laboratory exposures of 5, 15, and 25 psu...

  20. ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION AND NASAL INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES AMONG YOUNG ASTHMATICS EXPOSED TO HIGH LEVELS OF OZONE

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    Background: Recent studies examining the inflammatory response in atopic asthma to ozone suggest a release of soluble mediators of inflammation factors that might be related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidant could prove useful in subjects exposed to additional oxidati...

  1. ANTIOXIDATIVE RESPONSE OF VARIOUS CULTIVARS OF SORGHUM ( SORGHUM BICOLOR L.) TO DROUGHT STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Gurpreet Singh; Nidhi Sharma

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim to identify the response of antioxidant enzyme activities in seedlings of different sorghum cultivars under mannitol stress. Seven-day old seedlings were subjected to 100-500 mM mannitol stress which resulted in the decreases in shoot/root length and relative water content thus indicating the primary response to these tissues at phenotypic level. The level of lipid peroxidation as well as the specific activity of antioxidant enzymes such as peroxid...

  2. Redox status and antioxidant response in professional cyclists during training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo-Mendonça, Roberto Carlos; Concepción-Huertas, Melquiades; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo; Zabala, Mikel; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether different phases of training affect oxidative stress and antioxidant defences in professional cyclists. Ten professional cyclists, aged 21.8 ± 2.5 years, were enrolled in the study. They were classified into two groups of five athletes each one with similar nutritional intake excepting for the overload of vitamin C (1000 mg day(-1)) and E (400 mg day(-1)) supplementation in one of them. The cyclists of both groups performed the same exercise design, consisting of hard, tapering and recovery training periods. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet, plasma oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage (8-OHdG) and erythrocyte glutathione disulfide/glutathione ratio (GSSG:GSH(-1)) were measured. During the intense exercise trainings, the cyclists without vitamin supplements had the TAC of diet significantly lower than the supplemented group. Plasma ORAC, LPO and 8-OHdG were similar in both groups of athletes. Athletes with supplements had a basal LPO:ORAC(-1) ratio lower than that without supplements, but this ratio converged to the same level at the end of the training in both groups of cyclists. Both groups of cyclists showed similar changes in GSSG:GSH(-1) ratio and in GSSG and GSH levels along the study. The data suggest that well-trained athletes with suitable ultra-endurance training volume and intensity do not require antioxidant vitamin supplements to adapt their endogenous antioxidant defenses to exercise-induced ROS.

  3. Antioxidative enzymes in the response of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench to complete submergence

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    Stanisavljević N.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and antioxidative defense system activity were studied in buckwheat leaves after complete submergence and re-aeration. The levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation were found to be significantly higher in stressed than in untreated buckwheat leaves. Enzymes catalyzing the degradation of H2O2 and peroxides were shown to participate actively, whereas superoxide dismutase did not take part in the buckwheat leaf response to flooding stress. The most prominent increase in antioxidative enzyme activities was noticed upon return to air, when the strongest oxidative stress occurred and the need for antioxidative defense was the greatest.

  4. Boron influences immune and antioxidant responses by modulating hepatic superoxide dismutase activity under calcium deficit abiotic stress in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasker, T Vijay; Gowda, N K S; Mondal, S; Krishnamoorthy, P; Pal, D T; Mor, A; Bhat, S Karthik; Pattanaik, A K

    2016-07-01

    The influence of Boron (B) supplementation on immune and antioxidant status of rats with or without abiotic stress induced by dietary calcium (Ca) restriction was studied in a feeding trial of 90 days. Wistar strain rats (3-4 wk age, n=84) were divided into 7 dietary groups (4 replicates of 3 each) viz., normal-calcium (100%) basal diet alone (NC, control) or supplemented with B at 5 (NCB-5), 10 (NCB-10), 20 (NCB-20) and 40ppm (NCB-40) levels; low-calcium (50%) basal diet alone (LC) or supplemented with 40ppm B (LCB-40). After 75 days of experimental feeding, rats were challenged with intraperitoneal injection of sheep RBCs to assess their humoral immunity. At the end of the trial, cell-mediated immunity was assessed as foot pad reaction to sheep RBCs injected into the hind leg paws. Eight rats from each group were sacrificed to collect blood for estimation of minerals and total antioxidant activity, and liver for superoxide dismutase gene expression analysis. Supplementation of graded levels of B (5, 10, 20 and 40ppm) as borax in NC diets significantly increased (Pcopper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) remained similar among the dietary groups, while the manganese (Mn) content was significantly decreased (P<0.01) with increased levels of dietary B. In conclusion, B supplementation increased the hepatic mRNA expression levels of both SOD isoenzymes, thereby improving the immune and antioxidant status. PMID:27259355

  5. Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Green Tea Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Lan-Sook Lee; Namhyouck Lee; Young Ho Kim; Chang-Ho Lee; Sang Pil Hong; Yeo-Won Jeon; Young-Eon Kim

    2013-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize the extraction conditions of antioxidants with relatively low caffeine content from green tea by using ultrasonic extraction. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest antioxidant activity and minimum caffeine level were found at 19.7% ethanol, 26.4 min extraction time, and 24.0 °C extraction temperature. In the predicted optimal conditions, the experimental values were very close to the predicted values. Moreover, the ratio ...

  6. ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS AND THE RISK OF ENDOMETRIAL CANCER: A DOSE-RESPONSE META-ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa V Bandera; Gifkins, Dina M.; Moore, Dirk F.; McCullough, Marjorie L; Lawrence H Kushi

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidant vitamins may reduce cancer risk by limiting oxidative DNA damage. To summarize and quantify the current epidemiologic evidence of an association between antioxidant vitamin intake and endometrial cancer we conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. One cohort and 12 case-control studies presenting relevant risk estimates were identified by conducting bibliographical searches through June 2008. Dose-response meta-analyses were conducted for beta-carotene, vitamin C...

  7. Antioxidant system responses in two co-occurring green-tide algae under stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhao, Xinyu; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-01-01

    Green tides have occurred every year from 2007 to 2014 in the Yellow Sea. Ulva prolifera (Müller) J. Agardh has been identified as the bloom-forming alga, co-occurring with U. intestinalis. We observed distinct strategies for both algal species during green tides. U. prolifera exhibited a high abundance initially and then decreased dramatically, while U. intestinalis persisted throughout. The antioxidant system responses of these two macroalgae were compared in the late phase of a green tide (in-situ) and after laboratory acclimation. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system responses differed significantly between the two. Malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide contents increased significantly in-situ in U. prolifera, but not in U. intestinalis. In U. prolifera, we observed a significant decrease in total antioxidant ability (T-AOC), antioxidant enzymes (SOD and Apx), and non-enzyme antioxidants (GSH and AsA) in-situ. U. intestinalis showed the same pattern of T-AOC and SOD, but its Gpx, Apx, and GSH responses did not differ significantly. The results suggest that U. prolifera was more susceptible than U. intestinalis to the harsh environmental changes during the late phase of a Yellow Sea green tide. The boom and bust strategy exhibited by U. prolifera and the persistence of U. intestinalis can be explained by differences in enzyme activity and antioxidant systems.

  8. Yields, Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activities of Ziziphus jujube Mill. in Response to Different Fertilization Treatments

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    Min Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for more jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill. production requires understanding the specific fertilization needs of jujube trees. This study was conducted to compare fruit yields, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of jujube in response to different fertilizers. Application of organic fertilizer appeared to enhance the phenolics and antioxidant activity accumulation of jujubes, compared to conventional fertilized jujubes. Amongst inorganic fertilizers, supplemental potassium as an individual nutrient improved the accumulation of phenolics in jujubes. Our results demonstrate that phenolics levels and antioxidant activity of jujube can be manipulated through fertilizer management and tracked by following proanthocyanidin concentrations. In a practical production context, the combination of organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers such as more supplemental individual potassium, and less supplemental individual nitrogen and phosphorus, might be the best management combination for achieving higher phenolic concentration, stronger antioxidant activity and a good harvest.

  9. Glutathione analogue sorbents selectively bind glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, V M; Kelley, M K; Engqvist-Goldstein, A; Kauvar, L M

    1993-06-01

    Novel affinity sorbents for glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were created by binding glutathione (GSH) analogues to Sepharose 6B. The GSH molecule was modified at the glycine moiety and at the group attached to the sulphur of cysteine. When tested by affinity chromatography in a flow-through microplate format, several of these sorbents selectively bound GST isoenzymes. gamma E-C(Hx)-phi G (glutathione with a hexyl moiety bound to cysteine and phenylglycine substituted for glycine) specifically bound rat GST 7-7, the Pi-class isoenzyme, from liver, kidney and small intestine. gamma E-C(Bz)-beta A (benzyl bound to cysteine and beta-alanine substituted for glycine) was highly selective for rat subunits 3 and 4, which are Mu-class isoenzymes. By allowing purification of the isoenzymes under mild conditions that preserve activity, the novel sorbents should be useful in characterizing the biological roles of GSTs in both normal animal and cancer tissues.

  10. Radioimmunoassay of aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, F.Y.; Niblock, A.E.; Henderson, A.R.

    1984-08-01

    A description is given of the development of a sensitive, specific radioimmunoassay for the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial isoenzymes of human aspartate aminotransferase (L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase; EC 2.6.1.1). Isoenzymes from human heart tissue were purified to homogeneity and used to raise high-titer antisera in rabbits. The antisera were partly purified by selective column chromatography. The Bolton-Hunter reagent was used to radioiodinate the isoenzymes. The assay requires 100 microL of serum, includes a solid-phase second-antibody separation, and can be completed in less than 3 h. There was no cross reactivity between the two isoenzymes. As little as 5 micrograms (50 pmol) of each aspartate aminotransferase can be measured per liter of serum.

  11. Serum adenosine deaminase activity and its isoenzyme in patients treated for tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Increased serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity, mainly associated with tuberculosis can also occur in a number of other diseases thus negatively affecting the diagnostic utility of ADA measurements in tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to determine whether or not the combined use of the activity of ADA, its isoenzymes and differential cell counts would provide a more efficient means of diagnosing tuberculosis than the use of ADA levels alone. Results: Data suggested significant (p0.75) of ADA/sub 2/ADA was found to be better indicator of tuberculosis. Lymphocyte neutrophil ratio (L/N)> 0.69 gave additional benefit to increase the sensitivity and specificity for the use of ADA as marker in diagnosing tuberculosis. Conclusion: The combined use of activity of ADA, its isoenzymes and total and differential cell counts is a better indicator and gives better understanding to diagnose and evaluate tuberculosis and response to therapy. (author)

  12. Glutamate dehydrogenase from pumpkin cotyledons: characterization and isoenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K H; Splittstoesser, W E

    1972-04-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Pior. cultivar Dickinson Field) cotyledons was found in both soluble and particulate fractions with the bulk of the activity in the soluble fraction. Both enzymes used NAD(H) and NADP(H) but NAD(H) was favored. The enzymes were classified as glutamate-NAD oxidoreductase, deaminating (EC 1.4.1.3). Both enzymes were heat stable, had a pH optimum for reductive amination of 8.0, and were inhibited by high concentrations of NH(4) (+) or alpha-ketoglutarate. The soluble enzyme was more sensitive to NH(4) (+) inhibition and was activated by metal ions after ammonium sulfate fractionation while the solubilized particulate enzyme was not. Inhibition by ethylenediaminetetraacetate was restored by several divalent ions and inhibition by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate was reversed by glutathione. Particulate glutamate dehydrogenase showed a greater activity with NADP. The molecular weights of the enzymes are 250,000. Separation of the enzymes by disc gel electrophoresis showed that during germination the soluble isoenzymes increased from 1 to 7 in number, while only one particulate isoenzyme was found at any time. This particulate isoenzyme was identical with one of the soluble isoenzymes. A number of methods indicated that the soluble isoenzymes were not simply removed from the particulate fraction and that true isoenzymes were found.

  13. Does cytochrome P450 liver isoenzyme induction increase the risk of liver toxicity after paracetamol overdose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalsi SS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarbjeet S Kalsi1,2, David M Wood2–4, W Stephen Waring5, Paul I Dargan2–4 1Emergency Department, 2Clinical Toxicology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London; 3King's Health Partners, 4King's College London, London; 5York Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, York, UK Abstract: Paracetamol (acetaminophen, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, 4-hydroxyacetanilide is the most common cause of acute liver failure in developed countries. There are a number of factors which potentially impact on the risk of an individual developing hepatotoxicity following an acute paracetamol overdose. These include the dose of paracetamol ingested, time to presentation, decreased liver glutathione, and induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP isoenzymes responsible for the metabolism of paracetamol to its toxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine (NAPQI. In this paper, we review the currently published literature to determine whether induction of relevant CYP isoenzymes is a risk factor for hepatotoxicity in patients with acute paracetamol overdose. Animal and human in vitro studies have shown that the CYP isoenzyme responsible for the majority of human biotransformation of paracetamol to NAPQI is CYP2E1 at both therapeutic and toxic doses of paracetamol. Current UK treatment guidelines suggest that patients who use a number of drugs therapeutically should be treated as “high-risk” after paracetamol overdose. However, based on our review of the available literature, it appears that the only drugs for which there is evidence of the potential for an increased risk of hepatotoxicity associated with paracetamol overdose are phenobarbital, primidone, isoniazid, and perhaps St John's wort. There is no evidence that other drugs often quoted as increasing risk, such as carbamazepine, phenytoin, primidone, rifampicin, rifabutin, efavirenz, or nevirapine, should be considered risk factors for hepatotoxicity in patients presenting with acute paracetamol overdose. Keywords

  14. Response of Kalanchoe daigremontiana to wounding and infection with Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    OpenAIRE

    Tkalec, Mirta; Car, Diana; GOSPOČIĆ, JANKO; KRIŽAIĆ, IVA; DUŽ, KAROLINA; VIDAKOVIĆ-CIFREK, ŽELJKA

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Transformation of plant tissue with Agrobacterium tumefaciens includes wounding of plant and subsequent infection by bacteria. Polyphenol oxidase activity and oxidative stress parameters – the content of H2O2, as well as activity and isoenzymes of antioxidative enzymes catalase, pyrogallol and guaiacol peroxidase were investigated as markers of plant response to wounding and infection. Materials and Methods: Five tissue types – healthy tissue, wounded tissue, tissue in...

  15. Effects of the amplitude and frequency of salinity fluctuations on antioxidant responses in juvenile tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin O. Khairnar; Xiangli Tian; Shuanglin Dong; Ziheng Fang; Bhavesh V. Solanki; Holeyappa A. Shanthanagouda

    2016-01-01

    To understand the tolerance of tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis, to varying salinities, the effects of the amplitude (2, 4, 6 and 8 g/L) and frequency (2, 4 and 8 days) of salinity fluctuations on the activities of antioxidant responses, including acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) from antioxidant system in liver, muscle, gills and kidney, were investigated in this study. The results showed that the antioxidant responses of ...

  16. Evidence for oxidative stress and defective antioxidant response in guinea pigs with tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopinath S Palanisamy

    Full Text Available The development of granulomatous inflammation with caseous necrosis is an important but poorly understood manifestation of tuberculosis in humans and some animal models. In this study we measured the byproducts of oxidative stress in granulomatous lesions as well as the systemic antioxidant capacity of BCG vaccinated and non-vaccinated guinea pigs experimentally infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In non-vaccinated guinea pigs, oxidative stress was evident within 2 weeks of infection as measured by a decrease in the serum total antioxidant capacity and blood glutathione levels accompanied by an increase in malondialdehyde, a byproduct of lipid peroxidation, within lesions. Despite a decrease in total and reduced blood glutathione concentrations, there was an increase in lesion glutathione by immunohistochemistry in response to localized oxidative stress. In addition there was an increase in the expression of the host transcription factor nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2, which regulates several protein and non-proteins antioxidants, including glutathione. Despite the increase in cytoplasmic expression of Nrf2, immunohistochemical staining revealed a defect in Nrf2 nuclear translocation within granulomatous lesions as well as a decrease in the expression of the Nrf2-regulated antioxidant protein NQO1. Treating M. tuberculosis-infected guinea pigs with the antioxidant drug N-acetyl cysteine (NAC partially restored blood glutathione concentrations and the serum total antioxidant capacity. Treatment with NAC also decreased spleen bacterial counts, as well as decreased the lung and spleen lesion burden and the severity of lesion necrosis. These data suggest that the progressive oxidative stress during experimental tuberculosis in guinea pigs is due in part to a defect in host antioxidant defenses, which, we show here, can be partially restored with antioxidant treatment. These data suggest that the therapeutic strategies that

  17. Isoenzyme clustering of Trypanosomatidae Colombian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla, Marleny M; Guhl, Felipe; Jaramillo, Carlos; Nicholls, Santiago; Barnabe, Christian; Bosseno, Marie F; Breniere, Simone F

    2002-04-01

    Thirty-six Trypanosomatidae stocks isolated from various hosts and geographical areas in Colombia and 7 others from Bolivia, Chile, Honduras and Panama have been surveyed by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE). Part of the Colombian stocks were previously characterized by morphology and biological behavior as belonging to Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli taxa, others were unknown species. The genetic variability observed at 13 different loci was considerable, since 38 zymodemes could be distinguished and 2 upper branches were observed. The first branch corresponded to T. cruzi and was divided in the two major phylogenetic subdivision of T. cruzi (T. cruzi I, T. cruzi II). The majority of the Colombian T. cruzi stocks (92%) felt into T. cruzi I. Only two stocks, isolated from sylvatic mammals, belonged to T. cruzi II. Among T. cruzi I, we did not observed any additional phylogenetic subdivision and host-dependent genotype specificity. The second branch was genetically very heterogeneous and included all T. rangeli stocks, the stocks isolated from bats and one stock isolated from a sylvatic R. prolixus vector. The stocks belonging to T. rangeli presented only one locus instead of two for the malic enzyme system. Since, the upper level of resolution of the isoenzyme method was exceeded, the current clustering study failed to draw a clear distinction between such a diverse set of Trypanosomatidae species. PMID:12164294

  18. Polymer Directed Self-Assembly of pH-Responsive Antioxidant Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Christina; Amin, Devang; Messersmith, Phillip B.; Anthony, John E.; Prud’homme, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed pH-responsive, multifunctional nanoparticles based on encapsulation of an antioxidant, tannic acid (TA), using Flash NanoPrecipitation, a polymer directed self-assembly method. Formation of insoluble coordination complexes of tannic acid and iron during mixing drives nanoparticle assembly. Tuning the core material to polymer ratio, the size of the nanoparticles can be readily tuned between 50 and 265 nm. The resulting nanoparticle is pH-responsive, i.e. stable at pH 7.4 and soluble under acidic conditions due to the nature of the coordination complex. Further, the coordination complex can be coprecipitated with other hydrophobic materials such as therapeutics or imaging agents. For example, coprecipitation with a hydrophobic fluorescent dye creates fluorescent nanoparticles. In vitro, the nanoparticles have low cytotoxicity show antioxidant activity. Therefore, these particles may facilitate intracellular delivery of antioxidants. PMID:25760226

  19. Inflammation-responsive antioxidant nanoparticles based on a polymeric prodrug of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeongil; Kim, Jihye; Park, Seunggyu; Khang, Gilson; Kang, Peter M; Lee, Dongwon

    2013-05-13

    Oxidative stress is induced by accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and therefore, H2O2 could serve as a potential biomarker of various oxidative stress-associated inflammatory diseases. Vanillin is one of the major components of natural vanilla and has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this work, we developed a novel inflammation-responsive antioxidant polymeric prodrug of vanillin, termed poly(vanillin oxalate) (PVO). In design, PVO incorporates H2O2-reacting peroxalate ester bonds and bioactive vanillin via acid-responsive acetal linkages in its backbone. Therefore, in cells undergoing damages by oxidative stress, PVO readily degrades into three nontoxic components, one of which is antioxidant and anti-inflammatory vanillin. PVO nanoparticles exhibit potent antioxidant activities by scavenging H2O2 and inhibiting the generation of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and also reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in activated macrophages in vitro and in vivo. We, therefore, anticipate that PVO nanoparticles have great potential as novel antioxidant therapeutics and drug delivery systems for ROS-associated inflammatory diseases.

  20. Antioxidative responses and bioaccumulation in Japanese flounder larvae and juveniles under chronic mercury exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Liang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Yin, Xuebo; Dou, Shuozeng

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the sub-lethal effects of waterborne mercury on growth, bioaccumulation and antioxidative responses of larvae and juveniles of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Fish were exposed to 0-10 microg Hg(2)(+)L(-1) solutions from embryonic to the juvenile stages for 80 days. Antioxidative responses to mercury exposure were studied in metamorphosing larvae (18 days post hatching, dph), settling larvae (33 dph) and juveniles (78 dph). Results showed that increasing mercury concentration led to increased mercury bioaccumulation and reduced flounder growth. Of the antioxidants investigated, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities at the three developmental stages were sensitive to mercury exposure and increased with increasing mercury concentration. Glutathione (GSH) content was elevated in metamorphosing larvae, but decreased in juveniles as mercury concentration increased. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity did not significantly vary with mercury concentration in either larvae or juveniles. Mercury exposure did not affect malondialdehyde (MDA) content of larvae, but significantly increased MDA content of juveniles. Results suggest that flounder larvae and juveniles have the potential to manipulate the levels of antioxidants such as SOD, CAT and GSH, which protect flounder from oxidative stress induced by mercury exposure. These antioxidants could serve as biomarkers of mercury contamination in the aquatic environment.

  1. Antioxidant responses to heat and light stress differ with habitat in a common reef coral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Thomas D.; Krueger, Thomas; Wilkinson, Shaun P.; Fisher, Paul L.; Davy, Simon K.

    2015-12-01

    Coral bleaching—the stress-induced collapse of the coral- Symbiodinium symbiosis—is a significant driver of worldwide coral reef degradation. Yet, not all corals are equally susceptible to bleaching, and we lack a clear understanding of the mechanisms underpinning their differential susceptibilities. Here, we focus on cellular redox regulation as a potential determinant of bleaching susceptibility in the reef coral Stylophora pistillata. Using slow heating (1 °C d-1) and altered irradiance, we induced bleaching in S. pistillata colonies sampled from two depths [5-8 m (shallow) and 15-18 m (deep)]. There was significant depth-dependent variability in the timing and extent of bleaching (loss of symbiont cells), as well as in host enzymatic antioxidant activity [specifically, superoxide dismutase and catalase (CAT)]. However, among the coral fragments that bleached, most did so without displaying any evidence of a host enzymatic antioxidant response. For example, both deep and shallow corals suffered significant symbiont loss at elevated temperature, but only deep colonies exposed to high temperature and high light displayed any up-regulation of host antioxidant enzyme activity (CAT). Surprisingly, this preceded the equivalent antioxidant responses of the symbiont, which raises questions about the source(s) of hydrogen peroxide in the symbiosis. Overall, changes in enzymatic antioxidant activity in the symbionts were driven primarily by irradiance rather than temperature, and responses were similar across depth groups. Taken together, our results suggest that in the absence of light stress, heating of 1 °C d-1 to 4 °C above ambient is not sufficient to induce a substantial oxidative challenge in S. pistillata. We provide some of the first evidence that regulation of coral enzymatic antioxidants can vary significantly depending on habitat, and, in terms of determining bleaching susceptibility, our results suggest a significant role for the host's differential

  2. Capsaicin: A Potent Inhibitor of Carbonic Anhydrase Isoenzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betul Arabaci

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1 is a zinc containing metalloenzyme that catalyzes the rapid and reversible conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2 and water (H2O into a proton (H+ and bicarbonate (HCO3– ion. On the other hand, capsaicin is the main component in hot chili peppers and is used extensively used in spices, food additives and drugs; it is responsible for their spicy flavor and pungent taste. There are sixteen known CA isoforms in humans. Human CA isoenzymes I, and II (hCA I and hCA II are ubiquitous cytosolic isoforms. In this study, the inhibition properties of capsaicin against the slow cytosolic isoform hCA I, and the ubiquitous and dominant rapid cytosolic isozymes hCA II were studied. Both CA isozymes were inhibited by capsaicin in the micromolar range. This naturally bioactive compound has a Ki of 696.15 µM against hCA I, and of 208.37 µM against hCA II.

  3. Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme patterns upon chronic exposure to cigarette smoke: Protective effect of bacoside A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasi, Kothandapani; Sabitha, Kuruvimalai Ekambaram; Devi, Chennam Srinivasulu Shyamala

    2005-09-01

    Despite a strong association between cigarette smoking and alarming increase in mortality rate from smoking-related diseases, around 35-40% of the world's population continues to smoke and many more are being exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Since the role of free radicals and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of smoking-related diseases has been suggested, bacoside A, a potent antioxidant was tested for its ability to protect against cigarette smoking-induced toxicity in terms of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes. Rats were exposed to cigarette smoke and simultaneously administered with bacoside A, for a period of 12 weeks. Total LDH activity was assayed in serum, lung, heart, brain, liver and kidney, and serum LDH isoforms were separated electrophoretically. Cigarette smoke exposure resulted in significant increase in serum LDH and its isoenzymes with a concomitant decrease in these organs. These alterations were prevented by administration of bacoside A. Excessive oxidants from cigarette smoke is known to cause peroxidation of membrane lipids leading to cellular damage, thereby resulting in the leakage of LDH into the circulation. Bacoside A could have rendered protection to the organs by stabilizing their cell membranes and prevented the release of LDH, probably through its free radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidative effect.

  4. Factors Affecting Antioxidant Response in Fish from a Long-term Mercury-Contaminated Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcikova, M; Modra, H; Blahova, J; Dobsikova, R; Kalina, J; Zitka, O; Kizek, R; Svobodova, Z

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate antioxidant defence and oxidative damage in organs (liver, gills, kidney, and brain) of five fish species (Aspius aspius, Esox lucius, Sander lucioperca, Abramis brama, Rutilus rutilus) from the long-term mercury-contaminated Skalka Reservoir in the Czech Republic. Special emphasis was placed on a comprehensive assessment of the factors that may affect the antioxidant response to mercury in fish. Antioxidant enzymes (glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase) did not significantly respond to mercury contamination. Levels of the analysed enzymes and oxidative damage to lipids were predominantly determined by a separate organ factor or species factor, or by the combination of both (p mercury contamination in combination with their specific organ distribution (p mercury contamination with respect to effects on antioxidant defence in fish under field conditions. Our findings suggest that the main antioxidant defensive mechanism in fish from the studied long-term mercury contaminated site was the inter-tissue distribution of glutathione.

  5. Cadmium exposure route affects antioxidant responses in the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Lingtian [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Buchwalter, David B., E-mail: david_buchwalter@ncsu.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer, antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase were suppressed by dietary cadmium (Cd) exposures, but not dissolved exposures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dietary Cd reduced concentrations of active glutathione in whole insect homogenates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These findings suggest that diet derived Cd is potentially more toxic than aqueous derived Cd in this mayfly, and may help explain the disconnection between laboratory and field data for aquatic insect responses to trace metal pollution. - Abstract: Aquatic organisms accumulate metals directly from water and from their diets. Exposure to metals is known to generate oxidative stress in living organisms and this stress may be ameliorated via activation of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants. To determine if antioxidant physiology is dependent on Cd exposure route in the mayfly Centroptilum triangulifer, we exposed larvae to environmentally relevant concentrations of Cd from isolated dissolved or dietary exposure routes to achieve comparable tissue concentrations. Dissolved Cd had no effect on the antioxidant enzymes examined. However, dietary Cd significantly suppressed catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, and decreased concentrations of the reduced (active) form of glutathione in C. triangulifer larvae. These findings suggest that dietary Cd is potentially more toxic than aqueously derived Cd in this mayfly. We further examined the effect of dietary Cd tissue loading rates on antioxidant enzyme suppression and found that absolute tissue load appeared more important than loading rate. These results may help explain why insects are routinely unresponsive to dissolved metal exposures in the laboratory, yet highly responsive to metal pollution in nature.

  6. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoid Compounds and Antioxidants from Alfalfa Using Response Surface Method

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Liang Jing; Xiao-Fang Dong; Jian-Ming Tong

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract flavonoid-enriched antioxidants from alfalfa aerial part. Response surface methodology (RSM), based on a four-factor, five-level central composite design (CCD), was employed to obtain the optimal extraction parameters, in which the flavonoid content was maximum and the antioxidant activity of the extracts was strongest. Radical scavenging capacity of the extracts, which represents the amounts of antioxidants in alfalfa, was determined b...

  7. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH isoenzymes patterns in ocular tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Rajendra

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH isoenzymes in the serum and aqueous humor was carried out in 15 cases of benign ocular tumour, 15 cases of malignant tumor and 15 normal cases. Cases of both sexes aged between 1 year and 75 years were included. LDH, isoenzymes specially LDH4 and LDH5 are higher and LDH1 and LDH2 lower in sera of patients with malignant tumor specially retinoblastoma as compared to benign tumor cases and control cases. LDH isoenzymes in aqueous humor are significantly higher and show a characteristic pattern in retinoblastoma cases, the concentration was presumably too low in the control, malignant tumor other than retinoblastoma and benign tumor cases as its fractionation was not possible.

  8. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of natural antioxidants from rice bran using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaraki, Reza; Nateghi, Ashraf

    2011-11-01

    Ultrasonic technology was applied for extraction of polyphenols and antioxidants from the rice bran using ethanol as a food grade solvent. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize experimental conditions for extraction of polyphenols and antioxidants. Three independent variables such as solvent percentage (%), temperature (°C) and time (min) were studied. Effect of ethanol concentration was found to be significant on all responses. Total phenolic content (TPC) varied from 2.37 to 6.35mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry sample. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. FRAP and DPPH values varied from 31.74 to 57.23μmol Fe(2+)/g of dry sample and 16.88% to 55.61% inhibition, respectively. Extraction yields ranged from 11 to 20.2%. Optimal ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions were identified as 65-67% ethanol, 51-54°C, 40-45min. The experimental values agreed with those predicted by SRM models, thus indicating suitability of the model employed and the success of RSM in optimizing the extraction conditions.

  9. Biopersistence of PEGylated Carbon Nanotubes Promotes a Delayed Antioxidant Response after Infusion into the Rat Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bosco, Lidiane; Weber, Gisele E.; Parfitt, Gustavo M.; Cordeiro, Arthur P.; Sahoo, Sangram K.; Fantini, Cristiano; Klosterhoff, Marta C.; Romano, Luis Alberto; Furtado, Clascídia A.; Santos, Adelina P.; Monserrat, José M.; Barros, Daniela M.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are promising nanomaterials for the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders. However, the ability of these nanomaterials to cross cell membranes and interact with neural cells brings the need for the assessment of their potential adverse effects on the nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the biopersistence of single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with polyethylene glycol (SWCNT-PEG) directly infused into the rat hippocampus. Contextual fear conditioning, Y-maze and open field tasks were performed to evaluate the effects of SWCNT-PEG on memory and locomotor activity. The effects of SWCNT-PEG on oxidative stress and morphology of the hippocampus were assessed 1 and 7 days after infusion of the dispersions at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.1 mg/mL. Raman analysis of the hippocampal homogenates indicates the biopersistence of SWCNT-PEG in the hippocampus 7 days post-injection. The infusion of the dispersions had no effect on the acquisition or persistence of the contextual fear memory; likewise, the spatial recognition memory and locomotor activity were not affected by SWCNT-PEG. Histological examination revealed no remarkable morphological alterations after nanomaterial exposure. One day after the infusion, SWCNT-PEG dispersions at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL were able to decrease total antioxidant capacity without modifying the levels of reactive oxygen species or lipid hydroperoxides in the hippocampus. Moreover, SWCNT-PEG dispersions at all concentrations induced antioxidant defenses and reduced reactive oxygen species production in the hippocampus at 7 days post-injection. In this work, we found a time-dependent change in antioxidant defenses after the exposure to SWCNT-PEG. We hypothesized that the persistence of the nanomaterial in the tissue can induce an antioxidant response that might have provided resistance to an initial insult. Such antioxidant delayed response may constitute an adaptive response to the biopersistence of SWCNT-PEG in the

  10. 21 CFR 862.1050 - Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system... Test Systems § 862.1050 Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. An alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure alkaline phosphatase or its...

  11. Plant responses to stresses: role of ascorbate peroxidase in the antioxidant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Caverzan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When plants are exposed to stressful environmental conditions, the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS increases and can cause significant damage to the cells. Antioxidant defenses, which can detoxify ROS, are present in plants. A major hydrogen peroxide detoxifying system in plant cells is the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, in which, ascorbate peroxidase (APX enzymes play a key role catalyzing the conversion of H2O2 into H2O, using ascorbate as a specific electron donor. Different APX isoforms are present in distinct subcellular compartments, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisome, and cytosol. The expression of APX genes is regulated in response to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as during plant development. The APX responses are directly involved in the protection of plant cells against adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, mutant plants APX genes showed alterations in growth, physiology and antioxidant metabolism revealing those enzymes involvement in the normal plant development.

  12. Bisphenol A activates the Nrf1/2-antioxidant response element pathway in HEK 293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepelev, Nikolai L; Enikanolaiye, Mutiat I; Chepelev, Leonid L; Almohaisen, Abdulrahman; Chen, Qixuan; Scoggan, Kylie A; Coughlan, Melanie C; Cao, Xu-Liang; Jin, Xiaolei; Willmore, William G

    2013-03-18

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins for baby bottles, liners of canned food, and many other consumer products. Previously, BPA has been shown to reduce the activity of several antioxidant enzymes, which may contribute to oxidative stress. However, the underlying mechanism of the BPA-mediated effect upon antioxidant enzyme activity is unknown. Antioxidant and phase II metabolizing enzymes protect cells from oxidative stress and are transcriptionally activated by Nrf1 and Nrf2 factors through their cis-regulatory antioxidant response elements (AREs). In this work, we have assessed the effect of BPA on the Nrf1/2-ARE pathway in cultured human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. Surprisingly, glutathione and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays revealed that BPA application created a more reduced intracellular environment in cultured HEK 293 cells. Furthermore, BPA increased the transactivation activity of ectopic Nrf1 and Nrf2 and increased the expression of ARE-target genes ho-1 and nqo1 at high (100-200 μM) BPA concentrations only. Our study suggests that BPA activates the Nrf1/2-ARE pathway at high (>10 μM) micromolar concentrations. PMID:23360430

  13. Study of antioxidant activity of sheep visceral protein hydrolysate: Optimization using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Meshginfar, Nasim; Sadeghi-Mahoonak, Alireza; Ziaiifar, Aman Mohammad; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Kashaninejad, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The main objective of this experiment was optimal use of none edible protein source to increase nutritional value of production with high biological function, including antioxidant activity. METHODS Sheep visceral (stomach and intestine) was used as substrate. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize hydrolysis conditions for preparing protein hydrolysate from the sheep visceral, using alcalase 2.4 l enzyme. The investigated factors were temperature (43-52 °C), time ...

  14. Dose-response effects of gamma irradiation on colour and antioxidant activity of wild Malva neglecta

    OpenAIRE

    Pinela, José; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Radiation processing technology has been used to improve food security, safety and quality. However there are a few reports in the literature on the effect of irradiation on bioactivity of herbs and medicinal plants [1]. Hence, the present work was undertaken to investigate the dose-response effects of gamma irradiation on the colour and antioxidant activity of wild Malva neglecta Wallr. In the north-eastern of Portugal, this annual herbaceous plant is traditionally eaten raw as leafy vegetab...

  15. Optimization of Preparation of Antioxidative Peptides from Pumpkin Seeds Using Response Surface Method

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Sanhong; Hu, Yanan; Li, Chen; Liu, Yanrong

    2014-01-01

    Protein isolates of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L) seeds were hydrolyzed by acid protease to prepare antioxidative peptides. The hydrolysis conditions were optimized through Box-Behnken experimental design combined with response surface method (RSM). The second-order model, developed for the DPPH radical scavenging activity of pumpkin seed hydrolysates, showed good fit with the experiment data with a high value of coefficient of determination (0.9918). The optimal hydrolysis conditions were deter...

  16. Herbicidal and antioxidant responses of transgenic rice overexpressing Myxococcus xanthus protoporphyrinogen oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunyo; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2005-05-01

    We analyzed the herbicidal and antioxidant defense responses of transgenic rice plants that overexpressed the Myxococcus xanthus protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene. Leaf squares of the wild-type incubated with oxyfluorfen were characterized by necrotic leaf lesions and increases in conductivity and malonyldialdehyde levels, whereas transgenic lines M4 and M7 did not show any change with up to 100 microM oxyfluorfen. The wild-type had decreased F(v)/F(m) and produced a high level of H(2)O(2) at 18 h after foliar application of oxyfluorfen, whereas transgenic lines M4 and M7 were unaffected. In response to oxyfluorfen, violaxanthin, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls (Chls) decreased in wild-type plants, whereas antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin increased. Only a slight decline in Chls was observed in transgenic lines at 48 h after oxyfluorfen treatment. Noticeable increases of cytosolic Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, peroxidase isozymes 1 and 2, and catalase were observed after at 48 h of oxyfluorfen treatment in the wild-type. Non-enzymatic antioxidants appeared to respond faster to oxyfluorfen-induced photodynamic stress than did enzymatic antioxidants. Protective responses for the detoxification of active oxygen species were induced to counteract photodynamic stress in oxyfluorfen-treated, wild-type plants. However, oxyfluorfen-treated, transgenic plants suffered less oxidative stress, confirming increased herbicidal resistance resulted from dual expression of M. xanthus Protox in chloroplasts and mitochondria. PMID:15890521

  17. Glutathione S-Transferase Isoenzymes from Streptomyces griseus

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Kajari; Dhar, Alok; Rosazza, John P. N.

    2003-01-01

    An inducible, cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) was purified from Streptomyces griseus. GST isoenzymes with pI values of 6.8 and 7.9 used standard GST substrates including 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. GST had subunit and native Mrs of 24 and 48, respectively, and the N-terminal sequence SMILXYWDIIRGLPAH.

  18. Purification and characterization of two isoenzymes of lipoxygenase from soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diel, E; Stan, H J

    1978-01-01

    A chromatographic procedure for the purification of two lipoxygenase isoenzymes (linoleate: O2 oxidoreductase, EC 1.13.11.12.) from soybean is described. The procedure for the purification of isoenzyme L-1 includes optimalized extraction, ammonium sulfate fractionation, heat treatment and gradient elution from a CM-Sephadex C-50 column. The purification of L-2 includes ammonium sulfate fractionation, gelfiltration on Sephadex G-150 and gradient elution from a DEAE-cellulose column. Both isoenzymes L-1 and L-2 appear homogeneous after Disc-PAGE. The isoelectric points are 5.6 for L-1 and 5.8 for L-2. Molecular weights are estimated as 100,000 for L-1 as well as L-2 applying three different methods. Both isoenzymes contain 0.9 mol iron per mol protien. The estimated turn over numbers are 8,200 mol linoleate per mol enzyme and min for L-1 and 3,100 for L-2. Amino acid compositions determined after acid hydrolysis show marked differences between L-1 and L-2, particularly with respect to the amino acids Lys, Phe, Ser, Gly and Leu. L-1 posesses a total of 9 cysteine molecules, 6 of which are present as disulfide bonds. L-2 posesses a total of 8 cysteine molecules with only one disulfide bond.

  19. Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Cucumber POD Isoenzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Experiment was carried out to study heavy metal pollution effect on cucumber POD isozyme in our experiment.The results showed that:the activities of POD in cucumber seeds increased in low concentration treatment,and decreased in high concentration treatment after being treated with heavy metal.The critical band patterns of POD isoenzyme was changed by heavy metal pollution.

  20. Photoprotection by dietary phenolics against melanogenesis induced by UVA through Nrf2-dependent antioxidant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiprasongsuk, Anyamanee; Onkoksoong, Tasanee; Pluemsamran, Thanyawan; Limsaengurai, Saowalak; Panich, Uraiwan

    2016-08-01

    Dietary phenolics may play a protective role in UV-mediated skin pigmentation through their antioxidant and UV-absorbing actions. In this study, we investigated whether genetic silencing of Nrf2, regulating the transcription of antioxidant genes, affected melanogenesis in primary human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn) and B16F10 melanoma cells subjected to UVA (8J/cm(2)) exposure. Then, we explored the antimelanogenic actions of phenolics; caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) providing partial UVA protection; quercetin (QU) and rutin (RU) providing strong UVA protection and; avobenzone (AV), an efficient UVA filter, in association with modulation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defenses in response to UVA insults in B16F10 cells. Upon oxidative insults, Nrf2 silencing promoted melanogenesis in both HEMn and B16F10 cells irradiated with UVA. Stimulation of melanogenesis by UVA correlated with increased ROS and oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG), GSH depletion as well as a transient downregulation of Nrf2 nuclear translocation and of Nrf2-ARE signaling in B16F10 cells. All test compounds exerted antimelanogenic effects with respect to their abilities to reverse UVA-mediated oxidative damage as well as downregulation of Nrf2 activity and its target antioxidants (GCLC, GST and NQO1) in B16F10 cells. In conclusion, defective Nrf2 may promote melanogenesis under UVA irradiation through oxidative stress mechanisms. Compounds with antioxidant and/or UVA absorption properties could protect against UVA-induced melanogenesis through indirect regulatory effect on Nrf2-ARE pathway. PMID:26765101

  1. Molecular mechanisms of plant response to ionising radiation. Exploration of the glucosinolate role in the anti-oxidative response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrestrial organisms are exposed to low doses of ionising radiation from natural or anthropogenic sources. The major effects of the radiations are due to DNA deterioration and water radiolysis which generates an oxidative stress by free radical production. Plants constitute good models to study the effects of ionising radiations and the search of antioxidant molecules because of their important secondary metabolism. Thus this thesis, funded by the Brittany region, characterized the physiological and molecular response of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to low (10 Gy) and moderate (40 Gy) doses of ionising radiation, and was therefore interested in glucosinolates, characteristic compounds of the Brassicaceae family. The global proteomic and transcriptomic studies carried out on this model revealed (1) a common response for both doses dealing with the activation of DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle regulation and protection of cellular structures; (2) an adjustment of the energetic metabolism and an activation of secondary compounds biosynthesis (i.e. glucosinolates and flavonoids) after the 10 Gy dose; (3) an induction of enzymatic control of ROS, the regulation of cellular components recycling and of programmed cell death after the 40 Gy dose. The potential anti-oxidative role of glucosinolates was then explored. The in vitro anti-oxidative power of some glucosinolates and their derivative products were demonstrated. Their modulating effects against irradiation-induced damages were then tested in vivo by simple experimental approaches. The importance of the glucosinolate level to give a positive or negative effect was demonstrated. (author)

  2. Antioxidant and Vasodilator Activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla) and Its Modulatory Mechanism in Hypotensive Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofré, Ignacio; Pezoa, Cesar; Scheuermann, Erick; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Romero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a systemic condition with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, which poses an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we demonstrated the antioxidant and vasodilator activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla) fruit, a berry native to Chile and proposed models to explain its modulatory mechanism in hypotensive response. Murtilla fruits were cultivated in a germplasm bank and submitted to chemical and biological analyses. The phenolic compounds gallic acid, Catechin, Quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside, Myricetin, Quercetin, and Kaempferol were identified. Murtilla extract did not generate toxic effects on human endothelial cells and had significant antioxidant activity against ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion production. Furthermore, it showed dose-dependent vasodilator activity in aortic rings in the presence of endothelium, whose hypotensive mechanism is partially mediated by nitric oxide synthase/guanylate cyclase and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels. Murtilla fruits might potentially have beneficial effects on the management of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27688827

  3. Antioxidant response of the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma epiphytized by the invasive red macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Tejada; Antoni Sureda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the response of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma) epiphytized by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii in Mallorca coastal waters (Balearic Islands) by means of biomarker measures. Methods: Samples of epiphytized and non-epiphytized D. dichotoma were collected in Cala Morlanda (East Mallorca, Balearic Islands). Markers of lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in D. dichotoma. Results: Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde and all the antioxidant activities measured were significantly higher in the epiphytized brown algae when compared with the control algae. Conclusions:In conclusion, the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii seems to produce a more oxidized status in the epiphytized D. dichotoma and cellular damage that could induce increased mortality.

  4. Antioxidant response of the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma epiphytized by the invasive red macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tejada

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the response of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma epiphytized by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii in Mallorca coastal waters (Balearic Islands by means of biomarker measures. Methods: Samples of epiphytized and non-epiphytized D. dichotoma were collected in Cala Morlanda (East Mallorca, Balearic Islands. Markers of lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in D. dichotoma. Results: Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde and all the antioxidant activities measured were significantly higher in the epiphytized brown algae when compared with the control algae. Conclusions: In conclusion, the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii seems to produce a more oxidized status in the epiphytized D. dichotoma and cellular damage that could induce increased mortality.

  5. Response of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems of Polygonum hydropiper to Mn stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨贤均; 邓冬梅; 刘可慧; 于方明

    2016-01-01

    The response of enzyme and non-enzymatic antioxidants of Mn hyperaccumuator,Polygonum hydropiper (P. hydropiper), to Mn stress was studied using hydroponics culture experiments to explore the mechanism of Mn tolerance in this species. Results showed that both chlorophyll and carotenoid contents significantly (p<0.05) decreased with increasing Mn treatment levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/L) in hydroponics. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the root and shoot ofP. hydropiper were accumulated under Mn stress. Meanwhile, the anti-oxidative functions of several important enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD) in plants were stimulated by Mn spike in leaves and roots, especially at low Mn stress; while sulfhydryl group (—SH) and glutathion (GSH) were likely involved in Mn detoxification ofP. hydropiper under high Mn stress.

  6. Sulforaphane ameliorates the insulin responsiveness and the lipid profile but does not alter the antioxidant response in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Carolina Guerini; da Motta, Leonardo Lisbôa; de Assis, Adriano Martimbianco; Rech, Anderson; Bruch, Ricardo; Klamt, Fábio; Souza, Diogo Onofre

    2016-04-20

    Diabetes is one of the most prevalent chronic non-communicable diseases and is characterized by hyperglycemia and increased oxidative stress. These two alterations are also responsible for the main diabetic complications: cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy and peripheral neuropathy. Diabetes progression is governed by pancreatic β-cell failure, and recent studies showed that sulforaphane (SFN) might be able to prevent this change, preserving insulin production. Consequently, our goal was to test the effects of SFN on metabolic parameters related to diabetic complications and antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase, catalase and sulfhydryl groups) in the pancreas, liver and kidney of non-diabetic and diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with water or 0.5 mg kg(-1) SFN i.p. for 21 days after diabetes induction. In diabetic animals treated with SFN, the serum levels of total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols were similar to those of non-diabetic animals, and the insulin responsiveness was higher than that of the diabetic animals that did not receive the compound. No effect of SFN on the superoxide dismutase and catalase activity or sulfhydryl groups was observed in the pancreas, liver or kidney of the treated animals. We conclude that SFN ameliorates some features of clinical diabetic complications particularly the lipid profile and insulin responsiveness, but it does not modulate the antioxidant response induced by superoxide dismutase, catalase and sulfhydryl groups in the evaluated organs. PMID:27025193

  7. Interactions of arsenic and phenanthrene on their uptake and antioxidative response in Pteris vittata L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Lu [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yan Xiulan [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Liao Xiaoyong, E-mail: liaoxy@igsnrr.ac.cn [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Wen Yi; Chong Zhongyi; Liang Tao [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-12-15

    The interactions of arsenic and phenanthrene on plant uptake and antioxidative response of Pteris vitatta L. were studied hydroponically. The combination of arsenic and phenanthrene decreased arsenic contents in fronds by 30-51%, whereas increased arsenic concentrations 1.2-1.6 times in roots, demonstrating the suppression of arsenic translocation compared to the corresponding treatment without phenanthrene. Under the co-exposure, As(III) concentrations in fronds deceased by 12-73%, and at higher arsenic exposure level ({>=}10 mg/L), As(V) in fronds and As(III) in roots increased compared to the single arsenic treatment. Arsenic exposure elevated phenanthrene concentrations in root by 39-164%. The co-existence of arsenic and phenanthrene had little impact on plant arsenic accumulation, although synergistic effect on antioxidants was observed, suggesting the special physiological process of P. vitatta in the co-exposure and application potential of P. vitatta in phytoremediation of arsenic and PAHs co-contamination. - Highlights: > Pteris vitatta L. show tolerance to the arsenic and phenanthrene co-exposure. > P. vitatta efficiently accumulate arsenic and simultaneously enhance phenanthrene dissipation. > Phenanthrene suppresses arsenic translocation from roots to fronds. > Phenanthrene causes As(III) elevation in roots while reduction in fronds. > Synergistic effect potentiates the toxicity and antioxidants in plant. - Pteris vitatta L. not only efficiently accumulate arsenic but also enhance phenanthrene dissipation under the arsenic and phenanthrene co-exposure.

  8. Root antioxidant responses of two Pisum sativum cultivars to direct and induced Fe deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelali, N; Donnini, S; Dell'Orto, M; Abdelly, C; Gharsalli, M; Zocchi, G

    2014-05-01

    The contribution of antioxidant defence systems in different tolerance to direct and bicarbonate-induced Fe deficiency was evaluated in two pea cultivars (Kelvedon, tolerant and Lincoln, susceptible). Fe deficiency enhanced lipid peroxidation and H2 O2 concentration in roots of both cultivars, particularly in the sensitive one grown under bicarbonate supply. The results obtained on antioxidant activities (SOD, CAT, POD) suggest that H2 O2 accumulation could be due to an overproduction of this ROS and, at the same time, to a poor capacity to detoxify it. Moreover, under bicarbonate supply the activity of POD isoforms was reduced only in the sensitive cultivar, while in the tolerant one a new isoform was detected, suggesting that POD activity might be an important contributor to pea tolerance to Fe deficiency. The presence of bicarbonate also resulted in stimulation of GR, MDHAR and DHAR activities, part of the ASC-GSH pathway, which was higher in the tolerant cultivar than in the sensitive one. Overall, while in the absence of Fe only slight differences were reported between the two cultivars, the adaptation of Kelvedon to the presence of bicarbonate seems to be related to its greater ability to enhance the antioxidant response at the root level.

  9. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wyrwicka

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot, while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx, catalase (CAT and guaiacol peroxidase (POx, were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity.

  10. Isoenzyme analysis of Arthrobotrys, a nematode-trapping fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.V. Araújo

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Extraction and isoenzyme analysis of four isolates of Arthrobotrys including A. musiformis, A. robusta and A. conoides were conducted. Among the 14 enzymes studied by starch gel electrophoresis, using morpholine-citrate as gel/electrode buffer, the following nine enzymes showed interpretable banding patterns: a-esterase, fumarase, hexokinase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, leucine aminopeptidase, malate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase and phosphoglucoisomerase. All isolates studied displayed typical isoenzyme phenotypes for each species. Two isolates of A. conoides differed in their a-isoesterase banding patterns, but no differences were observed for the other enzymes. The assay was satisfactory for enzyme extraction and resolution of Arthrobotrys and could be used in future taxonomic and genetic studies of this organism

  11. Antioxidative stress responses in the floating macrophyte Lemna minor L. with cylindrospermopsin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rojas, Nelida Cecilia; Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Cylindrospermopsin toxicity and oxidative stress have been examined in aquatic animals, however, only a few studies with aquatic plants have been conducted focusing on the potential for bioaccumulation of cylindrospermopsin. The oxidative stress effects caused by cylindrospermopsin on macrophytes have not yet been specifically studied. The oxidative stress response of Lemna minor L. with exposure to cylindrospermopsin, was therefore tested in this study. The hydrogen peroxide concentration together with the activities of the antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase) were determined after 24h (hours) of exposure to varying concentrations (0.025, 0.25, 2.5 and 25μg/L) of cylindrospermopsin. Responses with longer exposure periods (48, 96, 168h) were tested only with exposure to 2.5 and 25μg/L cylindrospermopsin. Additionally, the content of the carotenoids was determined as a possible non-enzymatic antioxidant defence mechanism against cylindrospermopsin. The levels of hydrogen peroxide increased after 24h even at the lowest cylindrospermopsin exposure concentrations. Catalase showed the most representative antioxidant response observed after 24h and maintained its activity throughout the experiment. Catalase activity corresponded with the contents of hydrogen peroxide at 2.5 and 25μg/L cylindrospermopsin. The data suggest that glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase and the carotenoid content act together with catalase but are more sensitive to higher concentrations of cylindrospermopsin and after a longer exposure period (168h). The results indicate that cylindrospermopsin promotes oxidative stress in L. minor at concentrations of 2.5 and 25μg/L. However, L. minor has sufficient defence mechanisms in place against this cyanobacterial toxin. Even though L. minor exhibits the potential to managing and control cylindrospermopsin contamination in aquatic systems, further studies in tolerance limits to

  12. The enzymatic and antioxidative stress response of Lemna minor to copper and a chloroacetamide herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Michael; Schröder, Christian A; Helmreich, Brigitte; Schröder, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Lemna minor L., a widely used model plant for toxicity tests has raised interest for its application to phytoremediation due to its rapid growth and ubiquitous occurrence. In rural areas, the pollution of water bodies with heavy metals and agrochemicals poses a problem to surface water quality. Among problematic compounds, heavy metals (copper) and pesticides are frequently found in water bodies. To establish duckweed as a potential plant for phytoremediation, enzymatic and antioxidative stress responses of Lemna minor during exposure to copper and a chloroacetamide herbicide were investigated in laboratory studies. The present study aimed at evaluating growth and the antioxidative and glutathione-dependent enzyme activity of Lemna plants and its performance in a scenario for phytoremediation of copper and a chloroacetamide herbicide. Lemna minor was grown in Steinberg medium under controlled conditions. Plants were treated with CuSO4 (ion conc. 50 and 100 μg/L) and pethoxamide (1.25 and 2.5 μg/L). Measurements following published methods focused on plant growth, oxidative stress, and basic detoxification enzymes. Duckweed proved to survive treatment with the respective concentrations of both pollutants very well. Its growth was inhibited scarcely, and no visible symptoms occurred. On the cellular basis, accumulation of O2(-) and H2O2 were detected, as well as stress reactions of antioxidative enzymes. Duckweed detoxification potential for organic pollutants was high and increased significantly with incubation. Pethoxamide was found to be conjugated with glutathione. Copper was accumulated in the fronds at high levels, and transient oxidative defense reactions were triggered. This work confirms the significance of L. minor for the removal of copper from water and the conjugation of the selective herbicide pethoxamide. Both organic and inorganic xenobiotics induced different trends of enzymatic and antioxidative stress response. The strong increase of stress

  13. Glycylproline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase isoenzyme in diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Run-Zhou Ni; Jie-Fei Huang; Ming-Bing Xiao; Mei Li; Xian-Yong Meng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of glycylproline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (GPDA) isoenzyme in the diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC), especially in patients with negative alpha-fetoprotein (AFP).METHODS: A stage gradient polyacrylamide gel discontinuous electrophoresis system was developed to separate serum GPDA isoenzymes, which were determined in 102 patients with PHC, 45 cases with liver cirrhosis, 24cases with chronic hepatitis, 35 cases with benign liver spaceoccupying lesions, 20 cases with metastatic liver cancer and 50 cases with extra-hepatic cancer, as well as 80 healthy subjects. The relationships between GPDA isoenzymes and AFP, the sizes of tumors, as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also analyzed.RESULTS: Serum GPDA was separated into two isoenzymes,GPDA-S and GPDA-F. The former was positive in all subjects,while the latter was found mainly in majority of PHC (85.3 %)and a few cases with liver cirrhosis (11.1%), chronic hepatitis (33.3 %), metastatic liver cancer (15.0 %) and non-hepatic cancer (16.0 %). GPDA-F was negative in all healthy subjects and patients with benign liver space-occupying lesions,including abscess, cysts and angioma. There was no correlation between GPDA-F and AFP concentration or tumor size. GPDA-F was consistently positive and not correlated with ALT in PHC, but GPDA-F often converted to negative as decline of ALT in benign liver diseases. The electrophoretic migration of GPDA-F became sluggish after the treatment of neuraminidase.CONCLUSION: GPDA-F is a new useful serum marker for PHC. Measurement of serum GPDA-F is helpful in diagnosis of PHC, especially in patients with negative AFP. GPDA-F is one kind of glycoproteins rich in sialic acid.

  14. Optimization of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Antioxidant Compounds from Marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Mohammad; Brunton, Nigel; Patras, Ankit; Tiwari, Brijesh; O Donnell, C.; Martin-Diana, Ana Belen; Barry-Ryan, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The present study optimized the ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) conditions to maximize the antioxidant activity [Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP)], total phenol content (TP) and content of individual polyphenols of extracts from marjoram. Optimal conditions with regard to amplitude of sonication (24.4–61.0 μm) and extraction temperature (15–35 °C) and extraction time (5–15 min) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the combined trea...

  15. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Coreopsis tinctoria Nuff. and optimisation of isolation by response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Lan Shumin; Lin Jingming; Zheng Ni

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the antioxidant activity of Coreopsis tinctoria flowering tops (CTFT). Studies were conducted to obtain suitable extraction conditions for chlorogenic acid, quercetin, luteolin, apigenin and kaempferol, which were identified and quantified by HPLC. Response surface methodology was employed to optimise the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions, including extraction time, ethanol concentration and liquid-solid ratio. The antioxidant activity of ...

  16. Optimisation of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity from Euphorbia tirucalli Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Quan V. Vuong; Chloe D. Goldsmith; Trung Thanh Dang; Van Tang Nguyen; Deep Jyoti Bhuyan; Elham Sadeqzadeh; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Bowyer, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli) is now widely distributed around the world and is well known as a source of traditional medicine in many countries. This study aimed to utilise response surface methodology (RSM) to optimise ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity from E. tirucalli leaf. The results showed that ultrasonic temperature, time and power effected TPC and antioxidant capacity; however, the effects varied. Ultrason...

  17. Decreased Total Antioxidant Activity in Major Depressive Disorder Patients Non-Responsive to Antidepressant Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Song-Eun; Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Rho, Dae-Young; Kim, Do-Hoon; Huh, Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity (TAA) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and the effect of antidepressants on TAA using a novel potentiometric method. Methods Twenty-eight patients with MDD and thirty-one healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The control group comprised 31 healthy individuals matched for gender, drinking and smoking status. We assessed symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We measured TAA using potentiometry. All measurements were made at baseline and four and eight weeks later. Results There was a significant negative correlation between BDI scores and TAA. TAA was significantly lower in the MDD group than in controls. When the MDD group was subdivided into those who showed clinical response to antidepressant therapy (response group) and those who did not (non-response group), only the non-response group showed lower TAA, while the response group showed no significant difference to controls at baseline. After eight weeks of antidepressant treatment, TAA in both the response and non-response groups was similar, and there was no significant difference among the three groups. Conclusion These results suggest that the response to antidepressant treatment in MDD patients might be predicted by measuring TAA. PMID:27081384

  18. Differential responses of the antioxidant system of ametryn and clomazone tolerant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Leila Priscila; Carvalho, Giselle; Martins, Paula Fabiane; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Vilhena, Milca Bartz; Pileggi, Marcos; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2014-01-01

    The herbicides ametryn and clomazone are widely used in sugarcane cultivation, and following microbial degradation are considered as soil and water contaminants. The exposure of microorganisms to pesticides can result in oxidative damage due to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study investigated the response of the antioxidant systems of two bacterial strains tolerant to the herbicides ametryn and clomazone. Bacteria were isolated from soil with a long history of ametryn and clomazone application. Comparative analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CC07 is phylogenetically related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and strain 4C07 to P. fulva. The two bacterial strains were grown for 14 h in the presence of separate and combined herbicides. Lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione content (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes activities were evaluated. The overall results indicated that strain 4C07 formed an efficient mechanism to maintain the cellular redox balance by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequently scavenging ROS in the presence of the herbicides. The growth of bacterium strain 4C07 was inhibited in the presence of clomazone alone, or in combination with ametryn, but increased glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, and a higher GSH concentration were detected. Meanwhile, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and GST activities and a lower concentration of GSH were detected in the bacterium strain CC07, which was able to achieve better growth in the presence of the herbicides. The results suggest that the two bacterial strains tolerate the ametryn and clomazone herbicides with distinctly different responses of the antioxidant systems.

  19. Isoniazid suppresses antioxidant response element activities and impairs adipogenesis in mouse and human preadipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yanyan [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Xue, Peng [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Key Laboratory of the Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Hou, Yongyong [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Zhang, Hao [Key Laboratory of the Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zheng, Hongzhi [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Zhou, Tong [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Qu, Weidong [Key Laboratory of the Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Teng, Weiping [The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E. [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Pi, Jingbo, E-mail: jingbopi@gmail.com [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Transcriptional signaling through the antioxidant response element (ARE), orchestrated by the Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), is a major cellular defense mechanism against oxidative or electrophilic stress. Here, we reported that isoniazid (INH), a widely used antitubercular drug, displays a substantial inhibitory property against ARE activities in diverse mouse and human cells. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, INH concentration-dependently suppressed the ARE-luciferase reporter activity and mRNA expression of various ARE-dependent antioxidant genes under basal and oxidative stressed conditions. In keeping with our previous findings that Nrf2-ARE plays a critical role in adipogenesis by regulating expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), suppression of ARE signaling by INH hampered adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Following adipogenesis induced by hormonal cocktails, INH-treated 3T3-L1 cells and ADSCs displayed significantly reduced levels of lipid accumulation and attenuated expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ. Time-course studies in 3T3-L1 cells revealed that inhibition of adipogenesis by INH occurred in the early stage of terminal adipogenic differentiation, where reduced expression of C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ was observed. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that INH suppresses ARE signaling and interrupts with the transcriptional network of adipogenesis, leading to impaired adipogenic differentiation. The inhibition of ARE signaling may be a potential underlying mechanism by which INH attenuates cellular antioxidant response contributing to various complications. - Highlights: • Isoniazid suppresses ARE-mediated transcriptional activity. • Isoniazid inhibits adipogenesis in preadipocytes. • Isoniazid suppresses adipogenic gene expression during adipogenesis.

  20. Isoniazid suppresses antioxidant response element activities and impairs adipogenesis in mouse and human preadipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transcriptional signaling through the antioxidant response element (ARE), orchestrated by the Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), is a major cellular defense mechanism against oxidative or electrophilic stress. Here, we reported that isoniazid (INH), a widely used antitubercular drug, displays a substantial inhibitory property against ARE activities in diverse mouse and human cells. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, INH concentration-dependently suppressed the ARE-luciferase reporter activity and mRNA expression of various ARE-dependent antioxidant genes under basal and oxidative stressed conditions. In keeping with our previous findings that Nrf2-ARE plays a critical role in adipogenesis by regulating expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), suppression of ARE signaling by INH hampered adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Following adipogenesis induced by hormonal cocktails, INH-treated 3T3-L1 cells and ADSCs displayed significantly reduced levels of lipid accumulation and attenuated expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ. Time-course studies in 3T3-L1 cells revealed that inhibition of adipogenesis by INH occurred in the early stage of terminal adipogenic differentiation, where reduced expression of C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ was observed. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that INH suppresses ARE signaling and interrupts with the transcriptional network of adipogenesis, leading to impaired adipogenic differentiation. The inhibition of ARE signaling may be a potential underlying mechanism by which INH attenuates cellular antioxidant response contributing to various complications. - Highlights: • Isoniazid suppresses ARE-mediated transcriptional activity. • Isoniazid inhibits adipogenesis in preadipocytes. • Isoniazid suppresses adipogenic gene expression during adipogenesis

  1. CACUL1/CAC1 Regulates the Antioxidant Response by Stabilizing Nrf2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigoshi, Yu; Fukuda, Tomomi; Endo, Tomoyuki; Hayasaka, Nami; Iemura, Shun-ichiro; Natsume, Toru; Tsuruta, Fuminori; Chiba, Tomoki

    2015-01-01

    Nrf2 is the pre-dominant transcription activator responsible for coordinated up-regulation of ARE-driven antioxidant and detoxification genes. The activity of Nrf2 is tightly regulated at basal levels through its ubiquitination by Cul3-Keap1 and consequential degradation. Upon exposure to stress, the Cul3-Keap1 ligase is inhibited, leading to Nrf2 stabilization and activation. Here we describe CACUL1/CAC1 as a positive regulator of the Nrf2 pathway. We found that CACUL1 is up-regulated by Nrf2-activating oxidative stresses in cells and in mice. The association of CACUL1 with the Cul3-Keap1 complex led to a decrease in Nrf2 ubiquitination levels at non-stressed as well as stressed conditions, and sensitized cells for higher Nrf2 activation. Furthermore, CACUL1 knock-down led to a decrease in Nrf2 activity and cell viability under stress. Our results show that CACUL1 is a regulator of Nrf2 ubiquitination, adding another regulatory layer to the Nrf2 antioxidant stress response. PMID:26238671

  2. Growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant responses of Vigna unguiculata L. treated with hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Aiman Hasan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. is an important legume well grown in semiarid and arid environment. Hydrogen peroxide solutions (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM have been used to optimize growth and photosynthetic performance of cowpea plant at two growth stages [30 and 45 DAS (days of sowing]. Foliar application of H2O2 at 0.5 > 1.0 mM solution at 29 DAS optimally promoted the photosynthetic attributes [leaf chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (PN, water use efficiency, and maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm] and growth performance [root and shoot length; fresh and dry weight] of plants where the responses were more significant at the later growth stage. It was favored by activity of enzymes as carbonic anhydrase [CA; E.C. 4.2.1.1] and nitrate reductase [NR, E.C. 1.6.6.1] and those of antioxidant enzymes viz. peroxidase [POX; EC 1.11.1.7], catalase [CAT; EC 1.11.1.6], and superoxide dismutase [SOD; EC 1.15.1.1] and leaf proline content. Strengthened root system and antioxidant activity, particularly leaf proline level appeared to be the key factor for efficient photosynthesis and growth responses.

  3. Glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes in relation to their role in detoxification of xenobiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, R.M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The glutathione S-transferases (GST) are a family of isoenzymes serving a major part in the biotransformation of many reactive compounds. The isoenzymes from rat, man and mouse are divided into three classes, alpha, mu and pi, on the basis of similar structural and enzymatic properties.The main function of the glutathione S-transferases isthe catalysisof the conjugation of electrophilic, hydrophobic compounds with the tripeptide glutathione (GSH). In addition, some of the isoenzymes are capab...

  4. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Tunisian Zizyphus lotus fruits using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammi, Khaoula Mkadmini; Jdey, Ahmed; Abdelly, Chedly; Majdoub, Hatem; Ksouri, Riadh

    2015-10-01

    The optimization of antioxidant extraction conditions from a ripe edible fruits of Zizyphus lotus (L.) with an ultrasound-assisted system was achieved by response surface methodology. The central composite rotatable design was employed for optimization of extraction parameters in terms of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and phosphomolybdenum assay. The optimum operating conditions for extraction were as follows: ethanol concentration, 50%; extraction time, 25 min; extraction temperature, 63°C and ratio of solvent to solid, 67 mL/g. Under these conditions, the obtained extract exhibited a high content of phenolic compounds (40.782 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry matter) with significant antioxidant properties (the total antioxidant activity was 75.981 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry matter and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity was 0.289 mg/mL). PMID:25872429

  5. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Coreopsis Tinctoria Nuff. and Optimisation of Isolation by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Shumin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the antioxidant activity of Coreopsis tinctoria flowering tops (CTFT. Studies were conducted to obtain suitable extraction conditions for chlorogenic acid, quercetin, luteolin, apigenin and kaempferol, which were identified and quantified by HPLC. Response surface methodology was employed to optimise the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions including extraction time, ethanol concentration and liquid-solid ratio. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analysed using various antioxidant models, such as DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. CTFT extracted for 15.0 min with ethanol at a concentration of 60.4 % and with liquidsolid ratio 27.5:1 possessed a considerable amounts of total flavonoids and polyphenols (18.9 %. This extract showed higher scavenging activity of ABTS and hydroxyl radical activity than rutin, however not in the DPPH test. We may assume that CTFT possess antioxidant and free radical scavenging potentials.

  6. Hormetic response triggers multifaceted anti-oxidant strategies in immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Dégletagne, Cyril; Bodennec, Jacques; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Mortz, Mathieu; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Tornos, Jeremy; Duchamp, Claude

    2016-08-01

    Repeated deep dives are highly pro-oxidative events for air-breathing aquatic foragers such as penguins. At fledging, the transition from a strictly terrestrial to a marine lifestyle may therefore trigger a complex set of anti-oxidant responses to prevent chronic oxidative stress in immature penguins but these processes are still undefined. By combining in vivo and in vitro approaches with transcriptome analysis, we investigated the adaptive responses of sea-acclimatized (SA) immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) compared with pre-fledging never-immersed (NI) birds. In vivo, experimental immersion into cold water stimulated a higher thermogenic response in SA penguins than in NI birds, but both groups exhibited hypothermia, a condition favouring oxidative stress. In vitro, the pectoralis muscles of SA birds displayed increased oxidative capacity and mitochondrial protein abundance but unchanged reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation per g tissue because ROS production per mitochondria was reduced. The genes encoding oxidant-generating proteins were down-regulated in SA birds while mRNA abundance and activity of the main antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated. Genes encoding proteins involved in repair mechanisms of oxidized DNA or proteins and in degradation processes were also up-regulated in SA birds. Sea life also increased the degree of fatty acid unsaturation in muscle mitochondrial membranes resulting in higher intrinsic susceptibility to ROS. Oxidative damages to protein or DNA were reduced in SA birds. Repeated experimental immersions of NI penguins in cold-water partially mimicked the effects of acclimatization to marine life, modified the expression of fewer genes related to oxidative stress but in a similar way as in SA birds and increased oxidative damages to DNA. It is concluded that the multifaceted plasticity observed after marine life may be crucial to maintain redox homeostasis in active tissues subjected to high pro-oxidative pressure

  7. Hormetic response triggers multifaceted anti-oxidant strategies in immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Dégletagne, Cyril; Bodennec, Jacques; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Mortz, Mathieu; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Tornos, Jeremy; Duchamp, Claude

    2016-08-01

    Repeated deep dives are highly pro-oxidative events for air-breathing aquatic foragers such as penguins. At fledging, the transition from a strictly terrestrial to a marine lifestyle may therefore trigger a complex set of anti-oxidant responses to prevent chronic oxidative stress in immature penguins but these processes are still undefined. By combining in vivo and in vitro approaches with transcriptome analysis, we investigated the adaptive responses of sea-acclimatized (SA) immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) compared with pre-fledging never-immersed (NI) birds. In vivo, experimental immersion into cold water stimulated a higher thermogenic response in SA penguins than in NI birds, but both groups exhibited hypothermia, a condition favouring oxidative stress. In vitro, the pectoralis muscles of SA birds displayed increased oxidative capacity and mitochondrial protein abundance but unchanged reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation per g tissue because ROS production per mitochondria was reduced. The genes encoding oxidant-generating proteins were down-regulated in SA birds while mRNA abundance and activity of the main antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated. Genes encoding proteins involved in repair mechanisms of oxidized DNA or proteins and in degradation processes were also up-regulated in SA birds. Sea life also increased the degree of fatty acid unsaturation in muscle mitochondrial membranes resulting in higher intrinsic susceptibility to ROS. Oxidative damages to protein or DNA were reduced in SA birds. Repeated experimental immersions of NI penguins in cold-water partially mimicked the effects of acclimatization to marine life, modified the expression of fewer genes related to oxidative stress but in a similar way as in SA birds and increased oxidative damages to DNA. It is concluded that the multifaceted plasticity observed after marine life may be crucial to maintain redox homeostasis in active tissues subjected to high pro-oxidative pressure

  8. Morinda citrifolia leaf enhanced performance by improving angiogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory & stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Shalan, Nor Aijratul Asikin; Mustapha, Noordin M; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-12-01

    Morinda citrifolia fruit, (noni), enhanced performances in athletes and post-menopausal women in clinical studies. This report shows the edible noni leaves water extract enhances performance in a weight-loaded swimming animal model better than the fruit or standardized green tea extract. The 4weeks study showed the extract (containing scopoletin and epicatechin) progressively prolonged the time to exhaustion by threefold longer than the control, fruit or tea extract. The extract improved (i) the mammalian antioxidant responses (MDA, GSH and SOD2 levels), (ii) tissue nutrient (glucose) and metabolite (lactate) management, (iii) stress hormone (cortisol) regulation; (iv) neurotransmitter (dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin) expressions, transporter or receptor levels, (v) anti-inflammatory (IL4 & IL10) responses; (v) skeletal muscle angiogenesis (VEGFA) and (v) energy and mitochondrial biogenesis (via PGC, UCP3, NRF2, AMPK, MAPK1, and CAMK4). The ergogenic extract helped delay fatigue by enhancing energy production, regulation and efficiency, which suggests benefits for physical activities and disease recovery.

  9. 21 CFR 862.1360 - Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and isoenzymes test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1360 Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and isoenzymes test system....

  10. Response of Daphnia's antioxidant system to spatial heterogeneity in Cyanobacteria concentrations in a lowland reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Wojtal-Frankiewicz

    Full Text Available Many species and clones of Daphnia inhabit ecosystems with permanent algal blooms, and they can develop tolerance to cyanobacterial toxins. In the current study, we examined the spatial differences in the response of Daphnia longispina to the toxic Microcystis aeruginosa in a lowland eutrophic dam reservoir between June (before blooms and September (during blooms. The reservoir showed a distinct spatial pattern in cyanobacteria abundance resulting from the wind direction: the station closest to the dam was characterised by persistently high Microcystis biomass, whereas the upstream stations had a significantly lower biomass of Microcystis. Microcystin concentrations were closely correlated with the cyanobacteria abundance (r = 0.93. The density of daphniids did not differ among the stations. The main objective of this study was to investigate how the distribution of toxic Microcystis blooms affects the antioxidant system of Daphnia. We examined catalase (CAT activity, the level of the low molecular weight antioxidant glutathione (GSH, glutathione S-transferase (GST activity and oxidative stress parameters, such as lipid peroxidation (LPO. We found that the higher the abundance (and toxicity of the cyanobacteria, the lower the values of the antioxidant parameters. The CAT activity and LPO level were always significantly lower at the station with the highest M. aeruginosa biomass, which indicated the low oxidative stress of D. longispina at the site with the potentially high toxic thread. However, the low concentration of GSH and the highest activity of GST indicated the occurrence of detoxification processes at this site. These results demonstrate that daphniids that have coexisted with a high biomass of toxic cyanobacteria have effective mechanisms that protect them against the toxic effects of microcystins. We also conclude that Daphnia's resistance capacity to Microcystis toxins may differ within an ecosystem, depending on the bloom

  11. Antioxidant activity of polysaccharide extracted from Ganoderma lucidum using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yongjun; Chen, Tiqiang; Wu, Yanbin; Wu, Jianguo; Wu, Jinzhong

    2015-01-01

    Superfine grinding technology was applied for polysaccharide extraction from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum, and response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the effects of processing parameters on polysaccharide extraction yield. Results showed that the maximum yield of G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) was obtained at an optimum condition: extraction time 137 min, extraction temperature 66 ̊C, the ratio of water to material 35 mL/g, and the GLP extracting yield reached 2.44% under this condition. GLP were precipitated into three crude polysaccharides, viz. GLP40, GLP60 and GLP80. The basic characterization of polysaccharides was determined by using HPLC and FT-IR methods. GLP, GLP80, GLP60, and GLP40 were composed of Man, Rib, Glc, Gal and Fuc with the molar ratios of 1.27:0.36:22.89:1.61:0.33, 1.40:0.31:23.02:3.46:0.91, 0.96:0.34:25.76:2.47:0.46, and 2.81:1.42:23.83:1.61:0.33, respectively. The result of FT-IR suggested that the monosaccharide residue of the four polysaccharides was β-pyranoid ring. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of these four polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that GLP80 had the best reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging ability and oxygen radical scavenging ability followed by GLP, GLP60 and GLP40. Our results demonstrated that RSM might be a valuable technique for optimizing the efficient extraction of GLP, and G. lucidum could be considered as sources of natural antioxidants and preservatives of food industry. Moreover, polysaccharides, especially GLP80, extracted from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, exhibited promising antioxidant activities.

  12. Photosynthesis and antioxidant response to winter rapeseed (brassica napus l.) as affected by boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of boron on photosynthesis and antioxidant response to rapeseed yield was studied by the field experimentation along with plant analysis during the winter season of 2010 and 2011. The field experimentation was conducted by split plot design with three replications consisting of two factors such as i) two rapeseed cultivars (viz. Xiangzayou 1613 and 09-13581613), assigned in main plots and ii) five boron levels (viz. 0, 4.5, 9.0, 13.5 and 18.0 kgha-1) imposed in the sub-plots. The rate of photosynthesis increased with increasing boron level upto 9.0 kgha-1 with simultaneous increase in photosynthetically active radiation, rate of transpiration and stomatal conductance and decrease in intercellular CO/sun 2/ concentration in both cultivars, while reverse trend was shown with further increase of B concentration. B @ 9.0 kgha- improved the activities of antioxidant protective enzyme of SOD and POD and decreased the accumulation of MDA content in the both cultivars. Dry matter translocation increased with increasing B level upto 9.0 kgha-1 that resulted the highest seed yield and harvest index of rapeseed in both cultivars. Thus, B @ 9 kgha-1 is sufficient for rapeseed cultivation under the subtropical environmental condition of the Southern China. Brassica napus. (author)

  13. Metallothionein induction and antioxidative responses in the estuarine polychaeta Capitella capitata (Capitellidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suriya J; S Bharathiraja; V Sekar; R Rajasekaran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant response induced by copper (Cu) exposure inCapitella capitata. The capacity of Cu bioaccumulation was also evaluated through the metal quantification. Methods: Worms were exposed to different concentrations of Cu 50, 100, and 200 μg/L for 7, 14 and 21 days respectively. In all the assays, control groups were run in parallel, employing only saline water (10%). The concentrations of Cu in the digested acidic solutions of worms were determined by using the inductively coupled plasma-Optical emission spectrophotometry. The total protein content and other anti oxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were recorded for the experiment period. Results: Bioaccumulation of Cu metals in polychaetes was increased parallel to exposure time. A peak concentration (197.30±12.32 μg/g) of metallothioneins (MTs) was registered at 14th day of 100 μg/L group compared to control group (37.29 μg/g). Catalase activities (CAT) in Cu treated-worms were increased significantly (P<0.05) after 7 and 14 days of exposure. The concentration of Cu had significant (P<0.05) influences on the activity of SOD. The same physiological activity was recorded in GST evaluation. Conclusions: These results of biochemical variables in C. capitata suggest us a useful model species for monitoring of environmental disturbance by heavy metal pollution. Antioxidant defenses were confirmed as sensitive biomarkers for metal stress in polychaete worms.

  14. Analysis of trace elements responsible for antioxidant protection by SRXFA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities of using the energy dispersion synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXFA) for control of blood plasma and liver trace element (TE) content in rats with hyperproduction of oxygen radicals and hair TE content in women with mammary hyperplasia and cancer are demonstrated. Our data show that activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in the blood and liver depends on the amount of TE incorporated into the structure of the active center of these enzymes, which are responsible for antioxidant protection. A decrease of activity of these enzymes is accompanied by an increase of production of free OH radicals in the tissues. Clinical data demonstrated that scalp hair of patients with oncological mammary pathology was characterized by a significant decrease of concentrations of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) and by an increase of chromium (Cr). The Se deficit was more pronounced in patients with cancer than in those with mammary hyperplasia (p<0.05). The SRXFA method permits one to carry out a controllable correction of TE imbalance in many diseases whose development is caused by oxygen radical injury

  15. Optimization of pancreatic lipase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Ilex paraguariensis by using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyung-Eon; Shin, Hyeji; Jeon, Young Ho; Jo, Yang Hee; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Lee, Ken S; Park, Byoungduck; Lee, Ki Yong

    2016-07-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) using a Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the extraction conditions for obtaining pancreatic lipase inhibitory and antioxidant principles from Ilex paraguariensis leaves. Three influencing factors: extraction time (min), the liquid-solid ratio, and ethanol concentration (%, v/v) were investigated in the ultrasonic extraction process. Optimization of the extraction conditions to obtain a product with minimum PL activity, maximum antioxidant activity, and maximum yield was performed using RSM by focusing on the three target influencing factors. The optimum conditions were established as the ethanol concentration (54.8 %), liquid-solid ratio (35.4), and extraction time (70.0 min). Under these conditions, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, PL activity, extraction yield were 59.3 ± 3.5, 35.3 ± 3.0, and 34.4 ± 0.4 %, respectively, similar to the theoretical predicted values of 59.7, 35.2, and 34.3 %, respectively. PMID:27277165

  16. Transcriptional and antioxidative responses to endogenous polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrisic, Luka; Collinson, Emma J; Tehlivets, Oksana; Perak, Eleonora; Zarkovic, Tomislav; Dawes, Ian W; Zarkovic, Neven; Cipak Gasparovic, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Pathophysiology of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is associated with aberrant lipid and oxygen metabolism. In particular, under oxidative stress, PUFAs are prone to autocatalytic degradation via peroxidation, leading to formation of reactive aldehydes with numerous potentially harmful effects. However, the pathological and compensatory mechanisms induced by lipid peroxidation are very complex and not sufficiently understood. In our study, we have used yeast capable of endogenous PUFA synthesis in order to understand the effects triggered by PUFA accumulation on cellular physiology of a eukaryotic organism. The mechanisms induced by PUFA accumulation in S. cerevisiae expressing Hevea brasiliensis Δ12-fatty acid desaturase include down-regulation of components of electron transport chain in mitochondria as well as up-regulation of pentose-phosphate pathway and fatty acid β-oxidation at the transcriptional level. Interestingly, while no changes were observed at the transcriptional level, activities of two important enzymatic antioxidants, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase, were altered in response to PUFA accumulation. Increased intracellular glutathione levels further suggest an endogenous oxidative stress and activation of antioxidative defense mechanisms under conditions of PUFA accumulation. Finally, our data suggest that PUFA in cell membrane causes metabolic changes which in turn lead to adaptation to endogenous oxidative stress. PMID:25280400

  17. Antioxidant and Vasodilator Activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla and Its Modulatory Mechanism in Hypotensive Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jofré

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a systemic condition with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, which poses an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we demonstrated the antioxidant and vasodilator activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla fruit, a berry native to Chile and proposed models to explain its modulatory mechanism in hypotensive response. Murtilla fruits were cultivated in a germplasm bank and submitted to chemical and biological analyses. The phenolic compounds gallic acid, Catechin, Quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside, Myricetin, Quercetin, and Kaempferol were identified. Murtilla extract did not generate toxic effects on human endothelial cells and had significant antioxidant activity against ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion production. Furthermore, it showed dose-dependent vasodilator activity in aortic rings in the presence of endothelium, whose hypotensive mechanism is partially mediated by nitric oxide synthase/guanylate cyclase and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels. Murtilla fruits might potentially have beneficial effects on the management of cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Dynamics of rhizosphere properties and antioxidative responses in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Wang, Li; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Hairong

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we performed a rhizobox experiment to examine the dynamic changes in the rhizosphere properties and antioxidant enzyme responses of Triticum aestivum L. under three levels of cadmium stress. A set of micro-techniques (i.e., Rhizobox and Rhizon SMS) were applied for the dynamically non-destructive collection of the rhizosphere soil solution to enable the observation at a high temporal resolution. The dynamics of soluble cadmium and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the rhizosphere soil solutions of the Triticum aestivum L. were characterised by the sequence week 0 after sowing (WAS0)soil solution pH was found to follow an opposite distribution pattern. Systematically, both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in the leaves of the Triticum aestivum L. increased concomitantly with increasing cadmium levels (p>0.05) and growth duration (pstress with a decrease at high cadmium stress (p>0.05). These results suggested the enhancement of DOC production and the greater antioxidant enzyme activities were two important protective mechanisms of Triticum aestivum L. under cadmium stress, whereas rhizosphere acidification might be an important mechanism for the mobilisation of soil cadmium. The results also revealed that plant-soil interactions strongly influence the soil solution chemistry in the rhizosphere of Triticum aestivum L., that, in turn, can stimulate chemical and biochemical responses in the plants. In most cases, these responses to cadmium stress were sensitive and might allow us to develop strategies for reducing the risks of the cadmium contamination to crop production. PMID:24580822

  19. Flavonoids Extraction from Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion: Optimisation Using Response Surface Methodology and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongxi Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Box-Behnken design combined with response surface method was employed to optimize ultrasonic-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Taraxacum officinale. The optimized results showed that the highest extraction yield with ultrasonic-assisted extraction could reach 2.62% using 39.6% (v/v ethanol and 59.5 : 1 (mL/g liquid-solid ratio for 43.8 min. The crude extract was then purified by HPD-100 macroporous adsorption resin, and the flavonoids content in the purified extract increased to 54.7%. The antioxidant activity of the purified flavonoids was evaluated in vitro by scavenging capacity of ABTS or DPPH, β-carotene bleaching, and FTC test. The knowledge obtained from this study should be useful to further develop and apply this plant resource.

  20. Optimization of preparation of antioxidative peptides from pumpkin seeds using response surface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Sanhong; Hu, Yanan; Li, Chen; Liu, Yanrong

    2014-01-01

    Protein isolates of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L) seeds were hydrolyzed by acid protease to prepare antioxidative peptides. The hydrolysis conditions were optimized through Box-Behnken experimental design combined with response surface method (RSM). The second-order model, developed for the DPPH radical scavenging activity of pumpkin seed hydrolysates, showed good fit with the experiment data with a high value of coefficient of determination (0.9918). The optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined as follows: hydrolyzing temperature 50°C, pH 2.5, enzyme amount 6000 U/g, substrate concentration 0.05 g/ml and hydrolyzing time 5 h. Under the above conditions, the scavenging activity of DPPH radical was as high as 92.82%. PMID:24637721

  1. N6-isopentenyladenosine and analogs activate the NRF2-mediated antioxidant response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Dassano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available N6-isopentenyladenosine (i6A, a naturally occurring modified nucleoside, inhibits the proliferation of human tumor cell lines in vitro, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Treatment of MCF7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells with i6A or with three synthetic analogs (allyl6A, benzyl6A, and butyl6A inhibited growth and altered gene expression. About 60% of the genes that were differentially expressed in response to i6A treatment were also modulated by the analogs, and pathway enrichment analysis identified the NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response as being significantly modulated by all four compounds. Luciferase reporter gene assays in transfected MCF7 cells confirmed that i6A activates the transcription factor NRF2. Assays for cellular production of reactive oxygen species indicated that i6A and analogs had antioxidant effects, reducing basal levels and inhibiting the H2O2- or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA-induced production in MCF7 or dHL-60 (HL-60 cells induced to differentiate along the neutrophilic lineage cell lines, respectively. In vivo, topical application of i6A or benzyl6A to mouse ears prior to TPA stimulation lessened the inflammatory response and significantly reduced the number of infiltrating neutrophils. These results suggest that i6A and analogs trigger a cellular response against oxidative stress and open the possibility of i6A and benzyl6A being used as topical anti-inflammatory drugs.

  2. The antioxidant response of the liver of male Swiss mice raised on a AIN 93 or commercial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano Aline C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS are formed under natural physiological conditions and are thought to play an important role in many human diseases. A wide range of antioxidants are involved in cellular defense mechanisms against ROS, which can be generated in excess during stressful conditions, these include enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant responses of mice to two diets control, commercial and the purified AIN 93 diet, commonly used in experiments with rodents. Results Malondialdehyde (MDA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentrations and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione reductase (GR activities determined in the liver were lower in the group of mice fed with the AIN 93 diet, while catalase (CAT activity was higher in the same group, when compared to the group fed on the commercial diet. Liver glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity was similar in the groups fed on either AIN 93 or the commercial diets. Two SOD isoforms, Mn-SODII and a Cu/Zn-SODV, were specifically reduced in the liver of the AIN 93 diet fed animals. Conclusions The clear differences in antioxidant responses observed in the livers of mice fed on the two diets suggest that the macro- and micro-nutrient components with antioxidant properties, including vitamin E, can promote changes in the activity of enzymes involved in the removal of the ROS generated by cell metabolism.

  3. A temporal analysis of the relationships between social stress, humoral immune response and glutathione-related antioxidant defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luciane; Dafre, Alcir Luiz; Carobrez, Sonia Gonçalves; Gasparotto, Odival Cezar

    2008-10-10

    The exposure to different kinds of stress impacts on the reactive oxygen species production with potential risk to the integrity of the tissues. Psychological or biological stress is responsible for a significant increase in the oxidative stress markers and also for activation of the antioxidant defense system. In this study, we analyzed the relationships between social stress, humoral immune response and glutathione-related antioxidant defenses. Groups of male Swiss mice were subjected to different lengths of social stress exposure (social confrontation) which varied from 1 up to 13 days. As a biological stressor, 10(9) sheep red blood cells (SRBC)/mL were injected by intraperitoneal route. As controls, animals not subjected to social stress and/or injected with vehicle solution were used. The serum samples and the cerebral cortex were collected at 4 h, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 days after the end of social confrontation. The results indicated that the antioxidant enzymes activities were affected by psychological as well as by biological stressor. These alterations were dependent on the timing of stress exposure which resulted in a positive or in a negative correlation between the antibody titres to SRBC and antioxidant enzymes. We also discuss the possible role of SRBC injection in the modulation of the effects of psychosocial stress on antioxidant metabolism.

  4. Glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes in relation to their role in detoxification of xenobiotics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, R.M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The glutathione S-transferases (GST) are a family of isoenzymes serving a major part in the biotransformation of many reactive compounds. The isoenzymes from rat, man and mouse are divided into three classes, alpha, mu and pi, on the basis of similar structural and enzymatic properties.

  5. 21 CFR 862.1215 - Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1215 Creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. A creatine phosphokinase/creatine kinase or isoenzymes test system is a...

  6. Profiling Environmental Chemicals for Activity in the Antioxidant Response Element Signaling Pathway Using a High-Throughput Screening Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1 ABSTRACT 2 3 BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety 4 of diseases ranging from cancer to neurodegeneration, highlighti.ng the need to identify 5 chemicals that can induce this effect. The antioxidant response element (ARE)...

  7. Profiling Environmental Chemicals in the Antioxidant Response Element Pathway using Quantitative High Throughput Screening (qHTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway plays an important role in the amelioration of oxidative stress, which can contribute to a number of diseases, including cancer. We screened 1408 NTP-provided substances in 1536-well qHTS format at concentrations ranging fr...

  8. The effects of some bromophenols on human carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslimi, Parham; Gülçin, İlhami; Öztaşkın, Necla; Çetinkaya, Yasin; Göksu, Süleyman; Alwasel, Saleh H; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-08-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1), which are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, are ubiquitous metalloenzymes mainly catalyzing the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide (CO2) to bicarbonate ([Formula: see text]) and proton (H(+)). In this study, a dozen of bromophenol derivatives (1-12) were evaluated as metalloenzyme CA (EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors against the human carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes I and II (hCA I and II). Cytosolic hCA I and II isoenzymes were effectively inhibited by bromophenol derivatives (1-12) with Kis in the low nanomolar range of 1.85 ± 0.58 to 5.04 ± 1.46 nM against hCA I and in the range of 2.01 ± 0.52 to 2.94 ± 1.31 nM against hCA II, respectively. PMID:26133541

  9. Purification, characterization and application of lipoxygenase isoenzymes from Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Disha D; Patel, Ravi R; Thakkar, Vasudev R

    2015-01-01

    Lipoxygenase oxidizes linoleic acid into hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid (HPOD), which is important in food and flavour industries for production of bread and flavouring compounds. As Lasiodiplodia theobromae is an unexplored, good source of lipoxygenase, it was purified from it by size-exclusion (Sephadex G100) and ion-exchange (DEAE-cellulose) chromatography and characterized. Upon purification, L. theobromae was found to contain two different lipoxygenases, one of 93 kDa (LOX1) and another of 45 kDa (LOX2). Both the isoenzymes were having optimum pH 6.0 and optimum temperatures 50 and 40 °C, respectively. The catalytic efficiency of LOX1 and LOX2 was found to be 1300 and 1.67 × 10(9), respectively. The catalytic efficiency of LOX2 is higher than the catalytic efficiency of soya bean LOX1 that is 10.9 × 10(6). Both the isoenzymes of LOX oxidized linoleic acid to produce 9-HPOD and 13-HPOD both; however, LOX1 produced more of 9-HPOD and LOX2 produced more of 13-HPOD. Both the LOXes were not inhibited by jasmonic acid. Addition of LOX1 and LOX2 altered the elasticity as well as viscosity of dough prepared from bleached wheat flour. PMID:25326184

  10. Antioxidant activity of seedling growth in selected soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) responses of submergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, R. I.; Marbun, P.; Sihombing, L.

    2016-08-01

    In order to better understand the physiological and biochemical responses relating to direct seeding establishment in soybeans, the plant growth rate and antioxidative defense responses of seedlings in seven Indonesian soybean genotypes (Anjasmoro, Detam-1, Detam-2, Dieng, Grobogan, Tanggamus, and Willis) at different submergence periods (4, and 8 days) were examined. Twelve-day old seedlings were hydroponically grown in limited oxygen conditions. The results showed that the chlorophyll content in soybean seedlings was reduced beginning as early as 4 d under submerged condition, except for Detam-1, Detam-2, and Grobogan genotypes. The dry weight and protein concentration of seedlings were significantly higher at control condition (0 d) than those in submerged condition. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased linearly until 8 d submerged for all genotypes. On the other hand, our results showed that catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities did not work together, meaning that CAT is activated and APX deactivated, or vice versa, in response to submergence conditions, except for Grobogan and Tanggamus genotypes which had an effect on both CAT and APX activities. Submergence stress led to a significant increase in glutathione reductase (GR) together with APX activity for Detam-2 and Dieng genotypes at 8 d submerged.

  11. Optimization of extraction time and temperature on antioxidant activity of Schizophyllum commune aqueous extract using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Rao, Vigneswara; Low, Jia Yin; Matanjun, Patricia; How, Siew Eng; Ho, Chun Wai

    2011-01-01

    Central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction time (X1: 99.5–290.5 min) and temperature (X2: 30.1–54.9 °C) of Schizophyllum commune aqueous extract with high antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC). Results indicated that the data were adequately fitted into four second-order polynomial models. The extraction time and temperature were found to have significant linear, quadratic and interaction effects on antioxidant acti...

  12. Antioxidative Responses and Metal Accumulation in Invasive Plant Species Growing on Mine Tailings in Zanjan, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. M. A. BOO JAR; Z. TAVAKKOLI

    2011-01-01

    Tailings of a Pb and Zn mine as a metal-contaminated area (Zone 1) with two pioneer plant species,Peganum harmala and Zygophyllum fabago,were investigated and compared with a non-contaminated area (Zone 2) in the vicinity.Total concentrations of Pb,Zn,and Cu in the soil of Zone 1 were 1 416,2217,and 426 mg kg-1,respectively,and all exceeded their ranges in the normal soils.The soil pH was in the neutral range and most of the physical and chemical characteristics of the soils from both zones were almost similar.The species Z.fabago accumulated higher Cu and Zn in its aerial part and roots than the normal plants.On the other.hand,their concentrations did not reach the criteria that the species could be considered as a metal hyperaccumulator.The species P.harmala did not absorb metals in its roots; accordingly,the accumulation factor values of these metals were lower than 1.The contents of chlorophyll,biomass,malondialdehyde,and dityrosine in these two species did not vary significantly between the two zones studied.In Zone 1,leaf vacuoles of Z.fabago stored 35.6% and 43.2% of the total leaf Cu and Zn,respectively.However,in this species,the levels of phytochelatins (PCs) and glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly higher in Zone 1 than in Zone 2.In conclusion,metal exclusion in P.harmala and metal accumulation in Z.fabago were the basic strategies in the two studied pioneer species growing on the metal-contaminated zone.In response to metal stress,elevation in antioxidant enzyme activities,increases in the PCs and GSH levels in the aerial parts,and metal storage within vacuoles counteracted each other in the invasion mechanism of Z.fabago.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate oxidative stress induced by ADOR and enhance antioxidant responses of tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Palma, José Manuel; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet

    2014-03-15

    The behaviour of tomato plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi grown in the presence of aqueous extracts from dry olive residue (ADOR) was studied in order to understand how this symbiotic relationship helps plants to cope with oxidative stress caused by ADOR. The influence of AM symbiosis on plant growth and other physiological parameters was also studied. Tomato plants were inoculated with the AM fungus Funneliformis mosseae and were grown in the presence of ADOR bioremediated and non-bioremediated by Coriolopsis floccosa and Penicillium chrysogenum-10. The antioxidant response as well as parameters of oxidative damage were examined in roots and leaves. The data showed a significant increase in the biomass of AM plant growth in the presence of ADOR, regardless of whether it was bioremediated. The establishment and development of the symbiosis were negatively affected after plants were exposed to ADOR. No differences were observed in the relative water content (RWC) or PS II efficiency between non-AM and AM plants. The increase in the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) were simultaneous to the reduction of MDA levels and H2O2 content in AM root growth in the presence of ADOR. Similar H2O2 levels were observed among non-AM and AM plants, although only AM plants showed reduced lipid peroxidation content, probably due to the involvement of antioxidant enzymes. The results highlight how the application of both bioremediated ADOR and AM fungi can alleviate the oxidative stress conditions, improving the growth and development of tomato plants. PMID:24594394

  14. Salicylic acid induces differential antioxidant response in spring maize under high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Palak; Kaur, Kamaljit; Gupta, Anil K

    2016-06-01

    High temperature is one of the important stress factors that affect crops in tropical countries. Plants do evolve or adopt different mechanisms to overcome such stress for survival. It is an interesting subject and has attracted many researchers to work upon. Here, we studied the effect of salicylic acid (SA) on seedling growth and antioxidative defense system in two spring maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes viz., CML-32 (relatively heat tolerant) and LM-11 (relatively heat susceptible), under high temperature stress. High temperature induced greater reduction in dry biomass of LM-1 1 seedlings as compared to those of CML-32. There was a parallel increase in ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the roots of CML-32 seedlings. However, the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase decreased and the contents of H202, proline and malonaldialdehyde (MDA) increased in seedlings of both the genotypes. Application of SA (400 µM) led to increased dry biomass in heat stressed CML-32 seedlings. It improved the efficiency of Halliwell-Asada pathway in roots of CML-32 seedlings as was evidenced by the enhanced ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. The activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase increased in both the tissues of LM-11 seedlings, whereas in CML-32, it was only in shoots, after SA application. Peroxidase activity increased in SA treated seedlings of both the genotypes, though the increase was comparatively higher in CML-32. The contents of H₂O₂ and MDA decreased and that of proline increased in SA treated seedlings of both the genotypes, under stress conditions. It may be concluded that SA induced differential antioxidant response by upregulating Halliwell-Asada pathway in roots and attaining high POX activity in both the tissues of CML-32 seedlings, under high temperature stress. PMID:27468465

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANTS FROM TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS L. FRUIT PEEL BIOMASS USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis L. fruit peel, the main byproduct during the manufacture of tea seed oil, was used as raw material for the recovery of phenolic antioxidants. The effect of ethanol concentration, extraction time, and extraction temperature on total phenolic content (TPC and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP of the extracts from tea fruit peel was investigated. The maximum predicted TPC (47.5 mg GAE/g dry peel was obtained under the optimum recovery conditions (43% ethanol, 60°C, and 33 min given by using response surface methodology (RSM. A high correlation (R2 = 0.929, p < 0.01 between TPC and FRAP value was identified by linear regression analysis. Furthermore, gallocatechin (GC and epigallocatechin (EGC were found to be the major individual catechins in the extracts from tea fruit peel. Ethanol/aqueous extraction has been presented as an effective method for the recovery of phenolic antioxidants from tea fruit peel.

  16. Increased antioxidant response and capability to produce ROS in hemocytes of Pinna nobilis L. exposed to anthropogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Antoni; Natalotto, Antonino; Alvarez, Elvira; Deudero, Salud

    2013-10-01

    Environmental pollutants exert immunotoxical effects on aquatic organisms. The aim was to determine the antioxidant response, markers of oxidative damage and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes of Pinna nobilis, the largest endemic bivalve in the Mediterranean Sea, under anthropogenic pressure. P. nobilis individuals were collected from two locations along Mallorca Island waters attending to different degree of human impact and the hemocytes were obtained. Specimens from the impacted area showed increased activities of the antioxidant enzymes - catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase -, myeloperoxidase activity and reduced glutathione levels. No differences in oxidative damage markers - malondiahdehyde and carbonyl index - were evidenced between the pristine and polluted areas. Hemocytes from the polluted area presented increased capability to generate reactive oxygen species and nitrite/nitrate when activated. In conclusion, the human activities primed hemocytes for oxidative burst and increased the antioxidant mechanism without evidence of oxidative damage. PMID:23871388

  17. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fansheng; Yu, Shujuan; Feng, Zeng; Wu, Xinlan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To optimization of extraction of antioxidant compounds from guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves and showed that the guava leaves are the potential source of antioxidant compounds. Materials and Methods: The bioactive polysaccharide compounds of guava leaves (P. guajava L.) were obtained using ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Extraction was carried out according to Box-Behnken central composite design, and independent variables were temperature (20–60°C), time (20–40 min) and power (200–350 W). The extraction process was optimized by using response surface methodology for the highest crude extraction yield of bioactive polysaccharide compounds. Results: The optimal conditions were identified as 55°C, 30 min, and 240 W. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl and hydroxyl free radical scavenging were conducted. Conclusion: The results of quantification showed that the guava leaves are the potential source of antioxidant compounds. PMID:26246720

  18. Antioxidant responses in soybean and alfalfa plants grown in DDTs contaminated soils: Useful variables for selecting plants for soil phytoremediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton, Francesca M; Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L; Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Monserrat, José M

    2016-06-01

    Phytoremediation is a low-cost alternative technology based on the use of plants to remove pollutants from the environment. Persistent organic pollutants such as DDTs with a long half-life in soils are attractive candidates for remediation. This study aimed to determine the potential of antioxidant response use in the evaluation of plants' tolerance for selecting species in phytoremediation purposes. Alfalfa and soybean plants were grown in DDT contaminated soils. After 60days, growth, protein content, antioxidant capacity, GST activity, concentration of proteic and non-proteic thiol groups, chlorophyll content and carotenoid content were measured in plant tissues. Results showed no effect on alfalfa or soybean photosynthetic pigments but different responses in the protein content, antioxidant capacity, GST activity and thiol groups on roots, stems and leaves, indicating that DDTs affected both species. Soybean showed higher susceptibility than alfalfa plants due to the lower antioxidant capacity and GST activity in leaves, in spite of having the lowest DDT accumulation. This study provides new insights into the role of oxidative stress as an important component of the plant's response to DDT exposure. PMID:27155479

  19. Antioxidant responses of citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), exposed to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Hong; Huang, Hai; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2010-12-01

    Relatively low or high temperatures are responsible for a variety of physiological stress responses in insects and mites. Induced thermal stress was recently associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which caused oxidative damage. In this study, we examined the time-related effect of the relatively low (0, 5, 10, and 15 °C) or high (32, 35, 38, and 41 °C) temperatures on the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidases (POX), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and the total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor). The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as a marker of lipid peroxidation in organisms, was also measured in the citrus red mite under thermal stress conditions. Results showed that SOD and GST activities were significantly increased and play an important role in the process of antioxidant response to thermal stress. Lipid peroxidation levels increased significantly (P<0.001) and changed in a time-dependent manner. CAT and POX activity, as well as TEAC, did not vary significantly and play a minor role to remove the ROS generation. These results suggest that thermal stress leads to oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes play an important role in reducing oxidative damage in the citrus red mite. PMID:20709071

  20. Increased antioxidant response and capability to produce ROS in hemocytes of Pinna nobilis L. exposed to anthropogenic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollutants exert immunotoxical effects on aquatic organisms. The aim was to determine the antioxidant response, markers of oxidative damage and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes of Pinna nobilis, the largest endemic bivalve in the Mediterranean Sea, under anthropogenic pressure. P. nobilis individuals were collected from two locations along Mallorca Island waters attending to different degree of human impact and the hemocytes were obtained. Specimens from the impacted area showed increased activities of the antioxidant enzymes – catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase –, myeloperoxidase activity and reduced glutathione levels. No differences in oxidative damage markers – malondiahdehyde and carbonyl index – were evidenced between the pristine and polluted areas. Hemocytes from the polluted area presented increased capability to generate reactive oxygen species and nitrite/nitrate when activated. In conclusion, the human activities primed hemocytes for oxidative burst and increased the antioxidant mechanism without evidence of oxidative damage. -- Highlights: •Pinna nobilis is very sensitive to the human activities. •Anthropogenic pressure induces an antioxidant adaptation to the stressful situation. •Increased capability to generate reactive oxygen species in impacted areas. -- Pinna nobilis responds to the anthropogenic activity with an antioxidant adaptation to the increased capability to generate reactive oxygen species

  1. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Flower of Jatropha integerrima by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ping Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method was developed for the efficient extraction of natural antioxidants from the flowers of Jatropha integerrima. Four independent variables, including ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, ultrasound irradiation time and temperature were studied by single factor experiments. Then, the central composite rotatable design and response surface methodology were employed to investigate the effect of three key parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, and ultrasound irradiation time on the antioxidant activities of the flower extracts. The optimal extraction conditions were an ethanol concentration of 59.6%, solvent/material ratio of 50:1, ultrasound irradiation time of 7 min, and ultrasound irradiation temperature of 40 °C. Under these conditions, the optimized experimental value was 1103.38 ± 16.11 µmol Trolox/g dry weight (DW, which was in accordance with the predicted value (1105.49 µmol Trolox/g DW. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of flower extracts obtained by UAE were compared with those produced by the traditional maceration and Soxhlet extraction methods, and UAE resulted in higher antioxidant activities after a shorter time at a lower temperature. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of Jatropha integerrima, and also indicate that ultrasound-assisted extraction is an efficient method for the extraction of natural antioxidants from plant materials.

  2. In vitro antioxidant profiling of seabuckthorn varieties and their adaptogenic response to high altitude-induced stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Suryakumar, Geetha; Singh, Virendra; Misra, Kshipra; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2015-08-01

    In the past few years, seabuckthorn plants have gained special attention due to their ability to grow in the harshest of the environment. This adaptability may be contributed by various antioxidants present in the plants besides other morphological adaptation. As in vivo studies cannot be justified without in vitro studies, the present investigation carried out evaluation of both in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Hippophae salicifolia (HS) and Hippophae rhamnoides mongolica (HRM) in comparison with Hippophae rhamnoides turkestanica (HRT). The results had clearly depicted that in vitro antioxidant potential of the extracts was responsible for the in vivo adaptogenic performance in animals during cold and hypoxia exposure under restraint stress. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total protein content, and antioxidant potential were determined. For adaptogenic studies, rats with oral drug supplementation were exposed to Cold-hypoxia-restraint (C-H-R) stresses-induced hypothermia, as a measure of endurance. Aqueous extracts of HS showed maximum (99 %) resistance compared to HRT (81 %) and HRM (29 %). The levels of biochemical parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and catalase (CAT) in blood samples also revealed that the aqueous leaf extract of HS has better antioxidant and adaptogenic potential compared to HRM.

  3. Short term supplementation of dietary antioxidants selectively regulates the inflammatory responses during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Na-Young

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers are serious complications for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlines the treatment of these diabetic complications remains unclear. We hypothesized that dietary antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, combined either with vitamin E or with vitamin E and NAC, improves delayed wound healing through modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Mice were divided into 4 groups; CON (non-diabetic control mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, DM (diabetic mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, VCE (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C and 0.5% vitamin E supplemented diet, and Comb (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C, 0.5% vitamin E, and 2.5% NAC supplemented diet. After 10 days of dietary antioxidant supplementation, cutaneous full-thickness excisional wounds were performed, and the rate of wound closure was examined. TBARS as lipid peroxidation products and vitamin E levels were measured in the liver. Expression levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory response related proteins were measured in the cutaneous wound site. Results Dietary antioxidant supplementation improved blood glucose levels and wound closure rate and increased liver vitamin E, but not liver TBARS levels in the diabetic mice as compared to those of the CON. In addition, dietary antioxidant supplementation modulated the expression levels of pIκBα, HO-1, CuZnSOD, iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the diabetic mice. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that delayed wound healing is associated with an inflammatory response induced by hyperglycaemia, and suggests that dietary antioxidant supplementation may have beneficial effects on wound healing through selective modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response.

  4. 31. Antioxidant and hypoxia induce the human antioxidant response element-mediated expression of NAD(P) H: quinone oxidoreductase1 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Background: NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is an obligate two-electron reductase that is involved in protection of cells against redox cycling, oxidative stress, and neoplasia. and can also bioactivate certain antitumor quinones. Many antioxidants are cancer chemopreventive agents, and tumour hypoxia are now being exploited in cancer treatment which shows considerable promise to overcome the resistance to cancer chemotherapy. Antioxidant response element (ARE) is sensitive to perturbations of cellular redox states. Our previous studies have shown that β-tyrosol (β-TY), as a phenolic antioxidant, can protects cells against DNA damage resulting from toxic H2O2. Aim: We take the present study with the goal of whether antioxidants such as β-tyrosol, butylated hydroxyanisole(BHA) and β-Naphthooflavone(β-NF) and hypoxia (pO2 0.1% -0.5%) can induce gene expression of NQO1, inhibit proliferation of human hepatoma cells SMMC-7721 and the relationship between them; whether ARE can mediate gene expression in response to antioxidans and hypoxia. Methods: SMMC-7721 human hepatoma cells are planted in plates, grown for 24h. and exposed to antioxidants and hypoxia, each alone or in combination for another 24h. The enzyme activity was determinied by spectrophotometric assay using direct measurement of NQO1 from cells cultured in Microtiter wells. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) technique was used to measure NQO1 mRNA levets. Proliferation was estimated using the crystal violet staining technique. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was employed to assess protein binding to the ARE under all of These conditions. Hypoxia cells were harvested in an anaerobic chamber at the end of the incubation period. Results: Antioxidant (90ug/ml β-TY、60μmol/L BHA、80μmol/L β-NF) potently induce an increase in the activity of NQO1. From 60μg/ml to 90μg/ml, β-TY caused NQO1 activity enhancement in a dose-dependent manner The NQO1 activity induced

  5. Morinda citrifolia leaf enhanced performance by improving angiogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory & stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Shalan, Nor Aijratul Asikin; Mustapha, Noordin M; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-12-01

    Morinda citrifolia fruit, (noni), enhanced performances in athletes and post-menopausal women in clinical studies. This report shows the edible noni leaves water extract enhances performance in a weight-loaded swimming animal model better than the fruit or standardized green tea extract. The 4weeks study showed the extract (containing scopoletin and epicatechin) progressively prolonged the time to exhaustion by threefold longer than the control, fruit or tea extract. The extract improved (i) the mammalian antioxidant responses (MDA, GSH and SOD2 levels), (ii) tissue nutrient (glucose) and metabolite (lactate) management, (iii) stress hormone (cortisol) regulation; (iv) neurotransmitter (dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin) expressions, transporter or receptor levels, (v) anti-inflammatory (IL4 & IL10) responses; (v) skeletal muscle angiogenesis (VEGFA) and (v) energy and mitochondrial biogenesis (via PGC, UCP3, NRF2, AMPK, MAPK1, and CAMK4). The ergogenic extract helped delay fatigue by enhancing energy production, regulation and efficiency, which suggests benefits for physical activities and disease recovery. PMID:27374554

  6. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on insulin sensitivity in response to endurance exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yfanti, Christina; Nielsen, Anders R; Åkerström, Thorbjörn;

    2011-01-01

    . To assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation during endurance training on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, twenty-one young healthy (age 29±1 y; BMI 25±3 Kg m(-2)) men were randomly assigned into either an antioxidant (AO; 500 mg vitamin C and 400 IU vitamin E (a-tocopherol) daily) or a placebo (PL...

  7. Characterization of certain proteinase isoenzymes produced by benign and virulent strains of Bacteroides nodosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R S

    1985-11-01

    Three proteinase isoenzymes from one benign strain of Bacteroides nodosus and five proteinase isoenzymes from each of two virulent strains of B. nodosus were purified by horizontal slab polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified isoenzymes hydrolysed casein, collagen I, collagen III, elastin, alpha-elastin, fibrinogen, gelatin, haemoglobin and alpha-keratin. The pH optima of all the isoenzymes lay between 7.25 and 9.5, the range of 8.75-9.25 being common to all. The isoenzymes were inhibited by phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride, diphenylcarbamyl chloride, L-(1-tosylamide-2-phenyl)ethyl chloromethyl ketone, EGTA and EDTA, indicating that they were chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases that require a metal ion for stability or activity. EDTA inhibition was not reversed by addition of Ca2+ or Mg2+. Some isoenzymes were activated by Mg2+, Ca2+, Cr3+ and Se4+ and all were inhibited by Fe2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Hg2+. Isoenzymes from benign strains had a lower temperature stability, losing all activity at 55 degrees C, whereas those from virulent strains lost all activity at 60 degrees C.

  8. Anti-oxidative defences are modulated differentially in three freshwater teleosts in response to ammonia-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Giblen, Terri; Zinta, Gaurav; De Rop, Michelle; Asard, Han; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and the antioxidant response induced by high environmental ammonia (HEA) were investigated in the liver and gills of three freshwater teleosts differing in their sensitivities to ammonia. The highly ammonia-sensitive salmonid Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), the less ammonia sensitive cyprinid Cyprinus carpio (common carp) and the highly ammonia-resistant cyprinid Carassius auratus (goldfish) were exposed to 1 mM ammonia (as NH4HCO3) for 0 h (control), 3 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h. Results show that HEA exposure increased ammonia accumulation significantly in the liver of all the three fish species from 24 h-48 h onwards which was associated with an increment in oxidative stress, evidenced by elevation of xanthine oxidase activity and levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Unlike in trout, H2O2 and MDA accumulation in carp and goldfish liver was restored to control levels (84 h-180 h); which was accompanied by a concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbate content. Many of these defence parameters remained unaffected in trout liver, while components of the glutathione redox cycle (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) enhanced to a greater extent. The present findings suggest that trout rely mainly on glutathione dependent defensive mechanism while carp utilize SOD, CAT and ascorbate as anti-oxidative sentinels. Hepatic cells of goldfish appear to utilize each of these protective systems, and showed more effective anti-oxidative compensatory responses towards HEA than carp, while trout were least effective. The present work also indicates that HEA exposure resulted in a relatively mild oxidative stress in the gills of all three species. This probably explains the almost complete lack of anti-oxidative responses in branchial tissue. This research suggests that oxidative stress, as well as the antioxidant

  9. Anti-oxidative defences are modulated differentially in three freshwater teleosts in response to ammonia-induced oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sinha

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and the antioxidant response induced by high environmental ammonia (HEA were investigated in the liver and gills of three freshwater teleosts differing in their sensitivities to ammonia. The highly ammonia-sensitive salmonid Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout, the less ammonia sensitive cyprinid Cyprinus carpio (common carp and the highly ammonia-resistant cyprinid Carassius auratus (goldfish were exposed to 1 mM ammonia (as NH4HCO3 for 0 h (control, 3 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h. Results show that HEA exposure increased ammonia accumulation significantly in the liver of all the three fish species from 24 h-48 h onwards which was associated with an increment in oxidative stress, evidenced by elevation of xanthine oxidase activity and levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA. Unlike in trout, H2O2 and MDA accumulation in carp and goldfish liver was restored to control levels (84 h-180 h; which was accompanied by a concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbate content. Many of these defence parameters remained unaffected in trout liver, while components of the glutathione redox cycle (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase enhanced to a greater extent. The present findings suggest that trout rely mainly on glutathione dependent defensive mechanism while carp utilize SOD, CAT and ascorbate as anti-oxidative sentinels. Hepatic cells of goldfish appear to utilize each of these protective systems, and showed more effective anti-oxidative compensatory responses towards HEA than carp, while trout were least effective. The present work also indicates that HEA exposure resulted in a relatively mild oxidative stress in the gills of all three species. This probably explains the almost complete lack of anti-oxidative responses in branchial tissue. This research suggests that oxidative stress, as well as the

  10. Antioxidant responses in estuarine invertebrates exposed to repeated oil spills: Effects of frequency and dosage in a field manipulative experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Pereira, Letícia; Martins, César C; Silva de Assis, Helena C; Camus, Lionel; Lana, Paulo C

    2016-08-01

    We have experimentally investigated the effects of repeated diesel spills on the bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana, the gastropod Neritina virginea and the polychaete Laeonereis culveri, by monitoring the responses of oxidative stress biomarkers in a subtropical estuary. Three frequencies of exposure events were compared against two dosages of oil in a factorial experiment with asymmetrical controls. Hypotheses were tested to distinguish between (i) the overall effect of oil spills, (ii) the effect of diesel dosage via different exposure regimes, and (iii) the effect of time since last spill. Antioxidant defense responses and oxidative damage in the bivalve A. brasiliana and the polychaete L. culveri were overall significantly affected by frequent oil spills compared to undisturbed controls. The main effects of diesel spills on both species were the induction of SOD and GST activities, a significant increase in LPO levels and a decrease in GSH concentration. N. virginea was particularly tolerant to oil exposure, with the exception of a significant GSH depletion. Overall, enzymatic activities and oxidative damage in A. brasiliana and L. culveri were induced by frequent low-dosage spills compared to infrequent high-dosage spills, although the opposite pattern was observed for N. virginea antioxidant responses. Antioxidant responses in A. brasiliana and L. culveri were not affected by timing of exposure events. However, our results revealed that N. virginea might have a delayed response to acute high-dosage exposure. Experimental in situ simulations of oil exposure events with varying frequencies and intensities provide a useful tool for detecting and quantifying environmental impacts. In general, antioxidant biomarkers were induced by frequent low-dosage exposures compared to infrequent high-dosage ones. The bivalve A. brasiliana and the polychaete L. culveri are more suitable sentinels due to their greater responsiveness to oil and also to their wider geographical

  11. High salt induced oxidative damage and antioxidant response in tomato grafted on tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Darcansoy İşeri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major limitations on agricultural development in many countries is the high salinity of the groundwater used in irrigation. Grafted plants may exhibit phenotypic variations from scion and rootstock plants in terms of abiotic stress tolerance, and be a method for improvement of tolerance in agricultural practices. The aim of the present study was to investigate response of Solanum lycopersicum L. ('Elaziğ' grafted on Nicotiana tabacum L. ('Samsun' and Nicotiana rustica L. ('Hasankeyf', namely "Tomacco" plant (patent nr TR-2008-05391-B, to 10-d high NaCl irrigation. Physical development, chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid, and anthocyanin levels were evaluated. Proline, lipid peroxidation, and electrolyte leakage levels were assayed in roots and leaves together with ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT activities. Considering alterations in chlorophyll contents, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA, and conductivity levels, and antioxidant enzyme activity levels scion and self-grafted plants seem to be more affected by salt treatments than tobacco and rootstock grafted plants. Tobacco roots seem to have better adaptive responses against salt stress in comparison to tomato as supported by changes in proline, APX, and CAT levels. Self-grafting experiments further supported grafting tomato onto tobacco rootstocks enhanced salt tolerance and adaptive response of scions and these changes seem to be dependent on rootstock rather than graft-induced changes. In conclusion, we demonstrated that previously defined graft unions of tomato on tobacco, which have increased fruit yield, had also enhanced tolerance to high salt stress and a promising technique for the cultivation of more salt tolerant varieties.

  12. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoid Compounds and Antioxidants from Alfalfa Using Response Surface Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Liang Jing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE was used to extract flavonoid-enriched antioxidants from alfalfa aerial part. Response surface methodology (RSM, based on a four-factor, five-level central composite design (CCD, was employed to obtain the optimal extraction parameters, in which the flavonoid content was maximum and the antioxidant activity of the extracts was strongest. Radical scavenging capacity of the extracts, which represents the amounts of antioxidants in alfalfa, was determined by using 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid (ABTS and 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH methods. The results showed good fit with the proposed models for the total flavonoid extraction (R2 = 0.9849, for the antioxidant extraction assayed by ABTS method (R2 = 0.9764, and by DPPH method (R2 = 0.9806. Optimized extraction conditions for total flavonoids was a ratio of liquid to solid of 57.16 mL/g, 62.33 °C, 57.08 min, and 52.14% ethanol. The optimal extraction parameters of extracts for the highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was a ratio of liquid to solid 60.3 mL/g, 54.56 °C, 45.59 min, and 46.67% ethanol, and by ABTS assay was a ratio of liquid to solid 47.29 mL/g, 63.73 °C, 51.62 min, and 60% ethanol concentration. Our work offers optimal extraction conditions for total flavonoids and antioxidants from alfalfa.

  13. The effect of cadmium on the growth and antioxidant response for freshwater algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinfeng; Qiu, Hongchen; Chang, Zhaoyang; Jiang, Zaimin; Yin, Wenke

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of exogenously applied cadmium on the physiological response of green algae Chlorella vulgaris. The study investigated the long-term effect (18 days) of cadmium on the levels of algae biomass, assimilation pigment composition, soluble protein, oxidative status (production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion), antioxidant enzymes (such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase enzyme) in C. vulgaris. The results showed that growth, the amount of chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and carotenoids gradually decreased with increasing cadmium over 18 days exposure. Cadmium at concentration of 7 mg L(-1) inhibited algal growth expressed as the number of cells. Our research found that C. vulgaris has a high tolerance to cadmium. Contents of chlorophylls (Chl a and Chl b) and carotenoids (Car) of C. vulgaris was significantly decline with rising concentration of cadmium (p alga with exposure to Cd(II) seemed to be parameters as biomarkers for metal-induced oxidative stress. PMID:27652004

  14. Effects of dietary vitamin A on antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jinghua; ZHANG Wenbing; MAI Kangsen; FENG Xiuni; XU Wei; LIUFU Zhiguo; TAN Beiping

    2006-01-01

    A 240 d growth experiment was conducted in a re-circulated water system to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin A on growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone [initial mass was (0.96 ± 0.02) g, shell length was (17.70 ± 0.06) mm] were fed to satiation one of three semi-purified diets containing 0, 1×103, 1×106 IU vitamin A per kilogram diet, respectively. Results showed that the daily increment in shell length (DISL) of abalone in the treatment with 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram diet was significantly higher than that with 0 or 1×106 IU vitamin A per kilogram supplementation (P < 0.05). Vitamin A deficiency (0 IU/kg) significantly elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the viscera of abalone (P < 0.05). In muscle, the effects of vitamin A deficiency on SOD and GPX activities were the same as those in viscera, however, the activity of GR significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Vitamin A deficiency significantly decreased the ratio of CAT to SOD (catalase/superoxide dismutase) in viscera (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, it significantly decreased the ratio of GR to GPX in muscle (P < 0.05). Compared with the supplement of 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram, excessive vitamin A (1×106 IU/kg) had no significant effects on the activities of CAT, SOD and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (P > 0.05), but significantly elevated GPX and GR activities in viscera (P < 0.05). In muscle, the activities of CAT, SOD, GPX, GST and GR were significantly decreased by the excessive dietary vitamin A supplement (P < 0.05). Compared with the supplement of 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram, vitamin A-excessive had no significant effect on the value of ratio of CAT to SOD either in viscera or in muscle (P>0.05). The ratio of GR to GPX was significantly decreased in viscera, but significantly elevated in muscle in the vitamin A

  15. Induction of Antioxidant and Heat Shock Protein Responses During Torpor in the Gray Mouse Lemur, Microcebus murinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Wei Wu; Kyle K Biggar; Jing Zhang; Shannon N Tessier; Fabien Pifferi; Martine Perret; Kenneth B Storey

    2015-01-01

    A natural tolerance of various environmental stresses is typically supported by various cytoprotective mechanisms that protect macromolecules and promote extended viability. Among these are antioxidant defenses that help to limit damage from reactive oxygen species and chaper-ones that help to minimize protein misfolding or unfolding under stress conditions. To understand the molecular mechanisms that act to protect cells during primate torpor, the present study charac-terizes antioxidant and heat shock protein (HSP) responses in various organs of control (aroused)and torpid gray mouse lemurs, Microcebus murinus. Protein expression of HSP70 and HSP90a was elevated to 1.26 and 1.49 fold, respectively, in brown adipose tissue during torpor as compared with control animals, whereas HSP60 in liver of torpid animals was 1.15 fold of that in control (P<0.05). Among antioxidant enzymes, protein levels of thioredoxin 1 were elevated to 2.19 fold in white adipose tissue during torpor, whereas Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase 1 levels rose to 1.1 fold in skeletal muscle (P<0.05). Additionally, total antioxidant capacity was increased to 1.6 fold in liver during torpor (P<0.05), while remaining unchanged in the five other tissues. Overall, our data suggest that antioxidant and HSP responses are modified in a tissue-specific manner during daily torpor in gray mouse lemurs. Furthermore, our data also show that cytoprotective strategies employed during primate torpor are distinct from the strategies in rodent hibernation as reported in previous studies.

  16. Serum Oxidative Stress Markers and Lipidomic Profile to Detect NASH Patients Responsive to an Antioxidant Treatment: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Stiuso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver steatosis can evolve to steatohepatitis (NASH through a series of biochemical steps related to oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Antioxidants, such as silybin, have been proposed as a treatment of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and NASH. In this study, we evaluated, in patients with histologically documented NASH, the oxidant/antioxidant status and lipid “fingerprint” in the serum of NASH patients, both in basal conditions and after 12 months of treatment with silybin-based food integrator Realsil (RA. The oxidant/antioxidant status analysis showed the presence of a group of patients with higher basal severity of disease (NAS scores 4.67 ± 2.5 and a second group corresponding to borderline NASH (NAS scores = 3.8 ± 1.5. The chronic treatment with RA changed the NAS score in both groups that reached the statistical significance only in group 2, in which there was also a significant decrease of serum lipid peroxidation. The lipidomic profile showed a lipid composition similar to that of healthy subjects with a restoration of the values of free cholesterol, lysoPC, SM, and PC only in group 2 of patients after treatment with RA. Conclusion. These data suggest that lipidomic and/or oxidative status of serum from patients with NASH could be useful as prognostic markers of response to an antioxidant treatment.

  17. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for anthocyanins, polyphenols, and antioxidants from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Lee, Won Young; Choi, Yong Hee

    2013-09-01

    Anthocyanins (Acys), polyphenols, and antioxidants were extracted from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using a highly efficient microwave-assisted extraction technique. Different solvents, including methanol, ethanol, and acetone, were tested. The colors of the extracts varied from light yellow to purple red or dark red. SEM and other nutrient analyses verified that ethanol was the most favorable medium for the microwave-assisted extraction of raspberry due to its high output and low toxicity. Effects of process parameters, including microwave power, irradiation time, and solvent concentration, were investigated through response surface methodology. Canonical analysis estimated that the highest total Acys content, total polyphenols content, and antioxidant activity of raspberry were 17.93 mg cyanidin-3-O-glucoside equivalents per gram dry weight, 38.57 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram dry weight, and 81.24%, respectively. The polyphenol compositions of raspberry extract were identified by HPLC with diode array detection, and nine kinds of polyphenols were identified and quantified, revealing that chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, and rutin are the major polyphenols contained in raspberry fruits. Compared with other fruits and vegetables, raspberry contains higher Acy and polyphenol contents with stronger antioxidant activity, suggesting that raspberry fruits are a good source of natural food colorants and antioxidants.

  18. Effect of Chitosan Coating on the Postharvest Quality and Antioxidant Enzyme System Response of Strawberry Fruit during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Petriccione

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of chitosan fruit coating to delay the qualitative and nutraceutical traits of three strawberry cultivars, namely “Candonga”, “Jonica” and “Sabrina”, as well as the effects of chitosan on antioxidant enzymes were evaluated. The fruits were coated with 1% and 2% chitosan solution and stored at 2 °C for nine days. Samples were taken every three days. Physico-chemical (weight loss, soluble solid content and titratable acidity and nutraceutical (total polyphenol, anthocyanin, flavonoid, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant capacity properties along with the enzymatic activity (catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, guaiacol peroxidase (GPX and lipoxygenase (LOX were evaluated. Chitosan treatment significantly reduced water loss and delayed the qualitative changes in color, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content in dose- and cultivar-dependent manners. Additionally, changes in the total polyphenol, anthocyanin and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant capacity of chitosan-coated strawberry fruits were delayed. Chitosan coating enhanced the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, preventing flesh browning and reducing membrane damage. A global view of the responses of the three strawberry cultivars to chitosan coating and storage temperature was obtained using principal component analysis. Chitosan-coated fruit exhibited a slower rate of deterioration, compared to uncoated fruit in all tested cultivars.

  19. Heat-shock response and antioxidant defense during air exposure in Patagonian shallow-water limpets from different climatic habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Pöhlmann, Kevin; Koenigstein, Stefan; Alter, Katharina; Abele, Doris; Held, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Climate warming involves not only a rise of air temperature means, but also more frequent heat waves in many regions on earth, and is predicted to intensify physiological stress especially in extremely changeable habitats like the intertidal. We investigated the heat-shock response (HSR) and enzymatic antioxidant defense levels of Patagonian shallow-water limpets, adapted to distinct tidal exposure conditions in the sub- and intertidal. Limpets were sampled in the temperate Northern Patagonia...

  20. The protective effect of antioxidants on orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy in response to oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Chieh-Chih; Wu, Shi-Bei; Kao, Shu-Ching; Kau, Hui-Chuan; Lee, Fenq-Lih; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the biphasic effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the orbital fibroblasts of patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) and the relation to antioxidants and proinflammatory cytokines. Methods Proliferation of cultured orbital fibroblasts from patients with GO and normal controls was evaluated in response to various concentrations of H2O2. The effect of low concentrations of H2O2 (6.25 μM) on the cellular proliferation and induction of intracellular proinflammatory cyt...

  1. Short term supplementation of dietary antioxidants selectively regulates the inflammatory responses during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Na-Young; Lim, Yunsook

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot ulcers are serious complications for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlines the treatment of these diabetic complications remains unclear. We hypothesized that dietary antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, combined either with vitamin E or with vitamin E and NAC, improves delayed wound healing through modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan mo...

  2. Differential Antioxidant Responses and Perturbed Porphyrin Biosynthesis after Exposure to Oxyfluorfen and Methyl Viologen in Oryza sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Nhi-Thi Pham; Jin-Gil Kim; Sunyo Jung

    2015-01-01

    We compared antioxidant responses and regulation of porphyrin metabolism in rice plants treated with oxyfluorfen (OF) or methyl viologen (MV). Plants treated with MV exhibited not only greater increases in conductivity and malondialdehyde but also a greater decline in Fv/Fm, compared to plants treated with OF. MV-treated plants had greater increases in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as transcript levels of SODA and CATA than OF-treated plants after 28 h of...

  3. Antioxidant defense response induced by Trichoderma viride against Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem causing collar rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajera, H P; Katakpara, Zinkal A; Patel, S V; Golakiya, B A

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to examine the antioxidant enzymes induced by Trichoderma viride JAU60 as initial defense response during invasion of rot pathogen Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem in five groundnut varieties under pot culture. Seed treatment of T. viride JAU60 reduced 51-58% collar rot disease incidence in different groundnut varieties under pathogen infected soil culture. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), elevated in response to pathogen infection, in higher rate by tolerant varieties (J-11 and GG-2) compared with susceptible (GAUG-10, GG-13, GG-20) and further induced by T. viride treatment. Trichoderma treatment remarkably increased the 2.3 fold SOD, 5 fold GPX and 2.5 fold APX activities during disease development in tolerant varieties and the same was found about 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 folds, respectively, in susceptible varieties. Overall, T. viride JAU60 treated seedlings (T3) witnessed higher activities of SOD (1.5 fold), GPX (3.25 fold) and APX (1.25 fold) than pathogen treatment (T2) possibly suggest the induction of antioxidant defense response by Trichoderma bio-controller to combat oxidative burst produced by invading pathogen.

  4. Differential coral bleaching-Contrasting the activity and response of enzymatic antioxidants in symbiotic partners under thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Thomas; Hawkins, Thomas D; Becker, Susanne; Pontasch, Stefanie; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Leggat, William; Fisher, Paul L; Davy, Simon K

    2015-12-01

    Mass coral bleaching due to thermal stress represents a major threat to the integrity and functioning of coral reefs. Thermal thresholds vary, however, between corals, partly as a result of the specific type of endosymbiotic dinoflagellate (Symbiodinium sp.) they harbour. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in corals under thermal and light stress has been recognised as one mechanism that can lead to cellular damage and the loss of their symbiont population (Oxidative Theory of Coral Bleaching). Here, we compared the response of symbiont and host enzymatic antioxidants in the coral species Acropora millepora and Montipora digitata at 28°C and 33°C. A. millepora at 33°C showed a decrease in photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) and increase in maximum midday excitation pressure on PSII, with subsequent bleaching (declining photosynthetic pigment and symbiont density). M. digitata exhibited no bleaching response and photochemical changes in its symbionts were minor. The symbiont antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase peroxidase showed no significant upregulation to elevated temperatures in either coral, while only catalase was significantly elevated in both coral hosts at 33°C. Increased host catalase activity in the susceptible coral after 5days at 33°C was independent of antioxidant responses in the symbiont and preceded significant declines in PSII photochemical efficiencies. This finding suggests a potential decoupling of host redox mechanisms from symbiont photophysiology and raises questions about the importance of symbiont-derived ROS in initiating coral bleaching. PMID:26310104

  5. The effects of Aphis fabae infestation on the antioxidant response and heavy metal content in field grown Philadelphus coronarius plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafel, Alina, E-mail: akafel@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Nadgorska-Socha, Aleksandra [University of Silesia, Department of Ecology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Gospodarek, Janina [Agricultural University of Krakow, Department of Agricultural Environment Protection, Mickiewicza 21, PL 31-120, Krakow (Poland); Babczynska, Agnieszka; Skowronek, Magda [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Kandziora, Marta [University of Silesia, Department of Ecology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Rozpedek, Katarzyna [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland)

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a possible relationship between the soil availability of metals and their concentrations in various parts of Philadelphuscoronarius plants. Moreover, the possible impact of an aphid infestation on the contamination and antioxidant response of plants from the urban environment of Krakow and the reference rural area of Zagaje Stradowskie (southern Poland) was analyzed. The contents of the glutathione, proline, non-protein - SH groups, antioxidants, and phosphorous and the levels of guaiacol peroxidase and catalase activity in leaves and shoots either infested or not by the aphid Aphis fabae Scop., were measured. The potential bioavailability of metals (Cd; Cu; Ni; Pb; Zn) in the soil and their concentrations in P. coronarius plants originating from both sites were compared. The antioxidant responses were generally elevated in the plants in the polluted area. Such reactions were additionally changed by aphid infestation. Generally, the concentrations of metals in the HNO{sub 3} and CaCl{sub 2} extractants of the soils from two layers at the 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths from the polluted area were higher than in those from the reference area. Such differences were found for nickel and lead (in all examined extractants), zinc (in soil extractants from the layer at 20-40 cm) and cadmium (in HNO{sub 3} extractants). Significant positive relationships between the lead concentrations in the soil and in the plants were found. In the parts of plants from the polluted area, higher concentrations of Pb and Zn (leaves and shoots) and Cd (shoots) were recorded. The shoots and leaves of plants infested with aphids had higher concentrations of Zn but lower Pb. Moreover, their leaves had higher contaminations of Cu and Ni. In conclusion, aphids affected not only the antioxidant response of the plants but also their contamination with metals, especially contamination of the leaves.

  6. Early osmotic, antioxidant, ionic, and redox responses to salinity in leaves and roots of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Singh Laxmi; Manish, Pandey; Penna, Suprasanna

    2016-01-01

    Salt-stress-induced alterations in osmotic, ionic, and redox responses were studied in the early period of treatment (30 min to 5 days) in seedlings of Brassica juncea L. Roots and shoots under mild (50 mM) and severe (250 mM) NaCl stress were analyzed for growth, oxidative stress, osmolyte accumulation, antioxidant defense, and redox state. Growth reduction was less pronounced in the early time period of salt stress while oxidative damage increased linearly and in a sustained manner under severe stress up to 6 h. An early and transient reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, as evidenced by superoxide and hydrogen peroxide level was observed, followed by activation of enzymatic antioxidant system (GPX, SOD, CAT, and GR) in both root and shoot. The enzymatic activity was not affected much under mild stress particularly at early phase; however, severe stress induced a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Root ascorbate was progressively accumulated, and its redox state maintained in the early time phase of treatment under mild stress while increase in root and shoot glutathione content was recorded under mild stress at 5 days when the active ascorbate pool decreased. While early period of salt stress showed significant Na(+) accumulation over control, plants subjected to mild stress measured less Na(+) accumulation up to 5 days compared to severely stressed plants. The results showed an early induction of differential responses to salt stress in roots and shoots of Brassica which include growth limitations, reduced relative water content, increased osmolytes, redox state, and antioxidant system, and a significant Na(+) increase. The results also indicate that roots and shoots may have distinct mechanisms of responses to salt stress.

  7. Responses of Antioxidant Enzymes in Catfish Exposed to Liquid Crystals from E-Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals (LCs are typically elongated organic molecules with a non-uniform distribution of electrical charges leading to a dipole. LCs are widely used in displays of computers and other electronic devices. The rapid obsolescence rate of electronics results in large amounts of liquid crystal displays (LCDs entering the environment. Data on health effects of LCs on living creatures are currently limited to some acute toxicity tests by a few major LC manufacturers. These tests concluded that the vast majority of LCs are not acutely toxic. Since the amount of LCs in electronic devices is very small, the health effects of LCs at low concentrations or doses become important. Catfish were used as the test animals in this study. Four major enzymes of the fish’s antioxidant defense system catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx, and glutathione-Stransferase (GST were chosen as biomarkers to examine effects of LCs, which were taken from obsolete laptop personal computers made in the early 1990s. The catfish were fed with food containing different contents of LCs for 40 days. Activities of the four chosen enzymes in fish livers were assayed. The results showed that there were significant inductions of CAT, SOD, and Se-GPx activities in response to the LC doses. The plots of the enzyme activities versus LC doses suggested an occurrence of oxidative stress when the dose reached about 20 μg LC/g fish·d. It was concluded that LCs can cause pollutant-induced stress to catfish at low doses. CAT, SOD and Se-GPx are effective biomarkers to give early warning on potential health effects of LCs on some aquatic lives including catfish.

  8. Deficiency of glutathione transferase zeta causes oxidative stress and activation of antioxidant response pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Anneke C; Matthaei, Klaus I; Lim, Cindy; Taylor, Matthew C; Cappello, Jean Y; Hayes, John D; Anders, M W; Board, Philip G

    2006-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) zeta (GSTZ1-1) plays a significant role in the catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine, and a deficiency of GSTZ1-1 results in the accumulation of maleylacetoacetate and its derivatives maleylacetone (MA) and succinylacetone. Induction of GST subunits was detected in the liver of Gstz1(-/-) mice by Western blotting with specific antisera and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of glutathione affinity column-purified proteins. The greatest induction was observed in members of the mu class. Induction of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 and the catalytic and modifier subunits of glutamate-cysteine ligase was also observed. Many of the enzymes that are induced in Gstz1(-/-) mice are regulated by antioxidant response elements that respond to oxidative stress via the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway. It is significant that diminished glutathione concentrations were also observed in the liver of Gstz1(-/-) mice, which supports the conclusion that under normal dietary conditions, the accumulation of electrophilic intermediates such as maleylacetoacetate and MA results in a high level of oxidative stress. Elevated GST activities in the livers of Gstz1(-/-) mice suggest that GSTZ1-1 deficiency may alter the metabolism of some drugs and xenobiotics. Gstz1(-/-) mice given acetaminophen demonstrated increased hepatotoxicity compared with wild-type mice. This toxicity may be attributed to the increased GST activity or the decreased hepatic concentrations of glutathione, or both. Patients with acquired deficiency of GSTZ1-1 caused by therapeutic exposure to dichloroacetic acid for the clinical treatment of lactic acidosis may be at increased risk of drug- and chemical-induced toxicity. PMID:16278372

  9. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Responses in Young Leaves of Mulberry Plants Grown Under Nitrogen,Phosphorus or Potassium Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajesh Kumar Tewari; Praveen Kumar; Parma Nand Sharma

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to associate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with induced antioxidant responses and disturbed cellular redox environment in the nltrogen-(N), phosphorus-(P), or potassium-(K) deficient mulberry (Morus alba L. var. Kanva-2) plants. The indicators of oxidative stress and cellular redox environment and antioxidant defense-related parameters were analyzed. Deficiency of N, P or K suppressed growth,accelerated senescence, and decreased concentrations of chloroplastic pigments and glutathione. Lipid peroxidation and activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase were also increased in these N, P, or K deprived plants. Concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased in plants deficient in N or P. Deftciency of N or P particularly altered the cellular redox environment as indicated by changes in the redox couples,namely ascorblc acid/total ascorbate decreased in P-, glutathione sulfydryl/total glutathione decreased in N-, and increased in P-deficient plants. Activity staining of native gels for superoxide dismutase revealed increased activity as indicated by increased intensity of bands, and induction of few new isoforms in P- and K-deficient plants.Differences in the patterns of superoxide dismutase isoforms and redox status (ascorbic acid/total ascorbate and glutathlone sulfydryl/total glutathione) indicate that N-, P-, or K-deficiency altered antioxidant responses to varying extents in mulberry plants.

  10. Differential Antioxidant Responses and Perturbed Porphyrin Biosynthesis after Exposure to Oxyfluorfen and Methyl Viologen in Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhi-Thi Pham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We compared antioxidant responses and regulation of porphyrin metabolism in rice plants treated with oxyfluorfen (OF or methyl viologen (MV. Plants treated with MV exhibited not only greater increases in conductivity and malondialdehyde but also a greater decline in Fv/Fm, compared to plants treated with OF. MV-treated plants had greater increases in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT as well as transcript levels of SODA and CATA than OF-treated plants after 28 h of the treatments, whereas increases in ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity and transcript levels of APXA and APXB were greater in OF-treated plants. Both OF- and MV-treated plants resulted in not only down-regulation of most genes involved in porphyrin biosynthesis but also disappearance of Mg-porphyrins during the late stage of photooxidative stress. By contrast, up-regulation of heme oxygenase 2 (HO2 is possibly part of an efficient antioxidant response to compensate photooxidative damage in both treatments. Our data show that down-regulated biosynthesis and degradation dynamics of porphyrin intermediates have important roles in photoprotection of plants from perturbed porphyrin biosynthesis and photosynthetic electron transport. This study suggests that porphyrin scavenging as well as strong antioxidative activities are required for mitigating reactive oxygen species (ROS production under photooxidative stress caused by OF and MV.

  11. Differential Antioxidant Responses and Perturbed Porphyrin Biosynthesis after Exposure to Oxyfluorfen and Methyl Viologen in Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Nhi-Thi; Kim, Jin-Gil; Jung, Sunyo

    2015-01-01

    We compared antioxidant responses and regulation of porphyrin metabolism in rice plants treated with oxyfluorfen (OF) or methyl viologen (MV). Plants treated with MV exhibited not only greater increases in conductivity and malondialdehyde but also a greater decline in Fv/Fm, compared to plants treated with OF. MV-treated plants had greater increases in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as transcript levels of SODA and CATA than OF-treated plants after 28 h of the treatments, whereas increases in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and transcript levels of APXA and APXB were greater in OF-treated plants. Both OF- and MV-treated plants resulted in not only down-regulation of most genes involved in porphyrin biosynthesis but also disappearance of Mg-porphyrins during the late stage of photooxidative stress. By contrast, up-regulation of heme oxygenase 2 (HO2) is possibly part of an efficient antioxidant response to compensate photooxidative damage in both treatments. Our data show that down-regulated biosynthesis and degradation dynamics of porphyrin intermediates have important roles in photoprotection of plants from perturbed porphyrin biosynthesis and photosynthetic electron transport. This study suggests that porphyrin scavenging as well as strong antioxidative activities are required for mitigating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production under photooxidative stress caused by OF and MV. PMID:26197316

  12. Nitrate, ascorbic acid, mineral and antioxidant activities of Cosmos caudatus in response to organic and mineral-based fertilizer rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Siti Aishah; Mijin, Salumiah; Yusoff, Umi Kalsom; Ding, Phebe; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat

    2012-06-28

    The source and quantity of nutrients available to plants can affect the quality of leafy herbs. A study was conducted to compare quality of Cosmos caudatus in response to rates of organic and mineral-based fertilizers. Organic based fertilizer GOBI (8% N:8% P₂O₅:8% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O) were evaluated based on N element rates at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 kg h⁻¹. Application of organic based fertilizer reduced nitrate, improved vitamin C, antioxidant activity as well as nitrogen and calcium nutrients content. Antioxidant activity and chlorophyll content were significantly higher with increased fertilizer application. Fertilization appeared to enhance vitamin C content, however for the maximum ascorbic acid content, regardless of fertilizer sources, plants did not require high amounts of fertilizer.

  13. Antioxidative and immunological responses in the haemolymph of wolf spider Xerolycosa nemoralis (Lycosidae) exposed to starvation and dimethoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmach, Monika; Wilczek, Grażyna; Homa, Joanna; Szulinska, Elżbieta

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intensity of enzymatic antioxidative parameters [catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSTPx), glutathione reductase (GR), total antioxidant capacity (TAC)] and percentage of high granularity cells as well as low to medium granularity cells in haemolymph of wolf spiders Xerolycosa nemoralis exposed to starvation and dimethoate under laboratory conditions. Only in starved males, haemolymph included a lower percentage of high granularity cells, accompanied by high activity of CAT and GSTPx, than in the control. Exposure of males to dimethoate increased CAT activity, after single application, and significantly enhanced GR activity, after five-time application. In females, five-time contact with dimethoate elevated the percentage of high granularity cells. As in comparison to females, male X. nemoralis were more sensitive to the applied stressing factors, it may be concluded that in natural conditions both food deficiency and chemical stress may diminish the immune response of their organisms.

  14. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status response of handball athletes: implications for sport training monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Douglas Popp; Bolin, Anaysa Paola; Campoio, Thais Regina; Guerra, Beatriz Alves; Otton, Rosemari

    2013-10-01

    The chronic exposure to regular exercise training seems to improve antioxidant defense systems. However, the intense physical training imposed on elite athletes may lead to overtraining associated with oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of different training loads and competition on oxidative stress, biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzymatic defense in handball athletes during 6-months of monitoring. Ten male elite handball athletes were recruited to the study. Blood samples were collected four times every six weeks throughout the season. During most intense periods of training and competitions there were significant changes in plasma indices of oxidative stress (increased TBARS and decreased thiols). Conversely, chronic adaptations to exercise training demonstrated a significant protective effect against oxidative stress in erythrocyte (decrease in TBARs and carbonyl group levels). Erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly increased, suggesting a training-induced antioxidant adaptation. Biomarkers of skeletal muscle damage were significantly increased during high-intensity training period (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase). No significant changes were observed in plasma IL-6, TNF-α and uric acid, whereas a significant reduction was found in the IL-1β concentration and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. Oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers can change throughout the season in competitive athletes, reflecting the physical stress and muscle damage that occurs as the result of competitive handball training. In addition, these biochemical measurements can be applied in the physiological follow-up of athletes.

  15. Effects of the amplitude and frequency of salinity fluctuations on antioxidant responses in juvenile tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin O. Khairnar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the tolerance of tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis, to varying salinities, the effects of the amplitude (2, 4, 6 and 8 g/L and frequency (2, 4 and 8 days of salinity fluctuations on the activities of antioxidant responses, including acidic phosphatase (ACP, alkaline phosphatase (AKP, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD from antioxidant system in liver, muscle, gills and kidney, were investigated in this study. The results showed that the antioxidant responses of tongue sole were highly tissue-specific during the varying salinity fluctuations. In all tissues, ACP and AKP activity was found to be highest at moderate salinity fluctuations compared to the control, low and high salinity treatments (p<0.05. SOD and CAT activities had significant effect due to salinity fluctuations in all tissues (p<0.05, except in hepatic and renal tissues. Variations in branchial SOD activity proved that salinity fluctuations had greater impact on tongue sole at moderate and high fluctuating salinities compared to the control and low fluctuating salinities, whereas the branchial CAT activities showed contrasting trend. Further, cortisol levels were significantly affected in lower and higher salinity fluctuations. However, plasma cortisol levels remained low in moderate salinity fluctuations and control (p<0.05. Taken together, the results indicated that salinity fluctuations could effectively stimulate and enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver, kidney, gills and muscle of the juvenile tongue sole, thus effectively eliminating the excessive reactive oxygen species and minimizing the body damage in tongue sole or could be for any other euryhaline teleosts.

  16. Differential Responses of the Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes to Thermal Stresses between Two Invasive Eupatorium Species in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Lu; Wei-Guo Sang; Ke-Ping Ma

    2008-01-01

    The effect of thermal stress on the antioxidant system was Investigated in two invasive plants, Eupatorlum adenophorum Spreng. and E. odoratum L. The former is sensitive to high temperature, whereas the latter is sensitive to low temperature.Our aim was to explore the relationship between the response of antioxidant enzymes and temperature In the two Invasive weeds with different distribution patterns in China. Plants were transferred from glasshouse to growth chambers at a constant 25 ℃ for 1 week to acclimatize to the environment. For the heat treatments, temperature was Increased stepwise to 30, 35, 38 and finally to 42 ℃. For the cold treatments, temperature was decreased stepwise to 20, 15,10 and finally to 5 ℃.Plants were kept In the growth chambers for 24 h at each temperature step. In E. adenophorum, the coordinated Increase of the activities of antioxidant enzymes was effective In protecting the plant from the eccumulatlon of active oxygen species (AOS) at low temperature, but the activities of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX),glutathione reductase (GR), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) were not accompanied by the Increase of super-oxide dismutase (SOD) during the heat treatments. As a result, the level of lipid peroxidation in E. adenophorum was higher under heat stress than under cold stress. In E. odoratum, however, the lesser degree of membrane damage, as indicated by low monodehydroascorbate content, and the coordinated Increase of the oxygen. Dstoxlfying enzymes were observed in hest-treated plants, but the antioxidant enzymes were unable to operate in cold stress. This indicates that the plants have a higher capacity for scavenging oxygen radicals in heat stress than in cold stress. The different responses of antloxidant enzymes may be one of the possible mechanisms of the differences in temperature sensitivities of the two plant species.

  17. Impact of tributyltin on antioxidant and DNA damage response in spermatozoa of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, K Umaa; Musthafa, M Saiyad; War, Mehrajuddin; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Shareef, T H Mohamed Ahadhu; Nawas, P Mohideen Askar

    2015-12-01

    Effects of tributyltin (TBT) on antioxidant [total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR)] and DNA damage levels in the spermatozoa were studied and reported here for the first time in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Three groups of (n = 10 in each group) fishes were exposed to three different nominal concentrations of TBT viz., 1, 2, and 4 mg L(-1) along with control group for 90 days. Significant decrease of antioxidant and increased DNA damage levels were seen at higher doses of 2 and 4 mg L(-1). In prawn, the antioxidant level plays a vital role in sperm protection, activation, differential functions related to the physiology, and reproductive behavior. This study serves as a biomonitoring tool to assess the TBT effects on reproductive behavior of aquatic biota.

  18. Control of antioxidative response by the tumor suppressor protein PML through regulating Nrf2 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuang; Cheng, Xiwen; Lim, Jun-Hee; Liu, Yu; Kao, Hung-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a consequence of an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the ability of the cytoprotective system to detoxify the reactive intermediates. The tumor suppressor promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) functions as a stress sensor. Loss of PML results in impaired mitochondrial complex II activity, increased ROS, and subsequent activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidative pathway. We also demonstrate that sulforaphane (SFN), an antioxidant, regulates Nrf2 activity by controlling abundance and subcellular distribution of PML and that PML is essential for SFN-mediated ROS increase, Nrf2 activation, antiproliferation, antimigration, and antiangiogenesis. Taking the results together, we have uncovered a novel antioxidative mechanism by which PML regulates cellular oxidant homeostasis by controlling complex II integrity and Nrf2 activity and identified PML as an indispensable mediator of SFN activity. PMID:24943846

  19. The NRF2 Activation and Antioxidative Response Are Not Impaired Overall during Hyperoxia-Induced Lung Epithelial Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haranatha R. Potteti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung epithelial and endothelial cell death caused by pro-oxidant insults is a cardinal feature of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS patients. The NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2 activation in response to oxidant exposure is crucial to the induction of several antioxidative and cytoprotective enzymes that mitigate cellular stress. Since prolonged exposure to hyperoxia causes cell death, we hypothesized that chronic hyperoxia impairs NRF2 activation, resulting in cell death. To test this hypothesis, we exposed nonmalignant small airway epithelial cells (AECs to acute (1–12 h and chronic (36–48 h hyperoxia and evaluated cell death, NRF2 nuclear accumulation and target gene expression, and NRF2 recruitment to the endogenous HMOX1 and NQO1 promoters. As expected, hyperoxia gradually induced death in AECs, noticeably and significantly by 36 h; ~60% of cells were dead by 48 h. However, we unexpectedly found increased expression levels of NRF2-regulated antioxidative genes and nuclear NRF2 in AECs exposed to chronic hyperoxia as compared to acute hyperoxia. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays revealed an increased recruitment of NRF2 to the endogenous HMOX1 and NQO1 promoters in AECs exposed to acute or chronic hyperoxia. Thus, our findings demonstrate that NRF2 activation and antioxidant gene expression are functional during hyperoxia-induced lung epithelial cell death and that chronic hyperoxia does not impair NRF2 signaling overall.

  20. Antioxidant response in liver of the phytoplanktivorous bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) intraperitoneally-injected with extracted microcystins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xie, Ping; Guo, Longgen

    2010-06-01

    The worldwide occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms makes it necessary to perform environmental risk assessment procedures to monitor the effects of microcystins (MCs) on fish. Oxidative stress biomarkers are valuable tools in this regard. In the present study, phytoplanktivorous bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with extracted MCs (mainly MC-RR and -LR) at two doses, 400 and 1,000 microg kg(-1) bw, and antioxidant responses of the liver as biomarkers of oxygen-mediated toxicity were studied at 1, 3, 12, 24 and 48 h after injection. Contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activities of antioxidant enzymes [catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxide (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR)] as well as glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the liver in both dose groups showed a biphasic change with an increase at initial 3 h followed by a decrease after injection, owing to the roles of the antioxidant system in eliminating excessive ROS and regenerating glutathione (GSH). The increased GST was probably due to the high transcription of cytosolic GST alpha and rho, suggesting the importance of MCs detoxification by GSH pathway. The stable GSH levels in liver may be explained by the high basic GSH concentration in liver, and/or an increased GSH synthesis, suggesting a high ability to detoxify MCs and to release associated high oxidative pressure in phytoplantivorous fish. PMID:20467858

  1. Potential of Hydrocotyle vulgaris for phytoremediation of a textile dye: Inducing antioxidant response in roots and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei, F; Movafeghi, A; Khataee, A R; Zarei, M; Salehi Lisar, S Y

    2013-07-01

    The potential of Hydrocotyle vulgaris as an aquatic plant species was evaluated for phytoremediation of C.I. Basic Red 46 (BR46) from nutrient solution. Under the optimized experimental conditions, BR46 was removed up to 95% from incubation medium by H. vulgaris. The ability of the plant in consecutive removal under long term repetitive experiments confirmed the biodegradation process. Accordingly, a number of produced intermediate compounds were identified. An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the biodegradation efficiency. A predictive performance (R(2)=0.974) was obtained based on the network results. Interestingly, dye stress enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase in H. vulgaris roots and leaves. Enzymatic responses found to be highly depended on the plant organ and dye concentration in the liquid medium. Overall, the increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes was much higher in the roots than in the leaves. Nevertheless, no significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was detected in both roots and leaves which reflects the high efficiency of antioxidant system in the elimination of reactive oxygen species.

  2. Different responses of tobacco antioxidant enzymes to light and chilling stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, T; Willekens, H; Van Montagu, M; Inze, D; Van Camp, W; Toneva, [No Value; Minkov, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    The effect of elevated light treatment (25 degreesC, PPFD 360 mumol m(-2) sec(-1)) or chilling temperatures combined with elevated light (5 degreesC, PPFD 360 mumol m-2 sec-1) on the activity of six antioxidant enzymes, guaiacol peroxidases, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, EC 1.11.1.9) protein accu

  3. Kinetics of the Anti-oxidant Response to Salinity in the Halophyte Cakile maritima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effects of NaCl stress on the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD),ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR)), anti-oxidant molecules (ascorbate and glutathione), and parameters of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage, and H2O2 concentrations) were investigated in Cakile maritima, a halophyte frequent along the Tunisian seashore. Seedlings were grown in the presence of salt (100, 200, and 400 mmol/L NaCl). Plants were harvested periodically over 20 days. Growth was maximal in the presence of 0-100 mmol/L NaCl. At 400 mmol/L NaCl, growth decreased significantly. The salt tolerance of C. maritima, at moderate salinities, was associated with the lowest values of the parameters indicative of oxidative stress, namely the highest activities of POD, CAT, APX, DHAR, and GR and high tissue content of ascorbate and glutathione. However, prolonged exposure to high salinity resulted in a decrease in anti-oxidant activities and high MDA content, electrolyte leakage, and H2O2 concentrations. These results suggest that anti-oxidant systems participate in the tolerance of C. maritima to moderate salinities.

  4. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in the sera of patients with brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelski, Wojciech; Laniewska-Dunaj, Magdalena; Orywal, Karolina; Kochanowicz, Jan; Rutkowski, Robert; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2014-12-01

    Human brain tissue contains various alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and possess also aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. In our last experiments we have shown that ADH and ALDH are present also in the brain tumour cells. Moreover the activities of total ADH and class I isoenzymes were significantly higher in cancer tissue than healthy cells. It can suggests that these changes may be reflected by enzyme activity in the serum of patients with brain cancer. Serum samples were taken for routine biochemical investigation from 62 patients suffering from brain cancer (36 glioblastoma, 26 meningioma). For the measurement of the activity of class I and II ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activity, the fluorometric methods were used. The total ADH activity and activity of class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by the photometric method. A statistically significant increase of class I alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes was found in the sera of patients with brain cancer. The median activity of this class isoenzyme in the patients group increased about 24 % in the comparison to the control level. The total alcohol dehydrogenase activity was also significantly higher (26 %) among patients with brain tumour than healthy ones. The activities of other tested ADH isoenzymes and total ALDH were unchanged. The increase of the activity of total ADH and class I alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme in the sera of patients with brain cancer seems to be caused by the release of this isoenzyme from tumour's cells.

  5. Reactive oxygen species (ROS and response of antioxidants as ROS-scavengers during environmental stress in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik eDas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS were initially recognized as toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism. In recent years, it has become apparent that ROS plays an important signaling role in plants, controlling processes such as growth, development and especially response to biotic and abiotic environmental stimuli. The major members of the ROS family include free radicals like O2● −, OH● and non-radicals like H2O2 and 1O2. The ROS production in plants is mainly localized in the chloroplast, mitochondria and peroxisomes. There are secondary sites as well like the endoplasmic reticulum, cell membrane, cell wall and the apoplast. The role of the ROS family is that of a double edged sword; while they act as secondary messengers in various key physiological phenomena, they also induce oxidative damages under several environmental stress conditions like salinity, drought, cold, heavy metals, UV irradiation etc., when the delicate balance between ROS production and elimination, necessary for normal cellular homeostasis, is disturbed. The cellular damages are manifested in the form of degradation of biomolecules like pigments, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA, which ultimately amalgamate in plant cellular death. To ensure survival, plants have developed efficient antioxidant machinery having two arms, (i enzymatic components like superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, glutathione reductase (GR, monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR; (ii non-enzymatic antioxidants like ascorbic acid (AA, reduced glutathione (GSH, α-tocopherol, carotenoids, flavonoids and the osmolyte proline. These two components work hand in hand to scavenge ROS. In this review, we emphasize on the different types of ROS, their cellular production sites, their targets, and their scavenging mechanism mediated by both the branches of the antioxidant systems, highlighting the potential

  6. Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a 20 meter shuttle run test in female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Özgür Bulduk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of physical exercise on oxidant stress and antioxidants has been investigated extensively in the last twenty years. Cells continuously produce free radicals under normal conditions during mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC. Experimental studies have shown elevated metabolic rate by strenuous physical exercise induces oxidative stress and production of excessive amounts of free radicals. Lipid peroxidation occurs when free radicals react with cellular components involving polyunsaturated fatty acid residues of phospholipids which are very sensitive to oxidation. This study aimed to determine plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a 20 meter shuttle run test in female volleyball players. Ten female volleyball players from the same team, and ten sedentary female ages between 18-24 years old volunteered to participate in this study. They were in good health and 48 hours before the test did not receive any drug or alcohol. None of them had any endocrine, orthopedic problems. Before the study, Informed, written consent was obtained from all the participants after full explanation of the procedures involved. All procedures were approved by the Selçuk University Meram Medical School of Ethical Committee. 20 meter shuttle run test was designed to estimate the maximal aerobic power of athletes performing in sports with frequent stops and starts (eg. Basketball, volleyball, fencing and so on. Findings of our study demonstrate that in both female groups 20 meter shuttle run test leads to production of more reactive oxygen species than the antioxidant systems can scavenge. Decrease in the activities of these antioxidant enzymes may be due to their inactivation caused by the higher production of the free radicals. it seems that the vulnerability of the body to oxidative stress is significantly enhanced after strenuous exercise test.

  7. Glyphosate-based herbicide exposure causes antioxidant defence responses in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Lais Mattos; Figueira, Fernanda Hernandes; Gottschalk, Marco Silva; da Rosa, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is a non-selective and post-emergent herbicide that affects plant growth. Animal exposure to this herbicide can lead to adverse effects, such as endocrine disruption, oxidative stress and behavioural disorders. Drosophilids have been utilized previously as an effective tool in toxicological tests. In the present study, the effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup [Original]) were investigated regarding oxidative stress, the antioxidant defence system and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Flies (of both genders) that were 1 to 3days old were exposed to different glyphosate concentrations (0.0mg/L=control, 1.0mg/L, 2.0mg/L, 5.0mg/L and 10.0mg/L) in the diet for 24h and 96h. After the exposure periods, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were quantified. In addition, the mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (i.e., keap1, sod, sod2, cat, irc, gclc, gclm, gss, trxt, trxr-1 and trxr-2) was evaluated via RT-PCR. Additionally, AChE activity was evaluated only after the 96h exposure period. The results indicated that Roundup exposure leads to a reduction in ROS levels in flies exposed for 96h. ACAP levels and gene expression of the antioxidant defence system exhibited an increase from 24h, while LPO did not show any significant alterations in both exposure periods. AChE activity was not affected following Roundup exposure. Our data suggest that Roundup exposure causes an early activation of the antioxidant defence system in D. melanogaster, and this can prevent subsequent damage caused by ROS. PMID:26980113

  8. Antioxidant and oxidative stress responses of sojourners at high altitude in different climatic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sanchari; Singh, Som Nath; Saha, Mantu; Kain, T. C.; Tyagi, A. K.; Ray, Uday Sankar

    2010-01-01

    High altitude (HA) is a multi-stressor environment comprising hypobaric hypoxia and cold. Climatic temperature varies with seasonal variation at HA. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ambient temperature on antioxidant profile among sojourners at HA. The study was conducted on sojourners exposed to an altitude of 4,560 m in two different seasons and categorized into two groups (SOJ 1, n = 63, ambient temp. at HA: -6º to +10ºC; SOJ 2, n = 81, ambient temp. at HA: 3º-22ºC). Blood was collected at sea level (SL) and after 4 weeks of HA exposure. Antioxidant enzymes showed significant upregulation in SOJ 2 at HA. In SOJ 1, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase showed significant upregulation but catalase and glutathione reductase showed significant decrease at HA. Non-enzymatic antioxidants showed significant reduction in SOJ 1 whereas a sustained antioxidant profile was observed in SOJ 2 at HA. Oxidative stress markers showed higher levels in SOJ 1 than SOJ 2 at HA. Differences observed between SOJ 1 and SOJ 2 at HA may be the consequence of different environmental temperatures. Cold stress was higher in SOJ 1 as evidenced from the significantly lower oral temperature in SOJ 1 as compared to SOJ 2. Cold- and hypoxia-induced increase in energy expenditure was significantly high in SOJ 1 than SOJ 2. To conclude, chronic exposure to hypoxia in moderate climatic temperature has a potential preconditioning effect on antioxidant system, but exposure to both cold and hypoxia causes greater oxidative stress due to altered metabolic rate.

  9. Characterization of testis-specific isoenzyme of human pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotchkina, Lioubov G; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Patel, Mulchand S

    2006-04-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), the first component of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, has two isoenzymes, somatic cell-specific PDH1 and testis-specific PDH2 with 87% sequence identity in the alpha subunit of alpha(2) beta(2) PDH. The presence of functional testis-specific PDH2 is important for sperm cells generating nearly all their energy from carbohydrates via pyruvate oxidation. Kinetic and regulatory properties of recombinant human PDH2 and PDH1 were compared in this study. Site-specific phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the three phosphorylation sites by four PDH kinases (PDK1-4) and two PDH phosphatases (PDP1-2) were investigated by substituting serines with alanine or glutamate in PDHs. PDH2 was found to be very similar to PDH1 as follows: (i) in specific activities and kinetic parameters as determined by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex assay; (ii) in thermostability at 37 degrees C; (iii) in the mechanism of inactivation by phosphorylation of three sites; and (iv) in the phosphorylation of sites 1 and 2 by PDK3. In contrast, the differences for PDH2 were indicated as follows: (i) by a 2.4-fold increase in binding affinity for the PDH-binding domain of dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase as measured by surface plasmon resonance; (ii) by possible involvement of Ser-264 (site 1) of PDH2 in catalysis as evident by its kinetic behavior; and (iii) by the lower activities of PDK1, PDK2, and PDK4 as well as PDP1 and PDP2 toward PDH2. These differences between PDH2 and PDH1 are less than expected from substitution of 47 amino acids in each PDH2 alpha subunit. The multiple substitutions may have compensated for any drastic alterations in PDH2 structure thereby preserving its kinetic and regulatory characteristics largely similar to that of PDH1. PMID:16436377

  10. Modulation of nitric oxide synthase isoenzymes inreperfused skeletal muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the modulation of nitric oxide synthnse (NOS) isoenzymes in skeletal muscle during 3 h ischemia/reperfusion (I/R, 3 h ischemia followed by 3 h reperfusion). Methods: The extensor digitorum longuses (EDLs)from 20 adult rats were divided into 4 groups: the normal,the sham operation, the ischemia (3 h), and the ischemia/reperfusion group. One normal EDL from each rat was used as the non-operated control, and the opposite ones are distributed into the 3 remaining groups. All the samples were studied with Western blotting technique and immumohistochemistry staining. Results: Three sizes of protein bands verified with the proteins of relative molecule to be of 155 000, 140 000and 135 000, were detected in the EDL homogenate by Western blotting, which were comparable with the positive controls for nNOS, eNOS and iNOS, respectively. Immunostaining demonstrated that nNOS was present in the muscle fiber, with a similar location of the muscle stria, eNOS was found apparently in microvascular endothelia,but not found in muscle fibers, and iNOS was found in the leukocytes around the muscle fiber and some endothelia cells. Immunostaining paralleled the Western blotting results. Conclusions: It suggests that the constitutive nNOS and eNOS protein can be regulated by I/R, and I/R results in a down regulation of nNOS and up-regulation of eNOS and iNOS in reperfused skeletal muscle. The fact that nNOS is present around stria suggests that nNOS may have a close relationship with muscle function. The localization of eNOS in endothelial cell indicates its role in regulating blood supply of the muscle. Based on these findings, it is possible that NO produced by distinct NOS may play a different role in I/R injury.

  11. Early changes of urinary amylase isoenzymes in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, F; Villamil, F; Recio, C; Ferrer, C

    1992-10-01

    The altered excretion of isoenzymes of amylase in urine was used as an early indicator of the loss of electric charges in the glomerular basement membrane, in 202 juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetic patients, compared with the pattern of excretion in 51 normal subjects matched for age and sex. Diabetics showed an increased excretion of salivary amylase. The salivary to pancreatic amylase ratio in urine (S/P ratio) was always below 1 in control subjects, but was elevated in 33.2% of diabetics, although microalbuminuria was present in only 26.2% of diabetic patients. The concentrations of other proteins in urine were within the reference ranges in nearly all patients, indicating that the kidney was not seriously affected. The increased salivary amylase excretion was not due to changes in the plasma concentration of any of the isoamylases, but to a real increase in excretion, as its fractional excretion in relation to creatinine clearance was clearly increased (1.0 +/- 0.7 vs. 1.52 +/- 1.99, p ratio of their clearances was also increased (0.35 +/- 0.18 vs. 0.49 +/- 0.61, p > 0.05). Moreover, the prevalence of altered S/P ratios was higher than the prevalence of microalbuminuria (36.6% vs. 18.8% of patients in the first decade of evolution of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). Altered S/P ratios were most prevalent in the first decade, whereas microalbuminuria was most prevalent in the second decade of the disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Dehydrogenase isoenzyme polymorphism in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolić Slavica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrogenase polymorphism was studied in 36 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., sweet cherry (Prunus avuim L., mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L., ground cherry (Prunus fruticosa Pall., duke cherry (Prunus gondounii Redh., Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus serrulata Lindl. and four iterspecific hybrids (standard cherry rootstocks ‘Gisela 5’, ‘Gisela 6’, ‘Max Ma’ and ‘Colt’. Inner bark of one-year-old shoots, in dormant stage, was used for enzyme extraction. Vertical PAGE was used for isoenzyme analysis: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, formate dehydrogenase (FDH, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, isocitrate dehydrogenaze (IDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH. All studied systems were polymorphic at 10 loci: Adh -1 (3 genotypes and Adh-2 (5 genotypes, Fdh-1 (2 genotypes, Gdh-1 (3 genotypes, Idh-1 (4 genotypes i Idh -2 (5 genotypes, Mdh-1 (3 genotypes, Pgd-1 (4 genotypes, Sdh-1 (1 genotype i Sdh-2 (3 genotypes. Cluster analysis was used to construct dendrogram on which four groups of similar genotypes were separated. Obtained results indicate that studied enzyme systems can be used for determination of genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus. Among studied enzyme systems ADH, IDH and SDH were the most polymorphic and most useful to identify genetic variability. Polymorphism of FDH and GDH in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus was described first time in this work. First results for dehydrogenase variability of Oblačinska indicate that polymorphism of loci Idh-2 and Sdh-2 can be useful for discrimination of different clones.

  13. Response Pattern of Antioxidants to Lipid Peroxide Concentration in Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepato-Toxicity Is Tightly Logistic in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Alisi C. S.; Ojiako O. A.; Osuagwu C. G.; Onyeze G. O. C.

    2011-01-01

    Logistic response of antioxidants to lipid peroxide concentration in carbon tetrachloride toxicity in rabbit liver was evaluated. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), ethanol extracts of Chromolaena odorata (ETECO), sylimarin (a known hepatoprotective agent) and water, were used to induce variations in the oxidant/antioxidant balance in the test and control animals. This was used as a model to study the delicate balance between the activities and/or the intracellular concentrations of ...

  14. Oxidative Stress and Erythrocyte Membrane Responses During Sarcoptic Mange in Sheep: Evaluating Bio-Organic Therapy and its Supplementation with Antioxidant Tocopherol.

    OpenAIRE

    Umesh Dimri; M C Sharma; Meena Kataria; Sushil Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Sarcoptic mange in sheep, causes heavy losses in quantity and quality of wool and meat production.The present investigation aimed at evaluating the oxidative stress-antioxidant defense and erythrocytic membrane responses during sarcoptic mange in sheep.A bio-organic therapy (BT) was evaluated for its efficacy. Tocopherol was assessed for its antioxidant adjunctive potential. Materials and Methods: Nineteen sheep with sarcoptic mange (aged 9-12 months, with lesions ascribed to Sarcoptes scabie...

  15. Optimization of Extraction Condition of Bee Pollen Using Response Surface Methodology: Correlation between Anti-Melanogenesis, Antioxidant Activity, and Phenolic Content

    OpenAIRE

    Seon Beom Kim; Yang Hee Jo; Qing Liu; Jong Hoon Ahn; In Pyo Hong; Sang Mi Han; Bang Yeon Hwang; Mi Kyeong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Bee pollen is flower pollen with nectar and salivary substances of bees and rich in essential components. Bee pollen showed antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity in our assay system. To maximize the antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of bee pollen, extraction conditions, such as extraction solvent, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were optimized using response surface methodology. Regression analysis showed a good fit of this model and yielded the second-order...

  16. The toxic effects of ammonia exposure on antioxidant and immune responses in Rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Hu; Kim, Jun-Hwan; Park, Myoung-Ae; Hwang, Seong Don; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2015-11-01

    Rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii (mean weight 14.53 ± 1.14 cm, and mean weight 38.36 ± 3.45 g) were exposed for 4 weeks (2 weeks and 4 weeks) with the different levels of ammonia in the concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0mg/L at 19 and 24°C. The ammonia exposure induced significant alterations in antioxidant responses. The activities of SOD, CAT, and GST were considerably increased by the ammonia exposure depending on water temperature, whereas the GSH level was notably decreased after 2 and 4 weeks. In the stress indicators, the cortisol and HSP 70 were significantly elevated by the exposure to ammonia depending on water temperature. In innate immune responses, the phagocytosis and lysozyme activity were notably decreased by ammonia exposure depending on water temperature after 2 and 4 weeks. The results suggest that ammonia exposure depending on water temperature can induce the considerable alterations in antioxidant responses, stress, and immune inhibition.

  17. Optimization extraction conditions for improving phenolic content and antioxidant activity in Berberis asiatica fruits using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwal, Tarun; Dhyani, Praveen; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer Singh; Pande, Veena

    2016-09-15

    This study for the first time designed to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant potential of Berberis asiatica fruits using response surface methodology (RSM). Solvent selection was done based on the preliminary experiments and a five-factors-three-level, Central Composite Design (CCD). Extraction temperature (X1), sample to solvent ratio (X3) and solvent concentration (X5) significantly affect response variables. The quadratic model well fitted for all the responses. Under optimal extraction conditions, the dried fruit sample mixed with 80% methanol having 3.0 pH in a ratio of 1:50 and the mixture was heated at 80 °C for 30 min; the measured parameters was found in accordance with the predicted values. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis at optimized condition reveals 6 phenolic compounds. The results suggest that optimization of the extraction conditions is critical for accurate quantification of phenolics and antioxidants in Berberis asiatica fruits, which may further be utilized for industrial extraction procedure. PMID:27080887

  18. Genetic assessment of traits and genetic relationship in blackgram (Vigna mungo) revealed by isoenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Shukla, Arvind

    2009-08-01

    Sixty blackgram accessions were evaluated and classified into different clusters to assess genetic diversity and traits using isoenzymes. Trait-specific expression was assessed, and isoenzyme bands were observed: a peroxidase band (Rm 0.60) associated with dwarfness and an esterase band (Rm 0.25) with tallness. Early maturing varieties were characterized by a specific esterase isoenzyme band of Rm 0.51. All yellow mosaic virus susceptible genotypes had two bands of esterase isoenzyme, Rm 0.42 and 0.70. Resistant genotypes showed three bands (0.32, 0.33, and 0.35) of alkaline phosphatase. Peroxidase isoenzyme was helpful to differentiate green-seeded from black-seeded varieties. Two bands (0.58 and 0.83) were observed in black-seeded accessions, and two different bands (0.74 and 0.76) were observed in green-seeded accessions. Clustering of germplasm and assessment of traits will facilitate the use of germplasm for the improvement of blackgram.

  19. Control of antioxidative response by the tumor suppressor protein PML through regulating Nrf2 activity

    OpenAIRE

    GUO Shuang; Cheng, Xiwen; Lim, Jun-Hee; Yu LIU; Kao, Hung-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a consequence of an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the ability of the cytoprotective system to detoxify the reactive intermediates. The tumor suppressor promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) functions as a stress sensor. Loss of PML results in impaired mitochondrial complex II activity, increased ROS, and subsequent activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidative pathway. We also demonstrate that sulforaphane (S...

  20. Implications of chronic daily anti-oxidant administration on the inflammatory response to intracortical microelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter-Baker, Kelsey A.; Stewart, Wade G.; Tomaszewski, William H.; Wong, Chun T.; Meador, William D.; Ziats, Nicholas P.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Oxidative stress events have been implicated to occur and facilitate multiple failure modes of intracortical microelectrodes. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the ability of a sustained concentration of an anti-oxidant and to reduce oxidative stress-mediated neurodegeneration for the application of intracortical microelectrodes. Approach. Non-functional microelectrodes were implanted into the cortex of male Sprague Dawley rats for up to sixteen weeks. Half of the animals received a daily intraperitoneal injection of the natural anti-oxidant resveratrol, at 30 mg kg-1. The study was designed to investigate the biodistribution of the resveratrol, and the effects on neuroinflammation/neuroprotection following device implantation. Main results. Daily maintenance of a sustained range of resveratrol throughout the implantation period resulted in fewer degenerating neurons in comparison to control animals at both two and sixteen weeks post implantation. Initial and chronic improvements in neuronal viability in resveratrol-dosed animals were correlated with significant reductions in local superoxide anion accumulation around the implanted device at two weeks after implantation. Controls, receiving only saline injections, were also found to have reduced amounts of accumulated superoxide anion locally and less neurodegeneration than controls at sixteen weeks post-implantation. Despite observed benefits, thread-like adhesions were found between the liver and diaphragm in resveratrol-dosed animals. Significance. Overall, our chronic daily anti-oxidant dosing scheme resulted in improvements in neuronal viability surrounding implanted microelectrodes, which could result in improved device performance. However, due to the discovery of thread-like adhesions, further work is still required to optimize a chronic anti-oxidant dosing regime for the application of intracortical microelectrodes.

  1. Copper-induced response of physiological parameters and antioxidant enzymes in the aquatic macrophyte Potamogeton pusillus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monferran, Magdalena V.; Sanchez Agudo, Jose A. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba - CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Dto. Bioquimica Clinica - CIBICI, Medina Allende Esq., Haya de la Torre, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Pignata, Maria L. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba - CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales - IMBIV, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Wunderlin, Daniel A., E-mail: dwunder@fcq.unc.edu.a [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba - CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Dto. Bioquimica Clinica - CIBICI, Medina Allende Esq., Haya de la Torre, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2009-08-15

    Bioaccumulation and toxicity of copper was evaluated on Potamogeton pusillus L. The effect of copper (5-100 mug L{sup -1}) applied for several days was assessed by measuring changes in the chlorophyll's, phaeophytin's, malondialdehyde, electrical conductivity, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) activities. Plants accumulated copper with a maximum of 162 mug g{sup -1} dw after 7-days exposure at 100 mug L{sup -1}, however most of the metal was accumulated after 1-day exposure. The toxic effect caused by Cu was evident by the reduction of photosynthetic pigments, increase of malondialdehyde and electrical conductivity. P. pusillus shows Cu-induced oxidative stress by modulating antioxidant enzymes like GPX, GR and POD. Antioxidant enzymes activity increased significantly after exposure to 40 mug L{sup -1} during 24 h, followed by a drop at longer times. Thus, P. pusillus is proposed as a good biomonitor for the assessment of metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. - The tolerance of Potamogeton pusillus to copper largely depends on the enhanced activity of its antioxidant system, showing that a decrease on its activity favored oxidative stress and cell damage.

  2. Responses of antioxidant defense system of Lespedeza davurica to enhanced UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different UV-B radiation intensity (CK, T1, T2) on antioxidant defense system and other related indicators of Lespedeza davurica (Laxm.) Schindl. Malonaldehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AsA) and carotenoid (Car) contents, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities of leaves from Lespedeza davurica under different UV-B radiation intensity were investigated. Samples were collected once every three days. The UV-B treatment was continued 15 days. Result indicated that SOD and POD activities decreased, APX and POD activities increased with UV-B radiation enhanced during the whole treatment time. SOD, POD and CAT activities decreased with UV-B radiation intensity increasing. APX activity increased during the first 9-day treatment with radiation intensity increasing then decreased with radiation intensity increasing. UV-B radiation increased AsA content, decreased Car content. Both AsA and Car contents decreased with radiation intensity increasing when compared with control. O2- and MDA increased with radiation intensity increasing. All other tested indicators increased except SOD and POD activity as well as AsA content decreased after UV-B radiation treatment. Comprehensive evaluation of subordinate function showed that UV-B radiation reduced the antioxidant capacity of Lespedeza davurica, and the antioxidant capacity decreased with UV-B radiation intensity increasing. (author)

  3. Response of antioxidant defences to Zn stress in three duckweed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uruç Parlak, Kadiriye; Demirezen Yilmaz, Dilek

    2012-11-01

    In the plants, Lemna gibba, Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrrhiza L., the effect of different concentrations of zinc (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.5mgL(-1) Zn) applied for four day was assessed by measuring changes in the chlorophyll, protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and guiacolperoxidase (GPX) activity of the plants. According to results, Zn contents in plants increased with increasing Zn supply levels. The level of photosynthetic pigments and soluble proteins reduced only upon exposure to high Zn concentrations. At the same time, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased with increasing Zn concentration. These results suggested an alleviation of stress that was possibly the result of antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as well as guaiacol peroxidise (GPOX), which increased linearly with increasing Zn levels. Cellular antioxidant levels showed an increase suggesting a defensive mechanism to preserve against oxidative stress given rise to by Zn. Besides, the proline amount in L. gibba, L. minor and S. polyrrhiza increased with increasing zinc levels. These conclusions proposed that L. gibba, L. minor and S. polyrrhiza are supplied with an efficient antioxidant mechanism against Zn-induced oxidative stress which saves the plant's photosynthetic machinery from damage. It is concluded that higher zinc levels cause oxidative stress in L. gibba, L. minor and S. polyrrhiza cells and may reason membrane damage through production of ROS and interferes with chlorophyll metabolism. PMID:23009815

  4. Divergences in hormonal and enzymatic antioxidant responses of two Chicory ecotypes to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaatiyan, Kimiya; Sadeghi, Hossein

    2015-06-15

    To evaluate the effect of salt stress on seed germination, early growth, antioxidant enzymes activity and ABA content of chicory ecotypes (Cichorium intybus) a factorial experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, Shiraz University in 2014 based on completely randomized design with four replications. The treatments comprised five salinity levels (tapwater, 3, 6, 9, 12 dS m(-1)) of sodium chloride on Shirazi-black and white chicory ecotypes. The results showed that germination characteristics and primary seedling growth were decreased in both ecotypes with increasing in salinity severity. The effects of salinity on radicle and plumule length as well as seedling weight were the same as its effects on seed germination. The effect of salt stress on antioxidant enzymes activity (especially catalase) and ABA content were significant which they were enhanced with increasing salinity level; Black ecotype performs better than the white one under high salinity, as indicated by a lower decreasing in germination characteristics and primary growth and higher antioxidant enzymes activity as well as ABA content. These facts should be taken into consideration in the economic cultivation of this valuable horticultural and medicinal plant and this data would be useful for the crop breeding projects. PMID:26075934

  5. Response and adaptation of photosynthesis, respiration, and antioxidant systems to elevated CO2 with environmental stress in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhu eXu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that plant photosynthesis and respiration are two fundamental and crucial physiological processes, while the critical role of the antioxidant system in response to abiotic factors is still a focus point for investigating physiological stress. Although one key metabolic process and its response to climatic change have already been reported and reviewed, an integrative review, including several biological processes at multiple scales, has not been well reported. The current review will present a synthesis focusing on the underlying mechanisms in the responses to elevated CO2 at multiple scales, including molecular, cellular, biochemical, physiological, and individual aspects, particularly, for these biological processes under elevated CO2 with other key abiotic stresses, such as heat, drought, and ozone pollution, as well as nitrogen limitation. The present comprehensive review may add timely and substantial information about the topic in recent studies, while it presents what has been well established in previous reviews. First, an outline of the critical biological processes, and an overview of their roles in environmental regulation, is presented. Second, the research advances with regard to the individual subtopics are reviewed, including the response and adaptation of the photosynthetic capacity, respiration, and antioxidant system to CO2 enrichment alone, and its combination with other climatic change factors. Finally, the potential applications for plant responses at various levels to climate change are discussed. The above issue is currently of crucial concern worldwide, and this review may help in a better understanding of how plants deal with elevated CO2 using other mainstream abiotic factors, including molecular, cellular, biochemical, physiological, and whole individual processes, and the better management of the ecological environment, climate change, and sustainable development.

  6. Light history modulates antioxidant and photosynthetic responses of biofilms to both natural (light) and chemical (herbicides) stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnineau, Chloé; Sague, Irene Gallardo; Urrea, Gemma; Guasch, Helena

    2012-05-01

    In multiple stress situations, the co-occurrence of environmental and chemical factors can influence organisms' ability to cope with toxicity. In this context, the influence of light adaptation on the response of freshwater biofilms to sudden light changes or to herbicides exposure was investigated by determining various parameters: diatom community composition, photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll a content, antioxidant enzyme activities. Biofilms were grown in microcosms under sub-optimal, saturating, and high light intensities and showed already described characteristics of shade/light adaptation (community structure, photosynthetic adaptation, etc.). Light history modulated antioxidant and photosynthetic responses of biofilms to the stress caused by short-term exposure to sudden light changes or to herbicides. First biofilms adapted to sub-optimal light intensity (shade-adapted) were found to be more sensitive to an increase in light intensity than high-light adapted ones to a reduction in light intensity. Second, while light history influenced biofilms' response to glyphosate, it had little influence on biofilms' response to copper and none on its response to oxyfluorfen. Indeed glyphosate exposure led to a stronger decrease in photosynthetic efficiency of shade-adapted biofilms (EC(50) = 11.7 mg L(-1)) than of high-light adapted communities (EC(50) = 35.6 mg L(-1)). Copper exposure led to an activation of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in biofilms adapted to sub-optimal and saturating light intensity while the protein content decreased in all biofilms exposed to copper. Oxyfluorfen toxicity was independent of light history provoking an increase in APX activity. In conclusion this study showed that both previous exposure to contaminants and physical habitat characteristics might influence community tolerance to disturbances strongly. PMID:22407402

  7. Hepatic and Nephric NRF2 Pathway Up-Regulation, an Early Antioxidant Response, in Acute Arsenic-Exposed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic arsenic (iAs, a proven human carcinogen, damages biological systems through multiple mechanisms, one of them being reactive oxygen species (ROS production. NRF2 is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that positively regulates the genes of encoding antioxidant and detoxification enzymes to neutralize ROS. Although NRF2 pathway activation by iAs has been reported in various cell types, however, the experimental data in vivo are very limited and not fully elucidated in humans. The present investigation aimed to explore the hepatic and nephric NRF2 pathway upregulation in acute arsenic-exposed mice in vivo. Our results showed 10 mg/kg NaAsO2 elevated the NRF2 protein and increased the transcription of Nrf2 mRNA, as well as up-regulated NRF2 downstream targets HO-1, GST and GCLC time- and dose-dependently both in the liver and kidney. Acute NaAsO2 exposure also resulted in obvious imbalance of oxidative redox status represented by the increase of GSH and MDA, and the decrease of T-AOC. The present investigation reveals that hepatic and nephric NRF2 pathway expression is an early antioxidant defensive response upon iAs exposure. A better knowledge about the NRF2 pathway involvment in the cellular response against arsenic could help improve the strategies for reducing the cellular toxicity related to this metalloid.

  8. Parallel variation in isoenzyme and nitrogen fixation markers in a Rhizobium population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, K.C.; Jensen, E.S.; Skøt, L.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae were isolated at random from one field and examined for symbiotic plasmid fragment length polymorphisms and for isoenzyme patterns. The latter are most probably chromosome markers. With one exception both methods separated the isolates...... into the same 13 different groups. The largest group was represented 7 times according to isoenzymes and 8 times according to RFLP. This fixed non-random association of plasmid and chromosomal genotypes is consistent with a clonal population structure; it indicates limited exchange of plasmids under natural...... conditions. Seventeen isolates of 11 groups were highly effective and 2 isolates in one group almost ineffective....

  9. Measurements of amylase isoenzymes in sera and saliva of patients after radiotherapy because of larynx carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum and salivary alpha-amylase were measured for controls and patients with laryngeal carcinoma before and after localized irradiation including salivary glands. A significant increase in amylasemia was observed after irradiation. Alpha-amylase activity in saliva was decreased after irradiation but differences were not statistically significant due to the significant decrease of protein in saliva of irradiated group. An increase of salivary isoenzyme S activity was observed while pancreatic isoenzyme activity was not altered. This method allows easy differentiation of hyperamylasemia due to irradiation of parothyroid gland and disorders of the pancreas. Alpha-amylase activity measurements may detect metabolic changes in salivary glands after irradiation. (author)

  10. Antioxidant response of Stevia rebaudiana B. to polyethylene glycol and paclobutrazol treatments under in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajihashemi, Shokoofeh; Ehsanpour, Ali Akbar

    2014-04-01

    This investigation was carried out with the aim of determining the effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ) (0 and 2 mg l(-1)) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) (0, 2, 4 and 6 % w/v of PEG 6000) treatments on antioxidant system of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni under in vitro condition. Analysis of data showed that PEG treatment significantly increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and phenolic contents, while PBZ treatment limited the effect of PEG on them. Our data revealed that PEG treatment significantly increased total antioxidant capacity, catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity, while it inversely decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was not affected by PEG treatment. PBZ treatment induced significantly higher levels of CAT and GR activity and lower levels of SOD activity in PEG-treated plants. PBZ in combination with PEG resulted in no significant difference on APX activity with PEG treatment alone. PBZ treatment prevented the effect of PEG on the PPO activity. PEG (with or without PBZ) treatment increased the ascorbate pool, whereas total glutathione level was not affected by PEG. Our finding indicated that PBZ reduced the negative effect of PEG treatment by quenching H2O2 accumulation and increasing the CAT activity. Collectively, the antioxidant capacity of S. rebaudiana in PEG treatment condition was associated with active enzymatic and non-enzymatic defence systems which partly could be improved by the PBZ treatment. In addition, a higher accumulation of phenolic compounds leads to a more potent reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in S. rebaudiana. PMID:24604127

  11. The use of antioxidant enzymes in freshwater biofilms: temporal variability vs. toxicological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnineau, Chloé; Tlili, Ahmed; Faggiano, Leslie; Montuelle, Bernard; Guasch, Helena

    2013-07-15

    This study aims to investigate the potential of antioxidant enzyme activities (AEA) as biomarkers of oxidative stress in freshwater biofilms. Therefore, biofilms were grown in channels for 38 days and then exposed to different concentrations (0-150 μg L(-1)) of the herbicide oxyfluorfen for 5 more weeks. Under control conditions, the AEA of biofilms were found to change throughout time with a significant increase in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity during the exponential growth and a more important role of catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities during the slow growth phase. Chronic exposure to oxyfluorfen led to slight variations in AEA, however, the ranges of variability of AEA in controls and exposed communities were similar, highlighting the difficulty of a direct interpretation of AEA values. After 5 weeks of exposure to oxyfluorfen, no clear effects were observed on chl-a concentration or on the composition of other pigments suggesting that algal group composition was not affected. Eukaryotic communities were structured clearly by toxicant concentration and both eukaryotic and bacterial richness were reduced in communities exposed to the highest concentration. In addition, during acute exposure tests performed at the end of the chronic exposure, biofilms chronically exposed to 75 and 150 μg L(-1) oxyfluorfen showed a higher CAT activity than controls. Chronic exposure to oxyfluorfen provoked then structural changes but also functional changes in the capacity of biofilm CAT activity to respond to a sudden increase in concentration, suggesting a selection of species with higher antioxidant capacity. This study highlighted the difficulty of interpretation of AEA values due to their temporal variation and to the absence of absolute threshold value indicative of oxidative stress induced by contaminants. Nevertheless, the determination of AEA pattern throughout acute exposure test is of high interest to compare oxidative stress levels

  12. Antioxidant response of Stevia rebaudiana B. to polyethylene glycol and paclobutrazol treatments under in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajihashemi, Shokoofeh; Ehsanpour, Ali Akbar

    2014-04-01

    This investigation was carried out with the aim of determining the effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ) (0 and 2 mg l(-1)) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) (0, 2, 4 and 6 % w/v of PEG 6000) treatments on antioxidant system of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni under in vitro condition. Analysis of data showed that PEG treatment significantly increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and phenolic contents, while PBZ treatment limited the effect of PEG on them. Our data revealed that PEG treatment significantly increased total antioxidant capacity, catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity, while it inversely decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was not affected by PEG treatment. PBZ treatment induced significantly higher levels of CAT and GR activity and lower levels of SOD activity in PEG-treated plants. PBZ in combination with PEG resulted in no significant difference on APX activity with PEG treatment alone. PBZ treatment prevented the effect of PEG on the PPO activity. PEG (with or without PBZ) treatment increased the ascorbate pool, whereas total glutathione level was not affected by PEG. Our finding indicated that PBZ reduced the negative effect of PEG treatment by quenching H2O2 accumulation and increasing the CAT activity. Collectively, the antioxidant capacity of S. rebaudiana in PEG treatment condition was associated with active enzymatic and non-enzymatic defence systems which partly could be improved by the PBZ treatment. In addition, a higher accumulation of phenolic compounds leads to a more potent reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in S. rebaudiana.

  13. Hyperactivity of the Ero1α Oxidase Elicits Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress but No Broad Antioxidant Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Gram; Schmidt, Jonas Damgard; Soltoft, Cecilie Lutzen;

    2012-01-01

    Oxidizing equivalents for the process of oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of mammalian cells are mainly provided by the Ero1α oxidase. The molecular mechanisms that regulate Ero1α activity in order to harness its oxidative power are quite well understood. However...... are compromised. Using microarray analysis, we demonstrate that the cell reacts to the oxidative challenge caused by Ero1α hyperactivity by turning on the UPR. Moreover, this analysis allowed the identification of two new targets of the mammalian UPR, CRELD1 and c18orf45. Interestingly, a broad antioxidant...

  14. Antioxidant enzyme activities of Microcystis aeruginosa in response to nonylphenols and degradation of nonylphenols by M. aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Xie, Ping

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of chemical nonylphenols (NPs) on the antioxidant system of Microcystis aeruginosa strains. The degradation and sorption of NPs by M. aeruginosa were also evaluated. High concentrations of NPs (1 and 2 mg/l) were found to cause increases in superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and in glutathione (GSH) levels. These results suggest that toxic stress manifested by elevated SOD and GST levels and GSH contents may be responsible for the toxicity of NPs to M. aeruginosa and that the algal cells could improve their antioxidant and detoxification ability through the enhancement of enzymatic and nonenzymatic prevention substances. The observed elevations in GSH levels and GST activities were relatively higher than those in SOD activities, indicating that GSH and GST contributed more in eliminating toxic effects than SOD. Low concentrations of NPs (0.05-0.2 mg/l) enhanced cell growth and decreased GST activity in algal cells of M. aeruginosa, suggesting that NPs may have acted as a protecting factor, such as an antioxidant. The larger portion of the NPs (>60%) disappeared after 12 days of incubation, indicating the strong ability of M. aeruginosa to degrade the moderate persistent NP compounds. The sorption ratio of M. aeruginosa after a 12-day exposure to low nominal concentrations of NPs (0.02-0.5 mg/l) was relatively high (>30%). The fact that M. aeruginosa effectively resisted the toxic effects of NPs and strongly degraded these pollutants indicate that M. aeruginosa cells have a strong ability to adapt to variations in environmental conditions and that low and moderate concentrations of organic compounds may favor its survival. Further studies are needed to provide detailed information on the fate of persistent organic pollutants and the survival of algae and to determine the possible role of organic pollutants in the occurrence of water blooms in eutrophic lakes. PMID:17342429

  15. Biochemical composition and antioxidant activities of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis in response to gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Effat Fahmy; Gabr, Mahmoud Ali; Moussa, Helal Ragab; El-Shaer, Enas Ali; Ismaiel, Mostafa M S

    2017-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a blue-green alga, rich with bioactive components and nutrients. To evaluate effect of gamma irradiation, A. platensis was exposed to different doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5kGy. The data showed that the phenolic and proline contents significantly increased with the increase of gamma irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy, above which a reduction was observed. The soluble proteins and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were stimulated by all tested irradiation doses. Furthermore, the vitamins (A, K and B group) and mineral contents (N, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe) were stimulated by the irradiation doses compared with the control. The activities of some N-assimilating and antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased with the irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy. This study suggests the possible use of gamma irradiation as a stimulatory agent to raise the nutritive value and antioxidant activity of A. platensis. PMID:27507509

  16. Effect of chromium on accumulation and antioxidants in Cucumis utillissimus L.: Response under enhanced bioavailability condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geetgovind Sinam; Sarita Sinha; Shekhar Mallick

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the accumulation of Ct(VI) and biochemical changes (total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein, malondialdehyde (MDA) and cysteine contents) and roles of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) in tolerance to metal induced stress in Cucumis utillissimus L. grown in Cr contaminated soil (CS) with garden soil (GS). Furthermore, Cr bioavailability was enhanced by ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) addition to the soil to forecast the plant's accumulation pattern at elevated Cr environment. Accumulation of Cr in the leaves of the plant increased with increase in substrate metals concentration. It further increased with the addition of EDTA by 1437% and 487% in GS and CS, respectively at the highest treatment level. The lipid peroxidation increased proportionately with increase in Cr accumulation in the leaves. All the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX and APX) and the level of cysteine increased with dose dependant manner. SOD and cysteine were observed to be higher in the GS than in CS, but APX and GPX were found to be higher in CS than in GS. The increase in GPX and APX activities with the increase in Cr concentration could be assumed that these two enzymes have a major role in the defense mechanism towards stress induced by Cr in C. utillissimus.

  17. Antioxidative responses during germination in quinoa grown in vitamin B-rich medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzschke, Andrea; Fraundorfer, Anna; Guggemos, Michael; Fuchs, Norbert

    2015-05-01

    Synthetic vitamin preparations have grown in popularity to combat health risks associated with an imbalanced diet, poor exercise and stress. In terms of bioavailability and diversity, they lack behind vitamins naturally occurring in plants. Solutions to obtain plant-derived vitamins at a larger scale are highly desirable. B vitamins act as precursors of enzymatic cofactors, thereby regulating important metabolic processes both in animals and plants. Because during plant germination, the vitamin content and micronutrient availability increase, sprouts are generally considered a healthier food as compared to dry grains. Germination only occurs if a plant's antioxidant machinery is sufficiently activated to cope with oxidative stress. Seeds of quinoa, an edible gluten-free plant naturally rich in minerals, germinate readily in a solution containing the eight B vitamins. We studied biochemical changes during quinoa germination, with a focus on nutritionally relevant characteristics. The results are considered from a nutritional and plant physiological perspective. Germination of quinoa in vitamin-rich medium is a promising strategy to enhance the nutritional value of this matrix. Additional health-beneficial effects indirectly resulting from the vitamin treatment include elevated levels of the multi-functional amino acid proline and a higher antioxidant capacity. Plant biomolecules can be better protected from oxidative damage in vivo. PMID:25987999

  18. Toxic effects of chlortetracycline on maize growth, reactive oxygen species generation and the antioxidant response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bei Wen; Yu Liu; Peng Wang; Tong Wu; Shuzhen Zhang; Xiaoquan Shan; Jingfen Lu

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of chlortetracycline (CTC) on maize (Zea mays L.) growth and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was studied.The root and shoot lengths and fresh weights of maize seedlings were inhibited by CTC treatment (p < 0.05).Root length was more sensitive than other parameters with the EC10 value of 0.064 mg/L.The spin trapping technique followed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis was used to quantify the ROS production.The ROS generated in maize roots after exposure to CTC was identified as hydroxyl radical (-OH).The EPR signal intensity correlated positively with the logarithm of CTC concentrations exposed (p < 0.05).The dynamic changes of malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and the antioxidative enzyme activities in maize roots were also determined.As compared to the control group,CTC was found to significantly increase MDA content.Treatment of maize roots with the ·OH scavenger sodium benzoate (SB) reduced the MDA content and enhanced the antioxidative enzyme activities.The results demonstrated the harmfulness of CTC at high dose to maize in the early developmental stage,and clarified that the inducement of ·OH is one of the mechanisms of CTC toxicity.

  19. [Effects of exogenous EBR and NO signal on antioxidant system and low response gene expression under cold stress on maize embryo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-hu; Xing, Guo-fang; Yang, Xiao-huan; Wang, Yu-guo; Du, Hui-ling

    2015-05-01

    In this study, Xianyu 335, a maize hybrid, was used to investigate the effects of 24-Epibrassinolide (EBR, a synthetic BR) on antioxidant capacity and low-temperature response gene expression in maize embryo germination under low temperature (LT) stress. The germination rate of maize seeds under LT stress was not affected by EBR, but the seed activity index and seedling growth were improved. EBR increased the activities of some antioxidative enzymes including SOD, POD, CAT and GR, and the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as GSH and proline, and induced the accumulation of nitric oxide (NO). NO scavenging c-PTIO and NOS inhibitor L- NAME decreased but NO donor SNP increased the enzyme activities of CAT and POD, and the content of proline, indicating NO mediated the EBR-induced antioxidant capacity. The gene expression pattern analysis showed that the expression of P5CS1, CBF1, CBF3 and COR15a was induced by LT stress, and further increased by EBR treatment in maize embryo, while their expression was suppressed by c-PTIO and L-NAME, and improved by SNP, which implied LT-responsed genes were regulated by NO. These results demonstrated that NO was involved in the EBR-induced LT tolerance in maize embryo by modulating the antioxidative capacity and the expression of LT-responsive genes. PMID:26571659

  20. Chronic hyperbaric oxygen treatment elicits an anti-oxidant response and attenuates atherosclerosis in apoE knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudchodkar, Bhalchandra J; Pierce, Anson; Dory, Ladislav

    2007-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment inhibits diet-induced atherosclerosis in New Zealand White rabbits. In the present study we investigate the mechanisms that might be involved in the athero-protective effect of HBO treatment in a well-accepted model of atherosclerosis, the apoE knockout (KO) mouse. We examine the effects of daily HBO treatment (for 5 and 10 weeks) on the components of the anti-oxidant defense mechanism and the redox state in blood, liver and aortic tissues and compare them to those of untreated apoE KO mice. HBO treatment results in a significant reduction of aortic cholesterol content and decreased fatty streak formation. These changes are accompanied by a significant reduction of autoantibodies against oxidatively modified LDL and profound changes in the redox state of the liver and aortic tissues. A 10-week treatment significantly reduces hepatic levels of TBARS and oxidized glutathione, while significantly increases the levels of reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase (GR), transferase, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase and catalase (CAT). The effects of HBO treatment are similar in the aortic tissues. These observations provide evidence that HBO treatment has a powerful effect on the redox state of relevant tissues and produces an environment that inhibits oxidation. The anti-oxidant response may be the key to the anti-atherogenic effect of HBO treatment. PMID:16973170

  1. Optimization of infrared-assisted extraction of Bletilla striata polysaccharides based on response surface methodology and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yan; Li, Chunxue; Zhang, Chen; Zeng, Rui; Fu, Chaomei

    2016-09-01

    Bletilla striata polysaccharides (BSP) have attracted extensive research interest due to their potential medical application. Herein, infrared-assisted technique is employed for the first time to extract BSP from B. striata (Thunb.) Reichb.f. based on a Box-Behnken design (BBD) and response surface methodology, with the optimum extraction parameters as follows: 75°C extraction temperature, 2.5h extraction time; and water to solid ratio (53ml/g). Based on it, 43.95±0.26% yield of crude BSP was obtained. Subsequently, crude BSP was further decolorized, deproteinized, freeze-dried, and purified by a DEAE-52 cellulose column. Furthermore, the micro-structure and a triple-helical structure of BSP were characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed its polysaccharide characterization via typical peaks. In addition, the significant in vitro antioxidant profiles of BSP were demonstrated by superoxide anion radical-scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and chelation of ferrous ions. Taken together, this study provide an efficient extraction technique for BSP as a promising natural antioxidant. PMID:27185148

  2. Response of antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate and glutathione metabolism towards cadmium in hyperaccumulator and nonhyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaofen; Yang, Xiaoe; Mahmood, Qaisar; Islam, Ejazul; Liu, Dan; Li, Hong

    2008-08-01

    Hydroponics studies were conducted to investigate the antioxidant adaptations, ascorbate and glutathione metabolism in hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii (HE) exposed to high Cd environment, when compared with its nonhyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Exposure to Cd induced a burst of oxidative stress in both ecotypes which was evident by the sharp increase in hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) contents and lipid peroxidation. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis, did not affect H(2)O(2) concentrations as well as growth of both ecotypes in the absence of Cd. However, compared with Cd application alone, BSO combined with Cd treatment caused a substantial augmentation of H(2)O(2) accumulation accompanied by a reduction in Cd concentrations in roots and leaves of HE at the end of treatment, which may rule out the possibility that GSH biosynthesis may play an important role as a signal of the stress regulation. No efficient and superior enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms against Cd-imposed oxidative stress existed in both NHE and HE, but the essential nonenzymatic components like ascorbic acid (AsA) and GSH played a prominent role in tolerance against Cd. Cadmium stimulated a notable rise in AsA concentration in both ecotypes soon after the application of treatment. A preferential Cd-stress response in HE was suggested to changes in the GSH pool, where acclimation was marked by increased GSH concentrations. PMID:18214940

  3. Differential expression of five protein kinase C isoenzymes in FAO and HepG2 hepatoma cell lines compared with normal rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducher, L; Croquet, F; Gil, S; Davy, J; Féger, J; Bréhier, A

    1995-12-14

    We analyzed the expression of five protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in cytosolic and membrane fractions from normal rat hepatocytes compared with those of two tumorigenic cell lines FAO and HepG2. Western blots with PKC-specific isoenzymes polyclonal antibodies provide evidences for the presence of the five isoforms alpha, beta II, delta, epsilon and zeta in normal rat hepatocytes. In hepatoma cells, we show differences in the level of expression, the molecular sizes and the responses to Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA).

  4. Uterine deletion of Trp53 compromises antioxidant responses in mouse decidua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnum, Kristin E.; Hirota, Yasushi; Baker, Erin Shammel; Yoshie, Mikihiro; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Daikoku, Takiko; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2012-09-01

    Preterm birth is a global health issue impacting both mothers and children. However, the etiology of preterm birth is not clearly understood. From our recent finding that premature decidual senescence with terminal differentiation is a cause of preterm birth in mice with uterine Trp53 deletion, encoding p53 protein, led us to explore other potential factors that are related to preterm birth. Utilizing proteomics approaches, here we show that 183 candidate proteins cause significant changes in decidua with Trp53 deletion as compared to normal decidua. Functional categorization of these proteins unveiled new pathways that are influenced by p53. In particular, downregulation of a cluster of antioxidant proteins in p53 deficient decidua suggests that increased oxidative stress could be one cause of preterm birth in mice with uterine deletion of Trp53.

  5. SYNAPTOSOMAL LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ISOENZYME COMPOSITION IS SHIFTED TOWARD AEROBIC FORMS IN PRIMATE BRAIN EVOLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duka, Tetyana; Anderson, Sarah M.; Collins, Zachary; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Ely, John J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Wildman, Derek E.; Goodman, Morris; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2014-01-01

    With the evolution of a relatively large brain size in haplorhine primates (i.e., tarsiers, monkeys, apes and humans), there have been associated changes in the molecular machinery that delivers energy to the neocortex. Here we investigated variation in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression and isoenzyme composition of the neocortex and striatum in primates using quantitative Western blotting and isoenzyme analysis of total homogenates and synaptosomal fractions. Analysis of isoform expression revealed that LDH in the synaptosomal fraction from both forebrain regions shifted towards a predominance of the heart-type, aerobic isoforms, LDHB, among haplorhines as compared to strepsirrhines (i.e., lorises and lemurs), while in total homogenate of neocortex and striatum there was no significant difference in the LDH isoenzyme composition between the primate suborders. The largest increase occurred in synapse-associated LDH-B expression in the neocortex, displaying an especially remarkable elevation in the ratio of LDH-B to LDH-A in humans. The phylogenetic variation in LDH-B to LDH-A ratio was correlated with species typical brain mass, but not encephalization quotient. A significant LDHB increase in the sub-neuronal fraction from haplorhine neocortex and striatum suggests a relatively higher rate of aerobic glycolysis that is linked to synaptosomal mitochondrial metabolism. Our results indicate that there is differential composition of LDH isoenzymes and metabolism in synaptic terminals that evolved in primates to meet increased energy requirements in association with brain enlargement. PMID:24686273

  6. Adenosine deaminase isoenzymes estimation -as a diagnostic tool for tuberculous pleural effusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nalla NK; Prasad CE; Gopalakrishniah V; Somayajulu VL; Lakshmi K Chelluri

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To assess the efficacy of ADA isoenzyme estimation over that of total ADA level in pleural fluid and serum as a more efficient diagnostic indicator in tuberculous pleural effusions in high prevalence country like India.Methods:The efficacy was analysed in total thirty four patients of pleural effusions.Total ADA was esti-mated by Guitsi and Galanti Calorimetric method and ADA isoenzymes with and without EHNA[Erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine]a potent ADA1 inhibitor using the same method.Results:The results demonstrated a statistically significant values of ADA2 in serum (P <0.001 ),pleural fluid (P =0.000)and significant value for the ratio of pleural fluid ADA2 /serum ADA2 (P <0.001 )and pleural fluid ADA1 /ADA2 (P <0. 005).The sensitivity and specificity values of pleural fluid ADA2 is 81.8 % and 91.6 % (cut off value 60 IU /L for Tuberculous effusions),serum ADA2 95.4 % and 66 % (cut off value 70 IU /L for tuberculous effu-sions).ADA2 is an isoenzyme,which is significantly raised in tuberculous pleural effusions both in the serum and pleural fluid.Conclusion:Estimation of ADA isoenzymes is redundant as a diagnostic aid over total ADA estimation in view of the limited improvements both in specificity and sensitivity patterns and also in term of cost-benefit ratio.

  7. Oronasal leishmaniasis caused by a parasite with an unusual isoenzyme profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, M.; Suliman, A.; Hashim, F.A.;

    1997-01-01

    A 45-year-old Sudanese man from western Sudan presented with oronasal leishmaniasis of three years duration. He had no history of previous kala-azar or cutaneous leishmaniasis. The parasite isolated from the oral mucosa was characterized by isoenzymes using 12 enzymes and by polymerase chain...

  8. Inhibition of Pig Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Isoenzymes by 3-Mercaptopicolinic Acid and Novel Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Jorge; Latorre, Pedro; Carrodeguas, José Alberto; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Sancho, Javier; López-Buesa, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    There exist two isoforms of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) in pig populations that differ in a single amino acid (Met139Leu). The isoenzymes have different kinetic properties, affecting more strongly the Km and Vmax of nucleotides. They are associated to different phenotypes modifying traits of considerable economic interest. In this work we use inhibitors of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity to search for further differences between these isoenzymes. On the one hand we have used the well-known inhibitor 3-mercaptopicolinic acid. Its inhibition patterns were the same for both isoenzymes: a three-fold decrease of the Ki values for GTP in 139Met and 139Leu (273 and 873 μM, respectively). On the other hand, through screening of a chemical library we have found two novel compounds with inhibitory effects of a similar magnitude to that of 3-mercaptopicolinic acid but with less solubility and specificity. One of these novel compounds, (N'1-({5-[1-methyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]-2-thienyl}methylidene)-2,4-dichlorobenzene-1-carbohydrazide), exhibited significantly different inhibitory effects on either isoenzyme: it enhanced threefold the apparent Km value for GTP in 139Met, whereas in 139Leu, it reduced it from 99 to 69 μM. The finding of those significant differences in the binding of GTP reinforces the hypothesis that the Met139Leu substitution affects strongly the nucleotide binding site of PEPCK-C. PMID:27391465

  9. The intracellular localization of malate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in Pisum arvense roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genowefa Kubik-Dorosz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria and plastids were isolated from Pisum arvense root cells by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The individual subcellular fractions so obtained were subjected to isoelectric focusing on cellulose acetate strips. Mitochondria and plastids each contained one NAD -malate dehydrogenase, while three isoenzymes were associated with the supernatant.

  10. The carvacrol ameliorates acute pancreatitis-induced liver injury via antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakır, Murat; Geyikoglu, Fatime; Colak, Suat; Turkez, Hasan; Bakır, Tulay Ozhan; Hosseinigouzdagani, Mirkhalil

    2016-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) may cause significant persistent multi-organ dysfunction. Carvacrol (CAR) possesses a variety of biological and pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to analyze the hepatic protection of CAR on AP induced by cerulein and to explore the underlying mechanism using in vivo studies. The rats were randomized into groups to receive (1) no therapy; (2) 50 µg/kg cerulein at 1-h intervals by four intraperitoneal injection (i.p.); (3) 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg CAR by one i.p.; and (4) cerulein + CAR after 2 h of cerulein injection. 12 h later, serum was provided to assess the blood AST, ALT and LDH values. Also, liver tissues were obtained for histological and biochemical measurements. Liver oxidative stress markers were evaluated by changes in the amount of lipid peroxides measured as MDA and changes in tissue antioxidant enzyme levels, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px. Histopathological examination was performed using scoring systems. Oxidative damage to DNA was quantitated in studied tissues of experimental animals by measuring the increase in 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formations. We found that the increasing doses of CAR decreased pancreatitis-induced MDA and 8-OH-dG levels. Moreover, the liver SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities in the AP + CAR group were higher than that of the rats in the AP group. In the treatment groups, AST, ALT and LDH were reduced. Besides, necrosis, coagulation and inflammation in the liver were alleviated (p < 0.05). We suggest that CAR could be a safe and potent new drug candidate for treating AP through its antioxidative mechanism of action for the treatment of a wide range of disorders related to hepatic dysfunction. PMID:26350272

  11. Antioxidative response to Cd in a newly discovered cadmium hyperaccumulator, Arabis paniculata F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Rong-Liang; Zhao, Xuan; Tang, Ye-Tao; Yu, Fang-Ming; Hu, Peng-Jie

    2008-12-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to study the effect of cadmium (Cd) on growth, Cd accumulation, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and antioxidative enzymes in leaves and roots of Arabis paniculata F., a new Cd hyperaccumuator found in China. The results showed that 22-89 microM Cd in solution enhanced the growth of A. paniculata after three weeks, with 21-27% biomass increase compared to the control. Cd concentrations in shoots and roots increased with increasing Cd supply levels, and reached a maximum of 1662 and 8670 mg kg(-1) Cd dry weight at 178 microM Cd treatment, respectively. In roots, 22-89 microM Cd reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide (O(2)(-1)) and H(2)O(2) as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR). In leaves, the contents of MDA, O(2)(-1) and H(2)O(2) remained unaffected by 22-89 microM Cd, while 178 microM Cd treatment significantly increased the MDA content, 69.5% higher than that of the control; generally, the activities of SOD, catalase (CAT), GPX and APX showed an increasing pattern with increasing Cd supply levels. Our present work concluded that A. paniculata has a great capability of Cd tolerance and accumulation. Moderate Cd treatment (22-89 microM Cd) alleviated the oxidative stress in roots, while higher level of Cd addition (178 microM) could cause an increasing generation of ROS, which was effectively scavenged by the antioxidative system. PMID:18992910

  12. Responses of bovine lymphocytes to heat shock as modified by breed and antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwanja, L A; Chase, C C; Gutierrez, J A; Guerriero, V; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Hansen, P J

    1994-02-01

    We tested whether resistance of lymphocytes to heat stress is modified by breed, intracellular glutathione content, and extracellular antioxidants. In the first experiment, lymphocytes from Angus (Bos taurus, non-heat-tolerant), Brahman (B. indicus, heat-tolerant), and Senepol (B. taurus, heat-tolerant) heifers (12 heifers per breed) were cultured at 45 degrees C for 3 h to evaluate thermal killing, at 42 degrees C for 12 h in a 60-h phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferation test, and at 42 degrees C for 1 h to measure induction of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Killing at 45 degrees C was affected by breed x temperature (P Brahman or Senepol. For phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes, heating to 42 degrees C reduced [3H]thymidine incorporation equally for all breeds. Viability at the end of culture was affected (P < .001) by a breed x temperature interaction because the decrease in viability caused by culture at 42 degrees C was greatest for lymphocytes from Angus heifers. Heat shock for 1 h at 42 degrees C caused a two- to threefold increase in intracellular concentrations of HSP70, but there was no interaction of temperature with breed. In another experiment (with lymphocytes harvested from three Holstein cows), buthionine sulfoximine, a glutathione synthesis inhibitor, inhibited (P < .01) proliferation of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes at 38.5 and 42 degrees C. Addition of the antioxidants glutathione or thioredoxin to culture did not reduce the effects of heating to 42 degrees C on proliferation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8157528

  13. Purification of glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes and characterization of their substrate specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Godson O; Braithwaite, Cleantis; Fordjour, Kusi; Madu, Wenceslaus C; Beyene, Asefa; Roberts, Paul S; Wright, Victor

    2003-02-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) isoenzymes were purified from control, and ribonucleoside triphosphate (NTP)-treated peanut seedlings. GDH purification was by preparative-scale, free solution isoelectric focusing, followed by native PAGE, and the cryoelectrophoretic elution of the isoenzymes from the gel. SDS-PAGE of the purified GDH isoenzymes, followed by either silver staining of the gel, or western analysis using anti-GDH antibody, gave identical GDH polypeptide (a, alpha, and b) bands, thus, confirming the purity of the isoenzymes. The substrate specificities in the aminating activity of the GDH isoenzymes, or disaggregated polypeptides were determined by photometry, but the substrate specificities in the RNA synthesis activity were determined in cocktails containing 0.06-0.8 mM of each of UTP, ATP, GTP, and CTP, 0-100.0 mM NH4Cl, 0-50.0 mM alpha-ketoglutaratr (alpha-KG), 0-0.2 mM NADH, 0-10.0 mM CaCl2 5 units of DNase 1, antibiotics, and approximately 5 microg pure GDH isoenzymes or polypeptides at pH 8.0, and overnight at 16 degrees C. The GDH polypeptides were active only in amination reaction, but the GDH isoenzymes were active in both amination and RNA synthesis. Whereas, NADH, NH4Cl and alpha-KG served as the substrates for the amination reaction, and as modulators in the RNA synthetic reaction, ATP, GTP, UTP, and CTP served as substrates for theisoenzymes in RNA synthesis reaction. The product RNA was up to 2 microg microg(-1) GDH, and consisted of RNA species in the size ranges of 26, 16, and 5 S rRNAs. DNAse 1 in the assay cocktail ruled out transcription as the mechanism of the RNA synthesis. Addition of [alpha-32P] NTP led to the production of labeled RNA, thus confirming the specificity of NTPs as substrates, and that the RNA was not pre-existing in the reaction cocktail.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of phase II drug metabolizing/antioxidant enzymes gene response by anticancer agent sulforaphane in rat lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hu; Khor, Tin Oo; Yang, Qian; Huang, Ying; Wu, Tien-Yuan; Saw, Constance Lay-Lay; Lin, Wen; Androulakis, Ioannis P; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2012-10-01

    This study assesses the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of Nrf2-mediated increased expression of phase II drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) and antioxidant enzymes which represents an important component of cancer chemoprevention in rat lymphocytes following intravenous (iv) administration of an anticancer phytochemical sulforaphane (SFN). SFN was administered intravenously to four groups of male Sprague-Dawley JVC rats each group comprising four animals. Blood samples were drawn at selected time points. Plasma were obtained from half of each of the blood samples and analyzed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Lymphocytes were collected from the remaining blood samples using Ficoll-Paque Plus centrifuge medium. Lymphocyte RNAs were extracted and converted to cDNA, quantitative real-time PCR analyses were performed, and fold changes were calculated against those at time zero for the relative expression of Nrf2-target genes of phase II DME/antioxidant enzymes. PK-PD modeling was conducted based on Jusko's indirect response model (IDR) using GastroPlus and bootstrap method. SFN plasma concentration declined biexponentially and the pharmacokinetic parameters were generated. Rat lymphocyte mRNA expression levels showed no change for GSTM1, SOD, NF-κB, UGT1A1, or UGT1A6. Moderate increases (2-5-fold) over the time zero were seen for HO-1, Nrf2, and NQO1, and significant increases (>5-fold) for GSTT1, GPx1, and Maf. PK-PD analyses using GastroPlus and the bootstrap method provided reasonable fitting for the PK and PD profiles and parameter estimates. Our present study shows that SFN could induce Nrf2-mediated phase II DME/antioxidant mRNA expression for NQO1, GSTT1, Nrf2, GPx, Maf, and HO-1 in rat lymphocytes after iv administration, suggesting that Nrf2-mediated mRNA expression in lymphocytes may serve as surrogate biomarkers. The PK-PD IDR model simultaneously linking the plasma concentrations of SFN and the PD response of lymphocyte mRNA expression is

  15. Mycorrhizal-induced calmodulin mediated changes in antioxidant enzymes and growth response of drought-stressed trifoliate orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ming eHuang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L Raf.] is considered highly arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM dependent for growth responses through a series of signal transductions in form of various physiological responses. The proposed study was carried out to evaluate the effect of an AM fungus (Funneliformis mosseae on growth, antioxidant enzyme (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD activities, leaf relative water content (RWC, calmodulin (CaM, superoxide anion (O2•− and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentrations in leaves of the plants exposed to both well-watered (WW and drought stress (DS conditions. A 58-day of DS significantly decreased mycorrhizal colonization by 60% than WW. Compared to non-AM seedlings, AM seedlings displayed significantly higher shoot morphological properties (plant height, stem diameter and leaf number, biomass production (shoot and root fresh weight and leaf RWC, regardless of soil water status. AM inoculation significantly increased CaM and soluble protein concentrations and CAT activity, and significantly decreased O2•− and H2O2 concentration under both WW and DS conditions. The AM seedlings also exhibited significantly higher Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities than the non-AM seedlings under DS but not under WW, which are triggered by higher CaM levels in AM plants on the basis of correlation studies. Further, the negative correlation of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities with O2•− and H2O2 concentration showed the DS-induced ROS scavenging ability of CaM mediated SODs under mycorrhization. Our results demonstrated that AM-inoculation elevated the synthesis of CaM in leaves and up-regulated activities of the antioxidant enzymes, thereby, repairing the possible oxidative damage to plants by lowering the ROS accumulation under DS condition.

  16. Possible role of glutamine synthetase in the NO signaling response in root nodules by contributing to the antioxidant defenses

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    Liliana Santos Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is emerging as an important regulatory player in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. The occurrence of NO during several steps of the symbiotic interaction suggests an important, but yet unknown, signaling role of this molecule for root nodule formation and functioning. The identification of the molecular targets of NO is key for the assembly of the signal transduction cascade that will ultimately help to unravel NO function. We have recently shown that the key nitrogen assimilatory enzyme Glutamine Synthetase (GS is a molecular target of NO in root nodules of Medicago truncatula, being post-translationally regulated by tyrosine nitration in relation to nitrogen fixation. In functional nodules of M. truncatula NO formation has been located in the bacteroid containing cells of the fixation zone, where the ammonium generated by bacterial nitrogenase is released to the plant cytosol and assimilated into the organic pools by plant GS. We propose that the NO-mediated GS post-translational inactivation is connected to nitrogenase inhibition induced by NO and is related to metabolite channeling to boost the nodule antioxidant defenses. Glutamate, a substrate for GS activity is also the precursor for the synthesis of glutathione (GSH, which is highly abundant in root nodules of several plant species and known to play a major role in the antioxidant defense participating in the ascorbate/GSH cycle. Existing evidence suggests that upon NO-mediated GS inhibition, glutamate could be channeled for the synthesis of GSH. According to this hypothesis, GS would be involved in the NO-signaling responses in root nodules and the NO-signaling events would meet the nodule metabolic pathways to provide an adaptive response to the inhibition of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by reactive nitrogen species (RNS.

  17. Lead detoxification by coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.) involves induction of phytochelatins and antioxidant system in response to its accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Seema; Srivastava, S; Tripathi, R D; Kumar, R; Seth, C S; Gupta, D K

    2006-11-01

    Coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.) plants when exposed to various concentrations of Pb (1-100microM) for 1-7days, exhibited both phytotoxic and tolerance responses. The specific responses were function of concentration and duration. Plants accumulated 1748mugPbg(-1) dw after 7d which reflected its metal accumulation ability, however most of the metal (1222microgg(-1) dw, 70%) was accumulated after 1d exposure only. The toxic effect and oxidative stress caused by Pb were evident by the reduction in biomass and photosynthetic pigments and increase in malondialddehyde (MDA) content and electrical conductivity with increase in metal concentration and exposure duration. Morphological symptoms of senescence phenomena such as chlorosis and fragmentation of leaves were observed after 7d. The metal tolerance and detoxification strategy adopted by the plant was investigated with reference to antioxidant system and synthesis of phytochelatins. Protein and antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7) ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) showed induction at lower concentration and duration followed by decline. All enzymes except GPX showed maximum activity after 1d. An increase in cysteine, non-protein thiols (NP-SH) and glutathione (GSH) content was observed at moderate exposure conditions followed by decline. Phytochelatins (PC(2) and PC(3)) were synthesized to significant levels at 10 and 50microM Pb with concomitant decrease in GSH levels. Thus production of PCs seems important for the detoxification of metal, however it may lead to depletion of GSH and consequently oxidative stress. Results suggest that plants responded positively to moderate Pb concentrations and accumulated high amount of metal. Due to metal accumulation coupled with detoxification potential, the plant appears to have potential for its use as phytoremediator species

  18. [Comparison of urinary and seminal N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase isoenzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumoto, R; Asakawa, M; Yamamoto, M; Doi, Y; Kawashima, H; Umeda, M; Tanabe, S; Nishisaka, N; Kakinoki, K; Maekawa, M

    1987-11-01

    N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG) and its isoenzymes were measured in the urine and seminal plasma of healthy volunteers. Urinary NAG level was 2.62 +/- 1.30 U/L (mean +/- standard deviation), 1.99 +/- 0.77 U/g creatinine and seminal NAG level was 2370 +/- 1007 U/l. Urinary NAG level was 2.59 +/- 1.44 U/l, 1.93 +/- 0.80 U/g creatinine in males and 2.67 +/- 1.15 U/l, 2.08 +/- 0.78 U/g creatinine in females, and there was no significant sex difference. NAG isoenzymes in the urine and seminal plasma were divided into two major peaks, A and B. The A:B ratio was 78.0 +/- 6.5: 21.9 +/- 6.5 in the urine and 24.7 +/- 3.2: 75.2 +/- 3.2 in the seminal plasma, and was significantly different. Urinary NAG isoenzyme was 80.3 +/- 6.7: 19.6 +/- 6.7 in males and 74.1 +/- 4.3: 25.9 +/- 4.3 in females, and there was no significant difference between the sexes. These results indicated that urinary and seminal NAG can be differentiated by measuring the isoenzymes. Furthermore, the comparison of seminal NAG isoenzymes before and after vasectomy indicated that seminal NAG may be affected not only by the sperm but also by the prostatic fluid. PMID:3445866

  19. Fasted and postprandial response of serum physiological response, hepatic antioxidant abilities and HSP70 expression in Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala fed different dietary carbohydrate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanpeng Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary carbohydrate (CHO level on serum physiological response, hepatic antioxidant abilities and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 expression of Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala was studied. Two isonitrogenous (28.56% crude protein and isolipidic (5.28% crude lipid diets were formulated to contain 30% or 53% wheat starch. Diets were fed for 90 days to fish in triplicate tanks (28 fish per tank. At the end of feeding trial, significantly higher serum triglyceride level, insulin level, cortisol level, and malondialdehyde (MDA content were observed in fish fed the 53% CHO diet, while significantly lower serum total protein content, alkaline phosphatase activity, superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidative capacity were found in fish fed the 53% CHO diet compared with those fed the 30% diet. The relative level of hepatic heat shock protein 70 mRNA was significantly higher in the 53% CHO group than that in the 30% CHO at 6, 12 and 48 h after feeding. Ingestion of 53% dietary CHO impacts the nonspecific immune ability and causes metabolic stress in Megalobrama amblycephala.

  20. High Salinity Induces Different Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Responses in Maize Seedlings Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Hegab, Momtaz M; Pandey, Renu; Asard, Han; Abuelsoud, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Salinity negatively affects plant growth and causes significant crop yield losses world-wide. Maize is an economically important cereal crop affected by high salinity. In this study, maize seedlings were subjected to 75 mM and 150 mM NaCl, to emulate high soil salinity. Roots, mature leaves (basal leaf-pair 1,2) and young leaves (distal leaf-pair 3,4) were harvested after 3 weeks of sowing. Roots showed the highest reduction in biomass, followed by mature and young leaves in the salt-stressed plants. Concomitant with the pattern of growth reduction, roots accumulated the highest levels of Na(+) followed by mature and young leaves. High salinity induced oxidative stress in the roots and mature leaves, but to a lesser extent in younger leaves. The younger leaves showed increased electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations only at 150 mM NaCl. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and polyphenol content increased with the increase in salinity levels in roots and mature leaves, but showed no changes in the young leaves. Under salinity stress, reduced ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) content increased in roots, while total tocopherol levels increased specifically in the shoot tissues. Similarly, redox changes estimated by the ratio of redox couples (ASC/total ascorbate and GSH/total glutathione) showed significant decreases in the roots. Activities of enzymatic antioxidants, catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1), increased in all organs of salt-treated plants, while superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), glutathione-s-transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) increased specifically in the roots. Overall, these results suggest that Na(+) is retained and detoxified mainly in roots, and less stress impact is observed in mature and younger leaves. This study also indicates a possible role of ROS in the systemic

  1. High salinity induces different oxidative stress and antioxidant responses in maize seedlings organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada eAbdElgawad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity negatively affects plant growth and causes significant crop yield losses world-wide. Maize is an economically important cereal crop affected by high salinity. In this study, maize seedlings were subjected to two 75 mM and 150 mM NaCl, to emulate high soil salinity. Roots, mature leaves (basal leaf-pair 1,2 and young leaves (distal leaf-pair 3,4 were harvested after 3 weeks of sowing. Roots showed the highest reduction in biomass, followed by mature and young leaves in the salt-stressed plants. Concomitant with the pattern of growth reduction, roots accumulated the highest levels of Na+ followed by mature and young leaves. High salinity induced oxidative stress in the roots and mature leaves, but to a lesser extent in younger leaves. The younger leaves showed increased electrolyte leakage (EL, malondialdehyde (MDA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentrations only at 150 mM NaCl. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC and polyphenol content increased with the increase in salinity levels in roots and mature leaves, but showed no changes in the young leaves. Under salinity stress, reduced ascorbate (ASC and glutathione (GSH content increased in roots, while total tocopherol levels increased specifically in the shoot tissues. Similarly, redox changes estimated by the ratio of redox couples (ASC/total ascorbate and GSH/total glutathione showed significant decreases in the roots. Activities of enzymatic antioxidants, catalase (CAT and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, increased in all organs of salt-treated plants, while superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, glutathione-s-transferase (GST and glutathione reductase (GR increased specifically in the roots. Overall, these results suggest that Na+ is retained and detoxified mainly in roots, and less stress impact is observed in mature and younger leaves. This study also indicates a possible role of ROS in the systemic signaling from roots to leaves, allowing leaves to activate their defense

  2. Ultraviolet-B light induced oxidative stress: effects on antioxidant response of Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthi, Sengodan; Sankari, R; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S

    2014-06-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV-B), which emits radiation in the range of 280-315 nm, has been used worldwide in light trapping of insect pests. In this article, we test the hypothesis that one of the duration of UV-B exposure has a differential impact on oxidative stress marker enzymes in Spodoptera litura. Effect of UV-B exposure on total protein and antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidases (POX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were investigated in S. litura. The adults were exposed to UV-B light for various time periods (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min). We found that exposure to UV-B light for 30 and 60 min resulted in increased activities of POX. When the exposure time lasted for 60 and 90 min, the activities of SOD remained significantly higher than the control. However, the POX, CAT and GST activity decreased to control levels at 90 and 120 min. whereas relatively long duration exposure activates the xenobiotics detoxifying enzymes like GST and POX and CAT enzymes. Longer UV-B exposure may interfere with pesticide detoxification mechanism in insects, making them more susceptible to insecticides. PMID:24792567

  3. Antioxidant enzyme level response to prooxidant allelochemicals in larvae of the southern armyworm moth, Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritsos, C A; Ahmad, S; Elliott, A J; Pardini, R S

    1990-01-01

    Larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania, are highly polyphagous feeders which frequently encounter and feed upon plants containing high levels of prooxidant allelochemicals. While ingestion of moderate quantities of prooxidants can be tolerated by these larvae, ingestion of larger quantities can result in toxicity. Studies were conducted to assess the role of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the protection of S. eridania against redox active prooxidant plant allelochemicals. Dietary exposure of mid-fifth-instar larvae to either quercetin (a flavonoid) or xanthotoxin (a photoactive furanocoumarin), which generate superoxide radical, and singlet oxygen, respectively, resulted in an increase in SOD levels. CAT levels increased in all groups of S. eridania including control insects. This may have been due to the sudden exposure to food following an extended fast of 18 h (to insure that larvae would not reject the diet because of the prooxidants' bitter taste) with an eventual lowering of CAT values with time. GR activities did not significantly change except for a slight inhibition at the highest prooxidant concentrations used at 12-h post-ingestion. The data from these studies suggest that SOD responds to prooxidant challenges in these insects and together with CAT and GR contributes to the insect's defense against potentially toxic prooxidant compounds. PMID:2161387

  4. Sublethal toxicity of carbofuran on the African catfish Clarias gariepinus: Hormonal, enzymatic and antioxidant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Th A; Harabawy, Ahmed S A

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the impacts of carbofuran on endocrinology of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus, for the first time and evaluated cortisol (CRT), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), 17β-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (TST) and the oxidative stress markers including SOD, CAT, GSTs, GSH. The toxic effects on the metabolic enzymes, G6PDH and LDH, in addition to lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage as biomarkers in Nile catfish, to sublethal exposures of carbofuran (0.16 and 0.49mg/L, for 35 days) were studied. Statistically significant differences between selected parameters between control and carbofuran-treated fish were recorded. Carbofuran caused a significant (pcarbofuran-treated fish. Toxicity of carbofuran on liver, kidney, gills, gonads and muscles after 35 days of exposure was found. Glycogen levels showed a highly significant decrease in liver and gills (p0.05) in gonads of treated fish. The two metabolic enzymes G6PDH and LDH in all tissues exhibited significant decreases (pcarbofuran. LPO levels increased significantly (pcarbofuran. There was a significant (pcarbofuran and allow us to consider catfish as a good bioindicator to reflect the endocrine disrupting impacts of carbofuran, and reflect the potential of this pesticide to cause disturbance in antioxidant defense system as well as metabolism and induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage in contaminated ecosystems.

  5. Sodium tungstate induced neurological alterations in rat brain regions and their response to antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Sherry; Pant, Satish C; Kushwaha, Pramod; Bhargava, Rakesh; Flora, Swaran J S

    2015-08-01

    Tungsten, recognized recently as an environmental contaminant, is being used in arms and ammunitions as substitute to depleted uranium. We studied the effects of sodium tungstate on oxidative stress, few selected neurological variables like acetylcholinesterase, biogenic amines in rat brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) and their prevention following co-administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), naringenin and quercetin. Animals were sub-chronically exposed to sodium tungstate (100 ppm in drinking water) and orally co-supplemented with different antioxidants (0.30 mM) for three months. Sodium tungstate significantly decreased the activity of acetylcholinesterase, dopamine, nor-epinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels while it increased monoamine oxidase activity in different brain regions. Tungstate exposure produced a significant increase in biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress while, neurological alterations were more pronounced in the cerebral cortex compared to other regions. Co-administration of NAC and flavonoids with sodium tungstate significantly restored glutathione, prevented changes in the brain biogenic amines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TBARS levels in the different brain regions. The protection was more prominent in the animals co-administered with NAC. We can thus conclude that sodium tungstate induced brain oxidative stress and the alterations in some neurological variables can effectively be reduced by co-supplementation of NAC. PMID:25983264

  6. Antioxidant responses and salt stress tolerance of Aloe vera irrigated by seawater with different salinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The variations of antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7) and catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6), lipid peroxidation and major electrolytes in Aloe vera irrigated for three years with seawater having different salinity were studied. The results indicate that POD activity increased significantly at 10% seawater level, whereas decreased at higher seawater levels. The SOD activity decreased with increasing seawater concentration except for treatment with 100% seawater (denoted as T100% ) under long-term salt stress. Salinity decreased CATactivity,and increased lipid peroxidation and cell membrane injury. In addition, Ca2+ content was high in Aloe irrigated by seawater of low salinity level, but low in Aloe irrigated by seawater of high salinity level. An opposite trend was observed for the effect of seawater on Na + content of plants. K + and Mg2 +contents remain relatively stable under various seawater levels, which benefit plant growth.

  7. Effects of light intensity on growth, immune responses, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Xu, Chao; Wang, Fei; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2015-12-01

    Light is necessary for many fish species to develop and grow normally since most fishes are visual feeders. However, too intense light may be stressful or even lethal. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of light intensity on growth, immune response, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish (18.04 ± 0.22 g) randomly divided into 5 groups were exposed to a range of light intensities (100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 lx) in cultures for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and cumulative mortality was recorded for the next 96 h. The results demonstrated that fish subjected to 400 lx showed the greatest weight gain (125.70 ± 5.29%). Plasma levels of glucose and lactate increased with light intensity rising from 100 lx to 1600 lx while the lowest plasma levels of cortisol was observed at 400 lx group. Post-challenged haemato-immunological parameters (including plasma lysozyme and alternative complement activities, as well as plasma nitric oxide level and globulin contents) improved with light intensity increasing from 100 lx to 400 lx, and then decreased with further increasing light intensity. However, antioxidant biomarkers such as liver catalase and malondialdehyde showed an opposite trend with immune response with the lowest values observed at 400 lx groups. The application of light intensity at 1600 lx significantly lowered liver glutathione activity to 76.78 ± 6.91 μmol g(-1). Within a range of light intensity from 100 to 400 lx, no differences were observed in liver total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities while they were significantly higher at 800 and 1600 lx. After challenge, the lowest mortality was observed in fish exposed to 400 lx. It was significantly lower than that of fish exposed to 100 and 1600 lx. The results of the present study indicated that high light intensities (more than 800 lx) not only produced

  8. Antioxidative responses of the tissues of two wild populations of Pelophylax kl. esculentus frogs to heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokić, Marko D; Borković-Mitić, Slavica S; Krizmanić, Imre I; Mutić, Jelena J; Vukojević, Vesna; Nasia, Mohammed; Gavrić, Jelena P; Despotović, Svetlana G; Gavrilović, Branka R; Radovanović, Tijana B; Pavlović, Slađan Z; Saičić, Zorica S

    2016-06-01

    on the results in this study, we concluded that increased concentrations of heavy metals in frog tissues can alter the AOS, which leads to higher concentrations of GSH and SH groups and lower activities of antioxidative enzymes. The response of the AOS to metal pollutants allowed us to make a distinction between different frog tissues, and to conclude that the liver and skin are more suitable for assessing metal-induced oxidative stress in frogs than muscle. PMID:26874985

  9. Low Root Zone Temperature Exacerbates the Ion Imbalance and Photosynthesis Inhibition and Induces Antioxidant Responses in Tomato Plants Under Salinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; YANG Jing; ZHU Biao; ZHU Zhu-jun

    2014-01-01

    The combined effects of salinity with low root zone temperature (RZT) on plant growth and photosynthesis were studied in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. The plants were exposed to two different root zone temperatures (28/20°C, 12/8°C, day/night temperature) in combination with two NaCl levels (0 and 100 mmol L-1). After 2 wk of treatment, K+and Na+ concentration, leaf photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll lfuorescence and leaf antioxidant enzyme activities were measured. Salinity signiifcantly decreased plant biomass, net photosynthesis rate, actual quantum yield of photosynthesis and concentration of K+, but remarkably increased the concentration of Na+. These effects were more pronounced when the salinity treatments were combined with the treatment of low RZT conditions. Either salinity or low RZT individually did not affect maximal efifciency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), while a combination of these two stresses decreased Fv/Fm considerably, indicating that the photo-damage occurred under such conditions. Non-photochemical quenching was increased by salt stress in accompany with the enhancement of the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, in contrast, this was not the case with low RZT applied individually. Salinity stress individually increased the activities of SOD, APX, GPOD and GR, and decreased the activities of DHAR. Due to the interactive effects of salinity with low RZT, these ifve enzyme activities increased sharply in the combined stressed plants. These results indicate that low RZT exacerbates the ion imbalance, PSII damage and photosynthesis inhibition in tomato plants under salinity. In response to the oxidative stress under salinity in combination with low RZT, the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, APX, GPOD, DHAR and GR were clearly enhanced in tomato plants.

  10. Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques

    2013-04-15

    Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its

  11. Optimization of Extraction Condition of Bee Pollen Using Response Surface Methodology: Correlation between Anti-Melanogenesis, Antioxidant Activity, and Phenolic Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon Beom Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen is flower pollen with nectar and salivary substances of bees and rich in essential components. Bee pollen showed antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity in our assay system. To maximize the antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of bee pollen, extraction conditions, such as extraction solvent, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were optimized using response surface methodology. Regression analysis showed a good fit of this model and yielded the second-order polynomial regression for tyrosinase inhibition and antioxidant activity. Among the extraction variables, extraction solvent greatly affected the activity. The optimal condition was determined as EtOAc concentration in MeOH, 69.6%; temperature, 10.0 °C; and extraction time, 24.2 h, and the tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidant activity under optimal condition were found to be 57.9% and 49.3%, respectively. Further analysis showed the close correlation between activities and phenolic content, which suggested phenolic compounds are active constituents of bee pollen for tyrosinase inhibition and antioxidant activity. Taken together, these results provide useful information about bee pollen as cosmetic therapeutics to reduce oxidative stress and hyperpigmentation.

  12. Chronic stress differentially affects antioxidant enzymes and modifies the acute stress response in liver of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, J; Djordjevic, A; Adzic, M; Niciforovic, A; Radojcic, M B

    2010-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest close interactions between stressors, particularly those of long duration, and liver diseases, such as hepatic inflammation, that is proposed to occur via reactive oxygen species. In the present study we have used 21-day social isolation of male Wistar rats as a model of chronic stress to investigate protein expression/activity of liver antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutases (SODs), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GLR), and protein expression of their upstream regulators: glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB). We have also characterized these parameters in either naive or chronically stressed animals that were challenged by 30-min acute immobilization. We found that chronic isolation caused decrease in serum corticosterone (CORT) and blood glucose (GLU), increase in NFkB signaling, and disproportion between CuZnSOD, peroxidases (CAT, GPx) and GLR, thus promoting H2O2 accumulation and prooxidative state in liver. The overall results suggested that chronic stress exaggerated responsiveness to subsequent stressor at the level of CORT and GLU, and potentiated GLR response, but compromised the restoration of oxido-reductive balance due to irreversible alterations in MnSOD and GPx. PMID:20406049

  13. The Marburg Virus VP24 Protein Interacts with Keap1 to Activate the Cytoprotective Antioxidant Response Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan R. Edwards

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1 is a ubiquitin E3 ligase specificity factor that targets transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 for ubiquitination and degradation. Disrupting Keap1-Nrf2 interaction stabilizes Nrf2, resulting in Nrf2 nuclear accumulation, binding to antioxidant response elements (AREs, and transcription of cytoprotective genes. Marburg virus (MARV is a zoonotic pathogen that likely uses bats as reservoir hosts. We demonstrate that MARV protein VP24 (mVP24 binds the Kelch domain of either human or bat Keap1. This binding is of high affinity and 1:1 stoichiometry and activates Nrf2. Modeling based on the Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV VP24 (eVP24 structure identified in mVP24 an acidic loop (K-loop critical for Keap1 interaction. Transfer of the K-loop to eVP24, which otherwise does not bind Keap1, confers Keap1 binding and Nrf2 activation, and infection by MARV, but not EBOV, activates ARE gene expression. Therefore, MARV targets Keap1 to activate Nrf2-induced cytoprotective responses during infection.

  14. Roles of the host oxidative immune response and bacterial antioxidant rubrerythrin during Porphyromonas gingivalis infection.

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    Piotr Mydel

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficient clearance of microbes by neutrophils requires the concerted action of reactive oxygen species and microbicidal components within leukocyte secretory granules. Rubrerythrin (Rbr is a nonheme iron protein that protects many air-sensitive bacteria against oxidative stress. Using oxidative burst-knockout (NADPH oxidase-null mice and an rbr gene knockout bacterial strain, we investigated the interplay between the phagocytic oxidative burst of the host and the oxidative stress response of the anaerobic periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. Rbr ensured the proliferation of P. gingivalis in mice that possessed a fully functional oxidative burst response, but not in NADPH oxidase-null mice. Furthermore, the in vivo protection afforded by Rbr was not associated with the oxidative burst responses of isolated neutrophils in vitro. Although the phagocyte-derived oxidative burst response was largely ineffective against P. gingivalis infection, the corresponding oxidative response to the Rbr-positive microbe contributed to host-induced pathology via potent mobilization and systemic activation of neutrophils. It appeared that Rbr also provided protection against reactive nitrogen species, thereby ensuring the survival of P. gingivalis in the infected host. The presence of the rbr gene in P. gingivalis also led to greater oral bone loss upon infection. Collectively, these results indicate that the host oxidative burst paradoxically enhances the survival of P. gingivalis by exacerbating local and systemic inflammation, thereby contributing to the morbidity and mortality associated with infection.

  15. Distribution of glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes in human kidney: basis for possible markers of renal injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, D J; Kharbanda, R; Cunningham, D S; McLellan, L I; Hayes, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    To determine whether the tissue distribution of glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes could define the precise nature of renal injury, 13 adult kidneys were studied, using specific antibodies raised against purified isoenzymes. Basic GST stained strongly proximal convoluted tubules and some medullary tubules; acidic GST stained strongly distal convoluted tubules and medullary tubules; neutral GST stained similarly to acidic GST, but weaker, and microsomal GST stained glomerular and inter...

  16. The importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular response against oxidative/nitrosative stress: current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurutas, Ergul Belge

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable interest has risen in the idea that oxidative/nitrosative stress is mediated in the etiology of numerous human diseases. Oxidative/Nitrosative stress is the result of an disequilibrium in oxidant/antioxidant which reveals from continuous increase of Reactive Oxygen and Reactive Nitrogen Species production. The aim of this review is to emphasize with current information the importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular responce against oxidative/nitrosative stress, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue. Products of lipid peroxidation have commonly been used as biomarkers of oxidative/nitrosative stress damage. Lipid peroxidation generates a variety of relatively stable decomposition end products, mainly α, β-unsaturated reactive aldehydes, such as malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, 2-propenal (acrolein) and isoprostanes, which can be measured in plasma and urine as an indirect index of oxidative/nitrosative stress. Antioxidants are exogenous or endogenous molecules that mitigate any form of oxidative/nitrosative stress or its consequences. They may act from directly scavenging free radicals to increasing antioxidative defences. Antioxidant deficiencies can develop as a result of decreased antioxidant intake, synthesis of endogenous enzymes or increased antioxidant utilization. Antioxidant supplementation has become an increasingly popular practice to maintain optimal body function. However, antoxidants exhibit pro-oxidant activity depending on the specific set of conditions. Of particular importance are their dosage and redox conditions in the cell. PMID:27456681

  17. Expression analysis of antioxidant genes in response to drought stress in the fl ag leaf of two Indonesian rice cultivars

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    Refli R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analysis the expression of antioxidant genes in response to droughtstress in Indonesian rice. The malondialdehyde (MDA content and the expression of Cu-ZnSod1, cCu-ZnSod2,MnSod1, cApxa, cApxb, chl-sApx, Cat1, Cat2, Cat3, Gr1, Gr2, and Gr3 genes were assayed in the rice fl ag leaf ofCiherang and Situ Bagendit cultivars subjected to control, mild and severe drought during the grain fi llingphase. Increase in MDA content of Ciherang treated to mild and severe drought was almost two-fold andthree-fold respectively, while MDA content in Situ Bagendit subjected to mild and severe drought increasedapproximately one-fold and two-fold as compared to the control. The semi quantitative reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (sqRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of cCu-ZnSod1, MnSod1, Cat2, Gr3genes of Ciherang, and cCu-ZnSod2, MnSod1, cApxa, cApxb, chl-sAPX, Cat2 and Gr1 genes of Situ Bagendit increasedin fl ag leaf of plant treated to drought. Expressions of cApxb, chl-sApx, Cat3 of Ciherang and Cu-ZnSod1 and Gr2genes of Situ Bagendit were not changed signifi cantly by drought stress. Decreased expression was shownby cCu-ZnSod2, cApxa, Cat1, Gr1 and Gr2 genes of Ciherang, and Cat1, Cat3 and Gr3 genes of Situ Bagendit. Theresults indicated that the activity of oxidative defense was regulated by four genes; cCu-ZnSod1, MnSod1, Cat2,Gr3 in Ciherang, and eight genes; cCu-ZnSod1, cCu-ZnSod2, MnSod1, cApxa, cApxb, chl-sApx, Cat2 and Gr1 in SituBagendit. Therefore, differences in the number of antioxidant genes controlling oxidative defense systemmight determine the difference of the oxidative defense capacity between both cultivars in response to droughtstress during grain fi lling.

  18. Effects of in ovo injection with selenium on immune and antioxidant responses during experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Jang, S I; Jeong, M S; Xu, S Z; Kim, J B; Park, H J; Kim, H R; Lillehoj, E P; Bravo, D M

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo injection of Se on modulating the immune system and antioxidant responses in broiler chickens with experimental necrotic enteritis. Broiler eggs were injected at 18 d of embryo age with either 100 μL of PBS alone or sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) in PBS, providing 0 (SS0), 10 (SS10), or 20 (SS20) μg of Se/egg. At 14 d posthatch, PBS-treated and uninfected chickens were kept as the control group, whereas the remaining chickens were orally infected with 1.0 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima (SS0, SS10, SS20). At 18 d posthatch, E. maxima-infected chickens were orally infected with 1.0 × 10(9) cfu of Clostridium perfringens. Infected control SS0 group showed significantly decreased BW compared with the uninfected control. However, SS20 group showed significantly increased BW compared with the infected control SS0 group, whereas the BW were similar among uninfected control and infected SS10 and SS20 groups. The SS10 group showed significantly lower intestinal lesions compared with the SS0 group, and oocyst production was decreased in both SS10 and SS20 groups. Serum malondialdehyde level and catalase activity were also decreased in both SS10 and SS20 groups, whereas the superoxide dismutase level was significantly lower in the SS10 group compared with the SS0 group. The SS20 group showed significantly higher levels of transcripts for IL-1β and IL-6 in intestine, and SS10 and SS20 groups had higher levels of transcripts for IL-8 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and decreased glutathione peroxidase 7 mRNA levels compared with the SS0 group. The SS10 and SS20 groups also showed increased serum antibody levels to C. perfringens α-toxin and NetB toxin compared with the SS0 group. These collective results suggest that the injection of Se into the amniotic cavity of developing eggs may be beneficial for enhancing immune and antioxidant responses in the hatched chickens exposed to the

  19. Hypoxia depresses CYP1A induction and enhances DNA damage, but has minimal effects on antioxidant responses in sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) larvae exposed to dispersed crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Subham; DiGiulio, Richard T; Drollette, Brian D; L Plata, Desire; Brownawell, Bruce J; McElroy, Anne E

    2016-08-01

    The growing incidence of hypoxic regions in coastal areas receiving high volumes of anthropogenic discharges requires more focused risk assessment of multiple stressors. One area needing further study is the combined effect of hypoxia and oil exposure. This study examined the short-term sublethal effects of co-exposure to hypoxia and water accommodated fractions (WAF) and chemically enhanced WAFs (CEWAFs) of Southern Louisiana Crude oil on detoxification, antioxidant defenses and genotoxicity in early life stage sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus). CYP1A induction (evaluated by measuring EROD activity), activity of a number of key antioxidant enzymes (GST, GR, GPx, SOD, CAT, and GCL), levels of antioxidants (tGSH, GSH, and GSSG), evidence of lipid peroxidation (evaluated using the TBARS assay), and DNA damage (evaluated using the comet assay) provided a broad assessment of responses. Contaminant detoxification pathways induced by oil exposure were inhibited by co-exposure to hypoxia, indicating a maladaptive response. The interactive effects of oil and hypoxia on antioxidant defenses were mixed, but generally indicated less pronounced alterations, with significant increases in lipid peroxidation not observed. Hypoxia significantly enhanced DNA damage induced by oil exposure indicating the potential for significant deleterious effects post exposure. This study demonstrates the importance of considering hypoxia as an enhanced risk factor in assessing the effects of contaminants in areas where seasonal hypoxia may be prevalent. PMID:27315012

  20. Dissociation and rate constants of some human liver alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietruszko, R; de Zalenski, C; Theorell, H

    1976-01-01

    ADH from human liver forms binary complexes with NADH, associated with a blue shift of the peak of the fluorescence emission of NADH. The wavelength shift is the same for all isoenzymes but the accompanying intensification of the fluorescence is different. The fluorescence is further increased by the formation of the very tight ternary enzyme-NADH-isobutyramide complexes. These properties are similar to those for the horse liver ADH, as well as the molecular weight of E=40 000 per active site of the dimer molecule (EE). "Stopped-flow" determined velocity constants (ER in equilibrium E+R) were found to be in good agreement with ethanol activity constants previously determined by activity measurement, confirming the validity of the ordered ternary complex mechanism also for the human ADH. No single isoenzyme activity as high as that reported by Mourad and Woronick or Drum has been found. PMID:184631

  1. The role of two isoenzymes of alpha-amylase of Araucaria araucana (Araucariaceae) on the digestion of starch granules during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, Juana J; del Pozo, Talía; Acevedo, Elba A; Cardemil, Liliana A

    2003-03-01

    Starch is the principal reserve of Araucaria araucana seeds, and it is hydrolysed during germination mainly by alpha-amylase. There are several alpha-amylase isoenzymes whose patterns change in the embryo and in the megagametophyte from the one observed in quiescent seeds (T(0)) to a different one observed 90 h after imbibition (T(90)). The objective of this research was to study the roles of two purified alpha-amylase isoenzymes by in vitro digestion of starch granules extracted from the tissues at two times of imbibition: one is abundant in quiescent seeds and the other is abundant after 90 h of imbibition. The isoenzymes digested the starch granules of their own stage of germination better, since the isoenzyme T(0) digested starch granules mainly from quiescent seeds, while the isoenzyme T(90) digested starch mainly at 90 h of imbibition. The sizes of the starch granule and the tissue from which these granules originated make a difference to digestion by the isoenzymes. Embryonic isoenzyme T(0) digested large embryonic starch granules better than small and medium-sized granules, and better than those isolated from megagametophytes. Similarly isoenzyme T(90) digested small embryonic starch granules better than medium-sized and large granules, and better than those isolated from megagametophytes. However, a mixture of partially purified megagametophytic isoenzymes T(0) and T(90) digested the megagametophytic granules better than those isolated from embryos. Studies of in vitro sequential digestion of starch granules with these isoenzymes corroborated their specificity. The isoenzyme T(90) digested starch granules previously digested by the isoenzyme T(0). This suggests that in vivo these two isoenzymes may act sequentially in starch granule digestion. PMID:12598561

  2. Allergic sensitization is associated with inadequate anti-oxidant responses in mice and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utsch, Lara; Folisi, Caterina; Akkerdaas, Jaap H; Logiantara, Adrian; van de Pol, Marianne A; van der Zee, Jaring S; Krop, Esmeralda J M; Lutter, René; van Ree, Ronald; van Rijt, Leonie S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergies arise from aberrant Th2 responses to allergens. The processes involved in the genesis of allergic sensitization remain elusive. Some allergens such as derived from house dust mites, have proteolytic activity which can induce oxidative stress in vivo. A reduced capacity of the h

  3. [Isoenzyme fractions of serum and platelet lactate dehydrogenase in normal subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, M P; Palmucci, Z; Saccone, A; Rossi, M; Tresca, E; Nubile, G

    1984-04-30

    We determined the isoenzymatic fractions of platelets and seric LDH in off healthy people (50 males and 50 females). We broken the platelets by triton X 100 (octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol) in order to obtain the release of platelet LDH. The seric and platelet LDH isoenzymes were then separated by electrophoresis (Gelman sistem). We confirm the prevalence of LDH2 and LDH3 fractions in human platelets. PMID:6732960

  4. Estimating the genetic divergence and identification of three trichinella species by isoenzyme analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Šnábel V.; Malakauskas A.; Dubinský P.; Kapel C.M.O.

    2001-01-01

    Isoenzyme-based approach was applied to compare Trichinella spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis species. Among 13 enzyme systems examined, esterase (EST), malic enzyme (ME) and phosphoglucomutase (PGM) have been found as fully diagnostic, with no common allele in species studied. Adenosine deaminase (ADA), adenylate kinase (AK), hexokinase (HK), peptidase leucyl-alanine (PEP-C) and fructose-bis-phosphatase (FBP) have been capable of distinguishing the two species from resulting profile...

  5. An aberrant adenylate kinase isoenzyme from the serum of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, M; Okuda, H; Oka, K; Watanabe, T; Ueda, K; Nojima, M; Kuby, S A; Manship, M; Tyler, F H; Ziter, F A

    1981-08-13

    The sera from patients with human Duchenne (X-linked) progressive muscular dystrophy contain elevated adenylate kinase (ATP: AMP phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.4.3) activities, in addition to their characteristically high creatine kinase (ATP; creatine N-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.3.2) activities. By agarose gel electrophoresis of human Duchenne dystrophic serum, the presence of an apparently normal human serum adenylate kinase together with a variant species of adenylate kinase was detected. The latter enzyme species appeared, in its mobility, to be similar to that of the normal human liver-type adenylate kinase. The presence of this aberrant liver-type adenylate kinase could also be demonstrated by characteristic (for the liver type) inhibition patterns with P1,P5-di-(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate, 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) and phosphoenolpyruvate. On the other hand, by inhibition titrations with an anti-muscle-type adenylate kinase, hemolysates from the erythrocytes of several Duchenne and Becker's dystrophics were found to contain approx. 96% muscle-type adenylate kinase and their serum approx. 97% muscle-type adenylate kinase. These same patients contained approx. 89% M-M type creatine kinase in their serum (by inhibition against anti-human muscle-type creatine kinase) indicative of the presence also of M-B plus B-B type active isoenzymes. All of these data can best be explained by the presence of a variant or mutant adenylate kinase isoenzyme in the dystrophic serum. This isoenzyme appears to resemble the liver type in its inhibition patterns with P1,P5-di(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate, 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) and phosphoenolpyruvate, and in its heat stability (compare also the agarose gel electrophoresis pattern); but structurally, it is a muscle type, or derived from a muscle type, as shown immunologically by inhibition reactions with anti-muscle-type adenylate kinase. Whether this is a fetal-type isoenzyme of adenylate kinase will require further

  6. Characterization of Rhodnius neglectus from Two Regions of Brazil Using Isoenzymes, Genitalia Morphology and Morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Rodrigo Pedro Pinto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the triatomines considered as secondary in the epidemiology of Chagas disease, Rhodnius neglectus is frequently captured in artificial ecotopes, especially peridomiciliary ones, rarely producing colonies indoors. Nevertheless, the presence of breeding colonies in houses was unquestionably demonstrated in some areas of the State of Goiás, Brazil. Previous isoenzyme comparisons of this species with morphologically close triatomines, such as R. prolixus, R. robustus or R. nasutus, did not produce definitive conclusions because of doubt about the geographical origin of the R. neglectus. We present here, for the first time, the isoenzyme profile of topotypes of R. neglectus. In addition, wild caught specimens from the type locality, Uberaba (Minas Gerais, Brazil, were compared to wild caught specimens from Jaraguá (Goiás, Brazil, where R. neglectus is more frequently reported invading houses. We used isoenzyme, morphology and morphometry analysis. Neither morphological nor enzymatic differences were found between areas, but metric, size-related divergence was evidenced between them.

  7. The expression of GST isoenzymes and p53 in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂźzeyyen Ozhavzali

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the immunohistochemical staining characteristics of glutathione-S-transferase alpha, pi, mu, theta and p53 in non-small cell lung carcinoma and normal lung tissue from 50 patients. The relationships between expressions of the Glutathione-S-transferase isoenzymes and some clinicopathological features were also examined. Expression of glutathione-S-transferase pi, mu, alpha, theta and p53 was assessed by immunohistochemistry for primary lung carcinomas of 50 patients from the Sanitarium Education and Research Hospital, Ankara lung cancer collection. The relationships between expression of the glutathione-S-transferase isoenzymes, p53 in normal and tumor tissue by Student T test and the clinicopathological data were also examined by Spearman Rank tests. When the normal and tumor tissue of these cases were compared according to their staining intensity and percentage of positive staining, glutathione-S-transferase alpha, pi, mu, theta expressions in tumor cells was significantly higher than normal cells (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the expression of p53 between normal and tumor cells (p>0.05. When the immunohistochemical results of glutathione-S-transferase isoenzymes and p53 were correlated with the clinical parameters, there were no significant associations between glutathione-S-transferases and p53 expressions and tumor stage, tumor grade and smoking status (p>0.05.

  8. Response of testicular antioxidant enzymes to hexachlorocy—clohexane is species specific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LunaSamanta; G·B·N·Chainy

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To find out whether the response of testicular oxidative stess parameters to hexachlorocyclohexane(HCH)is species specific.Methods:In rats and mice(n=5in each group).HCHwas administered at a dose of 20mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for 30daysin0.1ml of refined rgoundnut oil.The control groups received equal volume of the vehicle.Animals were sacrificed 24hours after the last injection and various oxidative stress parameters were measured immediately.Results:The level of both endogenous as well as FeSO4and ascorbic acid-stimulated lipid peroxidation was increased significantly in the HCH-treated rats,whereas the pattern was just the reverse in case of mice.Although the level of H2O2content increased inresponse to HCHinboth groups,a totally different trend was observed for the activity of the principal H2O2-metabolising emzyme,catalase,In case of rats,a significant decline inthe activity of catalase was recorded in response to HCH whereas a sharp augmentation in the enzyme activity was noticed im mice,Similarly,the decreased activity of superoxide dismutase observed in rast remained unaltered in mice.Conclusion:HCH induces oxidative stress in the testis of both rats and mice,However,the pattern of response of testicular oxidative stress parameters seems to be species specific.

  9. Optimization extraction of polysaccharide from Tunisian Zizyphus lotus fruit by response surface methodology: Composition and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkadmini Hammi, Khaoula; Hammami, Majdi; Rihouey, Christophe; Le Cerf, Didier; Ksouri, Riadh; Majdoub, Hatem

    2016-12-01

    Response surface methodology using a Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize extraction temperature, extraction time and ratio of water to material to obtain a maximum polysaccharide yield with high uronic acid content and antioxidant property from edible Zizyphus lotus fruit. The optimal conditions were: extraction time of 3h 15min, extraction temperature of 91.2°C and water to solid ratio of 39mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental extraction yield, uronic acid content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging ability (IC50) were 18.88%, 41.89 and 0.518mg/mL, respectively. Chemical analysis revealed that the extract was composed of 97.92% carbohydrate of which 41.89% is uronic acid. The extracted polysaccharides, with an average molecular weight of 2720kDa, are composed of arabinose, rhamnose, glucose, fructose, galactose and xylose. Moreover, the polysaccharides exhibited a significant reducing power and anti-lipid peroxidation activities.

  10. Effects of Pb on the oxidative stress and antioxidant response in a Pb bioaccumulator plant Vallisneria natans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peifang; Zhang, Songhe; Wang, Chao; Lu, Jie

    2012-04-01

    The effects of Pb on photosynthetic pigments, oxidative stress and antioxidant response were assayed using biochemical and histochemical methods in leaves of Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara treated with 0-100 μM Pb(2+) for 0-6d. The Pb content increased with the increase of exposure duration and a highest Pb uptake value (about 9.4 mg Pbg(-1) dry weight) was obtained at 6d. Pb induced the accumulation of H(2)O(2) and O(2)(-). The increase of malondialdehyde content and the decrease of total chlorophyll and carotenoids were detected in V. natans under Pb stress. Activities of NAD(P)H oxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase increased at 75 μM Pb(2+) for 2-6 days, while activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase and the content of ascorbic acid increased within two days in plants exposed to 75 μM Pb(2+) and decreased thereafter. The Pb uptake and accumulation mechanism were discussed. PMID:22138147

  11. Optimization extraction of polysaccharide from Tunisian Zizyphus lotus fruit by response surface methodology: Composition and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkadmini Hammi, Khaoula; Hammami, Majdi; Rihouey, Christophe; Le Cerf, Didier; Ksouri, Riadh; Majdoub, Hatem

    2016-12-01

    Response surface methodology using a Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize extraction temperature, extraction time and ratio of water to material to obtain a maximum polysaccharide yield with high uronic acid content and antioxidant property from edible Zizyphus lotus fruit. The optimal conditions were: extraction time of 3h 15min, extraction temperature of 91.2°C and water to solid ratio of 39mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental extraction yield, uronic acid content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging ability (IC50) were 18.88%, 41.89 and 0.518mg/mL, respectively. Chemical analysis revealed that the extract was composed of 97.92% carbohydrate of which 41.89% is uronic acid. The extracted polysaccharides, with an average molecular weight of 2720kDa, are composed of arabinose, rhamnose, glucose, fructose, galactose and xylose. Moreover, the polysaccharides exhibited a significant reducing power and anti-lipid peroxidation activities. PMID:27374558

  12. The Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Fitness-Related Traits and Antioxidant Responses in the Wolf Spider, Pardosa pseudoannulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Chun; Li, Guo-Yuan; Yun, Yue-Li; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Zeng-Tao; Peng, Yu

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the ecotoxicological responses of Pardosa pseudoannulata to a common environmental pollutant, cadmium. Third-instar spiderlings and adult spiders were exposed to sublethal concentrations of CdCl2 solution in their drinking water. The Cd content in P. pseudoannulata adults increased significantly with the number of days of exposure to a 0.2 mM CdCl2 solution, when exposed to 2 mM CdCl2 solution, the Cd content in the spiders increased sharply in the first two (male) or three (female) weeks, and then no significant changes were recorded following with the next three (male) or two (female) weeks exposure. Exposure of spiders to Cd contaminated drinking water resulted in reduced body mass, delayed development, fewer eggs and increased mortality. Significantly higher activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were recorded in the spiders after 7 day exposure to 0.2 mM CdCl2 solution. However, longer-term exposures or increased Cd concentrations did not result in significantly higher antioxidant enzyme activity relative to control treatment. PMID:27194251

  13. Immunohistochemical Study of Nrf2-Antioxidant Response Element as Indicator of Oxidative Stress Induced by Cadmium in Developing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Montes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In developing animals, Cadmium (Cd induces toxicity to many organs including brain. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are often implicated in Cd-inducedtoxicity and it has been clearly demonstrated that oxidative stress interferes with the expression of genes as well as transcriptional factors such as Nrf2-dependent Antioxidant Response Element (Nrf2-ARE. Cd-generated oxidative stress and elevated Nrf2 activity have been reported in vitro and in situ cells. In this study we evaluated the morphological changes and the expression pattern of Nrf2 and correlated them with the Cd concentrations in different ages of developing rats in heart, lung, kidney, liver, and brain. The Cd content in different organs of rats treated with the metal was increased in all ages assayed. Comparatively, lower Cd brain levels were found in rats intoxicated at the age of 12 days, then pups treated at 5, 10, or 15 days old, at the same metal dose. No evident changes, as a consequence of cadmium exposure, were evident in the morphological analysis in any of the ages assayed. However, Nrf2-ARE immunoreactivity was observed in 15-day-old rats exposed to Cd. Our results support that fully developed blood-brain barrier is an important protector against Cd entrance to brain and that Nrf2 increased expression is a part of protective mechanism against cadmium-induced toxicity.

  14. Growth Responses and Leaf Antioxidant Metabolism of Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Genotypes under Salinity Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Dibyendu Talukdar

    2013-01-01

    Response of six improved grass pea genotypes to prolonged salinity stress was investigated on seedlings grown in pot experiment using 150 mM NaCl up to 60 days of growth after commencement of treatment (DAC). NaCl exposure significantly reduced growth potential of varieties PUSA-90-2 and WBK-CB-14, but no such effect was observed in varieties B1, BioL-212 and in two mutant lines LR3 and LR4. A time-bound measurement at 15, 30 and 60 DAC revealed significant reduction in plant dry matter produ...

  15. Flavonoids Extraction from Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion): Optimisation Using Response Surface Methodology and Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Zongxi Sun; Ruiqiang Su; Jianwei Qiao; Zhiquan Zhao; Xinsheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    The Box-Behnken design combined with response surface method was employed to optimize ultrasonic-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Taraxacum officinale. The optimized results showed that the highest extraction yield with ultrasonic-assisted extraction could reach 2.62% using 39.6% (v/v) ethanol and 59.5 : 1 (mL/g) liquid-solid ratio for 43.8 min. The crude extract was then purified by HPD-100 macroporous adsorption resin, and the flavonoids content in the purified extract increased to 54...

  16. Oxidative and antioxidative responses in the wheat-Azospirillum brasilense interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Gómez, Manuel; Castro-Mercado, Elda; Alexandre, Gladys; García-Pineda, Ernesto

    2016-03-01

    Azospirillum is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) able to enhance the growth of wheat. The aim of this study was to test the effect of Azospirillum brasilense cell wall components on superoxide (O2·(-)) production in wheat roots and the effect of oxidative stress on A. brasilense viability. We found that inoculation with A. brasilense reduced O2·(-) levels by approx. 30 % in wheat roots. Inoculation of wheat with papain-treated A. brasilense, a Cys protease, notably increased O2·(-) production in all root tissues, as was observed by the nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction. However, a 24-h treatment with rhizobacteria lipopolysaccharides (50 and 100 μg/mL) alone did not affect the pattern of O2·(-) production. Analysis of the effect of plant cell wall components on A. brasilense oxidative enzyme activity showed no changes in catalase activity but a decrease in superoxide dismutase activity in response to polygalacturonic acid treatment. Furthermore, A. brasilense growth was only affected by high concentrations of H2O2 or paraquat, but not by sodium nitroprusside. Our results suggest that rhizobacterial cell wall components play an important role in controlling plant cell responses and developing tolerance of A. brasilense to oxidative stress produced by the plant.

  17. Oxidative and antioxidative responses in the wheat-Azospirillum brasilense interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Gómez, Manuel; Castro-Mercado, Elda; Alexandre, Gladys; García-Pineda, Ernesto

    2016-03-01

    Azospirillum is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) able to enhance the growth of wheat. The aim of this study was to test the effect of Azospirillum brasilense cell wall components on superoxide (O2·(-)) production in wheat roots and the effect of oxidative stress on A. brasilense viability. We found that inoculation with A. brasilense reduced O2·(-) levels by approx. 30 % in wheat roots. Inoculation of wheat with papain-treated A. brasilense, a Cys protease, notably increased O2·(-) production in all root tissues, as was observed by the nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction. However, a 24-h treatment with rhizobacteria lipopolysaccharides (50 and 100 μg/mL) alone did not affect the pattern of O2·(-) production. Analysis of the effect of plant cell wall components on A. brasilense oxidative enzyme activity showed no changes in catalase activity but a decrease in superoxide dismutase activity in response to polygalacturonic acid treatment. Furthermore, A. brasilense growth was only affected by high concentrations of H2O2 or paraquat, but not by sodium nitroprusside. Our results suggest that rhizobacterial cell wall components play an important role in controlling plant cell responses and developing tolerance of A. brasilense to oxidative stress produced by the plant. PMID:25952083

  18. Trichoderma-plant root colonization: escaping early plant defense responses and activation of the antioxidant machinery for saline stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Yariv; Landau, Udi; Cuadros-Inostroza, Álvaro; Tohge, Takayuki; Takayuki, Tohge; Fernie, Alisdair R; Chet, Ilan; Viterbo, Ada; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2013-03-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts which can colonize the apoplast of plant roots. Microarrays analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana roots inoculated with Trichoderma asperelloides T203, coupled with qPCR analysis of 137 stress responsive genes and transcription factors, revealed wide gene transcript reprogramming, proceeded by a transient repression of the plant immune responses supposedly to allow root colonization. Enhancement in the expression of WRKY18 and WRKY40, which stimulate JA-signaling via suppression of JAZ repressors and negatively regulate the expression of the defense genes FMO1, PAD3 and CYP71A13, was detected in Arabidopsis roots upon Trichoderma colonization. Reduced root colonization was observed in the wrky18/wrky40 double mutant line, while partial phenotypic complementation was achieved by over-expressing WRKY40 in the wrky18 wrky40 background. On the other hand increased colonization rate was found in roots of the FMO1 knockout mutant. Trichoderma spp. stimulate plant growth and resistance to a wide range of adverse environmental conditions. Arabidopsis and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants treated with Trichoderma prior to salt stress imposition show significantly improved seed germination. In addition, Trichoderma treatment affects the expression of several genes related to osmo-protection and general oxidative stress in roots of both plants. The MDAR gene coding for monodehydroascorbate reductase is significantly up-regulated and, accordingly, the pool of reduced ascorbic acid was found to be increased in Trichoderma treated plants. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase silenced Trichoderma mutants were less effective in providing tolerance to salt stress, suggesting that Trichoderma, similarly to ACC deaminase producing bacteria, can ameliorate plant growth under conditions of abiotic stress, by lowering ameliorating increases in ethylene levels as well as promoting an elevated antioxidative capacity.

  19. Antioxidant responses and renal crystal formation in rainbow trout treated with melamine administered individually or in combination with cyanuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Nicole; Prearo, Marino; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brizio, Paola; Dörr, Ambrosius Josef Martin; Reimschuessel, Renate; Andersen, Wendy; Gasco, Laura; Righetti, Marzia; Elia, Antonia Concetta

    2013-01-01

    In 2007 and 2008, renal stone formation and kidney damage in human infants were linked to consumption of melamine (MEL)-contaminated infant formula, as well as renal failure and death in pets due to pet food containing both MEL and cyanuric acid (CYA). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of MEL and CYA administered individually or in combination on concentrations of certain metabolites and enzyme activities that serve as markers for oxidative stress in kidney and liver of rainbow trout. In addition, the levels of muscle MEL and renal crystal formation were determined. Trout were fed MEL and/or CYA for 8 wk at 250, 500, or 1000 mg of each compound/kg in feed. Fish muscle residues of MEL exhibited a dose-response relationship. Coexposure of trout to MEL and CYA at the highest dose led to lower MEL residue concentrations in muscle compared to exposure to MEL alone. Renal MEL-CYA complexes were found in kidneys of fish treated with combined MEL and CYA. A dose response was evident with respect to both (1) number of trout displaying renal crystals and (2) number of crystals per fish. Changes in concentration of antioxidant parameters, such as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase, were recorded in both tissues of MEL- and CYA-dosed trout. Lipid peroxidation was more pronounced in kidney than liver. Therefore, feed contaminated with both MEL and CYA could be problematic for fish, as MEL administered to trout, individually or in combination with CYA, may facilitate the onset of oxidative damage in trout. PMID:23721584

  20. Green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate triggered hepatotoxicity in mice: Responses of major antioxidant enzymes and the Nrf2 rescue pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongxu; Wang, Yijun; Wan, Xiaochun [Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry & Biotechnology, School of Tea & Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui 230036 (China); Yang, Chung S. [Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Zhang, Jinsong, E-mail: zjs@ahau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry & Biotechnology, School of Tea & Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui 230036 (China)

    2015-02-15

    (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a constituent of green tea, has been suggested to have numerous health-promoting effects. On the other hand, high-dose EGCG is able to evoke hepatotoxicity. In the present study, we elucidated the responses of hepatic major antioxidant enzymes and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) rescue pathway to high-dose levels of EGCG in Kunming mice. At a non-lethal toxic dose (75 mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments markedly decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. As a rescue response, the nuclear distribution of Nrf2 was significantly increased; a battery of Nrf2-target genes, including heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and those involved in glutathione and thioredoxin systems, were all up-regulated. At the maximum tolerated dose (45 mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments did not disturb the major antioxidant defense. Among the above-mentioned genes, only HO1, NQO1, and GST genes were significantly but modestly up-regulated, suggesting a comprehensive and extensive activation of Nrf2-target genes principally occurs at toxic levels of EGCG. At a lethal dose (200 mg/kg, i.p.), a single EGCG treatment dramatically decreased not only the major antioxidant defense but also the Nrf2-target genes, demonstrating that toxic levels of EGCG are able to cause a biphasic response of Nrf2. Overall, the mechanism of EGCG-triggered hepatotoxicity involves suppression of major antioxidant enzymes, and the Nrf2 rescue pathway plays a vital role for counteracting EGCG toxicity. - Highlights: • EGCG at maximum tolerated dose does not disturb hepatic major antioxidant defense. • EGCG at maximum tolerated dose modestly upregulates hepatic Nrf2 target genes. • EGCG at toxic dose suppresses hepatic major antioxidant enzymes. • EGCG at non-lethal toxic dose pronouncedly activates hepatic Nrf2 rescue response. • EGCG at

  1. Green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate triggered hepatotoxicity in mice: Responses of major antioxidant enzymes and the Nrf2 rescue pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a constituent of green tea, has been suggested to have numerous health-promoting effects. On the other hand, high-dose EGCG is able to evoke hepatotoxicity. In the present study, we elucidated the responses of hepatic major antioxidant enzymes and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) rescue pathway to high-dose levels of EGCG in Kunming mice. At a non-lethal toxic dose (75 mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments markedly decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. As a rescue response, the nuclear distribution of Nrf2 was significantly increased; a battery of Nrf2-target genes, including heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and those involved in glutathione and thioredoxin systems, were all up-regulated. At the maximum tolerated dose (45 mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments did not disturb the major antioxidant defense. Among the above-mentioned genes, only HO1, NQO1, and GST genes were significantly but modestly up-regulated, suggesting a comprehensive and extensive activation of Nrf2-target genes principally occurs at toxic levels of EGCG. At a lethal dose (200 mg/kg, i.p.), a single EGCG treatment dramatically decreased not only the major antioxidant defense but also the Nrf2-target genes, demonstrating that toxic levels of EGCG are able to cause a biphasic response of Nrf2. Overall, the mechanism of EGCG-triggered hepatotoxicity involves suppression of major antioxidant enzymes, and the Nrf2 rescue pathway plays a vital role for counteracting EGCG toxicity. - Highlights: • EGCG at maximum tolerated dose does not disturb hepatic major antioxidant defense. • EGCG at maximum tolerated dose modestly upregulates hepatic Nrf2 target genes. • EGCG at toxic dose suppresses hepatic major antioxidant enzymes. • EGCG at non-lethal toxic dose pronouncedly activates hepatic Nrf2 rescue response. • EGCG at

  2. Variation in biochemical and antioxidant attributes of Raphanus sativus in response to foliar application of plant leaf extracts as plant growth regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ashraf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to appraise the variations in biochemical, antioxidant and nutritional attributes of radish (Raphanus sativus L. under foliar application of plant leaf aqueous extracts i.e., mulberry leaf extract (MLE, brassica leaf extract (BLE, sorghum leaf extract (SLE and moringa leaf extract (MoLE as natural growth regulators. Samples were collected after three sprays of extracts and analyzed. Total phenolic constituents were determined using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent method, whereas antioxidant potential was evaluated by 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical radical scavenging and reducing power assays. Results revealed that application of MLE, BLE, SLE, and MoLE not only improved growth, but also enhanced biochemical and antioxidant activities. Foliar spray of MoLE furnished relatively three folds higher amounts of extractable bioactive compounds (37.65 ± 0.94%, phenolic constituents (54.51–182.71 mg GAE/g f.w. The radical scavenging capacity (RSC and reducing potential were also enhanced considerably. Furthermore, the moisture, dietary fiber, crude protein, and carotenoids were also enhanced in response of foliar spray of plant extracts. From results, it is concluded that plant extracts are effective sources of natural growth regulars and might be useful for the production of vegetables with improved nutritional value and antioxidant activity.

  3. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers

  4. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2015-11-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers

  5. Rearing effect of biofloc on antioxidant and antimicrobial transcriptional response in Litopenaeus stylirostris shrimp facing an experimental sub-lethal hydrogen peroxide stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Emilie; Saulnier, Denis; Lorgeoux, Bénédicte; Chim, Liet; Gueguen, Yannick

    2015-08-01

    This study compares the antioxidant and antimicrobial transcriptional expression of blue shrimps reared according to two different systems, BioFloc Technology (BFT) and Clear sea Water (CW) and their differential responses when facing an experimental sublethal hydrogen peroxide stress. After 30 days of rearing, juvenile shrimps were exposed to H2O2 stress at a concentration of 30 ppm during 6 h. The oxidative stress caused by H2O2 was examined in the digestive glands of the shrimp, in which antioxidant enzyme (AOE) and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that rearing conditions did not affect the expression of genes encoding AOEs or AMPs. However, H2O2 stress induced a differential response in expression between shrimps from the two rearing treatments (BFT and CW). Comparative analysis of the expression profiles indicates that catalase transcripts were significantly upregulated by H2O2 stress for BFT shrimps while no change was observed for CW shrimps. In contrast, H2O2 caused down-regulation of superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase transcripts and of the three AMP transcripts studied (penaeidin 2 and 3, and crustin) for CW shrimps, while no effect was observed on BFT shrimp transcript levels. These results suggested that BFT shrimps maintained antioxidant and AMP responses after stress and therefore can effectively protect their cells against oxidative stress, while CW shrimp immune competence seems to decrease after stress. PMID:26052010

  6. Activity of antioxidant enzymes and physiological responses in ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii, exposed to thermal and osmotic stress: effects on hemolymph and biochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Myung In; Choi, Cheol Young

    2010-01-01

    Changes in water temperature and salinity are responsible for a variety of physiological stress responses in aquatic organisms. Stress induced by these factors was recently associated with enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which caused oxidative damage. In the present study, we investigated the time-related effects of changes in water temperature and salinity on mRNA expression and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the gills and digestive glands of the ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii. To investigate physiological responses, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), lysozyme activity, aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), and alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) were measured in the hemolymph. Water temperature and salinity changes significantly increased antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activity in the digestive glands and gills in a time-dependent manner. H(2)O(2) concentrations increased significantly in the high-temperature and hyposalinity treatments. LPO, AspAT and AlaAT levels also increased significantly in a time-dependent manner, while lysozyme activity decreased. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative stress in ark shells exposed to changes in water temperature and salinity.

  7. Dietary glutamine supplementation effects on amino acid metabolism, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity and antioxidant response of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, F; Castro, C; Rufino-Palomares, E; Ordóñez-Grande, B; Gallardo, M A; Oliva-Teles, A; Peres, H

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate dietary glutamine supplementation effects on gilthead sea bream performance, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity, hepatic and intestinal glutamine metabolism and oxidative status. For that purpose gilthead sea bream juveniles (mean weight 13.0g) were fed four isolipidic (18% lipid) and isonitrogenous (43% protein) diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% glutamine for 6weeks. Fish performance, body composition and intestinal nutrient absorption capacity were not affected by dietary glutamine levels. Hepatic and intestinal glutaminase (GlNase), glutamine synthetase (GSase), alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities were also unaffected by dietary glutamine supplementation. In the intestine GlNase activity was higher and GSase/GlNase ratio was two-fold lower than in the liver, suggesting a higher use of glutamine for energy production by the intestine than by the liver. The liver showed higher catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, while the intestine presented higher glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and oxidised glutathione content, which seems to reveal a higher glutathione dependency of the intestinal antioxidant response. Total and reduced glutathione contents in liver and intestine and superoxide dismutase activity in the intestine were enhanced by dietary glutamine, though lipid peroxidation values were not affected. Overall, differences between liver and intestine glutamine metabolism and antioxidant response were identified and the potential of dietary glutamine supplementation to gilthead sea bream's antioxidant response was elucidated.

  8. Deployment of response surface methodology to optimize recovery of dark fresh fig (Ficus carica L., var. Azenjar) total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachir Bey, Mostapha; Meziant, Leila; Benchikh, Yassine; Louaileche, Hayette

    2014-11-01

    Optimum conditions for extracting total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activity from fresh dark fig (Ficus carica L.) have been investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables, acetone concentration (40-80%), temperature (25-65 °C), and time (60-120 min), on the response. Regression analysis showed that about 96% of the variation was explained by the models. P-value for the lack of fit was insignificant which confirmed the validity of models. Response surface analysis showed that the optimal extraction parameters that maximized antioxidants extraction were 63.48% acetone, 115.14 min, and 48.66 °C. Under optimum conditions the corresponding experimental values for TPC and antioxidant activity were 536.43 and 71.86 mg GAE/100 g DM. The experimental values are in accordance with those predicted, indicating the suitability of the model and the success of RSM in optimizing the extraction conditions.

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANTS FROM TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS L.) FRUIT PEEL BIOMASS USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Xu; Jinsong Bao; Junjie Gao; Tao Zhou; Yuefei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) fruit peel, the main byproduct during the manufacture of tea seed oil, was used as raw material for the recovery of phenolic antioxidants. The effect of ethanol concentration, extraction time, and extraction temperature on total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the extracts from tea fruit peel was investigated. The maximum predicted TPC (47.5 mg GAE/g dry peel) was obtained under the optimum recovery conditions (43% ethanol, 60°...

  10. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Fansheng Kong; Shujuan Yu; Zeng Feng; Xinlan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To optimization of extraction of antioxidant compounds from guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves and showed that the guava leaves are the potential source of antioxidant compounds. Materials and Methods: The bioactive polysaccharide compounds of guava leaves (P. guajava L.) were obtained using ultrasonic assisted extraction. Extraction was carried out according to Box Behnken central composite design, and independent variables were temperature (20–60°C), time (20–40 min) and power (20...

  11. Ethanol Metabolism by HeLa Cells Transduced with Human Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes: Control of the Pathway by Acetaldehyde Concentration†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Michinaga; Cyganek, Izabela; Sanghani, Paresh C.; Cho, Won Kyoo; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Human class I alcohol dehydrogenase 2 isoenzymes (encoded by the ADH1B locus) have large differences in kinetic properties; however, individuals inheriting the alleles for the different isoenzymes exhibit only small differences in alcohol elimination rates. This suggests that other cellular factors must regulate the activity of the isoenzymes. Methods The activity of the isoenzymes expressed from ADH1B*1, ADH1B*2, and ADH1B*3 cDNAs was examined in stably transduced HeLa cell lines, including lines which expressed human low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). The ability of the cells to metabolize ethanol was compared with that of HeLa cells expressing rat class I ADH (HeLa-rat ADH cells), rat hepatoma (H4IIEC3) cells, and rat hepatocytes. Results The isoenzymes had similar protein half-lives in the HeLa cells. Rat hepatocytes, H4IIEC3 cells, and HeLa-rat ADH cells oxidized ethanol much faster than the cells expressing the ADH1B isoenzymes. This was not explained by high cellular NADH levels or endogenous inhibitors; but rather because the activity of the β1 and β2 ADHs were constrained by the accumulation of acetaldehyde, as shown by the increased rate of ethanol oxidation by cell lines expressing β2 ADH plus ALDH2. Conclusion The activity of the human β2 ADH isoenzyme is sensitive to inhibition by acetaldehyde, which likely limits its activity in vivo. This study emphasizes the importance of maintaining a low steady–state acetaldehyde concentration in hepatocytes during ethanol metabolism. PMID:21166830

  12. Antioxidant Responses of Vallisneria asiatica to Eutrophic Sediments in Lake Taihu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Caixia; Kuba, Takahiro; Hao, Aimin; Iseri, Yasushi

    2015-08-01

    Three kinds of representative sediments were obtained from a macrophyte-dominated bay (East Lake Taihu) and two algae-dominated regions (Western Lake Taihu and Meiliang Bay). Physiological responses of Vallisneria asiatica to these sediments were compared. Results from 20 days exposures showed no obvious differences in malondialdehyde (MDA) in roots, while the MDA content in leaves of plants exposed to Western Lake Taihu sediment was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those exposed to the other two sediments. In comparison to the other two sediments, plants exposed to Western Lake Taihu sediment showed significantly lower (p<0.05) superoxide dismutase in roots and leaves on the 10th and 40th day. On the 40th day, root catalase (CAT) activities in V. asiatica from Western Lake Taihu and Meiliang Bay sediments were lower than that from East Lake Taihu sediment, while leaf CAT activity in V. asiatica from Western Lake Taihu sediment was higher than that from East Lake Taihu sediment (p<0.05). Western Lake Taihu sediment caused more serious oxidative stress in V. asiatica than East Lake Taihu sediment. Results indicated eutrophic sediment was a contributing factor in the disappearance of V. asiatica in Western Lake Taihu. PMID:26070371

  13. Developmental stage is an important factor that determines the antioxidant responses of young and old grapevine leaves under UV irradiation in a green-house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, Petra; Hideg, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The impact of UV irradiation was studied on photosynthesis, photosystem II photochemical yields and antioxidant responses using green-house grown grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay) leaves. Supplemental UV irradiation (280-400 nm) was centred in the UV-B region, and corresponded to 8.95 kJ m⁻² d⁻¹ global (280-400 nm) or 8.04 kJ m⁻² d⁻¹ UV-B (280-315 nm) biologically effective dose. UV irradiation was applied daily and its effects were evaluated after 4-days. Younger (1-3 weeks-old) leaves (YL) and older (4-6 weeks-old) leaves (OL) were affected differently, UV irradiation decreased their photochemical yields to 78% and 56%, respectively. Unlike OL, YL responded by an increase in UV-B absorbing pigment, anthocyanin and total phenolics contents. UV irradiation increased total antioxidant capacities in YL but not in OL. YL were also different in their ability to increase specific hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen neutralizing capacities in response to the supplemental UV irradiation, which is reported here for the first time. Our results suggest that the ability of maintaining photosynthesis under supplemental UV is not necessarily determined by base levels of antioxidants but rather by their inducibilities in response to the irradiation and emphasise the importance of comparing leaves of the same age in UV studies. Correlations between various antioxidant capacities, pigment contents and photosynthesis parameters were also examined. However, no single element of the defence system can be picked up as decisive factor of sensitivity to UV.

  14. Clonal structure of Trypanosoma cruzi Colombian strain (biodeme Type III: biological, isoenzymic and histopathological analysis of seven isolated clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camandaroba Edson Luiz Paes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The clonal structure of the Colombian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi, biodeme Type III and zymodeme 1, was analyzed in order to characterize its populations and to establish its homogeneity or heterogeneity. Seven isolated clones presented the basic characteristics of Biodeme Type III, with the same patterns of parasitemic curves, tissue tropism to skeletal muscle and myocardium, high pathogenicity with extensive necrotic-inflammatory lesions from the 20th to 30th day of infection. The parental strain and its clones C1, C3, C4 and C6, determined the higher levels of parasitemia, 20 to 30 days of infection, with high mortality rate up to 30 days (79 to 100%; clones C2, C5 and C7 presented lower levels of parasitemia, with low mortality rates (7.6 to 23%. Isoenzymic patterns, characteristic of zymodeme 1, (Z1 were similar for the parental strain and its seven clones. Results point to a phenotypic homogeneity of the clones isolated from the Colombian strain and suggest the predominance of a principal clone, responsible for the biological behavior of the parental strain and clones.

  15. Spinosad Induces Antioxidative Response and Ultrastructure Changes in Males of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Salaheldin A.; Alzahrani, Abdullah M.; Elmenshawy, Omar M.; Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M.

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is of great concern worldwide, especially in the Middle East, where dates are a strategic crop. Despite their ecological hazard, insecticides remain the most effective means of control. A bioinsecticide of bacterial origin, spinosad is effective against several pests, and its efficacy against male R. ferrugineus was assessed in the present study. The antioxidative responses of key enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) to spinosad were investigated in the midgut and testes, and the effects of this insecticide on the cell ultrastructure of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testes were also determined. The lethal concentration 50 of spinosad was measured at 58.8 ppm, and the insecticide inhibited the activities of CAT, SOD, and GST in the midgut. However, no significant changes in the activities of these enzymes were observed in the testes. Spinosad treatment resulted in concentration-dependent changes in the cellular organelles of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testes of R. ferrugineus, and some of these effects were similar to those exerted by other xenobiotics. However, specific changes were observed as a result of spinosad treatment, including an increase in the number and size of concretions in Malpighian tubule cells and the occasional absence of the central pair of microtubules in the axonemes of sperm tails. This study introduces spinosad for potential use as an insecticide within an integrated control program against male red palm weevils. Additionally, the study provides biochemical and ultrastructural evidence for use in the development of bioindicators.

  16. Extraction of antioxidants from borage (Borago officinalis L.) leaves—Optimization by response surface method and application in oil-in-water emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Segovia; Bryshila Lupo; Sara Peiró; Gordon, Michael H.; María Pilar Almajano

    2014-01-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a typical Spanish plant. During processing, 60% are leaves. The aim of this work is to model and optimize the extraction of polyphenol from borage leaves using the response surface method (RSM) and to use this extract for application in emulsions. The responses were: total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant capacity by ORAC, and rosmarinic acid by HPLC. The ranges of the variables temperature, ethanol content and time were 50–90 °C, 0%–30%–60% ethanol (v/v...

  17. [Influences of uncommon isoenzymes on determination of alkaline phosphatase activity by dry-chemistry analyzers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozawa, T; Hashimoto, M

    2001-04-01

    Dry-chemistry(DC) analysis may be influenced by some matrix effects for measuring uncommon isoenzyme forms. Placental and intestinal alkaline phosphatase(AP) are overestimated by the VITROS DC, compared with results obtained with the wet-chemistry(WC) method of Bretaudiere, et al. using 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) buffer, however, no such discrepancy between AP results in any DC method and that with a routine WC method recommended by Japanese Society of Clinical Chemistry in that 2-ethylaminoethanol(EAE) buffer is used, has been demonstrated. The type of buffer used affects differently the rates of AP isoenzymes activities. We therefore examined whether the presence of uncommon AP isoenzyme forms in serum caused aberrant DC results for AP in comparison with a routine WC method using EAE buffer. Here, serum samples with only liver AP and bone AP(n : 32); high-molecular-mass AP(n : 11); placental AP(n : 12); intestinal AP(n : 13) and immunoglobulin (Ig) bound AP(n : 12) were analyzed for total AP activity on three different DC analyzers: VITROS 700XR, FUJIDRYCHEM 5000, SPOTCHEM 4410 and a WC analyzer: HITACHI 7350. Values obtained in all of the DCs for sera containing only liver/bone AP agreed with those with the WC method. For sera containing placental AP, the VITROS values were higher than those with the WC method, while the FUJIDRYCHEM values and the SPOTCHEM values were lower. The VITROS values and the FUJIDRYCHEM values for sera containing intestinal AP were lower than those with the WC method, while the SPOTCHEM values were higher. All of the DCs did not affect high-molecular-mass AP and Ig bound liver/bone AP types of macro AP, but underestimated Ig bound intestinal type. Ig bound intestinal AP may be sieved by DC multilayer elements. PMID:11391954

  18. Comparison of gamma- and beta radiation stress responses on anti-oxidative defense system and DNA modifications in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoeck, Arne [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; Vandenhove, Hildegarde [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); Knapen, Dries; Blust, Ronny [University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    frond have been implemented in a dosimetric model derived from ERICA tool. This enabled a reliable comparison of dose-dependent endpoints between gamma- and beta radiation. Dose rates varied from 15 and 1500 mGy/hr, and 19 from 19000 μGy/hr for gamma- and beta radiation respectively. The classic growth related endpoints, like biomass and frond area, were measured and compared with biochemical and molecular endpoints. Therefore, DNA modifications were analyzed to evaluate biological DNA damage and ROS accumulation in plants together with activities of anti-oxidative enzymes to evaluate oxidative stress response. A dose-response curve with 60 percent growth inhibition was determined for gamma radiation and morphological growth effects in root system were observed for beta radiation. Preliminary results showed similar responses in peroxidase activities between both radiation types. These results and ongoing investigations will help to unravel the differences and similarities in response mechanisms for various radiation types in plant systems. As multiple levels in biological organisation of the organism were considered, and also different dose rates taken into account, this approach allows a better understanding the toxic mode of action of radiation stress in higher plants. This research was supported by the European Commission Contract Fission-2010-3.5.1-269672 to Strategy for Allied Radioecology (www.star-radioecology.org) and a project of the Fund for Scientific Research (FWO-Vlaanderen, G.A040.11N) (authors)

  19. Genetic structuring and differentiation of Echinococcus multilocularis in Slovakia assessed by sequencing and isoenzyme studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snabel, V.; Miterpakova, M.; D'Amelio, S.;

    2006-01-01

    Nucleotide sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene and isoenzyme analysis were used to survey the genetic variability in Echinococcus multilocularis populations from Slovakia. A sample of 12 isolates acquired from 10 different districts from red foxes exhibited......-phosphate isomerase (two distinct patterns) and the mannose-phosphate isomerase (four genotypes composed of three alleles) enzyme systems. To allow a fast species differenttiation of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus (specifically, the G7 genotype occurring in Slovakia), discriminative electrophoretic characters...

  20. Method of empirical dependences in estimation and prediction of activity of creatine kinase isoenzymes in cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, Tatiana F.; Moshkova, Albina N.; Erlykina, Elena I.; Khvatova, Elena M.

    2016-04-01

    Creatine kinase is a key enzyme of energy metabolism in the brain. There are known cytoplasmic and mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes. Mitochondrial creatine kinase exists as a mixture of two oligomeric forms - dimer and octamer. The aim of investigation was to study catalytic properties of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial creatine kinase and using of the method of empirical dependences for the possible prediction of the activity of these enzymes in cerebral ischemia. Ischemia was revealed to be accompanied with the changes of the activity of creatine kinase isoenzymes and oligomeric state of mitochondrial isoform. There were made the models of multiple regression that permit to study the activity of creatine kinase system in cerebral ischemia using a calculating method. Therefore, the mathematical method of empirical dependences can be applied for estimation and prediction of the functional state of the brain by the activity of creatine kinase isoenzymes in cerebral ischemia.

  1. Tear Malate Dehydrogenase,Lactate Dehydrogenase and Their Isoenzymes in Normal Chinese Subjects and Patients of Ocular Surface Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QingGuo; HanchengZhang

    1995-01-01

    Purose:To determine levels of malate dehydrogenase(MDH),lactate dehydroge-nase(LDH)and their isoenzymes in tears of normal Chinese subjects and patients with ocular surface disorders.Methods:The age range of normal subjects was10-88,with136mal and 128fe-male subjects.123patients suffered from ocular surface disorders.Tears were col-lected from lower fornix on Xinghua filter disc(0.1mm thick,5mm in diameter).The values of tearMDHand LDHwere determined by MONARCH-2000Ana-lyzer(U.S.A)Their isoenzymes were separated by acetate cellulose elec-trophoresis and were determined by Model CDS-200light densitometer.Results:The normal values of tear LDH and MDH were 45.51+23.00-81.35+37.84umol·s-1/Land11.00+5.33-19.50+9.17umol·s-1/Lrespectively,dis-regarding sex or eye distriction(P>0.05).The values of tear LDHandMDH in the group aged10-19were significantly lower than in another groups(P<0.05),95%normal ranges of tearMDHaged below19and above20were3.63-19.90umol·s-1/L.THe MDH isoenzymes comprised MDHs and MDHm,the former accounting for80.0-89.1%.The LDH isoenzymes comprised 5varieties.of which the ratioH/Mof subunit H tosubunit Mwas0.196+0.02.Levels of tear LDH,MDHand their isoenzymes in different diseases were various.Conclusions;Tear LDH/MDHratio reflected sensitively the matabolism of corneae and conjunetival epithelium.The changes in LDH isoenzymes were hel-ful to the differential diagnosis of external eye diseases,and the increase of MDHm reflected sensitively the degree of injury to the corneal epithelium.

  2. GLUTATHIONE-S-TRANSFERASE ACTIVITY AND ISOENZYME COMPOSITION IN BENIGN OVARIAN-TUMORS, UNTREATED MALIGNANT OVARIAN-TUMORS, AND MALIGNANT OVARIAN-TUMORS AFTER PLATINUM CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE CHEMOTHERAPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERZEE, AGJ; VANOMMEN, B; MEIJER, C; HOLLEMA, H; VANBLADEREN, PJ; DEVRIES, EGE

    1992-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzyme composition, isoenzyme quantities and enzymatic activity were investigated in benign (n = 4) ovarian tumours and malignant ovarian tumours, before (n = 20) and after (n = 16) chemotherapy. Enzymatic activity of GST in cytosols was measured by determining 1-c

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF TOTAL FLAVONOIDS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES FROM TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM SEEDS WITH RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaileyee Das

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Trigonella foenum-graecum is an annual plant in the family Fabaceae. The distinctive cuboid-shaped, yellow to amber coloured fenugreek seeds are frequently encountered in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent. In this study, Trigonella foenum-graecum is used as an experimental matrix. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of total flavonoids from Trigonella foenum-graecum is studied with dual wavelength UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Effects of various factors including ratio of material to liquid, ultrasonic time, methanol concentration and extraction times on extraction yield of total flavonoids are evaluated. Then, optimization of total flavonoid compound (TFC extraction from Trigonella foenum-graecum seed is investigated using response surface methodology (RSM in this paper. Statistical analysis of the experiments indicated that Ratio of material to liquid and methanol concentration significantly affected TFC extraction (p < 0.01. The Box-Behnken experiment design shows that polynomial regression models are in good agreement with the experimental results, with the coefficients of multiple determination of 0.9758 for TFC yield. The optimal conditions for maximum TFC yield are 70% methanol, 50min and 30 (v/w liquid to solid ratios with a 2 time extraction time. Extracts from these conditions showed a moderate antioxidant value from 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay, Ferric chloride reducing assay and hydrogen peroxide reducing assay. Fenugreek flavonoids have direct and potent antioxidant activities, might be developed and utilized as natural antioxidant.

  4. Effect of ZnO nanoparticles on Brassica nigra seedlings and stem explants: growth dynamics and antioxidative response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hira eZafar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have diverse properties in comparison to respective chemicals due to structure, surface area ratio, morphology, and reactivity. Toxicological effects of metallic NPs to organisms including plants have been reported. However, to the authors’ knowledge there is no report on the effect of NPs on in vitro culture of plant explants. In this study, ZnO NPs at 500-1500 mg/L badly affected Brassica nigra seed germination and seedling growth and raised antioxidative activities and antioxidants concentrations. On the other hand, culturing the stem explants of B. nigra on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium in presence of low concentration of ZnO NPs (1-20 mg/L produced white thin roots with thick root hairs. At 10 mg/L ZnO NPs shoots emergence was also observed. The developed calli/roots showed 79% DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activity at 10 mg/L. While total antioxidant and reducing power potential were also significantly different in presence of ZnO NPs. Non enzymatic antioxidative molecules, phenolics (up to 0.15 µg GAE/mg FW and flavonoids (up to 0.22 µg QE/mg FW, also raised and found NPs concentration dependent. We state that ZnO NPs may induce roots from explants cultured on appropriate medium and can be cultured for production of valuable secondary metabolites.

  5. Pulmonary function response and effects of antioxidant genetic polymorphisms in healthy young adults exposed to low concentration ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rational: Ozone is known to induce a variety of pulmonary effects including decrement of spirometric lung function and inflammatory reaction, and antioxidant genes are known to play an important role in modulating the effects. It is unclear, however, if such effects may occur at...

  6. The Role of Antioxidant Enzymes in Adaptive Responses to Sheath Blight Infestation under Different Fertilization Rates and Hill Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheath blight of rice, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. No rice cultivar has been found to be completely resistant to this fungus. Identifying antioxidant enzymes activities (activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, and catalase (CAT and malondialdehyde content (MDA responding to sheath blight infestation is imperative to understand the defensive mechanism systems of rice. In the present study, two inoculation methods (toothpick and agar block method were tested in double-season rice. Toothpick method had greater lesion length than agar block method in late season. A higher MDA content was found under toothpick method compared with agar block method, which led to greater POD and SOD activities. Dense planting caused higher lesion length resulting in a higher MDA content, which also subsequently stimulated higher POD and SOD activity. Sheath blight severity was significantly related to the activity of antioxidant enzyme during both seasons. The present study implies that rice plants possess a system of antioxidant protective enzymes which helps them in adaptation to sheath blight infection stresses. Several agronomic practices, such as rational use of fertilizers and optimum planting density, involved in regulating antioxidant protective enzyme systems can be regarded as promising strategy to suppress the sheath blight development.

  7. Comparison of the Recombinant Glucosephosphate Isomerase from Different Zymodemes of Entamoeba histolytica with Their Natural Counterparts by Isoenzyme Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Razmjou

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is the etiological agent of invasive amoebiasis, the third leading parasitic cause of mortality in the world. Our aim was to find a molecular correlation between a glucosephosphate isomerase zymodeme analyses in E. histolytica zymodemes. It was demonstrated that natural and recombinant glucosephosphate isomerase enzymes of E. histolytica comigrated in the starch gel electrophoresis, indicating that the isoenzyme pattern of E. histolytica glucosephosphate isomerase could be explained from the primary sequences alone and means that expression of the polypeptides of the described sequences in Escherichia coli are able to reproduce the classical glucosephosphate isomerase isoenzyme patterns.

  8. Thermodynamic determination of beta-hexosaminidase isoenzymes in mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocyte populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, J Antonio; Chabás, Amparo; Tutor, J Carlos

    2003-01-30

    Isoenzymes of beta-hexosaminidase (Hex) were determined in mononuclear (MN) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes, with a thermodynamic method using the chromogenic substrate sodio-3,3'-dichlorophenolsulfonphthaleinyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide. Imprecision was very satisfactory, and the results are very much in agreement with those obtained using the fluorogenic substrates 4-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide and 4-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide 6-sulfate. In 163 healthy individuals we found, for the proportion as a percentage of the Hex A isoenzyme, significantly higher values (P < 0.001) in PMN than in MN cells (71.56 +/- 0.30% vs. 54.28 +/- 0.24%), meaning that it would not appear advisable to use total leukocyte lysates for evaluating this variable. The method is fast, precise, and highly suitable for the biochemical diagnosis and heterozygote screening of GM2 gangliosidoses, and would be applicable in cases of thermolabile Hex B and for detecting the B1 variant. PMID:12503097

  9. Creatine kinase isoenzyme patterns upon chronic exposure to cigarette smoke: protective effect of Bacoside A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasi, K; Vani, G; Balakrishna, K; Devi, C S Shyamala

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is implicated as a major risk factor in the development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Creatine kinase (CK) and its isoforms (CK-MM, MB, BB) have been advocated as sensitive markers in the assessment of cardiac and cerebral damage. Therefore, in the present study, we report the isoenzyme patterns of CK in rats upon exposure to cigarette smoke and the protective effect of Bacoside A against chronic smoking induced toxicity. Adult male albino rats were exposed to cigarette smoke and simultaneously administered with Bacoside A, the active constituent from the plant Bacopa monniera, for a period of 12 weeks. The activity of CK was assayed in serum, heart and brain, and its isoenzymes in serum were separated electrophoretically. Rats exposed to cigarette smoke showed significant increase in serum CK activity with concomitant decrease in heart and brain. Also cigarette smoke exposure resulted in a marked increase in all the three isoforms in serum. Administration of Bacoside A prevented these alterations induced by cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking is known to cause free radical mediated lipid peroxidation leading to increased membrane permeability and cellular damage in the heart and brain resulting in the release of CK into the circulation. The protective effect of Bacoside A on the structural and functional integrity of the membrane prevented the leakage of CK from the respective tissues, which could be attributed to its free radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidative effect.

  10. Monoterpene alcohol metabolism: identification, purification, and characterization of two geraniol dehydrogenase isoenzymes from Polygonum minus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Maizom; Maarof, Nur Diyana; Ali, Zainon Mohd; Noor, Normah Mohd; Othman, Roohaida; Mori, Nobuhiro

    2012-01-01

    NADP(+)-dependent geraniol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.183) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of geraniol to geranial. Stable, highly active cell-free extract was obtained from Polygonum minus leaves using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, Amberlite XAD-4, glycerol, 2-mercaptoethanol, thiourea, and phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride in tricine-NaOH buffer (pH 7.5). The enzyme preparation was separated into two activity peaks, geraniol-DH I and II, by DEAE-Toyopearl 650M column chromatography at pH 7.5. Both isoenzymes were purified to homogeneity in three chromatographic steps. The geraniol-DH isoenzymes were similar in molecular mass, optimal temperature, and pH, but the isoelectric point, substrate specificity, and kinetic parameters were different. The K(m) values for geraniol of geraniol-DH I and II appeared to be 0.4 mM and 0.185 mM respectively. P. minus geraniol-DHs are unusual among geraniol-DHs in view of their thermal stability and optimal temperatures, and also their high specificity for allylic alcohols and NADP(+). PMID:22878188

  11. Activity determination, kinetic analyses and isoenzyme identification of gamma glutamyltransferase in human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Azize; Yardimci, Turay

    2005-05-31

    Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, EC 2.3.2.2) which hydrolyzes glutathione (GSH), is required for the maintenance of normal intracellular GSH concentration. GGT is a membrane enzyme present in leukocytes and platelets. Its activity has also been observed in human neutrophils. In this study, GGT was purified from Triton X-100 solubilized neutrophils and its kinetic parameters were determined. For kinetic analyses of transpeptidation reaction, gamma-glutamyl p-nitroanilide was used as the substrate and glycylglycine as the acceptor. Apparent K(m) values were determined as 1.8 mM for gamma-glutamyl p-nitroanilide and 16.9 mM for glycylglycine. The optimum pH of GGT activity was 8.2 and the optimum temperature was 37 degrees C. It had thermal stability with 58 % relative activity at 56 degrees C for 30 min incubation. L-serine, in the presence of borate, was detected as the competitive inhibitor. Bromcresol green inhibited neutrophil GGT activity as a noncompetitive inhibitor. The neutrophils seem to contain only the isoenzyme that is present in platelets. We characterized the kinetic properties and compared the type of the isoenzyme of neutrophil GGT with platelet GGT via polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) under a standard set of conditions. PMID:15943911

  12. Human liver alcohol dehydrogenase. 1. The primary structure of the beta 1 beta 1 isoenzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, J; Bühler, R; Kaiser, R; Holmquist, B; de Zalenski, C; von Wartburg, J P; Vallee, B; Jörnvall, H

    1984-12-17

    Determination of the amino acid sequence of the beta 1 subunit from the class I (pyrazole-sensitive) human liver alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme beta 1 beta 1 revealed a 373-residue structure differing at 48 positions (including a gap) from that of the subunit of the well studied horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase EE isoenzyme. The structure deduced is compatible with known differences in composition, ultraviolet absorbance, electrophoretic mobility and catalytic properties between the horse and human enzymes. All zinc-liganding residues of the horse E subunit are strictly conserved in the human beta 1 subunit, despite an earlier report of a mutation involving Cys-46. This residue therefore remains conserved in all known alcohol dehydrogenase structures. However, the total cysteine content of the beta 1 structure is raised from 14 in the subunit of the horse enzyme to 15 by a Tyr----Cys exchange. Most exchanges are on the surface of the molecule and of a well conserved nature. Substitutions close to the catalytic centre are of interest to explain the altered substrate specificity and different catalytic activity of the beta 1 homodimer. Functionally, a Ser----Thr exchange at position 48 appears to be of special importance, since Thr-48 in beta 1 instead of Ser-48 in the horse enzyme can restrict available space. Four other substitutions also line the active-site pocket, and appear to constitute partly compensated exchanges. PMID:6391920

  13. Effect of pancreatic stimulation on serum and urine amylase isoenzymes in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derugin, N; MacGregor, I L

    1979-10-01

    Alpha amylase of pancreatic origin is cleared by the kidney more rapidly than the salivary isoamylase. To determine whether alterations in the ratio of pancreatic to salivary amylase in sera caused alterations in over all renal clearance, the clearance of amylase was measured before and after the exocrine pancreas was stimulated with a prolonged intravenous infusion of secretin plus cholecystokinin. Serum and urine samples collected prior to and following stimulation were analyzed for amylase activity and creatinine concentration. Amylase isoenzymes were separated using isoelectric focusing. Over all renal clearance of amylase and of the separated amylase isoenzymes were calculated as a percentage of the clearance of creatinine. The hormone infusion was associated with an increase in serum and urine amylase activities, this increase being mainly accounted for by pancreatic amylase. The renal clearance of the salivary and pancreatic isoamylases was not altered by the hormone infusion but the over all amylase clearance by the kidney rose from 2.31 +/- 0.74 to 3.42 +/- 1.46% of creatinine clearance. In some cases the renal clearance of amylase following stimulation entered the range considered diagnostic for acute pancreatitis.

  14. Application of an online post-column derivatization HPLC-DPPH assay to detect compounds responsible for antioxidant activity in Sonchus oleraceus L. leaf extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Zong-Quan; Schmierer, David M; Rades, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    To use an online assay to identify key antioxidants in Sonchus oleraceus leaf extracts and to investigate the effect of leaf position and extraction conditions on antioxidant concentration and activity.......To use an online assay to identify key antioxidants in Sonchus oleraceus leaf extracts and to investigate the effect of leaf position and extraction conditions on antioxidant concentration and activity....

  15. Oxidative Stress and Erythrocyte Membrane Responses During Sarcoptic Mange in Sheep: Evaluating Bio-Organic Therapy and its Supplementation with Antioxidant Tocopherol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Dimri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoptic mange in sheep, causes heavy losses in quantity and quality of wool and meat production.The present investigation aimed at evaluating the oxidative stress-antioxidant defense and erythrocytic membrane responses during sarcoptic mange in sheep.A bio-organic therapy (BT was evaluated for its efficacy. Tocopherol was assessed for its antioxidant adjunctive potential. Materials and Methods: Nineteen sheep with sarcoptic mange (aged 9-12 months, with lesions ascribed to Sarcoptes scabiei var. ovis were divided into 2 groups of 8 (group1 and 11(group2 respectively.Group1 was sprayed with the BT (Topicure: Natural Remedies Private Limited, Bangalore, India; containing extracts and distillates of Eucalyptus globulus, Cedrus deodara and Pinus longifolia.In Group2, BT plus tocopherol (E-care Se: Health Line Private Limited, Bangalore, India; containing tocopherol-50mg, selenium-1.5mg; two intramuscular injections at 7 days gap were advocated.The animals were free from other pathogenic microorganisms.Ecto-parasites were identified by standard procedures.(aResponse to treatment: was noted each day through grade codes (0 to 4.(bMite count:Skin scrapings were examined for mites on 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,14,21 and 28 days post treatment (PT.(cOxidative stress- antioxidant defense, erythrocyte membrane responses: In erythrocytes (days ¿0¿ and 28 PT, lipid peroxidation (LP, reduced glutathione (GSH, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-s-transferase, adenosine triphosphatases (total ATPase, Na+ K+-`ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase & protein were estimated.(dHaematology:total erythrocyte count (TEC, haemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit (H were estimated in blood (days 0 and 28. (e Statistical analysis was as per standard procedures. Results: (a Clinical observations: BT was effective and with tocopherol it was effective just within 2 days of start of therapy with an effectiveness of 77.5%. (b Mite count: BT was good and with tocopherol it was effective against

  16. Effect of the ingestion of a mousse with cinnamon C. Burmannii on the postprandial blood glucose response of healthy subjects and its antioxidant power

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Catarina Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Nutrição Clínica Background: Cinnamon has been shown to reduce postprandial glycaemia and enhance insulin sensitivity in healthy adults. Aims: To study the effect of C. burmannii on the postprandial blood glucose response of healthy subjects and its antioxidant capacity in a semi-solid food. Design: Twenty four apparently healthy subjects participated in this study. They were randomly assigned in group A (reference meal) or grou...

  17. Poor antioxidant status exacerbates oxidative stress and inflammatory response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in Guinea Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Østrup; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Bjarnsholt, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    Considerable evidence supports the presence of oxidative stress in cystic fibrosis (CF). The disease has long been associated with both increased production of reactive oxygen species and impaired antioxidant status, in particular during the chronic pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... of oxidative stress. The aim of our study was to investigate the consequences of a 7-day biofilm-grown P. aeruginosa lung infection in 3-month-old guinea pigs receiving either ASC-sufficient or ASC-deficient diet for at least 2 months. The animals receiving ASC-deficient diet showed significantly higher......, which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in CF. Guinea pigs are unable to synthesize ascorbate (ASC) or vitamin C, a major antioxidant of the lung, and thus like human beings rely on its presence in the diet. On this basis, guinea pigs receiving ASC-deficient diet have been used as a model...

  18. Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ehsan Karimi; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol−1) on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed ...

  19. Dose-response effects of lycopene on selected drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S. T.; Daneshvar, B.;

    2000-01-01

    treatment. The activity of superoxide dismutase was thus significantly induced at lycopene doses of 0.005 and 0.05 g/kg b.w, whereas glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase was only induced at the 0.005 g/kg b.w. per day dose. For all antioxidant enzymes investigated, the activities seemed......-metabolizing enzymes involved in the protection against oxidative stress and cancer. The fact that these enzymatic activities are induced at all of these very low plasma levels, could be taken to suggest that modulation of antioxidant and drug-metabolizing enzymes map indeed be relevant to humans, which in general......The administration of lycopene to female rats at doses ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 g/kg b.w, per day for 2 weeks was found to alter the drug-metabolizing capacity and antioxidant status of the exposed animals. An investigation of four cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes revealed that benzyloxyresorufin...

  20. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress:Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin Lotfi; Mohammad Pessarakli; Puriya Gharavi-Kouchebagh; Hossein Khoshvaghti

    2015-01-01

    The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L−1) on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan) was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA) improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and performance index (PI) of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  1. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin; Lotfi; Mohammad; Pessarakli; Puriya; Gharavi-Kouchebagh; Hossein; Khoshvaghti

    2015-01-01

    The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid(0, 300, and 600 mg L-1) on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed(Brassica napus L.) plant under water stress(60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan) was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid(FA) improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII(Fv/Fm)and performance index(PI) of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Foto Fmand the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species(ROS) is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  2. Antioxidant biochemical responses to long-term copper exposure in Bathymodiolus azoricus from Menez-Gwen hydrothermal vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Company, Rui; Serafim, Angela; Cosson, Richard P; Fiala-Médioni, Aline; Camus, Lionel; Colaço, Ana; Serrão-Santos, Ricardo; Bebianno, Maria João

    2008-01-25

    Copper (Cu) is essential to various physiological processes in marine organisms. However, at high concentrations this redox-active transition metal may enhance the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequently initiate oxidative damage. High concentrations of Cu may increase oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA. Bathymodiolus azoricus is a Mytilid bivalve very common in hydrothermal environments near the Azores Triple Junction continuously exposed to high metal concentrations, including Cu, emanating from the vent fluids. The knowledge of antioxidant defence system and other stress related biomarkers in these organisms is still scarce. The aim of this work was to study the effect of Cu (25 microg l(-1); 24 days exposure; 6 days depuration) on the antioxidant stress biomarkers in the gills and mantle of B. azoricus. The expression of stress related biomarkers was tissue-dependent and results suggest that other factors than metal exposure may influence stress biomarkers, since little variation in antioxidant enzymes activities, MT concentrations, LPO and total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) occurred in both control and Cu-exposed mussels. Moreover, there is a general tendency for these parameters to increase with time, in both control and Cu-exposed mussels, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation is not metal dependent, and may be related with poor physiological conditions of the animals after long periods in adverse conditions compared to those in hydrothermal environments.

  3. Mitochondrial structural and antioxidant system responses to aging in oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds with different moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fangshan; Wang, Xianguo; Li, Manli; Mao, Peisheng

    2015-09-01

    We observed the relationship between lifespan and mitochondria, including antioxidant systems, ultrastructure, and the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents in 4 h imbibed oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds that were aged with different moisture contents (4%, 10% and 16%) for 0 (the control), 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 d at 45 °C. The results showed that the decline in the oat seed vigor and in the integrity of the mitochondrial ultrastructure occurred during the aging process, and that these changes were enhanced by higher moisture contents. Mitochondrial antioxidants in imbibed oat seeds aged with a 4% moisture content were maintained at higher levels than imbibed oat seeds aged with a 10% and 16% moisture content. These results indicated that the levels of mitochondrial antioxidants and malondialdehyde after imbibition were related to the integrity of the mitochondrial membrane in aged oat seeds. The scavenging role of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase was inhibited in imbibed oat seeds aged at the early stage. Monodehydroascorbate reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase played more important roles than glutathione reductase in ascorbate regeneration in aged oat seeds during imbibition.

  4. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Lotfi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L− 1 on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L. plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm and performance index (PI of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  5. Pycnogenol® inhibits lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production associated with antioxidant enzyme responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Seo, Min-Jung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2012-03-01

    Pycnogenol® is a group of flavonoids with antioxidant effects. Adipogenesis is the process of adipocyte differentiation. It causes the increase of lipids as well as ROS (reactive oxygen species). Lipid accumulation and ROS production were determined in 3 T3-L1 adipocyte, and the effect of Pycnogenol® was evaluated. Lipid accumulation was elevated in adipocyte treated with hydrogen peroxide, one of the ROS. Pycnogenol® showed an inhibitory effect on the lipid accumulation and ROS production during the adipogenesis. We also investigated the molecular events associated with ROS production and lipid accumulation. Our results showed that Pycnogenol® inhibited the mRNA expression of pro-oxidant enzymes, such as NOX4 (NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen) oxidase 4), and the NADPH-producing G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) enzyme. In addition, Pycnogenol® suppressed the mRNA abundance of adipogenic transcription factors, PPAR-γ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) and C/EBP-α (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α), and their target gene, aP2 (adipocyte protein 2) responsible for fatty acid transportation. On the other hand, Pycnogenol® increased the abundance of antioxidant proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD (copper-zinc superoxide dismutase), Mn-SOD (manganese superoxide dismutase), GPx (glutathione peroxidase) and GR (glutathione reductase). Our results suggest that Pycnogenol® inhibits lipid accumulation and ROS production by regulating adipogenic gene expression and pro-/antioxidant enzyme responses in adipocytes. PMID:21796705

  6. Proteomic expression profiling of Haemophilus influenzae grown in pooled human sputum from adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease reveal antioxidant and stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Aimee L

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae colonizes and infects the airways of adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the fourth most common cause of death worldwide.Thus, H. influenzae, an exclusively human pathogen, has adapted to survive in the hostile environment of the human airways.To characterize proteins expressed by H. influenzae in the airways, a prototype strain was grown in pooled human sputum to simulate conditions in the human respiratory tract.The proteins from whole bacterial cell lysates were solubilized with a strong buffer and then quantitatively cleaned with an optimized precipitation/on-pellet enzymatic digestion procedure.Proteomic profiling was accomplished by Nano-flow liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy with low void volume and high separation efficiency with a shallow, long gradient. Results A total of 1402 proteins were identified with high confidence, including 170 proteins that were encoded by genes that are annotated as conserved hypothetical proteins.Thirty-one proteins were present in greater abundance in sputum-grown conditions at a ratio of > 1.5 compared to chemically defined media.These included 8 anti-oxidant and 5 stress-related proteins, suggesting that expression of antioxidant activity and stress responses is important for survival in the airways.Four proteins involved in uptake of divalent anions and 9 proteins that function in uptake of various molecules were present in greater abundance in sputum-grown conditions. Conclusions Proteomic expression profiling of H. influenzae grown in pooled human sputum revealed increased expression of antioxidant, stress-response proteins and cofactor and nutrient uptake systems compared to media grown cells.These observations suggest that H. influenzae adapts to the oxidative and nutritionally limited conditions of the airways in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by increasing expression of molecules necessary for survival

  7. Isoenzymes and soluble protein in Arthrospira from alkaline lakes in Erdos Plateau, China and in exotic species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The authors compared isoenzymes of five enzymes and soluble protein in Arthrospira platensis (A3) and A. erdosensis (A4) from alkaline lakes in Erdos Plateau, Nei Monggo (Inner Mongalia),China and exotic species ofA. platensis (A1) from Chad and A. maxima (A2) from Mexico by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the isoenzymes of EST, POD and soluble protein were polymorphic. Monomorphism and polymorphism were found in isoenzymes of AMY, CAT and SOD, and monomorphism was found only in the introduced species. The isoenzymes and soluble protein of the local species are all polymorphic. The number of bands in these species were in the order of A3>A4>A1 >A2. A2 is the most primary, A1 from Chad Lake is relatively primary, A3 and A4 are advanced species in evolution. Cluster analysis showed that the relation between the two introduced species are the closest to each other, and so too are the two local ones.

  8. Nitric oxide is involved in dehydration/drought tolerance in Poncirus trifoliata seedlings through regulation of antioxidant systems and stomatal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qi-Jun; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a component of the repertoire of signals implicated in plant responses to environmental stimuli. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exogenous application of NO-releasing donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) on dehydration and drought tolerance of Poncirus trifoliata. The endogenous NO level was enhanced by SNP pretreatment, but decreased by L-NAME, in the hydroponic or potted plants with or without stresses. Under dehydration, leaves from the SNP-treated hydroponic seedlings displayed less water loss, lower electrolyte leakage and reactive oxygen species accumulation, higher antioxidant enzyme activities and smaller stomatal apertures as compared with the control (treated with water). In addition, pretreatment of the potted plants with SNP resulted in lower electrolyte leakage, higher chlorophyll content, smaller stomatal conductance and larger photosynthetic rate relative to the control. By contrast, the inhibitor treatment changed these physiological attributes or phenotypes in an opposite way. These results indicate that NO in the form of SNP enhanced dehydration and drought tolerance, whereas the inhibitor makes the leaves or plants more sensitive to the stresses. The stress tolerance by NO might be ascribed to a combinatory effect of modulation of stomatal response and activation of the antioxidant enzymes. Taken together, NO is involved in dehydration and drought tolerance of P. trifoliata, implying that manipulation of this signal molecule may provide a practical approach to combat the environmental stresses. PMID:21938448

  9. Physiological and biochemical responses of Suaeda fruticosa to cadmium and copper stresses: growth, nutrient uptake, antioxidant enzymes, phytochelatin, and glutathione levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankaji, I; Caçador, I; Sleimi, N

    2015-09-01

    Environmental pollution by trace metal elements (TMEs) is a serious problem worldwide, increasing in parallel with the development of human technology. The present research aimed to examine the response of halophytic species Suaeda fruticosa to oxidative stress posed by combined abiotic stresses. Plants have been grown for 1 month with an irrigation solution supplemented with 200 mM NaCl and 400 μM Cd(2+) or 400 μM Cu(2+). The level of glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins (PCs), and antioxidant enzyme activities [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT)] as well as lipid peroxidation was studied to see the stress exerted by the TME and the level of tolerance and detoxification strategy adopted by S. fruticosa. Relative growth rate (RGR) decreased under Cd(2+) stress in this species, whereas Cu(2+) did not have any impact on S. fruticosa performance. Cd(2+) or Cu(2+) enhanced malondialdehyde, suggesting reactive oxygen species-induced disruption of membrane integrity and oxidative stress in S. fruticosa. On the other hand, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes CAT, APX, and GPX diminished and mineral nutrition was disturbed by metal stress. S. fruticosa was able to synthesize PCs in response to TME toxicity. However, data indicate that GSH levels underwent a significant decrease in roots and leaves of S. fruticosa stressed by Cd(2+) or Cu(2+). The GSH depletion accompanied by the increase of phytochelatin concentration suggests the involvement of GSH in the synthesis of phytochelatins.

  10. Replacement of inorganic zinc with lower levels of organic zinc (zinc nicotinate on performance, hematological and serum biochemical constituents, antioxidants status, and immune responses in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nagalakshmi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of organic zinc (zinc nicotinate, Zn-nic supplementation (6, 9, and 12 ppm compared to inorganic zinc (12 ppm on growth performance, hematology, serum biochemical constituents oxidative stress, and immunity in weaned female Sprague–Dawley rats. Material and Methods: A 48 weaned rats (285.20±1.95 g were randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates in each and reared in polypropylene cages for 10 weeks. Basal diet (BD was formulated with purified ingredients without zinc (Zn. Four dietary treatments were prepared by adding 12 ppm Zn from ZnCO3 (control and 6, 9, and 12 ppm Zn from Zn-nic to the BD. On 42nd day, blood was collected by retro-orbital puncture for analyzing hematological constituents, glucose, cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, and globulin and antioxidant enzyme activities. At 43rd day, rats were antigenically challenged with sheep red blood cell (RBC to assess humoral immune response and on 70th day cell-mediated immune response. Results: Weekly body weight gains, daily feed intake, blood hematological constituents (white blood cell, RBC, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, lymphocyte, monocyte, and granulocyte concentration and serum glucose, total protein levels were comparable among the rats feed Zn from ZnCO3 and Zn-nic (6, 9, and 12 ppm. Serum cholesterol reduced with organic Zn supplementation at either concentration (6-12 ppm. Serum globulin concentration reduced (p<0.05 with 6 ppm Zn-nic supplementation compared to other dietary treatments. Lipid peroxidation lowered (p<0.05 reduced with 12 ppm organic Zn; thiobarbituric acid reacting substances and protein carbonyls concentrations in liver reduced (p<0.05 with 9 and 12 ppm levels of organic Zn supplementation compared to 12 ppm Zn supplementation from inorganic source. RBC catalase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes activities were highest (p

  11. Effect of Supplementing Organic Forms of Zinc, Selenium and Chromium on Performance, Anti-Oxidant and Immune Responses in Broiler Chicken Reared in Tropical Summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S V Rama; Prakash, B; Raju, M V L N; Panda, A K; Kumari, R K; Reddy, E Pradeep Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of supplementing organic forms of zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and chromium (Cr) on performance, anti-oxidant activities and immune responses in broiler chickens from 1 to 21 days of age, which were reared in cyclic heat-stressed condition under tropical summer in open-sided poultry house. A total of 200 (experiment I) and 450-day-old (experiment II) broiler male chicks (Cobb 400) were randomly distributed in stainless steel battery brooders (610 mm × 762 mm × 475 mm) at the rate of five birds per pen. A maize-soybean meal-based control diet (CD) containing recommended (Vencobb 400, Broiler Management Guide) concentrations of inorganic trace minerals and other nutrients was prepared. The CD was supplemented individually with organic form of selenium (Se, 0.30 mg/kg), chromium (Cr, 2 mg/kg) and zinc (Zn, 40 mg/kg) in experiment I. In experiment II, two concentrations of each Zn (20 and 40 mg/kg), Se (0.15 and 0.30 mg/kg) and Cr (1 and 2 mg/kg) were supplemented to the basal diet in 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. A group without supplementing inorganic trace minerals was maintained as control group in both experiments. Each diet was allotted randomly to ten replicates in both experiments and fed ad libitum from 1 to 21 days of age. At 19th day of age, blood samples were collected for estimation of anti-oxidant and immune responses. Supplementation of Se, Cr and Zn increased (P  0.05) by the interaction between levels of Zn, Se and Cr in broiler diet. The FE improved (P  0.05) the immune responses (Newcastle disease titre and cell-mediated immune response to phytohaemagglutinin-P) in both the experiments. Based on the results, it is concluded that supplementation of organic form of Se, Cr and Zn (0.30, 2 and 40 mg/kg, respectively) either alone or in combination significantly improved performance and anti-oxidant responses (reduced LP and increased superoxide dismutase) in commercial

  12. Detection of inter-species contaminations in a cell line collection using isoenzymes and molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferarri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As in human research, also in livestock species the use of continuous cell cultures is an important tool for the study of physiological and tissue developmental processes, as well as for immunological, virological and toxicological assays. This widespread use of animal cell cultures needs that quality control tests are systematically performed in order to evaluate the authenticity of the cells used. Cell cross-contamination (CCC can occur with cells from other species (interspecies contamination or with unrelated cells from the same species (intraspecies contamination. Several methods have been used to identify inter- and intraspecies CCC: isoenzyme profile (Nims, 1998, cytogenetic analysis (Macville et al., 1996, DNA fingerprinting (Stacey et al., 1992, and, more recently, PCR-based methods (Matsuo et al., 1999. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP technology is a PCR-based technique (Vos et al., 1995 able to reveal polymorphism, with no need of prior sequence information or probe isolation..........

  13. Changes in serum amylase and its isoenzymes after whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to assess the effect of total body irradiation on pancreatic and parotid isoenzymes of amylase in patients about to undergo bone-marrow transplantation who had received high-dose cyclophosphamide. Twelve patients were studied, enzyme activity being measured before and at various times after total body irradiation. Serum total amylase activity rose rapidly within 12 hours of irradiation to a maximum at 36 hours, returning to normal by six days; most of the increase was derived from salivary damage, with a much smaller pancreatic component. These results confirm that radiation produces acute changes in amylase activity, which may be of use in assessing radiation-induced damage. (author)

  14. Metabolic indicators of drought stress tolerance in wheat: glutamine synthetase isoenzymes and Rubisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zoltán; Németh, Edit; Guóth, Adrienn; Bona, Lajos; Wodala, Barnabás; Pécsváradi, Attila

    2013-06-01

    Drought stress has a considerable impact on the ecosystem and agriculture. Continuous water deficit induces early leaf senescence in plants. During this process, chloroplasts are degraded and photosynthesis drastically drops. The objective of this investigation was to look into the regulation of nitrogen and carbon metabolism during water deficit. Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; EC 4.1.1.39) and the total protein contents inform us of the sink-source relation in plants. Glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) isoenzymes are good markers of plastid status (GS2) and the nitrogen metabolism (GS1). Tolerant and sensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes were tested, which are widely used in agriculture. The amount of protein, Rubisco and GS isoforms in leaves were measured during the grain filling period, as indicative traits that ultimately determine the onset and stage of senescence. The symptoms of senescence first appeared on the oldest and finally on the youngest leaves. Drought stress disrupted the sequentiality of senescence in the sensitive varieties. An untimely senescence appeared in flag leaves, earlier than in the older leaves. Total protein and Rubisco contents decreased and the GS2 isoenzyme declined considerably in the youngest leaves. In the tolerant varieties, however, these physiological parameters did not change under drought, only the sequential senescence of leaf levels accelerated in some cases compared to the control, well-watered plants. Our results revealed that GS is a good indicator of drought stress, which can be applied for the characterization of wheat cultivars in terms of drought stress tolerance.

  15. Endopeptidase Isoenzyme Characteristics in Cucumis sativus Leaves During Dark-induced Senescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Zhang; Fei Wang; Lie-Feng Zhang; Qi Rui; Lang-Lai Xu

    2007-01-01

    The changes and characteristics of endopeptidase (EP) isoenzymes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves during dark-induced senescence were investigated by activity staining after gradient-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (G-PAGE) containing co-polymerized gelatin as substrate. The results showed that both the chlorophyll and the protein contents of leaves were decreased, and the protein degradation was correlated with the increase of proteolytic activity during the course of leaf senescence. Meanwhile, nine cucumber endopeptidases isoenzymes (CEP) with 140, 120, 106, 94, 76, 55, 46, 39 and 35 kDa molecular weights were detected. Four of these, CEP2, 3, 4 and CEP9 appeared all the time, but the changes of the activity were different during incubation. Another four CEPs (CEP5, 6, 7 and CEP8) whose activities increased with dark-induced time were only detected in senescent leaves.Furthermore, the biochemical properties of these nine CEP were also characterized. All the CEPs had high activities from 35 ℃ to 45 ℃, and the optimum temperature was found to be 40 ℃. However, the activities of CEPs were not detected below 25 ℃ or over 60 ℃. The activity bands appeared at a wide range of pH from 5.0 to 9.0, but the optimum pH was found at 7.0. No CEPs were detected at pH 4 or pH 10. By inhibition analysis we concluded that CEP2,3, 4 and CEP9 were serine endopeptidases and CEP6 was a kind of cysteine protease. It is suggested that serine endopeptidases might play a major role in cucumber leaf senescence, and for the first time, six senescencerelated endopeptidases (CEP1, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9) were found in cucumber leaves.

  16. Melatonin and schistosomal antigens ameliorate the anti-oxidative and biochemical response to Schistosoma mansoni infection in hamster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahla S.El-SHENAWY; Maha F.M.SOLIMAN; Shimaa E.Abel-RAHMAN

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the potential protective effect of melatonin as an antioxidant separately or in combination with antigens (cercarial; CAP or soluble worm; SWAP) against Schistosoma mansoni infection in hamsters. Each hamster was sensitized with an initial immunization of 0.6 ml of the extracted antigen (30 μg protein/mL). After four days, a second injection of 0.4 mL was given (20 μg protein/mL). Then, each hamster was exposed to 260±20 S.mansoni cercariae followed with melatonin treatment (3.5 mg/kg) for thirty days from the 1st day of post infection. Levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, catalase (CAT) activity, hepatic glutathione (GSH) and biochemical changes in the liver and kidneys functions were investigated. The results revealed a high significant increasing of LPO and decreasing of CAT and GSH in liver of infected hamsters. Biochemical observations showed severe damage in the liver enzyme activities and increasing cholesterol level in infected animals. Melatonin co-treatment with antigen to the infected-hamster attenuated the increase of LPO and restored the activity of CAT and levels of hepatic GSH. Also, the biochemical damages in the liver and kidneys functions were reduced. The present study suggests that melatonin may be useful in combating free radical-induced damage due to infection toxicity. The immunization with previous antigens resulted in a remarkable improvement on the liver enzyme activities, which were increased after infection. Thus, vaccination of hamsters with antigens (both CAP and SWAP) and melatonin treatment has more potent effect on the enhancement of antioxidant and biochemical of S.mansoni infected-hamster than each treatment separately. Immunization of the hamster with SWAP followed by melatonin was the best way among the other regime treatments to improve the biochemical and antioxidant parameters of the infected-hamsters[Current Zoology 55(2):165-172,2009].

  17. Antioxidant content in two CAM bromeliad species as a response to seasonal light changes in a tropical dry deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Salvatierra, Claudia; Luis Andrade, José; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; García-Sosa, Karlina; Manuel Peña-Rodríguez, Luis

    2010-07-01

    Plants have evolved photoprotective mechanisms to limit photodamage; one of these mechanisms involves the biosynthesis of antioxidant metabolites to neutralize reactive oxygen species generated when plants are exposed to excess light. However, it is known that exposure of plants to conditions of extreme water stress and high light intensity results in their enhanced susceptibility to over-excitation of photosystem II and to photooxidative stress. In this investigation we used the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl reduction assay to conduct a broad survey of the effect of water availability and light exposure conditions on the antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts of two bromeliad species showing crassulacean acid metabolism. One of these was an epiphyte, Tillandsia brachycaulos, and the other a terrestrial species, Bromelia karatas. Both species were found growing wild in the tropical dry deciduous forest of Dzibilchaltún National Park, México. The microenvironment of T. brachycaulos and B. karatas experiences significant diurnal and seasonal light variations as well as changes in temperature and water availability. The results obtained showed that, for both bromeliads, increases in antioxidant activity occurred during the dry season, as a consequence of water stress and higher light conditions. Additionally, in T. brachycaulos there was a clear correlation between high light intensity conditions and the content of anthocyanins which accumulated below the leaf epidermis. This result suggests that the role of these pigments is as photoprotective screens in the leaves. The red coloration below the leaf epidermis of B. karatas was not due to anthocyanins but to other unidentified pigments.

  18. Unraveling the mechanism responsible for the contrasting tolerance of Synechocystis and Synechococcus to Cr(VI): Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cr(VI) accumulation generates higher ROS in Synechocystis than in Synechococcus. • Synechococcus exhibits better photosynthetic activity in response to Cr(VI). • Synechococcus has higher enzymatic/non-enzymatic antioxidants than Synechocystis. • Synechococcus shows better tolerance to other oxidative stresses than Synechocystis. • Differential detoxification of ROS is responsible for the contrasting tolerance to Cr(VI) - Abstract: Two unicellular cyanobacteria, Synechocystis and Synechococcus, showed contrasting tolerance to Cr(VI); with Synechococcus being 12-fold more tolerant than Synechocystis to potassium dichromate. The mechanism responsible for this differential sensitivity to Cr(VI) was explored in this study. Total content of photosynthetic pigments as well as photosynthetic activity decreased at lower concentration of Cr(VI) in Synechocystis as compared to Synechococcus. Experiments with 51Cr showed Cr to accumulate intracellularly in both the cyanobacteria. At lower concentrations, Cr(VI) caused excessive ROS generation in Synechocystis as compared to that observed in Synechococcus. Intrinsic levels of enzymatic antioxidants, i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase and 2-Cys-peroxiredoxin were considerably higher in Synechococcus than Synechocystis. Content of total thiols (both protein as well as non-protein) and reduced glutathione (GSH) was also higher in Synechococcus as compared to Synechocystis. This correlated well with higher content of carbonylated proteins observed in Synechocystis than Synechococcus. Additionally, in contrast to Synechocystis, Synechococcus exhibited better tolerance to other oxidative stresses like high intensity light and H2O2. The data indicate that the disparity in the ability to detoxify ROS could be the primary mechanism responsible for the differential tolerance of these cyanobacteria to Cr(VI)

  19. Unraveling the mechanism responsible for the contrasting tolerance of Synechocystis and Synechococcus to Cr(VI): Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Alka [Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ballal, Anand, E-mail: aballal@barc.gov.in [Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 40085 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Cr(VI) accumulation generates higher ROS in Synechocystis than in Synechococcus. • Synechococcus exhibits better photosynthetic activity in response to Cr(VI). • Synechococcus has higher enzymatic/non-enzymatic antioxidants than Synechocystis. • Synechococcus shows better tolerance to other oxidative stresses than Synechocystis. • Differential detoxification of ROS is responsible for the contrasting tolerance to Cr(VI) - Abstract: Two unicellular cyanobacteria, Synechocystis and Synechococcus, showed contrasting tolerance to Cr(VI); with Synechococcus being 12-fold more tolerant than Synechocystis to potassium dichromate. The mechanism responsible for this differential sensitivity to Cr(VI) was explored in this study. Total content of photosynthetic pigments as well as photosynthetic activity decreased at lower concentration of Cr(VI) in Synechocystis as compared to Synechococcus. Experiments with {sup 51}Cr showed Cr to accumulate intracellularly in both the cyanobacteria. At lower concentrations, Cr(VI) caused excessive ROS generation in Synechocystis as compared to that observed in Synechococcus. Intrinsic levels of enzymatic antioxidants, i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase and 2-Cys-peroxiredoxin were considerably higher in Synechococcus than Synechocystis. Content of total thiols (both protein as well as non-protein) and reduced glutathione (GSH) was also higher in Synechococcus as compared to Synechocystis. This correlated well with higher content of carbonylated proteins observed in Synechocystis than Synechococcus. Additionally, in contrast to Synechocystis, Synechococcus exhibited better tolerance to other oxidative stresses like high intensity light and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The data indicate that the disparity in the ability to detoxify ROS could be the primary mechanism responsible for the differential tolerance of these cyanobacteria to Cr(VI)

  20. Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid increment hepatic n-3 LCPUFA, modulating the fatty acid metabolism and antioxidant response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Barrera, Cynthia; Espinosa, Alejandra; Marambio, Macarena; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the metabolic precursor of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from the n-3 family with relevant physiological and metabolic roles: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). Western diet lacks of suitable intake of n-3 LCPUFA and there are recommendations to increase the dietary supply of such nutrients. Seed oils rich in ALA such as those from rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubis) and chia (Salvia hispanica) may constitute an alternative that merits research. This study evaluated hepatic and epididymal accretion and biosynthesis of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, the expression and DNA-binding activity of PPAR-α and SREBP-1c, oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in rats fed sunflower oil (SFO, 1% ALA) as control group, canola oil (CO, 10% ALA), rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, 33% ALA), sacha inchi oil (SIO, 49% ALA) and chia oil (ChO, 64% ALA) as single lipid source. A larger supply of ALA increased the accretion of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of desaturases, the antioxidative status, the expression and DNA-binding of PPAR-α, the oxidation of fatty acids and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, whereas the expression and DNA-binding activity of SREBP-1c transcription factor and the biosynthetic activity of fatty acids declined. Results showed that oils rich in ALA such as SIO and ChO may trigger metabolic responses in rats such as those produced by n-3 PUFA. PMID:26995676

  1. Involvement of MEK-ERK1-2 pathway in the anti-oxidant response in C6 glioma cells after diesel exhaust particles exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Francesca; Milani, Chiara; Botto, Laura; Lonati, Elena; Bulbarelli, Alessandra; Palestini, Paola

    2016-05-27

    Ultrafine particles translocate to the central nervous system and activate oxidative stress-related pathways. The transcription factor Nrf2 activation by ERK1-2 has been suggested as a key regulator of cellular response to oxidative stress. C6 glioma cells have been treated with different doses of diesel exhaust particles (25μg/ml, DEP25, and 50μg/ml, DEP50), for different times. Cells have been screened for oxidative stress and inflammatory markers, and for the activation of the MEK-ERK1-2 pathway. The same markers have been examined after inhibition of MEK, the kinase upstream to ERK1-2. 3h and 24h of DEP25 and DEP50 induced a significant increase in HO-1 levels. After 24h, DEP25 and DEP50 induced an increase in HO-1 and Cyp1b1 levels, while increase in OGG1 level was observed only with DEP25. After 5h of treatment with DEP25, ERK1-2 resulted phosphorylated, concomitantly with a significant increase in HO-1 levels, no changes in iNOS levels, and decreased levels of anti-oxidant enzymes. After treatment with MEK inhibitor U0126, ERK1-2 showed no activation, with a consequent decrease in Nrf2, no increase in HO-1 and a significant increase of iNOS. MEK inhibitor is able to deplete anti-oxidant enzymes. In conclusion, the MEK-ERK1-2 pathway is involved in regulating the anti-oxidant strategies to compensate the oxidative status induced by DEP treatment. PMID:27091075

  2. Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid increment hepatic n-3 LCPUFA, modulating the fatty acid metabolism and antioxidant response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Barrera, Cynthia; Espinosa, Alejandra; Marambio, Macarena; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the metabolic precursor of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from the n-3 family with relevant physiological and metabolic roles: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). Western diet lacks of suitable intake of n-3 LCPUFA and there are recommendations to increase the dietary supply of such nutrients. Seed oils rich in ALA such as those from rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubis) and chia (Salvia hispanica) may constitute an alternative that merits research. This study evaluated hepatic and epididymal accretion and biosynthesis of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, the expression and DNA-binding activity of PPAR-α and SREBP-1c, oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in rats fed sunflower oil (SFO, 1% ALA) as control group, canola oil (CO, 10% ALA), rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, 33% ALA), sacha inchi oil (SIO, 49% ALA) and chia oil (ChO, 64% ALA) as single lipid source. A larger supply of ALA increased the accretion of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of desaturases, the antioxidative status, the expression and DNA-binding of PPAR-α, the oxidation of fatty acids and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, whereas the expression and DNA-binding activity of SREBP-1c transcription factor and the biosynthetic activity of fatty acids declined. Results showed that oils rich in ALA such as SIO and ChO may trigger metabolic responses in rats such as those produced by n-3 PUFA.

  3. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa L. Peel Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Fang Deng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. is a popular tropical fruit and its peel is a municipal waste. An ultrasound-assisted extraction method was developed for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. Central composite design was used to optimize solvent concentration (13.2%–46.8%, ultrasonic time (33.2–66.8 min, and temperature (43.2–76.8 °C for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. The second-order polynomial models demonstrated a good fit of the quadratic models with the experimental results in respect to total phenolic content (TPC, R2 = 0.9524, p < 0.0001, FRAP (R2 = 0.9743, p < 0.0001, and TEAC (R2 = 0.9610, p < 0.0001 values. The optimal extraction conditions were 20:1 (mL/g of solvent-to-solid ratio, 32.68% acetone, and 67.23 °C for 42.54 min under ultrasonic irradiation. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of total phenolic content was 26.81 (mg GA/g FW. The experimental results obtained under optimal conditions agreed well with the predicted results. The application of ultrasound markedly decreased extraction time and improved the extraction efficiency, compared with the conventional methods.

  4. Response of antioxidant defense system in copepodCalanus sinicus Brodsky exposed to CO2-acidified seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dajuan; GUO Donghui; WANG Guizhong; LI Shaojing

    2016-01-01

    Marine zooplankton responds sensitively to elevated seawater CO2 concentration. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not been studied well. We therefore investigated the effects of elevated CO2 concentration (0.08%, 0.20%, 0.50% and 1.00%) on antioxidant defense components, as well as two detoxification enzymes ofCalanus sinicus (copepod). The results showed that glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity exposed to CO2-acidified seawater was significantly stimulated while other antioxidant components, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased significantly with reduced glutathione (GSH) level and GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) value. CO2-acidified seawater exhibited stimulatory effects on adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity was inhibited. Moreover, the results of principal component analysis indicated that 75.93% of the overall variance was explained by the first two principal components. The elevated CO2 concentration may affect the metabolism and survivals of copepods through impacts these enzymes activities. Further studies are needed to focus on the synergistic effects of elevated CO2 concentration and other environmental factors on copepods.

  5. Phenolic content, antioxidant and astroprotective response to oxidative stress of ethanolic extracts of Mentha longifolia from Sinai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Tarek F; González-Burgos, Elena; Carretero, M Emilia; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar

    2014-10-01

    The aerial parts ofMentha longifolia L. are used as herbal remedies for curing different diseases through traditional Bedouin medicine. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts of M longifolia was investigated measuring peroxyl radical-scavenging activity by ORAC assay, with Trolox (a water-soluble analogue of α-tocopherol) employed as reference compound. In addition, the total content of phenolic compounds estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and the identification of the polyphenols using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) have been performed. Furthermore, the effect of these extracts on cell viability and intracellular ROS production was assayed using the U373-MG human astrocytoma cell line in a H2O2-induced oxidative stress model. Results showed that the major type of polyphenols found were benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, flavones and flavanones. The total phenolic content was 37.7 mg gallic acid/g sample and the ORAC value was 1.355 .mol TE/mg sample. The data obtained in cellular assays demonstrated that these ethanolic extracts protected H2O2-induced astrocyte damage by increasing cell viability and inhibiting production of intracellular ROS. These results suggest that the investigated extracts obtained from the aerial parts of M longifolia have antioxidant potential related to their phenol content which have important beneficial health effects, especially in those disease associated with ROS.

  6. The characterization of two peroxiredoxin genes in Dunaliella viridis provides insights into antioxidative response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huijuan; Meng, Xiangzong; Gao, Qiang; Qu, Wufei; Xu, Tengjiao; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2011-08-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), a group of antioxidant enzymes, are an important component of the oxidative defense system and have been demonstrated to function as peroxidases, sensors of H(2)O(2)-mediated signaling and/or chaperones. In this study, a cDNA library was constructed from a halotolerant alga, Dunaliella viridis, and was used in a functional complementation screen for antioxidative genes in an oxidative sensitive yeast mutant. Two Prx genes, DvPrx1 and DvPrx2, were obtained from this screen. These two genes were classified as type II Prx and 2-Cys Prx based on amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analysis. When over-expressed in yeast cells, both Prx genes were able to confer better oxidative tolerance and decrease the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Subcellular localization experiments in tobacco cells revealed that both DvPrx1 and DvPrx2 were localized in the cytosol. The transcription of DvPrx1 and DvPrx2 can be induced by hypersalinity shock, but is not obviously affected by treatment with high levels of oxidant. Our results shed light on the function and regulation of Prx genes from Dunaliella and their potential roles in salt tolerance. PMID:21431909

  7. Alterations in oxidant/antioxidant balance, high-mobility group box 1 protein and acute phase response in cross-bred suckling piglets suffering from rotaviral enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar De, Ujjwal; Mukherjee, Reena; Nandi, Sukdeb; Patel, Bhimnere Hanumatnagouda Manjunatha; Dimri, Umesh; Ravishankar, Chintu; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Rotaviral enteritis has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in piglets during their post-natal life. The present study was carried out to examine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, acute phase response and oxidative stress indices in the serum of suckling piglets suffering from enteritis with or without association of porcine group A rotavirus infection. The present investigation utilized 23 clinical cases with signs of acute enteritis and 12 more healthy piglets of a similar age group as control animals. Out of 23 enteritis cases, 12 cases were found to be positive for porcine group A rotavirus infection as confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers for group A rotavirus, and the rest were found negative. The acute enteritis cases in piglets were associated with an elevated level of HMGB1 protein and serum haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin suggestive of an acute phase response. Among the oxidative stress indices, the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in serum were significantly increased. A pronounced drop of total antioxidant capacity and the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase in the serum of piglets suffering from acute enteritis compared to healthy ones were also noticed. The alterations in HMGB1 protein, acute phase response and oxidative stress indices were more pronounced in cases with the involvement of porcine rotavirus as compared to rotavirus-negative cases. It is concluded that HMGB1 protein, markers of oxidative stress and acute phase proteins might play an important role in the aetiopathogenesis of porcine diarrhoea caused by rotavirus and might be true markers in diagnosing the conditions leading to the extension of the prompt and effective therapeutic care.

  8. Tamarind seed coat extract restores reactive oxygen species through attenuation of glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme expression in human skin fibroblasts in response to oxidative stress

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    Oranuch Nakchat

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: TSCE exhibited antioxidant activities by scavenging ROS, attenuating GSH level that could protect human skin fibroblast cells from oxidative stress. Our results highlight the antioxidant mechanism of tamarind seed coat through an antioxidant enzyme system, the extract potentially benefits for health food and cosmeceutical application of tamarind seed coat.

  9. Antioxidant responses to benzo[a]pyrene,tributyltin and their mixture in the spleen of Sebasticus marmoratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    It has been repotted that there is an interaction between Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP),a widespread carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon,and tributyltin (TBT),an organometal used as an antifouling biocide.This study was therefore designed to examine the potential in vivo influence of BaP,TBT and their mixture on splenic antioxidant defense systems of Sebastiscus marmoratus.The fish were exposed to water containing euvironmentally relevant concentrations of BaP,TBT and their mixture.Spleens were collected for biochemical analysis after exposure for 7,25,50 d and after recovery for 7,20 d.Cotreatment with BaP and TBT for 7 d potentiated the induction of glutathione pemxidase (GPx) activity by BaP or TBT alone.The cotreatment for 25 and 50 d resulted in inhibition of GPx activity,which was similar to the effect of TBT.Splenic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly elevated in S.marmoratus exposed to BaP starting from 7d and remained high up to 25 d.However,no further activity change was found with prolonged exposure.Cotreatment of BaP and TBT primarily inhibited the GST activity,which was similar to the effect of TBT.Cotreatment with BaP and TBT for 25 or 50 d potentiated the depletion of GSH (glutathione) by BaP or TBT alone.MDA (malondialdehyde) contents in spleen of S.marmoratus were not significantly altered compared with the control during the test period.Spleen,as an immune organ,is sensitive to exposure of BaP or TBT.It should have an effective mechanism to counteract oxidative damage.Antioxidative defense systems in spleen of S.marmoratus should be considered as potential biomarkers.Short-term exposure of BaP or TBT could result in induction of antioxidant defense system.A significant decrease of these indices.such as GSH,GST,GPx might indicate more severe contamination.

  10. Antioxidant-enzyme reaction to the oxidative stress due to alpha-cypermethrin, chlorpyriphos, and pirimicarb in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahid, Karim; Laglaoui, Amin; Zantar, Said; Ennabili, Abdeslam

    2015-11-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) becomes one of the world's foremost vegetables, and its world production and consumption have increased fairly quickly. The capacity to induce oxidative stress in tomato plant, exposed to three xenobiotics such as alpha-cypermethrin, chlorpyriphos, and pirimicarb, was investigated by the evaluation of lipid peroxidation by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) rate; also, we studied the response of tomato to this stress by assessing the response of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). The effect of the insecticides was observed using four concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100%) for germinating seeds and only the recommended concentration in agriculture (100%) for growing plants. Our results show an important accumulation of MDA, demonstrating the increase of lipid peroxidation in consequence of the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production due to insecticide treatment. In response to this oxidative stress in tomato seedlings and plants, the activities of antioxidant-enzyme system were generally enhanced. The electrophoretic analysis showed also the apparition of new isoenzymes as the case for CAT and POD.

  11. Nutritional Status as the Key Modulator of Antioxidant Responses Induced by High Environmental Ammonia and Salinity Stress in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sinha

    Full Text Available Salinity fluctuation is one of the main factors affecting the overall fitness of marine fish. In addition, water borne ammonia may occur simultaneously with salinity stress. Additionally, under such stressful circumstances, fish may encounter food deprivation. The physiological and ion-osmo regulatory adaptive capacities to cope with all these stressors alone or in combination are extensively addressed in fish. To date, studies revealing the modulation of antioxidant potential as compensatory response to multiple stressors are rather lacking. Therefore, the present work evaluated the individual and combined effects of salinity challenge, ammonia toxicity and nutritional status on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in a marine teleost, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax. Fish were acclimated to normal seawater (32 ppt, to brackish water (20 ppt and 10 ppt and to hypo-saline water (2.5 ppt. Following acclimation to different salinities for two weeks, fish were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 20 mg/L representing 50% of 96h LC50 value for ammonia for 12 h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h, and were either fed (2% body weight or fasted (unfed for 7 days prior to HEA exposure. Results show that in response to decreasing salinities, oxidative stress indices such as xanthine oxidase activity, levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA increased in the hepatic tissue of fasted fish but remained unaffected in fed fish. HEA exposure at normal salinity (32 ppt and at reduced salinities (20 ppt and 10 ppt increased ammonia accumulation significantly (84 h-180 h in both feeding regimes which was associated with an increment of H2O2 and MDA contents. Unlike in fasted fish, H2O2 and MDA levels in fed fish were restored to control levels (84 h-180 h; with a concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, components of the glutathione redox cycle (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and

  12. Rapid Inactivation of Chloroplastic Ascorbate Peroxidase is Responsible for Oxidative Modification to Rubisco in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) under Cadmium Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-Lang Liu; Lin Shen; Jia-Qi Wang; Ji-Ping Sheng

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the sensitive site of antioxidant systems in chloroplast under cadmium stress and its consequence on reactive oxygen species production and action, the sub-organellar localization of chloroplast superoxide dismutases (SOD,EC 1.15.1.1) and ascorbic peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) isoenzymes and changes of enzymes activities under cadmium stress were investigated in tomato seedlings. Two APX isoforms, one thylakoid-bound and one stromal, were detected. Cd at 50 μM induced a moderate increase of SOD activities but a rapid inactivation of both APX isoenzymes. APX inactivation was mainly related to the decrease of ascorbate concentration, as supported by in vitro treatment of exogenous ascorbate and APX kinetic properties under Cd stress. H2O2 accumulation in chloroplast, as a consequence of APX inactivation,was associated with a 60% loss of Rubisco (EC 4.1.1.39) activity, which could be partially accounted for by a 10% loss of Rubisco content. Protein oxidation assay found that the Rubisco large subunit was the most prominent carbonylated protein; the level of carbonylated Rubisco large subunit increased fivefold after Cd exposure. Thiol groups in the Rubisco large subunit were oxidized, as indicated by non-reducing electrophoresis. Treating crude extract with H2O2 resulted in a similar pattern of protein oxidation and thiols oxidation with that observed in Cd-treated plants. Our study indicates that APXs in the chloroplast is a highly sensitive site of antioxidant systems under Cd stress, and the inactivation of APX could be mainly responsible for oxidative modification to Rubisco and subsequent decrease in its activity.

  13. Effect of aluminium toxicity on growth responses and antioxidant activities in Gmelina arborea Roxb. inoculated with AM fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudhane, Mayura; Borde, Mahesh; Jite, Paramjit Kaur

    2012-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviating the adverse Aluminium effects on growth and antioxidant activity was tested in Gmelina plants. Under greenhouse and aluminium stress condition, the mycorrhizal Gmelina plants showed good growth as compared to non mycorrhizal Gmelina plants. Mycorrhizal colonization in Gmelina was found not to be significantly influenced by aluminium concentrations. Results also indicate that symbiotic association was successfully established between Glomus intraradices and Gmelina plants and mycorrhizal colonization consequently increased the biomass of Gmelina. The root proline accumulation was found to increase in mycorrhizal Gmelina plants for osmotic adjustment of stress tissues under first and second level of Aluminium stress. It was observed that Mycorrhizal colonization increased the shoot root Peroxidase and Superoxide dismutase activities in mycorrhizal Gmelina under second level of Aluminium stress. Mycorrhizal fungi play a major role in phytostabilization by secreting one of the glycoprotein, i.e., Glomalin, which stabilizes the Aluminium in soil as well as in the roots of Gmelina plants. PMID:22908633

  14. Two acidic, anticoagulant PLA2 isoenzymes purified from the venom of monocled cobra Naja kaouthia exhibit different potency to inhibit thrombin and factor Xa via phospholipids independent, non-enzymatic mechanism.

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    Ashis K Mukherjee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia is responsible for snakebite fatality in Indian subcontinent and in south-western China. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2; EC 3.1.1.4 is one of the toxic components of snake venom. The present study explores the mechanism and rationale(s for the differences in anticoagulant potency of two acidic PLA2 isoenzymes, Nk-PLA2α (13463.91 Da and Nk-PLA2β (13282.38 Da purified from the venom of N. kaouthia. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By LC-MS/MS analysis, these PLA2s showed highest similarity (23.5% sequence coverage with PLA2 III isolated from monocled cobra venom. The catalytic activity of Nk-PLA2β exceeds that of Nk-PLA2α. Heparin differentially regulated the catalytic and anticoagulant activities of these Nk-PLA2 isoenzymes. The anticoagulant potency of Nk-PLA2α was comparable to commercial anticoagulants warfarin, and heparin/antithrombin-III albeit Nk-PLA2β demonstrated highest anticoagulant activity. The anticoagulant action of these PLA2s was partially contributed by a small but specific hydrolysis of plasma phospholipids. The strong anticoagulant effect of Nk-PLA2α and Nk-PLA2β was achieved via preferential, non-enzymatic inhibition of FXa (Ki = 43 nM and thrombin (Ki = 8.3 nM, respectively. Kinetics study suggests that the Nk-PLA2 isoenzymes inhibit their "pharmacological target(s" by uncompetitive mechanism without the requirement of phospholipids/Ca(2+. The anticoagulant potency of Nk-PLA2β which is higher than that of Nk-PLA2α is corroborated by its superior catalytic activity, its higher capacity for binding to phosphatidylcholine, and its greater strength of thrombin inhibition. These PLA2 isoenzymes thus have evolved to affect haemostasis by different mechanisms. The Nk-PLA2β partially inhibited the thrombin-induced aggregation of mammalian platelets suggesting its therapeutic application in the prevention of unwanted clot formation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In order to develop peptide

  15. Acupuncture ameliorates cognitive impairment and hippocampus neuronal loss in experimental vascular dementia through Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Rui; Shi, Guang-Xia; Yang, Jing-Wen; Yan, Chao-Qun; Lin, Li-Ting; Du, Si-Qi; Zhu, Wen; He, Tian; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Xu, Qian; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests acupuncture could exert neuroprotection in the vascular dementia via anti-oxidative effects. However, the involvement of Nrf2, a master regulator of antioxidant defense, in acupuncture-induced neuroprotection in vascular dementia remains undetermined. The goal of our study was to investigate the contribution of Nrf2 in acupuncture and its effects on vascular dementia. Morris water maze and Nissl staining were used to assess the effect of acupuncture on cognitive function and hippocampal neurodegeneration in experimental vascular dementia. The distribution of Nrf2 in neurons in hippocampus, the protein expression of Nrf2 in both cytosol and nucleus, and the protein and mRNA levels of its downstream target genes NQO1 and HO-1 were detected by double immunofluorescent staining, Western blotting and realtime PCR analysis respectively. Cognitive function and microglia activation were measured in both wild-type and Nrf2 gene knockout mice after acupuncture treatment. We found that acupuncture could remarkably reverse the cognitive deficits, neuron cell loss, reactive oxygen species production, and decreased cerebral blood flow. It was notable that acupuncture enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in neurons and up-regulate the protein and mRNA levels of Nrf2 and its target genes HO-1 and NQO1. Moreover, acupuncture could significantly down-regulated the over-activation of microglia after common carotid artery occlusion surgery. However, the reversed cognitive deficits, neuron cell loss and microglia activation by acupuncture were abolished in Nrf2 gene knockout mice. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that the neuroprotection of acupuncture in models of vascular dementia was via the Nrf2 activation and Nrf2-dependent microglia activation. PMID:26546103

  16. Process Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Arabinogalactan from Dihydroquercetin Extracted Residues by Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity

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    Zaizhi Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound was used for the extraction of larch arabinogalactan from Larix gmelinii. The optimal conditions for ultrasound extraction were determined by response surface methodology. Specifically, the Box-Behnken design was employed to evaluate the effects of three independent variables: ultrasound time, temperature, and liquid-solid ratio. The highest arabinogalactan yield (11.18% was obtained under the optimal extraction condition (extraction temperature 41.5°C, extraction time 24.3 min, and liquid-solid ratio 40 mL/g. In addition, the antioxidant activity of arabinogalactan that was extracted from dihydroquercetin extraction residues exhibited a moderate and concentration-dependent hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity, ferric-reducing power, and reducing power. The wood material was characterized before and after processing by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

  17. Responses of Nigella sativa L. to Zinc Excess: Focus on Germination, Growth, Yield and Yield Components, Lipid and Terpene Metabolism, and Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marichali, Ahmed; Dallali, Sana; Ouerghemmi, Saloua; Sebei, Houcine; Casabianca, Hervé; Hosni, Karim

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the responses of Nigella sativa L. to elevated zinc concentrations was assessed in pot experiments. Zn excess supply did not affect the germination but drastically reduced radicle elongation. A concentration-dependent reduction in all growth parameters, yield, and yield components was observed. With the increasing Zn concentrations, total lipid contents decreased and changes in fatty composition toward the production of saturated ones were underscored. Despite the reduction in the seeds essential oil yield, a redirection of the terpene metabolism toward the synthesis of oxygenated compounds has been evidenced. A significant increase in the total phenols and flavonoids contents concomitant with improved antioxidant activities has also been found. Collectively, these results highlight the possible use of N. sativa L. in phytoremediation applications, on the one hand, and that Zn excess could represent an excellent alternative to improve the nutritional attributes of this important species, on the other hand. PMID:26853463

  18. Fingerprinting antioxidative activities in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plieth Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A plethora of concurrent cellular activities is mobilised in the adaptation of plants to adverse environmental conditions. This response can be quantified by physiological experiments or metabolic profiling. The intention of this work is to reduce the number of metabolic processes studied to a minimum of relevant parameters with a maximum yield of information. Therefore, we inspected 'summary parameters' characteristic for whole classes of antioxidative metabolites and key enzymes. Results Three bioluminescence assays are presented. A horseradish peroxidase-based total antioxidative capacity (TAC assay is used to probe low molecular weight antioxidants. Peroxidases are quantified by their luminol converting activity (LUPO. Finally, we quantify high molecular weight superoxide anion scavenging activity (SOSA using coelenterazine. Experiments with Lepidium sativum L. show how salt, drought, cold, and heat influence the antioxidative system represented here by TAC, LUPO, SOSA, catalase, and glutathione reductase (GR. LUPO and SOSA run anti-parallel under all investigated stress conditions suggesting shifts in antioxidative functions rather than formation of antioxidative power. TAC runs in parallel with GR. This indicates that a majority of low molecular weight antioxidants in plants is represented by glutathione. Conclusion The set of assays presented here is capable of characterising antioxidative activities in plants. It is inexpensive, quick and reproducible and delivers quantitative data. 'Summary parameters' like TAC, LUPO, and SOSA are quantitative traits which may be promising for implementation in high-throughput screening for robustness of novel mutants, transgenics, or breeds.

  19. Oxidative stress in deep scattering layers: Heat shock response and antioxidant enzymes activities of myctophid fishes thriving in oxygen minimum zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Rita; Trübenbach, Katja; Teixeira, Tatiana; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Pires, Vanessa; Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2013-12-01

    Diel vertical migrators, such as myctophid fishes, are known to encounter oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) during daytime in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and, therefore, have to cope with temperature and oxidative stress that arise while ascending to warmer, normoxic surface waters at night-time. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant defense strategies and heat shock response (HSR) in two myctophid species, namely Triphoturus mexicanus and Benthosema panamense, at shallow and warm surface waters (21 kPa, 20-25 °C) and at hypoxic, cold (≤1 kPa, 10 °C) mesopelagic depths. More specifically, we quantified (i) heat shock protein concentrations (HSP70/HSC70) (ii) antioxidant enzyme activities [including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)], and (iii) lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels]. HSP70/HSC70 levels increased in both myctophid species at warmer, well-oxygenated surface waters probably to prevent cellular damage (oxidative stress) due to increased oxygen demand under elevated temperatures and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. On the other hand, CAT and GST activities were augmented under hypoxic conditions, probably as preparatory response to a burst of oxyradicals during the reoxygenation phase (while ascending). SOD activity decreased under hypoxia in B. panamense, but was kept unchanged in T. mexicanus. MDA levels in B. panamense did not change between the surface and deep-sea conditions, whereas T. mexicanus showed elevated MDA and HSP70/HSC70 concentrations at warmer surface waters. This indicated that T. mexicanus seems to be not so well tuned to temperature and oxidative stress associated to diel vertical migrations. The understanding of such physiological strategies that are linked to oxygen deprivation and reoxygenation phases may provide valuable information about how different species might respond to the impacts of environmental stressors (e.g. expanding mesopelagic hypoxia

  20. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julin Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst and catalase (cat genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48–96 h (p < 0.05 and an increase in SOD activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p < 0.05. The transcription was altered similarly to enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage.

  1. A teleostan homolog of catalase from black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii): insights into functional roles in host antioxidant defense and expressional responses to septic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Whang, Ilson; Nam, Bo-Hye; Lee, Jehee

    2015-05-01

    Antioxidative defense renders a significant protection against environmental stress in organisms and maintains the correct redox balance in cells, thereby supporting proper immune function. Catalase is an indispensable antioxidant in organisms that detoxifies hydrogen peroxides produced in cellular environments. In this study, we sought to molecularly characterize a homolog of catalase (RfCat), identified from black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii). RfCat consists of a 1581 bp coding region for a protein of 527 amino acids, with a predicted molecular weight of 60 kD. The protein sequence of RfCat harbored similar domain architecture to known catalases, containing a proximal active site signature and proximal heme ligand signature, and further sharing prominent homology with its teleostan counterparts. As affirmed by multiple sequence alignments, most of the functionally important residues were well conserved in RfCat. Furthermore, our phylogenetic analysis indicates its common vertebrate ancestral origin and a close evolutionary relationship with teleostan catalases. Recombinantly expressed RfCat demonstrated prominent peroxidase activity that varied with different substrate and protein concentrations, and protected against DNA damage. RfCat mRNA was ubiquitously expressed among different tissues examined, as detected by qPCR. In addition, RfCat mRNA expression was modulated in response to pathogenic stress elicited by Streptococcus iniae and poly I:C in blood and spleen tissues. Collectively, our findings indicate that RfCat may play an indispensable role in host response to oxidative stress and maintain a correct redox balance after a pathogen invasion.

  2. Metastasized lung cancer suppression by Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaf compared to Erlotinib via anti-inflammatory, endogenous antioxidant responses and apoptotic gene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Swee-Ling; Mustapha, Noordin M; Goh, Yong-Meng; Bakar, Nurul Ain Abu; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-05-01

    Metastasized lung and liver cancers cause over 2 million deaths annually, and are amongst the top killer cancers worldwide. Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaves are traditionally consumed as vegetables in the tropics. The macro and micro effects of M. citrifolia (Noni) leaves on metastasized lung cancer development in vitro and in vivo were compared with the FDA-approved anti-cancer drug Erlotinib. The extract inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549 cells (IC50 = 23.47 μg/mL) and mouse Lewis (LL2) lung carcinoma cells (IC50 = 5.50 μg/mL) in vitro, arrested cancer cell cycle at G0/G1 phases and significantly increased caspase-3/-8 without changing caspase-9 levels. The extract showed no toxicity on normal MRC5 lung cells. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549-induced BALB/c mice were fed with 150 and 300 mg/kg M. citrifolia leaf extract and compared with Erlotinib (50 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days. It significantly increased the pro-apoptotic TRP53 genes, downregulated the pro-tumourigenesis genes (BIRC5, JAK2/STAT3/STAT5A) in the mice tumours, significantly increased the anti-inflammatory IL4, IL10 and NR3C1 expression in the metastasized lung and hepatic cancer tissues and enhanced the NFE2L2-dependent antioxidant responses against oxidative injuries. The extract elevated serum neutrophils and reduced the red blood cells, haemoglobin, corpuscular volume and cell haemoglobin concentration in the lung cancer-induced mammal. It suppressed inflammation and oedema, and upregulated the endogenous antioxidant responses and apoptotic genes to suppress the cancer. The 300 mg/kg extract was more effective than the 50 mg/kg Erlotinib for most of the parameters measured.

  3. Metastasized lung cancer suppression by Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaf compared to Erlotinib via anti-inflammatory, endogenous antioxidant responses and apoptotic gene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Swee-Ling; Mustapha, Noordin M; Goh, Yong-Meng; Bakar, Nurul Ain Abu; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-05-01

    Metastasized lung and liver cancers cause over 2 million deaths annually, and are amongst the top killer cancers worldwide. Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaves are traditionally consumed as vegetables in the tropics. The macro and micro effects of M. citrifolia (Noni) leaves on metastasized lung cancer development in vitro and in vivo were compared with the FDA-approved anti-cancer drug Erlotinib. The extract inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549 cells (IC50 = 23.47 μg/mL) and mouse Lewis (LL2) lung carcinoma cells (IC50 = 5.50 μg/mL) in vitro, arrested cancer cell cycle at G0/G1 phases and significantly increased caspase-3/-8 without changing caspase-9 levels. The extract showed no toxicity on normal MRC5 lung cells. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549-induced BALB/c mice were fed with 150 and 300 mg/kg M. citrifolia leaf extract and compared with Erlotinib (50 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days. It significantly increased the pro-apoptotic TRP53 genes, downregulated the pro-tumourigenesis genes (BIRC5, JAK2/STAT3/STAT5A) in the mice tumours, significantly increased the anti-inflammatory IL4, IL10 and NR3C1 expression in the metastasized lung and hepatic cancer tissues and enhanced the NFE2L2-dependent antioxidant responses against oxidative injuries. The extract elevated serum neutrophils and reduced the red blood cells, haemoglobin, corpuscular volume and cell haemoglobin concentration in the lung cancer-induced mammal. It suppressed inflammation and oedema, and upregulated the endogenous antioxidant responses and apoptotic genes to suppress the cancer. The 300 mg/kg extract was more effective than the 50 mg/kg Erlotinib for most of the parameters measured. PMID:27106908

  4. Glutathione S-transferase activity and isoenzyme composition in benign ovarian tumours, untreated malignant ovarian tumours, and malignant ovarian tumours after platinum/cyclophosphamide chemotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Zee, A.G. Van der; van Ommen, B.; Meijer, C; Hollema, H; Bladeren, P.J. van; de Vries, E. G.

    1992-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzyme composition, isoenzyme quantities and enzymatic activity were investigated in benign (n = 4) ovarian tumours and malignant ovarian tumours, before (n = 20) and after (n = 16) chemotherapy. Enzymatic activity of GST in cytosols was measured by determining 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene conjugation with glutathione, cytosolic GST subunits were determined by wide pore reversed phase HPLC, using a S-hexylglutathione-agarose affinity column, and isoelectric f...

  5. Variation of peroxidase isoenzyme and biofilm of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in continuous membrane bioreactor for Reactive Brilliant Red X3-B treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shang; CHEN Cheng; TAO Fang; HUANG Minsheng; MA Lihua; WANG Zhonghua; WU Linhui

    2009-01-01

    The influence of a Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B (RBR X-3B) dye on the peroxidase isoenzyme of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was determined, and the biofilm structure in a white rot fungal continuous membrane bioreactor (MBR) was also investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The variation of peroxidase isoenzyme and the decolorization rate in the continuous MBR were evaluated. The results showed that the 100 mg/L RBR X-3B could stimulate the production of the peroxidase isoenzyme in the shaking-flask culture. In addition, two new peroxidase isoenzyme bands with relative mobility (Rf) value of 0.27 and 0.28 appeared, but the activity was lower than the blank control of 11 d. In the continuous MBR, the system worked stably during the first 60 d, the main peroxidase isoenzyme bands existed and three new bands with Rf value of 0.10, 0.27, and 0.28 appeared. Meanwhile, the biofilm grew well and the average decolorization rate could reach 90.6%. But the bands of peroxidase isoenzyme decreased rapidly at day 65, only two bands with Rf value 0.24 and 0.26 existed, and the decolorization rate decreased to 78.3%. Therefore, 5 bottles of P. chrysosporium mycelial pellet were added into the MBR, and then the activity of the peroxidase isoenzyme and the decolorization rate had a slight recovery. Finally, the decolorization rate finally decreased to 75.2%. These results contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the variation of peroxidase isoenzyme and biofilm in continuous MBR by white rot fungi.

  6. Study for identification of beneficial uses of Space (BUS). Volume 2: Technical report. Book 1: Development and business analysis of space processed isoenzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A separation method to provide reasonable yields of high specificity isoenzymes for the purpose of large scale, early clinical diagnosis of diseases and organic damage such as, myocardial infarction, hepatoma, muscular dystrophy, and infectous disorders is presented. Preliminary development plans are summarized. An analysis of required research and development and production resources is included. The costs of such resources and the potential profitability of a commercial space processing opportunity for electrophoretic separation of high specificity isoenzymes are reviewed.

  7. Prolonged inorganic arsenite exposure suppresses insulin-stimulated AKT S473 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: Involvement of the adaptive antioxidant response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → In 3T3-L1 adipocytes iAs3+ decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. → iAs3+ attenuates insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT S473. → iAs3+ activates the cellular adaptive oxidative stress response. → iAs3+ impairs insulin-stimulated ROS signaling. → iAs3+ decreases expression of adipogenic genes and GLUT4. -- Abstract: There is growing evidence that chronic exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic, a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). One critical feature of T2D is insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, especially in mature adipocytes, the hallmark of which is decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU). Despite the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), they have been recognized as a second messenger serving an intracellular signaling role for insulin action. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a central transcription factor regulating cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. This study proposes that in response to arsenic exposure, the NRF2-mediated adaptive induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes blunts insulin-stimulated ROS signaling and thus impairs ISGU. Exposure of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells to low-level (up to 2 μM) inorganic arsenite (iAs3+) led to decreased ISGU in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Concomitant to the impairment of ISGU, iAs3+ exposure significantly attenuated insulin-stimulated intracellular ROS accumulation and AKT S473 phosphorylation, which could be attributed to the activation of NRF2 and induction of a battery of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. In addition, prolonged iAs3+ exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in significant induction of inflammatory response genes and decreased expression of adipogenic genes and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), suggesting chronic inflammation and reduction in GLUT4 expression may also be involved in arsenic-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes

  8. Prolonged inorganic arsenite exposure suppresses insulin-stimulated AKT S473 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: Involvement of the adaptive antioxidant response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Peng [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Hou, Yongyong; Zhang, Qiang; Woods, Courtney G.; Yarborough, Kathy; Liu, Huiyu [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Sun, Guifan [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Andersen, Melvin E. [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Pi, Jingbo, E-mail: jpi@thehamner.org [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} In 3T3-L1 adipocytes iAs{sup 3+} decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} attenuates insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT S473. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} activates the cellular adaptive oxidative stress response. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} impairs insulin-stimulated ROS signaling. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} decreases expression of adipogenic genes and GLUT4. -- Abstract: There is growing evidence that chronic exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic, a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). One critical feature of T2D is insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, especially in mature adipocytes, the hallmark of which is decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU). Despite the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), they have been recognized as a second messenger serving an intracellular signaling role for insulin action. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a central transcription factor regulating cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. This study proposes that in response to arsenic exposure, the NRF2-mediated adaptive induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes blunts insulin-stimulated ROS signaling and thus impairs ISGU. Exposure of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells to low-level (up to 2 {mu}M) inorganic arsenite (iAs{sup 3+}) led to decreased ISGU in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Concomitant to the impairment of ISGU, iAs{sup 3+} exposure significantly attenuated insulin-stimulated intracellular ROS accumulation and AKT S473 phosphorylation, which could be attributed to the activation of NRF2 and induction of a battery of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. In addition, prolonged iAs{sup 3+} exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in significant induction of inflammatory response genes and decreased expression of adipogenic genes and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), suggesting chronic inflammation and reduction in GLUT4

  9. Isoenzyme characterization of Leishmania isolated from human cases with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis from the State of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto-Lara, S B; Cardenas-Maruffo, M F; Vargas-Gonzalez, A; Andrade-Narvaez, F

    1998-04-01

    Seventy-five isolates from the State of Campeche, Mexico, an area endemic for localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL), were characterized by isoenzyme markers (glucose phosphate isomerase, mannose phospate isomerase, nucleoside hydrolase, phosphoglucomutase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase). Seventy (93.3%) were identified as Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana and 5 (6.7%) as L. (Viannia) braziliensis. This is the first report of authochthonus human LCL caused by L. (V.) braziliensis in the State of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. PMID:9574789

  10. The diagnostic value of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) measurement in the sera of gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelski, Wojciech; Orywal, Karolina; Laniewska, Magdalena; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2010-12-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are present in gastric cancer cells (GC). Moreover, the activity of total ADH and class IV isoenzymes is significantly higher in cancer tissue than in healthy mucosa. The activity of these enzymes in cancer cells is probably reflected in the sera and could thus be helpful for diagnostics of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of ADH and ALDH as tumor markers for gastric cancer. We defined diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive value for positive and negative results, and receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve for tested enzymes. Serum samples were taken from 168 patients with gastric cancer before treatment and from 168 control subjects. Total ADH activity and class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by photometric but ALDH activity and ADH I and II by the fluorometric method, with class-specific fluorogenic substrates. There was significant increase in the activity of ADH IV isoenzyme and ADH total in the sera of gastric cancer patients compared to the control. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH IV was 73%, specificity 79%, positive and negative predictive values were 81 and 72% respectively. Area under ROC curve for ADH IV was 0.67. The results suggest a potential role for ADH IV as marker of gastric cancer.

  11. Genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships of Colombian Trypanosoma cruzi populations as determined by schizodeme and isoenzyme markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, N; Moreno, J; Triana, O; Arcos-Burgos, M; Muñoz, S; Solari, A

    1999-12-01

    Twenty-four Trypanosoma cruzi stocks isolated from vectors and from human and Didelphis marsupialis hosts from highly separated sylvatic localities in Colombia were characterized by isoenzyme and schizodeme analyses. The stocks were collected primarily from sylvatic ecotopes representing areas of low, moderate, and high endemicity for Chagas' diseases in Colombia. Parasites were characterized mainly by schizodeme analysis with the restriction enzyme Eco RI and the isoenzyme analysis was performed at 10 genetic loci. These analyses demonstrated an agreement between the classifications based on the isoenzyme analysis and on the restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns obtained with the Colombian stocks. There is clear evidence of demic subdivision between the eastern (E) and western (W) stocks separated by the Andean Mountains and Magdalena River, which is likely due to the geographic isolation generated by these topographic features. Heterozygosity estimates indicate that the E group could be more ancient than the W group. As was postulated in a previous study, these results are also compatible with the existence of a clonal population structure in Colombian sylvatic T. cruzi. Evidence presented here failed to demonstrate a correlation between the degree of endemy and genetic clustering. Finally, schizodeme and isoenzymatic analyses comparing Colombian T. cruzi stocks with others from Chile confirm that Colombian isolates are genetically related to zymodeme 1 and distant from zymodeme 2. PMID:10674683

  12. Optimization of Reflux Conditions for Total Flavonoid and Total Phenolic Extraction and Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity in Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was applied to optimization of the conditions for reflux extraction of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. in order to achieve a high content of total flavonoids (TF, total phenolics (TP, and high antioxidant capacity (AC in the extracts. Central composite experimental design with three factors and three levels was employed to consider the effects of the operation parameters, including the methanol concentration (MC, 40%–80%, extraction temperature (ET, 40–70°C, and liquid-to-solid ratio (LS ratio, 20–40 mL/g on the properties of the extracts. Response surface plots showed that increasing these operation parameters induced the responses significantly. The TF content and AC could be maximized when the extraction conditions (MC, ET, and LS ratio were 78.8%, 69.5°C, and 32.4 mL/g, respectively, whereas the TP content was optimal when these variables were 75.1%, 70°C, and 31.8 mL/g, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the experimental TF and TP content and AC were 1.78, 6.601 mg/g DW, and 87.38%, respectively. The optimized model was validated by a comparison of the predicted and experimental values. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with the predicted values, indicating the suitability of the model for optimizing the conditions for the reflux extraction of Pandan.

  13. Response of growth and antioxidant enzymes in Azolla plants (Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides) exposed to UV-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Amjad; Zeeshan, M; Abraham, G

    2008-06-01

    Effect of ultravilolet-B (0.4 Wm(-2)) irradiation on growth, flavonoid content, lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation and activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase was comparatively analysed in Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides. Growth measured as increment in dry weight reduced considerably due to all UV-B treatments. However, the reduction was found to be severe in A. filiculoides as compared to A. pinnata. The level of UV-absorbing compound flavonoids increased significantly in A. pinnata plants whereas only a slight increase in the flavonoid content was observed in A. filiculoides. UV-B exposure led to enhanced production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage in A. filiculoides than A. pinnata. Proline accumulation also showed a similar trend. Marked differences in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) was noticed in both the plants exposed to UV-B. Our comparative studies indicate A. pinnata to be better tolerant to UV-B as compared with A. filiculoides which appears to be sensitive. PMID:18637563

  14. Combined effects of ammonia and microcystin on survival, growth, antioxidant responses, and lipid peroxidation of bighead carp Hypophthalmythys nobilis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongjie; Lü, Kai; Minter, Ewan J A; Chen, Yafen; Yang, Zhou; Montagnes, David J S

    2012-06-30

    Hazardous materials, such as ammonia and microcystin, are released into lakes during cyanobacterial bloom degradation and may severely impact aquatic organisms. To assess the combined effects of ammonia and microcystin on survival, growth, and oxidative stress of larval fish, 14-day-old larvae of bighead carp Hypophthalmythys nobilis were exposed to solutions with different combined concentrations of ammonia (0, 0.06, 0.264mgL(-1)) and microcystin (0, 2, 10, 30μgL(-1)) for 10 days. Microcystin significantly decreased body length, while ammonia significantly increased body weight, specific growth rate, and condition factor, but there was no significant interaction between ammonia and microcystin on them. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and malondialdehyde significantly changed with microcystin concentration, whereas glutathione was not affected by microcystin. Ammonia significantly affected the antioxidant system. There were significant interactions between ammonia and microcystin on superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde. Our data clearly demonstrate that ammonia and microcystin adversely affect bighead carp larvae. PMID:22560242

  15. Comparison of serum cardiac troponin-I and creatine kinase MB isoenzyme concentrations in asphyxiated neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nouran F.Hussien; Eman A.Abdel Ghany; Amany E.Elwan; Yasser H.Kamel; Dina K.Ali

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To assess the correlation of signs of myocardial damage to serum cardiac tmponin I(cTnI)and creatine kinase MB isoenzyme(CK-MB)concentrations.Methods:Blood samples were collected from 25 term asphyxiated neonates and 25 controls at 12 h of age by immunoassay.The asphyxiated neonates were followed up until discharge or death.Results:Asphyxiated neonates had significanfly higher concentrations of cTnI and CK-MB than controls(P<0.001).Serum cTnI concentrations were significantly higher in asphyxiated neonates who developed hypotension,heart failure or those had low ejection fraction(P<0.01).Serum cTnI concentrations were significantly higher in asphyxiated who died than those who survived(P<0.01).There was no significant difference in selMnl CK-MB mass concentrations between asphyxiated neonates with and without these complications.Conclusion:Unlike CK-MB,serum cTnI concentrations are significantly higher in asphyxiated neonates who died or developed cardiac dysfunction.

  16. Isoenzymes Detect Variation in Populations of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Jane

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is one of the most important vectors of Chagas disease in the semiarid zone of the northeast of Brazil. Intraspecific morphological and behavioural variation has been reported for different populations. Results for four distinct populations using eight isoenzymes are reported here. The literature describes three subspecies: T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911; T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent, 1941 and T. brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956. These subspecies differ mainly in their cuticle colour pattern and were regarded as synonyms by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979. In order to evaluate whether the chromatic pattern is a morphological variation of different melanic forms within T. brasiliensis or due to interspecific variation, field collections were performed in localities where these three subspecies have been described: Caicó (Rio Grande do Norte, the type-locality for T. b. brasiliensis; Petrolina (Pernambuco for T. b. macromelasoma and Espinosa (Minas Gerais for T. b. melanica. A fourth distinct chromatic pattern was found in Juazeiro (Bahia. A total of nine loci were studied. Values of Nei's genetic distance (D were calculated. T. b. brasiliensis and T. b. macromelasoma are the closest populations with a D=0.295. T. b. melanica had a D ³ 0.537 when compared to the others, a distance in the range of interspecific variation for other triatomine species

  17. Estimating the genetic divergence and identification of three trichinella species by isoenzyme analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šnábel V.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Isoenzyme-based approach was applied to compare Trichinella spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis species. Among 13 enzyme systems examined, esterase (EST, malic enzyme (ME and phosphoglucomutase (PGM have been found as fully diagnostic, with no common allele in species studied. Adenosine deaminase (ADA, adenylate kinase (AK, hexokinase (HK, peptidase leucyl-alanine (PEP-C and fructose-bis-phosphatase (FBP have been capable of distinguishing the two species from resulting profiles. In addition, ADA, AK and PGM displayed the enzyme expression in the lowest amounts of muscle larvae in systems tested ( 100 larvae/100 μl of extracts. Based on allozyme data, T. pseudospiralis has been found as the most distinct species within the group of taxa. Only a subtle genetic variability was recorded for T. pseudospiralisin which solely phosphoglucomutase exhibited variant patterns. In addition to the study of reference isolates, T. spiralis from lowland fox in Eastern Slovakia has been evidenced by use of genetic markers. This finding has proved that T. britovi is not the exclusive species parasitizing in the sylvatic ecosystem of the Slovak region.

  18. Clinical evaluation of amylase-creatinine clearance ratio and amylase isoenzyme clearance in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, M; Otsuki, M; Okano, K; Yamasaki, T; Baba, S

    1981-01-01

    Amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) and amylase isoenzyme clearance were determined simultaneously in patients with chronic renal failure. ACCR in patients with compensated renal failure (3.5 +/- 0.4%) was not significantly different from normals (2.6 +/- 0.2%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure (6.7 +/- 0.4%) was significantly higher than that in normals. Clearance ratio of pancreatic isoamylase (Amylase-1) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 1/Ccr) in patients with both compensated (5.9 +/- 1.0%) and non-compensated (6.8 +/- 0.4%) renal failure was as high as that in patients with acute pancreatitis (6.6 +/- 0.5%). On the other hand, clearance ratio of salivary isoamylase (Amylase-3) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 3/CCr) in patients with compensated renal failure (1.5 +/- 0.3%) was almost the same as that in normals (2.1 +/- 0.1%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure was 5.9 +/- 0.7%, which was significantly higher than that in normals. The present study revealed that elevated ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function was due to the increase of the clearance ratio for both pancreatic and salivary amylase. These facts suggested that glomerular permeability and tubular reabsorption for pancreatic and salivary amylase might play an important role on ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function.

  19. Clinical evaluation of amylase-creatinine clearance ratio and amylase isoenzyme clearance in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, M; Otsuki, M; Okano, K; Yamasaki, T; Baba, S

    1981-01-01

    Amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) and amylase isoenzyme clearance were determined simultaneously in patients with chronic renal failure. ACCR in patients with compensated renal failure (3.5 +/- 0.4%) was not significantly different from normals (2.6 +/- 0.2%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure (6.7 +/- 0.4%) was significantly higher than that in normals. Clearance ratio of pancreatic isoamylase (Amylase-1) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 1/Ccr) in patients with both compensated (5.9 +/- 1.0%) and non-compensated (6.8 +/- 0.4%) renal failure was as high as that in patients with acute pancreatitis (6.6 +/- 0.5%). On the other hand, clearance ratio of salivary isoamylase (Amylase-3) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 3/CCr) in patients with compensated renal failure (1.5 +/- 0.3%) was almost the same as that in normals (2.1 +/- 0.1%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure was 5.9 +/- 0.7%, which was significantly higher than that in normals. The present study revealed that elevated ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function was due to the increase of the clearance ratio for both pancreatic and salivary amylase. These facts suggested that glomerular permeability and tubular reabsorption for pancreatic and salivary amylase might play an important role on ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function. PMID:6167484

  20. One of the fumarate reductase isoenzymes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is encoded by the OSM1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratsubaki, H; Enomoto, K

    1998-04-15

    Soluble fumarate reductase from yeast irreversibly catalyzes the reduction of fumarate to succinate and has noncovalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide. In yeast, there are two isoenzymes of fumarate reductase, which can be distinguished on the basis of their absorption or nonabsorption to DE-52 columns. Previously, we have purified FRDS1 and isolated its gene (FRDS) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, FRDS2 was purified to homogeneity by four chromatography steps. The N-terminal and C-terminal amino acid sequences of FRDS2 were identical to the deduced amino acid sequence of the OSM1 gene (EMBL Database Accession No. L-26347), whose isolation and biochemical properties have not been studied up until now. From these results, we conclude that FRDS2 is encoded by the OSM1 gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of the OSM1 gene revealed that FRDS2 is synthesized as a precursor protein containing a presequence composed of 32 amino acid residues. The mature enzyme consists of a protein of 469 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 51,370. The N-terminal extension had the characteristics of a typical signal sequence required for targeting and sorting to a noncytosolic destination. In fact, FRDS2 was found to be located in promitochondria.

  1. Responses of hematological parameters, beta-endorphin, cortisol, reactive oxygen metabolites, and biological antioxidant potential in horses participating in a traditional tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzola, M; Pira, E; Sedda, G; Vacca, G M; Cocco, R; Sechi, S; Bonelli, P; Nicolussi, P

    2015-04-01

    Several concerns have been raised over the health of animals used in equestrian games that have their origins in historical or religious events and are currently held in many countries. This study investigated physiological stress response and health status of horses participating in the Sartiglia, a historical horse tournament held in the city of Oristano, Italy, which is principally based on the attempts of masked horsemen at a gallop to run a sword through a hole in a suspended silver star. Blood samples were collected from 21 horses the day before the tournament (D0), during the tournament (D1), and the day after the tournament (D2). Samples were analyzed for complete blood count and biochemical, hormonal, and oxidative stress assays. Data were analyzed using the mixed effect model with sampling session as one of the fixed effects. On the whole, blood parameters evidenced an optimal health status of horses at D0. Significant dehydration and increase of circulating glucose, enzymes, cortisol, and β-endorphin were registered at D1 (P < 0.001) with a complete recovery of physiological values just at D2. The reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM), from which the prooxidant activity can be evaluated, showed an increase from D0 to D1 and D2. Concentration of biological antioxidant potential, which measured the antioxidant capacity, was characterized by the maximum level registered during the tournament and counteracted the simultaneous increase of d-ROM. It can be hypothesized that the tournament played an important role in causing high levels of oxidant markers not only because of the physical exercise represented by the gallop but also because the emotional stressors. In conclusion, the tournament caused significant changes of most parameters, which rapidly recovered to baseline values within the day after. These data will certainly be useful for a future implementation of tests in equine medicine and for the improvements of knowledge of changes of blood parameters

  2. Evaluation, prediction and optimization the ultrasound-assisted extraction method using response surface methodology: antioxidant and biological properties of Stachys parviflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashi, Davoud Salar; Dowom, Samaneh Attaran; Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh Fazly; Khanzadeh, Farhad; Soheili, Vahid; Mohammadpour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): To optimize the extraction method using response surface methodology, extract the phenolic compounds, and identify the antioxidant and biological properties of Stachys parviflora L. extracts. Materials and Methods: Maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) (4, 7, 10 min treatment time, 40, 70, 100 % high-intensity and 60, 80, 100 % (v v-1) methanol purity) were applied to obtain the extracts. SEM was conducted to provide the microstructure of the extracted plant. MICs (colorimetric assay), MFCs (colony diameter), total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, radical scavenging capacity and extraction efficiency were determined. HPLC analysis was applied to measure the existent phenolic compounds. Results: A quadratic model (4 min treatment time, 74.5 % high-intensity and 74.2 % solvent purity) was suggested as the best (TPC: 20.89 mg GAE g-1 d.m., TFC: 6.22 mg QEs g-1 d.m., DPPH IC50: 21.86 µg ml-1 and EE: 113.65 mg g-1 d.m.) UAE extraction model. The optimized UAE extract was generally more effective against Gram-positive microorganisms (MIC: 10-20; MBC: 10-40 (mg ml-1)) than Gram-negative ones (MIC: 40; MBC: >40 (mg ml-1)). Moreover, it (MGI: 2.32-100 %) revealed more anti-mold activity than maceration (MGI: <28.77 %). Explosive disruption of the cell walls, therefore, enhanced extraction yield by acoustic cavitation, was elucidated using SEM. Caffeic acid, tannic acid, quercetin, trans ferulic acid and rosmarinic acid were determined as the phenolic compounds in the optimized extract. Conclusion: RSM optimization was successfully applied for UAE from S. parviflora. The considerable antioxidant and biological properties were attributed to the phenolic compounds. PMID:27403260

  3. Accumulation and detoxification dynamics of microcystin-LR and antioxidant responses in male red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Julin; Gu, Zhimin; Zheng, Yao; Zhang, Yingying; Gao, Jiancao; Chen, Shu; Wang, Zaizhao

    2016-08-01

    MC-LR is one of major microcystin isoforms with potent hepatotoxicity. In the present study, we aim to: 1) explore the dynamics of MC-LR accumulation and elimination in different tissues of male red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii; 2) reveal the mechanisms underlying hepatic antioxidation and detoxification. In the semi-static toxicity tests under the water temperature of 25±2°C, P. clarkii were exposed to 0.1, 1, 10 and 100μg/L MC-LR for 7days for accumulation and subsequently relocated to freshwater for another 7days to depurate MC-LR. MC-LR was measured in the hepatopancreas, intestine, abdominal muscle and gill by HPLC. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), content of glutathione (GSH), and transcripts of Mn-sod, cat, gpx1, Mu-gst, heat shock protein90 (hsp90), hsp70 and hsp60 in hepatopancreas were detected. The results showed that P. clarkii accumulated more MC-LR in intestine, and less in abdominal muscle and gill during accumulation period and eliminated the toxin more quickly in gill and abdominal muscle, and comparatively slowly in intestine during depuration period. The fast increase of SOD and CAT activities at early stage, subsequent decrease at later stage of accumulation period and then fast increase during depuration period were partially consistent with the transcriptional changes of their respective genes. GPx was activated by longer MC-LR exposure and gpx1 mRNA expression showed uncoordinated regulation pattern compared with its enzyme. Hsp genes were up-regulated when P. clarkii was exposed to MC-LR. PMID:27218425

  4. Phenolics and flavonoids compounds, phenylanine ammonia lyase and antioxidant activity responses to elevated CO₂ in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Karimi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO₂ (400, 800 and 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO₂ concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO₂ levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO₂ (1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101-111%), whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%), followed closely by alata (201%). Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO₂ conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100%) and pumila (298~433%). Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 μg·g⁻¹ DW) and pumila (25 μg·g⁻¹ DW), respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO₂ enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO₂ levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila under high CO₂ enrichment conditions. PMID:22634843

  5. Mathematical model of uptake and metabolism of arsenic(III in human hepatocytes - Incorporation of cellular antioxidant response and threshold-dependent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isukapalli Sastry S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic is an environmental pollutant, potent human toxicant, and oxidative stress agent with a multiplicity of health effects associated with both acute and chronic exposures. A semi-mechanistic cellular-level toxicokinetic (TK model was developed in order to describe the uptake, biotransformation and clearance of arsenical species in human hepatocytes. Notable features of this model are the incorporation of arsenic-glutathione complex formation and a "switch-like" formulation to describe the antioxidant response of hepatocytes to arsenic exposure. Results The cellular-level TK model applies mass action kinetics in order to predict the concentrations of trivalent and pentavalent arsenicals in hepatocytes. The model simulates uptake of arsenite (iAsIII via aquaporin isozymes 9 (AQP9s, glutathione (GSH conjugation, methylation by arsenic methyltransferase (AS3MT, efflux through multidrug resistant proteins (MRPs and the induced antioxidant response via thioredoxin reductase (TR activity. The model was parameterized by optimization of model estimates for arsenite (iAsIII, monomethylated (MMA and dimethylated (DMA arsenicals concentrations with time-course experimental data in human hepatocytes for a time span of 48 hours, and dose-response data at 24 hours for a range of arsenite concentrations from 0.1 to 10 μM. Global sensitivity analysis of the model showed that at low doses the transport parameters had a dominant role, whereas at higher doses the biotransformation parameters were the most significant. A parametric comparison of the TK model with an analogous model developed for rat hepatocytes from the literature demonstrated that the biotransformation of arsenite (e.g. GSH conjugation has a large role in explaining the variation in methylation between rats and humans. Conclusions The cellular-level TK model captures the temporal modes of arsenical accumulation in human hepatocytes. It highlighted the key biological

  6. Photosynthetic Characteristics and Antioxidative Metabolism of Flag Leaves in Responses to Nitrogen Application During Grain Filling of Field-Grown Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Rui-guo; WANG Zhen-lin; ZHANG Min; YIN Yan-ping; WANG Ping; ZHANG Ti-bin; GU Feng; DAI Zhong-min; LIANG Tai-bo; WU Yun-hai

    2008-01-01

    A two-factorial experiment was conducted with two wheat cultivars,SN1391(large spike and large grain)and GC8901(multiple spike and medium grain),and two nitrogen(N)application rates(12 and 24 g N m-2),to investigate the responses of photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidative metabolism to nitrogen rates in flag leaves of field-grown wheat during grain filling.The results showed that the content of N and chlorophyll(Chl)in wheat flag leaves decreased after anthesis and the net photosynthetic rate(Pn),effective quantum yield of PS II(ΦPS Ⅱ),efficiency of excitation capture by open PS H reaction centers(Fv'/Fm'),and photochemical quenching coefficient(qp)began to decrease at 14 days after anthesis.However,the maximal efficiency of PS II photochemistry(Fv/Fm)decreased slightly until the late period of senescence and the nonphotochemical quenching coefficient(NPQ)increased during flag leaves' senescence.As a result,a conflict came into being between absorption and utilization to light energy in flag leaves during senescence,which might accelerate the senescence of flag leaves.Compared with GC8901,the lower plant population of SN1391during grain filling was helpful to maintain the higher content of photosynthetic pigment,activity of PS U,and Pn in flag leaves during senescence.The delayed decrease in antioxidative enzyme activity and the lower degree of membrane lipid peroxidation in the senescing leaves of SN1391 were beneficial to protect the photosynthetic apparatus,which lead to the prolonged duration of CO2 assimilation.With the increase of N application,the Chl content of SN1391 flag leaves and the efficiency of excitation captured by open PS II centers increased.At the same time,the thermal dissipation in SN1391 flag leaves at high N(HN)treatment decreased and ?PsⅡimproved greatly,which were favorable to the increase of Pn.The SOD,POD,CAT and APX activities in the flag leaves of SN1391 increased markedly at HN treatment,indicating that these enzymes

  7. Antioxidative defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  8. On the antioxidant properties of erythropoietin and its association with the oxidative–nitrosative stress response to hypoxia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D M; Lundby, C; Berg, R M G;

    2014-01-01

    ˙) radicals was evaluated in-vitro. The relationship between the erythopoietic and oxidative-nitrosative stress response to poikilocapneic hypoxia was determined separately in-vivo by sampling arterial blood from eleven males in normoxia and following 12 h exposure to 13% oxygen. Electron paramagnetic...... in nitric oxide, indicative of oxidative-nitrosative stress. The latter was confirmed by an increased systemic formation of A˙(-) , PBN-OR, 3-NT and corresponding loss of NO2- (P stress responses were consistently related (r = -0.52 to 0...

  9. The impact of hydroquinone on acetylcholine esterase and certain human carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes (hCA I, II, IX, and XII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzafava, Andrea; Kalın, Pınar; Supuran, Claudiu T; Gülçin, İlhami; Alwasel, Saleh H

    2015-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are widespread and the most studied members of a great family of metalloenzymes in higher vertebrates including humans. CAs were investigated for their inhibition of all of the catalytically active mammalian isozymes of the Zn(2+)-containing CA, (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). On the other hand, acetylcholinesterase (AChE. EC 3.1.1.7), a serine protease, is responsible for ACh hydrolysis and plays a fundamental role in impulse transmission by terminating the action of the neurotransmitter ACh at the cholinergic synapses and neuromuscular junction. In the present study, the inhibition effect of the hydroquinone (benzene-1,4-diol) on AChE activity was evaluated and effectively inhibited AChE with Ki of 1.22 nM. Also, hydroquinone strongly inhibited some human cytosolic CA isoenzymes (hCA I and II) and tumour-associated transmembrane isoforms (hCA IX, and XII), with Kis in the range between micromolar (415.81 μM) and nanomolar (706.79 nM). The best inhibition was observed in cytosolic CA II. PMID:25586344

  10. Serum lipid and antioxidant responses in hypercholesterolemic men and women receiving plant sterol esters vary by apolipoprotein E genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant sterol esters reduce serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), but with striking inter-individual variability. In this randomized, double-blind, controlled study, serum lipid, plant sterol, fat-soluble vitamin, and carotenoid responses to plant sterols were studied according to...

  11. Structural and Kinetic Properties of Lumazine Synthase Isoenzymes in the Order Rhizobiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinke,S.; Zylberman, V.; Bonomi, H.; Haase, I.; Guimaraes, B.; Braden, B.; Bacher, A.; Fischer, M.; Goldbaum, F.

    2007-01-01

    6, 7-Dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine synthase (lumazine synthase; LS) catalyzes the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of riboflavin in plants and microorganisms. This protein is known to exhibit different quaternary assemblies between species, existing as free pentamers, decamers (dimers of pentamers) and icosahedrally arranged dodecamers of pentamers. A phylogenetic analysis on eubacterial, fungal and plant LSs allowed us to classify them into two categories: Type I LSs (pentameric or icosahedral) and Type II LSs (decameric). The Rhizobiales represent an order of ?-proteobacteria that includes, among others, the genera Mesorhizobium, Agrobacterium and Brucella. Here, we present structural and kinetic studies on several LSs from Rhizobiales. Interestingly, Mesorhizobium and Brucella encode both a Type-I LS and a Type-II LS called RibH1 and RibH2, respectively. We show that Type II LSs appear to be almost inactive, whereas Type I LSs present a highly variable catalytic activity according to the genus. Additionally, we have solved four RibH1/RibH2 crystallographic structures from the genera Mesorhizobium and Brucella. The relationship between the active-site architecture and catalytic properties in these isoenzymes is discussed, and a model that describes the enzymatic behavior is proposed. Furthermore, sequence alignment studies allowed us to extend our results to the genus Agrobacterium. Our results suggest that the selective pressure controlling the riboflavin pathway favored the evolution of catalysts with low reaction rates, since the excess of flavins in the intracellular pool in Rhizobiales could act as a negative factor when these bacteria are exposed to oxidative or nitrosative stress.

  12. Clinical and preclinical treatment of urologic diseases with phosphodiesterase isoenzymes 5 inhibitors: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphodiesterase isoenzymes 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is are the first-line therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED. The constant discoveries of nitric oxide (NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP cell-signaling pathway for smooth muscle (SM control in other urogenital tracts (UGTs make PDE5-Is promising pharmacologic agents against other benign urological diseases. This article reviews the literature and contains some previously unpublished data about characterizations and activities of PDE5 and its inhibitors in treating urological disorders. Scientific discoveries have improved our understanding of cell-signaling pathway in NO/cGMP-mediated SM relaxation in UGTs. Moreover, the clinical applications of PDE5-Is have been widely recognized. On-demand PDE5-Is are efficacious for most cases of ED, while daily-dosing and combination with testosterone are recommended for refractory cases. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC stimulators also have promising role in the management of severe ED conditions. PDE5-Is are also the first rehabilitation strategy for postoperation or postradiotherapy ED for prostate cancer patients. PDE5-Is, especially combined with α-adrenoceptor antagonists, are very effective for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH except on maximum urinary flow rate (Q max with tadalafil recently proved for BPH with/without ED. Furthermore, PDE5-Is are currently under various phases of clinical or preclinical researches with promising potential for other urinary and genital illnesses, such as priapism, premature ejaculation, urinary tract calculi, overactive bladder, Peyronie′s disease, and female sexual dysfunction. Inhibition of PDE5 is expected to be an effective strategy in treating benign urological diseases. However, further clinical studies and basic researches investigating mechanisms of PDE5-Is in disorders of UGTs are required.

  13. Extraction of Antioxidants from Borage (Borago officinalis L. Leaves—Optimization by Response Surface Method and Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Segovia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Borage (Borago officinalis L. is a typical Spanish plant. During processing, 60% are leaves. The aim of this work is to model and optimize the extraction of polyphenol from borage leaves using the response surface method (RSM and to use this extract for application in emulsions. The responses were: total polyphenol content (TPC, antioxidant capacity by ORAC, and rosmarinic acid by HPLC. The ranges of the variables temperature, ethanol content and time were 50–90 °C, 0%–30%–60% ethanol (v/v, and 10–15 min. For ethanolic extraction, optimal conditions were at 75.9 °C, 52% ethanol and 14.8 min, yielding activity of 27.05 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 115.96 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 11.02 mg/L rosmarinic acid. For water extraction, optimal activity was achieved with extraction at 98.3 °C and 22 min, with responses of 22.3 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 81.6 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 3.9 mg/L rosmarinic acid. The significant variables were ethanol concentration and temperature. For emulsions, the peroxide value was inhibited by 60% for 3% extract concentration; and 80% with 3% extract concentration and 0.2% of BSA. The p-anisidine value between the control and the emulsion with 3% extract was reduced to 73.6% and with BSA 86.3%, and others concentrations had similar behavior.

  14. Extraction of Antioxidants from Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Leaves—Optimization by Response Surface Method and Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Francisco; Lupo, Bryshila; Peiró, Sara; Gordon, Michael H.; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a typical Spanish plant. During processing, 60% are leaves. The aim of this work is to model and optimize the extraction of polyphenol from borage leaves using the response surface method (RSM) and to use this extract for application in emulsions. The responses were: total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant capacity by ORAC, and rosmarinic acid by HPLC. The ranges of the variables temperature, ethanol content and time were 50–90 °C, 0%–30%–60% ethanol (v/v), and 10–15 min. For ethanolic extraction, optimal conditions were at 75.9 °C, 52% ethanol and 14.8 min, yielding activity of 27.05 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 115.96 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 11.02 mg/L rosmarinic acid. For water extraction, optimal activity was achieved with extraction at 98.3 °C and 22 min, with responses of 22.3 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 81.6 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 3.9 mg/L rosmarinic acid. The significant variables were ethanol concentration and temperature. For emulsions, the peroxide value was inhibited by 60% for 3% extract concentration; and 80% with 3% extract concentration and 0.2% of BSA. The p-anisidine value between the control and the emulsion with 3% extract was reduced to 73.6% and with BSA 86.3%, and others concentrations had similar behavior. PMID:26784875

  15. Extraction of Antioxidants from Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Leaves-Optimization by Response Surface Method and Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Francisco; Lupo, Bryshila; Peiró, Sara; Gordon, Michael H; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a typical Spanish plant. During processing, 60% are leaves. The aim of this work is to model and optimize the extraction of polyphenol from borage leaves using the response surface method (RSM) and to use this extract for application in emulsions. The responses were: total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant capacity by ORAC, and rosmarinic acid by HPLC. The ranges of the variables temperature, ethanol content and time were 50-90 °C, 0%-30%-60% ethanol (v/v), and 10-15 min. For ethanolic extraction, optimal conditions were at 75.9 °C, 52% ethanol and 14.8 min, yielding activity of 27.05 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 115.96 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 11.02 mg/L rosmarinic acid. For water extraction, optimal activity was achieved with extraction at 98.3 °C and 22 min, with responses of 22.3 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 81.6 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 3.9 mg/L rosmarinic acid. The significant variables were ethanol concentration and temperature. For emulsions, the peroxide value was inhibited by 60% for 3% extract concentration; and 80% with 3% extract concentration and 0.2% of BSA. The p-anisidine value between the control and the emulsion with 3% extract was reduced to 73.6% and with BSA 86.3%, and others concentrations had similar behavior. PMID:26784875

  16. Estrogen modulates in vitro T cell responses in a concentration- and receptor-dependent manner: effects on intracellular molecular targets and antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanka, Hannah P; Krishnan, Harini C; Singh, Ran Vijay; Hima, Lalgi; Thyagarajan, Srinivasan

    2013-12-01

    Estrogen is a key hormone in facilitating ovulation and maintenance of pregnancy in young females and subsequent decline in its production contributes to the development of age-associated disorders such as hormone-dependent cancer, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms through which estrogen promotes female-specific diseases with advancing age are unclear especially, its effects on immune system which is vital for the maintenance of homeostasis and health. Although the diverse effects of estrogen on Th immunity (Th1 vs. Th2) have been characterized in several cell-types and animal models, there is no direct mechanistic study to understand its immunomodulatory actions. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the in vitro effects of 17β-estradiol on lymphocytes from the spleen influence cell-mediated immune responses based on its concentration and type of estrogen receptors (ERs) and to assess its mechanism of action at the cellular level. Lymphocytes from the spleens of young Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated and incubated with various concentrations of 17β-estradiol (10(-6)-10(-14)M) and specific ERα- and β-agonists (10(-6)M, 10(-8)M and 10(-10)M) without or with concanavalin A (Con A) to measure T lymphocyte proliferation, IFN-γ and IL-2 production, p-ERK 1/2, p-CREB, and p-Akt, activities of antioxidant enzymes[superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], and nitric oxide (NO) production. The specificity of ER-mediated actions in lymphocytes was examined by coincubation with nonspecific ER antagonists ICI(182,780) or tamoxifen. Lower concentrations of 17β-estradiol enhanced proliferation of T lymphocytes and IFN-γ production without or with Con A stimulation but had no effect on IL-2 production. ERα and ERβ agonists induced an increase in T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production and these effects were inhibited by tamoxifen. ERβ agonist alone enhanced IL-2 production by the lymphocytes

  17. The activity of class I, II, III and IV of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laniewska-Dunaj, Magdalena; Jelski, Wojciech; Orywal, Karolina; Kochanowicz, Jan; Rutkowski, Robert; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2013-07-01

    The brain being highly sensitive to the action of alcohol is potentially susceptible to its carcinogenic effects. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are the main enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism, which leads to the generation of carcinogenic acetaldehyde. Human brain tissue contains various ADH isoenzymes and possess also ALDH activity. The purpose of this study was to compare the capacity for ethanol metabolism measured by ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activity in cancer tissues and healthy brain cells. The samples were taken from 62 brain cancer patients (36 glioblastoma, 26 meningioma). For the measurement of the activity of class I and II ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activity, the fluorometric methods were used. The total ADH activity and activity of class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by the photometric method. The total activity of ADH, and activity of class I ADH were significantly higher in cancer cells than in healthy tissues. The other tested classes of ADH and ALDH did not show statistically significant differences of activity in cancer and in normal cells. Analysis of the enzymes activity did not show significant differences depending on the location of the tumor. The differences in the activity of total alcohol dehydrogenase, and class I isoenzyme between cancer tissues and healthy brain cells might be a factor for metabolic changes and disturbances in low mature cancer cells and additionally might be a reason for higher level of acetaldehyde which can intensify the carcinogenesis.

  18. Response surface methodology for evaluation and optimization of process parameter and antioxidant capacity of rice flour modified by enzymatic extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Pan, Xiaowei; Wu, Zhengzong; Long, Jie; Li, Jingpeng; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2016-12-01

    For the purpose of investigating the effect of enzyme concentration (EC), barrel temperature (BT), moisture content (MC), and screw speed (SS) on processing parameters (product temperature, die pressure and special mechanical energy (SME)) and product responses (extent of gelatinization (GE), retention rate of total phenolic content (TPC-RR)), rice flour extruded with thermostable α-amylase was analyzed by response surface methodology. Stepwise regression models were computed to generate response surface and contour plots, revealing that both TPC-RR and GE increased as increasing MC while expressed different sensitivities to BT during enzymatic extrusion. Phenolics preservation was benefited from low SME. According to multiple-factor optimization, the conditions required to obtain the target SME (10kJ/kg), GE (100%) and TPC-RR (85%) were: EC=1.37‰, BT=93.01°C, MC=44.30%, and SS=171.66rpm, with the actual values (9.49kJ/kg, 99.96% and 87.10%, respectively) showing a good fit to the predicted values. PMID:27374518

  19. Responses of antioxidant enzyme and photosynthesis in rape seedling to the combined stresses of acid rain and ultraviolet-B radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Chan-juan; HUANG Xiao-hua; TAO Wen-yi; ZHOU Qing

    2005-01-01

    Effects of the simulated acid rain(AR) and ultraviolet-B(UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation with a single or two ways simultaneously (AR + UV-B) on the antioxidant enzyme and photosynthesis of the rape seedlings were investigated by the hydroponic culture. The results of static experiment indicated that the tolerance of rape seedling to single stress(AR or UV-B) is stronger than that to dual stresses(AR +UV-B). Furthermore, the dual stresses had additive effect on catalase activity, and a synergistic effect on MDA content, net photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency as well as intercellular CO2 concentration. Meanwhile, it has an independent effect on chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate as well as membrane permeability. During 64 h restoration course, the dynamic change in the curves of physiological and biochemical indices were not identical, and none of them show a simple linear variation.According to the static and dynamic experiments, it was found that a responsive sequence of catalase activity, membrane permeability,M DA content and photosynthetic characteristics to the above-mentioned stresses was as follows: AR + UV-B > UV-B > AR.

  20. β-Radiation Stress Responses on Growth and Antioxidative Defense System in Plants: A Study with Strontium-90 in Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Arne; Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; Knapen, Dries; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Blust, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    In the following study, dose dependent effects on growth and oxidative stress induced by β-radiation were examined to gain better insights in the mode of action of β-radiation induced stress in plant species. Radiostrontium (⁹⁰Sr) was used to test for β-radiation induced responses in the freshwater macrophyte Lemna minor. The accumulation pattern of 90Sr was examined for L. minor root and fronds separately over a seven-day time period and was subsequently used in a dynamic dosimetric model to calculate β-radiation dose rates. Exposing L. minor plants for seven days to a ⁹⁰Sr activity concentration of 25 up to 25,000 kBq·L⁻¹ resulted in a dose rate between 0.084 ± 0.004 and 97 ± 8 mGy·h⁻¹. After seven days of exposure, root fresh weight showed a dose dependent decrease starting from a dose rate of 9.4 ± 0.5 mGy·h⁻¹. Based on these data, an EDR10 value of 1.5 ± 0.4 mGy·h⁻¹ was estimated for root fresh weight and 52 ± 17 mGy·h⁻¹ for frond fresh weight. Different antioxidative enzymes and metabolites were further examined to analyze if β-radiation induces oxidative stress in L. minor. PMID:26198226

  1. β-Radiation Stress Responses on Growth and Antioxidative Defense System in Plants: A Study with Strontium-90 in Lemna minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Arne; Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; Knapen, Dries; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Blust, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    In the following study, dose dependent effects on growth and oxidative stress induced by β-radiation were examined to gain better insights in the mode of action of β-radiation induced stress in plant species. Radiostrontium (90Sr) was used to test for β-radiation induced responses in the freshwater macrophyte Lemna minor. The accumulation pattern of 90Sr was examined for L. minor root and fronds separately over a seven-day time period and was subsequently used in a dynamic dosimetric model to calculate β-radiation dose rates. Exposing L. minor plants for seven days to a 90Sr activity concentration of 25 up to 25,000 kBq·L−1 resulted in a dose rate between 0.084 ± 0.004 and 97 ± 8 mGy·h−1. After seven days of exposure, root fresh weight showed a dose dependent decrease starting from a dose rate of 9.4 ± 0.5 mGy·h−1. Based on these data, an EDR10 value of 1.5 ± 0.4 mGy·h−1 was estimated for root fresh weight and 52 ± 17 mGy·h−1 for frond fresh weight. Different antioxidative enzymes and metabolites were further examined to analyze if β-radiation induces oxidative stress in L. minor. PMID:26198226

  2. β-Radiation Stress Responses on Growth and Antioxidative Defense System in Plants: A Study with Strontium-90 in Lemna minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Van Hoeck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the following study, dose dependent effects on growth and oxidative stress induced by β-radiation were examined to gain better insights in the mode of action of β-radiation induced stress in plant species. Radiostrontium (90Sr was used to test for β-radiation induced responses in the freshwater macrophyte Lemna minor. The accumulation pattern of 90Sr was examined for L. minor root and fronds separately over a seven-day time period and was subsequently used in a dynamic dosimetric model to calculate β-radiation dose rates. Exposing L. minor plants for seven days to a 90Sr activity concentration of 25 up to 25,000 kBq·L−1 resulted in a dose rate between 0.084 ± 0.004 and 97 ± 8 mGy·h−1. After seven days of exposure, root fresh weight showed a dose dependent decrease starting from a dose rate of 9.4 ± 0.5 mGy·h−1. Based on these data, an EDR10 value of 1.5 ± 0.4 mGy·h−1 was estimated for root fresh weight and 52 ± 17 mGy·h−1 for frond fresh weight. Different antioxidative enzymes and metabolites were further examined to analyze if β-radiation induces oxidative stress in L. minor.

  3. Copper-induced oxidative stress and responses of antioxidants and phytochelatins in Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sudhakar; Mishra, Seema; Tripathi, Rudra D; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Gupta, Dharmendra K

    2006-12-30

    Copper, though essential, is potentially toxic heavy metal at supraoptimal level and has widespread contamination. The present investigation was carried out to study the responses induced by lower as well as higher doses of copper (0.1-25 microM) in an aquatic macrophyte, Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle for a period of 1-7 days. The plants accumulated copper in high amount with a maximum of 770 microg g(-1) dw on day 7 at 25 microM. Biomass and photosynthetic pigments showed less alteration up to 1 microM while at higher concentrations, significant decline occurred. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrical conductivity (EC) also showed sharp increase at higher concentrations indicating oxidative stress. In response to copper exposure, plants showed significant induction of proteins and enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR), however, only up to moderate exposures. Total non-protein thiols (NP-SH) and cysteine levels increased significantly up to 5 microM copper exposure while at 25 microM, their level declined drastically. Reduced glutathione (GSH) showed decrease at all concentrations while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) simultaneously increased. Phytochelatins (PCs) were also induced significantly at studied concentrations of 1 and 5 microM on day 4 in comparison to control. However, copper chelation depicted by PC-SH to copper ratio was found to be low (6.5% at 1 microM and 2.4% at 5 microM) suggesting that PCs play only a part in integrated mechanisms of copper homeostasis and detoxification. Tolerant response of plants to moderate copper exposures and high accumulation potential warrants their suitability for remediation of moderately copper polluted water bodies.

  4. Responsibility of non-stomatal limitations for the reduction of photosynthesis-response of photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme characteristics in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings to water stress and rehydration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenrao; ZHANG Suiqi; SHAN Lun

    2007-01-01

    Water stress by polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 solution (Ψs=0.2 MPa,stress time:48 h,rehydration time:48 h) was performed in leaves of two alfalfa cultivar (Long-Dong and Algonquin) seedlings.Gas exchange parameters,chlorophyll fluorescence parameters,activity of antioxidant enzyme and photosynthetic pigment concentrations were measured to investigate the available photosynthetic and antioxidant enzyme response to variable water conditions as well as stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis.The results showed that non-stomatal limitations were responsible for the reduction of photosynthesis during water stress.At the beginning of water stress (12 h),water was lost and then the stomata closed rapidly,which resulted in a decrease of transpiration,net photosynthesis and CO2 diffusion.Therefore,when intercellular CO2 concentration and carboxylation efficiency decrease,water use efficiency and value of stomatal limitation would increase.However,the decline of net photosynthetic rate was faster than transpiration rate.At the same time,the maximal photochemical efficiency,potential activity of PSII reaction center and photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence declined significantly,the activity of antioxidant enzyme increased rapidly and the photosynthetic pigment concentrations changed slightly.The results also indicated that,at the initial period of stress,neither oxidative stress nor membrane lipid peroxidation was induced,nor were photosynthetic structures damaged,but photosynthetic functions were partly inhibited.Therefore,the stomatal limitation and non-stomatal limitations had the same responsibility for the reduction of photosynthesis.At the mid-late stage of water stress,net photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance,maximal photochemical efficiency,potential activity of PSII reaction center and photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence decreased linearly with the decline of the relative water content.And the relative electron

  5. Genotypic differences in photosynthetic performance, antioxidant capacity, ultrastructure and nutrients in response to combined stress of salinity and Cd in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Wasim; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Chen, Xianhong; Cao, Fangbin; Zhu, Shuijin; Wu, Feibo

    2015-12-01

    Combined stress of salinity and heavy metal is a serious problem for crop production; however, physiological mechanisms of tolerance to such condition remain elusive in cotton. Here, we used two cotton genotypes differing in salt tolerance, to understand their response to salinity (NaCl) and cadmium (Cd) either alone or in combination (Cd + Na) via hydroponics. Results showed that salinity and/or Cd drastically reduced plant growth, chlorophyll content and photosynthesis, with greater effect observed in Zhongmian 41 (sensitive) than Zhong 9806 (tolerant). Although salinity and/or Cd induced malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation in Zhongmian 41 at 5 and 10 days after treatment, MDA content remained unchanged in Zhong 9806, implying that Zhongmian 41 but not Zhong 9806 faced oxidative stress following exposure to salinity and/or Cd. Differential responses of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase to Cd, NaCl and Cd + Na indicate genotype- and time course- dependent variations. In both genotypes, Cd content was decreased while Na concentration was increased under combined stress compared with Cd alone. Importantly, NaCl addition in Cd-containing medium caused remarkable reduction in Cd concentration, with the extent of reduction being also dependent on genotypes. The salt-tolerant genotypes had lower Na concentration than sensitive ones. Furthermore, obvious changes in leaf and root ultrastructure was observed under Cd, Na and Cd + Na stress, however Zhong 9806 was less affected compared with Zhongmian 41. These results may provide novel insight into the physiological mechanisms of Cd + Na stress tolerance in various cotton genotypes. PMID:26525977

  6. Genotypic differences in photosynthetic performance, antioxidant capacity, ultrastructure and nutrients in response to combined stress of salinity and Cd in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Wasim; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Chen, Xianhong; Cao, Fangbin; Zhu, Shuijin; Wu, Feibo

    2015-12-01

    Combined stress of salinity and heavy metal is a serious problem for crop production; however, physiological mechanisms of tolerance to such condition remain elusive in cotton. Here, we used two cotton genotypes differing in salt tolerance, to understand their response to salinity (NaCl) and cadmium (Cd) either alone or in combination (Cd + Na) via hydroponics. Results showed that salinity and/or Cd drastically reduced plant growth, chlorophyll content and photosynthesis, with greater effect observed in Zhongmian 41 (sensitive) than Zhong 9806 (tolerant). Although salinity and/or Cd induced malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation in Zhongmian 41 at 5 and 10 days after treatment, MDA content remained unchanged in Zhong 9806, implying that Zhongmian 41 but not Zhong 9806 faced oxidative stress following exposure to salinity and/or Cd. Differential responses of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase to Cd, NaCl and Cd + Na indicate genotype- and time course- dependent variations. In both genotypes, Cd content was decreased while Na concentration was increased under combined stress compared with Cd alone. Importantly, NaCl addition in Cd-containing medium caused remarkable reduction in Cd concentration, with the extent of reduction being also dependent on genotypes. The salt-tolerant genotypes had lower Na concentration than sensitive ones. Furthermore, obvious changes in leaf and root ultrastructure was observed under Cd, Na and Cd + Na stress, however Zhong 9806 was less affected compared with Zhongmian 41. These results may provide novel insight into the physiological mechanisms of Cd + Na stress tolerance in various cotton genotypes.

  7. Natural antioxidants in meat and poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Liz; Lopez, Keyla; Getty, Kelly J K

    2013-06-01

    In response to recent claims that synthetic antioxidants have the potential to cause toxicological effects and consumers' increased interest in purchasing natural products, the meat and poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants. Due to their high phenolic compound content, fruits and other plant materials provide a good alternative to conventional antioxidants. Plum, grape seed extract, cranberry, pomegranate, bearberry, pine bark extract, rosemary, oregano, and other spices functions as antioxidants in meat and poultry products. Pomegranate, pine bark extract, cinnamon, and cloves have exhibited stronger antioxidant properties than some synthetic options. Plum products, grape seed extract, pine bark extract, rosemary, and some spices all have been shown to affect the color of finished meat or poultry products; however, in some products such as pork sausage or uncured meats, an increase in red color may be desired. When selecting a natural antioxidant, sensory and quality impact on the product should be considered to achieve desired traits. PMID:23501254

  8. Primary Metabolism, Phenylpropanoids and Antioxidant Pathways Are Regulated in Potato as a Response to Potato virus Y Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Kogovšek

    Full Text Available Potato production is one of the most important agricultural sectors, and it is challenged by various detrimental factors, including virus infections. To control losses in potato production, knowledge about the virus-plant interactions is crucial. Here, we investigated the molecular processes in potato plants as a result of Potato virus Y (PVY infection, the most economically important potato viral pathogen. We performed an integrative study that links changes in the metabolome and gene expression in potato leaves inoculated with the mild PVYN and aggressive PVYNTN isolates, for different times through disease development. At the beginning of infection (1 day post-inoculation, virus-infected plants showed an initial decrease in the concentrations of metabolites connected to sugar and amino-acid metabolism, the TCA cycle, the GABA shunt, ROS scavangers, and phenylpropanoids, relative to the control plants. A pronounced increase in those metabolites was detected at the start of the strong viral multiplication in infected leaves. The alterations in these metabolic pathways were also seen at the gene expression level, as analysed by quantitative PCR. In addition, the systemic response in the metabolome to PVY infection was analysed. Systemic leaves showed a less-pronounced response with fewer metabolites altered, while phenylpropanoid-associated metabolites were strongly accumulated. There was a more rapid onset of accumulation of ROS scavengers in leaves inoculated with PVYN than those inoculated with PVYNTN. This appears to be related to the lower damage observed for leaves of potato infected with the milder PVYN strain, and at least partially explains the differences between the phenotypes observed.

  9. Primary Metabolism, Phenylpropanoids and Antioxidant Pathways Are Regulated in Potato as a Response to Potato virus Y Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogovšek, Polona; Pompe-Novak, Maruša; Petek, Marko; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Gruden, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Potato production is one of the most important agricultural sectors, and it is challenged by various detrimental factors, including virus infections. To control losses in potato production, knowledge about the virus-plant interactions is crucial. Here, we investigated the molecular processes in potato plants as a result of Potato virus Y (PVY) infection, the most economically important potato viral pathogen. We performed an integrative study that links changes in the metabolome and gene expression in potato leaves inoculated with the mild PVYN and aggressive PVYNTN isolates, for different times through disease development. At the beginning of infection (1 day post-inoculation), virus-infected plants showed an initial decrease in the concentrations of metabolites connected to sugar and amino-acid metabolism, the TCA cycle, the GABA shunt, ROS scavangers, and phenylpropanoids, relative to the control plants. A pronounced increase in those metabolites was detected at the start of the strong viral multiplication in infected leaves. The alterations in these metabolic pathways were also seen at the gene expression level, as analysed by quantitative PCR. In addition, the systemic response in the metabolome to PVY infection was analysed. Systemic leaves showed a less-pronounced response with fewer metabolites altered, while phenylpropanoid-associated metabolites were strongly accumulated. There was a more rapid onset of accumulation of ROS scavengers in leaves inoculated with PVYN than those inoculated with PVYNTN. This appears to be related to the lower damage observed for leaves of potato infected with the milder PVYN strain, and at least partially explains the differences between the phenotypes observed. PMID:26727123

  10. Different postprandial acute response in healthy subjects to three strawberry jams varying in carbohydrate and antioxidant content: a randomized, crossover trial

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, J. A.; Zulet, M.A. (María Ángeles); I. Abete; S. Navas-Carretero; Cuervo, M.; Ibero-Baraibar, I. (Idoia)

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Dietary food composition influences postprandial glucose homeostasis. Thus, the objective was to investigate the effects of an acute intake of three different types of strawberry jam, differing in carbohydrate and antioxidants content, on postprandial glucose metabolism, lipid profile, antioxidant status, and satiety. METHODS: Sixteen healthy adults participated in a randomized, crossover, double-blind study with three arms, receiving 60 g of three different strawberry jam...

  11. Enzymatic Kinetic Properties of the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme C4 of the Plateau Pika (Ochotona curzoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4 is one of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH isozymes that catalyze the terminal reaction of pyruvate to lactate in the glycolytic pathway. LDH-C4 in mammals was previously thought to be expressed only in spermatozoa and testis and not in other tissues. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae belongs to the genus Ochotona of the Ochotonidea family. It is a hypoxia-tolerant species living in remote mountain areas at altitudes of 3000–5000 m above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Surprisingly, Ldh-c is expressed not only in its testis and sperm, but also in somatic tissues of plateau pika. To shed light on the function of LDH-C4 in somatic cells, Ldh-a, Ldh-b, and Ldh-c of plateau pika were subcloned into bacterial expression vectors. The pure enzymes of Lactate Dehydrogenase A4 (LDH-A4, Lactate Dehydrogenase B4 (LDH-B4, and LDH-C4 were prepared by a series of expression and purification processes, and the three enzymes were identified by the method of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. The enzymatic kinetics properties of these enzymes were studied by Lineweaver-Burk double-reciprocal plots. The results showed the Michaelis constant (Km of LDH-C4 for pyruvate and lactate was 0.052 and 4.934 mmol/L, respectively, with an approximate 90 times higher affinity of LDH-C4 for pyruvate than for lactate. At relatively high concentrations of lactate, the inhibition constant (Ki of the LDH isoenzymes varied: LDH-A4 (Ki = 26.900 mmol/L, LDH-B4 (Ki = 23.800 mmol/L, and LDH-C4 (Ki = 65.500 mmol/L. These data suggest that inhibition of lactate by LDH-A4 and LDH-B4 were stronger than LDH-C4. In light of the enzymatic kinetics properties, we suggest that the plateau pika can reduce reliance on oxygen supply and enhance its adaptation to the hypoxic environments due to increased anaerobic glycolysis by LDH-C4.

  12. Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Shiraz, Southern Iran: A molecular, isoenzyme and morphologic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasem Asgari

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL with diverse clinical manifestations is prevalent and remains a major public health problem in Iran and its incidence has been doubled over the last decade. The present study is about the potential role of rodents in the epidemiology of CL in Kharameh district in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

    METHODS: From April 2004 to April 2005, a total of sixteen rodents were collected in live traps from the endemic area of CL in Kharameh district in Shiraz. Evans medium was used for culture. Specific polymerase chain reaction and isoenzyme electrophoresis methods were performed to characterize the parasite.

    RESULTS: The rodent species were Tatera indica. Three samples from Tatera indica were found positive (2 males and 1 female in Kafdehak and Sejel-Abad villages for L. major. Macrophages in the bone marrow of femoral bone were infected with the amastigote form of the parasite.

    CONCLUSIONS: It seems that T. indica is the reservoir host for CL in Kharameh (a district in Shiraz, Southern Iran. It was shown that the bone marrow of the rodents is the tissue of choice for light and ultrastructural studies of

  13. Assessment of tick antioxidant responses to exogenous oxidative stressors and insight into the role of catalase in the reproductive fitness of the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D; Budachetri, K; Meyers, V C; Karim, S

    2016-06-01

    As obligate blood-sucking ectoparasites, to avoid tissue damage, ticks must neutralize the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from uptake and digestion of a bloodmeal. Consequently, ticks utilize a battery of antioxidant molecules, including catalase (CAT), an enzyme that converts hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) into water and oxygen. Here, we investigated the tick antioxidant machinery by exogenous injection of sublethal doses of H2 O2 or paraquat. The relative transcript levels of selected Amblyomma maculatum antioxidant targets in tissues were determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR following treatment. The results showed 2-16-fold increases in target antioxidant gene transcripts, signifying the ability of Am. maculatum to regulate its antioxidant machinery when exposed to increased ROS levels. Next, RNA interference was used to determine the functional role of CAT in haematophagy, redox homeostasis and reproductive fitness. CAT gene silencing was confirmed by transcript depletion within tick tissues; however, CAT knockdown alone did not interfere with tick haematophagy or phenotype, as confirmed by the resulting differential expression of antioxidant genes, thereby indicating an alternative mechanism for ROS control. Interestingly, double stranded RNA of CAT gene (dsCAT) and the CAT inhibitor, 3-aminotriazole, together reduced tick reproductive fitness via a marked reduction in egg mass and larval eclosion rates, highlighting a role for CAT in tick redox-homeostasis, making it a potential target for tick control. PMID:26919203

  14. Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Role of Iron-Cofactored Superoxide Dismutase in Response to UV-C Radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbal, Salma Kloula Ben; Maalej, Lobna; Chourabi, Kalthoum; Khefacha, Sana; Ouzari, Hadda-Imene; Chatti, Abdelwaheb

    2016-08-01

    The role of SOD gene in response to UV-C radiations was studied in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Firstly, our results showed that the inactivation of sodM and/or sodB genes decreases the resistance of P. aeruginosa after exposure to UV-C rays. Furthermore, our results showed that SOD activity is dose dependant in all strains. However, significant increase in SOD activity was only shown at UV-C exposure time of 5 min in sodB mutant. At an elevated dose equivalent to 30 min of exposure, significant increase in SOD activity was observed in sodM. Catalase activities showed significant decrease in WT and in sodB mutant after an exposure time of 30 min. CAT enzyme was present at higher levels than SOD, reflecting that alternate enzymes such as POX, is poorly associated with CAT activity, and an increase in POX activity is related to increase in stress tolerance. The overall results showed that sodB gene has an important protective role against UV-C radiations in P. aeruginosa, compared to SodM isoform. PMID:27094998

  15. UV-induced changes of structural and functional properties of blood lactatedehydrogenase isoenzymes in free sate and in the presence of serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoinduced changes in structural and functional properties of lactatedehydrogenase isoenzymes from human erythrocytes in free state and in the presence of serotonin have been studied by means of gel chromatography, electrophoresis, IR-spectrophotometry and by the method of definition of catalytic activity. UV radiation exposure induces photoinactivation of erythrocytes lactatedehydrogenase, while its inhibitory effect intensifies with the increase of radiation dose. Pronounced photoprotective effect of serotonin towards the molecules of erythrocytic lactatedehydrogenase isoenzymes has been discovered. It seems to be caused by formation of enzyme - biogenic amine complex affecting the secondary protein structure

  16. The Metalloporphyrin Antioxidant, MnTE-2-PyP, Inhibits Th2 Cell Immune Responses in an Asthma Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiboon Jungsuwadee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available MnTE-2-PyP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, inhibited OVA-induced airway inflammation in mice suggesting an effect on Th2 responsiveness. Thus, we hypothesized that MnTE-2-PyP may alter dendritic cell-Th2 interactions. Bone marrow derived dendritic cells (DC and OVA323-339-specific Th2 cells were cultured separately in the presence or absence of MnTE-2-PyP for 3 days prior to the co-culturing of the two cell types in the presence of an OVA323-339 peptide and in some cases stimulated with CD3/CD28. MnTE-2-PyP-pretreated DC inhibited IL-4, IL-5 and IFNγ production and inhibited Th2 cell proliferation in the DC-Th2 co-culturing system in the presence of the OVA323-339 peptide. Similar results were obtained using the CD3/CD28 cell-activation system; the addition of MnTE-2-PyP inhibited Th2 cell proliferation. MnTE-2-PyP suppressed CD25 expression on OVA-specific Th2 cells, which implied that MnTE-2-PyP can inhibit the activation of Th2 cells. MnTE-2-PyP also down-regulated co-stimulatory molecules: CD40, CD80 and CD86 on immature DC. Our studies suggest that the major mechanism by which MnTE-2-PyP inhibits airway inflammation is by acting on the DC and suppressing Th2 cell proliferation and activation.

  17. The human carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes I and II (hCA I and II) inhibition effects of trimethoxyindane derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslimi, Parham; Gulcin, Ilhami; Ozgeris, Bunyamin; Goksu, Suleyman; Tumer, Ferhan; Alwasel, Saleh H; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) had six genetically distinct families described to date in various organisms. There are 16 known CA isoforms in humans. Human CA isoenzymes I and II (hCA I and hCA II) are ubiquitous cytosolic isoforms. Acetylcholine esterase (AChE. EC 3.1.1.7) is a hydrolase that hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine relaying the signal from the nerve. In this study, some trimethoxyindane derivatives were investigated as inhibitors against the cytosolic hCA I and II isoenzymes, and AChE enzyme. Both hCA isozymes were inhibited by trimethoxyindane derivatives in the low nanomolar range. These compounds were good hCA I inhibitors (Kis in the range of 1.66-4.14 nM) and hCA II inhibitors (Kis of 1.37-3.12 nM) and perfect AChE inhibitors (Kis in the range of 1.87-7.53 nM) compared to acetazolamide as CA inhibitor (Ki: 6.76 nM for hCA I and Ki: 5.85 nM for hCA II) and Tacrine as AChE inhibitor (Ki: 7.64 nM). PMID:25697270

  18. Cytological and isoenzyme analysis of the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes of the onchocerciasis vector Simulium exiguum (Diptera: Simuliidae in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Charalambous

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Four cytotypes of Simulium exiguum occur in Ecuador, where this morphospecies is the primary vector of onchocerciasis. In this paper, we give the first full description of the banding pattern of the larval polytene chromosomes of the Quevedo cytotypes differ from the chromosomal standard sequence (of the Cayapa cytotype by the fixed inversions IIL-5 and IIL-6. The Quevedo cytotype additionally differs from the standard and Bucay cytotypes by processing a differentiated X chromosome, wich is indicated by the inversion IIS-A. As the degree of reproductive isolation between the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes has not yet been estabilished, they must be regarded as intraspecific variants of the same species. In fact, isoenzyme characterizations showed that the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes are differentiated only to the extent expected of incipient species or geographical populations. Moreover, the sibiling species status previously given to the Bucay cytotype needs be reassessed, there being inadequate analysis from areas in Ecuador where Bucay occurs in sympatry with the standard Cayapa cytotype. No isoenzyme electromorphs were discovered that identified all or mostadult females of any one (cytotype-pure collection.

  19. Suppression of cellulase and polygalacturonase and induction of alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes in avocado fruit mesocarp subjected to low oxygen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellis, A K; Solomos, T; Roubelakis-Angelakis, K A

    1991-05-01

    Expression of polygalacturonase and cellulase, two hydrolytic enzymes of avocado (Persea americana, cv Hass) fruit which are synthesized de novo during ripening, and alcohol dehydrogenase, a known anaerobic protein, were studied under different O(2) regimes. Low O(2) concentrations (2.5-5.5%) diminished the accumulation of polygalacturonase and cellulase proteins and the expression of their isoenzymes. This pattern of change in cellulase protein was also reflected in the steady-state amount of its mRNA. In contrast, 7.5 and 10% O(2) did not alter the changes observed in fruits ripened in air. On the other hand, alcohol dehydrogenase was induced in 2.5, 3.5, and 5.5% O(2) but not in 7.5 or 10% O(2). The recovery from the hypoxic stress upon returning the fruits back to air for 24 hours, was also a function of O(2) tensions under which the fruits were kept. Thus, the synthesis of polygalacturonase and cellulase was directly related to O(2) levels, while the activity of the isoenzymes of alcohol dehydrogenase was inversely related to O(2) levels. The results indicate that hypoxia exerts both negative and positive effects on the expression of certain genes and that these effects are initiated at the same levels of O(2).

  20. Differential Action between Schisandrin A and Schisandrin B in Eliciting an Anti-Inflammatory Action: The Depletion of Reduced Glutathione and the Induction of an Antioxidant Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Pou Kuan; Wong, Hoi Shan; Chen, Jihang; Chan, Wing Man; Leung, Hoi Yan; Ko, Kam Ming

    2016-01-01

    / depleting cellular GSH and inducing an antioxidant response involved in their anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:27195753

  1. The effects of dietary carbohydrate on the growth, antioxidant capacities, innate immune responses and pathogen resistance of juvenile Black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenglong; Ye, Jinyun; Gao, Jun'e; Chen, Lian; Lu, Zhibin

    2016-02-01

    The present study was focused on the growth, antioxidant capacities, innate immune responses and pathogen resistance in juvenile Black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus fed with graded levels of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) (0.6, 106.5, 194.3, 288.4, 379.1 and 473.8 g kg(-1)) for 9 weeks. Results showed that highest weight gain and special growth ratio was obtained at 288.4 g kg(-1) dietary CHO. And adequate dietary CHO content (288.4 g kg(-1)) could significantly increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), promote reduced glutathione (GSH) content and then increase the total antioxidant capacities (TAOC) in the liver of M. piceus. However, the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the fish liver could be significantly aggravated by excessive dietary CHO. Serum cortisol (COL) levels could be significantly increased in juvenile Black carp M. piceus fed with 379.1 g kg(-1) dietary CHO compared with CHO-deficient diets. Activities of alanine transaminase (GPT) and aspartate transaminase (GOT) were both decreased in the serum of juvenile Black carp M. piceus fed with 194.3 g kg(-1) dietary CHO compared with CHO-deficient diets (0.6 and 106.5 g kg(-1)) or CHO-excess diets (379.1 and 473.8 g kg(-1)). In addition, 288.4 g kg(-1) dietary CHO could significantly up-regulate the mRNA expression levels of hepcidin (HEPC), natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon (IFN), lysozyme (LYZ) and complement component 3 (C3) in the blood and liver samples of juvenile Black carp M. piceus compared with the CHO-deficient diets (0.6 and 106.5 g kg(-1)). Moreover, 288.4 g kg(-1) dietary CHO could also enhance the contents of C3 and plasma nitrogen monoxide (NO), and increase the activities of LYZ and total nitric oxide synthase (t-NOS) in the serum compared with the CHO-deficient or CHO-excess diets. Furthermore, the survival rates were also increased by

  2. The effect of dietary cricket meal (Gryllus bimaculatus) on growth performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, and haematological response of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufek, Norhidayah Mohd; Aspani, Firdaus; Muin, Hasniyati; Raji, Ameenat Abiodun; Razak, Shaharudin Abdul; Alias, Zazali

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the growth performance, biomarkers of oxidative stress, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as the haematological response of African catfish after being fed with fish feed containing different levels of cricket meal. The juvenile fish were assigned to three different treatments with isonitrogenous (35 %) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g(-1)) diets containing 100 % cricket meal (100 % CM), 75 % cricket meal (75 % CM), and 100 % fishmeal (100 % FM) as control groups for 7 weeks. The results indicated that a diet containing 100 % CM and 75 % CM improved growth performance in terms of body weight gain and specific growth rate, when compared to 100 % FM. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) did not differ significantly between all diets, but reduced FCR and increased PER were observed with a higher inclusion of cricket meal. A haematological examination of fish demonstrated no significant difference of red blood cells in all diets and white blood cells showed a significantly higher value in fishmeal-fed fish. On the other hand, haemoglobin and haematocrit significantly increased with increasing amounts of cricket meal in the diet. Antioxidant activity of CAT was higher in the 100 % CM group compared to fish fed other diets, whereas GST and SOD showed increasing trends with a higher incorporation of cricket, although insignificant differences were observed between all diets. These results suggest that cricket meal could be an alternative to fishmeal as a protein source in the African catfish diet. PMID:26886132

  3. The effects of solar ultraviolet-B radiation on the growth and yield of barley are accompanied by increased DNA damage and antioxidant responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is limited information on the impacts of present-day solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) on biomass and grain yield of field crops and on the mechanisms that confer tolerance to UV-B radiation under field conditions. We investigated the effects of solar UV-B on aspects of the biochemistry, growth and yield of barley crops using replicated field plots and two barley strains, a catalase (CAT)-deficient mutant (RPr 79/4) and its wild-type mother line (Maris Mink). Solar UV-B reduced biomass accumulation and grain yield in both strains. The effects on crop biomass accumulation tended to be more severe in RPr 79/4 (≈ 32% reduction) than in the mother line (≈ 20% reduction). Solar UV-B caused measurable DNA damage in leaf tissue, in spite of inducing a significant increase in UV-absorbing sunscreens in the two lines. Maris Mink responded to solar UV-B with increased CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APx) activity. No effects of UV-B on total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were detected. Compared with the wild type, RPr 79/4 had lower CAT activity, as expected, but higher APx activity. Neither of these activities increased in response to UV-B in RPr 79/4. These results suggest that growth inhibition by solar UV-B involves DNA damage and oxidative stress, and that constitutive and UV-B-induced antioxidant capacity may play an important role in UV-B tolerance. (author)

  4. Pre-symptomatic activation of antioxidant responses and alterations in glucose and pyruvate metabolism in Niemann-Pick Type C1-deficient murine brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry E Kennedy

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused in most cases by mutations in the NPC1 gene. NPC1-deficiency is characterized by late endosomal accumulation of cholesterol, impaired cholesterol homeostasis, and a broad range of other cellular abnormalities. Although neuronal abnormalities and glial activation are observed in nearly all areas of the brain, the most severe consequence of NPC1-deficiency is a near complete loss of Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum. The link between cholesterol trafficking and NPC pathogenesis is not yet clear; however, increased oxidative stress in symptomatic NPC disease, increases in mitochondrial cholesterol, and alterations in autophagy/mitophagy suggest that mitochondria play a role in NPC disease pathology. Alterations in mitochondrial function affect energy and neurotransmitter metabolism, and are particularly harmful to the central nervous system. To investigate early metabolic alterations that could affect NPC disease progression, we performed metabolomics analyses of different brain regions from age-matched wildtype and Npc1 (-/- mice at pre-symptomatic, early symptomatic and late stage disease by (1H-NMR spectroscopy. Metabolic profiling revealed markedly increased lactate and decreased acetate/acetyl-CoA levels in Npc1 (-/- cerebellum and cerebral cortex at all ages. Protein and gene expression analyses indicated a pre-symptomatic deficiency in the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, and an upregulation of glycolytic gene expression at the early symptomatic stage. We also observed a pre-symptomatic increase in several indicators of oxidative stress and antioxidant response systems in Npc1 (-/- cerebellum. Our findings suggest that energy metabolism and oxidative stress may present additional therapeutic targets in NPC disease, especially if intervention can be started at an early stage of the disease.

  5. 5MeCDDO Blocks Metabolic Activation but not Progression of Breast, Intestine, and Tongue Cancers. Is Antioxidant Response Element a Prevention Target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubet, Ronald A; Townsend, Reid; Clapper, Margie L; Juliana, M Margaret; Steele, Vernon E; McCormick, David L; Grubbs, Clinton J

    2016-07-01

    The preventive efficacy of the triterpenoid 5MeCDDO was tested in two models of mammary cancer, the Min model of intestinal cancer, and a chemically induced model of head and neck cancer. In one model of mammary cancer, female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered MNU at 50 days of age, and 5MeCDDO (27 ppm) was administered in the diet beginning 5 days later for the duration of the study; 5MeCDDO was ineffective. In contrast, in a model examining initiation of mammary cancers by the procarcinogen dimethyl-benzanthracene, 5, 6-benzoflavone (500 ppm, an Ah receptor agonist) or 5MeCDDO (27 or 2.7 ppm) decreased tumor multiplicity by 90%, 80%, and 50%, respectively. This anti-initiating effect which is presumably mediated by altered metabolic activation parallels our observation that 5MeCDDO induced proteins of various antioxidant response element (ARE)-related phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes [e.g., GST Pi, AKR 7A3 (aflatoxicol), epoxide hydrolase, and quinone reductase] in the liver. 5MeCDDO tested in the 4-nitroquinoline-l-oxide (4-NQO) head and neck cancer model failed to decrease tumor incidence or invasiveness. In the Min mouse model of intestinal cancer, a high dose of 5MeCDDO (80 ppm) was weakly effective in reducing adenoma multiplicity [∼30% (P < 0.05)]; however, a lower dose was totally ineffective. These findings question whether measuring increased levels of certain ARE-related genes (e.g., quinone reductase, GST Pi), indicating decreased carcinogen activation are sufficient to imply general chemopreventive efficacy of a given agent or mixture. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 616-23. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27150634

  6. Tamarind seed coat extract restores reactive oxygen species through attenuation of glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme expression in human skin fibroblasts in response to oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oranuch Nakchat; Nonthaneth Nalinratana; Duangdeun Meksuriyen; Sunanta Pongsamart

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the role and mechanism of tamarind seed coat extract (TSCE) on normal human skin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells under normal and oxidative stress conditions induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Methods:Tamarind seed coats were extracted with boiling water and then partitioned with ethyl acetate before the cell analysis. Effect of TSCE on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) level, antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase activity including antioxidant protein expression was investigated. Results: TSCE significantly attenuated intracellular ROS in the absence and presence of H2O2 by increasing GSH level. In the absence of H2O2, TSCE significantly enhanced SOD and catalase activity but did not affected on GPx. Meanwhile, TSCE significantly increased the protein expression of SOD and GPx in H2O2-treated cells. Conclusions: TSCE exhibited antioxidant activities by scavenging ROS, attenuating GSH level that could protect human skin fibroblast cells from oxidative stress. Our results highlight the antioxidant mechanism of tamarind seed coat through an antioxidant enzyme system, the extract potentially benefits for health food and cosmeceutical application of tamarind seed coat.

  7. Oxidants, antioxidants and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gibanananda; Husain, Syed Akhtar

    2002-11-01

    Reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), such as superoxide anions (O2*-) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (*OH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) are directly or indirectly involved in multistage process of carcinogenesis. They are mainly involved in DNA damage leading sometimes to mutations in tumour suppressor genes. They also act as initiator and/or promotor in carcinogenesis. Some of them are mutagenic in mammalian systems. O2*-, H2O2 and *OH are reported to be involved in higher frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosome breaks and gaps (CBGs). MDA, a bi-product of lipid peroxidation (LPO), is said to be involved in DNA adduct formations, which are believed to be responsible for carcinogenesis. NO, on the other hand, plays a duel role in cancer. At high concentration it kills tumour cells, but at low concentration it promotes tumour growth and metastasis. It causes DNA single and double strand breaks. The metabolites of NO such as peroxynitrite (OONO-) is a potent mutagen that can induce transversion mutations. NO can stimulate O2*-/H2O2/*OH-induced LPO. These deleterious actions of oxidants can be countered by antioxidant defence system in humans. There are first line defense antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT). SOD converts O2*- to H2O2, which is further converted to H2O with the help of GPx and CAT. SOD inhibits *OH production. SOD also act as antipoliferative agent, anticarcinogens, and inhibitor at initiation and promotion/transformation stage in carcinogenesis. GPx is another antioxidative enzyme which catalyses to convert H2O2, to H2O. The most potent enzyme is CAT. GPx and CAT are important in the inactivation of many environmental mutagens. CAT is also found to reduce the SCE levels and chromosomal aberrations. Antioxidative vitamins such as vitamin A, E, and C have a number of biological activities such as immune stimulation, inhibition of

  8. Nitrogen Dioxide-Induced Responses in Brassica campestris Seedlings: The Role of Hydrogen Peroxide in the Modulation of Antioxidative Level and Induced Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chun-yan; XU Xin; HAO Lin; CAO Jun

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the responses of Brassica campestris seedlings to an acute level of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure in a plant growth chamber, and examines whether pretreating plants with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) will alleviate NO2-caused injury. Twenty-eight-day-old B. campestris plants sprayed with 10 mmol L-1 H2O2 aqueous solution (corresponding to approximate 1.0 mg H2O2 per single plant) were exposed to different concentrations of NO2 (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μL L-1, respectively) for 24 h under controlled environment. To measure the plant biomass, the plants were fumigated with the same NO2 concentrations as mentioned above for 7 h per day (8.00-15.00) for 7 days. As a control, charcoal filtered air alone was applied. Data were collected on plant biomass, total chlorophyll, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, nitrate and nitrate reductase (NR), antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate (ASA), and malondialdehyde (MDA),immediately after exposure. The results showed that exposure to a moderate dose of NO2 (e.g., 0.25 μL L-1) had a favorable effect on plants, and the dry weight of the above-ground part increased, whereas the exposure to high NO2 concentrations (e.g., 0.5 μL L-1 or higher) caused a reduction in the plant biomass and the total chlorophyll, when compared with the control. In addition, at 0.5 μL L-1 or higher NO2 concentrations, prominent increases in the MDA level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and NR activities were observed. Exposure to 1 μL L-1 and higher NO2 resulted in necroses appearing on older leaves, and an increase in catalase (CAT) activity, decrease in ASA content, increased accumulation of NO3-, and reduction in photosynthesis, when compared with the controls. No changes were detected in stomatal conductance under NO2 fumigation. The pretreatment with 10 mmol L-1 H2O2 alleviated significantly NO2- caused biomass decrease and photosynthetic inhibition when compared with H2O2-untreated plants. Under NO2 fumigation, further

  9. Biochemical analysis of reactive oxygen species production and antioxidative responses in unripe avocado (Persea americana Mill var Hass) fruits in response to wounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Mercado, E; Martinez-Diaz, Y; Roman-Tehandon, N; Garcia-Pineda, E

    2009-03-01

    We analyzed the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of detoxifying enzymes and enzymes of the ascorbate (ASC) acid cycle in avocado fruit (Pesea Americana Mill cv Hass) in response to wounding. The levels of superoxide anion (O(2-), hydroxyl radicals (OH.) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) increased at 15 min and 2 and 15 h post-wounding. Peroxidase (POD) activity had increased to high levels 24 h after wounding; in contrast, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels hat decreased significantly at 24 h post-treatment. Basic POD was the major POD form induced, and the levels of at least three apoplastic POD isozymes -increased following wounding. Using specific inhibitors, we characterized one MnSOD and two CuZnSOD isozymes. CuZnSOD activities decreased notably 12 h after treatment. The activities of dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase increased dramatically following the wounding treatment, possibly as a means to compensate for the redox changes due to ROS production.

  10. Antioxidant responses of damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd to exposure to artificial ultraviolet (UV radiation in an in vitro model: part II; UV-B radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluvia de Abril Alexandra Soriano-Melgar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ultraviolet type B (UV-B radiation effects on medicinal plants have been recently investigated in the context of climate change, but the modifications generated by UV-B radiation might be used to increase the content of antioxidants, including phenolic compounds. Objective: To generate information on the effect of exposure to artificial UV-B radiation at different high-doses in the antioxidant content of damiana plants in an in vitro model. Methods: Damiana plantlets (tissue cultures in Murashige-Skoog medium were irradiated with artificial UV-B at 3 different doses (1 0.5 ± 0.1 mW cm-2 (high for 2 h daily, (2 1 ± 0,1 mW cm-2 (severe for 2 h daily, or (3 1 ± 0.1 mW cm-2 for 4 h daily during 3 weeks. The concentration of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids, vitamins (C and E and total phenolic compounds, the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1 and total peroxidases (POX, EC 1.11.1, as well as total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation levels were quantified to assess the effect of high artificial UV-B radiation in the antioxidant content of in vitro damiana plants. Results: Severe and high doses of artificial UV-B radiation modified the antioxidant content by increasing the content of vitamin C and decreased the phenolic compound content, as well as modified the oxidative damage of damiana plants in an in vitro model. Conclusion: UV-B radiation modified the antioxidant content in damiana plants in an in vitro model, depending on the intensity and duration of the exposure.

  11. The Isoenzyme 7 of Tobacco NAD(H)-Dependent Glutamate Dehydrogenase Exhibits High Deaminating and Low Aminating Activities in Vivo1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopelitis, Damianos S.; Paranychianakis, Nikolaos V.; Kouvarakis, Antonios; Spyros, Apostolis; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Roubelakis-Angelakis, Kalliopi A.

    2007-01-01

    Following the discovery of glutamine synthetase/glutamate (Glu) synthase, the physiological roles of Glu dehydrogenase (GDH) in nitrogen metabolism in plants remain obscure and is the subject of considerable controversy. Recently, transgenics were used to overexpress the gene encoding for the β-subunit polypeptide of GDH, resulting in the GDH-isoenzyme 1 deaminating in vivo Glu. In this work, we present transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing the plant gdh gene encoding for the α-subunit polypeptide of GDH. The levels of transcript correlated well with the levels of total GDH protein, the α-subunit polypeptide, and the abundance of GDH-anionic isoenzymes. Assays of transgenic plant extracts revealed high in vitro aminating and low deaminating activities. However, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the metabolic fate of 15NH4 or [15N]Glu revealed that GDH-isoenzyme 7 mostly deaminates Glu and also exhibits low ammonium assimilating activity. These and previous results firmly establish the direction of the reactions catalyzed by the anionic and cationic isoenzymes of GDH in vivo under normal growth conditions and reveal a paradox between the in vitro and in vivo enzyme activities. PMID:17932305

  12. Antioxidant-Induced Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Kross

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in the body is offset when either of these forces prevails. The available evidence on the harmful effects of antioxidants is analyzed in this review. In summary, a hypothesis is presented that “antioxidant-induced stress” results when antioxidants overwhelm the body’s free radicals.

  13. Comparison of two ferns (Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. and Microsorium punctatum (Linn.) Copel) for their Cr accumulation potential and antioxidant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinam, Geetgovind; Behera, Sandip K; Mishra, Rohit K; Sinha, Sarita; Mallick, Shekhar; Khare, P B

    2012-08-01

    Study was undertaken to compare Cr accumulation in two ferns (Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. and Microsorium punctatum (Linn.) Copel) and the role of antioxidants were also investigated towards metal tolerance in order to assess the use of ferns in phytomediation/ phytostabilization. Different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150 microg g(-1) dw) of Cr were added to fern planted in pot containing 1 kg soil. In both the ferns, Cr accumulation increased with increase in metal concentration and maximum accumulation of 800.5 microg g(-1) (fronds) and 1457.4 microg g(-1) (roots) in M. punctatum and 660.8 microg g(-1) (fronds) and 1259.6 microg g(-1) (roots) in A. capillus-veneris was recorded. The increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) in A. capillus-veneris was less pronounced than M. punctatum under Cr exposure as compared to their respective controls. In view of less decrease in chlorophyll content and antioxidants along with higher accumulation of Cr in the fronds M. punctatum, is indicative of its higher tolerance towards Cr. However, bioaccumulation factor (concentration of Cr in fronds/concentration of Cr in the soil) of both the ferns was recorded > 1 which qualifies the plants as potential Cr hyperaccumulator and suitable for phytoremediaton.

  14. Effect of thymol and carvacrol feed supplementation on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, and immune response in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashemipour, H.; Kermanshahi, H.; Golian, A.; Veldkamp, T.

    2013-01-01

    This trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of phytogenic product containing an equal mixture of thymol and carvacrol at 4 levels (0, 60, 100, and 200 mg/kg of diet) on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, an

  15. Analytical Strategy Coupled with Response Surface Methodology To Maximize the Extraction of Antioxidants from Ternary Mixtures of Green, Yellow, and Red Teas (Camillia sinensis var. Sinensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, D.; Grevink, R.; Zielinski, R.; Nunes, D.S.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed at using a simplex-centroid design to model the effects of green, yellow, and red tea mixtures (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) on metal chelation activity, phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and instrumental taste profile. The regression models that described the extractio

  16. Two Human ACAT2 mRNA Variants Produced by Alternative Splicing and Coding for Novel Isoenzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Min YAO; Bo-Liang LI; Can-Hua WANG; Bao-Liang SONG; Xin-Ying YANG; Zhen-Zhen WANG; Wei QI; Zhi-Xin LIN; Catherine C. Y. CHANG; Ta-Yuan CHANG

    2005-01-01

    Acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) plays an important role in cholesterol absorption. Human ACAT2 is highly expressed in small intestine and fetal liver, but its expression is greatly diminished in adult liver. The full-length human ACAT2 mRNA encodes a protein, designated ACAT2a, with 522 amino acids. We have previously reported the organization of the human ACAT2 gene and the differentiation-dependent promoter activity in intestinal Caco-2 cells. In the current work, two human ACAT2 mRNA variants produced by alternative splicing are cloned and predicted to encode two novel ACAT2 isoforms,named ACAT2b and ACAT2c, with 502 and 379 amino acids, respectively. These mRNA variants differ from ACAT2a mRNA by lack of the exon 4 (ACAT2b mRNA) and exons 4-5 plus 8-9-10 (ACAT2c mRNA).Significantly, comparable amounts of the alternatively spliced ACAT2 mRNA variants were detected by RTPCR, and Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of their corresponding proteins in human liver and intestine cells. Furthermore, phosphorylation and enzymatic activity analyses demonstrated that the novel isoenzymes ACAT2b and ACAT2c lacked the phosphorylatable site SLLD, and their enzymatic activities reduced to 25%-35% of that of ACAT2a. These evidences indicate that alternative splicing produces two human ACAT2 mRNA variants that encode the novel ACAT2 isoenzymes. Our findings might help to understand the regulation of the ACAT2 gene expression under certain physiological and pathological conditions.

  17. Catalytic features and crystal structure of a tau class glutathione transferase from Glycine max specifically upregulated in response to soybean mosaic virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopelitou, Katholiki; Muleta, Abdi W; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C; Chronopoulou, Evangelia; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2015-02-01

    The plant tau class glutathione transferases (GSTs) play important roles in biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in crops and weeds. In this study, we systematically examined the catalytic and structural features of a GST isoenzyme from Glycine max (GmGSTU10-10). GmGSTU10-10 is a unique isoenzyme in soybean that is specifically expressed in response to biotic stress caused by soybean mosaic virus (SMV) infections. GmGSTU10-10 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized. The results showed that GmGSTU10-10 catalyzes several different reactions and exhibits wide substrate specificity. Of particular importance is the finding that the enzyme shows high antioxidant catalytic function and acts as hydroperoxidase. In addition, its Km for GSH is significantly lower, compared to other plant GSTs, suggesting that GmGSTU10-10 is able to perform efficient catalysis under conditions where the concentration of reduced glutathione is low (e.g. oxidative stress). The crystal structure of GmGSTU10-10 was solved by molecular replacement at 1.6Å resolution in complex with glutathione sulfenic acid (GSOH). Structural analysis showed that GmGSTU10-10 shares the same overall fold and domain organization as other plant cytosolic GSTs; however, major variations were identified in helix H9 and the upper part of helix H4 that affect the size of the active site pockets, substrate recognition and the catalytic mechanism. The results of the present study provide new information into GST diversity and give further insights into the complex regulation and enzymatic functions of this plant gene superfamily.

  18. Antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid in canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Wenhui; Liang, Yintong; Ma, Ka Ying; Chung, Hau Yin; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2012-06-20

    Interest in replacing synthetic antioxidants, namely, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), with natural antioxidants is increasing. The present study examined the antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid from chili pepper in heated canola oil. The oxidation was conducted at 60, 90, 120, and 180 °C by monitoring oxygen consumption and the decrease in linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in canola oil. At 60 °C, capsaicinoid was more effective against oxidation of canola oil compared with BHT. At higher temperatures of 90, 120, and 180 °C, capsaicinoid possessed an antioxidant activity similar to or slightly weaker that that of BHT. It was found that capsaicinoid prevented canola oil from oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. To study the structure-antioxidant relationship, it was found that the trimethylsiloxy (TMS) derivatives of capsaicinoid did not exhibit any antioxidant activity, suggesting the hydroxyl moiety was the functional group responsible for the antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid. It was concluded that capsaicinoid had the potential to be further explored as a natural antioxidant in foods, particularly spicy foods. PMID:22642555

  19. Antioxidant-Induced Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Robert D. Kross; Cleva Villanueva

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are among the most popular health-protecting products, sold worldwide without prescription. Indeed, there are many reports showing the benefits of antioxidants but only a few questioning the possible harmful effects of these “drugs”. The normal balance between antioxidants and free radicals in the body is offset when either of these forces prevails. The available evidence on the harmful effects of antioxidants is analyzed in this review. In summary, a hypothesis is presented that...

  20. Antioxidants in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varadraj V Pai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants neutralize free radicals produced by various environmental insults such as ultraviolet radiation, cigarette smoke and air pollutants, thereby preventing cellular damage. The role of oxidative stress and antioxidants is known in diseases like obesity, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer′s disease. Herein we discuss the effects of oxidative stress on the skin and role of antioxidants in dermatology.

  1. Antioxidants in dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Varadraj V Pai; Pankaj Shukla; Naveen Narayanshetty Kikkeri

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants neutralize free radicals produced by various environmental insults such as ultraviolet radiation, cigarette smoke and air pollutants, thereby preventing cellular damage. The role of oxidative stress and antioxidants is known in diseases like obesity, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer′s disease. Herein we discuss the effects of oxidative stress on the skin and role of antioxidants in dermatology.

  2. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in antioxidant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Mañon Rossi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are used regularly in medical practice to provide objective markers of health status of a person, as well as the physiological response of the body to a pharmacological therapeutic intervention. In the specific case of the use of antioxidant products (antioxidant therapy, it is necessary to measure both biomarkers of oxidative stress level of the person as those that are specific to a physiological or pathological progression of a disease disorder. This paper describes the main biomarkers of oxidative general and specific stress as well as laboratory techniques, which should be taken into account when measuring the effectiveness of antioxidant therapies.

  3. Antioxidant activities from different rosemary clonal lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Lan; Narasimhamoorthy, Brindha; Zhao, Liuqing; Greaves, John A; Schroeder, William D

    2016-06-15

    Rosemary extract is widely used in food industry and carnosic acid is reported to be the major component that is responsible for its antioxidant activities. However, it is unclear how the numerous plant metabolites interact and contribute to the overall antioxidant activity. In this study, with poultry fat as the model food system, rosemary extract from six clonal lines were evaluated that each represented a different genetic variant. As expected, rosemary extract with higher carnosic acid content had higher antioxidant activity. However, rosemary extract which had carnosic acid removed retained a significant amount of activity. Furthermore, when the individual contributions of carnosic acid and the portion without carnosic acid were evaluated separately, neither was shown to be responsible for the overall level of its stabilization effect from rosemary extract as a whole entity. The interactions among different plant metabolites have a major impact on the overall antioxidant capabilities of rosemary extract. PMID:26868574

  4. Antioxidant Enzymes and Physiological Responses of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to Iron Application, under Water Deficit Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Kayvan Fathi AMIRKHIZ; Majid Amini DEHAGHI; Siavash HESHMATI

    2015-01-01

    The effect of soil and foliar iron (Fe) application on the activity of some antioxidant enzymes and plant metabolites of Carthamus tinctorius L. (IL111), under water stress conditions was tested. The results showed that under drought stress conditions, the activity of ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase and catalase enzymes increased with soil application of Fe. In contrast, the activity of peroxidase enzyme under drought conditions increased with foliar application...

  5. Allocation of secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity, and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in response to CO2 and light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200 μ mol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900 μ mol/m(2)/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200 μ mol/mol + light intensity at 225 μ mol/m(2)/s. Meanwhile, at 400 μ mol/mol CO2 + 900 μ mol/m(2)/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200 μ mol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, f v /f m (maximum efficiency of photosystem II), and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH), thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition. PMID:24683336

  6. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) as a target of oxidative stress-mediated damage: cochlear and cortical responses after an increase in antioxidant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetoni, Anna Rita; De Bartolo, Paola; Eramo, Sara Letizia Maria; Rolesi, Rolando; Paciello, Fabiola; Bergamini, Christian; Fato, Romana; Paludetti, Gaetano; Petrosini, Laura; Troiani, Diana

    2013-02-27

    This study addresses the relationship between cochlear oxidative damage and auditory cortical injury in a rat model of repeated noise exposure. To test the effect of increased antioxidant defenses, a water-soluble coenzyme Q10 analog (Qter) was used. We analyzed auditory function, cochlear oxidative stress, morphological alterations in auditory cortices and cochlear structures, and levels of coenzymes Q9 and Q10 (CoQ9 and CoQ10, respectively) as indicators of endogenous antioxidant capability. We report three main results. First, hearing loss and damage in hair cells and spiral ganglion was determined by noise-induced oxidative stress. Second, the acoustic trauma altered dendritic morphology and decreased spine number of II-III and V-VI layer pyramidal neurons of auditory cortices. Third, the systemic administration of the water-soluble CoQ10 analog reduced oxidative-induced cochlear damage, hearing loss, and cortical dendritic injury. Furthermore, cochlear levels of CoQ9 and CoQ10 content increased. These findings indicate that antioxidant treatment restores auditory cortical neuronal morphology and hearing function by reducing the noise-induced redox imbalance in the cochlea and the deafferentation effects upstream the acoustic pathway. PMID:23447610

  7. Arsenic induces NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase I by disrupting the Nrf2 x Keap1 x Cul3 complex and recruiting Nrf2 x Maf to the antioxidant response element enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoqing; Chen, Michael G; Lin, Gary X; Ma, Qiang

    2006-08-18

    The ubiquitous toxic metalloid arsenic elicits pleiotropic adverse and adaptive responses in mammalian species. The biological targets of arsenic are largely unknown at present. We analyzed the signaling pathway for induction of detoxification gene NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase (Nqo1) by arsenic. Genetic and biochemical evidence revealed that induction required cap 'n' collar basic leucine zipper transcription factor Nrf2 and the antioxidant response element (ARE) of Nqo1. Arsenic stabilized Nrf2 protein, extending the t(1/2) of Nrf2 from 21 to 200 min by inhibiting the Keap1 x Cul3-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal turnover of Nrf2. Arsenic markedly inhibited the ubiquitination of Nrf2 but did not disrupt the Nrf2 x Keap1 x Cul3 association in the cytoplasm. In the nucleus, arsenic, but not phenolic antioxidant tert-butylhydroquinone, dissociated Nrf2 from Keap1 and Cul3 followed by dimerization of Nrf2 with a Maf protein (Maf G/Maf K). Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Nrf2 and Maf associated with the endogenous Nqo1 ARE enhancer constitutively. Arsenic substantially increased the ARE occupancy by Nrf2 and Maf. In addition, Keap1 was shown to be ubiquitinated in the cytoplasm and deubiquitinated in the nucleus in the presence of arsenic without changing the protein level, implicating nuclear-cytoplasmic recycling of Keap1. Our data reveal that arsenic activates the Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway through a distinct mechanism from that by antioxidants and suggest an "on-switch" model of Nqo1 transcription in which the binding of Nrf2 x Maf to ARE controls both the basal and inducible expression of Nqo1. PMID:16785233

  8. Changes in non Protein Thiols, some Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Ultrastructural Alteration in Radish Plant (Raphanus sativus L. Grown under Lead Toxicity

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    Hossam Saad EL-BELTAGI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty days old radish plants (Raphanus sativus L. were exposed to different regimes of lead stress as Pb(NO32 at the following concentrations 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 250 and 500 ppm. The possible generation of oxidative stress, antioxidant metabolism and changes in the chloroplast and cell membrane ultrastructure were investigated. Greater loss of the photosynthetic pigments (Chl. a, Chl. b and total carotenoids were observed especially under 500 ppm lead (Pb. The accumulation of lead in roots and leaves of plant were measured and the results showed that lead accumulation increased with increasing of the metal treatment concentration. An increasing trend was observed in levels of ascorbate and decreasing trend in glutathione. Also, the antioxidant enzymes, viz., guaiacol peroxidase (GPX ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and glutathione S-transferase (GST showed significant variation with the increase in lead stress compared to control (untreated plants. The rapid inducibility of some of these enzymes is useful early and sensitive indicators of heavy metal toxicity. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed an increase in the isoenzymes profile of CAT in both leaves and roots. While POD isoenzymes bands prominently increased in leaves and slightly decreased in roots at the higher Pb concentration in the growth media. The ultrastructural studies at selected concentrations; 100 and 500 ppm of Pb showed distortion of the structure and cell membranes in roots. Therefore, the changes in the levels of some antioxidants may play an important role against oxidative injury.

  9. Peppermint antioxidants revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riachi, Liza G; De Maria, Carlos A B

    2015-06-01

    This review discusses the relationship between the chemical composition and antioxidant property of peppermint tisane and essential oil. Phenolic acids (e.g. rosmarinic and caffeic acids), flavones (e.g. luteolin derivatives) and flavanones (e.g. eriocitrin derivatives) are possibly the major infusion antioxidants. Vitamin antioxidants (e.g. ascorbic acid and carotenoids) are minor contributors to the overall antioxidant potential. Unsaturated terpenes having a cyclohexadiene structure (e.g. terpinene) and minor cyclic oxygenated terpenes (e.g. thymol), may contribute to antioxidant potential whilst acyclic unsaturated oxygenated monoterpenes (e.g. linalool) may act as pro-oxidants in essential oil. Findings on the antioxidant potential of major cyclic oxygenated terpenes (menthol and menthone) are conflicting. Antioxidant behaviour of aqueous/organic solvent extracts and essential oil as well as the effect of environmental stresses on essential oil and phenolic composition are briefly discussed. PMID:25624208

  10. Antioxidants in liver health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sael; Casas-Grajales; Pablo; Muriel

    2015-01-01

    Liver diseases are a worldwide medical problem because the liver is the principal detoxifying organ and maintains metabolic homeostasis. The liver metabolizes various compounds that produce free radicals(FR).However, antioxidants scavenge FR and maintain the oxidative/antioxidative balance in the liver. When the liver oxidative/antioxidative balance is disrupted, the state is termed oxidative stress. Oxidative stress leadsto deleterious processes in the liver and produces liver diseases. Therefore, restoring antioxidants is essential to maintain homeostasis. One method of restoring antioxidants is to consume natural compounds with antioxidant capacity. The objective of this review is to provide information pertaining to various antioxidants found in food that have demonstrated utility in improving liver diseases.

  11. Antioxidant enzymatic defenses and oxidative damage in Dentex dentex fed on different dietary macronutrient levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Hidalgo, M Carmen; Morales, Amalia E; Arizcun, Marta; Abellán, Emilia; Cardenete, Gabriel

    2009-11-01

    A wide range of antioxidant mechanisms are present in fish maintaining an adequate "oxidative balance". When this balance tilts in favor of the oxidant agents "oxidative stress" arises with detrimental effects in molecules of great biological importance. Little has been reported about the influence of different dietary energy sources on antioxidant defenses in fish. The influence of different dietary macronutrient combinations on the key antioxidant enzyme activity, the oxidative damage to lipids and proteins and the possible modifications in the SOD isoenzymatic pattern were evaluated in liver, white muscle, heart and erythrocytes of common dentex (Dentex dentex). Four experimental diets with different protein:lipid:carbohydrate ratios (43/16/28; 43/24/4; 38/19/28 and 38/24/13) were formulated. In general, neither different dietary macronutrient levels nor the interaction among them induces substantial modifications in enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms. Two constitutive SOD isoforms, CuZn-SOD I and Mn-SOD, were detected in the tissues analyzed in all experimental groups, independently of diet formulation, but, a third SOD isoenzyme, CuZn-SOD II seems to be induced in white muscle by higher dietary protein levels. Densitometric analyses of western blotting membranes revealed higher CuZn-SOD expression in the heart of dentex fed on lower dietary protein levels, although these differences did not correlate with the SOD activity. Finally, a direct relation exists between the lipid or protein intake level and occurrence of oxidative damage in different tissue components.

  12. Effects of a nutraceutical formulation based on the combination of antioxidants and ω-3 essential fatty acids in the expression of inflammation and immune response mediators in tears from patients with dry eye disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinazo-Durán MD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Maria D Pinazo-Durán,1,* Carmen Galbis-Estrada,1,* Sheila Pons-Vázquez,1 Jorge Cantú-Dibildox,2 Carla Marco-Ramírez,1 Javier Benítez-del-Castillo21Ophthalmic Research Unit Santiago Grisolia, Department of Surgery/Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital of Jerez, Jerez de la Frontera, Spain*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Women, and those older than 65 years of age, are particularly susceptible to dry eye disorders (DEDs. Inflammation is clearly involved in the pathogenesis of DEDs, and there is mounting evidence on the antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPUFAs.Objective: To analyze whether a combined formulation of antioxidants and long-chain EPUFAs may improve the evolution of DEDs.Methods: We used a prospective study to address the relationship between risk factors, clinical outcomes, and expression levels of inflammation and immune response (IIR mediators in human reflex tear samples. Participants included: (1 patients diagnosed with nonsevere DEDs (DED group [DEDG]; and (2 healthy controls (control group [CG]. Participants were randomly assigned to homogeneous subgroups according to daily oral intake (+S or not (−NS of antioxidants and long-chain EPUFAs for 3 months. After an interview and a systematized ophthalmic examination, reflex tears were collected simultaneously from both eyes; samples were later subjected to a multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry assay. A specific set of IIR mediators was analyzed. All data were statistically processed through the SPSS 15.0 software program.Results: Significantly higher expressions of interleukin (IL-1β, IL6, and IL10 and significantly lower vascular endothelial growth factor expressions were found in the DEDG as compared to the CG. In the DEDG, significant negative correlations were detected between the Schirmer test and IL-1β, IL6

  13. New insights into the post-translational modification of multiple phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isoenzymes by phosphorylation and monoubiquitination during sorghum seed development and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ballesta, Isabel; Baena, Guillermo; Gandullo, Jacinto; Wang, Liqun; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William Charles; Echevarría, Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; E.C. 4.1.1.31) was characterized in developing and germinating sorghum seeds, focusing on the transcript and polypeptide abundance of multiple plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PTPC) genes, and the post-translational modification of each isoenzyme by phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination during germination. We observed high levels of SbPPC4 (Sb07g014960) transcripts during early development (stage I), and extensive transcript abundance of SbPPC2 (Sb02g021090) and SbPPC3 (Sb04g008720) throughout the entire life cycle of the seed. Although tandem mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of immunopurified PTPC indicated that four different PTPC isoenzymes were expressed in the developing and germinating seeds, SbPPC3 was the most abundant isozyme of the developing seed, and of the embryo and the aleurone layer of germinating seeds. In vivo phosphorylation of the different PTPC isoenzymes at their conserved N-terminal seryl phosphorylation site during germination was also established by MS/MS analysis. Furthermore, three of the four isoenzymes were partially monoubiquitinated, with MS/MS pinpointing SbPPC2 and SbPPC3 monoubiquitination at the conserved Lys-630 and Lys-624 residues, respectively. Our results demonstrate that monoubiquitination and phosphorylation simultaneously occur in vivo with different PTPC isozymes during seed germination. In addition, we show that PTPC monoubiquitination in germinating sorghum seeds always increases at stage II (emergence of the radicle), is maintained during the aerobic period of rapid cell division and reserve mobilization, and remains relatively constant until stage IV-V when coleoptiles initiate the formation of the photosynthetic tissues.

  14. New insights into the post-translational modification of multiple phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isoenzymes by phosphorylation and monoubiquitination during sorghum seed development and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ballesta, Isabel; Baena, Guillermo; Gandullo, Jacinto; Wang, Liqun; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William Charles; Echevarría, Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; E.C. 4.1.1.31) was characterized in developing and germinating sorghum seeds, focusing on the transcript and polypeptide abundance of multiple plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PTPC) genes, and the post-translational modification of each isoenzyme by phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination during germination. We observed high levels of SbPPC4 (Sb07g014960) transcripts during early development (stage I), and extensive transcript abundance of SbPPC2 (Sb02g021090) and SbPPC3 (Sb04g008720) throughout the entire life cycle of the seed. Although tandem mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of immunopurified PTPC indicated that four different PTPC isoenzymes were expressed in the developing and germinating seeds, SbPPC3 was the most abundant isozyme of the developing seed, and of the embryo and the aleurone layer of germinating seeds. In vivo phosphorylation of the different PTPC isoenzymes at their conserved N-terminal seryl phosphorylation site during germination was also established by MS/MS analysis. Furthermore, three of the four isoenzymes were partially monoubiquitinated, with MS/MS pinpointing SbPPC2 and SbPPC3 monoubiquitination at the conserved Lys-630 and Lys-624 residues, respectively. Our results demonstrate that monoubiquitination and phosphorylation simultaneously occur in vivo with different PTPC isozymes during seed germination. In addition, we show that PTPC monoubiquitination in germinating sorghum seeds always increases at stage II (emergence of the radicle), is maintained during the aerobic period of rapid cell division and reserve mobilization, and remains relatively constant until stage IV-V when coleoptiles initiate the formation of the photosynthetic tissues. PMID:27194739

  15. New insights into the post-translational modification of multiple phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isoenzymes by phosphorylation and monoubiquitination during sorghum seed development and germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ballesta, Isabel; Baena, Guillermo; Gandullo, Jacinto; Wang, Liqun; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William Charles; Echevarría, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; E.C. 4.1.1.31) was characterized in developing and germinating sorghum seeds, focusing on the transcript and polypeptide abundance of multiple plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PTPC) genes, and the post-translational modification of each isoenzyme by phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination during germination. We observed high levels of SbPPC4 (Sb07g014960) transcripts during early development (stage I), and extensive transcript abundance of SbPPC2 (Sb02g021090) and SbPPC3 (Sb04g008720) throughout the entire life cycle of the seed. Although tandem mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of immunopurified PTPC indicated that four different PTPC isoenzymes were expressed in the developing and germinating seeds, SbPPC3 was the most abundant isozyme of the developing seed, and of the embryo and the aleurone layer of germinating seeds. In vivo phosphorylation of the different PTPC isoenzymes at their conserved N-terminal seryl phosphorylation site during germination was also established by MS/MS analysis. Furthermore, three of the four isoenzymes were partially monoubiquitinated, with MS/MS pinpointing SbPPC2 and SbPPC3 monoubiquitination at the conserved Lys-630 and Lys-624 residues, respectively. Our results demonstrate that monoubiquitination and phosphorylation simultaneously occur in vivo with different PTPC isozymes during seed germination. In addition, we show that PTPC monoubiquitination in germinating sorghum seeds always increases at stage II (emergence of the radicle), is maintained during the aerobic period of rapid cell division and reserve mobilization, and remains relatively constant until stage IV–V when coleoptiles initiate the formation of the photosynthetic tissues. PMID:27194739

  16. Preventive effect of glycosaminoglycans from Amussium pleuronectus (Linne) on biomolecules, lactate dehydrogenase-isoenzyme and electrocardiographic patterns in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran Saravanan; Annaian Shanmugam; Devaraj Rajkumar

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the cardioprotective role of low molecular weight glycosaminoglycans (LMW-GAG) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in male Wistar rats. Effect of LMW-GAG on biomolecules, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-isoenzyme, and electrocardiographic (ECG)-patterns was studied as evidence of cardioprotection. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (140 ± 10 g) were divided into four groups; untreated control (group I), LMW-GAG treated (300 ...

  17. Vulnerability to oxidative stress in vitro in pathophysiology of mitochondrial short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: response to antioxidants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarazuela Zolkipli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the pathophysiology of SCAD deficient patients who have a unique neurological phenotype, among fatty acid oxidation disorders, with early developmental delay, CNS malformations, intractable seizures, myopathy and clinical signs suggesting oxidative stress. METHODS: We studied skin fibroblast cultures from patients homozygous for ACADS common variant c.625G>A (n = 10, compound heterozygous for c.625G>A/c.319C>T (n = 3 or homozygous for pathogenic c.319C>T (n = 2 and c.1138C>T (n = 2 mutations compared to fibroblasts from patients with carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2 (n = 5, mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP/long-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD (n = 7, and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD deficiencies (n = 4 and normal controls (n = 9. All were exposed to 50 µM menadione at 37°C. Additional conditions included exposure to 39°C and/or hypoglycemia. Time to 100% cell death was confirmed with trypan blue dye exclusion. Experiments were repeated with antioxidants (Vitamins C and E or N-acetylcysteine, Bezafibrate or glucose and temperature rescue. RESULTS: The most significant risk factor for vulnerability to menadione-induced oxidative stress was the presence of a FAO defect. SCADD fibroblasts were the most vulnerable compared to other FAO disorders and controls, and were similarly affected, independent of genotype. Cell death was exacerbated by hyperthermia and/or hypoglycemia. Hyperthermia was a more significant independent risk factor than hypoglycemia. Rescue significantly prolonged survival. Incubation with antioxidants and Bezafibrate significantly increased viability of SCADD fibroblasts. INTERPRETATION: Vulnerability to oxidative stress likely contributes to neurotoxicity of SCADD regardless of ACADS genotype and is significantly exacerbated by hyperthermia. We recommend rigorous temperature control in SCADD patients during acute illness

  18. Allocation of Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth in Response to CO2 and Light Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5 activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH, and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200 μmol/mol and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900 μmol/m2/s over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200 μmol/mol + light intensity at 225 μmol/m2/s. Meanwhile, at 400 μmol/mol CO2 + 900 μmol/m2/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200 μmol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, fv/fm (maximum efficiency of photosystem II, and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH, thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition.

  19. Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response by ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia provides protection against alcohol-induced oxidative stress in liver by upregulation of glutathione metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejitha, S; Prathibha, P; Indira, M

    2015-03-01

    Objective The study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia (SAE) on alcohol-induced oxidative stress and to elucidate its mechanism of action. Methods Male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain were grouped into four: (1) control, (2) alcohol (4 g/kg body weight), (3) SAE (50 mg/100 g body weight), and (4) alcohol (4 g/kg body weight) + SAE (50 mg/100 g body weight). Alcohol and SAE were given orally each day by gastric intubation. The duration of treatment was 90 days. Results The activities of toxicity markers in liver and serum increased significantly in alcohol-treated rats and to a lesser extent in the group administered SAE + alcohol. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase and the reactive oxygen species level were increased significantly in alcohol-treated rats but attenuated in the SAE co-administered group. Oxidative stress was increased in alcohol-treated rats as evidenced by the lowered activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreased level of reduced glutathione (GSH), increased lipid peroxidation products, and decreased expression of γ-glutamyl cysteine synthase in liver. The co-administration of SAE with alcohol almost reversed these changes. The activity of glutathione-S-transferase and translocation of Nrf2 from cytosol to nucleus in the liver was increased in both the alcohol and alcohol + SAE groups, but the maximum changes were observed in the latter group. Discussion The SAE most likely elicits its antioxidant potential by reducing oxidative stress, enhancing the translocation of Nrf2 to nucleus and thereby regulating glutathione metabolism, leading to enhanced GSH content.

  20. Oxidative and antioxidative responses in submandibular and parotid glands of rats exposed to long-term extremely low frequency magnetic field

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    Mehmet Akdağ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some epidemiologic and laboratory studies have suggested a possible associations between exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF and cancer. However, it is not known underlying mechanisms of this interaction. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible oxidative damage induced by long-term ELF-MF exposure on submandibular and parotis glands of rats. Methods: Rats in the experimental group were exposed to 100 and 500 µT ELF-MF (2 h/day, 7 days/week, for 10 months corresponding to exposure levels that are considered safe for humans. The same experimental procedures were applied to the sham group, but the ELF generator was turned off. The levels of catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO, total antioxidative capacity (TAC, total oxidant status (TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI were measured in rat submandibular and parotis gland. Results: Although some oxidative and antioxidative parameters of submandibular gland were altered by ELF-100 and ELF-500 exposure groups, these changes were not statistically significant ( p >0.05. However, a decrease observed in CAT levels of parotid gland in both the ELF-100 and ELF-500 exposure groups (p0.05. Conclusions: Our results showed that long-term ELF-MF exposure did not alter oxidative, antioxidative processes and lipid peroxidation in submandibular gland of rats. However, 100 µT and 500 µT ELF-MF exposure decreased CAT activity in parotid gland. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 219-225

  1. Allocation of Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in Response to CO2 and Light Intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ehsan Karimi; Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2014-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200  μ mol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900  μ mol/m2/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary m...

  2. Impact of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Primary, Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Responses of Eleais guineensis Jacq. (Oil Palm Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch, secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, TF; total phenolics, TP, phenylalanine lyase (PAL activity (EC 4.3.1.5, protein and antioxidant activity (FRAP of three progenies of oil palm seedlings, namely Deli AVROS, Deli Yangambi and Deli URT, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol−1 for 15 weeks of exposure. During the study, the treatment effects were solely contributed by CO2 enrichment levels; no progenies and interaction effects were observed. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol·mol−1, the production of carbohydrate increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar. The production of total flavonoids and phenolics contents, were the highest under 1,200 and lowest at 400 µmol·mol−1. It was found that PAL activity was peaked under 1,200 µmol·mol−1 followed by 800 µmol·mol−1 and 400 µmol·mol−1. However, soluble protein was highest under 400 µmol·mol−1 and lowest under 1,200 µmol·mol−1. The sucrose/starch ratio, i.e., the indication of sucrose phosphate synthase actvity (EC 2.4.1.14 was found to be lowest as CO2 concentration increased from 400 > 800 > 1,200 µmol·mol−1. The antioxidant activity, as determined by the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP activity, increased with increasing CO2 levels, and was significantly lower than vitamin C and α-tocopherol but higher than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. Correlation analysis revealed that nitrogen has a significant negative correlation with carbohydrate, secondary metabolites and FRAP activity indicating up-regulation of production of carbohydrate, secondary metabolites and

  3. Antiradical and antioxidant activities of new bio-antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, V D; Saso, L; Angelova, S E; Foti, M C; Slavova-Kasakova, A; Daquino, C; Enchev, V; Firuzi, O; Nechev, J

    2012-02-01

    Antioxidants could be promising agents for management of oxidative stress-related diseases. New biologically active compounds, belonging to a rare class of natural lignans with antiangiogenic, antitumoral and DNA intercalating properties, have been recently synthesized. These compounds are benzo[kl]xanthene lignans (1,2) and dihydrobenzofuran neolignans (3,4). The radical scavenging and chain-breaking antioxidant activities of compounds 1-4 were studied by applying different methods: radical scavenging activity by DPPH rapid test, chain-breaking antioxidant activity and quantum chemical calculations. All studied compounds were found to be active as DPPH scavengers but reaction time with DPPH and compounds' concentrations influenced deeply the evaluation. The highest values of radical scavenging activity (%RSAmax) and largest rate constants for reaction with DPPH were obtained for compounds 2 and 3. Comparison of %RSAmax with that of standard antioxidants DL-α-tocopherol (TOH), caffeic acid (CA) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) give the following new order of %RSA max: TOH (61.1%) > CA (58.6%) > 3 (36.3%) > 2 (28.1%) > 4 (6.7%) > 1 (3.6%) = BHT (3.6%). Chain-breaking antioxidant activities of individual compounds (0.1-1.0 mM) and of their equimolar binary mixtures (0.1 mM) with TOH were determined from the kinetic curves of lipid autoxidation at 80 °C. On the basis of a comparable kinetic analysis with standard antioxidants a new order of the antioxidant efficiency (i.e., protection factor, PF) of compounds 1-4 were obtained: 2 (7.2) ≥ TOH (7.0) ≥ CA (6.7) > 1 (3.1) > 3 (2.2) > ferulic acid FA (1.5) > 4 (0.6); and of the antioxidant reactivity (i.e. inhibition degree, ID): 2 (44.0) > TOH (18.7) > CA (9.3) > 1 (8.4) > 3 (2.8) > FA (1.0) > 4 (0.9). The important role of the catecholic structure in these compounds, which is responsible for the high chain-breaking antioxidant activity, is discussed and a reaction

  4. Different Responses of Plant Growth and Antioxidant System to the Combination of Cadmium and Heat Stress in Transgenic and Non-transgenic Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Yun Zhao; Wen Liu; Shi-Yong Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study of just cadmium (Cd) or heat and their combination treatments on some physiological parameters and the antioxidant systems in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Zhonghua No.11) carrying glutathione-S-transferase (GST, EC. 2.5.1.18) and catalase1(CAT1, EC. 1.11.1.6) and non-transgenics was conducted. The results revealed improved resistance in the transgenics to Cd and the combined Cd and heat stress than non-transgenics. Data showed that the activities of CAT, GST, superoxide dismutase (EC.1.15.1.1) and all components of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle measured in the stressed transgenics shoots are significantly different from those of non-transgenics. Results indicated that co-expression of GST and CAT1 had an important effect on the antioxidant system, in particular, the whole ascorbate-glutathione cycle. The less oxidative damage induced by Cd and the stress combination in the transgenics resulted not only from the GST and CAT1 transgene but also from the coordination of the whole ascorbate-glutathione cycle.

  5. Feeding rumen-protected gamma-aminobutyric acid enhances the immune response and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianbo; Zheng, Nan; Sun, Xianzhi; Li, Songli; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Yangdong

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on immune function and antioxidant status in heat-stressed dairy cows. Sixty Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely randomized block design. The treatments consisted of 0 (control), 40, 80, or 120mg of GABA/kg DM from rumen-protected GABA. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The average temperature-humidity indices at 0700, 1400 and 2200h were 78.4, 80.2 and 78.7, respectively. Rectal temperatures decreased linearly at 0700, 1400, and 2200h with increasing GABA. As the GABA increased, the immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG contents and the proportions of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes increased linearly (PAOC) increased linearly (P<0.05), whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) content decreased linearly (P<0.05) with increasing GABA. These results indicate that rumen-protected GABA supplementation to heat-stressed dairy cows can improve their immune function and antioxidant activity. PMID:27503722

  6. ANTIOXIDANT MUSHROOMS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Preeti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of wild mushrooms have been extensively studied and many antioxidant compounds such as phenolic compounds, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, and carotenoids identified. The various antioxidant mechanisms of the mushroom species extracts may be attributed to strong hydrogen-donating ability, metal-chelating ability, and their effectiveness as good scavengers of superoxide and free radicals. This indicates the potential of mushrooms as panacea for many diseases and also reveals a novel potential to fight against tumors in man.

  7. Dietary antioxidants enhance immunocompetence in larval amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuroczki, Dorina; Koprivnikar, Janet; Baker, Robert L

    2016-11-01

    Dietary antioxidants have been shown to confer a variety of benefits through their ability to counter oxidative stress, including increased immunocompetence and reduced susceptibility to both infectious and non-infectious diseases. However, little is known about the effects of dietary antioxidants on immune function in larval amphibians, a group experiencing worldwide declines driven by factors that likely involve altered immunocompetence. We investigated the effects of dietary antioxidants (quercetin, vitamin E, and β-carotene) on two components of the immune system, as well as development and growth. Lithobates pipiens tadpoles fed diets with supplemental β-carotene or vitamin E exhibited an enhanced swelling response as measured with a phytohemagglutinin assay (PHA), but there was no induced antibody response. Effects were often dose-dependent, with higher antioxidant levels generally conferring stronger swelling that possibly corresponds to the innate immune response. Our results indicate that the antioxidant content of the larval amphibian diets not only had a detectable effect on their immune response capability, but also promoted tadpole growth (mass gain), although developmental stage was not affected. Given that many environmental perturbations may cause oxidative stress or reduce immunocompetence, it is critical to understand how nutrition may counter these effects. PMID:27475300

  8. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  9. Climate change (elevated CO{sub 2}, elevated temperature and moderate drought) triggers the antioxidant enzymes' response of grapevine cv. Tempranillo, avoiding oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar-Parra, C.; Aguirreolea, J.; Sanchez-Diaz, M.; Irigoyen, J.J.; Morales, F. (Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Seccion Biologia Vegetal (Unidad Asociada al CSIC, EEAD, Zaragoza e ICVV, Logrono), Facultades de Ciencias y Farmacia, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain))

    2012-07-01

    Photosynthetic carbon fixation (A{sub N}) and photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) are affected by different environmental stress factors, such as those associated with climate change. Under stress conditions, it can be generated an electron excess that cannot be consumed, which can react with O{sub 2}, producing reactive oxygen species. This work was aimed to evaluate the influence of climate change (elevated CO{sub 2}, elevated temperature and moderate drought) on the antioxidant status of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cv. Tempranillo leaves, from veraison to ripeness. The lowest ratios between electrons generated (ETR) and consumed (A{sub N} + respiration + photorespiration) were observed in plants treated with elevated CO{sub 2} and elevated temperature. In partially irrigated plants under current ambient conditions, electrons not consumed seemed to be diverted to alternative ways. Oxidative damage to chlorophylls and carotenoids was not observed. However, these plants had increases in thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, an indication of lipid peroxidation. These increases matched well with an early rise of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and antioxidant enzyme activities, superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6). Enzymatic activities were maintained high until ripeness. In conclusion, plants grown under current ambient conditions and moderate drought were less efficient to cope with oxidative damage than well-irrigated plants, and more interestingly, plants grown under moderate drought but treated with elevated CO{sub 2} and elevated temperature were not affected by oxidative damage, mainly because of higher rates of electrons consumed in photosynthetic carbon fixation. (Author)

  10. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations

  11. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations.

  12. Effects of various LED light spectra on antioxidant and immune response in juvenile rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus exposed to bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Oh, Sung-Yong; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer used in plastics and plasticizers. As an environmental toxin included in industrial wastewater, it contaminates the aquatic environment and is known to cause endocrine disruption in fish. Particular wavelengths of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are known to affect the endocrine regulation of fish. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of green and red LED light on the antioxidant and immune systems in juvenile rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) exposed to BPA. We used green and red LED exposure at two intensities (0.3 and 0.5W/m(2)) for 1, 3, and 5 days. We measured liver mRNA expression and plasma levels of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and caspase-3. Furthermore, we measured plasma levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lipid peroxidation (LPO), melatonin, and immunoglobulin M (IgM). DNA damage and apoptotic activity were measured using comet and terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays, respectively. We found that SOD, H2O2, and LPO increased significantly, whereas melatonin and IgM decreased significantly, suggesting that BPA induces oxidative stress and reduces immune function. Likewise, both DNA damage and apoptotic activity increased following BPA exposure. However, we found that exposure to green LED light effectively reduced the detrimental effects induced by BPA, including decreasing DNA damage, apoptotic activity, SOD mRNA expression, and plasma levels of SOD, H2O2, and LPO. Likewise, the plasma levels of melatonin and IgM increased. Thus, our results indicate that green light conditions effectively reduces oxidative stress and promotes the immune function in juvenile rock bream. PMID:27299659

  13. Antioxidant enzymes activities in obese Tunisian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfar Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oxidant stress, expected to increase in obese adults, has an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. It results when free radical formation is greatly increased or protective antioxidant mechanisms are compromised. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant response to obesity-related stress in healthy children. Methods A hundred and six healthy children (54 obese and 52 controls, aged 6–12 years old, participated in this study. The collected data included anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and enzymatic antioxidants (Superoxide dismutase: SOD, Catalase: CAT and Glutathione peroxidase: GPx. Results The first step antioxidant response, estimated by the SOD activity, was significantly higher in obese children compared with normal-weight controls (p  Conclusions The obesity-related increase of the oxidant stress can be observed even in the childhood period. In addition to the complications of an increased BMI, obesity itself can be considered as an independent risk factor of free radical production resulting in an increased antioxidant response.

  14. Cyclodextrins and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Nicolás, José Manuel; Rodríguez-Bonilla, Pilar; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the growth of the functional foods industry has increased research into new compounds with high added value for use in the fortification of traditional products. One of the most promising functional food groups is those enriched in antioxidant compounds of a lipophilic nature. In spite of the numerous advantages reported for such antioxidant molecules, they may also have disadvantages that impede their use in functional foods, although these problems may well avoided by the use of encapsulant agents such as cyclodextrins. This explains the recent increase in the number of research papers dealing with the complexation of different guest molecules possesing important antioxidant properties using natural and modified cyclodextrins. This paper presents a review of the most recent studies on the complexes formed between several important types of antioxidant compounds and cyclodextrins, focusing on the contradictory data reported in the literature concerning to the antioxidant activity of the host/guest molecule complexes, the different complexation constants reported for identical complexes, the bioavailability of the antioxidant compound in the presence of cyclodextrins and recommendation concerning the use of natural or modified cyclodextrins. Moreover, the use of cyclodextrins as antibrowning agents to prevent enzymatic browning in different foods is revised. Finally, we look at studies which suggest that cyclodextrins act as ''secondary antioxidants," enhancing the ability of traditional antioxidants to prevent enzymatic browning.

  15. Antioxidants of edible mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M.; Griensven, Van Leo

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic

  16. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Zhi Ping; Zhang, Liang Liang; Lin, Yi Ming

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf extracts was investigated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The methanolic extract and its four water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and n-hexane fractions were prepared and subjected to antioxidant evaluation. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction had stronger antioxidant activity than the other ones. HPLC data indicated that S. cumini leaf extracts contained phenolic compounds, such as ferulic acid and catechin, responsible for their antioxidant activity. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, free radical-scavenging ability and the content of phenolic compounds of leaf extracts supported this observation. PMID:18927517

  17. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Syzygium cumini Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ming Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf extracts was investigated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. The methanolic extract and its four water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and n-hexane fractions were prepared and subjected to antioxidant evaluation. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction had stronger antioxidant activity than the other ones. HPLC data indicated that S. cumini leaf extracts contained phenolic compounds, such as ferulic acid and catechin, responsible for their antioxidant activity. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, free radical-scavenging ability and the content of phenolic compounds of leaf extracts supported this observation.

  18. Oxidative stress and antioxidants: Distress or eustress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Etsuo

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing consensus that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are not just associated with various pathologies, but that they act as physiological redox signaling messenger with important regulatory functions. It is sometimes stated that "if ROS is a physiological signaling messenger, then removal of ROS by antioxidants such as vitamins E and C may not be good for human health." However, it should be noted that ROS acting as physiological signaling messenger and ROS removed by antioxidants are not the same. The lipid peroxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol induce adaptive response and enhance defense capacity against subsequent oxidative insults, but it is unlikely that these lipid peroxidation products are physiological signaling messenger produced on purpose. The removal of ROS and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by antioxidants should be beneficial for human health, although it has to be noted also that they may not be an effective inhibitor of oxidative damage mediated by non-radical oxidants. The term ROS is vague and, as there are many ROS and antioxidants which are different in chemistry, it is imperative to explicitly specify ROS and antioxidant to understand the effects and role of oxidative stress and antioxidants properly.

  19. Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Capacities of Herbal and Tea Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to supply new information on the antioxidant function of selected beverages for nutritionists and the general public, total phenolic contents of 51 kinds of herbal and tea infusions made in China were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays. A significant correlation between FRAP and TEAC values suggested that antioxidant components in these beverages were capable of reducing oxidants and scavenging free radicals. The high correlation between antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds could be one of the main components responsible for antioxidant activities of these beverages. Generally, these beverages had high antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents, and could be important dietary sources of antioxidant phenolics for prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress.

  20. Effect of Fe Deficiency on Antioxidant System in Leaves of Three Flax Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Abd El-Rahman SALAMA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential role of antioxidant enzymes as well as antioxidant compounds in protecting plant from the deleterious effect of iron deficiency was examined in different flax Linum usitassimum L. cultivars. Three flax cultivars (Sakha 1, Sakha 2 and Giza 8 were grown in water culture with (Fe-sufficient plants, +Fe or without (Fe-deficient plants,-Fe iron supply for 40 days. The obtained results showed that, iron deficiency severely decreased dry weight and concentration of iron in all cultivars leaf tissue. Besides this, to verify whether iron deficiency could induce alteration in reactive oxygen species, high concentration of lipid peroxidation (TBARS and H2O2 content in leaves of flax cultivars were detected under (-Fe compared to (+Fe treatments. Iron deficiency can also modulate the content of glutathione (GSH level, which were significantly increased in Fe deficient treatment compared to Fe-sufficient treatment among cultivars. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD was increased under deficient treatment. In contrast, significant differences were observed between cultivars in the activity of Fe containing enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX, peroxidase (POD and catalase (CAT that was greater under Fe sufficient treatment, suggesting higher amounts of physiological iron in leaf tissue of all cultivars. In addition, some changes in POD isoenzyme profile was detected under iron stress.These results suggested that, these antioxidant compounds are the key compounds to protect cell from oxidative injury.

  1. Relationship Between Serum Creatine Kinase Isoenzyme MM Subbands and the Gradation of Coronary Stenosis in Patients with Unstable Angina Pectoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Ziqiang; Zhu shanju; Meng Suron; Sun Yueh

    2000-01-01

    Objective To observe the relationship between serum creatine kinase isoenzyme MM sub-bands (CKMM3/MM1 ratio) and the gradation of coronary stenosis and provide a simple, reliable, and economical method for identifying high-risk unstable angina pectoris (UAP). Mehtods Blood samples were drawn at different time after onset of chest pain in 21 patients with UAP and only once in 20 each volunteers for control. CKMM3/MM1 ratio was detected by nonserial buffer agarose gel electrophoresis. CKMB and CK were observed by velocity method. An emergent coronary arteriography was performed as soon as patients were admitted into hospital. Results Patients with UAP were divided into two subgroups:patients with elevated serum enzyme [P( + )] and patients with normal serum enzyme [P( - ) ] according to CKMM3/MM1 ratio < 0.5. Patients with UAP(+)had higher serum CKMM3/MM1 ratios from 0.5 to 12hrs and serum CKMB from 2 to 12 hrs than those with UAP( - ) and control ( P < 0.05) . Serum enzyme concentrations of patients with UAP whose coronary lumen had 90% or more than 90% stenosis were significantly higher than those whose coronary lumen had less than 90% stenosis (P<0.01) . AnyCKMM3/MM1 ratio was less than 1.0 and CK within the normal range in patients with UAP( + ) group. Conclusions CKMM3/MM1 ratios in patients with UAP can reflect severity of myocardial ischemia. Serum CKMM3/MM1 ratio provides a simple, reliable, and economical method for identifying high-risk UAP.

  2. Bio-antioxidants - a chemical base of their antioxidant activity and beneficial effect on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, V D; Kasaikina, O T

    2013-01-01

    The paradox of aerobic life is that higher eukaryotic organisms cannot exist without oxygen, yet oxygen is inherently dangerous to their existence. Autoxidation of organic substances frequently occurs via free radical mechanism which generates different active radicals and peroxides OH(•), O2 (•-), LO2 (•), HOOH, LOOH, so called reactive oxygen species (ROS), which appear to be responsible for oxygen toxicity. To survive in such an unfriendly oxygen environment, living organisms generate - or obtain from food - a variety of water- and lipid-soluble antioxidant compounds. Biologically active compounds with antioxidant potential, i.e. bio-antioxidants (natural and their synthetic analogues) have a wide range of applications. They are important drugs, antibiotics, agrochemical substitutes, and food preservatives. Many of the drugs today are synthetic modifications of naturally obtained substances. This review presents information about the chemical base of antioxidant activities and beneficial effects on human health of known and new bio-antioxidants. There is abundant literature on the phenolic antioxidants and tocopherols in particular. In this review the following bio-antioxidants are considered: A) Carotenoids, B) Cathecholamines, C) Phospholipids, D) Chalcones, E) Coumarins, F) Phenolic acids, G) Flavonoids, H) Lignans, and I) Tannins.

  3. The effects of Natucin C-Natucin P mixture on blood biochemical parameters, antioxidant activity and non-specific immune responses in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Bin; Hu, Juan; Lyu, Qing-Ji; Liu, Li-Jie; Wen, Liu-Fa; Yang, Xian-Kuan; Zhao, Hui-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Natucin C (NC) and Natucin P (NP) are two kinds of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In the present study, the effects of NC-NP mixture on a tilapia species (Oreochromis niloticus) were examined. Animals were fed with either a control diet or one of five AMP-supplemented diets for eight weeks. AMP-supplemented diets contained five increasing levels of NP from G1 to G5 and one level of NC (200 mg/kg). Results showed that fish in the G3, G4 and G5 groups had significantly higher levels of total protein (TP), albumin (ALB) and globulin (GLO) in serum than fish in the control group. Fish fed with G4 and G5 diets exhibited significantly higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels compared to the control fish. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in all AMP-supplemented groups were significantly lower than the control. In addition, the total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and lysozyme (LZM) activities were significantly increased in fish fed with the G3 and G4 diets, respectively compared to the control. The serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in fish fed with AMP-supplemented diets were significantly decreased compared to those not supplemented with AMPs. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β), gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the hepatopancreas, spleen, kidney and gill were measured. Overall, the expression levels were enhanced in an NP dose-dependent and tissue-specific manner. The expressions of four genes in four organs (except IL-1β in spleen, and TNF-α and HSP70 in gill) were significantly upregulated in fish fed with the G5 diet. Fish fed with the G4 diet had increased expression levels of IL-1β in spleen and IFN-γ in kidney. The relative expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and HSP70 in the hepatopancreas in fish fed with the G3 diet were significantly upregulated compared to the control. Transcriptional levels of IL-1β and HSP70 in the hepatopancreas, IFN

  4. The effects of Natucin C-Natucin P mixture on blood biochemical parameters, antioxidant activity and non-specific immune responses in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Bin; Hu, Juan; Lyu, Qing-Ji; Liu, Li-Jie; Wen, Liu-Fa; Yang, Xian-Kuan; Zhao, Hui-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Natucin C (NC) and Natucin P (NP) are two kinds of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In the present study, the effects of NC-NP mixture on a tilapia species (Oreochromis niloticus) were examined. Animals were fed with either a control diet or one of five AMP-supplemented diets for eight weeks. AMP-supplemented diets contained five increasing levels of NP from G1 to G5 and one level of NC (200 mg/kg). Results showed that fish in the G3, G4 and G5 groups had significantly higher levels of total protein (TP), albumin (ALB) and globulin (GLO) in serum than fish in the control group. Fish fed with G4 and G5 diets exhibited significantly higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels compared to the control fish. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in all AMP-supplemented groups were significantly lower than the control. In addition, the total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and lysozyme (LZM) activities were significantly increased in fish fed with the G3 and G4 diets, respectively compared to the control. The serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in fish fed with AMP-supplemented diets were significantly decreased compared to those not supplemented with AMPs. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β), gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the hepatopancreas, spleen, kidney and gill were measured. Overall, the expression levels were enhanced in an NP dose-dependent and tissue-specific manner. The expressions of four genes in four organs (except IL-1β in spleen, and TNF-α and HSP70 in gill) were significantly upregulated in fish fed with the G5 diet. Fish fed with the G4 diet had increased expression levels of IL-1β in spleen and IFN-γ in kidney. The relative expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and HSP70 in the hepatopancreas in fish fed with the G3 diet were significantly upregulated compared to the control. Transcriptional levels of IL-1β and HSP70 in the hepatopancreas, IFN

  5. 响应面法优化鲅鱼抗氧化肽发酵条件%Optimization of fermentation conditions of antioxidant peptides from Spanish mackerel by response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾冰花; 艾丽花; 陈琳; 李秉钧; 冯俊荣; 韩龚文

    2016-01-01

    preparation from Spanish mackerel, including fermentation time, fermentation temperature, initial pH, inoculum quantity, ratio of material to solvent and cell age.Among the six variables studied, fermentation temperature, initial pH and ratio of material to solvent had significant effects on the total antioxidant activity of fermentation solution ( P <0.05 ) .Steepest ascent method was used to approach the optimal region of the total antioxidant activity.The regression analysis was further carried out using Box-Behnken design and response surface analysis.By solving the regression equation, the highest antioxidant peptides production was obtained at fermentation time 48h, fermentation temperature 30 ℃,initial pH 6.8, inoculum quantity 2%, material-to-solvent ratio 2.9%, and cell age 24h.The total antioxidant activity of fermentation solution reached to 537.73U, increased by 57.2%compared to the initial 342.02U.Compared with the predicted value of regression equation 570.11U, the relative error is 5.7%, illustrating that the model can better predict the total antioxidant activity of fermentation solution fermented by Hy-4 .

  6. Honey: A Novel Antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cancer and Alzheimer's disease is on the rise. These diseases, which constitute the major causes of death globally, are associated with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is defined as an “imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the oxidants, potentially leading to damage”. Individuals with chronic diseases are more susceptible to oxidative stress and damage because they have elevated levels of oxidants and/or reduced antioxidants. This, therefore, necessitates supplementation with antioxidants so as to delay, prevent or remove oxidative damage. Honey is a natural substance with many medicinal effects such as antibacterial, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, reproductive, antihypertensive and antioxidant effects. This review presents findings that indicate honey may ameliorate oxidative stress in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, liver, pancreas, kidney, reproductive organs and plasma/serum. Besides, the review highlights data that demonstrate the synergistic antioxidant effect of honey and antidiabetic drugs in the pancreas, kidney and serum of diabetic rats. These data suggest that honey, administered alone or in combination with conventional therapy, might be a novel antioxidant in the management of chronic diseases commonly associated with oxidative stress. In view of the fact that the majority of these data emanate from animal studies, there is an urgent need to investigate this antioxidant effect of honey in human subjects with chronic or degenerative diseases.

  7. Probiotic Strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 8145 Reduces Fat Content and Modulates Lipid Metabolism and Antioxidant Response in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Patricia; Llopis, Silvia; González, Nuria; Chenoll, Empar; López-Carreras, Noemi; Aleixandre, Amaya; Chen, Yang; Karoly, Edwuard D; Ramón, Daniel; Genovés, Salvador

    2016-05-01

    Recently, microbial changes in the human gut have been proposed as a possible cause of obesity. Therefore, modulation of microbiota through probiotic supplements is of great interest to support obesity therapeutics. The present study examines the functional effect and metabolic targets of a bacterial strain, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 8145, selected from a screening in Caenorhabditis elegans. This strain significantly reduced total lipids (40.5% ± 2.4) and triglycerides (27.6% ± 0.5), exerting antioxidant effects in the nematode (30% ± 2.8 increase in survival vs control); activities were also preserved in a final food matrix (milk). Furthermore, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses in nematodes fed with strain CECT 8145 revealed modulation of the energy and lipid metabolism, as well as the tryptophan metabolism (satiety), as the main metabolic targets of the probiotic. In conclusion, our study describes for the first time a new B. animalis subsp. lactis strain, CECT 8145, as a promising probiotic for obesity disorders. Furthermore, the data support future studies in obesity murine models. PMID:27054371

  8. Elucidation of lead-induced oxidative stress in Talinum triangulare roots by analysis of antioxidant responses and DNA damage at cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Prasad, M N V; Mohan Murali Achary, V; Panda, Brahma B

    2013-07-01

    Hydroponic experiments were performed with Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd. focusing the root cellular biochemistry with special emphasis on DNA damage, structural, and elemental analyses in Pb(NO3)2 exposed with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 mM for 7 days. Lead (Pb) increased reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, cell death, and DNA damage and decreased the protein content in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, a dose-dependent induction of antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase by Pb was evident. Ascorbate peroxidase on the other hand responded biphasically to Pb treatments by showing induction at low (0.25 and 0.50) and repression at high (0.75-1.25 mM) concentrations. The estimation of proline content also indicated a similar biphasic trend. Scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed that 1.25 mM Pb treatment resulted in ultrastructural modifications in roots and stem tissue that was marked by the change in the elemental profile. The findings pointed to the role of oxidative stress in the underlying Pb phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in T. triangulare. PMID:23263755

  9. Impact of date palm fruits extracts and probiotic enriched diet on antioxidant status, innate immune response and immune-related gene expression of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, F A; Porcino, C; Cerezuela, R; Cuesta, A; Faggio, C; Esteban, M A

    2016-05-01

    The application of additives in the diet as plants or extracts of plants as natural and innocuous compounds has potential in aquaculture as an alternative to antibiotics and immunoprophylactics. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential effects of dietary supplementation of date palm fruit extracts alone or in combination with Pdp11 probiotic on serum antioxidant status, on the humoral and cellular innate immune status, as well as, on the expression levels of some immune-related genes in head-kidney and gut of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) after 2 and 4 weeks of administration. This study showed for the first time in European sea bass an immunostimulation in several of the parameters evaluated in fish fed with date palm fruits extracts enriched diet or fed with this substance in combination with Pdp 11 probiotic, mainly after 4 weeks of treatment. In the same way, dietary supplementation of mixture diet has positive effects on the expression levels of immune-related genes, chiefly in head-kidney of Dicentrarchus labrax. Therefore, the combination of both could be considered of great interest as potential additives for farmed fish. PMID:27033470

  10. The role of Montanide ISA 70 as an adjuvant in immune responses against Leishmania major induced by thiol-specific antioxidant-based protein vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabazzadeh Tehrani, Narges; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Maleki, Fatemeh; Zarrati, Somayeh; Tabatabaie, Fatemeh

    2016-09-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by several species of the genus Leishmania. Montanide ISA 70 is an adjuvant composed of a natural metabolizable oil and a very refined emulsifier from the manide monooleate family. The TSA (thiol-specific antioxidant) is a important antigen of Leishmania major. The purpose of this work was protein-vaccine efficacy as an protection and excellent candidate in the presence Montanide. The expression of recombinant protein was confirmed with SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) page and Western bloting. 48 BALB/c mice were divided into four groups (TSA/Freund,TSA/Alum + BCG, TSA/Montanide and PBS groups) and immunized with 20 μg of vaccine subcutaneously three times intervals on days 0, 14 and 28. The mice were challenged with parasite 21 days after final immunization. The lymphocyte proliferation was evaluated with Brdu method. Cytokines and also total antibody and subclasses were evaluated with ELISA method. The vaccine formulated with the recombinant TSA protein with Montanide induced lymphocytes proliferation cytokines and total antibody and subclasses as compared with the control group. PMID:27605780

  11. Copper-induced tight junction mRNA expression changes, apoptosis and antioxidant responses via NF-κB, TOR and Nrf2 signaling molecules in the gills of fish: Preventive role of arginine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cu exposure induced oxidative stress via disruption of antioxidant system. • Cu exposure disrupted TJ mRNA expression through regulation of cytokines in fish. • Cu induced gill apoptosis partly via intrinsic pathway but not extrinsic pathway. • Cu exposure can regulate Nrf2, NF-κB and TOR signaling molecules in fish. • Arginine can effectively prevent Cu-induced fish gill damage. - Abstract: This study explored the possible preventive effects of dietary arginine on copper (Cu)-induced tight junction mRNA expression changes, apoptosis and antioxidant responses in the gills of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The results indicated that exposure to 0.7 mg/L (11.01 μmol/L) Cu for 96 h induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby increasing protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the gills of fish. However, these oxidative effects were prevented by arginine supplementation. Arginine also prevented the toxic effects of Cu on the activities of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and the glutathione (GSH) content (P < 0.05). However, Cu induced an adaptive increase in the activity of catalase (CAT), and arginine supplementation further increased CAT activity (P < 0.05). Moreover, Cu induced increases in the relative mRNA expressions of SOD1, CAT, GPx, GST, caspase-3, caspase-9, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and nuclear transcription factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) in the gills of grass carp (P < 0.05). In contrast, the relative mRNA expression levels of occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin b, claudin 3, claudin 12, target of rapamycin (TOR) and inhibitor factor κBα (IκBα) in the gills were decreased by Cu (P < 0.05). However, pre

  12. Copper-induced tight junction mRNA expression changes, apoptosis and antioxidant responses via NF-κB, TOR and Nrf2 signaling molecules in the gills of fish: Preventive role of arginine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Wu, Pei [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Kuang, Sheng-Yao [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Academy of Animal Science, Chengdu, 610066, Sichuan (China); Jiang, Jun [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Academy of Animal Science, Chengdu, 610066, Sichuan (China); Zhang, Yong-An [Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: kyckgk@hotmail.com [Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Fish Nutrition and Safety Production University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan (China); and others

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Cu exposure induced oxidative stress via disruption of antioxidant system. • Cu exposure disrupted TJ mRNA expression through regulation of cytokines in fish. • Cu induced gill apoptosis partly via intrinsic pathway but not extrinsic pathway. • Cu exposure can regulate Nrf2, NF-κB and TOR signaling molecules in fish. • Arginine can effectively prevent Cu-induced fish gill damage. - Abstract: This study explored the possible preventive effects of dietary arginine on copper (Cu)-induced tight junction mRNA expression changes, apoptosis and antioxidant responses in the gills of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The results indicated that exposure to 0.7 mg/L (11.01 μmol/L) Cu for 96 h induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby increasing protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the gills of fish. However, these oxidative effects were prevented by arginine supplementation. Arginine also prevented the toxic effects of Cu on the activities of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and the glutathione (GSH) content (P < 0.05). However, Cu induced an adaptive increase in the activity of catalase (CAT), and arginine supplementation further increased CAT activity (P < 0.05). Moreover, Cu induced increases in the relative mRNA expressions of SOD1, CAT, GPx, GST, caspase-3, caspase-9, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and nuclear transcription factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) in the gills of grass carp (P < 0.05). In contrast, the relative mRNA expression levels of occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin b, claudin 3, claudin 12, target of rapamycin (TOR) and inhibitor factor κBα (IκBα) in the gills were decreased by Cu (P < 0.05). However, pre

  13. Amino Acid Residues Critical for the Specificity for Betaine Aldehyde of the Plant ALDH10 Isoenzyme Involved in the Synthesis of Glycine Betaine1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Sánchez, Ángel G.; González-Segura, Lilian; Mújica-Jiménez, Carlos; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Montiel, Carmina; Martínez-Castilla, León P.; Muñoz-Clares, Rosario A.

    2012-01-01

    Plant Aldehyde Dehydrogenase10 (ALDH10) enzymes catalyze the oxidation of ω-primary or ω-quaternary aminoaldehydes, but, intriguingly, only some of them, such as the spinach (Spinacia oleracea) betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (SoBADH), efficiently oxidize betaine aldehyde (BAL) forming the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB), which confers tolerance to osmotic stress. The crystal structure of SoBADH reported here shows tyrosine (Tyr)-160, tryptophan (Trp)-167, Trp-285, and Trp-456 in an arrangement suitable for cation-π interactions with the trimethylammonium group of BAL. Mutation of these residues to alanine (Ala) resulted in significant Km(BAL) increases and Vmax/Km(BAL) decreases, particularly in the Y160A mutant. Tyr-160 and Trp-456, strictly conserved in plant ALDH10s, form a pocket where the bulky trimethylammonium group binds. This space is reduced in ALDH10s with low BADH activity, because an isoleucine (Ile) pushes the Trp against the Tyr. Those with high BADH activity instead have Ala (Ala-441 in SoBADH) or cysteine, which allow enough room for binding of BAL. Accordingly, the mutation A441I decreased the Vmax/Km(BAL) of SoBADH approximately 200 times, while the mutation A441C had no effect. The kinetics with other ω-aminoaldehydes were not affected in the A441I or A441C mutant, demonstrating that the existence of an Ile in the second sphere of interaction of the aldehyde is critical for discriminating against BAL in some plant ALDH10s. A survey of the known sequences indicates that plants have two ALDH10 isoenzymes: those known to be GB accumulators have a high-BAL-affinity isoenzyme with Ala or cysteine in this critical position, while non GB accumulators have low-BAL-affinity isoenzymes containing Ile. Therefore, BADH activity appears to restrict GB synthesis in non-GB-accumulator plants. PMID:22345508

  14. Antioxidant Stabilisation of Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyapnikov, Yurii A.

    1981-06-01

    Physicochemical aspects of the stabilisation of polymers are discussed. Attention is paid mainly to the aging and stabilisation of polymers under processing conditions. Topics considered are the kinetics and mechanism of the high-temperature oxidation of polymers, critical phenomena in the inhibited oxidation of polymers, the theory of synergism and antagonism among antioxidants, the reasons for differences in efficiency of antioxidants, and certain aspects of the relation between the efficiency of antioxidants and their molecular structure. A list of 132 references is included.

  15. Changes in the Antioxidant Systems as Part of the Signaling Pathway Responsible for the Programmed Cell Death Activated by Nitric Oxide and Reactive Oxygen Species in Tobacco Bright-Yellow 2 Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pinto, Maria Concetta; Tommasi, Franca; De Gara, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been postulated to be required, together with reactive oxygen species (ROS), for the activation of the hypersensitive reaction, a defense response induced in the noncompatible plant-pathogen interaction. However, its involvement in activating programmed cell death (PCD) in plant cells has been questioned. In this paper, the involvement of the cellular antioxidant metabolism in the signal transduction triggered by these bioactive molecules has been investigated. NO and ROS levels were singularly or simultaneously increased in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Bright-Yellow 2) cells by the addition to the culture medium of NO and/or ROS generators. The individual increase in NO or ROS had different effects on the studied parameters than the simultaneous increase in the two reactive species. NO generation did not cause an increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity or induction of cellular death. It only induced minor changes in ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) metabolisms. An increase in ROS induced oxidative stress in the cells, causing an oxidation of the ASC and GSH redox pairs; however, it had no effect on PAL activity and did not induce cell death when it was generated at low concentrations. In contrast, the simultaneous increase of NO and ROS activated a process of death with the typical cytological and biochemical features of hypersensitive PCD and a remarkable rise in PAL activity. Under the simultaneous generation of NO and ROS, the cellular antioxidant capabilities were also suppressed. The involvement of ASC and GSH as part of the transduction pathway leading to PCD is discussed. PMID:12376637

  16. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Corn Silk and Their Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ling-Li Zheng; Guan Wen; Min-Yong Yuan; Feng Gao

    2016-01-01

    Object. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from corn silk and their antioxidant activities were studied. Methods. Response surface methodology was adopted to optimize the extraction conditions and antioxidant activities of the extracted total flavonoids were detected through ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Results. Through a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM) adopting yield as response, the optimal conditions we...

  17. Response of two rice cultivars differing in their sensitivity towards arsenic, differs in their expression of glutaredoxin and glutathione S transferase genes and antioxidant usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Navin; Sahu, Nayan; Verma, Pankaj Kumar; Ranjan, Ruma; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Behera, Soumit K; Mallick, Shekhar

    2016-02-01

    Embodied study investigates the role of GRX and associated antioxidant enzymes in the detoxification mechanism between arsenic (As) sensitive (Usar-3) and tolerant cultivar (Pant Dhan 11) of Oryza sativa against As(III) and As(V), under GSH enriched, and GSH deprived conditions. The overall growth and physiological parameters in sensitive cultivar were lower than the tolerant cultivar, against various treatments of As(III) and As(V). The As accumulation in sensitive cv. against both As(III) and As(V) was lower than the corresponding treatments in tolerant cv. However, the As translocation against As(V) was lower (35% and 64%, resp.) than that of As(III), in both the cultivars. In sensitive cv. translocation of Zn and Cu was influenced by both As(V) and As(III) whereas, in tolerant cv. the translocation of Cu, Mn and Zn was influenced only by As(III). Translocation of Fe was negatively influenced by translocation of As in sensitive cv. and positively in tolerant cv. Strong correlation between H2O2, SOD, GRX, GR, GST and GSH/GSSG in sensitive cv. and between DHAR, APX, MDHAR and AsA in tolerant cv. demonstrates the underlying preference of GSH as electron donor for detoxification of H2O2 in sensitive cv. and AsA in tolerant cv. Higher expression of the four GRX and two GST genes in the sensitive cv. than tolerant cv, suggests that under As stress, GRX are synthesized more in the sensitive cv. than tolerant cv. Also, the expression of four GRX genes were higher against As(V) than As(III). The higher As accumulation in the tolerant cv. is due to lower GST expression, is attributed to the absence of thiolation and sequestration of As in roots, the translocation of As to shoots is higher.

  18. Influence of a static magnetic field (250 mT) on the antioxidant response and DNA integrity in THP1 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Salem; Douki, Thery; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Garrel, Catherine; Guiraud, Pascale; Favier, Alain; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of static magnetic field (SMF) exposure in antioxidant enzyme activity, the labile zinc fraction and DNA damage in THP1 cells (monocyte line). Cell culture flasks were exposed to SMF (250 mT) during 1 h (group 1), 2 h (group 2) and 3 h (group 3). Our results showed that cell viability was slightly lower in SMF-exposed groups compared to a sham exposed group. However, SMF exposure failed to alter malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (+6%, p > 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (-5%, p > 0.05), catalase (CAT) (-6%, p > 0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities (+38%, p > 0.05) in group 3 compared to the sham exposed group. DNA analysis by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) revealed that SMF exposure did not exert any DNA damage in groups 1 and 2. However, it induced a low level of DNA single strand breaks in cells of group 3. To further explore the oxidative DNA damage, cellular DNA for group 3 was isolated, hydrolyzed and analysed by HPLC-EC. The level of 8-oxodGuo in this group remained unchanged compared to the sham exposed group (+6.5%, p > 0.05). Cells stained with zinc-specific fluorescent probes zinpyr-1 showed a decrease of labile zinc fraction in all groups exposed to SMF. Our data showed that SMF exposure (250 mT, during 3 h) did not cause oxidative stress and DNA damage in THP1 cells. However, SMF could alter the intracellular labile zinc fraction.

  19. Atmospheric oxidation and antioxidants

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    1993-01-01

    Volume I reviews current understanding of autoxidation, largely on the basis of the reactions of oxygen with characterised chemicals. From this flows the modern mechanism of antioxidant actions and their application in stabilisation technology.

  20. HERBAL ANTIOXIDANTS- A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Swathi K; Priyenka Devi K S*; Sangeetha A

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species, circulating in the human body tend to react with the electron of other molecules which may initiate the chain reaction and contribute to adverse health effects in the body. Antioxidants possess anti-inflammatory property, antitumor property, anticarcinogenic property, antimutagenic property and metal chelating potential which inturn terminates the chain reaction by arresting free radical intermediates. Natural antioxidants derived from plant sources are effective and ...

  1. Antioxidant supplements and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of a...... of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging....

  2. Plasma antioxidants from chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, M.; Bugianesi, R.; Maiani, G; Valtuena, S.; De Santis, S.; Crozier, A.

    2003-01-01

    There is some speculation that dietary flavonoids from chocolate, in particular (-)epicatechin, may promote cardiovascular health as a result of direct antioxidant effects or through antithrombotic mechanisms. Here we show that consumption of plain, dark chocolate results in an increase in both the total antioxidant capacity and the (-)epicatechin content of blood plasma, but that these effects are markedly reduced when the chocolate is consumed with milk or if milk is incorporated as milk ch...

  3. Characterization of the rat glutathione S-transferase Yc2 subunit gene, GSTA5: identification of a putative antioxidant-responsive element in the 5'-flanking region of rat GSTA5 that may mediate chemoprotection against aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, D J; Hayes, J D