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Sample records for antioxidant diferulic acids

  1. Intestinal release and uptake of phenolic antioxidant diferulic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Kroon, P A; Williamson, G

    2001-01-01

    Diferulic acids are potent antioxidants and are abundant structural components of plant cell walls, especially in cereal brans. As such, they are part of many human and animal diets and may contribute to the beneficial effect of cereal brans on health. However, these phenolics are ester-linked to......Diferulic acids are potent antioxidants and are abundant structural components of plant cell walls, especially in cereal brans. As such, they are part of many human and animal diets and may contribute to the beneficial effect of cereal brans on health. However, these phenolics are ester...... system. Our results suggest that the phenolic antioxidant diferulic acids are bioavailable. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-Aug-1...

  2. Intestinal release and uptake of phenolic antioxidant diferulic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Kroon, P A; Williamson, G

    2001-01-01

    Diferulic acids are potent antioxidants and are abundant structural components of plant cell walls, especially in cereal brans. As such, they are part of many human and animal diets and may contribute to the beneficial effect of cereal brans on health. However, these phenolics are ester-linked to......Diferulic acids are potent antioxidants and are abundant structural components of plant cell walls, especially in cereal brans. As such, they are part of many human and animal diets and may contribute to the beneficial effect of cereal brans on health. However, these phenolics are ester...... in oil. Our study also reveals that human and rat colonic microflora contain esterase activity able to release 5-5-, 8-O-4-, and 8-5-diferulic acids from model compounds and dietary cereal brans, hence providing a mechanism for release of dietary diferulates prior to absorption of the free acids....... In addition, cell-free extracts from human and rat small intestine mucosa exhibited esterase activity towards diferulate esters. Hence, we have shown that esterified diferulates can be released from cereal brans by intestinal enzymes, and that free diferulic acids can be absorbed and enter the circulatory...

  3. Astaxanthin diferulate as a bifunctional antioxidant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papa, T.B.R.; Pinho, V.D.; Nascimento, E.P. do

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Astaxanthin when esterified with ferulic acid is better singlet oxygen quencher with k2 = (1.58 ± 0.1) 10(10) L mol(- 1)s(- 1) in ethanol at 25°C compared with astaxanthin with k2 = (1.12 ± 0.01) 10(9) L mol(- 1)s(- 1). The ferulate moiety in the astaxanthin diester is a better radical....... The mutual enhancement of antioxidant activity for the newly synthetized astaxanthin diferulate becoming a bifunctional antioxidant is rationalized according to a two-dimensional classification plot for electron donation and electron acceptance capability....

  4. Determination of free diferulic, disinapic and dicoumaric acids in plants and foods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grúz, Jiří; Pospíšil, Jiří; Kozubíková, Hana; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Doležal, Karel; Bunzel, M.; Strnad, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 171, MAR 15 (2015), s. 280-286 ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Hydroxycinnamic and dicinnamic acids * Phenylpropanoids * Oxidative coupling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.052, year: 2015

  5. A novel feruloyl esterase from rumen microbial metagenome: Gene cloning and enzyme characterization in the release of mono- and diferulic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feruloyl esterase (FAE) gene was isolated from a rumen microbial metagenome, cloned into E. coli, and expressed in active form. The enzyme (RuFae4) was classified as a Type D feruloyl esterase based on its action on synthetic substrates and ability to release diferulates. The RuFae4 alone releas...

  6. Butylated caffeic acid: An efficient novel antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel antioxidant, butylated caffeic acid (BCA was rationally designed by adding a tert-butyl group to caffeic acid, which was synthesized at a high yield (36.2% from 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol by a four-step reaction including Friedel-Crafts alkylation, bromine oxidation, ether bond hydrolysis and Knoevenagel condensation. Its antioxidant capacity was much stronger than common commercial antioxidant tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ and its mother compound, caffeic acid, in both rancimat and deep frying tests. When investigated via the DPPH method, the antioxidant capacity of BCA was almost equal to TBHQ, but lower than caffeic acid. BCA could be a potentially strong antioxidant, especially for food processing at high temperatures such as deep frying and baking.

  7. Butylated caffeic acid: An efficient novel antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, G.; Liao, X.; Olajide, T.M.; Liu, J.; Jiang, X.; Weng, X.

    2017-01-01

    A novel antioxidant, butylated caffeic acid (BCA) was rationally designed by adding a tert-butyl group to caffeic acid, which was synthesized at a high yield (36.2%) from 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (1) by a four-step reaction including Friedel-Crafts alkylation, bromine oxidation, ether bond hydrolysis and Knoevenagel condensation. Its antioxidant capacity was much stronger than common commercial antioxidant tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and its mother compound, caffeic acid, in both rancimat and deep frying tests. When investigated via the DPPH method, the antioxidant capacity of BCA was almost equal to TBHQ, but lower than caffeic acid. BCA could be a potentially strong antioxidant, especially for food processing at high temperatures such as deep frying and baking. [es

  8. Beneficial effects of antioxidative lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Nakagawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is caused by exposure to reactive oxygen intermediates. The oxidative damage of cell components such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids one of the important factors associated with diabetes mellitus, cancers and cardiovascular diseases. This occurs as a result of imbalance between the generations of oxygen derived radicals and the organism’s antioxidant potential. The amount of oxidative damage increases as an organism ages and is postulated to be a major causal factor of senescence. To date, many studies have focused on food sources, nutrients, and components that exert antioxidant activity in worms, flies, mice, and humans. Probiotics, live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts provide many beneficial effects on the human health, have been attracting growing interest for their health-promoting effects, and have often been administered in fermented milk products. In particular, lactic acid bacteria (LAB are known to conferre physiologic benefits. Many studies have indicated the antioxidative activity of LAB. Here we review that the effects of lactic acid bacteria to respond to oxidative stress, is connected to oxidative-stress related disease and aging.

  9. Antioxidative Categorization of Twenty Amino Acids Based on Experimental Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Naijin; Chen, Guanqun; Liu, Hui

    2017-11-27

    In view of the great importance bestowed on amino acids as antioxidants in oxidation resistance, we attempted two common redox titration methods in this report, including micro-potassium permanganate titration and iodometric titration, to measure the antioxidative capacity of 20 amino acids, which are the construction units of proteins in living organisms. Based on the relative intensities of the antioxidative capacity, we further conducted a quantitative comparison and found out that the product of experimental values obtained from the two methods was proven to be a better indicator for evaluating the relative antioxidative capacity of amino acids. The experimental results were largely in accordance with structural analysis made on amino acids. On the whole, the 20 amino acids concerned could be divided into two categories according to their antioxidative capacity. Seven amino acids, including tryptophan, methionine, histidine, lysine, cysteine, arginine and tyrosine, were greater in total antioxidative capacity compared with the other 13 amino acids.

  10. Plasma Ascorbic Acid and Non-Enzymatic Antioxidants Level in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free radicals have been implicated in the pathology of several diseases including cataract. Ascorbic acid functions as the major chain breaking antioxidant vitamin in the aqueous phase. Bilirubin, albumin and uric acid are regarded as natural antioxidants. There are conflicting reports on plasma concentrations of these ...

  11. Addition of anacardic acid as antioxidants in broiler chicken mortadella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Kelly Gonçalves ABREU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe effect of anacardic acid on lipid stability and coloration of chicken mortadella was investigated. Antioxidants were added to chicken mortadellas, according to the treatments: no added antioxidant, 100 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene and 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm anacardic acid. The mortadellas were stored for 90 days at 4 °C, and the analysis of lipid oxidation and color were performed. For TBARS, there was linear reduction with increased anacardic acid. According to the means test, 200 ppm anacardic acid provided the lower TBARS values. The redness decreased during storage, and, as reported by the means test, mortadella containing 200 ppm anacardic acid had lower values. The lightness of mortadellas decreased during storage. Also in accordance with the means test, mortadellas containing antioxidants had same lightness than control. The yellowness of mortadellas increased during storage. Thus, the anacardic acid is a potential natural antioxidant that could be included in chicken mortadella formulations before cooking.

  12. Comparison of the antioxidant effects of carnosic acid and synthetic antioxidants on tara seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan-Jun; Yang, Feng-Jian; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-Gang

    2018-04-04

    In the present study, tara seed oil was obtained by supercritical fluid extraction and used to investigate the antioxidant strength of carnosic acid (CA) compared with conventional synthetic antioxidants. The antioxidants were added to the tara seed oil at 0.2 mg of antioxidant per gram of oil. The samples were then submitted to at 60 °C 15 days for an accelerated oxidation process, with samples taken regularly for analysis. After oxidation, the samples were analyzed to determine the peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated diene content, and free fatty acid content. CA was investigated at three purity levels (CA20, CA60, CA99), and compared with three synthetic antioxidants (butylatedhydroxyanisole, butylatedhydroxytoluene, and tert-butylhydroquinone). The oxidation indicators showed that CA was a strong antioxidant compared to the synthetic antioxidants. The antioxidant activities decreased in the order: tert-butylhydroquinone > CA99 > CA60 > CA20 > butylatedhydroxyanisole > butylatedhydroxytoluene. These results show that CA could be used to replace synthetic antioxidants in oil products, and should be safer for human consumption and the environment.

  13. Uric acid contributes greatly to hepatic antioxidant capacity besides protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, T; Sorimachi, M

    2017-12-20

    Uric acid is the end-product of purine nucleotide metabolism and an increase in uric acid concentration in the body results in hyperuricemia, ultimately leading to gout. However, uric acid is a potent antioxidant and interacts with reactive oxygen species (ROS) to be non-enzymatically converted to allantoin. Uric acid accounts for approximately 60 % of antioxidant capacity in the plasma; however, its contribution to tissue antioxidant capacity is unknown. In this study, the contribution of uric acid to tissue antioxidant capacity and its conversion to allantoin by scavenging ROS in tissue were examined. The results showed that a decrease in hepatic uric acid content via allopurinol administration significantly reduced hepatic total-radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) content in protein-free cytosol. Additionally, treating protein-free cytosol with uricase led to a further reduction of hepatic TRAP content. Allantoin was also detected in the solution containing protein-free cytosol that reacted with ROS. These findings suggest that in the absence of protein, uric acid contributes greatly to antioxidant capacity in the liver, where uric acid is converted to allantoin by scavenging ROS.

  14. Impact of salicylic acid on antioxidants, biomass and osmotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-08-14

    Aug 14, 2013 ... Key words: Antioxidants, growth, salicylic acid, water stress. INTRODUCTION ... All abiotic stresses such as water deficit and salt stress cause increased ..... Shakirova F (2001). The role of hormonal changes in protective.

  15. Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase activities of fatty acids found in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Geneive E; Momin, Rafikali A; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Dewitt, David L

    2002-04-10

    Several commercially available C-8 to C-24 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (1-29) were assayed for cyclooxygenase-I (COX-I) and cyclooxygenase-II (COX-II) inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Among the saturated fatty acids tested at 60 microg mL(-1), there was an increase in antioxidant activity with increasing chain length from octanoic acid to myristic acid (C-8-C-14) and a decrease thereafter. All unsaturated fatty acids tested at 60 microg mL(-1) showed good antioxidant activity except for undecylenic acid (12), cis-5-dodecenoic acid (13), and nervonic acid (29). The highest inhibitory activities among the saturated fatty acids tested on cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-I and COX-II were observed for decanoic acid to lauric acid (3-5) at 100 microg mL(-1). Similarly, among the unsaturated fatty acids tested, the highest activities were observed for cis-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid (25) and cis-13,16-docosadienoic acid (27) at 100 microg mL(-1).

  16. Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time.

  17. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of ellagic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Bayrak, Yüksel

    2014-09-01

    Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH• scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties.

  18. Fulvic acid affects pepper antioxidant activity and fruit quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fulvic acid has been considered as a valuable fertilizer for sustainable agriculture. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of fulvic acid (FA) on antioxidant compounds and fruit quality of pepper under field conditions. Plants were grown in the Department of Horticulture Farm, Ferdowsi University of ...

  19. Salicylic Acid Alters Antioxidant and Phenolics Metabolism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Antioxidant enzymes; Catharanthus roseus; indole alkaloids; phenolic metabolism; salicylic acid; salinity stress. Abbreviations: CAT - catalase; Chl - chlorophyll; Car - carotenoids; DTNB - 5,5-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid; GR - glutathione reductase; GST - Glutathione-S-transferase; H2O2 - hydrogen peroxide; ...

  20. Effects of organic acid supplementation on antioxidant capacity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four commercial organic acids and a reference antibiotic, Neoxyval, were administered to commercial broilers to evaluate the efficacy of these products during pre- and post-challenge with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) on selected indicators of their antioxidant status and immune ...

  1. Effects of salicylic acid on monoterpene production and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays important roles in plant defense responses. However, little is available about its effects on monoterpene responses. Therefore, monoterpene contents and antioxidant systems were measured three days after foliar application of SA with different concentrations in Houttuynia cordata. SA at low ...

  2. Phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of wheat species: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leváková Ľudmila

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (genus Triticum is considered to be an important source of polyphenols, plant secondary metabolites with numerous health-promoting effects. Many phytochemicals are responsible for the high antioxidant activity of whole grain products. However, there is a lack of information about composition of phenolic acids and their concentrations in different Triticum species. Despite the fact that the increased consumption of whole grain cereals and whole grain-based products has been closely related to reduced risk of chronic diseases, bioactive compounds found in whole grain cereals have not achieved as much attention as the bioactive compounds in vegetables and fruits. Recent studies have revealed that the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of whole grain cereals have been regularly undervalued in the literature, because they contain more polyphenols and other phytochemicals than was reported in the past. Phenolic acids represent a large group of bioactive compounds in cereals. These compounds play a significant role in the possible positive effects of the human diet rich in whole grain cereals, especially in wheat and provide health benefits associated with demonstrably diminished risk of chronic disease development. Ferulic acid, the primary and the most abundant phenolic acid contained in wheat grain, is mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity of wheat, particularly bran fraction. In this paper, selected phenolic compounds in wheat, their antioxidant activity and health benefits related to consumption of whole grain cereals are reviewed.

  3. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, A M; Man, Y B Che; Nazimah, S A H; Amin, I

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

  4. Comparison of Antioxidant Evaluation Assays for Investigating Antioxidative Activity of Gallic Acid and Its Alkyl Esters in Different Food Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phonsatta, Natthaporn; Deetae, Pawinee; Luangpituksa, Pairoj; Grajeda-Iglesias, Claudia; Figueroa-Espinoza, Maria Cruz; Le Comte, Jérôme; Villeneuve, Pierre; Decker, Eric A; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Panya, Atikorn

    2017-08-30

    The addition of antioxidants is one of the strategies to inhibit lipid oxidation, a major cause of lipid deterioration in foods leading to rancidity development and nutritional losses. However, several studies have been reported that conventional antioxidant assays, e.g., TPC, ABTS, FRAP, and ORAC could not predict antioxidant performance in several foods. This study aimed to investigate the performance of two recently developed assays, e.g., the conjugated autoxidizable triene (CAT) and the apolar radical-initiated conjugated autoxidizable triene (ApoCAT) assays to predict the antioxidant effectiveness of gallic acid and its esters in selected food models in comparison with the conventional antioxidant assays. The results indicated that the polarities of the antioxidants have a strong impact on antioxidant activities. In addition, different oxidant locations demonstrated by the CAT and ApoCAT assays influenced the overall antioxidant performances of the antioxidants with different polarities. To validate the predictability of the assays, the antioxidative performance of gallic acid and its alkyl esters was investigated in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, bulk soybean oils, and roasted peanuts as the lipid food models. The results showed that only the ApoCAT assay could be able to predict the antioxidative performances in O/W emulsions regardless of the antioxidant polarities. This study demonstrated that the relevance of antioxidant assays to food models was strongly dependent on physical similarities between the tested assays and the food structure matrices.

  5. Characterization and antioxidant activity of gallic acid derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinda, Krissan; Sutanto, Hery; Darmawan, Akhmad

    2017-11-01

    Peroxidase enzyme was used to catalyze the dimerization process of gallic acid. The structure of the dimerization product was characterized by 1H NMR and LC-MS-MS. The mechanism of gallic acid dimerization was also discussed. It was proposed that ellagic acid was formed through an oxidative coupling mechanism that lead to the formation of a C-C bond and followed by an intramolecular Fischer esterification mechanism that lead to the formation of two C-O bonds. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of gallic acid and ellagic acid were also studied. Gallic acid and ellagic acid exhibited the DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 13.2 μM and 15.9 μM, respectively.

  6. Uric acid, an important antioxidant contributing to survival in termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Eisuke; Sakurai, Hiroki; Nitao, Masaru; Matsuura, Kenji; Iuchi, Yoshihito

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated spontaneously in all organisms and cause oxidative damage to biomolecules when present in excess. Accumulated oxidative damage accelerates aging; enhanced antioxidant capacity may be a positive factor for longevity. Recently, numerous studies of aging and longevity have been performed using short-lived animals, however, longevity mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show that a termite Reticulitermes speratus that is thought to be long-lived eusocial insect than other solitary insects uses large quantities of uric acid as an antioxidant against ROS. We demonstrated that the accumulation of uric acid considerably increases the free radical-scavenging activity and resistance against ultraviolet-induced oxidative stress in laboratory-maintained termites. In addition, we found that externally administered uric acid aided termite survival under highly oxidative conditions. The present data demonstrates that in addition to nutritional and metabolic roles, uric acid is an essential antioxidant for survival and contributes significantly to longevity. Uric acid also plays important roles in primates but causes gout when present in excess in humans. Further longevity studies of long-lived organisms may provide important breakthroughs with human health applications. PMID:28609463

  7. Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goufo, Piebiep; Trindade, Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of γ-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice. PMID:24804068

  8. Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goufo, Piebiep; Trindade, Henrique

    2014-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of γ-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice.

  9. Fate of the synergistic antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin, and tocopherol in mayonnaise: Partion of ascorbic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne Merete Boye; Jacobsen, Charlotte Munch

    1996-01-01

    Meyer, A. S. & C. Jacobsen, 1996. Fate of the synergistic antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin, and tocopherol in mayonnaise: Partion of ascorbic acid, J. Food Lipids, 3, 139-147.......Meyer, A. S. & C. Jacobsen, 1996. Fate of the synergistic antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin, and tocopherol in mayonnaise: Partion of ascorbic acid, J. Food Lipids, 3, 139-147....

  10. Production of starch with antioxidative activity by baking starch with organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Shoji; Nakamura, Megumi; Okuno, Michiko; Miyazaki, Hisako; Watanabe, Jun; Ishikawa-Takano, Yuko; Miura, Makoto; Takase, Nao; Hayakawa, Sachio; Kobayashi, Shoichi

    2011-01-01

    A starch ingredient with antioxidative activity, as measured by the DPPH method, was produced by baking corn starch with an organic acid; it has been named ANOX sugar (antioxidative sugar). The baking temperature and time were fixed at 170 °C and 60 min, and the organic acid used was selected from preliminary trials of various kinds of acid. The phytic acid ANOX sugar preparation showed the highest antioxidative activity, but the color of the preparation was almost black; we therefore selected L-tartaric acid which had the second highest antioxidative activity. The antioxidative activity of the L-tartaric acid ANOX sugar preparation was stable against temperature, light, and enzyme treatments (α-amylase and glucoamylase). However, the activity was not stable against variations in water content and pH value. The antioxidative activity of ANOX sugar was stabilized by treating with boiled water or nitrogen gas, or by pH adjustment.

  11. Drying affects artemisinin, dihydroartemisinic acid, artemisinic acid, and the antioxidant capacity of Artemisia annua L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jorge F S; Luthria, Devanand L

    2010-02-10

    There is limited information on how postharvest drying of Artemisia annua affects artemisinin (ART) biosynthesis and A. annua antioxidant capacity. Antioxidants may boost the bioactivity of ART and the crop commercial value. We evaluated the effect of freeze, oven, shade, and sun drying, time of drying, and light intensity on the leaf concentration of ART, dihydroartemisinic acid (DHAA), artemisinic acid (AA), and on the leaf antioxidant capacity. Freeze-dried samples had the lowest ART concentrations as compared to the other drying methods. However, the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay showed that freeze- and oven-dried samples had similarly high antioxidant activities, which declined significantly after plants were shade- and sun-dried. Shade drying for 1, 2, and 3 weeks, under ambient or low light, did not change the ART content but significantly decreased the leaf antioxidant activity, mainly if sun-dried. A significant decrease (82% average) in DHAA was observed for all drying procedures as compared to freeze drying, with a simultaneous, significant increase in ART (33% average). The average bioconversion of DHAA to ART was 43% for oven- and shade-dried plants and 94% for sun-dried plants, reiterating the hypothesis that DHAA, not AA, is the main biosynthetic precursor of ART and suggesting that sun drying improves the bioconversion from DHAA to ART. Data also indicate that oven drying for 24 h at 45 degrees C can provide good levels of both ART and antioxidants in leaves. These findings are valuable for the commercial production of ART and of bioactive antioxidants that might synergize with the antimalarial and anticancer effects of ART when combined in traditional preparations to improve human and animal health.

  12. Phenolic acid composition and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M I; Alam, N; Moniruzzaman, M; Sulaiman, S A; Gan, S H

    2011-08-01

    The phenolic acid and flavonoid contents of Malaysian Tualang, Gelam, and Borneo tropical honeys were compared to those of Manuka honey. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities were also quantified. All honey extracts exhibited high phenolic contents (15.21 ± 0.51- 42.23 ± 0.64 mg/kg), flavonoid contents (11.52 ± 0.27- 25.31 ± 0.37 mg/kg), FRAP values (892.15 ± 4.97- 363.38 ± 10.57 μM Fe[II]/kg), and high IC₅₀ of DPPH radical-scavenging activities (5.24 ± 0.40- 17.51 ± 0.51 mg/mL). Total of 6 phenolic acids (gallic, syringic, benzoic, trans-cinnamic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids) and 5 flavonoids (catechin, kaempferol, naringenin, luteolin, and apigenin) were identified. Among the Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey had the highest contents of phenolics, and flavonoids, and DPPH radical-scavenging activities. We conclude that among Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey is the richest in phenolic acids, and flavonoid compounds, which have strong free radical-scavenging activities. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Phenolic acid profiles and antioxidant potential of Pelargonium sidoides callus cultures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumar, V.; Moyo, M.; Grúz, Jiří; Šubrtová, Michaela; van Staden, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 77, DEC 23 (2015), s. 402-408 ISSN 0926-6690 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Antioxidants * Hydroxybenzoic acids * Hydroxycinnamic acids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.449, year: 2015

  14. Antioxidative effect of lipophilized caffeic acid in fish oil enriched mayonnaise and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Guardiola, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidative effect of lipophilized caffeic acid was assessed in two different fish oil enriched food products: mayonnaise and milk. In both emulsion systems, caffeic acid esterified with fatty alcohols of different chain lengths (C1–C20) were better antioxidants than the original phenolic c...

  15. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of mono- and bissalicylic acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurendić Evgenija A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple synthesis of mono- and bis-salicylic acid derivatives 1-10 by the transesterification of methyl salicylate (methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate with 3-oxapentane-1,5-diol, 3,6- dioxaoctane-1,8-diol, 3,6,9-trioxaundecane-1,11-diol, propane-1,2-diol or 1-aminopropan- 2-ol in alkaline conditions is reported. All compounds were tested in vitro on three malignant cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, PC-3 and one non-tumor cell line (MRC- 5. Strong cytotoxicity against prostate PC-3 cancer cells expressed compounds 3, 4, 6, 9 and 10, all with the IC50 less than 10 μmol/L, which were 11-27 times higher than the cytotoxicity of antitumor drug doxorubicin. All tested compounds were not toxic against the non-tumor MRC-5 cell line. Antioxidant activity of the synthesized derivatives was also evaluated. Compounds 2, 5 and 8 were better OH radical scavengers than commercial antioxidants BHT and BHA. The synthesized compounds showed satisfactory scavenger activity, which was studied by QSAR modeling. A good correlation between the experimental variables IC50 DPPH and IC50 OH and MTI (molecular topological indices molecular descriptors and CAA (accessible Connolly solvent surface area for the new compounds 1, 3, and 5 was observed.

  16. Chitosan-caffeic acid-genipin films presenting enhanced antioxidant activity and stability in acidic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cláudia; Maricato, Élia; Cunha, Ângela; Nunes, Alexandra; da Silva, José A Lopes; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2013-01-02

    The use of chitosan films has been limited due to their high degradability in aqueous acidic media. In order to produce chitosan films with high antioxidant activity and insoluble in acid solutions caffeic acid was grafted to chitosan by a radical mechanism using ammonium cerium (IV) nitrate (60 mM). Genipin was used as cross-linker. This methodology originated films with 80% higher antioxidant activity than the pristine film. Also, these films only lost 11% of their mass upon seven days immersion into an aqueous solution at pH 3.5 under stirring. The films surface wettability (contact angle 105°), mechanical properties (68 MPa of tensile strength and 4% of elongation at break), and thermal stability for temperatures lower than 300 °C were not significantly influenced by the covalent linkage of caffeic acid and genipin to chitosan. Due to their characteristics, mainly higher antioxidant activity and lower solubility, these are promising materials to be used as active films. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidant poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles made with α-tocopherol-ascorbic acid surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astete, Carlos E; Dolliver, Debra; Whaley, Meocha; Khachatryan, Lavrent; Sabliov, Cristina M

    2011-12-27

    The goal of the study was to synthesize a surfactant made of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) of antioxidant properties dubbed as EC, and to use this surfactant to make poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles. Self-assembled EC nanostructures and PLGA-EC nanoparticles were made by nanoprecipitation, and their physical properties (size, size distribution, morphology) were studied at different salt concentrations, surfactant concentrations, and polymer/surfactant ratios. EC surfactant was shown to form self-assembled nanostructures in water with a size of 22 to 138 nm in the presence of sodium chloride, or 12 to 31 nm when synthesis was carried out in sodium bicarbonate. Polymeric PLGA-EC nanoparticles presented a size of 90 to 126 nm for 40% to 120% mass ratio PLGA to surfactant. For the same mass ratios, the PLGA-Span80 formed particles measured 155 to 216 nm. Span80 formed bilayers, whereas EC formed monolayers at the interfaces. PLGA-EC nanoparticles and EC showed antioxidant activity based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay measurements using UV and EPR techniques, antioxidant activity which is not characteristic to commercially available Span80. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for lipid peroxidation showed that PLGA nanoparticles with EC performed better as antioxidants than the EC nanoassembly or the free vitamin C. Nanoparticles were readily internalized by HepG2 cells and were localized in the cytoplasm. The newly synthesized EC surfactant was therefore found successful in forming uniform, small size polymeric nanoparticles of intrinsic antioxidant properties.

  18. The substituent and solvent effects on the antioxidant activity of the ferulic acid derivations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, M.; Bukhari, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of ortho and meta substituted ferulic acid derivatives have been investigated in the gas phase and water. The reaction enthalpies of antioxidant activity of studied derivatives have been calculated and compared with corresponding values of ferulic acid. Results show that EWG substituents increase the BDE, IP, while EDG ones cause a rise in the PA. The ferulic acid derivatives with lowest BDE, IP and PA values were identified as the compounds with high antioxidant activity. Results show that the substituents at ortho position have high potential for synthesis of novel ferulic acid derivatives. Results show that ferulic acid derivatives can process their protective role via HAT and SPLET mechanism in gas phase and solvent, respectively. The calculated reaction enthalpies of the substituted ferulic acids have linear dependences with Hammett constants and EHOMO that can be utilized in the selection of suitable substituents for the synthesis of novel antioxidants based on ferulic acid. (author)

  19. A comparison of antioxidant properties of uric acid, allantoin and allantoic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papežíková, Ivana; Lojek, Antonín; Číž, Milan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 14 (2007), s247-S248 E-ISSN 1213-7103. [Mezioborová česko-slovenská toxikologická konference /12./. Praha, 11.06.2007-13.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP204/07/P539 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : uric acid * antioxidants * allantoin Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  20. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  1. Use of Gallic Acid to Enhance the Antioxidant and Mechanical Properties of Active Fish Gelatin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpisophon, Kanokrat; Schleining, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the potential roles of gallic acid in fish gelatin film for improving mechanical properties, UV barrier, and providing antioxidant activities. Glycerol, a common used plasticizer, also impacts on mechanical properties of the film. A factorial design was used to investigate the effects of gallic acid and glycerol concentrations on antioxidant activities and mechanical properties of fish gelatin film. Increasing the amount of gallic acid increased the antioxidant capacities of the film measured by radical scavenging assay and the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay. The released antioxidant power of gallic acid from the film was not reduced by glycerol. The presence of gallic acid not only increased the antioxidant capacity of the film, but also increased the tensile strength, elongation at break, and reduced UV absorption due to interaction between gallic acid and protein by hydrogen bonding. Glycerol did not affect the antioxidant capacities of the film, but increased the elasticity of the films. Overall, this study revealed that gallic acid entrapped in the fish gelatin film provided antioxidant activities and improved film characteristics, namely UV barrier, strength, and elasticity of the film. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Folic acid content and antioxidant activity of different types of beers available in Hungarian retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Dániel; Orbán, Csaba; Galló, Nóra; Kun, Szilárd; Vecseri-Hegyes, Beáta; Kun-Farkas, Gabriella

    2017-04-01

    In this study 40 Hungarian retail beers were evaluated for folic acid content, antioxidant profile and physicochemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters, folic acid content and antioxidant activity of alcohol-free beers were the lowest. Folic acid content of beers aged with sour cherries showed high values, more than 0.4 mg/l and an alcohol-free beer-based mixed drink made with lemon juice contained more than 0.2 mg/l of folic acid. Dark beers and beers aged with sour cherries had the highest antioxidant activity probably owing to their high extract content, components released from the fruits and special malts. These results highlight the possibility of achieving adequate folic acid and relevant antioxidant intake without excessive alcohol and energy consumption by selecting appropriate beer types.

  3. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of p-coumaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim

    2013-11-01

    p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid), a phenolic acid, is a hydroxyl derivative of cinnamic acid. It decreases low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation and reduces the risk of stomach cancer. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of p-coumaric acid were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. p-Coumaric acid inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 66.8%, 69.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, p-coumaric acid had an effective DPPHrad scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that p-coumaric acid can be used in the pharmacological and food industry because of these properties.

  4. Maternal and neonatal plasma antioxidant levels in normal pregnancy, and the relationship with fatty acid unsaturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostenbrug, G.S.; Mensink, R.P.; Al, M.D.M.; Houwelingen, A.C. van; Hornstra, G.

    1998-01-01

    During pregnancy, maternal plasma concentrations of the peroxidation-susceptible polyunsaturated fatty acids (polyenes) increase. In addition, the proportion of polyenes is higher in neonatal plasma than in maternal plasma. To study whether these increased amounts of polyenes affect antioxidant

  5. Fate of the synergistic antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin, and tocopherol in mayonnaise : Partition of ascorbic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A.S.; Jacobsen, Charlotte Munch

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of ascorbic acid between the lipid and aqueous phase was investigated in mayonnaises enriched with fish oil containing a synergistic antioxidant mixture of ascorbic acid, lecithin and gamma-tocopherol, i.e., the A/L/T system (Loliger and Saucy 1989). The ascorbic acid was found...... to be located in the aqueous phase indicating that the A/L/T system broke down in mayonnaises. Based on the hypothesis that synergistic antioxidant action between ascorbic acid, lecithin and tocopherol requires that the three components are in close assembly, the results offer an explanation as to why the A...

  6. Synthesis and Antiradical/Antioxidant Activities of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and Its Related Propionic, Acetic, and Benzoic Acid Analoguesc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Touaibia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE is a bioactive component isolated from propolis. A series of CAPE analogues was synthesized and their antiradical/antioxidant effects analyzed. The effect of the presence of the double bond and of the conjugated system on the antioxidant effect is evaluated with the analogues obtained from 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl propanoic acid. Those obtained from 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid allow the evaluation of the effect of the presence of two carbons between the carbonyl and aromatic system.

  7. Antioxidant Activities of Selected Berries and Their Free, Esterified, and Insoluble-Bound Phenolic Acid Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    To explore the potential of berries as natural sources of bioactive compounds, the quantities of free, esterified, and insoluble-bound phenolic acids in a number of berries were determined. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the berries were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays, in addition to determination of their metal ion chelating activities. Furthermore, several phenolic compounds were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the 6 tested berries, black chokeberry and blackberry exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities, and the various berry samples were found to contain catechin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, vanillic acid, quercitrin, resveratrol, morin, naringenin, and apigenin. Moreover, the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of the fractions containing insoluble-bound phenolic acids were higher than those containing the free and esterified phenolic acids. The results imply that the insoluble-bound fractions of these berries are important natural sources of antioxidants for the preparation of functional food ingredients and preventing diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:29662846

  8. Antioxidant activity of amino acids in soybean oil at frying temperature: Structural effects and synergism with tocopherols

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate amino acids as natural antioxidants for frying. Twenty amino acids were added to soybean oil heated to 180 ºC, and the effects of amino acid structure on the antioxidant activity were investigated. Amino acids containing a thiol, a thioether, or an extra ami...

  9. Emulsifying Property and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Modified with Oxidized Linoleic Acid and Oxidized Tannic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Cuttlefish skin gelatins modified with oxidized linoleic acid (OLA) and oxidized tannic acid (OTA) were characterized and determined for emulsifying properties and antioxidative activity. Modification of gelatin with 5% OTA increased the total phenolic content and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl,

  10. Influence of rye flour enzymatic biotransformation on the antioxidant capacity and transepithelial transport of phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Fabíola Aliaga; Martins, Isabela Mateus; Faria, Ana; Calhau, Conceição; Azevedo, Joana; Fernandes, Iva; Mateus, Nuno; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2018-03-01

    Phenolic acids have been reported to play a role on the antioxidant activity and other important biological activities. However, as most polyphenolics in food products are either bound to cellular matrices or present as free polymeric forms, the way they are absorbed has not been totally clear until now. Hydrolytic enzymes may act to increase functionalities in polyphenolic-rich foods, enhancing the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds and minerals from whole grains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of tannin acyl hydrolase (tannase) on the total phenols, phenolic acid profile, antioxidant capacity and in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids found in whole rye flour (RF). Besides increasing total phenols and the antioxidant capacity, tannase treatment increased the amounts of ferulic, sinapic and vanillic acids identified in RF, evidencing a new type of feruloyl esterase catalytic action of tannase. Vanillic and sinapic acids in tannase-treated whole rye flour (RFT) were higher than RF after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, and higher amounts of transported vanillic acid through the Caco-2 monolayer were detected in RFT. However, the bioaccessibility and the transport efficiency of RF phenolic acids were higher than RFT. Underutilized crops like rye and rye-derived products may be an important source of phenolic acids. The tannase biotransformation, even influencing the total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of RF, did not increase the bioaccessibility of phenolic acids under the experimental conditions of this study.

  11. Effect of lipophilization of dihydrocaffeic acid on its antioxidative properties in fish oil enriched emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; de Diego, Sara; Petersen, Lone Kristine

    oxidation than PUFAs from vegetable oils due to their highly polyunsaturated nature, it is necessary to develop methods to protect these PUFAs. Many food systems are emulsions. Due to the so-called polar paradox phenomenon, hydrophilic antioxidants may in many cases be better antioxidants in bulk oil than...... lipophilic compounds, whereas lipophilic antioxidants are more efficient than hydrophilic antioxidants in emulsions. This phenomenon has been explained by the affinity of the compounds towards the different phases in bulk oil and emulsions. The hydrophilic character of many naturally occurring antioxidants...... that generally, lipophilized dihydrocaffeic acid and rutin increased the oxidative stability of o/w emulsions and fish oil enriched milk compared with their parent compound. The results supported a cut-off effect in relation to the acyl chain length esterified to the phenolic compound. Octyl dihydrocaffeate (C8...

  12. Alkyl chain length impacts the antioxidative effect of lipophilized ferulic acid in fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Lyneborg, Karina Sieron; Villeneuve, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Lipophilization of phenolics by esterification with fatty alcohols may alter their localization in an emulsion and thereby their antioxidant efficacy. In this study, synthesized unbranched alkyl ferulates were evaluated as antioxidants in fish oil enriched milk. Lipid oxidation was determined...... by peroxide values and concentration of volatile oxidation products. A cut-off effect in the antioxidant efficacy in relation to the alkyl chain length was observed. The most efficient alkyl ferulate was methyl ferulate followed by ferulic acid and butyl ferulate, whereas octyl ferulate was prooxidative...

  13. Antioxidant capacity and contents of phenols, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene in lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Zdravković Jasmina M.; Aćamović-Đoković Gordana S.; Mladenović Jelena D.; Pavlović Radoš M.; Zdravković Milan S.

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of three lettuce varieties (Lactuca sativa L.) Emerald, Vera and Neva, cultivated in two kinds of protected spaces, a glasshouse and a plastic greenhouse, under controlled conditions, was determined. The content of antioxidant compounds: total phenols, flavonoids, L-ascorbic acid, ß-carotene and lycopene, were determined in ethanolic extracts of the lettuce with spectrophotometric methods. The largest content of total phenols (78.98...

  14. Low antioxidant status of serum bilirubin, uric acid, albumin and creatinine in patients with myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dehao; Su, Zhongqian; Wu, Shengjie; Bi, Yong; Li, Xiang; Li, Jia; Lou, Kangliang; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Xu

    2016-12-01

    Oxidative stress and low antioxidant status play a major role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune condition targeting the neuromuscular junction, and its antioxidant status is still controversial. Our study aimed to investigate the correlation between the clinical characteristics of MG and the serum antioxidant status of bilirubin (Tbil, Dbil and Ibil), uric acid, albumin and creatinine. We measured serum antioxidant molecule levels of bilirubin (Tbil, Dbil and Ibil), uric acid, albumin and creatinine in 380 individuals, including 166 MG and 214 healthy controls. We found that MG patients had significantly lower serum levels of bilirubin (Tbil, Dbil and Ibil), uric acid, albumin and creatinine than healthy controls, whether male or female. Moreover, it was also shown in our study that uric acid, albumin and creatinine levels in patients with MG were correlated with disease activity and classifications performed by the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America. Our findings demonstrated that serum levels of bilirubin (Tbil, Dbil and Ibil), uric acid, albumin and creatinine were reduced in patients with MG. This suggested an active oxidative process in MG patients who had low antioxidant status.

  15. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT ANTIOXIDANTS ON FAT STABILITY IN BROILER RATIONS: THIOBARBITURIC ACID VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa, Fawad Ahmad, Arfan Yousaf and Asad Ullah Hyder

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Thiobarbituric acid (TBA value was significantly (P< 0.05 affected by storage period, fat levels and antioxidants but the interaction of these factors was non significant. TBA value increased with the increase in storage period, however, the increase was relatively less during first 14 days of storage then a significant increase in TBA was observed as the storage period prolonged. Rations containing 4% fat have greater TBA value than the rations containing 2 or 3% fat. There was also a significant difference on TBA value due to antioxidant and their levels. TBA value was lower in the rations containing ethoxyquin than BHT containing rations and the rations supplemented with oxistat had greater TBA value. At higher level of any antioxidant, TBA value decreased, however, the difference between TBA values at both levels is non significant. With the increase in storage period there was increase in TBA value at both the antioxidant level. Antioxidant had a significant effect on fat stability in TBA test. Antioxidant level at 2 and 3% fat had a non significant effect but at 4% fat level. Antioxidant level had a significant effect. However, TBA values increased significantly at both levels of antioxidant with the increase in fat levels.

  16. Potent Antioxidative Activity of Lycopene: A Potential Role in Scavenging Hypochlorous Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Pennathur, Subramaniam; Maitra, Dhiman; Byun, Jaeman; Sliskovic, Inga; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim; Saed, Ghassan M.; Diamond, Michael P.; Abu-Soud, Husam M.

    2010-01-01

    Lycopene, a carotenoid found in tomatoes, is a proven anti-oxidant that may lower the risk of certain disorders including heart disease and cancer. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is an oxidant linked to tissue oxidation in cardiovascular disease and other inflammatory disorders through its ability to modify proteins, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid and lipids. Here we show that lycopene can function as a potent scavenger of HOCl at a wide range of concentrations that span various pathophysi...

  17. Antioxidant activity and profile fatty acids of jabuticaba seeds (Myrciaria cauliflora berg)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, Neuza; Bruna Jorge Bertanha; Moreno Luzia, Debora Maria

    2011-01-01

    Numerous natural compounds found in fruits, grains and vegetables have antioxidant activity. This work aimed to characterize jabuticaba seeds (Myrciaria cauliflora berg) by proximate composition, antioxidant activity and fatty acids profile of their extracted oil. To obtain the extract, the dehydrated and triturated seeds were extracted with ethyl alcohol for 30 min, at a proportion of 1:3 of seeds: ethyl alcohol, under continuous agitation, at room temperature. Afterwards, the mixture was filtered and the supernatant dehydrated at 40 Celsius degrade aiming to determine, by direct weighing, the extracts dry matter yield. According to the results, the jabuticaba seeds are an important source of total carbohydrates, and also presented relevant antioxidant activity. In the jabuticaba seeds oil, a significant percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids stood out, with linoleic and α-linolenic being the main component, essentials fatty acids.

  18. Antioxidant status of serum bilirubin and uric acid in patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibo; Su, Zhongqian; Pang, Wanhui; Huang, Yuanyuan; Lin, Jie; Ding, Zhangna; Wu, Senmin; Xu, Shunyao; Quan, Weiwei; Zheng, Juzeng; Chen, Huale; Li, Zhengzheng; Li, Xiang; Li, Jia; Weng, Yiyun; Zhang, Xu

    2017-07-01

    Oxidative stress and variations in antioxidant status are implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis (PM/DM) are autoimmune diseases with inflammatory cells infiltrating into skeletal muscles, and the antioxidant status is still controversial. The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between PM/DM and the antioxidant status of serum bilirubin (Tbil, Dbil and Ibil) and uric acid (UA). We measured serum concentrations of bilirubin (Tbil, Dbil and Ibil) and uric acid in 384 individuals, including 110 PM/DM patients and 274 healthy controls. We found that PM/DM patients had significantly lower serum concentrations of bilirubin (Tbil and Ibil) and uric acid than healthy controls, whether male or female. Also, after separately adjusting the covariances of age and gender, Tbil, Dbil, Ibil and UA were all relevant factors for PM/DM. Moreover, there were no significant differences in serum antioxidant molecule levels between PM and DM subgroups. Our study demonstrated the low serum levels of bilirubin and uric acid in patients with PM/DM. This suggested low antioxidant status in PM/DM patients with excessive oxidative stress.

  19. Antioxidant activity of probiotic lactic acid bacteria isolated from Mongolian airag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Uugantsetseg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of probiotic lactic acid bacteria isolated from airag. In this study, 42 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from Mongolian airag. All isolates were identified by using morphological, biochemical and physiological methods. The isolated bacteria were studied for antagonistic effects on Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, 22 strains showed antibacterial activity. When we examined their probiotic properties such as bile acid tolerance and gastric acid tolerance, it is shown that only 6 bacterial strains can survive up to 3  hours in a pH 3.0 acid environment  and up to 8 hours in  0.3% bile acid environment. Selected probiotic strains were further identified to species by API 50CHL system. Antioxidant activity of  probiotic  strains were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. While the antioxidant activity in cell free supernatant fluctuated between the range of 26.1-38.4%,  the antioxidant activity after 72 hours of fermentation in the whey fraction was between 17.23-55.12%. DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.5564/mjc.v15i0.327 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p73-78

  20. Fatty acids, phenols content, and antioxidant activity in Ibervillea sonorae callus cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada-Zúñiga, M.E.; Arano-Varela, H.; Buendía-González, L.; Orozco-Villafuerte, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ibervillea sonorae callus cultures were established in order to produce fatty acids (lauric, myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic and stearic acids) and phenolic compounds. Highest callus induction (100%) was obtained in treatments containing 2.32 or 4.65 μM Kinetin (KIN) with 2.26 or 6.80 μM 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Highest fatty acids (FA) production (48.57 mg g-1), highest total phenol content (TPC; 57.1 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE] g-1) and highest antioxidant activity (EC...

  1. Contents of carboxylic acids and two phenolics and antioxidant activity of dried portuguese wild edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Barbara; Rangel, Joana; Valentão, Patrícia; Baptista, Paula; Seabra, Rosa M; Andrade, Paula B

    2006-11-01

    The organic acids and phenolics compositions of nine wild edible mushrooms species (Suillus bellini, Tricholomopsis rutilans, Hygrophorus agathosmus, Amanita rubescens, Russula cyanoxantha, Boletus edulis, Tricholoma equestre, Suillus luteus, and Suillus granulatus) were determined by HPLC-UV and HPLC-DAD, respectively. The antioxidant potential of these species was also assessed by using the DPPH* scavenging assay. The results showed that all of the species presented a profile composed of at least five organic acids: oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, and fumaric acids. In a general way, the pair of malic plus quinic acids were the major compounds. Only very small amounts of two phenolic compounds were found in some of the analyzed species: p-hydroxybenzoic acid (in A. rubescens, R. cyanoxantha, and T. equestre) and quercetin (in S. luteus and S. granulatus). All of the species exhibited a concentration-dependent scavenging ability against DPPH*. T. rutilans revealed the highest antioxidant capacity.

  2. Polymerization of gallic acid enhances its antioxidant capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gallic acid (3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) and its polymer, tannic acid (TA) are ubiquitous phytochemicals and are found to co-exist in plants. However, the rationale for the polymerisation of GA in plants is rather obscure. Hence, the present study compared the free radical scavenging ability, iron chelating potency, ...

  3. Phenolic acids, hydrolyzable tannins, and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Richard Pereira; Abreu, Bruno Vinicius de Barros; Cunha, Mayara Soares; Batista, Marisa Cristina Aranha; Torres, Luce Maria Brandão; Nascimento, Flavia Raquel Fernandes; Ribeiro, Maria Nilce Sousa; Guerra, Rosane Nassar Meireles

    2014-03-26

    Geopropolis is a mixture of plant resins, waxes, and soil produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata Smith. This paper describes the antioxidant activity and chemical composition of geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata. The total phenolic content determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was highest in the ethyl acetate fraction and hydroalcoholic extract. Antioxidant activity was assayed by the in vitro DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. The hydroalcoholic extract and fractions of geopropolis, except for the hexane fraction, exhibited antioxidant activity against DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP. The phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD-MS on the basis of the evaluation of their UV-vis absorption maxima (λmax) and mass spectral analysis. Eleven compounds belonging to the classes of phenolic acids and hydrolyzable tannins (gallotannins and ellagitannins) were tentatively identified. These compounds are responsible for the antioxidant activity and high phenolic content of geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata.

  4. The antioxidative effect of lipophilized rutin and dihydrocaffeic acid in fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Petersen, Lone Kirsten; de Diego, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidative effect of phenolipids was evaluated in fish oil enriched milk emulsions as a model for a complex food system. Two different phenolipids modified from dihydrocaffeic acid (with C8 or C18:1) and rutin (with C12 or C16) were evaluated. Both dihydrocaffeate esters and rutin laurate...... provides new knowledge that can be used to develop new antioxidant strategies to protect foods against lipid oxidation. However, the results indicate that both optimization of alkyl chain length for each type of phenolic, and optimization for each type of emulsion will be necessary in order to get the best...... oxidative stability of an emulsion with these phenolipids. Use of efficient antioxidants may lower the amount of antioxidant needed to protect against lipid oxidation and may in addition decrease the costs....

  5. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity of Mespilus germanica L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Seçilmiş Canbay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first cultured Mespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of 15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees. Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the results showed that palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid were the most abundant fatty acids (FAs, and the main FA was palmitic acid [(35.35 ± 1.20%]. The percentage of linoleic acid and stearic acid in this fruit oil were (29.10 ± 1.70% and (8.53 ± 0.25%, respectively. As a result of the analysis, the total antioxidant capacity of medlar fruit was (1.1 ± 0.2 mmol trolox equivalents/L. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the concentrations of FAs and the antioxidantive capacity of first cultured Istanbul medlar fruits by using many tested methods. It is proved that in our daily life, medlar fruit plays a significant role with its nutrition and health effect.

  6. Elucidating the Structure-Activity Relationships of the Vasorelaxation and Antioxidation Properties of Thionicotinic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virapong Prachayasittikul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acid, known as vitamin B3, is an effective lipid lowering drug and intense cutaneous vasodilator. This study reports the effect of 2-(1-adamantylthionicotinic acid (6 and its amide 7 and nitrile analog 8 on phenylephrine-induced contraction of rat thoracic aorta as well as antioxidative activity. It was found that the tested thionicotinic acid analogs 6-8 exerted maximal vasorelaxation in a dose-dependent manner, but their effects were less than acetylcholine (ACh-induced nitric oxide (NO vasorelaxation. The vasorelaxations were reduced, apparently, in both NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME and indomethacin (INDO. Synergistic effects were observed in the presence of L-NAME plus INDO, leading to loss of vasorelaxation of both the ACh and the tested nicotinic acids. Complete loss of the vasorelaxation was noted under removal of endothelial cells. This infers that the vasorelaxations are mediated partially by endothelium-induced NO and prostacyclin. The thionicotinic acid analogs all exhibited antioxidant properties in both 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and superoxide dismutase (SOD assays. Significantly, the thionicotinic acid 6 is the most potent vasorelaxant with ED50 of 21.3 nM and is the most potent antioxidant (as discerned from DPPH assay. Molecular modeling was also used to provide mechanistic insights into the vasorelaxant and antioxidative activities. The findings reveal that the thionicotinic acid analogs are a novel class of vasorelaxant and antioxidant compounds which have potential to be further developed as promising therapeutics.

  7. Four New Dicaffeoylquinic Acid Derivatives from Glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L. and Their Antioxidative Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Yong Cho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Four new dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives and two known 3-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives were isolated from methanol extracts using the aerial parts of Salicornia herbacea. The four new dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives were established as 3-caffeoyl-5-dihydrocaffeoylquinic acid, 3-caffeoyl-5-dihydrocaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester, 3-caffeoyl-4-dihydrocaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester, and 3,5-di-dihydrocaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester. Their chemical structures were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (LC-ESI-MS. In addition, the presence of dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives in this plant was reconfirmed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The isolated compounds strongly scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and inhibited cholesteryl ester hydroperoxide formation during rat blood plasma oxidation induced by copper ions. These results indicate that the caffeoylquinic acid derivatives may partially contribute to the antioxidative effect of S. herbacea.

  8. ACID VALUE OF VEGETABLE OILS AND POULTRY FEED AS AFECTED BY STORAGE PERIOD AND ANTIOXIDANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Hassan Khan, Bashir Mahmood Bhatti and Rozina Sardar

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to assess acid values in soyabean, cotton seed and sunflower oil commonly used in poultry ration was conducted. It was observed that mean acid value of oils ~ept in open were significantly high (7.67 than oil kept in sealed form (1.296. The mean acid value was higher in soyabean oil (P<0.01 than the values in cotton seed oil and sunflower oil. While determining the effect of Santaquin, BHT and Oxistat as antioxidant, in the ration stored at 40 °C for 2 months, it was observed that the acid values in untreated control ration was 18.20 while with the added antioxidants were 4.88, 4.85 and 4.83, respectively showing a significant increase with each week of the storage.

  9. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic acids and caffeine contents of some commercial coffees available on the Romanian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, Ion; Nour, Violeta; Ionica, Mira Elena

    2013-03-01

    In the present study a simple and highly sensitive RP-HPLC method has been established for simultaneous determination of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid and caffeine in coffee samples. The method has been applied to eight different coffees available on the Romanian market which were previously analysed concerning the total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity. Reduction of the DPPH radical was used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the coffee extracts while the total polyphenols content was determined by spectrophotometry (Folin Ciocalteu's method). The total polyphenols content ranged from 1.98 g GAE/100 g to 4.19 g GAE/100 g while the caffeine content ranged from 1.89 g/100 g to 3.05 g/100 g. A large variability was observed in chlorogenic acid content of the investigated coffee samples which ranged between 0.6 and 2.32 g/100 g.

  10. Comparison of antioxidant properties of uric acid and its catabolic products

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papežíková, Ivana; Lojek, Antonín; Číž, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2005), S37 [Cells VI - Biological Days /18./. 24.10.2005-26.10.2005, České Budějovice] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/04/0897 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : antioxidant * uric acid * allantoin Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  11. Antioxidant activity of probiotic lactic acid bacteria isolated from Mongolian airag

    OpenAIRE

    E Uugantsetseg; B Batjargal

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of probiotic lactic acid bacteria isolated from airag. In this study, 42 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from Mongolian airag. All isolates were identified by using morphological, biochemical and physiological methods. The isolated bacteria were studied for antagonistic effects on Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, 22 strains showed antibacterial activity. When we examined thei...

  12. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acids characterization of heat treated cow and buffalo milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran Taj; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Ayaz, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Ellahi, Muhammad Yaqoob; Khalique, Anjum

    2017-08-24

    Antioxidant capacity of milk is largely due to vitamins A, E, carotenoids, zinc, selenium, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and enzyme systems. Cow milk has antioxidant capacity while the antioxidant capacity of buffalo milk has been studied in a limited way. The information regarding the effect of pasteurization and boiling on antioxidant capacity of cow and buffalo milk is also scared. Cow and buffalo milk was exposed to two different heat treatments i.e. 65 °C for 30 min and boiling for 1 min. After heat treatments, milk samples were cooled down to 4 °C packaged in transparent 250 ml polyethylene PET bottles and stored at 4 °C for 6 days. Milk composition, total flavonoid content, total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, antioxidant activity in linoleic acid, vitamin C, A, E, selenium, Zinc, fatty acid profile, peroxide value and sensory characteristics were studied in raw, pasteurized and boiled cow and buffalo milk at 0, 3 and 6 days of storage period. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of raw, pasteurized and boiled milk for cow (42.1, 41.3 and 40.7%) and buffalo (58.4, 57.6 and 56.5%) samples was found, respectively. Reducing power (RP) of raw cow and buffalo milk was 6.74 and 13.7 while pasteurization and boiling did not showed significant effect on RP of both cow and buffalo milk. DPPH activity of raw, pasteurized and boiled milk for cow (24.3, 23.8 and 23.6%) and buffalo (31.8, 31.5 and 30.4%) samples was noted, respectively. Storage period up to 3 days was non-significant while DPPH assay after 6 days of storage period indicated significant decline in antioxidant activity of milk samples. Antioxidant activity in linoleic acid (AALA) of buffalo and cow milk were recorded 11.7 and 17.4%, respectively. Pasteurization and boiling did not showed any impact on antioxidant capacity of cow and buffalo milk. The Loss of vitamin C in pasteurization (40 and 42%) and boiling (82 and 61%) of

  13. Protective Mechanisms of Nitrone Antioxidants in Kainic Acid Induced Neurodegeneration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bing, Guoying

    2001-01-01

    .... This model has been widely used as a model for studying human temporal lobe epilepsy. The delayed neuronal degeneration induced by kainic acid resembles CNS neuronal injury, repair, and plasticity...

  14. Protective Mechanisms of Nitrone Antioxidants in Kainic Acid Induced Neurodegeneration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bing, Guoying

    2000-01-01

    .... This model has been widely used as a model for studying human temporal lobe epilepsy. The delayed neuronal degeneration induced by kainic acid resembles CNS neuronal injury, repair, and plasticity...

  15. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on postharvest quality, antioxidant activities, and free polyamines of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunxiao; Liu, Zhenfeng; Su, Yujing; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2011-03-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the quality and antioxidant activity of asparagus stored at 18 ± 2 °C were investigated by analyzing the color, chlorophyll, shear force, and the activity of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and polyamines (PAs). The results showed that SA improved the color and maintained the chlorophyll, phenolic, flavonoid, and ascorbic acid content of asparagus. High concentrations of SA caused a deterioration in asparagus would harm to color and had no effect on shear force within 6 d. SA induced the maximum concentration of phenolics in postharvest asparagus, promoted the increase in total flavonoids before 6 to 9 d, affected the antioxidant activity positively as indicated by the resultant increase in FRAP concentration; however, SA was only active with regard to DPPH scavenging activity within 6 d of treatment. Spermidine (Spd) is the most common form of PA in asparagus, and free putrescine (Put) contents increased over the first 3 d following harvest and then decreased. Spd and Spm concentrations evolved in a similar way and decreased during storage. Higher Spd and Spm contents in the SA pre-treatment Put was inhabited and its peaks appeared later.

  16. Improving the antioxidant properties of quinoa flour through fermentation with selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lorusso, Anna; Russo, Vito; Pinto, Daniela; Marzani, Barbara; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-01-16

    Lactic acid bacteria strains, previously isolated from the same matrix, were used to ferment quinoa flour aiming at exploiting the antioxidant potential. As in vitro determined on DPPH and ABTS radicals, the scavenging activity of water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from fermented doughs was significantly (Pquinoa dough fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum T0A10. The corresponding WSE was subjected to Reverse Phase Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography, and 32 fractions were collected and subjected to in vitro assays. The most active fraction was resistant to further hydrolysis by digestive enzymes. Five peptides, having sizes from 5 to 9 amino acid residues, were identified by nano-Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionisation-Mass Spectra/Mass Spectra. The sequences shared compositional features which are typical of antioxidant peptides. As shown by determining cell viability and radical scavenging activity (MTT and DCFH-DA assays, respectively), the purified fraction showed antioxidant activity on human keratinocytes NCTC 2544 artificially subjected to oxidative stress. This study demonstrated the capacity of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria to release peptides with antioxidant activity through proteolysis of native quinoa proteins. Fermentation of the quinoa flour with a selected starter might be considered suitable for novel applications as functional food ingredient, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between the antioxidant uric acid and depression and antidepressant medication use in 96 989 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, M K; Kobylecki, C J; Afzal, S

    2017-01-01

    , income, body mass index, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, triglycerides, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and intake of meat and vegetables. Results were performed separately in each study and combined in a meta-analysis. RESULTS: In both studies, high uric acid was associated with lower risk......OBJECTIVE: In the last decade, several studies have suggested that depression is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant defenses. We tested the hypothesis that high levels of the antioxidant uric acid are associated with lower risk of hospitalization with depression...... of hospitalization as in-patient or out-patient with depression and antidepressant medication use. A doubling in uric acid was associated with an effect estimate of 0.57 (95% CI 0.49-0.65) and 0.77 (0.73-0.81) for hospitalization with depression and antidepressant medication use. The association was consistent...

  18. Hydroxycinnamic acid bound arabinoxylans from millet brans-structural features and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijalwan, Vandana; Ali, Usman; Kesarwani, Atul Kumar; Yadav, Kamalendra; Mazumder, Koushik

    2016-07-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acid bound arabinoxylans (HCA-AXs) were extracted from brans of five Indian millet varieties and response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction conditions. The optimal condition to obtain highest yield of millet HCA-AXs was determined as follows: time 61min, temperature 66°C, ratio of solvent to sample 12ml/g. Linkage analysis indicated that hydroxycinnamic acid bound arabinoxylan from kodo millet (KM-HCA-AX) contained comparatively low branched arabinoxylan consisting of 14.6% mono-substituted, 1.2% di-substituted and 41.2% un-substituted Xylp residues. The HPLC analysis of millet HCA-AXs showed significant variation in the content of three major bound hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acid). The antioxidant activity of millet HCA-AXs were evaluated using three in vitro assay methods (DPPH, FRAP and β-carotene linoleate emulsion assays) which suggested both phenolic acid composition and structural characteristics of arabinoxylans could be correlated to their antioxidant potential, the detailed structural analysis revealed that low substituted KM-HCA-AX exhibited relatively higher antioxidant activity compared to other medium and highly substituted HCA-AXs from finger (FM), proso (PM), barnyard (BM) and foxtail (FOXM) millet. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) improves seminal antioxidant status and decreases sperm DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Soto, Juan Carlos; Domingo, Joan Carles; Cordobilla, Begoña; Nicolás, María; Fernández, Laura; Albero, Pilar; Gadea, Joaquín; Landeras, José

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary supplementation on semen quality, fatty acid composition, antioxidant capacity, and DNA fragmentation. In this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, 74 subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to either the placebo group (n=32) or to the DHA group (n=42) to consume three 500-mg capsules of oil per day over 10 weeks. The placebo group received 1,500 mg/day of sunflower oil and the DHA group 1,500 mg/day of DHA-enriched oil. Seminal parameters (semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, morphology, and vitality), total antioxidant capacity, deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation, and lipid composition were evaluated prior to the treatment and after 10 weeks. Finally, 57 subjects were included in the study with 25 in the placebo group and 32 in the DHA group. No differences were found in traditional sperm parameters or lipid composition of the sperm membrane after treatment. However, an increase in DHA and Omega-3 fatty acid content in seminal plasma, an improvement in antioxidant status, and a reduction in the percentage of spermatozoa with deoxyribonucleic acid damage were observed in the DHA group after 10 weeks of treatment.

  20. In Barrett's esophagus patients and Barrett's cell lines, ursodeoxycholic acid increases antioxidant expression and prevents DNA damage by bile acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sui; Huo, Xiaofang; Rezaei, Davood; Zhang, Qiuyang; Zhang, Xi; Yu, Chunhua; Asanuma, Kiyotaka; Cheng, Edaire; Pham, Thai H; Wang, David H; Chen, Minhu; Souza, Rhonda F; Spechler, Stuart Jon

    2014-07-15

    Hydrophobic bile acids like deoxycholic acid (DCA), which cause oxidative DNA damage and activate NF-κB in Barrett's metaplasia, might contribute to carcinogenesis in Barrett's esophagus. We have explored mechanisms whereby ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, a hydrophilic bile acid) protects against DCA-induced injury in vivo in patients and in vitro using nonneoplastic, telomerase-immortalized Barrett's cell lines. We took biopsies of Barrett's esophagus from 21 patients before and after esophageal perfusion with DCA (250 μM) at baseline and after 8 wk of oral UDCA treatment. DNA damage was assessed by phospho-H2AX expression, neutral CometAssay, and phospho-H2AX nuclear foci formation. Quantitative PCR was performed for antioxidants including catalase and GPX1. Nrf2, catalase, and GPX1 were knocked down with siRNAs. Reporter assays were performed using a plasmid construct containing antioxidant responsive element. In patients, baseline esophageal perfusion with DCA significantly increased phospho-H2AX and phospho-p65 in Barrett's metaplasia. Oral UDCA increased GPX1 and catalase levels in Barrett's metaplasia and prevented DCA perfusion from inducing DNA damage and NF-κB activation. In cells, DCA-induced DNA damage and NF-κB activation was prevented by 24-h pretreatment with UDCA, but not by mixing UDCA with DCA. UDCA activated Nrf2 signaling to increase GPX1 and catalase expression, and protective effects of UDCA pretreatment were blocked by siRNA knockdown of these antioxidants. UDCA increases expression of antioxidants that prevent toxic bile acids from causing DNA damage and NF-κB activation in Barrett's metaplasia. Elucidation of this molecular pathway for UDCA protection provides rationale for clinical trials on UDCA for chemoprevention in Barrett's esophagus. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Characterization of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activities of Red Radish Brines during Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Jing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Red radish (Raphanus L. pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5–19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15–30 µg/mL. 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2–92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206–220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants.

  2. Corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in acidic medium by orange peel extract and its main antioxidant compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M’hiri, Nouha; Veys-Renaux, Delphine; Rocca, Emmanuel; Ioannou, Irina; Boudhrioua, Nourhéne Mihoubi; Ghoul, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Catechol and derived functions are responsible for flavonoids antioxidant activity. • Antioxidant activity of adsorbed molecules explains cathodic inhibition. • Orange peel extract inhibition is enhanced by the precipitation of a covering film. - Abstract: Chemical compounds of orange peel extracts were identified and their antioxidant activities were determined. The inhibiting effect on acidic steel corrosion brought by the extract and selected antioxidant compounds (neohesperidin, naringin, ascorbic acid) was evaluated separately by electrochemical methods. Whatever the extract concentration, a significant inhibition is observed, whereas selected antioxidant compounds show only a slight effect. Both electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results and scanning electron microscopy observations after immersion reveal that the inhibiting efficiency of orange peel extract is not only due to the antioxidant activity of its compounds but also to the precipitation of a surface film.

  3. Correlating enzymatic browning inhibition and antioxidant ability of Maillard reaction products derived from different amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haining; Zhang, Xiaoming; Karangwa, Eric; Xia, Shuqin

    2017-09-01

    Up to now, only limited research on enzymatic browning inhibition capacity (BIC) of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) has been reported and there are still no overall and systematic researches on MRPs derived from different amino acids. In the present study, BIC and antioxidant capacity, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and Fe 2+ reducing power activity, of the MRPs derived from 12 different amino acids and three reducing sugars were investigated. The MRPs of cysteine (Cys), cystine, arginine (Arg) and histidine (His) showed higher BIC compared to other amino acids. Lysine (Lys)-MRPs showed the highest absorbance value at 420 nm (A 420 ) but very limited BIC, whereas Cys-MRPs, showed the highest BIC and the lowest A 420 . The A 420 can roughly reflect the trend of BIC of MRPs from different amino acids, except Cys and Lys. MRPs from tyrosine (Tyr) showed the most potent antioxidant capacity but very limited BIC, whereas Cys-MRPs showed both higher antioxidant capacity and BIC compared to other amino acids. Partial least squares regression analysis showed positive and significant correlation between BIC and Fe 2+ reducing power of MRPs from 12 amino acids with glucose or fructose, except Lys, Cys and Tyr. The suitable pH for generating efficient browning inhibition compounds varies depending on different amino acids: acidic pH was favorable for Cys, whereas neutral and alkaline pH were suitable for His and Arg, respectively. Increasing both heating temperature and time over a certain range could improve the BIC of MRPs of Cys, His and Arg, whereas any further increase deteriorates their browning inhibition efficiencies. The types of amino acid, initial pH, temperature and time of the Maillard reaction were found to greatly influence the BIC and antioxidant capacity of the resulting MRPs. There is no clear relationship between BIC and the antioxidant capacity of MRPs when reactant type and processing parameters of the Maillard

  4. ANTIOXIDANT AND PRO-OXIDANT EFFECT OF ASCORBIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Rankovic

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals attack proteins, lipids, enzymes and DNA causing pathological changes in organism. There are many mechanisms that organism uses to fight against free radicals. Ascorbic acid is one of the strongest reducers and eliminators of free radicals. It reduces stable oxygenic, azoth and thyol radicals and acts as a primary defense against water radicals in blood. When radicals are dissolved in water suspensions of erythrocytes and low density lipoproteins (LDL, ascorbic acid catches and eliminates free radicals before they arrive to the membrane and LDL molecules. Even though ascorbic acid is not capable of eliminating free radicals out of fluid medium, it acts as synergist to alpha-tocopherol in lipid section, contributes to the lessening of lipid tocoperoxil radicals, and above all, regenerates alpha-tocopherol. Ascorbic acid may act as pro-oxidant under in vitro conditions in the presence of metals; however, this effect is probably not important under in vivo conditions where metal ions, being sequestered, become second reducers.

  5. Response of antioxidant system of tomato to water deficit stress and its interaction with ascorbic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Daneshmand

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses including water deficit stress may produce oxidants such as reactive oxygen species that damage the membrane structure in plants. Among the antioxidants, ascorbic acid has a critical role in the cell and scavenges reactive oxygen species. In this research, effects of ascorbic acid at two levels (0 and 10 mM and water deficit stress based on 3 levels of field capacity (100, 60 and 30% were studied in tomato plants. Both levels of stress increased lipid peroxidation, reduced the amount of ascorbic acid and glutathione and increased the activity of enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, guaiacol peroxidase and reduced the growth parameters. Ascorbic acid treatment, reduced lipid peroxidation, increased ascorbic acid and glutathione levels and decreased the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase and positive effects of ascorbic acid treatment appeared to improve the plant growth parameters.

  6. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of peanut oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shad, M.A.; Pervez, H.; Zafar, Z.I.

    2011-01-01

    The oil from seeds of 4 pea nut (Arachis hypogaea L.) varieties: Golden, Bari 2000, Mongphalla, and Mongphalli 334 cultivated in arid zones, was subjected to the comparative evaluation of its physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity. Pea nut seeds were found to be a rich source of crude fat (45.09-51.63 g/100 g dry weight). The physicochemical properties of the oil were investigated as specific gravity (0.915 +-0.008-0.918+-0.008), acid value (3.96+-0.22-4.95+-0.71 mg KOH/g oil), saponification value ( 226.40+-3.59-246.56+-2.04 mg KOH/g oil) and unsaponifiable matter (3.20 +- 0.23-4.20+-0.04 g/100 g oil). The higher amounts of unsaturated fatty acids (82.06-85.93%) were found to be present in each variety. A significant variation (p<0.05) was observed among the varieties regarding crude oil content, saponification value, oleic/linoleic (O/L) ratios, phenolic acid content and total antioxidant content. Golden was found to be high in oil content, O/L ratio, antioxidant profile and DPPH scavenging activity but low in iodine value. (author)

  7. Effect of ellagic acid on some haematological, immunological and antioxidant parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mişe Yonar, S; Yonar, M E; Yöntürk, Y; Pala, A

    2014-10-01

    In this study, effect of ellagic acid on some haematological, immunological and antioxidant parameters in the blood and various tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were examined. Four groups of rainbow trout were fed experimental diets containing either no ellagic acid (control) or supplemented with ellagic acid at 50 mg/kg diet (EA-50), 100 mg/kg diet (EA-100) or 150 mg/kg diet (EA-150) for 21 days. Samples of the blood and tissue (liver, kidney and spleen) were collected at the end of the experiment and analysed for their haematological profile (the red blood cell count, the haemoglobin concentration and the haematocrit level), immune response (the white blood cell count, the oxidative radical production (NBT activity), the total plasma protein and total immunoglobulin level) and oxidant/antioxidant status (the malondialdehyde level, the superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity as well as the reduced glutathione concentration). The findings of this study demonstrated that ellagic acid had a positive effect on the haematological parameters, the immune response and the antioxidant enzyme activities of the fish. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant activity, fatty acids composition, and functional group analysis of Heliotropium bacciferum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sohail; Ahmad, Shabir; Bibi, Ahtaram; Ishaq, Muhammad Saqib; Afridi, Muhammad Siddique; Kanwal, Farina; Zakir, Muhammad; Fatima, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Heliotropium bacciferum is paramount in medicinal perspective and belongs to Boraginaceae family. The crude and numerous fractions of leaves, stem, and roots of the plant were investigated for phytochemical analysis and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Phytochemical analysis of crude and fractions of the plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenols. The antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity of various extracts of the Heliotropium bacciferum was resolute against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical with the avail of UV spectrophotometer at 517 nm. The stock solution (1000 mg/mL) and then several dilutions (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg/mL) of the crude and fractions were prepared. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard. The plant leaves (52.59 ± 0.84 to 90.74 ± 1.00), stem (50.19 ± 0.92 to 89.42 ± 1.10), and roots extracts (49.19 ± 0.52 to 90.01 ± 1.02) divulged magnificent antioxidant activities. For the ascertainment of the fatty acid constituents a gas chromatograph hyphenated to mass spectrometer was used. The essential fatty acids for growth maintenance such as linoleic acid (65.70%), eicosadienoic acid (15.12%), oleic acid (8.72%), and palmitic acid (8.14%) were found in high percentage. The infrared spectra of all extracts of the plant were recorded by IR Prestige-21 FTIR model.

  9. Yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables: acidity, antioxidant properties and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najgebauer-Lejko, Dorota; Grega, Tadeusz; Tabaszewska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Yoghurt is a fermented milk of unique sensory, nutritive and dietetic value offered in a variety of types and in different flavours. Vegetables belong to the group of food products rich in antioxidant substances (e.g., vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols, polyphenols) which regular consumption lowers the risk of many diseases including cancers and cardiovascular disorders. The aim of the present work was to manufacture and assess the acidity, sensory quality and antioxidant capacity of yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables during 2-week refrigerated storage. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper) were added to the cow's milk fermented using DVS type yoghurt culture after initial cooling to 15-20°C in the amount of 10% (w/w). The following analyses were performed: determination of pH, titratable acidity, antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method as well as sensory evaluation and were conducted after 1, 7 and 14 days of cold storage. The yoghurt supplementation with selected vegetables had no significant effect on the pH and titratable acidity level. The highest ability to scavenge DPPH radicals was stated for yoghurts with broccoli and red sweet pepper. The latter treatment gained the highest notes in sensory evaluation. All vegetable yoghurts were characterised by higher than the natural yoghurt FRAP values measured directly after production. However, the level of this parameter significantly decreased after storage. The red sweet pepper additive was the most beneficial regarding antioxidant properties and organoleptic acceptance of the studied yoghurts.

  10. Characteristics of Oxidative Storage Stability of Canola Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Stabilised with Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirto Prakoso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The storage effects on the oxidation characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester of canola oil (CME were investigated in this study. CME stabilised with two antioxidants, i.e. 2,6-di-tert-bytyl-p-cresol (BHT and 6,6-di-tert-butyl-2, 2’-methylendi-p-cresol (BPH, was stored at 20, 40 and 60°C. The oxidation stability data were measured by the Rancimat test method and it was found that both BHT and BPH addition increased the oxidation resistance of the CME. The results showed that when BPH or BHT was added at a concentration of 100 ppm, the oxidation induction period of the neat CME samples increased from 5.53 h to 6.93 h and 6.14 h, respectively. Comparing both antioxidants, BPH proved to be more effective in increasing the oxidation resistance when both antioxidants were added at the same concentration. Furthermore, the oxidation induction time decreased linearly with the storage time. It was shown that the oxidation occurred rapidly in the first 8 weeks of storage. Later, a kinetic study was undertaken and first-order kinetics were applied to explain the oxidation characteristics of the CME added with antioxidants. This kinetic study focused on exploiting the activation energy values obtained from the Arrhenius equations. Also, the oxidation effects on other quality parameters, including acid value, peroxide value, kinematic viscosity, and water content, were examined.

  11. In Silico Discovery of Novel Potent Antioxidants on the Basis of Pulvinic Acid and Coumarine Derivatives and Their Experimental Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Martinčič

    Full Text Available A pigment from the edible mushroom Xerocomus badius norbadione A, which is a natural derivative of pulvinic acid, was found to possess antioxidant properties. Since the pulvinic acid represents a novel antioxidant scaffold, several other derivatives were recently synthetized and evaluated experimentally, along with some structurally related coumarine derivatives. The obtained data formed the basis for the construction of several quantitative structure-activity and pharmacophore models, which were employed in the virtual screening experiments of compound libraries and for the prediction of their antioxidant activity, with the goal of discovering novel compounds possessing antioxidant properties. A final prioritization list of 21 novel compounds alongside 8 established antioxidant compounds was created for their experimental evaluation, consisting of the DPPH assay, 2-deoxyribose assay, β-carotene bleaching assay and the cellular antioxidant activity assay. Ten novel compounds from the tetronic acid and barbituric acid chemical classes displayed promising antioxidant activity in at least one of the used assays, that is comparable to or even better than some standard antioxidants. Compounds 5, 7 and 9 displayed good activity in all the assays, and were furthermore effective preventers of oxidative stress in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which are promising features for the potential therapeutic use of such compounds.

  12. Oxidative Stress in The Hippocampus During Experimental Seizures Can Be Ameliorated With The Antioxidant Ascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítala Mônica Sales Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid has many nonenzymatic actions and is a powerful water-soluble antioxidant. It protects low density lipoproteins from oxidation and reduces harmful oxidants in the central nervous system. Pilocarpine-induced seizures have been suggested to be mediated by increases in oxidative stress. Current studies have suggested that antioxidant compounds may afford some level of neuroprotection against the neurotoxicity of seizures. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid (AA in rats, against the observed oxidative stress during seizures induced by pilocarpine. Wistar rats were treated with 0.9% saline (i.p., control group, ascorbic acid (500 mg/kg, i.p., AA group, pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., pilocarpine group, and the association of ascorbic acid (500 mg/kg, i.p. plus pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before of administration of ascorbic acid (AA plus pilocarpine group. After the treatments all groups were observed for 6 h. The enzyme activities as well as the lipid peroxidation and nitrite concentrations were measured using spectrophotometric methods and the results compared to values obtained from saline and pilocarpine-treated animals. Protective effects of ascorbic acid were also evaluated on the same parameters. In pilocarpine group there was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and nitrite level. However, no alteration was observed in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Antioxidant treatment significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation level and nitrite content as well as increased the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in hippocampus of adult rats after seizures induced by pilocarpine. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress in hippocampus occurs during seizures induced by pilocarpine, proving that brain damage induced by the oxidative process plays a crucial role in seizures pathogenic consequences, and also imply that a

  13. Antioxidant response of soybean seedlings to joint stress of lanthanum and acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chanjuan; Wang, Weimin

    2013-11-01

    Excess of rare earth elements in soil can be a serious environmental stress on plants, in particular when acid rain coexists. To understand how such a stress affects plants, we studied antioxidant response of soybean leaves and roots exposed to lanthanum (0.06, 0.18, and 0.85 mmol L(-1)) under acid rain conditions (pH 4.5 and 3.0). We found that low concentration of La3+ (0.06 mmol L(-1)) did not affect the activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and peroxidase) whereas high concentration of La3+ (≥0.18 mmol L(-1)) did. Compared to treatment with acid rain (pH 4.5 and pH 3.0) or La3+ alone, joint stress of La3+ and acid rain affected more severely the activity of catalase and peroxidase, and induced more H2O2 accumulation and lipid peroxidation. When treated with high level of La3+ (0.85 mmol L(-1)) alone or with acid rain (pH 4.5 and 3.0), roots were more affected than leaves regarding the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes, physiological function, and growth. The severity of oxidative damage and inhibition of growth caused by the joint stress associated positively with La3+ concentration and soil acidity. These results will help us understand plant response to joint stress, recognize the adverse environmental impact of rare earth elements in acidic soil, and develop measures to eliminate damage caused by such joint stress.

  14. Uric acid ameliorates indomethacin-induced enteropathy in mice through its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Yuichi; Tomita, Kengo; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Furuhashi, Hirotaka; Shirakabe, Kazuhiko; Takajo, Takeshi; Maruta, Koji; Sato, Hirokazu; Narimatsu, Kazuyuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Okada, Yoshikiyo; Kurihara, Chie; Watanabe, Chikako; Komoto, Shunsuke; Nagao, Shigeaki; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Miura, Soichiro; Hokari, Ryota

    2017-11-01

    Uric acid is excreted from blood into the intestinal lumen, yet the roles of uric acid in intestinal diseases remain to be elucidated. The study aimed to determine whether uric acid could reduce end points associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced enteropathy. A mouse model of NSAID-induced enteropathy was generated by administering indomethacin intraperitoneally to 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice, and then vehicle or uric acid was administered orally. A group of mice treated with indomethacin was also concurrently administered inosinic acid, a uric acid precursor, and potassium oxonate, an inhibitor of uric acid metabolism, intraperitoneally. For in vitro analysis, Caco-2 cells treated with indomethacin were incubated in the presence or absence of uric acid. Oral administration of uric acid ameliorated NSAID-induced enteropathy in mice even though serum uric acid levels did not increase. Intraperitoneal administration of inosinic acid and potassium oxonate significantly elevated serum uric acid levels and ameliorated NSAID-induced enteropathy in mice. Both oral uric acid treatment and intraperitoneal treatment with inosinic acid and potassium oxonate significantly decreased lipid peroxidation in the ileum of mice with NSAID-induced enteropathy. Treatment with uric acid protected Caco-2 cells from indomethacin-induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and cytotoxicity. Uric acid within the intestinal lumen and in serum had a protective effect against NSAID-induced enteropathy in mice, through its antioxidant activity. Uric acid could be a promising therapeutic target for NSAID-induced enteropathy. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Antioxidative effect of lipophilized caffeic acid in fish oil enriched mayonnaise and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Guardiola, Francesc; Durand, Erwann; Villeneuve, Pierre; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke

    2015-01-15

    The antioxidative effect of lipophilized caffeic acid was assessed in two different fish oil enriched food products: mayonnaise and milk. In both emulsion systems, caffeic acid esterified with fatty alcohols of different chain lengths (C1-C20) were better antioxidants than the original phenolic compound. The optimal chain length with respect to protection against oxidation was, however, different for the two food systems. Fish oil enriched mayonnaise with caffeates of medium alkyl chain length (butyl, octyl and dodecyl) added resulted in a better oxidative stability than caffeates with shorter (methyl) or longer (octadecyl) alkyl chains. Whereas in fish oil enriched milk emulsions the most effective caffeates were those with shorter alkyl chains (methyl and butyl) rather than the ones with medium and long chains (octyl, dodecyl, hexadecyl and eicosyl). These results demonstrate that there might be an optimum alkyl chain length for each phenolipid in each type of emulsion systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT ANTIOXIDANTS ON FAT STABILITY IN BROILER RATIONS: THIOBARBITURIC ACID VALUES

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Mustafa, Fawad Ahmad, Arfan Yousaf and Asad Ullah Hyder

    2002-01-01

    Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value was significantly (P< 0.05) affected by storage period, fat levels and antioxidants but the interaction of these factors was non significant. TBA value increased with the increase in storage period, however, the increase was relatively less during first 14 days of storage then a significant increase in TBA was observed as the storage period prolonged. Rations containing 4% fat have greater TBA value than the rations containing 2 or 3% fat. There was also a sign...

  17. Antioxidant capacity and amino acid profile of millet bran wine and the synergistic interaction between major polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, XiaoXuan; Sha, XiaoHong; Rahman, Ebeydulla; Wang, Yong; Ji, BaoPing; Wu, Wei; Zhou, Feng

    2018-03-01

    Millet bran, the by-product of millet processing industry, contains an abundance of phytochemicals, especially polyphenols. The main objective of this study was brewing antioxidant wine from millet bran, as well as the nutritional evaluation. The total polyphenol content of wine samples was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Results showed that millet bran wine (MBW) contained as much as six times of total polyphenols compared with millet wine (MW), and performed considerably stronger antioxidant activity in DPPH, TEAC and FRAP assays. More than sixfold of total amino acids (AA) were found in MBW than in MW. Moreover, the indispensable AA and functional AA were also abundant in MBW. The major polyphenol compounds in MBW were identified using HPLC, including vanillic acid, syringic acid (SA), p -coumaric acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA). They exhibited synergism in the antioxidant assays, especially the combinations of SA and CA, SA and FA. This study not only provides evidence for MBW as a nutraceutical with antioxidant activity, but also opens new avenues in the area of making comprehensive utilization of agricultural by-products.

  18. Castasterone confers copper stress tolerance by regulating antioxidant enzyme responses, antioxidants, and amino acid balance in B. juncea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Poonam; Kaur, Ravdeep; Kanwar, Mukesh Kumar; Sharma, Anket; Verma, Vinod; Sirhindi, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of exogenous application of castasterone (CS) on physiologic and biochemical responses in Brassica juncea seedlings under copper (Cu) stress. Seeds were pre-soaked in different concentrations of CS and grown for 7 days under various levels of Cu. The exposure of B. juncea to higher levels of Cu led to decrease of morphologic parameters, with partial recovery of length and fresh weight in the CS pre-treated seedlings. Metal content was high in both roots and shoots under Cu exposure while the CS pre-treatment reduced the metal uptake. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and superoxide anion radical (O 2 - ) were chosen as stress biomarker and higher levels of H 2 O 2 (88.89%) and O 2 - (62.11%) showed the oxidative stress in metal treated B. juncea seedlings, however, CS pre-treatment reduced ROS accumulation in Cu-exposed seedlings. The Cu exposures lead to enhance the plant's enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system. It was observed that enzymatic activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APOX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione perxoidase (GPOX) and gultrathione-s-transferase increased while activity of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) decreased under Cu stress. The pre-treatment with CS positively affected the activities of enzymes. RT-PCR analysis showed that mRNA transcript levels were correlated with total enzymatic activity of DHAR, GR, GST and GSH. Increase in the gene expression of DHAR (1.85 folds), GR (3.24 folds), GST-1 (2.00 folds) and GSH-S (3.18 folds) was noticed with CS pre-treatment. Overall, the present study shows that Cu exposure induced severe oxidative stress in B. juncea plants and exogenous application of CS improved antioxidative defense system by modulating the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and amino acid metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Antioxidant Activities of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Quality Improvement of Fermented Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Hu, Ping; Lou, Lijiao; Zhan, Jianlong; Fan, Min; Li, Dan; Liao, Qianwei

    2017-12-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus (SR6) and Lactobacillus paracasei (SR10-1) were assessed for their antioxidant activities and inoculated into sausages to investigate their effects on quality during fermentation. The results showed that L. curvatus SR6 had better DPPH• scavenging activity (59.67% ± 6.68%) and reducing power (47.31% ± 4.62%) and L. paracasei SR10-1 had better OH• scavenging activity (285.67% ± 2.00%) and anti-lipid peroxidation capacity (63.89% ± 0.93%). The superoxide dismutase activity of the cell culture fluid was greater than 47.00 U/mL, and the catalase activity of the cell-free extracts was greater than 1.00 U/mL. In the sausage model, lactic acid bacteria rapidly became the dominant microflora and reduced the moisture content, water activity, nitrite, and pH. The bacteria significantly enhanced the antioxidant activity of the sausage extracts, which improved the sensory characteristics and safety of the sausages. These results illustrate that both strains have excellent antioxidant activities and can be used as antioxidant starters in fermented meat products. The study illustrated the antioxidant and antioxidase activities of Lactobacillus curvatus SR6 and Lactobacillus paracasei SR10-1 and demonstrated the changes in the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of fermented sausages. The findings provide valuable information for the meat industry on the application of functional starters in fermented meat products. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Antioxidant effects of phenolic rye (Secale cereale L.) extracts, monomeric hydroxycinnamates, and ferulic acid dehydrodimers on human low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Landbo, A K; Christensen, L P

    2001-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants that protect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidation may help to prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The antioxidant activities of purified monomeric and dimeric hydroxycinnamates and of phenolic extracts from rye (whole grain, bran, and flour) were...... investigated using an in vitro copper-catalyzed human LDL oxidation assay. The most abundant ferulic acid dehydrodimer (diFA) found in rye, 8-O-4-diFA, was a slightly better antioxidant than ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of the 8-5-diFA was comparable to that of ferulic acid......, but neither 5-5-diFA nor 8-5-benzofuran-diFA inhibited LDL oxidation when added at 10-40 microM. The antioxidant activity of the monomeric hydroxycinnamates decreased in the following order: caffeic acid > sinapic acid > ferulic acid > p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of rye extracts...

  1. Effect of ultrasonic degradation of hyaluronic acid extracted from rooster comb on antioxidant and antiglycation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafsa, Jawhar; Chaouch, Mohamed Aymen; Charfeddine, Bassem; Rihouey, Christophe; Limem, Khalifa; Le Cerf, Didier; Rouatbi, Sonia; Majdoub, Hatem

    2017-12-01

    Recently, low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (LMWHA) has been reported to have novel features, such as free radical scavenging activities, antioxidant activities and dietary supplements. In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA) was extracted from rooster comb and LMWHA was obtained by ultrasonic degradation in order to assess their antioxidant and antiglycation activities. Molecular weight (Mw) and the content of glucuronic acid (GlcA) were used as the index for comparison of the effect of ultrasonic treatment. The effects on the structure were determined by ultraviolet (UV) spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). The antioxidant activity was determined by three analytical assays (DPPH, NO and TBARS), and the inhibitory effect against glycated-BSA was also assessed. The GlcA content of HA and LMWHA was estimated at about 48.6% and 47.3%, respectively. The results demonstrate that ultrasonic irradiation decreases the Mw (1090-181 kDa) and intrinsic viscosity (1550-473 mL/g), which indicate the cleavage of the glycosidic bonds. The FTIR and UV spectra did not significantly change before and after degradation. The IC 50 value of HA and LWMHA was 1.43, 0.76 and 0.36 mg/mL and 1.20, 0.89 and 0.17 mg/mL toward DPPH, NO and TBARS, respectively. Likewise LMWHA exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the AGEs formation than HA. The results demonstrated that the ultrasonic irradiation did not damage and change the chemical structure of HA after degradation; furthermore, decreasing Mw and viscosity of LMWHA after degradation may enhance the antioxidant and antiglycation activity.

  2. Changes in Salicylic Acid and Antioxidants during Induced Thermotolerance in Mustard Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, James F.; Foyer, Christine H.; Scott, Ian M.

    1998-01-01

    Heat-acclimation or salicylic acid (SA) treatments were previously shown to induce thermotolerance in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings from 1.5 to 4 h after treatment. In the present study we investigated changes in endogenous SA and antioxidants in relation to induced thermotolerance. Thirty minutes into a 1-h heat-acclimation treatment glucosylated SA had increased 5.5-fold and then declined during the next 6 h. Increases in free SA were smaller (2-fold) but significant. Changes in antioxidants showed the following similarities after either heat-acclimation or SA treatment. The reduced-to-oxidized ascorbate ratio was 5-fold lower than the controls 1 h after treatment but recovered by 2 h. The glutathione pool became slightly more oxidized from 2 h after treatment. Glutathione reductase activity was more than 50% higher during the first 2 h. Activities of dehydroascorbate reductase and monodehydroascorbate reductase decreased by at least 25% during the first 2 h but were 20% to 60% higher than the control levels after 3 to 6 h. One hour after heat acclimation ascorbate peroxidase activity was increased by 30%. Young leaves appeared to be better protected by antioxidant enzymes following heat acclimation than the cotyledons or stem. Changes in endogenous SA and antioxidants may be involved in heat acclimation. PMID:9847121

  3. Tear ascorbic acid levels and the total antioxidant status in contact lens wearers: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Sai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The tear ascorbate owing to its high concentration, functions as an effective antioxidant against the oxidative damage of cornea. Contact lens wearers (CLW are prone to oxidative stress due to the lens-induced hypoxic conditions. A pilot study was done to compare the tear ascorbic acid level and the total antioxidant capacity give as in normal and CLW. Materials and Methods: In this study 21 CLW (Mean age 23 ± 3 years ; M-2, F-19, who were daily wear users, with duration of wear not more than four years, along with age-matched 28 controls (Mean age 28 ± 3 ; M-15, F-13 were recruited in the study for collection of reflex tears using Schirmer′s strip. Ascorbic acid in tears was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total protein assay by spectrophotometric analysis. Results: CLW showed no significant change in the tear ascorbic acid levels (0.4 ± 0.26 mM compared to the control subjects (0.61 ± 0.59 mM. The amount of ascorbic acid in tears did not correlate with the TAC or the total protein of the tears. The mean TAC in CLW was 0.69 ± 0.16 mM, with a total protein of 1.35 ± 0.46 mg/ml while in controls it was 0.7 ± 0.18 mM and 1.21 ± 0.47 mg/ml respectively . Conclusions: Soft contact lens wear did not show any significant change in tear ascorbic acid, TAC and total protein levels compared to controls.

  4. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid composition of different parts of Adenocarpus complicatus (Fabaceae) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Adnan; Zengin, Gokhan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Sanda, Murad Aydin; Uysal, Tuna

    2014-03-01

    Adenocarpus complicatus is distributed throughout the Anatolian peninsula and is widely used for human and animal nutrition. The purpose of this work was to study the antioxidant properties and fatty acid composition of different parts of this plant (fruits and mixed materials). The species was collected from Golyuzu village of the Seydisehir district near Konya province, Turkey. Fruit and mixed parts obtained from this species were ground and a 15g sample was used to prepare methanolic extracts. Powdered plant samples were extracted with 100mL methanol in a mechanical shaker. The obtained extracts were filtered and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure and were subsequently stored at -20 degrees C. Antioxidant components, namely total phenolic and flavonoid content, were detected for each extract using spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by various assays including phosphomolybdenum, DPPH free radical scavenging capacity, metal chelating activity, and ferric and cupric ion reducing power. The fatty acid profiles of plant parts were also determined by using gas chromatography. The total phenolic content of fruit (36.21mgGAE/g) was higher than that of mixed materials (13.79mgGAE/g). The methanolic extract of mixed material had higher amounts of flavonoid than fruit extract. The free radical scavenging activity of extracts was expressed as IC50 value (microg/mL) (amount required to inhibit DPPH radical formation by 50%). The lower IC50 value reflects better free radical scavenging action. The radical scavenging activity of the samples was compared with BHT, it showed the mixed material to be almost two times more potent than the fruit extract. However, BHT is an excellent free radical scavenger with an IC50 of 34.061 microg/mL. The ferric and cupric reducing power potentials of the extracts were expressed as EC50 value (the effective concentration at which the absorbance was 0.5). Fruit extract exhibited strong ferric reducing

  5. Antioxidant capacity and contents of phenols, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene in lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of three lettuce varieties (Lactuca sativa L. Emerald, Vera and Neva, cultivated in two kinds of protected spaces, a glasshouse and a plastic greenhouse, under controlled conditions, was determined. The content of antioxidant compounds: total phenols, flavonoids, L-ascorbic acid, ß-carotene and lycopene, were determined in ethanolic extracts of the lettuce with spectrophotometric methods. The largest content of total phenols (78.98 ± 0.67 mg GAE/g of dry extract was found in ethanolic extract of the lettuce variety Neva cultivated in a plastic greenhouse, whereas the largest content of flavonoids (35.45 ± 0.95 mg RU/g of dry extract was displayed in the lettuce Emerald cultivated in a glasshouse. It was observed that the lettuce cultivated in the glasshouse contained a somewhat higher content of L-ascorbic acid than the lettuce same variety from plastic greenhouse. The content of lycopene in the examined lettuce is negligible, and the content of ß-carotene is low. On the other hand, the high content of phenolic components causes favourable antioxidant properties found in all varieties of examined lettuce. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31059: A new concept in breeding vegetable cultivars and hybrids designed for sustainable growing systems using biotechnological methods

  6. Reactions of linoleic acid peroxyl radicals with phenolic antioxidants: a pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erben-Russ, Michael; Bors, Wolf; Saran, Manfred

    1987-01-01

    Linoleic acid peroxyl radicals (LOO) can be viewed as model intermediates occurring during lipid peroxidation processes. Formation and reactions of these species were investigated in aqueous alkaline solution using pulse radiolysis combined with kinetic spectroscopy. Irradiation of linoleic acid in N 2 O/O 2 -saturated solutions leads to a mixture of peroxyl radical isomers; reaction of 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid (13-LOOH) with azide radicals in N 2 O-saturated solution produces 13-LOO radicals specifically. These peroxyl radicals cannot be observed directly, but their reactions with kaempferol and quercetin, acting as radical-scavenging antioxidants, produced strongly absorbing aroxyl radicals (ArO). The same aroxyl radicals were generated by OH and N 3 with rate constants exceeding 10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . Applying a reaction scheme that includes competing generation and decay reactions of both LOO and ArO radicals, individual rate constants were derived for LOO reactions with the phenols (> 10 7 dm 3 mol -1 s-? 1 ), with aroxyl radicals to form covalent adducts (> 10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 ), as well as for their bimilecular decay (3.0 x 10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 ). These results demonstrate high reactivity of fatty acid peroxyl radicals and flavone antioxidants in aqueous solution. (author)

  7. Reactions of linoleic acid peroxyl radicals with phenolic antioxidants: a pulse radiolysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erben-Russ, M.; Bors, W.; Saran, M.

    1987-09-01

    Linoleic acid peroxyl radicals (LOO) can be viewed as model intermediates occurring during lipid peroxidation processes. Formation and reactions of these species were investigated in aqueous alkaline solution using pulse radiolysis combined with kinetic spectroscopy. Irradiation of linoleic acid in N/sub 2/O/O/sub 2/-saturated solutions leads to a mixture of peroxyl radical isomers; reaction of 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid (13-LOOH) with azide radicals in N/sub 2/O-saturated solution produces 13-LOO radicals specifically. These peroxyl radicals cannot be observed directly, but their reactions with kaempferol and quercetin, acting as radical-scavenging antioxidants, produced strongly absorbing aroxyl radicals (ArO). The same aroxyl radicals were generated by OH and N/sub 3/ with rate constants exceeding 10/sup 9/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s/sup -1/. Applying a reaction scheme that includes competing generation and decay reactions of both LOO and ArO radicals, individual rate constants were derived for LOO reactions with the phenols (> 10/sup 7/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s-./sup 1/), with aroxyl radicals to form covalent adducts (> 10/sup 8/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s/sup -1/), as well as for their bimilecular decay (3.0 x 10/sup 8/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s/sup -1/). These results demonstrate high reactivity of fatty acid peroxyl radicals and flavone antioxidants in aqueous solution.

  8. Effects of drying on caffeoylquinic acid derivative content and antioxidant capacity of sweet potato leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toong Long Jeng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA derivatives are known to possess antioxidative potential and have many beneficial effects on human health. The present study compared the CQA contents and antioxidant activities of aerial parts of sweet potato plants. The effects of drying methods (freeze drying, and drying at 30°C, 70°C, and 100°C on these two parameters of the first fully expanded leaves were also assessed. The results indicated that the CQA derivatives were detectable in leaves, stem, and flowers of sweet potato plants (varied from 39.34 mg/g dry weight to 154.05 mg/g dry weight, with the leaves (particularly expanding and first fully expanded leaves containing more CQA derivatives than other aerial plant parts. The expanding and first fully expanded leaves also exhibited greater antioxidant activities than other aerial plant parts, possibly due to their higher contents of CQA derivatives. Drying method significantly affected the content of CQA derivatives in dried sweet potato leaf tissues. Drying treatments at both 70°C and 100°C significantly reduced the CQA derivative content and antioxidant activity in the first fully expanded leaves. Among the tested drying methods, the freeze-drying method demonstrated the preservation of the highest amount of CQA derivatives (147.84 mg/g and antioxidant property. However, 30°C cool air drying was also a desirable choice (total CQA derivative content was reduced to only 129.52 mg/g, compared to 70°C and 100°C hot air drying, for commercial-scale processing of sweet potato leaves, if the higher operation cost of freeze drying was a major concern.

  9. Effects of drying on caffeoylquinic acid derivative content and antioxidant capacity of sweet potato leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Toong Long; Lai, Chia Chi; Liao, Ting Chen; Lin, Su Yue; Sung, Jih Min

    2015-12-01

    Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives are known to possess antioxidative potential and have many beneficial effects on human health. The present study compared the CQA contents and antioxidant activities of aerial parts of sweet potato plants. The effects of drying methods (freeze drying, and drying at 30°C, 70°C, and 100°C) on these two parameters of the first fully expanded leaves were also assessed. The results indicated that the CQA derivatives were detectable in leaves, stem, and flowers of sweet potato plants (varied from 39.34 mg/g dry weight to 154.05 mg/g dry weight), with the leaves (particularly expanding and first fully expanded leaves) containing more CQA derivatives than other aerial plant parts. The expanding and first fully expanded leaves also exhibited greater antioxidant activities than other aerial plant parts, possibly due to their higher contents of CQA derivatives. Drying method significantly affected the content of CQA derivatives in dried sweet potato leaf tissues. Drying treatments at both 70°C and 100°C significantly reduced the CQA derivative content and antioxidant activity in the first fully expanded leaves. Among the tested drying methods, the freeze-drying method demonstrated the preservation of the highest amount of CQA derivatives (147.84 mg/g) and antioxidant property. However, 30°C cool air drying was also a desirable choice (total CQA derivative content was reduced to only 129.52 mg/g), compared to 70°C and 100°C hot air drying, for commercial-scale processing of sweet potato leaves, if the higher operation cost of freeze drying was a major concern. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Acid and Bile Resistant Strains of Lactobacillus fermentum Isolated from Miang

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    Srikanjana Klayraung

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Miang is a kind of traditional fermented tea leaves, widely consumed in northern Thailand as a snack. It contains several kinds of Lactobacilli spp. The aim of this study was to isolate strains of Lactobacillus fermentum from miang and to investigate their antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The agar spot and well assays were used for determination of antibacterial power. The antibacterial mechanism was investigated by cell morphologic change under scanning electron microscope (SEM. Antioxidant activity was studied by means of free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power assays. The acid and bile screening tests indicated that L. fermentum FTL2311 and L. fermentum FTL10BR presented antibacterial activity against several pathogenic bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes DMST 17303, Salmonella Typhi DMST 5784, Shigella sonnei DMST 561 (ATCC 11060and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus DMST 6512 (ATCC 6538Ptm. The results from SEM suggested that the antibacterial action was due to the destruction of cell membrane which consequently caused the pathogenic cell shrinking or cracking. The antioxidant study suggested that both L. fermentum FTL2311 and L. fermentum FTL10BR strains could liberate certain substances that possessed antioxidant activity expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and equivalent concentration (EC values for free radical scavenging and reducing mechanisms, respectively. The supernatant of L. fermentum FTL2311 broth revealed TEAC and EC values of 22.54±0.12 and 20.63±0.17 µM.mg-1 respectively, whereas that of L. fermentum FTL10BR yielded TEAC and EC values of 24.09±0.12 and 21.26±0.17 µM.mg-1 respectively. These two strains isolated from miang present high potential as promising health-promoting probiotics.

  11. Ferulic acid modification enhances the anti-oxidation activity of natural Hb in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Donglai; Li, Qian; Chen, Chen; Wang, Xiang

    2018-03-13

    During the development of artificial red blood cell (RBC) substitutes, oxidation side reaction is one of the major factors that hinder the application of haemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). In order to avoid oxidation toxicity, we designed and prepared natural Hb conjugated with ferulic acid (FA) via simple chemical modification. In addition, the thiol groups on Hb surface were increased via the reaction of Hb with 2-iminothiolane (2-IT) and then modified with FA for the study of anti-oxidant ability. It was showed that Hb modified with FA (FA-Hb) had similar oxygen-binding capacity to natural Hb. Moreover, the anti-oxidant ability of FA-Hb in vitro in different systems was superior to natural Hb and in proportion to the degree of modification of FA. The results indicate that FA-Hb might have the potential to serve as a novel oxygen carrier with the capacity to reduce oxidative side reaction.

  12. Nanoencapsulation of gallic acid and evaluation of its cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cristo Soares Alves, Aline; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara; Khalil, Najeh Maissar

    2016-03-01

    Gallic acid is an important polyphenol compound presenting various biological activities. The objective of this study was to prepare, characterize and evaluate poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles coated or not with polysorbate 80 (PS80) containing gallic acid. Nanoparticles coated or not with PS80 were produced by emulsion solvent evaporation method and presented a mean size of around 225 nm, gallic acid encapsulation efficiency of around 26% and zeta potential of -22 mV. Nanoparticle formulations were stable during storage, except nanoparticles coated with PS80 stored at room temperature. In vitro release profile demonstrated a quite sustained gallic acid release from nanoparticles and PS80-coating decreased drug release. Cytotoxicity over red blood cells was assessed and gallic acid-loaded PLGA nanoparticles at all analyzed concentrations demonstrated lack of hemolysis, while PS80-nanoparticles containing gallic acid were cytotoxic only in higher concentrations. Antioxidant potential of nanoparticles containing gallic acid was assessed and PLGA uncoated nanoparticles presented greater efficacy than PS80-coated PLGA nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. EFFECT OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE ON LIPID PEROXIDATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ASCORBIC ACID DEFENSE

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    Ljiljana M. Popović

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Strenuous exercises greatly increase oxygen consumption in the whole body, especially in skeletal muscles. Large part of oxygen consumption is reduced to H2O and ATP, but smaller part (2-5% results in an increased leakage of electrons from the mitochondrial respiratory chain, forming various reactive oxygen species ─ ROS (O2˙¯, H2O2 i OH˙. These free radicals are capable of triggering a chain of damaging biochemical and physiological reactions (oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation,as a base for skeletal muscles damage after exercise. MDA (malondialdehide is a marker of exercise induced lipid peroxidation process. L–ascorbic acid is a major aqueous-phase antioxidant. To estimate antioxidant role of ascorbic acid we use rate between dehidroascorbate and ascorbate. In this paper those markers were determinated in 30 students, in rest and after treadmill running protocol (Bruce Treadmill Protocol. It was found that after the treadmill test , plasma MDA level had increased from 3,04 to 4,39 μM/L. Plasma ascorbic acid was also found to be higher after the treadmill test comparing to rest level (from 55,4 to 67,6 μM/L. DHA/A level in rest was 1,62 and after treadmill test it increased to 2,05. These results suggests that strenuous exercise increased process of lipid peroxidation, but in the same time increased ascorbic acid level in plasma and DHA/A rate indicates stronger antioxidant defense system.

  14. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant Activity, Fatty Acids Composition, and Functional Group Analysis of Heliotropium bacciferum

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    Sohail Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium bacciferum is paramount in medicinal perspective and belongs to Boraginaceae family. The crude and numerous fractions of leaves, stem, and roots of the plant were investigated for phytochemical analysis and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Phytochemical analysis of crude and fractions of the plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenols. The antioxidant (free radical scavenging activity of various extracts of the Heliotropium bacciferum was resolute against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical with the avail of UV spectrophotometer at 517 nm. The stock solution (1000 mg/mL and then several dilutions (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg/mL of the crude and fractions were prepared. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard. The plant leaves (52.59 ± 0.84 to 90.74 ± 1.00, stem (50.19 ± 0.92 to 89.42 ± 1.10, and roots extracts (49.19 ± 0.52 to 90.01 ± 1.02 divulged magnificent antioxidant activities. For the ascertainment of the fatty acid constituents a gas chromatograph hyphenated to mass spectrometer was used. The essential fatty acids for growth maintenance such as linoleic acid (65.70%, eicosadienoic acid (15.12%, oleic acid (8.72%, and palmitic acid (8.14% were found in high percentage. The infrared spectra of all extracts of the plant were recorded by IR Prestige-21 FTIR model.

  15. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, D.U. E-mail: duahn@iastate.edu; Nam, K.C

    2004-10-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% {alpha}-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+{alpha}-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  16. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D.U.; Nam, K.C.

    2004-01-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% α-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+α-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid

  17. Total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, and acceptance of synbiotic yoghurt with red ginger extract (Zingiberofficinale var. rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larasati, B. A.; Panunggal, B.; Afifah, D. N.; Anjani, G.; Rustanti, N.

    2018-02-01

    Antioxidant related to oxidative stress can caused the metabolic disorders. A functional food that high in antioxidant can be use as the alternative prevention. The addition of red ginger extract in yoghurt could form a functional food, that high in antioxidant, synbiotic and fiber. The influence of red ginger extract on yoghurt synbiotic against lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity and acceptance were analyzed. This was an experimental research with one factor complete randomized design, specifically the addition of red ginger extract 0%; 0,1%; 0,3% and 0,5% into synbiotic yoghurt. Total plate count method used to analyze the lactic acid bacteria, 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method for antioxidant activity, and acceptance analyzed with hedonic test. The higher the dose of extract added to synbiotic yoghurt, the antioxidant activity got significantly increased (ρ=0,0001), while the lactic acid bacteria got insignificantly decreased (ρ=0,085). The addition of 0,5% red ginger extract obtained the antioxidant activity of 71% and 4,86 × 1013 CFU/ml on lactic acid bacteria, which the requirement for probiotic on National Standard of Indonesia is >107 CFU/ml. The addition of extract had a significant effect on acceptance (ρ=0,0001) in flavor, color, and texture, but not aroma (ρ=0,266). The optimal product in this research was the yoghurt synbiotic with addition of 0,1% red ginger extract. To summarize, the addition of red ginger extract in synbiotic yoghurt had significant effect on antioxidant activity, flavor, color, and texture, but no significant effect on lactic acid bacteria and aroma.

  18. Arsenate exposure affects amino acids, mineral nutrient status and antioxidants in rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, S; Tripathi, R D; Tripathi, P; Kumar, A; Dave, R; Mishra, S; Singh, R; Sharma, D; Rai, U N; Chakrabarty, D; Trivedi, P K; Adhikari, B; Bag, M K; Dhankher, O P; Tuli, R

    2010-12-15

    Simulated pot experiments were conducted on four rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes (Triguna, IR-36, PNR-519, and IET-4786) to examine the effects of As(V) on amino acids and mineral nutrient status in grain along with antioxidant response to arsenic exposure. Rice genotypes responded differentially to As(V) exposure in terms of amino acids and antioxidant profiles. Total amino acid content in grains of all rice genotypes was positively correlated with arsenic accumulation. While, most of the essential amino acids increased in all cultivars except IR-36, glutamic acid and glycine increased in IET-4786 and PNR-519. The level of nonprotein thiols (NPTs) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11) increased in all rice cultivars except IET-4786. A significant genotypic variation was also observed in specific arsenic uptake (SAU; mg kg(-1)dw), which was in the order of Triguna (134) > IR-36 (71) > PNR-519 (53) > IET-4786 (29). Further, application of As(V) at lower doses (4 and 8 mg L(-1) As) enhanced the accumulation of selenium (Se) and other nutrients (Fe, P, Zn, and S), however, higher dose (12 mg L(-1) As) limits the nutrient uptake in rice. In conclusion, low As accumulating genotype, IET-4786, which also had significantly induced level of essential amino acids, seems suitable for cultivation in moderately As contaminated soil and would be safe for human consumption.

  19. Phenolic acids and flavonoids of peanut by-products: Antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Regitano-d'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Rasera, Gabriela Boscariol; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; do Prado-Silva, Leonardo; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-12-15

    Peanut skin (PS) and meal from dry-blanched peanuts (MDBP) were evaluated as sources of phenolic compounds. PS rendered the highest total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity towards ABTS radical cation, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals as well as reducing power. Phenolic acids were present in PS and MDBP whereas proanthocyanidins and monomeric flavonoids were found only in PS as identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS n . Procyanidin-rich extracts prevented oxidation in non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated fish model system. Both extracts inhibited the growth of gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Geobacillus stearothermophilus) and gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli). Regardless of the strain, phenolic acid-rich extracts showed the lowest minimum inhibitory capacity (MIC); therefore presenting higher antibacterial effect. The MIC of phenolic acid-rich extracts (24-49μgphenolics/mL) was higher but comparable to Ampicillin (10μg/mL). Thus, phenolics in PS and MDBP may serve as antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Antioxidant activity, fatty acid profile and tocopherols of Tamarindus indica L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Maria Moreno Luzia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize Tamarindus indica L. seeds regarding its composition and to evaluate its antioxidant potential, fatty acid profile and content of tocopherols. In order to obtain the extract, the dried and crushed seeds were extracted with ethanol for 30 minutes in a 1:3 seeds: ethanol ratio under continuous stirring at room temperature. After that, the mixtures were filtered and subjected to roto-evaporation at 40 ºC in order to determine, through direct weighing, the dry matter yields of the extracts. According to the results, Tamarindus indica L. seeds showed high content of total carbohydrates (71.91% and offered relevant content and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds. Tamarindus indica L. seeds oil presents high oxidative stability (15.83 hours and significant total tocopherol content (57.77 mg.kg-1, besides presenting a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids - the main component being linolenic (59.61%, which is considered an essential fatty acid.

  1. Phenolic Acid Content and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Corn Snacks Enriched with Kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Kamila; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika; Nowak, Renata; Polak, Renata

    2018-01-01

    Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica)—a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed. In the corn snacks enriched with kale, fifteen phenolic acids were indicated. These were protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, trans-caffeic, cis-caffeic, trans-p-coumaric, cis-p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, cis-ferulic, salicylic, gentisic, syringic, 3-OH-cinnamic, trans-sinapic, and cis-sinapic acids. Both the qualitative and quantitative content of polyphenols increased with the addition of B. oleracea. Data from spectrophotometric analyses of the samples showed high DPPH radical scavenging potential of snacks enriched with 4, 6, and 8% of kale. Snacks enriched with kale contain high level of phenolic acids and, therefore, have great potential to make a valuable source of natural antioxidants. High-temperature short-time extrusion-cooking process had no negative impact on polyphenol's activity. PMID:29507816

  2. Phenolic Acid Content and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Corn Snacks Enriched with Kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kasprzak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica—a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed. In the corn snacks enriched with kale, fifteen phenolic acids were indicated. These were protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, trans-caffeic, cis-caffeic, trans-p-coumaric, cis-p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, cis-ferulic, salicylic, gentisic, syringic, 3-OH-cinnamic, trans-sinapic, and cis-sinapic acids. Both the qualitative and quantitative content of polyphenols increased with the addition of B. oleracea. Data from spectrophotometric analyses of the samples showed high DPPH radical scavenging potential of snacks enriched with 4, 6, and 8% of kale. Snacks enriched with kale contain high level of phenolic acids and, therefore, have great potential to make a valuable source of natural antioxidants. High-temperature short-time extrusion-cooking process had no negative impact on polyphenol’s activity.

  3. Phenolic Acid Content and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Corn Snacks Enriched with Kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Kamila; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika; Olech, Marta; Nowak, Renata; Polak, Renata; Oniszczuk, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) of kale ( Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica )-a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed. In the corn snacks enriched with kale, fifteen phenolic acids were indicated. These were protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, trans -caffeic, cis -caffeic, trans -p-coumaric, cis -p-coumaric, trans -ferulic, cis -ferulic, salicylic, gentisic, syringic, 3-OH-cinnamic, trans -sinapic, and cis -sinapic acids. Both the qualitative and quantitative content of polyphenols increased with the addition of B. oleracea . Data from spectrophotometric analyses of the samples showed high DPPH radical scavenging potential of snacks enriched with 4, 6, and 8% of kale. Snacks enriched with kale contain high level of phenolic acids and, therefore, have great potential to make a valuable source of natural antioxidants. High-temperature short-time extrusion-cooking process had no negative impact on polyphenol's activity.

  4. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. and Heldr.) Hayek var. persica (Boiss.) Wagenitz from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengin, G.; Guler, G.O.; Cakmak, Y.S.; Aktumseka, A.

    2011-07-01

    The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 ig/ml (in the DPPH assay). In the {beta}carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE)/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 u3 ({beta}-linolenic acid) by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. (Author).

  5. POLYPHENOLS, ASCORBIC ACID AND CAROTENOIDS CONTENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES IN FRUITS OF CAPSICUM CHINENSE JACQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Mamedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum chinense Jacq. is the rich source of phytochemical substances, such as vitamin C, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and occupies a significant place in the cooking of many peoples. The pigment composition, the amount of carotenoids, ascorbic acid and their contribution to the formation of antioxidant properties were studied. The total content of carotenoids and red/yellow pigments varied greatly among the accessions of C. chinense. The highest content of carotenoids 0.581 mg/g was observed in the varieties ‘Ognennaya Deva’ with the red fruit color in the phase of biological ripeness, where red pigments accumulated 56% more than in yellow ones. Fruits of accessions ‘Kolokolchik’ only accumulated yellow pigments, 0.318 mg/g. Presence of significant amount, 2.03 times as much red pigments as yellow ones in the variety ‘Trinidad Scorpion Chocolate’, with protein complex could cause the formation of a brown fruit color. Another tendency was observed in ‘Trinidad Dglahou’. The yellow pigment is 1.5 times as much amount as red, as estimated 0.119 mg/g of yellow and 0.077 mg/g of red pigment. The ascorbic acid content did not depend on the fruit color. Fruits of the ‘Ognennaya Deva’ accumulated the highest amount of ascorbic acid, 301 mg%. The maximum total antioxidant content, was detected in the variety ‘Ognennaya Deva’ 2.65 (TAC, mg.eq. GA/g. Analysis of the dependence of the content of thermo stable antioxidants to the total ones showed the contribution of the unstable antioxidants to thermal effects (particularly ascorbic acid on the level of 16%, on average. A comparative assessment of the pungency level and quantitative capsaicin content in the fruit was carried out by organoleptic, spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. The intervals of observed concentrations of capsaicin were 1.0-7.5 mg/g of dry weight (HPLC, the level of pungency on the Scoville scale was 17440-153120 SHU. There

  6. Oxidative Stress in Dog with Heart Failure: The Role of Dietary Fatty Acids and Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Sagols

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In dogs with heart failure, cell oxygenation and cellular metabolism do not work properly, leading to the production of a large amount of free radicals. In the organism, these free radicals are responsible of major cellular damages: this is oxidative stress. However, a suitable food intake plays an important role in limiting this phenomenon: on the one hand, the presence of essential fatty acids in the composition of membranes decreases sensitivity of cells to free radicals and constitutes a first protection against the oxidative stress; on the other hand, coenzyme Q10, vitamin E, and polyphenols are antioxidant molecules which can help cells to neutralize these free radicals.

  7. Effect of gibberellic acid on total antioxidant activity during Chenopodium rubrum L. ontogenesis invitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Total antioxidant activity (TAA represents the combined ability of diverse antioxidants present in a sample of plant material to scavenge free radicals. Chenopodium rubrum L. sel. 184 is a qualitatively short-day plant; as an early-flowering species, it is a suitable object for studying ontogenesis in vitro. We investigated the effect of GA3 (5 mg/l on TAA during C. rubrum ontogenesis under two different inductive photoperiodic regimes in vitro. Total antioxidant activ­ity does not change in different phases of C. rubrum ontogenesis under the same photoperiodic treatment. Exposure to continuous irradiation caused an increase of TAA in both C. rubrum plants and collected matured seeds. Gibberellic acid stimulated stem elongation, but did not affect leaf development or the number of matured seeds per plant, regardless of photoperiodic treatment; it induced a decrease of TAA in C. rubrum plants regardless of photoperiodic treatment or the phase of development, while it had no effect on TAA of matured seeds.

  8. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid induces antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cuevas, J; Navarro-Partida, J; Marquez-Aguirre, A L; Bueno-Topete, M R; Beas-Zarate, C; Armendáriz-Borunda, J

    2011-01-01

    Experimental liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) is associated with oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation. This work was focused on elucidating the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in this model of hepatotoxicity. Wistar male rats were treated with CCl(4) and EDTA (60, 120, or 240 mg/kg). Morphometric analyses were carried out in Masson's stained liver sections to determine fibrosis index. Coagulation tests prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were also determined. Gene expression for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1), alpha1(I) procollagen gene (alpha1 Col I), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was monitored by real-time PCR. Antioxidant effect of EDTA was measured by its effects on lipid peroxidation; biological activity of ceruloplasmin (Cp), SOD, and catalase (Cat) were analyzed by zymography assays. Animals with CCl(4)-hepatic injury that received EDTA showed a decrement in fibrosis (20%) and lipid peroxidation (22%). The mRNA expression for TNF-alpha (55%), TGF-beta1 (50%), IL-6 (52%), and alpha1 Col I (60%) was also decreased. This group of animals showed increased Cp (62%) and SOD (25%) biological activities. Coagulation blood tests, Cat activity, and gene expression for SOD were not modified by EDTA treatment. This study demonstrates that EDTA treatment induces the activity of antioxidant enzymes, decreases lipid peroxidation, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis in experimental liver fibrosis induced by CCl(4).

  9. Impact of Altitudes and Habitats on Valerenic Acid, Total Phenolics, Flavonoids, Tannins, and Antioxidant Activity of Valeriana jatamansi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugran, Arun K; Bahukhandi, Amit; Dhyani, Praveen; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer S; Nandi, Shyamal K

    2016-07-01

    The changes in total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, valerenic acid, and antioxidant activity were assessed in 25 populations of Valeriana jatamansi sampled from 1200 to 2775 m asl and four habitat types of Uttarakhand, West Himalaya. Significant (p analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA) identified Talwari, Jaberkhet, Manjkhali, and Khirshu populations as promising sources with higher phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. The results recommended that the identified populations with higher value of phytochemicals and antioxidants can be utilized for mass multiplication and breeding program to meet the domestic as well as commercial demand.

  10. Effect of "6"0Co-induced gamma radiation exposure and Jasmonic acid on antioxidant responses in Cowpea varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Pradeep Kumar; Bhagoji, Ravi; Ramteke, P.W.; Misra, Pragati; Maurice, Navodita

    2017-01-01

    Cowpea used to be the first crop harvested before the cereal crops are ready and therefore is referred to as 'hungry-season crop'. The gamma irradiation is known to increase nutritional values of food sources and also enhance and accelerate growth of certain vegetables Antioxidants are the metabolites, produced by the plant in response to different stress conditions e.g. radiation stress etc. Seeds of four cowpea varieties were treated with different doses of gamma radiation and effect of jasmonic acid (JA) on antioxidant response of cowpea was studied. The results showed that there was no linear correlation between application of JA and different antioxidant contents. (author)

  11. Hydroxybenzoic Acid Derivatives as Dual-Target Ligands: Mitochondriotropic Antioxidants and Cholinesterase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Catarina; Cagide, Fernando; Teixeira, José; Amorim, Ricardo; Sequeira, Lisa; Mesiti, Francesco; Silva, Tiago; Garrido, Jorge; Remião, Fernando; Vilar, Santiago; Uriarte, Eugenio; Oliveira, Paulo J; Borges, Fernanda

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial age-related disease associated with oxidative stress (OS) and impaired cholinergic transmission. Accordingly, targeting mitochondrial OS and restoring cholinergic transmission can be an effective therapeutic strategy toward AD. Herein, we report for the first time dual-target hydroxybenzoic acid (HBAc) derivatives acting as mitochondriotropic antioxidants and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors. The studies were performed with two mitochondriotropic antioxidants AntiOxBEN 1 (catechol derivative), and AntiOxBEN 2 (pyrogallol derivative) and compounds 15-18 , which have longer spacers. Compounds AntiOxBEN 1 and 15 , with a shorter carbon chain spacer (six- and eight-carbon) were shown to be potent antioxidants and BChE inhibitors (IC 50 = 85 ± 5 and 106 ± 5 nM, respectively), while compounds 17 and 18 with a 10-carbon chain were more effective AChE inhibitors (IC 50 = 7.7 ± 0.4 and 7.2 ± 0.5 μM, respectively). Interestingly, molecular modeling data pointed toward bifunctional ChEs inhibitors. The most promising ChE inhibitors acted by a non-competitive mechanism. In general, with exception of compounds 15 and 17 , no cytotoxic effects were observed in differentiated human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) and human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells, while Aβ-induced cytotoxicity was significantly prevented by the new dual-target HBAc derivatives. Overall, due to its BChE selectivity, favorable toxicological profile, neuroprotective activity and drug-like properties, which suggested blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, the mitochondriotropic antioxidant AntiOxBEN 1 is considered a valid lead candidate for the development of dual acting drugs for AD and other mitochondrial OS-related diseases.

  12. Hydroxybenzoic Acid Derivatives as Dual-Target Ligands: Mitochondriotropic Antioxidants and Cholinesterase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Oliveira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a multifactorial age-related disease associated with oxidative stress (OS and impaired cholinergic transmission. Accordingly, targeting mitochondrial OS and restoring cholinergic transmission can be an effective therapeutic strategy toward AD. Herein, we report for the first time dual-target hydroxybenzoic acid (HBAc derivatives acting as mitochondriotropic antioxidants and cholinesterase (ChE inhibitors. The studies were performed with two mitochondriotropic antioxidants AntiOxBEN1 (catechol derivative, and AntiOxBEN2 (pyrogallol derivative and compounds 15–18, which have longer spacers. Compounds AntiOxBEN1 and 15, with a shorter carbon chain spacer (six- and eight-carbon were shown to be potent antioxidants and BChE inhibitors (IC50 = 85 ± 5 and 106 ± 5 nM, respectively, while compounds 17 and 18 with a 10-carbon chain were more effective AChE inhibitors (IC50 = 7.7 ± 0.4 and 7.2 ± 0.5 μM, respectively. Interestingly, molecular modeling data pointed toward bifunctional ChEs inhibitors. The most promising ChE inhibitors acted by a non-competitive mechanism. In general, with exception of compounds 15 and 17, no cytotoxic effects were observed in differentiated human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y and human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2 cells, while Aβ-induced cytotoxicity was significantly prevented by the new dual-target HBAc derivatives. Overall, due to its BChE selectivity, favorable toxicological profile, neuroprotective activity and drug-like properties, which suggested blood-brain barrier (BBB permeability, the mitochondriotropic antioxidant AntiOxBEN1 is considered a valid lead candidate for the development of dual acting drugs for AD and other mitochondrial OS-related diseases.

  13. Hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives as dual-target ligands: mitochondriotropic antioxidants and cholinesterase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Catarina; Cagide, Fernando; Teixeira, José; Amorim, Ricardo; Sequeira, Lisa; Mesiti, Francesco; Silva, Tiago; Garrido, Jorge; Remião, Fernando; Vilar, Santiago; Uriarte, Eugenio; Oliveira, Paulo J.; Borges, Fernanda

    2018-04-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multifactorial age-related disease associated with oxidative stress (OS) and impaired cholinergic transmission. Accordingly, targeting mitochondrial OS and restoring cholinergic transmission can be an effective therapeutic strategy towards AD. Herein, we report for the first time dual-target hydroxybenzoic acid (HBAc) derivatives acting as mitochondriotropic antioxidants and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors. The studies were performed with two mitochondriotropic antioxidants AntiOxBEN1 (catechol derivative), and AntiOxBEN2 (pyrogallol derivative) and compounds 15-18, which have longer spacers. Compounds AntiOxBEN1 and 15, with a shorter carbon chain spacer (six- and eight-carbon) were shown to be potent antioxidants and BChE inhibitors (IC50 = 85 ± 5 and 106 ± 5 nM, respectively), while compounds 17 and 18 with a ten-carbon chain were more effective AChE inhibitors (IC50 = 7.7 ± 0.4 and 7.2 ± 0.5 nM, respectively). Interestingly, molecular modelling data pointed towards bifunctional ChEs inhibitors. The most promising ChE inhibitors acted by a non-competitive mechanism. In general, with exception of compounds 15 and 17, no cytotoxic effects were observed in differentiated human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) and human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells, while Αβ-induced cytotoxicity was significantly prevented by the new dual-target HBAc derivatives. Overall, due to its BChE selectivity, favourable toxicological profile, neuroprotective activity and drug-like properties, which suggested blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, the mitochondriotropic antioxidant AntiOxBEN1 is considered a valid lead candidate for the development of dual acting drugs for AD and other mitochondrial OS-related disease

  14. Rotator cuff tendinopathy: is there a role for polyunsaturated Fatty acids and antioxidants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeremy S; Sandford, Fiona M

    2009-01-01

    Despite the lack of robust evidence, there has been a steady increase in the use of dietary supplements, including Omega 3 fatty acids and antioxidants, in the management of musculoskeletal conditions. One reason for this is that unsatisfactory outcomes with conventional treatments have lead sufferers to seek alternative solutions including the use of nutritional supplements. In the United Kingdom alone, the current supplement market is estimated to be over 300 pounds million per annum. One target market for nutritional supplements is tendinopathies including conditions involving the rotator cuff. This condition is debilitating and associated with considerable morbidity. Incidence increases with advancing age. High levels of cytokines, such as the pro-inflammatory interleukin 1 beta and vascular endothelial growth factor, have been reported within the bursa of patients with rotator cuff disease. There is also evidence that high concentrations of free-radical oxidants may also be involved in tendon pathology. Therefore, the possibility exists that dietary supplements may have a beneficial effect on tendon pathology, including that of the rotator cuff. A review was conducted to synthesize the available research literature on the histopathology of rotator cuff disease and the effectiveness of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and antioxidants on tendinopathies. A search was conducted using the MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, EMBASE, Cochrane, and PEDro databases using the terms "rotator cuff" and "tear/s" and "subacromial impingement syndrome," "burase," "bursitis," "tendinopathy," "tendinitis," "tendinosis," "polyunsaturated fatty acids," "PUFA," "Omega 3," "histopathology," "etiology," and "antioxidants." English language was an inclusion criterion. There were no randomized clinical trials found relating specifically to the rotator cuff. Only one trial was found that investigated the efficacy of PUFAs and antioxidants on tendinopathies. The findings suggest that some (low

  15. Identification of phenolic acids and flavonoids in monofloral honey from Bangladesh by high performance liquid chromatography: determination of antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Yung An, Chua; Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Hawlader, Mohammad Nurul Islam; Azlan, Siti Amirah Binti Mohd; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic acids, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties of monofloral honey collected from five different districts in Bangladesh. A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector method was developed for the identification of the phenolic acids and flavonoids. A total of five different phenolic acids were identified, with the most abundant being caffeic acid, benzoic acid, gallic acid, followed by chlorogenic acid and trans-cinnamic acid. The flavonoids, kaempferol, and catechin were most abundant, followed by myricetin and naringenin. The mean moisture content, total sugar content, and color characteristics of the honey samples were 18.36 ± 0.95%, 67.40 ± 5.63 g/100 g, and 129.27 ± 34.66 mm Pfund, respectively. The mean total phenolic acids, total flavonoid content, and proline content were 199.20 ± 135.23, 46.73 ± 34.16, and 556.40 ± 376.86 mg/kg, respectively, while the mean FRAP values and DPPH radical scavenging activity were 327.30 ± 231.87 μM Fe (II)/100 g and 36.95 ± 20.53%, respectively. Among the different types of honey, kalijira exhibited the highest phenolics and antioxidant properties. Overall, our study confirms that all the investigated honey samples are good sources of phenolic acids and flavonoids with good antioxidant properties.

  16. Quantitative structure-activity relationship study of antioxidative peptide by using different sets of amino acids descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao-Wang; Li, Bo; He, Jiguo; Qian, Ping

    2011-07-01

    A database consisting of 214 tripeptides which contain either His or Tyr residue was applied to study quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) of antioxidative tripeptides. Partial Least-Squares Regression analysis (PLSR) was conducted using parameters individually of each amino acid descriptor, including Divided Physico-chemical Property Scores (DPPS), Hydrophobic, Electronic, Steric, and Hydrogen (HESH), Vectors of Hydrophobic, Steric, and Electronic properties (VHSE), Molecular Surface-Weighted Holistic Invariant Molecular (MS-WHIM), isotropic surface area-electronic charge index (ISA-ECI) and Z-scale, to describe antioxidative tripeptides as X-variables and antioxidant activities measured with ferric thiocyanate methods were as Y-variable. After elimination of outliers by Hotelling's T 2 method and residual analysis, six significant models were obtained describing the entire data set. According to cumulative squared multiple correlation coefficients ( R2), cumulative cross-validation coefficients ( Q2) and relative standard deviation for calibration set (RSD c), the qualities of models using DPPS, HESH, ISA-ECI, and VHSE descriptors are better ( R2 > 0.6, Q2 > 0.5, RSD c 0.44). Furthermore, the predictive ability of models using DPPS descriptor is best among the six descriptors systems (cumulative multiple correlation coefficient for predict set ( Rext2) > 0.7). It was concluded that the DPPS is better to describe the amino acid of antioxidative tripeptides. The results of DPPS descriptor reveal that the importance of the center amino acid and the N-terminal amino acid are far more than the importance of the C-terminal amino acid for antioxidative tripeptides. The hydrophobic (positively to activity) and electronic (negatively to activity) properties of the N-terminal amino acid are suggested to play the most important significance to activity, followed by the hydrogen bond (positively to activity) of the center amino acid. The N-terminal amino acid

  17. Rosmarinic acid and antioxidant enzyme activities in Lavandula vera MM cell suspension culture: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Milen; Abrashev, Radoslav; Krumova, Ekaterina; Demirevska, Klimentina; Ilieva, Mladenka; Angelova, Maria

    2009-11-01

    The growth and intracellular protein content of lavender (Lavandula vera MM) cell suspension culture was followed along with some antioxidant defense system members-non-enzymatic (rosmarinic acid) and enzymatic [superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6)]. It was found that the media content and the cultivation mode strongly influenced the production of plant defense compounds as well as the ratio between non-enzymatic and enzymatic ones. The bioreactor culture contains about two times more rosmarinic acid, superoxide dismutase, and catalase compared to the shake-flask cultivation. These findings are discussed with respect to the relative stress levels and plant antioxidant orchestra system. It was concluded that investigated defense system components (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were closely associated in a complex balance. The three isoenzyme forms of SOD (Cu/ZnSOD, FeSOD, and MnSOD) in the cells of Lavandula vera were revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, and the FeSOD isoform exhibited highest activity.

  18. The effects of antioxidants on the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the hen's egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, A; Abrams, J T; Sainsbury, D W

    1979-01-01

    In experiments to see whether, in the possible interests of human health, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the chicken's egg can be increased by nutritional means, three strains of hen, light, medium, and heavy, each at the peak of lay, were first fed a basal, commercial, low-fat diet. The hens were then transferred to one of the following diets: basal + safflower oil (SO); basal + SO + butylated hydroxytoluene; or basal + SO + dl-a-toco-pheryl acetate. The diets were designated "Blank", "BHT", and "Vitamin E", respectively, the second and third containing the added antioxidants. The eggs produced were weighed, and their yolks weighed and analysed for lipid components. Additional of SO (7.5%) to the basal diet led to the PUFA content of the yolk lipids rising by 15.4% (linoleic acid, 14.1%), the magnitude of the increases being unaffected by the antioxidants. Diet "BHT" produced larger eggs and yolks than the other diets, but the proportion of yolk was the same on the three types of feed. The total cholesterol content of egg yolks was significantly affected neither by diet, nor by strain or age of hen. The implications of these results are discussed.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant characteristics of chia oil supplemented margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Taj, Imran; Ajmal, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad

    2017-05-31

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is known as power house of omega fatty acids which has great health benefits. It contains up to 78% linolenic acid (ω-3) and 18% linoleic acid (ω-6), which could be a great source of omega-3 fatty acids for functional foods. Therefore, in this study, margarines were prepared with supplementation of different concentrations of chia oil to enhance omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidant characteristics and oxidative stability of the product. Margarines were formulated from non-hydrogenated palm oil, palm kernel and butter. Margarines were supplemented with 5, 10, 15 and 20% chia oil (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 ), respectively. Margarine without any addition of chia oil was kept as control. Margarine samples were stored at 5 °C for a period of 90 days. Physico-chemical (fat, moisture, refractive index, melting point, solid fat index, fatty acids profile, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, free fatty acids and peroxide value) and sensory characteristics were studied at the interval of 45 days. The melting point of T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 developed in current investigation were 34.2, 33.8, 33.1 and 32.5 °C, respectively. The solid fat index of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were 47.21, 22.71, 20.33, 18.12 and 16.58%, respectively. The α-linolenic acid contents in T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 were found 2.92, 5.85, 9.22, 12.29%, respectively. The concentration of eicosanoic acid in T 2 , T 3 and T 4 was 1.82, 3.52, 6.43 and 9.81%, respectively. The content of docosahexanoic acid in T 2 , T 3 and T 4 was present 1.26, 2.64, 3.49 and 5.19%, respectively. The omega-3 fatty acids were not detected in the control sample. Total phenolic contents of control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 samples were 0.27, 2.22, 4.15, 7.23 and 11.42 mg GAE/mL, respectively. DPPH free radical scavenging activity for control, T 1 , T 2 , T 3 and T 4 was noted 65.8, 5.37, 17.82, 24.95, 45.42 and 62.8%, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid

  20. Effect of the Antioxidant Lipoic Acid in Aortic Phenotype in a Marfan Syndrome Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Guido

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome (MFS cardiovascular manifestations such as aortic aneurysms and cardiomyopathy carry substantial morbidity/mortality. We investigated the effects of lipoic acid, an antioxidant, on ROS production and aortic remodeling in a MFS mgΔloxPneo mouse model. MFS and WT (wild-type 1-month-old mice were allocated to 3 groups: untreated, treated with losartan, and treated with lipoic acid. At 6 months old, echocardiography, ROS production, and morphological analysis of aortas were performed. Aortic ROS generation in 6-month-old MFS animals was higher at advanced stages of disease in MFS. An unprecedented finding in MFS mice analyzed by OCT was the occurrence of focal inhomogeneous regions in the aortic arch, either collagen-rich extremely thickened or collagen-poor hypotrophic regions. MFS animals treated with lipoic acid showed markedly reduced ROS production and lower ERK1/2 phosphorylation; meanwhile, aortic dilation and elastic fiber breakdown were unaltered. Of note, lipoic acid treatment associated with the absence of focal inhomogeneous regions in MFS animals. Losartan reduced aortic dilation and elastic fiber breakdown despite no change in ROS generation. In conclusion, oxidant generation by itself seems neutral with respect to aneurysm progression in MFS; however, lipoic acid-mediated reduction of inhomogeneous regions may potentially associate with less anisotropy and reduced chance of dissection/rupture.

  1. A novel method for the determination of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity in Opuntia ficus indica using in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretti, L; Bazzu, G; Serra, P A; Nieddu, G

    2014-03-15

    A simple and rapid method was developed for in vivo simultaneous determination of ascorbic-acid and antioxidant capacity in microdialysates from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller. The method is verified in water-stressed plants, as compared with a well-watered test controls. The microdialysis probe construction and insertion procedure was specifically developed to minimise the tissue trauma of the plant and to obtain optimal dialysis performance. Microdialysis was performed using a flow rate of 3 μL/min and the samples were analysed by HPLC coupled to electrochemical detection of ascorbic-acid and DPPH-determined antioxidant capacity. Our data indicate exponential decay of the concentrations of the analysed compounds as a function of microdialysis sampling time. Water-stressed Opuntia show decreased ascorbic acid levels and increased the others antioxidants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in cashew apple juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, C.; Moreira, C. F. F.; Lavinas, F. C.; Lopes, M. L. M.; Fialho, E.; Valente-Mesquita, V. L.

    2010-12-01

    The cashew apple is native to Brazil, but there is insufficient information regarding the nutritional properties of this fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of high pressure processing (HPP) at room temperature (25 °C) on phenolic compound and ascorbic acid contents and antioxidant capacity of cashew apple juice. This study showed that HPP at 250 or 400 MPa for 3, 5 and 7 min did not change pH, acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid or hydrolysable polyphenol contents. However, juice pressurized for 3 and 5 min showed higher soluble polyphenol contents. Antioxidant capacity, measured by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power method, was not altered by HPP, but when treated at 250 MPa for 3 min, it resulted in an increased value when 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl was used. These data demonstrate that HPP can be used in the food industry for the generation of products with higher nutritional quality.

  3. Antioxidant multi-walled carbon nanotubes by free radical grafting of gallic acid: new materials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Giuseppe; Hampel, Silke; Klingeler, Rüdiger; Puoci, Francesco; Iemma, Francesca; Curcio, Manuela; Parisi, Ortensia Ilaria; Spizzirri, Umile Gianfranco; Picci, Nevio; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Ritschel, Manfred; Büchner, Bernd

    2011-02-01

    To prove the possibility of covalently functionalizing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by free radical grafting of gallic acid on their surface with the subsequent synthesis of materials with improved biological properties evaluated by specific in-vitro assays. Antioxidant CNTs were synthesized by radical grafting of gallic acid onto pristine CNTs. The synthesis of carbon nanotubes was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor and, after the removal of the amorphous carbon, the grafting process was performed. The obtained materials were characterized by fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analyses. After assessment of the biocompatibility and determination of the disposable phenolic group content, the antioxidant properties were evaluated in terms of total antioxidant activity and scavenger ability against 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals. Finally the inhibition activity on acetylcholinesterase was evaluated.   The covalent functionalization of CNTs with gallic acid was confirmed and the amount of gallic acid bound per g of CNTs was found to be 2.1±0.2 mg. Good antioxidant and scavenging properties were recorded in the functionalized CNTs, which were found to be able to inhibit the acetylcholinesterase with potential improved activity for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. For the first time, a free radical grafting procedure was proposed as a synthetic approach for the covalent functionalization of CNTs with an antioxidant polyphenol. © 2010 The Authors. JPP © 2010 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid composition of different parts of Adenocarpus complicatus (Fabaceae from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Berber

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarpus complicatus is distributed throughout the Anatolian peninsula and is widely used for human and animal nutrition. The purpose of this work was to study the antioxidant properties and fatty acid composition of different parts of this plant (fruits and mixed materials. The species was collected from Golyuzu village of the Seydisehir district near Konya province, Turkey. Fruit and mixed parts obtained from this species were ground and a 15g sample was used to prepare methanolic extracts. Powdered plant samples were extracted with 100mL methanol in a mechanical shaker. The obtained extracts were filtered and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure and were subsequently stored at -20°C. Antioxidant components, namely total phenolic and flavonoid content, were detected for each extract using spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by various assays including phosphomolybdenum, DPPH free radical scavenging capacity, metal chelating activity, and ferric and cupric ion reducing power. The fatty acid profiles of plant parts were also determined by using gas chromatography. The total phenolic content of fruit (36.21mgGAE/g was higher than that of mixed materials (13.79mgGAE/g. The methanolic extract of mixed material had higher amounts of flavonoid than fruit extract. The free radical scavenging activity of extracts was expressed as IC50 value (μg/mL (amount required to inhibit DPPH radical formation by 50%. The lower IC50 value reflects better free radical scavenging action. The radical scavenging activity of the samples was compared with BHT, it showed the mixed material to be almost two times more potent than the fruit extract. However, BHT is an excellent free radical scavenger with an IC50 of 34.061μg/mL. The ferric and cupric reducing power potentials of the extracts were expressed as EC50 value (the effective concentration at which the absorbance was 0.5. Fruit extract exhibited strong ferric reducing

  5. Functionalized ZnO Nanoparticles with Gallic Acid for Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity against Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joomin Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report a new multifunctional nanoparticle with antioxidative and antibacterial activities in vitro. ZnO@GA nanoparticles were fabricated by coordinated covalent bonding of the antioxidant gallic acid (GA on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. This addition imparts both antioxidant activity and high affinity for the bacterial cell membrane. Antioxidative activities at various concentrations were evaluated using a 2,2′-azino-bis(ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging method. Antibacterial activities were evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus: S. aureus, including several strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli. The functionalized ZnO@GA nanoparticles showed good antioxidative activity (69.71%, and the bactericidal activity of these nanoparticles was also increased compared to that of non-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles, with particularly effective inhibition and high selectivity for MRSA strains. The results indicate that multifunctional ZnO nanoparticles conjugated to GA molecules via a simple surface modification process displaying both antioxidant and antibacterial activity, suggesting a possibility to use it as an antibacterial agent for removing MRSA.

  6. SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF [(1-ARYL-5-FORMYL-1H-IMIDAZOLE-4-ILTHIO]PROPIONIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Palamar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Derivatives of imidazole belong to the promising group of compounds for antioxidant activity study, due to the series of recent publications. This is defined by special features of their structure, specific reactivity and significant potential of pharmacological action. Earlier during process of looking for new antioxidants we studied significant amount of imidazole derivatives, among which the [(1-aryl-5-formylimidazole-4-ilthio]acetic acids structurally modified by the formyl group and thioacetic acid fragment, are especially worth noting. The purpose of the study. Synthesis of [(1-aryl-5-formylimidazole-4-ilthio]propionic acids and comparison of their antioxidant effect with [(1-aryl-5-formylimidazole-4-ilthio]acetic acids with to identify prospects of in-depth study of the most active compounds as antioxidants. Materials and methods. The method based on interaction of available 4-chloro-5-formylimidazoles with thiopropionic acid was proposed for the synthesis of [(1-aryl-5-formylimidazole-4-ilthio]propionic acids. The reaction takes place in ethanol in presence of potassium hydroxide and leads to the target compounds with yields of 81-86%. The study of antioxidant activity of synthesized compounds was conducted in vitro by speed inhibition value of rats’ liver endogenous lipids ascorbate-dependent peroxide oxidation. It was determined by concentration of one of the final products of free radical oxidation of lipids (FROL – maleic aldehyde (MA in the investigated sample. Concentrations of synthesized compounds were chosen within concentrations which were studied for thiotriazolin (manufactured by corporation “Arterium”, Ukraine, solution for injection, 25 mg/ml. The results of the study and their discussion. Preparative method for the synthesis of [(1-aryl-5-formylimidazole-4-ilthio]propionic acids has been designed. Imidazolylthiopropionic acids have been synthesized; they are crystalline compounds, of light

  7. Effects of feeding omega-3-fatty acids on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of bovine seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürler, Hakan; Calisici, Oguz; Calisici, Duygu; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of feeding alpha-linolenic (ALA) acid on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of seminal plasma. Nine bulls (ALA bulls) were fed with 800 g rumen-resistant linseed oil with a content of 50% linolenic acid and eight bulls with 400 g palmitic acid (PA bulls). Sperm quality was evaluated for plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), the amount of membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the percentage of sperm with a high DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Fatty acid content of sperm was determined using gas chromatography. Total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity were determined in seminal plasma. Feeding ALA increased (P acid (DHA) content in bulls whereas in PA bulls did not change. PMAI increased after cryopreservation in ALA bulls as well as in PA bulls during the experiment period (P fatty acids affect the antioxidant levels in seminal plasma. Both saturated as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids had positive effects on quality of cryopreserved bovine sperm, although the content of docosahexaenoic acid in sperm membranes increased only in ALA bulls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Studying the loading effect of acidic type antioxidant on amorphous silica nanoparticle carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinayagam, Vijaya; Rabindran Jermy, B.

    2017-06-01

    The study investigates the suitable nanosilica carriers to transport acidic type cargo molecules for potential targeted drug delivery application. Using phenolic acidic type antioxidant gallic acid (GA) as model compound, the present study investigates the loading effect of GA (0.3-15.9 mmol GA g-1 support) on textural characteristics of amorphous silica nanoparticles such as Q10 silica (1D), structured two-dimensional Si-MCM-41 (2D), and three-dimensional Si-SBA-16 (3D). The variation in the nature of textures after GA loading was analyzed using X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption, FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Among the nanocarriers, high adsorption of GA was found in the following order: Si-SBA-16 (3D)˜Si-KIT-6 (3D) > Si-MCM-41 (2D) > ultralarge pore FDU-12 (ULPFDU-12; 3D) > Q10 (1D)˜mesostructured cellular silica foam (MSU-F). 3D-type silicas Si-SBA-16 and KIT-6 were shown to maintain structural integrity at acidic condition (pH ˜3) and accommodate GA in non-crystalline form. In the case of ULPFDU-12 and MSU-F cellular foam, only crystalline deposition of GA occurs with a significant variation in the surface area and pore volume. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Relationship between oxidizable fatty acid content and level of antioxidant glutathione peroxidases in marine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Jeffrey M.; Hyndman, Kelly A.; Kriska, Tamas; Girotti, Albert W.; Crockett, Elizabeth L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Biological membranes can be protected from lipid peroxidation by antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT) and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases 1 and 4 (GPx1 and GPx4). Unlike GPx1, GPx4 can directly detoxify lipid hydroperoxides in membranes without prior action of phospholipase A2. We hypothesized that (1) GPx4 is enhanced in species that contain elevated levels of highly oxidizable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and (2) activities of antioxidant enzymes are prioritized to meet species-specific oxidative stresses. In this study we examined (i) activities of the oxidative enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and antioxidant (CAT, GPx1 and GPx4) enzymes, (ii) GPx4 protein expression, and (iii) phospholipid composition in livers of five species of marine fish (Myxine glutinosa, Petromyzon marinus, Squalus acanthias, Fundulus heteroclitus and Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus) that contain a range of PUFA. GPx4 activity was, on average, 5.8 times higher in F. heteroclitus and S. acanthias than in the other three marine fish species sampled. Similarly, activities of CAT and GPx1 were highest in S. acanthias and F. heteroclitus, respectively. GPx4 activity for all species correlates with membrane unsaturation, as well as oxidative activity as indicated by CS. These data support our hypothesis that GPx4 level in marine fish is a function, at least in part, of high PUFA content in these animals. GPx1 activity was also correlated with membrane unsaturation, indicating that marine species partition resources among glutathione-dependent defenses for protection from the initial oxidative insult (e.g. H2O2) and to repair damaged lipids within biological membranes. PMID:22031739

  10. α-Lipoic acid antioxidant treatment limits glaucoma-related retinal ganglion cell death and dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise M Inman

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, including glaucoma. However, due to the lack of clinically relevant models and expense of long-term testing, few studies have modeled antioxidant therapy for prevention of neurodegeneration. We investigated the contribution of oxidative stress to the pathogenesis of glaucoma in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. Similar to other neurodegenerative diseases, we observed lipid peroxidation and upregulation of oxidative stress-related mRNA and protein in DBA/2J retina. To test the role of oxidative stress in disease progression, we chose to deliver the naturally occurring, antioxidant α-lipoic acid (ALA to DBA/2J mice in their diet. We used two paradigms for ALA delivery: an intervention paradigm in which DBA/2J mice at 6 months of age received ALA in order to intervene in glaucoma development, and a prevention paradigm in which DBA/2J mice were raised on a diet supplemented with ALA, with the goal of preventing glaucoma development. At 10 and 12 months of age (after 4 and 11 months of dietary ALA respectively, we measured changes in genes and proteins related to oxidative stress, retinal ganglion cell (RGC number, axon transport, and axon number and integrity. Both ALA treatment paradigms showed increased antioxidant gene and protein expression, increased protection of RGCs and improved retrograde transport compared to control. Measures of lipid peroxidation, protein nitrosylation, and DNA oxidation in retina verified decreased oxidative stress in the prevention and intervention paradigms. These data demonstrate the utility of dietary therapy for reducing oxidative stress and improving RGC survival in glaucoma.

  11. Polylactic acid (PLA)/Silver-NP/VitaminE bionanocomposite electrospun nanofibers with antibacterial and antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Bogdanel Silvestru; Aytac, Zeynep; Pricope, Gina M.; Uyar, Tamer; Vasile, Cornelia

    2014-10-01

    The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and the antioxidant activity of Vitamin E have been combined by incorporation of these two active components within polylactic acid (PLA) nanofibers via electrospinning (PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers). The morphological and structural characterizations of PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers were performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The average fiber diameter was 140 ± 60 nm, and the size of the Ag-NP was 2.7 ± 1.5 nm. PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers inhibited growth of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhymurium up to 100 %. The amount of released Ag ions from the nanofibers immersed in aqueous solution was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, and it has been observed that the release of Ag ions was kept approximately constant after 10 days of immersion. The antioxidant activity of PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers was evaluated according to DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method and determined as 94 %. The results of the tests on fresh apple and apple juice indicated that the PLA/Ag/VitaminE nanofiber membrane actively reduced the polyphenol oxidase activity. The multifunctional electrospun PLA nanofibers incorporating Ag-NP and Vitamin E may be quite applicable in food packaging due to the extremely large surface area of nanofibers along with antibacterial and antioxidant activities. These materials could find application in food industry as a potential preservative packaging for fruits and juices.

  12. Effect of antioxidant activity of caffeic acid with cyclodextrins using ground mixture method

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    Ryota Shiozawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we prepared a ground mixture (GM of caffeic acid (CA with α-cyclodextrin (αCD and with β-cyclodextrin (βCD, and then comparatively assessed the physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacities of these GMs. Phase solubility diagrams indicated that both CA/αCD and CA/βCD formed a complex at a molar ratio of 1/1. In addition, stability constants suggested that CA was more stable inside the cavity of αCD than inside the cavity of βCD. Results of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD indicated that the characteristic diffraction peaks of CA and CD disappeared and a halo pattern was produced by the GMs of CA/αCD and CA/βCD (molar ratios = 1/1. Dissolution testing revealed that both GMs had a higher rate of dissolution than CA alone did. Based on the 1H-1H NOESY NMR spectra for the GM of CA/αCD, the vinylene group of the CA molecule appeared to be included from the wider to the narrower rim of the αCD ring. Based on spectra for the GM of CA/βCD, the aromatic ring of the CA molecule appeared to be included from the wider to the narrower rim of the βCD ring. This suggests that the structures of the CA inclusion complexes differed between those involving αCD rings and those involving βCD rings. Results of a DPPH radical-scavenging activity test indicated that the GM of CA/αCD had a higher antioxidant capacity than that of the GM of CA/βCD. The differences in the antioxidant capacities of the GMs of CA/αCD and CA/βCD are presumably due to differences in stability constants and structures of the inclusion complexes.

  13. Lactic Acid Bacterial Starter Culture with Antioxidant and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Biosynthetic Activities Isolated from Flatfish-Sikhae Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yeong Geol; Yu, Hyun-Hee; Chang, Young-Hyo; Hwang, Han-Joon

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to select a lactic acid bacterial strain as a starter culture for flatfish-Sikhae fermentation and to evaluate its suitability for application in a food system. Four strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from commercial flatfish-Sikhae were identified and selected as starter culture candidates through investigation of growth rates, salt tolerance, food safety, and functional properties such as antioxidative and antimicrobial activities. The fermentation properties of the starter candidates were also examined in food systems prepared with these strains (candidate batch) in comparison with a spontaneous fermentation process without starter culture (control batch) at 15°C. The results showed that the candidate YG331 batch had better fermentation properties such as viable cell count, pH, and acidity than the other experimental batches, including the control batch. The results are expressed according to selection criteria based on a preliminary sensory evaluation and physiochemical investigation. Also, only a small amount of histamine was detected with the candidate YG331 batch. The radical scavenging activity of the candidate batches was better compared with the control batch, and especially candidate YG331 batch showed the best radical scavenging activity. Also, we isolated another starter candidate (identified as Lactobacillus brevis PM03) with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing activity from commercial flatfish-Sikhae products. The sensory scores of the candidate YG331 batch were better than those of the other experimental batches in terms of flavor, color, and overall acceptance. In this study, we established selection criteria for the lactic acid bacterial starter for the flatfish-Sikhae production and finally selected candidate YG331 as the most suitable starter.

  14. Antioxidant profile of strawberry tree honey and its marker homogentisic acid in several models of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Antonella; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Atzeri, Angela; Melis, Maria Paola; Bifulco, Ersilia; Dessì, Maria Assunta

    2011-12-01

    The antioxidant activity of several honeys was evaluated considering the different contribution of entire samples. The strawberry tree honey emerged as the richest in total phenols and the most active honey in the DPPH and FRAP tests, and could protect cholesterol against oxidative degradation (140°C). Homogentisic acid (2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, HGA), the main phenolic compound from strawberry tree honey, showed interesting antioxidant and antiradical activities, and protective effect against thermal-cholesterol degradation, comparable to those of well known antioxidants. Moreover, the pre-treatment with HGA significantly preserved liposomes and LDL from Cu(2+)-induced oxidative damage at 37°C for 2h, inhibiting the reduction of polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol and the increase of their oxidative products. This phenol had no toxic effect in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells within the concentration range tested (5-1000μM). HGA was able to pass through the Caco-2 monolayers, the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) in the apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical direction were 3.48±1.22×10(-6) and 2.18±0.34×10(-6)cm/s, respectively, suggesting a passive diffusion pathway as the dominating process. The results of the work qualify HGA as natural antioxidant, able to exert a significant in vitro protective effect and to contribute to the strawberry tree honey antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of Antioxidant, Anticholinesterase, Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activities and Fatty Acid Profiles of 10 Anatolian Klasea Cass. Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsen Tel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In search of new natural fatty acid sources, extract of 10 different Turkish Klasea species were studies. Fatty acids of Klasea species were studied by GC and GC-MSD. Oleic acid (4.8-45.8%, palmitic acid (15.6-51.8%, linoleic acid (0.3-45.5%, palmitoleic acid (0.8-28.4% and linolenic acid (15.6-34.6% were the main fatty acids elucidated. All extracts were also subjected to acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, β-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH • scavenging, CUPRAC and ferrous ion-chelating ability activities. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents were determined as quercetin and pyrocatechol equivalents. All extracts showed significant antioxidant activity in all tests, except hexane extracts of K. serratuloides and K. cerinthifolia that showed weak inhibition against BChE and AChE. The hexane extract of K. coriaceae and methanol extract of K. serratuloides exhibited notable tyrosinase inhibitory activity.

  16. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids and Their Derivatives as Natural Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Naoki; Sakamoto, Toshio; Matsugo, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are water-soluble molecules that absorb UV-A and UV-B radiation and disperse the energy as heat. MAAs show great diversity in their molecular structures, which exhibit a range of molecular weights spanning 188 to 1050 Daltons. MAAs are utilized in a wide variety of organisms including prokaryotes and eukaryotic micro-organisms that inhabit aquatic, terrestrial, and marine environments. These features suggest that MAAs are stable and fundamental molecules that allow these organisms to live under UV irradiation. MAAs are thought to have been greatly important to ancient forms of life on Earth, functioning as a primary sunscreen to reduce short-wavelength light. Structurally different MAAs might have been developed in MAA-producing organisms during their environmental adaptation. Harmful irradiation directly damages biomolecules, including lipids, proteins and DNA, and induces oxidative stress through radical-propagating processes. Thus, MAAs are expected to play an additional role in the antioxidant system. This review focuses on MAAs with radical scavenging activities. To cover all the reported MAAs known thus far, we surveyed the CAS database and have summarized the structures and the chemical and physical properties of these MAAs, including their antioxidant activities. PMID:26783847

  17. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids and Their Derivatives as Natural Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Wada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs are water-soluble molecules that absorb UV-A and UV-B radiation and disperse the energy as heat. MAAs show great diversity in their molecular structures, which exhibit a range of molecular weights spanning 188 to 1050 Daltons. MAAs are utilized in a wide variety of organisms including prokaryotes and eukaryotic micro-organisms that inhabit aquatic, terrestrial, and marine environments. These features suggest that MAAs are stable and fundamental molecules that allow these organisms to live under UV irradiation. MAAs are thought to have been greatly important to ancient forms of life on Earth, functioning as a primary sunscreen to reduce short-wavelength light. Structurally different MAAs might have been developed in MAA-producing organisms during their environmental adaptation. Harmful irradiation directly damages biomolecules, including lipids, proteins and DNA, and induces oxidative stress through radical-propagating processes. Thus, MAAs are expected to play an additional role in the antioxidant system. This review focuses on MAAs with radical scavenging activities. To cover all the reported MAAs known thus far, we surveyed the CAS database and have summarized the structures and the chemical and physical properties of these MAAs, including their antioxidant activities.

  18. Antifungal and antioxidant activity of fatty acid methyl esters from vegetable oils

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    MARIA E.A. PINTO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs were obtained from vegetable oils of soybean, corn and sunflower. The current study was focused on evaluating the antifungal activity of FAMEs mainly against Paracoccidioides spp., as well as testing the interaction of these compounds with commercial antifungal drugs and also their antioxidant potential. FAMEs presented small IC50 values (1.86-9.42 μg/mL. All three FAMEs tested showed antifungal activity against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. with MIC values ranging from 15.6-500 µg/mL. Sunflower FAMEs exhibited antifungal activity that extended also to other genera, with an MIC of 15.6 μg/mL against Candida glabrata and C. krusei and 31.2 μg/mL against C. parapsilosis. FAMEs exhibited a synergetic effect with itraconazole. The antifungal activity of the FAMEs against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. is likely due to the presence of methyl linoleate, the major compound present in all three FAMEs. The results obtained indicate the potential of FAMEs as sources for antifungal and antioxidant activity.

  19. In vivo examination of the effects of hydroxycinnamic acid on xenobiotic metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes

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    Semiz Asli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA have gained increasing attention from researchers due to their antioxidant potential. The aim of this study was to examine in detail the impact of dietary HCA on particular types of P450 and also selected phase II and antioxidant enzymes in Wistar rat. HCA (10 mM/kg/day, i.p. was administered for ten continuous days. Examination of the activities and mRNA and protein levels revealed that CYP2B, 2C6 and 3A enzyme activities were not altered significantly, with Western blot and qRT-PCR results corroborating this result. While treatment with HCA led to a significant reduction in CYP1A1/CYP1A2-associated enzyme activities, CYP1A1 protein, and mRNA levels were found to be unchanged. Aromatase (CYP19 activity, as well as protein and mRNA levels, were significantly reduced with HCA treatment. On the other hand, the NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs activities were increased significantly. Also, HCA treatment significantly increased the GST-mu and GST-theta mRNA levels. These observations may be of importance given the potential use of HCA as a chemopreventive and as an anticancer agent.

  20. Experimental and theoretical elucidation of structural and antioxidant properties of vanillylmandelic acid and its carboxylate anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimić, Dušan; Milenković, Dejan; Ilić, Jelica; Šmit, Biljana; Amić, Ana; Marković, Zoran; Dimitrić Marković, Jasmina

    2018-06-01

    Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), an important metabolite of catecholamines that is routinely screened as tumor marker, was investigated by the various spectroscopic techniques (IR, Raman, UV-Vis, antioxidant decolorization assay and NMR). Structures optimized by the employment of five common functionals (M05-2X, M06-2X, B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, B3LYP-D3) were compared with the crystallographic data. The M05-2X functional reproduced the most reliable experimental bond lengths and angles (correlation coefficient >0.999). The importance of intramolecular hydrogen bonds for structural stability was discussed and quantified by the NBO analysis. The most prominent bands in vibrational spectrum were analyzed and compared to the experimental data. The positions of the carbon and hydrogen atoms in NMR spectra were well reproduced. The differences in UV-Vis spectrum were investigated by adding the explicit solvent and by performing NBO and QTAIM analyses. The discrepancy in the two spectra of about 50 nm could be explained by the solvent effect on carboxyl group. The most probable antioxidant activity mechanism was discussed for VMA and its carboxylate anion. The Molecular Docking study with the C - reactive protein additionally proved that variety of functional groups present in VMA and its anion allowed strong hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions.

  1. Effect of high doses of L-ascorbic acid on the antioxidative/oxidative state in the rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemiec, T.; Sawosz, E.; Chwalibog, André

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of mega-doses of vitamin C (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9% of diet) as a dietary supplement for rats on selected indices of the antioxidative/oxidative state in 40 growing Wistar rats (4x10). It was found that L-ascorbic acid and Total Antioxidative State...... (TAS) in plasma did not increase with increasing vitamin C supply. The results indicate that high doses of L-ascorbic acid (0.3 and 0.9 but not 0.6%) increased the concentration of this antioxidant in plasma. Supplementation of vitamin C above 0.3% to the diets had pro-oxidative effects on lipid...... structures, while application of 0.9% promoted oxidative degradation of rat livers....

  2. Effects of intermittent acid rain on proline and antioxidant content on medicinal plant “Pereskia bleo”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulandjari; Dewi, W. S.

    2018-03-01

    Global warming due to CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions from human activities have led to climate change and environmental degradation. The acid rain, with the pH of rainwater below 5.6, is a serious environmental problem. Arising from air pollution and potentially harmful to health, it can damage old buildings and distract the growth and physiological metabolism of sensitive plants. How does the influence of climate change on medicinal plants such as Pereskia bleo? The leaf of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. contains high antioxidants with benefits for anti-cancer, anti-tumor, anti-rheumatic, and anti-inflammatory. This research aims to investigate the influence of acid rain on the proline level and antioxidant content of Pereskia bleo. Having been carried out from June to August in Jogjakarta, this study was conducted through the use of artificial acid rain with pH 5.8, 4.9, 3.7 and 2.9, by adding sulfate acid (H2SO4) to rainwater. The interval of intermittent watering acid rain to the plants is once a day, twice a day, and once in three days with three replications for six weeks. The results showed that Acid rain with a pH less than 4.9 and the intermittent interval of acid rain twice a day and once in three days significantly suppresses growth and chlorophyll content. In contrast, it increases the proline and antioxidant levels as a tolerant action of the plant.

  3. Gallic acid grafting effect on delivery performance and antiglaucoma efficacy of antioxidant-functionalized intracameral pilocarpine carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shih-Feng; Luo, Li-Jyuan; Lai, Jui-Yang

    2016-07-01

    Functionalization of therapeutic carrier biomaterials can potentially provide additional benefits in drug delivery for disease treatment. Given that this modification determines final therapeutic efficacy of drug carriers, here, we investigate systematically the role of grafting amount of antioxidant gallic acid (GA) onto GN in situ gelling copolymers made of biodegradable gelatin and thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) for intracameral delivery of pilocarpine in antiglaucoma treatment. As expected, increasing redox reaction time increased total antioxidant activities and free radical scavenging abilities of synthesized carrier biomaterials. The hydrophilic nature of antioxidant molecules strongly affected physicochemical properties of carrier materials with varying GA grafting amounts, thereby dictating in vitro release behaviors and mechanisms of pilocarpine. In vitro oxidative stress challenges revealed that biocompatible carriers with high GA content alleviated lens epithelial cell damage and reduced reactive oxygen species. Intraocular pressure and pupil diameter in glaucomatous rabbits showed correlations with GA-mediated release of pilocarpine. Additionally, enhanced pharmacological treatment effects prevented corneal endothelial cell loss during disease progression. Increasing GA content increased total antioxidant level and decreased nitrite level in the aqueous humor, suggesting a much improved antioxidant status in glaucomatous eyes. This work significantly highlights the dependence of physicochemical properties, drug release behaviors, and bioactivities on intrinsic antioxidant capacities of therapeutic carrier biomaterials for glaucoma treatment. Development of injectable biodegradable polymer depots and functionalization of carrier biomaterials with antioxidant can potentially provide benefits such as improved bioavailability, controlled release pattern, and increased therapeutic effect in intracameral pilocarpine administration for glaucoma

  4. Abscisic Acid Induced Changes in Production of Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, Antioxidant Capability, Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2−, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2−, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05 and O2− (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05. This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.

  5. Extraction, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of sesame extract (Sesamum Indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. R. Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article carried out the extraction of sesame oil by using three extraction techniques: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, Soxhlet and sequential extraction. The SFE was performed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 as solvent and ethanol as cosolvent. Tests were performed at 20 MPa, 35ºC and a flow rate of 2.5 g CO2/min with a total extraction time of 210 minutes. The Soxhlet extraction was performed for 8 hours, using petroleum ether and ethanol as solvents, until the exhaustion of the oil contained in the seeds. The sequential extraction used ethyl ether, ethanol and water as solvents. The Soxhlet extraction was the most effective (58.93%, while the SFE technique obtained 26.47% as the best result. The antioxidant activity (AA was determined by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, with good oxidation inhibition percentages (29.32-83.49% for all the extracts. The main fatty acids (FA in sesame oil were oleic and linoleic acids.

  6. New aspects of the antioxidant properties of phenolic acids: a combined theoretical and experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anouar, E; Kosinová, P; Kozlowski, D; Mokrini, R; Duroux, J L; Trouillas, P

    2009-09-21

    Ferulic acid is widely distributed in the leaves and seeds of cereals as well as in coffee, apples, artichokes, peanuts, oranges and pineapples. Like numerous other natural polyphenols it exhibits antioxidant properties. It is known to act as a free radical scavenger by H atom transfer from the phenolic OH group. In the present joint experimental and theoretical studies we studied a new mechanism to explain such activities. Ferulic acid can indeed act by radical addition on the alpha,beta-double bond. On the basis of the identification of metabolites formed in an oxidative radiolytic solution and after DFT calculations, we studied the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of this reaction. Addition and HAT reactions were treated as competitive reactions. The possibility of dimer formation was also investigated from a theoretical point of view; the high barriers we obtained contribute to explaining why we did not observe those compounds as major radiolytic compounds. The DPPH free radical scavenging capacity of ferulic acid and the oxidative products was measured and is discussed on the basis of DFT calculations (BDEs and spin densities).

  7. The Antioxidant Cofactor Alpha-Lipoic Acid May Control Endogenous Formaldehyde Metabolism in Mammals

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    Anastasia V. Shindyapina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The healthy human body contains small amounts of metabolic formaldehyde (FA that mainly results from methanol oxidation by pectin methylesterase, which is active in a vegetable diet and in the gastrointestinal microbiome. With age, the ability to maintain a low level of FA decreases, which increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. It has been shown that 1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid or alpha lipoic acid (ALA, a naturally occurring dithiol and antioxidant cofactor of mitochondrial α-ketoacid dehydrogenases, increases glutathione (GSH content and FA metabolism by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 thus manifests a therapeutic potential beyond its antioxidant property. We suggested that ALA can contribute to a decrease in the FA content of mammals by acting on ALDH2 expression. To test this assumption, we administered ALA in mice in order to examine the effect on FA metabolism and collected blood samples for the measurement of FA. Our data revealed that ALA efficiently eliminated FA in mice. Without affecting the specific activity of FA-metabolizing enzymes (ADH1, ALDH2, and ADH5, ALA increased the GSH content in the brain and up-regulated the expression of the FA-metabolizing ALDH2 gene in the brain, particularly in the hippocampus, but did not impact its expression in the liver in vivo or in rat liver isolated from the rest of the body. After ALA administration in mice and in accordance with the increased content of brain ALDH2 mRNA, we detected increased ALDH2 activity in brain homogenates. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of ALA on patients with Alzheimer's disease may be associated with accelerated ALDH2-mediated FA detoxification and clearance.

  8. Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis): a seed source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, phytoserols, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirinos, R.; Zuloeta, G.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids (FA), phytosterols, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic ORAC antioxidant capacities were evaluated in 16 cultivars of Sacha inchi (SI) seeds with the aim to valorise them and offer more information on the functional properties of SI seeds. A

  9. Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

  10. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid. The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain, with an optimum condition of: (1 ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2 concentration of substrate, 4%; (3 reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4 pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01 under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen.

  11. Antioxidant activity and controlled drug delivery potential of tragacanth gum-cl- poly (lactic acid-co-itaconic acid) hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Sood, Swadeep; Agarwal, Shilpi; Saini, Adesh K; Pathania, Deepak

    2018-02-01

    Tragacanth gum-cl-poly (lactic acid-co-itaconic acid) (TG-cl-p(LA-co-IA)) hydrogel is synthesized through graft copolymerization reaction using microwave assisted technique. The synthesized hydrogel was characterised using various analytical and characterization techniques such as FTIR, FESEM, XRD, TGA, TEM and SEM. It was observed that, the maximum percentage swelling (P s ) of the hydrogel was 311.61% after 6h at room temperature and 298.06% after 3h at 60°C and TG-cl-p(LA-co-IA) exhibited highest Amoxicillin loading (73%) in double distilled waterafter 24h. From the controlled release studies, it was evident that maximum drug release of about 96% took place at pH 2.2=after 6h. The synthesized hydrogel also showed mild antioxidant properties and 43.85% of free radical scavenging was occurred at a concentration of 640μg/mL and hence it can be effectively used to reduce the oxidative stresses. In addition to this, the antibacterial studies also showed that it is more effective against S. aureus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemotherapeutic Impact Of Natural Antioxidant Flavonoids Gallic Acid Rutin Quercetin And Mannitol On Pathogenic Microbes And Their Synergistic Effect

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    Ganesh Ghosh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that natural flavonoids with antioxidants and can influence the response to chemotherapy as well as the development of adverse side effects that results from treatment with antineoplastic agents and Its prevalence over Multi drug resistant bacterial strain revived interest on Flavonoids. Synergistic effect is defined as passive interaction arises when two agents combine and together they exert an inhibitory effect that is greater than the sum of individual effect The new Synergistic therapy so that antioxidant are more effective in combination on multi drug resistant bacterial strain. Interaction between natural antioxidants and topoisomerase enzyme can be seen through Quercetin as a potent antimicrobial compound alone and in combination with other natural antioxidant like rutin. MICMBC result show antibacterial activity of the flavonoids were enhanced when used in combination against Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus Bacillus subtilis Klebsiella pneumonae Escherichia coli as the test bacteria. The combination of rutin and quercetin rutin and gallic acid mannitol and gallic acid were much more effective than either flavonoid alone. Furthermore Its gave a good relation between these antioxidant compound and antimicrobial activity. Flavonoids as a chemotherapeutic agent and its Synergistic effect can be solution for various microbial disease conditions.

  13. Antioxidant and chelating capacity of Maillard reaction products in amino acid-sugar model systems: applications for food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondaca-Navarro, Blanca A; Ávila-Villa, Luz A; González-Córdova, Aarón F; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; Campas-Baypoli, Olga N; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRP) have gained increasing interest owing to their both positive and negative effects on human health. Aqueous amino acid-sugar model systems were studied in order to evaluate the antioxidant and chelating activity of MRP under conditions similar to those of food processing. Amino acids (cysteine, glycine, isoleucine and lysine) combined with different sugars (fructose or glucose) were heated to 100 and 130 °C for 30, 60 and 90 min. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated via ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging assays, in addition to Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ ion chelating capacity. In the ABTS assay, the cysteine-fructose model system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 7.05 µmol mL -1 (130 °C, 60 min), expressed in Trolox equivalents. In the DPPH assay, the cysteine-glucose system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 3.79 µmol mL -1 (100 °C, 90 min). The maximum rate of chelation of Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ was 96.31 and 59.44% respectively in the lysine-fructose and cysteine-glucose systems (100 °C, 30 min). The model systems presented antioxidant and chelating activity under the analyzed temperatures and heating times, which are similar to the processing conditions of some foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Exploitation of grape marc as functional substrate for lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria growth and enhanced antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Daniela; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Fasciano, Cristina; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Pinto, Daniela; Marzani, Barbara; Scarano, Nicola; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed at using grape marc for the growth of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria with the perspective of producing a functional ingredient having antioxidant activity. Lactobacillus plantarum 12A and PU1, Lactobacillus paracasei 14A, and Bifidobacterium breve 15A showed the ability to grow on grape marc (GM) based media. The highest bacterial cell density (>9.0 CFU/g) was found in GM added of 1% of glucose (GMG). Compared to un-inoculated and incubated control fermented GMG showed a decrease of carbohydrates and citric acid together with an increase of lactic acid. The content of several free amino acids and phenol compounds differed between samples. Based on the survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions, GMG was a suitable carrier of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria strains. Compared to the control, cell-free supernatant (CFS) of fermented GMG exhibited a marked antioxidant activity in vitro. The increased antioxidant activity was confirmed using Caco-2 cell line after inducing oxidative stress, and determining cell viability and radical scavenging activity through MTT and DCFH-DA assays, respectively. Supporting these founding, the SOD-2 gene expression of Caco-2 cells also showed a lowest pro-oxidant effect induced by the four CFS of GMG fermented by lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of calcium and salicylic acid on quality retention in relation to antioxidative enzymes in radish stored under refrigerated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Jomika; Bhatia, Surekha; Alam, M S; Dhillon, Tarsem Singh

    2018-03-01

    Effect of post harvest treatments with calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) and salicylic acid (SA) on physiological and biochemical parameters in relation to activities of antioxidative enzymes were investigated in radish. Radish of variety Punjab Safed Mooli 2 was harvested, washed and treated with CaCl 2 (1, 1.5 and 2%) or SA (1, 1.5 and 2 mM). Treated as well as untreated radish were placed in open trays and stored under refrigerated (5 ± 1 °C, 90% RH) conditions for 42 days. Treatment of radish with CaCl 2 and SA slowed down changes in physiological weight, colour, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, titrable acidity, total phenolics and antioxidant activity. Treated samples exhibited higher enhancement in activities of antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POD), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and monodehydro-ascorbate reductase (MDHAR) than untreated samples. However SA was found to be more effective in slowing down the metabolic activities of radish as compared to CaCl 2 treatment. Among all the treatments, 1.5 mM SA maintained the quality parameters to greater extent probably by reducing the oxidative stress to larger extent due to highest activities of antioxidative enzymes and can be used to enhance the shelf life of radish during refrigerated storage.

  16. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der Jiun Ooi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  17. Effect of Dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Macrosomic Offspring of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Guermouche

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA on oxidant/antioxidant status, in vitro very low and low density lipoprotein (VLDL-LDL, and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition in macrosomic pups of diabetic mothers. We hypothesized that n-3 PUFA would improve oxidative stress in macrosomia. Diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats fed with the ISIO diet (control or with the EPAX diet (enriched in n-3 PUFAs, by streptozotocin. The macrosomic pups were killed at birth (day 0 and at adulthood (day 90. Lipid parameters and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition were investigated. The oxidant/antioxidant status was determined by measuring plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, hydroperoxides, carbonyl proteins, and VLDL-LDL oxidation. Macrosomic rats of ISIO fed diabetic mothers showed an increase in plasma and VLDL-LDL-triglycerides and VLDL-LDL-cholesterol levels and altered VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition. Plasma ORAC was low with high hydroperoxide and carbonyl protein levels. The in vitro oxidizability of VLDL-LDL was enhanced in these macrosomic rats. The EPAX diet corrected lipid parameters and improved oxidant/antioxidant status but increased VLDL-LDL susceptibility to oxidation. Macrosomia is associated with lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress. n-3 PUFA exerts favorable effects on lipid metabolism and on the oxidant/antioxidant status of macrosomic rats. However, there are no evident effects on VLDL-LDL oxidation.

  18. Is comfrey root more than toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids? Salvianolic acids among antioxidant polyphenols in comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifan, Adriana; Opitz, Sebastian E W; Josuran, Roland; Grubelnik, Andreas; Esslinger, Nils; Peter, Samuel; Bräm, Sarah; Meier, Nadja; Wolfram, Evelyn

    2018-02-01

    Comfrey root preparations are used for the external treatment of joint distortions and myalgia, due to its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Up to date, key activity-determining constituents of comfrey root extracts have not been completely elucidated. Therefore, we applied different approaches to further characterize a comfrey root extract (65% ethanol). The phenolic profile of comfrey root sample was characterized by HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS. Rosmarinic acid was identified as main phenolic constituent (7.55 mg/g extract). Moreover, trimers and tetramers of caffeic acid (isomers of salvianolic acid A, B and C) were identified and quantified for the first time in comfrey root. In addition, pyrrolizidine alkaloids were evaluated by HPLC-QQQ-MS/MS and acetylintermedine, acetyllycopsamine and their N-oxides were determined as major pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the comfrey root sample. Lastly, the antioxidant activity was determined using four assays: DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, reducing power assay and 15-lipoxygenase inhibition assay. Comfrey root extract exhibited significant antioxidant activities when compared to known antioxidants. Thus, comfrey root is an important source of phenolic compounds endowed with antioxidant activity which may contribute to the overall bioactivity of Symphytum preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fatty acid composition and natural antioxidant capacity of ten Serbian linseed cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Dušica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature data about nutritional characteristics of linseed cultivars from some specific geographical area or country is scarce. For that very reason, following paper is presenting fatty acid (FA compositions and antioxidant capacity of lipid-soluble (ACL components of ten native linseed cultivars from Serbia. These characteristics can be interesting, especially due to the increasing trend of linseed usage in human diet. Presented results show that there were statistically significant (p<0.05 differences between linseed kernels in FA composition. Negative correlation was found between FA C18:0 and α-linolenic acid (ALA. The cultivar with the highest ACL value was No. 10 (342.66 μmol trolox/kg d.m., meaning that it had very strong protection against oxidation of polyunsaturated FAs. Nevertheless, correlation between ACL and polyunsaturated FA content in cultivars was not statistically significant (p=0.84. ACL of the samples did not depend on FA composition of linseed, but it might depend on characteristics of a specific cultivar. The aforementioned results show potential usage in storage of linseeds or its products, while FA composition of linseed kernels might be one of criteria for authentication of linseed origin, and can be of great help in future selection of the cultivars, depending on purpose of linseed production.

  20. Fish protein hydrolysates: proximate composition, amino acid composition, antioxidant activities and applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Dinesh Kumar, B; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T

    2012-12-15

    The fish processing industry produces more than 60% by-products as waste, which includes skin, head, viscera, trimmings, liver, frames, bones, and roes. These by-product wastes contain good amount of protein rich material that are normally processed into low market-value products, such as animal feed, fish meal and fertilizer. In view of utilizing these fish industry wastes, and for increasing the value to several underutilised fish species, protein hydrolysates from fish proteins are being prepared by several researchers all over the world. Fish protein hydrolysates are breakdown products of enzymatic conversion of fish proteins into smaller peptides, which normally contain 2-20 amino acids. In recent years, fish protein hydrolysates have attracted much attention of food biotechnologists due to the availability of large quantities of raw material for the process, and presence of high protein content with good amino acid balance and bioactive peptides (antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Butylated caffeic acid: An efficient novel antioxidant; Ácido cafeico butilado: un nuevo y eficaz antioxidante.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, G.; Liao, X.; Olajide, T.M.; Liu, J.; Jiang, X.; Weng, X.

    2017-07-01

    A novel antioxidant, butylated caffeic acid (BCA) was rationally designed by adding a tert-butyl group to caffeic acid, which was synthesized at a high yield (36.2%) from 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (1) by a four-step reaction including Friedel-Crafts alkylation, bromine oxidation, ether bond hydrolysis and Knoevenagel condensation. Its antioxidant capacity was much stronger than common commercial antioxidant tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and its mother compound, caffeic acid, in both rancimat and deep frying tests. When investigated via the DPPH method, the antioxidant capacity of BCA was almost equal to TBHQ, but lower than caffeic acid. BCA could be a potentially strong antioxidant, especially for food processing at high temperatures such as deep frying and baking. [Spanish] Se diseñó razonadamente un nuevo antioxidante, el ácido cafeico butilado (BCA) mediante la adición de un grupo terc-butilo al ácido cafeico, que se sintetizó con un alto rendimiento (36,2%) a partir de 2-metoxi-4-metilfenol, reacción de Friedel-Crafts, oxidación de bromo, hidrólisis del enlace éter y condensación de Knoevenagel. Su capacidad antioxidante fué mucho más fuerte que la del antioxidante comercial mas común el terc-butil hidroquinona (TBHQ) y la de su compuesto madre el ácido cafeico, tanto en rancimat como en pruebas de fritura. Cuando se investigó mediante el método DPPH, la capacidad antioxidante de BCA fue casi igual a TBHQ, pero menor que la del ácido cafeico. BCA podría ser un fuerte antioxidante potencial, especialmente para el procesamiento de alimentos a alta temperatura, tales como freír y hornear.

  2. Antioxidant effect of mogrosides against oxidative stress induced by palmitic acid in mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Q.; Chen, S.Y.; Deng, L.D.; Feng, L.P.; Huang, L.Z.; Yu, R.R. [Department of Pharmacy, Guilin Medical University, Guilin (China)

    2013-11-18

    Excessive oxidative stress in pancreatic β cells, caused by glucose and fatty acids, is associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Mogrosides have shown antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in animal models of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study evaluated the antioxidant effect of mogrosides on insulinoma cells under oxidative stress caused by palmitic acid, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells were cultured in medium containing 0.75 mM palmitic acid, mimicking oxidative stress. The effects of 1 mM mogrosides were determined with the dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay for intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and FITC-Annexin V/PI assay for cell apoptosis. Expression of glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) and pyruvate kinase was determined by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Palmitic acid significantly increased intracellular ROS concentration 2-fold (P<0.05), and decreased expression of GLUT2 (by 60%, P<0.05) and pyruvate kinase (by 80%, P<0.05) mRNAs in NIT-1 cells. Compared with palmitic acid, co-treatment with 1 mM mogrosides for 48 h significantly reduced intracellular ROS concentration and restored mRNA expression levels of GLUT2 and pyruvate kinase. However, mogrosides did not reverse palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in NIT-1 cells. Our results indicate that mogrosides might exert their antioxidant effect by reducing intracellular ROS and regulating expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism. Further research is needed to achieve a better understanding of the signaling pathway involved in the antioxidant effect of mogrosides.

  3. Effects of an acid/alkaline treatment on the release of antioxidants and cellulose from different agro-food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivel, Vellingiri; Moncalvo, Alessandro; Dordoni, Roberta; Spigno, Giorgia

    2017-06-01

    The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the release of both antioxidants and cellulosic fibre from different agro-food wastes. Cost-effective and easily available agro-food residues (brewers' spent grains, hazelnut shells, orange peels and wheat straw) were selected and submitted to a double-step acid/alkaline fractionation process. The obtained acid and alkaline liquors were analysed for total phenols content and antioxidant capacity. The final fibre residue was analysed for the cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose content. The total phenols content and antioxidant capacity of the acid liquors were higher than the alkaline hydrolysates. Orange peels and wheat straw gave, respectively, the highest (19.70±0.68mg/g dm ) and the lowest (4.70±0.29mg/g dm ) total phenols release. Correlation between antioxidant capacity of the liquors and their origin depended on the analytical assay used to evaluate it. All the acid liquors were also rich in sugar degradation products (mainly furfural). HPLC analysis revealed that the most abundant phenolic compound in the acid liquors was vanillin for brewers' spent grains, hazelnut shells and wheat straw, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid for orange peels. Wheat straw served as the best raw material for cellulose isolation, providing a final residue with a high cellulose content (84%) which corresponded to 45% of the original cellulose. The applied process removed more than 90% of the hemicellulose fraction in all the samples, while delignification degree ranged from 67% (in hazelnut shells), to 93% (in brewers' spent grains). It was not possible to select a unique raw material for the release of highest levels of both total phenols and cellulose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of Some Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Capacity, of Organic and Conventional Milk in Turkey Produced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Ürkek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, determination of effect of production systems (conventional and organic and time of milk collection on some physicochemical properties, fatty acids and antioxidant capacity of conventional and organic raw milk in produced Turkey were aimed. In this research, the milk samples was collected from nine conventional farms and nine organic farms at bimonthly years for one year. Fatty acid composition, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic matter, dry matter, fat, protein, ash, titratable acidity (lactic acid % and pH values of organic and conventional milk were investigated. According to results of this research, the mean values of conventional and organic milk samples respectively for dry matter, fat, protein, ash, specific gravity, acidity and pH was determined as 12.06-11.97%, 3.67-3.50%, 3.33-3.34%, 0.67-0.66%, 1.0381-1.0381 g mL-1, 0.18-0.16% and 6.67-6.73, respectively. Conjugated linoliec acid proportions changed between 1.39% and 2.87% in organic milk, between 1.67% and 2.96% in conventional milk. Consequently, the farm production type did not have effects on the milk compassion (dry matter, fat, protein and ash, fatty acid composition, EC50 and total phenolic compounds. On the other hand, the significant variations in the fat, protein, fatty acid proportions, EC50, inhibition and total phenolic compound values were determined as regarding time of milk collection.

  5. Salicylic acid confers salt tolerance in potato plants by improving water relations, gaseous exchange, antioxidant activities and osmoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faried, Hafiz Nazar; Ayyub, Chaudhary Muhammad; Amjad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Rashid; Wattoo, Fahad Masoud; Butt, Madiha; Bashir, Mohsin; Shaheen, Muhammad Rashid; Waqas, Muhammad Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    Potato is an important vegetable; however, salt stress drastically affects its growth and yield. A pot experiment was therefore conducted to assess salicylic acid efficacy in improving performance of potato cultivars, grown under salt stress (50 mmol L -1 ). Salicylic acid at 0.5 mmol L -1 was sprayed on to potato plants after 1 week of salinity application. Salt stress effects were ameliorated by salicylic acid effectively in both the studied cultivars. N-Y LARA proved more responsive to salicylic acid application than 720-110 NARC, which confirmed genetic variation between cultivars. Salicylic acid scavenged reactive oxygen species by improving antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidases) and regulating osmotic adjustment (proline, phenolic contents), which led to enhanced water relation and gaseous exchange attributes, and thereby increased potassium availability and reduced sodium content in potato leaves. Moreover, potato tuber yield showed a positive correlation with potassium content, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities. Salt tolerance efficacy of salicylic acid is authenticated in improving potato crop performance under salt stress. Salicylic acid effect was more pronounced in N-Y LARA, reflecting greater tolerance than 720-110 NARC, which was confirmed as a susceptible cultivar. Hence salicylic acid at 0.5 mmol L -1 and cultivation of N-Y LARA may be recommended in saline soil. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Mathematical Evaluation of the Amino Acid and Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activities of Fruits from Different Apricot Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods are of interest because of their significant effects on human health, which can be connected with the presence of some biologically important compounds. In this study, we carried out complex analysis of 239 apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L. cultivated in Lednice (climatic area T4, South Moravia, Czech Republic. Almost all previously published studies have focused only on analysis of certain parameters. However, we focused on detection both primary and secondary metabolites in a selection of apricot cultivars with respect to their biological activity. The contents of thirteen biogenic alpha-L-amino acids (arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, lysine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline and alanine were determined using ion exchange chromatography with UV-Vis spectrometry detection. Profile of polyphenols, measured as content of ten polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties (gallic acid, procatechinic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferrulic acid and quercetrin, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometric/electrochemical detection. Moreover, content of total phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined using five independent spectrophotometric methods: DPPH assay, DMPD method, ABTS method, FRAP and Free Radicals methods. Considering the complexity of the obtained data, they were processed and correlated using bioinformatics techniques (cluster analysis, principal component analysis. The studied apricot cultivars were clustered according to their common biochemical properties, which has not been done before. The observed similarities and differences were discussed.

  7. Evolution of availability of curcumin inside poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles: impact on antioxidant and antinitrosant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betbeder, Didier; Lipka, Emmanuelle; Howsam, Mike; Carpentier, Rodolphe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Curcumin exhibits antioxidant properties potentially beneficial for human health; however, its use in clinical applications is limited by its poor solubility and relative instability. Nanoparticles exhibit interesting features for the efficient distribution and delivery of curcumin into cells, and could also increase curcumin stability in biological systems. There is a paucity of information regarding the evolution of the antioxidant properties of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin. Method We described a simple method of curcumin encapsulation in poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles without the use of detergent. We assessed, in epithelial cells and in an acellular model, the evolution of direct antioxidant and antinitrosant properties of free versus PLGA-encapsulated curcumin after storage under different conditions (light vs darkness, 4°C vs 25°C vs 37°C). Results In epithelial cells, endocytosis and efflux pump inhibitors showed that the increased antioxidant activity of PLGA-encapsulated curcumin relied on bypassing the efflux pump system. Acellular assays showed that the antioxidant effect of curcumin was greater when loaded in PLGA nanoparticles. Furthermore, we observed that light decreased, though heat restored, antioxidant activity of PLGA-encapsulated curcumin, probably by modulating the accessibility of curcumin to reactive oxygen species, an observation supported by results from quenching experiments. Moreover, we demonstrated a direct antinitrosant activity of curcumin, enhanced by PLGA encapsulation, which was increased by light exposure. Conclusion These results suggest that the antioxidant and antinitrosant activities of encapsulated curcumin are light sensitive and that nanoparticle modifications over time and with temperature may facilitate curcumin contact with reactive oxygen species. These results highlight the importance of understanding effects of nanoparticle maturation on an encapsulated drug’s activity. PMID

  8. Exogenously applied abscisic acid to Yan73 (V. vinifera) grapes enhances phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of its wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhu-Mei; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Huo, Shan-Shan; Luan, Li-Ying; Ma, Li-Na; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2013-06-01

    Yan73 is a 'teinturier' red wine variety cultivated in China and widely used in winemaking to strengthen red wine colour. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) applied to the grapevine cluster on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of the wine made from Yan73. Two hundred mg/l ABA was applied on Yan73 grapevine cluster during veraison. As they mature, these ABA-treated and untreated grape berries were transformed into wines, respectively, and the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these wines were compared. The results showed that phenolic content (total phenolics, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins) and antioxidant capacity were higher in the wine produced with ABA-treated Yan73 grapes than those in the wine from untreated grapes. Compared to Cabernet Sauvignon wine, Yan73 wine had higher phenolic content and stronger antioxidant capacity. These strongly suggest that exogenously applied ABA to Yan73 grapes can enhance phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of its wine, and Yan73 wine has the higher utilization value and potential for development.

  9. Studies on changes in fatty acid composition and content of endogenous antioxidants during gamma irradiation of rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramarathnam, N.; Osawa, T.; Namiki, M.; Kawakishi, S.

    1989-01-01

    Accelerated aging effects, induced by y irradiation, were investigated on the fatty acid composition of lipids and on the content of endogenous antioxidants of four Indica and four Japonica rice seeds with and without intact hull. While the linoleic acid content of the phospholipids decreased gradually with the increase in irradiation doses, there was a corresponding increase in the linoleic acid content of the free fatty acids. Such changes were drastic, especially in the case of Japonica rice seeds irradiated without intact hull. However, the neutral lipids were found to be resistant to γ irradiation. The α-tocopherol content was found to decrease (markedly) in rice seeds irradiated with or without hull, especially in the Japonica rice seeds. At a dose of 15 kGy only traces of a-tocopherol could be detected in Japonica and Indica rice seeds irradiated with and without intact hull. Oryzanol, a relatively weaker anti-oxidant, was found to be more resistant to oxidative damage than a-tocopherol. At 15 kGy, the oryzanol content ranged from 59 μg to 170 μg/g lipid in rice seeds irradiated with intact hull, while the corresponding value for rice seeds irradiated without hull was 52 μg to 153 μg/g lipid. The overall susceptibility to oxidative damage was less in Indica rice seeds, indicating that the antioxidative defense system offered better protection in overcoming oxidative stress in Indica rice hull than in Japonica rice hull

  10. Indole-3-acetic acid/diol based pH-sensitive biological macromolecule for antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Chitra; D S, Franklin; S, Sudarsan; M, Sakthivel; S, Guhanathan

    2017-02-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)/diol based pH-sensitive biopolymeric hydrogels with tunable biological properties (cytotoxicity, anti-oxidant and anti-fungal) have been synthesized via condensation polymerization. The present study focused on the synthesis of heterocyclic hydrogel using citric acid (CA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and diethylene glycol (DEG) by condensation polymerization. The hydrogels revealed a pH-sensitive swelling behaviour, with increased swelling in acidic media, then turns to decreased the swelling in the basic media. The hydrogel samples were tested for antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigates, Rhizopusoryzae and Candida albicans at different concentrations using ketoconazole as positive control and DMSO as negative control for antifungal activity. Antioxidant activity increasing nature in DPPH than NO radical compared with rutin and confirmed non toxic property using cytotoxicity analysis. The biopolymeric hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, TGA, DSC followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Such hydrogels with antioxidant properties is recommended for medical applications such as bandages, catheters, drains and tubes to prevent infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality Control of Gamma Irradiated Dwarf Mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.) Based on Color, Organic Acids, Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-04-08

    This study addresses the effects of gamma irradiation (1, 5 and 8 kGy) on color, organic acids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of dwarf mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.). Organic acids were analyzed by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Total phenolics and flavonoids were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the DPPH(•) scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation inhibition. Analyses were performed in the non-irradiated and irradiated plant material, as well as in decoctions obtained from the same samples. The total amounts of organic acids and phenolics recorded in decocted extracts were always higher than those found in the plant material or hydromethanolic extracts, respectively. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity and reducing power were also higher in decocted extracts. The assayed irradiation doses affected differently the organic acids profile. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids were lower in the hydromethanolic extracts prepared from samples irradiated at 1 kGy (dose that induced color changes) and in decocted extracts prepared from those irradiated at 8 kGy. The last samples also showed a lower antioxidant activity. In turn, irradiation at 5 kGy favored the amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the effects of irradiation in indicators of dwarf mallow quality, and highlighted the decoctions for its antioxidant properties.

  12. Antiulcerogenic Effect of Gallic Acid in Rats and its Effect on Oxidant and Antioxidant Parameters in Stomach Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Asokkumar, K.; Umamaheswari, M.; Sivashanmugam, A. T.; Subhadradevi, V.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the antiulcerogenic effect of gallic acid against aspirin plus pyrolus ligation-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Rats were treated with gallic acid (100 and 200 mg/kg) and famotidine (20 mg/kg) for 1 week, followed by induction of gastric ulcer using the aspirin plus pyrolus ligation model. At the end of 4 h after ligation, the rats were sacrificed and ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH and other biochemical parameter of gastric juice were evaluated. Stomachs of rats were evaluated biochemically to determine oxidant and antioxidant parameters. Pretreatment with gallic acid significantly decreased ulcer index, gastric juice volume, free and total acidity, total protein, DNA content and increased pH and carbohydrates concentration. Gallic acid at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg exerted 69.7 and 78.9% ulcer inhibition, respectively. The levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidise, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were increased while reduction in myeloperoxidase and lipid peroxidation were observed in the stomach tissues of the drug treated rats. The histopathological studies further confirmed the antiulcer activity of gallic acid. We conclude that the gallic acid possesses antiulcer effect and that these occur by a mechanism that involves attenuation of offensive factors, improvement of mucosal defensive with activation of antioxidant parameters and inhibition of some toxic oxidant parameters. PMID:24019562

  13. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-septic potential of phenolic acids and flavonoid fractions isolated from Lolium multiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Choon; Son, Young-Ok; Hwang, Jung-Min; Kim, Beom-Tae; Chae, Minseon; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2017-12-01

    Interest has recently renewed in using Lolium multiflorum Lam. (Poaceae) (called Italian ryegrass; IRG) silage as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet. This study investigated the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-septic potential of IRG silage and identified the primary components in IRG active fractions. Total 16 fractions were separated from the chloroform-soluble extract of IRG aerial part using Sephadex LH-20 column before HPLC analysis. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the fractions at doses of 0-100 μg/mL were investigated using various cell-free and cell-mediated assay systems. To explore anti-septic effect of IRG fractions, female ICR and BALB/c mice orally received 40 mg/kg of phenolic acid and flavonoid-rich active fractions F 7 and F 8 every other day for 10 days, respectively, followed by LPS challenge. The active fractions showed greater antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential compared with other fractions. IC 50 values of F 7 and F 8 to reduce LPS-stimulated NO and TNF-α production were around 15 and 30 μg/mL, respectively. Comparison of retention times with authentic compounds through HPLC analysis revealed the presence of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, myricetin and kaempferol in the fractions as primary components. These fractions inhibited LPS-stimulated MAPK and NF-κB activation. Supplementation with F 7 or F 8 improved the survival rates of mice to 70 and 60%, respectively, in LPS-injected mice and reduced near completely serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels. This study highlights antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-septic activities of IRG active fractions, eventually suggesting their usefulness in preventing oxidative damage and inflammatory disorders.

  14. Safety and Efficacy of Dextran-Rosmarinic Acid Conjugates as Innovative Polymeric Antioxidants in Skin Whitening: What Is the Evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortensia I. Parisi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melanins are high molecular weight pigments responsible for the mammalian skin and hair colour and play a key role in skin protection from UV radiation; however, their overproduction and excessive accumulation lead to pigmentation problems including melasma, freckles, uneven colouring, and age spots. Therefore, the modulation of melanin synthesis represents a critical issue in medicine and cosmetology. In the present study, an innovative polymeric antioxidant to be used as skin whitening agent is developed by the conjugation of dextran with rosmarinic acid. Methods: Dextran-rosmarinic acid conjugates (DEX-RA were synthesized in a one-pot method starting from Origanum vulgare aqueous leaf extract and dextran. The total polyphenol content and the antioxidant activity were assessed by Folin-Ciocalteau assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH and bleaching tests, respectively. The efficacy of DEX-RA was evaluated by inhibition of tyrosinase activity, in vitro diffusion and stability studies and in vivo studies. The biocompatibility of the conjugates was investigated by 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiaoly]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT and EPISKIN™ model. Results: Efficacy and safety studies confirmed the antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities and the biocompatibility of the synthesized conjugates. Conclusion: The polymeric conjugates, comparing to the free antioxidant, show a long-lasting efficacy combined to an enhanced stability resulting in an improved performance of the cosmetic formulations prepared using this innovative whitening agent as a bioactive ingredient.

  15. The antioxidant action of Polypodium leucotomos extract and kojic acid: reactions with reactive oxygen species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Gomes

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Two natural products Polypodium leucotomos extract (PL and kojic acid (KA were tested for their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (·OH, ·O2-, H2O2, ¹O2 in phosphate buffer. Hydroxyl radicals were generated by the Fenton reaction, and the rate constants of scavenging were 1.6 x 10(9 M-1 s-1 for KA and 1.0 x 10(9 M-1 s-1 for PL, similar to that of ethanol (1.4 x 10(9 M-1 s-1. With superoxide anions generated by the xanthine/hypoxanthine system, KA and PL (0.2-1.0 mg/ml inhibited ·O2-dependent reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium by up to 30 and 31%, respectively. In the detection of ¹O2 by rose bengal irradiation, PL at 1.0 mg/ml quenched singlet oxygen by 43% relative to azide and KA by 36%. The present study demonstrates that PL showed an antioxidant effect, scavenging three of four reactive oxygen species tested here. Unlike KA, PL did not significantly scavenge hydrogen peroxide.

  16. Characterisation of fatty acid, carotenoid, tocopherol/tocotrienol compositions and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Hernandez, Marta; Zhang, Hua; Marcone, Massimo F; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-05-01

    Composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids, and their contribution to antioxidant activities were investigated in seeds of three coloured quinoa cultivars (white, red and black). The major components and individual compounds were significantly different, and their concentrations were higher in darker seeds (p tocopherol content ranged from 37.49 to 59.82 μg/g and mainly consisted of γ-tocopherol. Trace amount of α- and β-tocotrienols was also found. Black quinoa had the highest vitamin E followed by red and white quinoas. Carotenoids, mainly trans-lutein (84.7-85.6%) and zeaxanthin were confirmed for the first time in quinoa seeds, and the concentration was also the highest in black seeds. The antioxidant activities of lipophilic extracts were positively correlated with polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carotenoids and total tocopherols. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of sanitizing efficacy of acetic acid on Piper betle leaves and its effect on antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Richu; Ganguli, Abhijit; Ghosh, Moushumi; Sohal, Sapna

    2009-01-01

    The sanitizing efficacy of acetic acid and its effect on health beneficial properties of Piper betle leaves were determined. Betel leaves artificially inoculated with Aeromonas, Salmonella and Yersinia were subjected to organic acid (citric acid, acetic acid and lactic acid) treatment. Pathogen populations reduced by 4 log upon individual inoculation and up to 2 log in a mixed cocktail following treatment with 2% acetic acid during storage up to 20 h at 28 degrees C, indicating a residual antimicrobial effect on pathogen during storage. Antioxidant potential ethanolic extracts of both raw and treated P. betle leaves were assayed for free radical scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl. Polyphenols, flavonoids and the reducing power of treated and untreated P. betle were also compared. No significant (P>0.05) changes were observed in antioxidant status; flavonoids, polyphenols and reducing power of treated betel leaves. Results indicate the feasibility of a simple intervention strategy for inactivating pathogens in edible leaves of P. betle.

  18. Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ferulic Acid Orchestrates Anti-Oxidative Properties of Danggui Buxue Tang, an Ancient Herbal Decoction: Elucidation by Chemical Knock-Out Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy G W Gong

    Full Text Available Ferulic acid, a phenolic acid derived mainly from a Chinese herb Angelica Sinensis Radix (ASR, was reported to reduce the formation of free radicals. Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT, a herbal decoction composing of Astragali Radix (AR and ASR, has been utilized for more than 800 years in China having known anti-oxidative property. Ferulic acid is a major active ingredient in DBT; however, the role of ferulic acid within the herbal mixture has not been resolved. In order to elucidate the function of ferulic acid within this herbal decoction, a ferulic acid-depleted herbal decoction was created and named as DBTΔfa. The anti-oxidative properties of chemically modified DBT decoction were systemically compared in cultured H9C2 rat cardiomyoblast cell line. The application of DBT and DBTΔfa into the cultures showed functions in (i decreasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, detected by laser confocal; (ii increasing of the activation of Akt; (iii increasing the transcriptional activity of anti-oxidant response element (ARE; and (iv increasing the expressions of anti-oxidant enzymes, i.e. NQO1 and GCLM. In all scenario, the aforementioned anti-oxidative properties of DBTΔfa in H9C2 cells were significantly reduced, as compared to authentic DBT. Thus, ferulic acid could be an indispensable chemical in DBT to orchestrate multi-components of DBT as to achieve maximal anti-oxidative functions.

  20. Role of cellular antioxidants (glutathione and ascorbic acid) in the growth and development of wild carrot suspension cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earnshaw, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Determinations of endogenous glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) in proliferating and developing wild carrot cultures showed that lower levels of GSH and AA were associated with developing cultures. The GSSG and DHA levels did not account for the changes in the levels of antioxidants between proliferating and developing cultures. Studies were designed to test an observed auxin (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4-D)-antioxidant association. Two fractions (embryo and less developed) were obtained by screening developed cultures which were previously grown in the presence of 14 C-2, 4-D. The embryo fraction had a lower concentration of 14 C than the less developed fraction, supporting the association, since the two fractions showed this relationship with respect to GSH and AA concentrations. Determinations of GSH and AA levels of cells grown in various concentrations of 2,4-D showed the association, decreases in the 2,4-D concentration correlated with decreases in the GSH and AA concentrations. The existence of a respiratory pathway involving GSSG reductase, DHA reductase, and AA oxidase was investigated to test whether inhibition of AA oxidase by 2,4-D could explain the auxin-antioxidant association; however, AA oxidase activity was not detected

  1. Delivery of vanillin by poly(lactic-acid) nanoparticles: Development, characterization and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmolin, Luciana Facco; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara, E-mail: rubianamainardes@hotmail.com

    2016-05-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles containing vanillin were prepared using an emulsion-solvent evaporation technique and were characterized and assessed for their in vitro antioxidant potential. Physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were characterized by size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and stability. Solid state and thermal properties were assessed using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, while in vitro drug release profile was also evaluated. Results showed PLA nanoparticles having a characteristic amorphous structure, sizes in the range of 240 nm with high homogeneity in size distribution, zeta potential of − 22 mV and vanillin encapsulation efficiency of 41%. In vitro release study showed a slow and sustained release of vanillin governed by diffusion. Nanoparticles were stable over a period of three months. Antioxidant ability of the vanillin-loaded PLA nanoparticles in scavenging the radical 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was inferior to free vanillin and due to its prolonged release showed a profile that was both time and concentration dependent, while free vanillin showed concentration-dependent activity. The study concluded that PLA nanoparticles are potential carriers for vanillin delivery. - Highlights: • Vanillin was nanoencapsulated in poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. • Mean particle size was 240 nm and vanillin encapsulation efficiency was 41%. • A prolonged and biphasic vanillin release occurred with 20% released after 120 h. • Vanillin nanoparticles exhibited time/concentration dependent antioxidant activity.

  2. Influence of Fruit Ripening on Color, Organic Acid Contents, Capsaicinoids, Aroma Compounds, and Antioxidant Capacity of Shimatogarashi (Capsicum frutescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikharda; Takahashi, Makoto; Arakaki, Mika; Yonamine, Kaoru; Hashimoto, Fumio; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2018-01-01

    Shimatogarashi (Capsicum frutescens) is a typical chili pepper domesticated in southern Japan. Important traits of Shimatogarashi peppers, such as color; proportion of organic acids, capsaicinoids, and aromatic compounds; and antioxidant activity in three stages of maturity (green (immature), orange (turning), and red (mature) stages) were characterized. The results indicated that the concentration of organic acids, including ascorbic, citric, and malic acid, increased during ripening. In addition, the amount of capsaicinoids, which are responsible for the pungent taste of chili peppers, increased as the fruit matured to the orange and red stages. The volatile compound profile of Shimatogarashi was dominated by the presence of esters, which mainly contributed to fruity notes. The total amount of volatile compounds analyzed by gas chromatography-headspace solid-phase microextraction (GC-HS-SPME), especially esters, decreased as the fruit changed in color from green to red. This was in contrast to the amount of terpenoids, especially limonene, which increased at the red stage, denoting a change in flavor from fruity to a more citrus-like aroma. Based on the total phenolic content (TPC), the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical method, the antioxidant capacity of Shimatogarashi showed an increase at the mature red stage. However, while the red stage showed higher pungency and antioxidant capacity as well as an attractive color, the results of aromatic compound analysis revealed that the immature green stage had the advantages of having pleasant fruity smell, making it suitable for use in condiments.

  3. Delivery of vanillin by poly(lactic-acid) nanoparticles: Development, characterization and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmolin, Luciana Facco; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2016-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles containing vanillin were prepared using an emulsion-solvent evaporation technique and were characterized and assessed for their in vitro antioxidant potential. Physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were characterized by size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and stability. Solid state and thermal properties were assessed using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, while in vitro drug release profile was also evaluated. Results showed PLA nanoparticles having a characteristic amorphous structure, sizes in the range of 240 nm with high homogeneity in size distribution, zeta potential of − 22 mV and vanillin encapsulation efficiency of 41%. In vitro release study showed a slow and sustained release of vanillin governed by diffusion. Nanoparticles were stable over a period of three months. Antioxidant ability of the vanillin-loaded PLA nanoparticles in scavenging the radical 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was inferior to free vanillin and due to its prolonged release showed a profile that was both time and concentration dependent, while free vanillin showed concentration-dependent activity. The study concluded that PLA nanoparticles are potential carriers for vanillin delivery. - Highlights: • Vanillin was nanoencapsulated in poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. • Mean particle size was 240 nm and vanillin encapsulation efficiency was 41%. • A prolonged and biphasic vanillin release occurred with 20% released after 120 h. • Vanillin nanoparticles exhibited time/concentration dependent antioxidant activity.

  4. Fluctuations in phenolic content, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids and antioxidant activity of fruit beverages during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castro-López

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stability of the total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity in eight fruit beverages was analyzed. The influence of storage temperature (4, 8 and 11 °C during the product shelf-life (20 days was evaluated. Pomegranate Juice presented the highest values for antioxidant activity by DPPH·− assay (552.93 ± 6.00 GAE μg mL−1, total carotenoids (3.18 ± 0.11 βCE μg mL−1, and total phenolic content (3967.07 ± 2.47 GAE μg mL−1; while Splash Blend recorded the highest levels of ascorbic acid (607.39 ± 2.13 AAE μg mL−1. The antioxidant capacity was stable at 4 and 8 °C for the first 8 days of storage; while carotenoids and ascorbic acid were slightly degraded through the storage time, possibly due to oxidation and/or reactions with other compounds. The results suggest that the observed variation during testing could be related to storage conditions of the final product.

  5. Effects of natural antioxidants on the stability of omega-3 fatty acids in dog food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glodde Florentina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The efficiency of five natural antioxidants (curcumin, cranberry, pomegranate, grape seed extract (GSE, and açai berry in reducing lipid oxidation in dog food was compared to that of the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA.

  6. Ferulic acid from aleurone determines the antioxidant potency of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.; Berg, R. van den; Havenaar, R.; Bast, A.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Grain is an important source of phytochemicals, which have potent antioxidant capacity. They have been implicated in the beneficial health effect of whole grains in reducing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to identify the most important antioxidant

  7. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. & Heldr. Hayek var. persica (Boiss. Wagenitz from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 μg/ml (in the DPPH assay. In the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 ω3 (α-linolenic acid by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.La capacidad antioxidante de extractos metanólicos y composición de ácidos grasos de C. kotschyi var. pérsica fueron investigados. Seis métodos químicos diferentes fueron realizados para la determinación de la capacidad antioxidante. La composición de ácidos grasos fue analizada por cromatografía de gases. Los valores de IC50 de los extractos fueron 37.09 μg/ml (en el ensayo con DPPH. En el sistema β-carotene/ácido linoleico, el extracto mostró un 65.22% de inhibición frente a la oxidación del ácido linoleico. La cantidad total de contenido fenólico y capacidad antioxidante total fueron 36.52 mg equivalentes de ácido gallico (GAE/g y 74.93 mg equivalentes de ácido ascórbico (AE/g, respectivamente. El principal ácidos graso encontrado, por análisis de CG, en C. kotschyi var. pérsica fue el C 18:3 ω3 (ácido α-linolenico. Los resultados presentados aquí indican que C. kotschyi var. pérsica posee unas fuertes propiedades antioxidantes. Adem

  8. The Antioxidant Additive Approach for Alzheimer's Disease Therapy: New Ferulic (Lipoic) Acid Plus Melatonin Modified Tacrines as Cholinesterases Inhibitors, Direct Antioxidants, and Nuclear Factor (Erythroid-Derived 2)-Like 2 Activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchekroun, Mohamed; Romero, Alejandro; Egea, Javier; León, Rafael; Michalska, Patrycja; Buendía, Izaskun; Jimeno, María Luisa; Jun, Daniel; Janockova, Jana; Sepsova, Vendula; Soukup, Ondrej; Bautista-Aguilera, Oscar M; Refouvelet, Bernard; Ouari, Olivier; Marco-Contelles, José; Ismaili, Lhassane

    2016-11-10

    Novel multifunctional tacrines for Alzheimer's disease were obtained by Ugi-reaction between ferulic (or lipoic acid), a melatonin-like isocyanide, formaldehyde, and tacrine derivatives, according to the antioxidant additive approach in order to modulate the oxidative stress as therapeutic strategy. Compound 5c has been identified as a promising permeable agent showing excellent antioxidant properties, strong cholinesterase inhibitory activity, less hepatotoxicity than tacrine, and the best neuroprotective capacity, being able to significantly activate the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway.

  9. The content of total polyphenols, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in selected varieties of quince (Cydonia oblonga mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita Bystrická

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quince fruit (Cydonia oblonga Miller is an important source of bioactive compounds, especially of polyphenolic compounds, phenolic acids, flavonoids also of minerals and vitamins. This compounds exhibit health promoting properties including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic and cardioprotective properties. Quine fruit have a high therapeutic value, can be used as good sources of antioxidants. This study provides some knowledge about content of total polyphenols, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in selected varieties of quince fruit samples. Four quince fruit cultivars (Semenáč, Konstantinopler Apfelquitte, Cydora Robusta, Mammut were analysed. The content of the total polyphenols (TPC was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR at 765 nm using spectrophotometer. Ascorbic acid (AsA content was determined using standard HPLC gradient method. Antioxidant activity (AA was measures using a compound DPPH˙(2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The content of (TPC in fresh samples of quince fruit ranged from 661 ±11.60 mg.kg-1 to 1044 ±11.03 mg.kg-1 and content of AsA were in interval from 151 ±0.58 mg.kg-1 to 215 ±0.75 mg.kg-1. The values of antioxidant activity in quince fruit samples were in range from 26.90 ±0.61% to 49.14 ±0.38%. Statistically significant highest content TPC, AsA and AA was recorded in cultivar Konstaninopler Apfelquitte and statistically lowest content was recorded in cultivar Semenáč. The content of TPC, AsA and AA beside the variety may be affected by many factors also climatic conditions and the agrochemical composition of the soil. 

  10. Effects of acute creatine supplementation on iron homeostasis and uric acid-based antioxidant capacity of plasma after wingate test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Marcelo P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary creatine has been largely used as an ergogenic aid to improve strength and athletic performance, especially in short-term and high energy-demanding anaerobic exercise. Recent findings have also suggested a possible antioxidant role for creatine in muscle tissues during exercise. Here we evaluate the effects of a 1-week regimen of 20 g/day creatine supplementation on the plasma antioxidant capacity, free and heme iron content, and uric acid and lipid peroxidation levels of young subjects (23.1 ± 5.8 years old immediately before and 5 and 60 min after the exhaustive Wingate test. Results Maximum anaerobic power was improved by acute creatine supplementation (10.5 %, but it was accompanied by a 2.4-fold increase in pro-oxidant free iron ions in the plasma. However, potential iron-driven oxidative insult was adequately counterbalanced by proportional increases in antioxidant ferric-reducing activity in plasma (FRAP, leading to unaltered lipid peroxidation levels. Interestingly, the FRAP index, found to be highly dependent on uric acid levels in the placebo group, also had an additional contribution from other circulating metabolites in creatine-fed subjects. Conclusions Our data suggest that acute creatine supplementation improved the anaerobic performance of athletes and limited short-term oxidative insults, since creatine-induced iron overload was efficiently circumvented by acquired FRAP capacity attributed to: overproduction of uric acid in energy-depleted muscles (as an end-product of purine metabolism and a powerful iron chelating agent and inherent antioxidant activity of creatine.

  11. Phenolic acids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, minerals and their correlations in non-pigmented, red, and black rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yafang; Hu, Zhanqiang; Yu, Yonghong; Mou, Renxiang; Zhu, Zhiwei; Beta, Trust

    2018-01-15

    Soluble-free, soluble-conjugated, insoluble-bound phenolics and antioxidant activity, flavonoid (TFC), proanthocyanidins (TPAC), anthocyanins and minerals of fifteen whole rice grains with different colors were investigated. Soluble-free protocatechuic and vanillic acids were only quantified in black rice, which had the most quantities. Non-pigmented rice had no detectable conjugated protocatechuic and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids both of which were found in black and red rice, respectively. The main bound phenolic acids were ferulic and p-coumaric, as well as 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic in red rice and protocatechuic and vanillic acids in black rice. Soluble-conjugated phenolics, TFC, and anthocyanins were negatively correlated with L ∗ , b ∗ , C and H° values. TPAC was positively correlated with a ∗ (Pblack rice groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antioxidant capacity, fatty acids profile, and descriptive sensory analysis of table olives as affected by deficit irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Lamadrid, Marina; Hernández, Francisca; Corell, Mireia; Burló, Francisco; Legua, Pilar; Moriana, Alfonso; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-01-01

    The influence of three irrigation treatments (T0, no stress; T1, soft stress; and, T2, moderate stress) on the key functional properties [fatty acids, sugar alcohols, organic acids, minerals, total polyphenols content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (AA)], sensory quality, and consumers' acceptance of table olives, cv. 'Manzanilla', was evaluated. A soft water stress, T1, led to table olives with the highest oil and dry matter contents, with the highest intensities of key sensory attributes and slightly, although not significant, higher values of consumer satisfaction degree. Besides, RDI in general (T1 and T2) slightly increased green colour, the content of linoleic acid, but decreased the content of phytic acid and some minerals. The soft RDI conditions are a good option for the cultivation of olive trees because they are environmentally friendly and simultaneously maintain or even improve the functionality, sensory quality, and consumer acceptance of table olives. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Ferulic acid: an antioxidant found naturally in plant cell walls and feruloyl esterases involved in its release and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sindhu; Abraham, T Emilia

    2004-01-01

    Ferulic acid is the most abundant hydroxycinnamic acid in the plant world and maize bran with 3.1% (w/w) ferulic acid is one of the most promising sources of this antioxidant. The dehydrodimers of ferulic acid are important structural components in the plant cell wall and serve to enhance its rigidity and strength. Feruloyl esterases are a subclass of the carboxylic acid esterases that hydrolyze the ester bond between hydroxycinnamic acids and sugars present in plant cell walls and they have been isolated from a wide range of microorganisms, when grown on complex substrates such as cereal brans, sugar beet pulp, pectin and xylan. These enzymes perform a function similar to alkali in the deesterification of plant cell wall and differ in their specificities towards the methyl esters of cinnamic acids and ferulolylated oligosaccharides. They act synergistically with xylanases and pectinases and facilitate the access of hydrolases to the backbone of cell wall polymers. The applications of ferulic acid and feruloyl esterase enzymes are many and varied. Ferulic acid obtained from agricultural byproducts is a potential precursor for the production of natural vanillin, due to the lower production cost.

  14. Exogenous 5-Aminolevulenic Acid Promotes Antioxidative Defence System, Photosynthesis and Growth in Soybean against Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe MANAFI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the possibility of enhancing cold stress tolerance of young soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr by exogenous application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA was investigated. ALA was applied at various concentrations (0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 mM by seed priming and foliar application method. After ALA treatment, the plants were subjected to cold stress at 10 ± 0.5 °C for 72 h. Cold stress significantly decreased plant growth, relative water content, chlorophyll, photosynthesis and stomatal conductivity, while it increased electrolyte leakage and proline accumulation. ALA at low concentrations (0.3 mM protected plants against cold stress, enhancing plant height, shoot fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, stomatal conductivity as well as relative water content. Increase of electrolyte leakage was also prevented by 0.6 mM ALA. ALA also enhanced superoxide dismutase and catalase activities at 0.6 mM concentration especially under cold stress conditions. Proline increased with increasing in ALA concentration under both temperature conditions. In most cases, application of ALA by spraying method was better than seed priming method. Results showed that ALA, which is considered as an endogenous plant growth regulator, can be used effectively to protect soybean plants from the damaging effects of cold stress, by enhancing the activity of antioxidative enzymes, protecting cell membrane against reactive oxygen species and finally by promoting chlorophyll synthesis, leading to more intense photosynthesis and more carbon fixation, without any adverse effect on the plant growth.

  15. Lipophilization of dihydrocaffeic acid affects its antioxidative properties in fish‐oil‐enriched emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Yang, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    their efficacy opens up new possibilities for producing new and more efficient antioxidants for food systems. However, the results also show that optimization of the chain length for each type of phenolic compound may be necessary. Since these compounds may have a much higher efficacy against lipid oxidation...... a lower amount of antioxidant will be necessary to obtain the same effect. This would decrease the costs. In addition, the use of synthetic antioxidants, that might have toxic effect in vivo, can be avoided. The raw materials used for the lipophilized compounds are natural compounds, however the fate...

  16. Antioxidant Activities and Caffeic Acid Content in New Zealand Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis Roots Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey Symes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus officinalis are perennial plants that require re-planting every 10–20 years. The roots are traditionally mulched in the soil or treated as waste. The A. officinalis roots (AR contain valuable bioactive compounds that may have some health benefiting properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively and antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC and Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP assays activities of New Zealand AR extract. The antioxidant activity decreased with a longer extraction time.

  17. Effect of antioxidants on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances of mechanically de boned chicken meat irradiated with ionizing radiation: cobalt-60 and electron beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Poliana de Paula; Azevedo, Heliana de; Pomarico Neto, Walter; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Brusqui, Armando Luiz; Haguiwara, Marcia Mayumi Harada; Miyagusku, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    Samples of MDCM with skin were divided into three groups: control (without antioxidants), Antioxidant 1 - A1 (0.3% Sodium Polyphosphate and Sodium Erythorbate 0.05%) and Antioxidant 2 - A2 (Rosemary Extract 0.02% and α-Tocopherol 0.01%). The three batches of samples were divided into nine groups: no antioxidant and non-irradiated (Cn/I), with antioxidant A1 and non-irradiated (A1n/I), with antioxidant A2 and non-irradiated (A2n/I) without antioxidant and irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (CCo), with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Cobalt 60 source (A1Co) with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (A2Co) with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Electron beam (A1Eb) and with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Electron beam (A2Eb). Each 100 g sample was conditioned in a transparent, low density polyethylene oxygen permeable bag, frozen overnight at a temperature of -18 +- 1 deg C in a chamber, and irradiated in this state, maintaining the temperature low with dry ice. The samples were irradiated with a dose of 3.0 kGy, used two sources of radiation: Cobalt-60 (3.1 kGy.h -1 ) and electron beam (2.9 kGy.s -1 ). After this process, the samples were evaluated during the refrigeration period (2 +- 1 deg C) for 11 days for the following analysis: total psychotropic bacteria count, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The addition of antioxidants was able to reduce lipid oxidation caused by the irradiation. There were no differences between the radiation sources used in the same parameters. The better antioxidants mixture in the TBARS reducing it was rosemary extract and α-tocopherol (A2). (author)

  18. Effect of antioxidants on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances of mechanically de boned chicken meat irradiated with ionizing radiation: cobalt-60 and electron beam sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Poliana de Paula; Azevedo, Heliana de; Pomarico Neto, Walter; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Brusqui, Armando Luiz, E-mail: hgomes@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: pbrito@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: cvroque@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: abrusqui@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Haguiwara, Marcia Mayumi Harada; Miyagusku, Luciana, E-mail: marciamh@ital.gov.b, E-mail: lucianam@ital.gov.b [Food Technology Institute (ITAL), SP (Brazil). Meat Technology Center

    2011-07-01

    Samples of MDCM with skin were divided into three groups: control (without antioxidants), Antioxidant 1 - A1 (0.3% Sodium Polyphosphate and Sodium Erythorbate 0.05%) and Antioxidant 2 - A2 (Rosemary Extract 0.02% and {alpha}-Tocopherol 0.01%). The three batches of samples were divided into nine groups: no antioxidant and non-irradiated (Cn/I), with antioxidant A1 and non-irradiated (A1n/I), with antioxidant A2 and non-irradiated (A2n/I) without antioxidant and irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (CCo), with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Cobalt 60 source (A1Co) with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (A2Co) with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Electron beam (A1Eb) and with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Electron beam (A2Eb). Each 100 g sample was conditioned in a transparent, low density polyethylene oxygen permeable bag, frozen overnight at a temperature of -18 +- 1 deg C in a chamber, and irradiated in this state, maintaining the temperature low with dry ice. The samples were irradiated with a dose of 3.0 kGy, used two sources of radiation: Cobalt-60 (3.1 kGy.h{sup -1}) and electron beam (2.9 kGy.s{sup -1}). After this process, the samples were evaluated during the refrigeration period (2 +- 1 deg C) for 11 days for the following analysis: total psychotropic bacteria count, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The addition of antioxidants was able to reduce lipid oxidation caused by the irradiation. There were no differences between the radiation sources used in the same parameters. The better antioxidants mixture in the TBARS reducing it was rosemary extract and {alpha}-tocopherol (A2). (author)

  19. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Lotfi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L− 1 on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L. plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm and performance index (PI of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  20. Effects of polymannuronate on performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, cecal microflora, and volatile fatty acids in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenhui; Li, Defa; Wang, Jianhong; Wu, Hui; Xia, Xuan; Bi, Wanghua; Guan, Huashi; Zhang, Liying

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of purified polymannuronate (PM) obtained from marine brown algae on the performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, and cecal fermentation profile of broiler chickens. In a 42 d experiment, 540 (average BW 43.77±1.29 g) 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 18 chicks and fed a corn and soybean meal (SBM)-based diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg polymannuronate. Adding polymannuronate to the broiler chickens' diets resulted in a significantly increased ADG and improved feed conversion compared with the control treatment. From d 1 to 42, the ADG of broilers fed 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg of polymannuronate was increased by 2.58, 4.33, 4.20, and 3.47%, respectively. Furthermore, parameters related to immune status, antioxidant capacity, and composition of the cecal microflora in broiler chickens fed the polymannuronate-containing diets were altered compared with broiler chickens fed a diet without polymannuronate. Supplementation with polymannuronate significantly increased the concentrations of lactic acid and acetic acid in the cecum compared with the control group. The results indicate that polymannuronate has the potential to improve broiler chicken immune status, antioxidant capacity, and performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. The effects of dietary boric acid and borax supplementation on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, and DNA damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Cigerci, Ibrahim Hakki; Fatih Fidan, A; Eryavuz, Abdullah

    2010-07-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of high dietary supplementation with boric acid and borax, called boron (B) compounds, on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some vitamin levels, and DNA damage in rats. Thirty Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into three equal groups: the animals in the first group (control) were fed with a standard rodent diet containing 6.4 mg B/kg, and the animals in the experimental group were fed with a standard rodent diet added with a supra-nutritional amount of boric acid and borax (100 mg B/kg) throughout the experimental period of 28 days. The B compounds decreased malondialdehyde (MDA), DNA damage, the protein carbonyl content (PCO) level in blood, and glutathione (GSH) concentration in the liver, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity in the kidney. The B compounds increased GSH concentration in blood and the vitamin C level in plasma. Consequently, our results demonstrate that B supplementation (100 mg/kg) in diet decreases LPO, and enhances the antioxidant defense mechanism and vitamin status. There are no differences in oxidant/antioxidant balance and biochemical parameters except for serum vitamin A and liver GSH concentration, between the boron compounds used in this study. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity, Polyphenolic Compounds, Amino Acids and Mineral Elements of Representative Genotypes of Lonicera edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Sochor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactive substances in 19 berry cultivars of edible honeysuckle (Lonicera edulis. A statistical evaluation was used to determine the relationship between the content of selected bioactive substances and individual cultivars. Regarding mineral elements, the content of sodium was measured using potentiometry and spectrophotometry. The content of selected polyphenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity was determined by a HPLC–UV/ED method. The total amount of polyphenols was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was determined using five methods (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, FR and DMPD that differ in their principles. The content of 13 amino acids was determined by ion-exchange chromatography. The experimental results obtained for the different cultivars were evaluated and compared by statistical and bioinformatic methods. A unique feature of this study lies in the exhaustive analysis of the chosen parameters (amino acids, mineral elements, polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity during one growing season.

  3. In vitro antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of Maillard reaction products from phloridzin-amino acid model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Linna; Li, Feng; Yu, Qijian; Li, Dapeng

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effect of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from phloridzin (Pz)-amino acid model systems. Their structures were also characterised by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). MRPs were prepared from the Pz-methionine (Met), Pz-lysine (Lys), Pz-isoleucine (Ile), Pz-histidine (His) or Pz-glutamic acid (Glu) model system. The Pz-Lys MRPs, rich in antioxidant potency, were subjected to ultrafiltration to yield four MRPs fractions with different molecular weights (Mw). The fraction with Mw 30-50 kDa had significantly (P Maillard reaction. The results obtained in this study may provide some basis for the purported health-promoting effects of MRPs and their potential application as antioxidant agents in food industry. Also, it is important for our understanding of the variation of bioactive substances in food during thermal processing. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P sea cucumbers. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioavailable Concentrations of Delphinidin and Its Metabolite, Gallic Acid, Induce Antioxidant Protection Associated with Increased Intracellular Glutathione in Cultured Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goszcz, Katarzyna; Deakin, Sherine J.; Duthie, Garry G.; Stewart, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Despite limited bioavailability and rapid degradation, dietary anthocyanins are antioxidants with cardiovascular benefits. This study tested the hypothesis that the antioxidant protection conferred by the anthocyanin, delphinidin, is mediated by modulation of endogenous antioxidant defences, driven by its degradation product, gallic acid. Delphinidin was found to degrade rapidly (t1/2 ~ 30 min), generating gallic acid as a major degradation product. Both delphinidin and gallic acid generated oxygen-centred radicals at high (100 μM) concentrations in vitro. In a cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cell model of oxidative stress, the antioxidant protective effects of both delphinidin and gallic acid displayed a hormesic profile; 100 μM concentrations of both were cytotoxic, but relatively low concentrations (100 nM–1 μM) protected the cells and were associated with increased intracellular glutathione. We conclude that delphinidin is intrinsically unstable and unlikely to confer any direct antioxidant activity in vivo yet it offered antioxidant protection to cells at low concentrations. This paradox might be explained by the ability of the degradation product, gallic acid, to confer benefit. The findings are important in understanding the mode of protection conferred by anthocyanins and reinforce the necessity to conduct in vitro experiments at biologically relevant concentrations. PMID:29081896

  6. Effect of Storage Temperature on Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, UPLC Phenolic Acid Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Eleven Potato (Solanum tuberosum Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Hubert Yamdeu Galani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Storage of potato tubers at low temperature affects their metabolism and may alter their phytochemical properties. There is a need to elucidate the changes in antioxidant compounds, activity and enzymes during storage of tubers. Eleven Indian potato varieties were evaluated for antioxidant parameters, after 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage at room temperature, 15 °C and 4 °C. Total phenolics (0.0786–0.1546 mg gallic acid equivalents⋅g−1 FW and vitamin C content (0.0828–0.2416 mg⋅g−1 FW varied among the varieties and were different with storage temperature; their levels fluctuated during storage but remained above the initial level until the last day of observation. Phenolic acid profiling by UPLC identified 12 compounds among which the most abundant was chlorogenic acid followed by gallic acid, sinapic acid and ellagic acid. Except para-coumaric acid which decreased at 4 °C, all the phenolic acids increased with storage. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid and gallic acid mostly correlated with total phenolic content (r = 0.456, 0.482, 0.588 and 0.620, respectively. Antioxidant activity against both DPPH and ABTS radicals increased during the initial days of storage and then dropped to a level comparable or lower than the original value, irrespective of the storage temperature. Correlation study revealed that chlorogenic acid, gallic acid and ferulic acid mostly contributed to antioxidant activity. Activity of both antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase, increased initially but then decreased to values lower than the initial level and were not influenced by storage temperature. Correlation with antioxidant activity indicated that the enhancement of reactive oxygen scavenging species in cold stored tubers could result mainly from ascorbate peroxidase activity. Our results demonstrate that storage temperature adversely influences the metabolism and the content of

  7. Gallic acid as a protective antioxidant against anthocyanin degradation and color loss in vitamin-C fortified cranberry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roidoung, Sunisa; Dolan, Kirk D; Siddiq, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different antioxidants for anthocyanin (ACY) retention in vitamin C fortified cranberry juice and assess its quality. Cranberry juice was fortified with 40-80mg/100mL vitamin C and added hesperidin, catechin, and gallic acid at different concentrations. Juice was pasteurized at 85°C for 1min and stored at 23°C for 16days. ACYs, vitamin C, color intensity, and browning index (BI) were evaluated at 2-day intervals. Gallic acid was found to be the most effective antioxidant against ACYs degradation and significantly (p<0.05) increased red color intensity by 37% and ACY concentration by 41%, compared to the control. After 16-day storage, the BI of gallic acid-added juice was significantly lower (0.80 vs 1.00) than the control juice. The outcome of this research provided a potential solution of using gallic acid to preserve a health-beneficial component (ACYs), and endogenous red color in cranberry juice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modulation of the Antioxidant System Efficacy in Irradiated Rats Supplemented with Vitamin B12 cobalamin and Folic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omran, M.F.; Abu-Zied, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study has been performed to investigate the possible curative and protective role of supplemented vitamin B 12 and folic acid in the irradiation induced changes in certain biochemical parameters in hepatic tissue and blood. The biochemical analysis was done at one and fourteen days post irradiation. The data revealed serious effects of radiation exposure on the membrane integrity as reflected by increased serum potassium associated with decreased sodium levels. Oxidation of lipid and protein with antioxidant disorders were recorded after radiation exposure as reflected by increased contents of carbonyl and Gamma glutamyl transferase. The results showed significant increase in the level of lipid peroxide product (malonaldehyde) and significant decrease in the level of antioxidant defense system (glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, super oxid dismutase, catalase and glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase) after one and fourteen day's supplementation with vitamin B 12 and folic acid. Supplemented of vitamin B 12 and folic acid before radiation exposure attenuated the harmful effects of irradiation on the most chosen parameters. The beneficial role of supplemented vitamin B 12 and folic acid may be related to its ability in quenching free radicals scavenging reactive oxygen species and improving regeneration in the biological tissues

  9. An Ellagic Acid Derivative and Its Antioxidant Activity of Stem Bark Extracts of Syzygium polycephalum Miq. (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukiran Tukiran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the Syzygium polycephalum Miq. (Myrtaceae aimed to assess the phytochemical contents and antioxidant activity of the chloroform fraction. In this study, the fraction was obtained from methanol extract of S. polycephalum stem bark partitionated by chloroform. An ellagic acid derivative was successively isolated from the chloroform fraction. The molecular structure of isolated compound was elucidated and established as 3,4,3’-tri-O-methylellagic acid through extensive spectroscopic studies including UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR and LC-MS analyses and by comparison with literature data. The finding of the isolated compound is the first time from the plant, although the isolated compound previously have been found in the other Syzygium species such as S. cumini together with ellagic acid and 3,3’-di-O-methylellagic acid. The chloroform fraction, isolated compound, and vitamin C showed antioxidant activity against 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH with IC50 value of 163.6, 72.1, and 11.5 μg/mL, respectively.

  10. Nira acidity and antioxidant activity of Palm sugar in Sumowono Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarni, Sri; Arifan, Fahmi; Wisnu Broto, RTD.; Fuadi, Ariza; Alviche, Lola

    2018-05-01

    The palm sugar not only has potential as natural sweetener but also has antioxidant. The purpose of this study was to analyze antioxidant and pH of the nira in palm sugar. The sample in this study was palm sugar from 6 different production sites. Test of antioxidant activity used DPPH method (1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) with a wavelength of 517 nm. The value of absorbance solution was measured using spectrophotometry and the value of effective concentration (IC50) was counted. The pH test was measured using a pH meter. Pearson’s correlation test revealed r=-0.045 with significant value 0.932 (>0.005). There was no correlation between pH value and antioxidant activity of palm sugar. IC50 value of palm sugar in Sumowono village revealed that it had a strong antioxidant activity (50 μg/ml - 100 μg/ml) that is 74,73 μg/ml 83.94 μg/ml 82.31 μg/ml 83.94 μg/ml 86.10 μg/ml 82.13 μg/ml 89.17 μg/ml 89.71 μg/ml 89.17 μg/ml and 84.84 μg/ml). Lower IC50 values indicate higher antioxidant activity. Palm sugar with the best antioxidant activity came from the production sites which had IC50 values of 74.73 μg/ml. Potential antioxidants can be optimized by making improvements to the processing system.

  11. Fatty acid composition, physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of apple seed oil obtained from apple pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Mayanka; Rawat, Kiran; Bhushan, Shashi; Padwad, Yogendra S; Singh, Bikram

    2014-03-30

    Apple pomace is generated in huge quantities in juice-processing industries the world over and continuous efforts are being made for its inclusive utilization. In this study, apple seeds separated from industrial pomace were used for extraction of oil. The fatty acid composition, physicochemical and antioxidant as well as in vitro anticancer properties of extracted oil were studied to assess its suitability in food and therapeutic applications. The fatty acid composition of seed oil revealed the dominance of oleic (46.50%) and linoleic acid (43.81%). It had high iodine (121.8 g I 100 g⁻¹) and saponification value (184.91 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil). The acid value, refractive index and relative density were 4.28 mg KOH g⁻¹, 1.47 and 0.97 mg mL⁻¹, respectively. The antioxidant potential (IC₅₀) of apple seed oil was 40.06 µg mL⁻¹. Cytotoxicity of apple seed oil against CHOK1, SiHa and A549 cancer cell lines ranged between 0.5 ± 0.06% and 88.6 ± 0.3%. The physicochemical properties of apple seed oil were comparable with edible food oil, indicating its better stability and broad application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Apple seed oil could be a good source of natural antioxidants. Also, the in vitro cytotoxic activity against specific cell lines exhibited its potential as an anticancer agent. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Improvement of Chia Seeds with Antioxidant Activity, GABA, Essential Amino Acids, and Dietary Fiber by Controlled Germination Bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Favela, Mario Armando; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith Oliva; Canizalez-Román, Vicente Adrián; Del Rosario León-Sicairos, Claudia; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc

    2017-12-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) plant is native from southern Mexico and northern Guatemala. Their seeds are a rich source of bioactive compounds which protect consumers against chronic diseases. Germination improves functionality of the seeds due to the increase in the bioactive compounds and associated antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study was to obtain functional flour from germinated chia seeds under optimized conditions with increased antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, GABA, essential amino acids, and dietary fiber with respect to un-germinated chia seeds. The effect of germination temperature and time (GT = 20-35 °C, Gt = 10-300 h) on protein, lipid, and total phenolic contents (PC, LC, TPC, respectively), and antioxidant activity (AoxA) was analyzed by response surface methodology as optimization tool. Chia seeds were germinated inside plastic trays with absorbent paper moisturized with 50 mL of 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite dissolution. The sprouts were dried (50 °C/8 h) and ground to obtain germinated chia flours (GCF). The prediction models developed for PC, LC, TPC, and AoxA showed high coefficients of determination, demonstrating their adequacy to explain the variations in experimental data. The highest values of PC, LC, TPC, and AoxA were obtained at two different optimal conditions (GT = 21 °C/Gt = 157 h; GT = 33 °C/Gt = 126 h). Optimized germinated chia flours (OGCF) had higher PC, TPC, AoxA, GABA, essential amino acids, calculated protein efficiency ratio (C-PER), and total dietary fiber (TDF) than un-germinated chia seed flour. The OGCF could be utilized as a natural source of proteins, dietary fiber, GABA, and antioxidants in the development of new functional beverages and foods.

  13. Effect of antioxidants on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, psychrotrophic bacteria and functional properties of mechanically deboned chicken meat irradiated with Cobalto-60 and electron beam sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Poliana de Paula; Azevedo, Heliana de; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Pomarico Neto, Walter, E-mail: hgomes@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pbrito@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: cvroque@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: abrusqui@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Mourao, Gerson Barreto; Orlando, Eduardo Adilson; Miyagusku, Luciana, E-mail: marciamh@ital.sp.gov.br, E-mail: eduardo.orlando@ital.sp.gov.br [Instituto de Tecnologia dos Alimentos (ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Samples of MDCM with skin were divided into three groups: control (without antioxidants), Antioxidant 1 (Sodium Polyphosphate and Sodium Ascorbate and Antioxidant 2 (Rosemary Extract and α-Tocopherol. The three batches of samples were divided into nine groups: no antioxidant and non-irradiated (C), with antioxidant A1 and non-irradiated (A1), with antioxidant A2 and non-irradiated (A2) without antioxidant and irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (Co), with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Cobalt 60 source (A1Co) with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (A2Co) with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Electron beam (A1Eb) and with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Electron beam (A2Eb). The samples was conditioned in a transparent, low density frozen overnight at a temperature of -18 ± 1 deg C in a chamber, and irradiated in this state with a dose of 3.0 kGy, used two sources of radiation: Cobalt-60 (3.1 kGy/h) and electron beam (7.86 kGy/s). After this process, the samples were evaluated during the refrigeration period (2 ± 1 deg C) for 11 days for the following analysis: total psychrotrophic bacteria count and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the analysis of functional properties were performed after the irradiation process. The use of the combination of rosemary antioxidant and α-tocopherol were able to significantly decrease TBARS values caused by the irradiation of samples in MDCM cobalt-60 sources and electron beam, and show a synergetic effect to processing with ionizing radiation to reduce of psychrotrophic bacteria count. The use of irradiation processing of MDCM did not negatively affect the functional properties studied. (author)

  14. Effect of antioxidants on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, psychrotrophic bacteria and functional properties of mechanically deboned chicken meat irradiated with Cobalto-60 and electron beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Poliana de Paula; Azevedo, Heliana de; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Pomarico Neto, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Samples of MDCM with skin were divided into three groups: control (without antioxidants), Antioxidant 1 (Sodium Polyphosphate and Sodium Ascorbate and Antioxidant 2 (Rosemary Extract and α-Tocopherol. The three batches of samples were divided into nine groups: no antioxidant and non-irradiated (C), with antioxidant A1 and non-irradiated (A1), with antioxidant A2 and non-irradiated (A2) without antioxidant and irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (Co), with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Cobalt 60 source (A1Co) with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (A2Co) with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Electron beam (A1Eb) and with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Electron beam (A2Eb). The samples was conditioned in a transparent, low density frozen overnight at a temperature of -18 ± 1 deg C in a chamber, and irradiated in this state with a dose of 3.0 kGy, used two sources of radiation: Cobalt-60 (3.1 kGy/h) and electron beam (7.86 kGy/s). After this process, the samples were evaluated during the refrigeration period (2 ± 1 deg C) for 11 days for the following analysis: total psychrotrophic bacteria count and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the analysis of functional properties were performed after the irradiation process. The use of the combination of rosemary antioxidant and α-tocopherol were able to significantly decrease TBARS values caused by the irradiation of samples in MDCM cobalt-60 sources and electron beam, and show a synergetic effect to processing with ionizing radiation to reduce of psychrotrophic bacteria count. The use of irradiation processing of MDCM did not negatively affect the functional properties studied. (author)

  15. Conversion of Squid Pen to Homogentisic Acid via Paenibacillus sp. TKU036 and the Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Homogentisic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Lang Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The culture supernatant of Paenibacillus sp. TKU036, a bacterium isolated from Taiwanese soils, showed high antioxidant activity (85% when cultured in a squid pen powder (SPP-containing medium at 37 °C for three days. Homogentisic acid (2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, HGA was isolated and found to be the major antioxidant in the culture supernatant of the SPP-containing medium fermented by Paenibacillus sp. TKU036. Tryptophan was also present in the culture supernatant. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC fingerprinting showed that HGA and tryptophan were produced via fermentation but did not pre-exist in the unfermented SPP-containing medium. Neither HGA nor tryptophan was found in the culture supernatants obtained from the fermentation of nutrient broth or other chitinous material, i.e., medium containing shrimp head powder, by Paenibacillus sp. TKU036. The production of HGA via microorganisms has rarely been reported. In this study, we found that squid pen was a potential carbon and nitrogen source for Paenibacillus sp. Tryptophan (105 mg/L and HGA (60 mg/L were recovered from the culture supernatant. The isolated HGA was found to have higher antioxidant activity (IC50 = 6.9 μg/mL than α-tocopherol (IC50 = 17.6 μg/mL. The anti-inflammatory activity of the isolated HGA (IC50 = 10.14 μg/mL was lower than that of quercetin (IC50 = 1.14 μg/mL. As a result, squid pen, a fishery processing byproduct, is a valuable material for the production of tryptophan and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory HGA via microbial conversion.

  16. Antioxidant and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Boniger Acid and Calix[4]arene Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. ERDEM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Diazonium derivative of calix[4]arene has been synthesized using three different synthetic steps. Initially p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene was synthesized with the condensation reaction of p-tert-butylphenol and formaldehyde in basic conditions. Calix[4]arene was obtained after the debutylation reaction of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene with AlCl3. Calix[4]arene reacted with diazonium salt of Böniger acid to yield the 5,17-[(Bis(azo-bis(5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonicacid]-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy calix[4]arene which has eight free phenolic hydroxyl group. Reaction steps were shown in Fig.1.2,7-naphthalenedisulfonicacid]-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy calix[4]arene The antioxidant activity of the Böniger acid and calix[4]aren derivative were determined using β-karotene-linoleic acid system. Moreover, the free radical scavenging activity values were tested with DPPH free radical. The two compounds showed strong antioxidant activity. Total antioxidant activity of Böniger acid and calix[4]aren derivative was determined using β–carotenelinoleic acid model system and was found the antioxidant activity of 84.00% and 85.60 % respectively. The free radical scavenging activities were determined as 83.05% and 84.69 %. Results show that, two compounds has the antioxidant activity. The calix[4]aren derivaties has more higher activity then Boniger acid because of calix[4]aren derivative has much hydroxl groups.

  17. Fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of oils from two cultivars of Cantaloupe extracted by supercritical fluid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, M.; Mariod, A.; Bagalkotkar, G.; Ling, H. S

    2010-07-01

    The effect of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) fractionation of three oil fractions (1st, 2nd, 3rd fraction) on the fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of oils from two cultivars of cantaloupe were investigated. Rock melon oil (RMO) and Golden Langkawi oil (GLO) were extracted using SFE and the major fatty acids for both cultivars were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. The SFA decreased from 15.78 to 14.14% in RMO 1st fraction, and MUFA decreased from 18.30 to 16.56% in RMO 2nd fraction, while PUFA increased from 65.9 to 69.30% in RMO 3rd fraction. On the other hand SFA decreased from 16.35 to 13.91% in GLO 1{sup s}t fraction, and MUFA decreased from 17.50 to 15.57% in GLO 2nd fraction, while PUFA increased from 66.15 to 70.52% in GLO 3rd fraction. The different fractions of the two oils showed high antioxidant activity in reducing the oxidation of {beta}-carotene in beta-carotene bleaching assay (BCB) and the quenching of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). (Author) 41 refs.

  18. Evaluation of Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Coconut Water (Cocus nucifera L. and Caffeic Acid in Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOAO L.A. SANTOS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water contains several uncharacterized substances and is widely used in the human consumption. In this paper we detected and quantified ascorbic acid and caffeic acid and total phenolics in several varieties of coconut using HPLS/MS/MS (25.8 ± 0.6 µg/mL and 1.078 ± 0.013 µg/mL and 99.7 µg/mL, respectively, in the green dwarf coconut water, or 10 mg and 539 µg and 39.8 mg for units of coconut consumed, 500 ± 50 mL. The antioxidant potential of four coconut varieties (green dwarf, yellow dwarf, red dwarf and yellow Malaysian was compared with two industrialized coconut waters and the lyophilized water of the green dwarf variety. All varieties were effective in scavenging the DPPH radical (IC50=73 µL and oxide nitric (0.1 mL with an IP of 29.9% as well as in inhibiting the in vitro production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (1 mL with an IP of 34.4%, highlighting the antioxidant properties of the green dwarf which it is the most common used. In cell culture, the green dwarf water was efficient in protecting against oxidative damages induced by hydrogen peroxide.

  19. Preharvest treatments with malic, oxalic, and acetylsalicylic acids affect the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of coriander, dill and parsley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaeddi, Hussein; Calín-Sánchez, Ángel; Nowicka, Paulina; Martínez-Tomé, Juan; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Burló, Francisco; Wojdyło, Aneta; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-07-01

    The effects of a preharvest treatment with malic (MA), oxalic (OA), or acetylsalicylic (ASA) acid at three concentrations (1, 2 and 3mM) on the bioactivity and antioxidant capacity of coriander, dill, and parsley were investigated. The antioxidant capacity of the herbs extracts was assayed by spectrophotometric methods by using three different analytical methods: ORAC, FRAP, and ABTS; the effects of treatments were very positive in coriander, produced intermediate results in dill, and no effects were found in parsley plants. Polyphenol compounds were identified by LC-MS-QTof and quantified by UPLC-PDA-FL. Thirty phenolic compounds were identified in these three herbs. The major compounds were (i) coriander: dimethoxycinnamoyl hexoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, (ii) dill: neochlorogenic acid and quercetin glucuronide, and (iii) parsley: apigenin-7-apiosylglucoside (apiin) and isorhamnetin-3-O-hexoside. The application of these three organic acids favored the accumulation of phenolic compounds in coriander plants, but had no significant positive effects on dill and parsley. The treatments leading to the best results in all three plants were the application of MA or OA at 1mM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Post-Harvest Induced Production of Salvianolic Acids and Significant Promotion of Antioxidant Properties in Roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jun Zhou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Danshen, the dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, is an extremely valued Traditional Chinese Medicine. Previously, we have demonstrated that salvianolic acid B (SaB, the important bioactive ingredient in this herb, was a post-harvest product. Here, we further reported that all salvianolic acids (SAs in the roots were post-harvest products of the drying process. In addition, the results of various radical scavenging activity assays, including lipid peroxidation (1, DPPH (2, hydroxyl (3 and superoxide (4, were significantly increased along with the accumulation of total salvianolic acids in the process. The contents of chemical targets and antioxidant activities both reached the highest value under thermal treatment at 130 °C for 80 min. In this dehydration period, contents of SaB, and sum of nine SAs increased from 0.01% to 5.51%, and 0.20% to 6.61%; and IC50 of antioxidant activity decreased from 4.85 to 2.69 (1; 7.75 to 0.43 (2; 2.57 to 1.13 (3 and 17.25 to 1.10 mg/mL. These results further supported the hypothesis that the newly harvested plant roots were still physiologically active and the secondary metabolites might be produced due to dehydration stress after harvest. Our findings supplied an important and useful theoretical basis for promoting the quality of Danshen and other medicinal plant materials.

  1. How the multiple antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid affect lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluata, Sibel; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-02-18

    Lipid oxidation is a serious problem for oil-containing food products because it negatively affects shelf life and nutritional composition. An antioxidant strategy commonly employed to prevent or delay oxidation in foods is to remove oxygen from the closed food-packaging system. An alternative technique is use of an edible oxygen scavenger to remove oxygen within the food. Ascorbic acid (AA) is a particularly promising antioxidant because of its natural label and multiple antioxidative functions. In this study, AA was tested as an oxygen scavenger in buffer and an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion. The effects of transition metals on the ability of AA to scavenge oxygen were determined. Headspace oxygen decrease less than 1% in the medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) O/W emulsion system (pH 3 and 7). AA was able to almost completely remove dissolved oxygen (DO) in a buffered solution. Transition metals (Fe(2+) and Cu(+)) significantly accelerated the degradation of AA; however, iron and copper only increased DO depletion rates, by 10.6-16.4% from day 1 to 7, compared to the control. AA (2.5-20 mM) decreased DO in a 1% O/W emulsion system 32.0-64.0% and delayed the formation of headspace hexanal in the emulsion from 7 to over 20 days. This research shows that, when AA is used in an O/W emulsion system, oxidation of the emulsion system can be delay by multiple mechanisms.

  2. Evaluation of Antioxidant or Prooxidant Properties of Selected Amino Acids Using In Vitro Assays and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions Under Riboflavin Sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, HyeJung; Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2016-05-01

    The antioxidant properties of selected amino acids were tested using in vitro assays and oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions under riboflavin (RF) photosensitization. Headspace oxygen content, lipid hydroperoxides, and conjugated dienes were determined for the degree of oxidation. Riboflavin photosensitization was adapted as the oxidation driving force. In vitro assays showed that cysteine had the highest antioxidant properties followed by tryptophan and tyrosine. However, in O/W emulsions under RF photosensitization, tyrosine inhibited lipid oxidation whereas tryptophan acted as a prooxidant. Tryptophan accelerated the rates of oxidation in O/W emulsion without RF. The antioxidant properties of amino acids differed depending on the antioxidant determination methods, oxidation driving forces, and food matrices. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains at four stages of development after flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yafang; Xu, Feifei; Sun, Xiao; Bao, Jinsong; Beta, Trust

    2014-01-15

    This study investigated differences in total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity, and phenolic acids in free, conjugated and bound fractions of white (unpolished), red and black rice at 1-, 2-, and 3-weeks of grain development after flowering and at maturity. Unlike the TPC (mg/100g) of white rice (14.6-33.4) and red rice (66.8-422.2) which was significantly higher at 1-week than at later stages, the TPC of black rice (56.5-82.0) was highest at maturity. The antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH radical scavenging and ORAC methods generally followed a similar trend as TPC. Only black rice had detectable anthocyanins (26.5-174.7mg/100g). Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and peonidin-3-glucoside (P3G) were the main anthocyanins in black rice showing significantly higher levels at 2- and 3-weeks than at 1-week development and at maturity. At all stages, the phenolic acids existed mainly in the bound form as detected by HPLC and confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Black rice (20.1-31.7mg/100g) had higher total bound phenolic acids than white rice and red rice (7.0-11.8mg/100g). Protocatechuic acid was detected in red rice and black rice with relatively high levels at 1-week development (1.41mg/100g) and at maturity (4.48mg/100g), respectively. Vanillic acid (2.4-5.4mg/100g) was detected only in black rice where it peaked at maturity. p-Coumaric acid (black rice. Ferulic acid (4.0-17.9mg/100g), the most abundant bound phenolic acid, had an inconsistent trend with higher levels being observed in black rice where it peaked at maturity. Isoferulic acid levels (0.8-1.6mg/100g) were generally low with slightly elevated values being observed at maturity. Overall black rice had higher total bound phenolic acids than white and red rice while white rice at all stages of development after flowering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gastroprotective Effect of Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale Extract: Role of Gallic Acid and Cinnamic Acid in H+, K+-ATPase/H. pylori Inhibition and Anti-Oxidative Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddaraju M. Nanjundaiah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinger officinale has been used as a traditional source against gastric disturbances from time immemorial. The ulcer-preventive properties of aqueous extract of ginger rhizome (GRAE belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is reported in the present study. GRAE at 200 mg kg−1 b.w. protected up to 86% and 77% for the swim stress-/ethanol stress-induced ulcers with an ulcer index (UI of 50 ± 4.0/46 ± 4.0, respectively, similar to that of lansoprazole (80% at 30 mg kg−1 b.w. Increased H+, K+-ATPase activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were observed in ulcer-induced rats, while GRAE fed rats showed normalized levels and GRAE also normalized depleted/amplified anti-oxidant enzymes in swim stress and ethanol stress-induced animals. Gastric mucin damage was recovered up to 77% and 74% in swim stress and ethanol stress, respectively after GRAE treatment. GRAE also inhibited the growth of H. pylori with MIC of 300 ± 38 μg and also possessed reducing power, free radical scavenging ability with an IC50 of 6.8 ± 0.4 μg mL−1 gallic acid equivalent (GAE. DNA protection up to 90% at 0.4 μg was also observed. Toxicity studies indicated no lethal effects in rats fed up to 5 g kg−1 b.w. Compositional analysis favored by determination of the efficacy of individual phenolic acids towards their potential ulcer-preventive ability revealed that between cinnamic (50% and gallic (46% phenolic acids, cinnamic acid appear to contribute to better H+, K+-ATPase and Helicobacter pylori inhibitory activity, while gallic acid contributes significantly to anti-oxidant activity.

  5. Antioxidant activity of salts of 2-(5-R-4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acid

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    Ye. S. Pruglo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are chemical structures that prevent the oxidation of other chemicals. They protect key cell components by neutralizing the harmful effect of free radicals which are natural products of cell metabolism. Oxidative stress leads to serious cell damage which results in various human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, atherosclerosis, cancer, arthritis, neurodegenerative disorders etc. The deficiency of antioxidants in food also leads to oxidative stress, which indicates a lack of antioxidant substances consumed by humans. Therefore, the search of substances that could not only prevent but also increase the resistance of the human body to active forms of oxygen or nitrogen and interfere with the processes of oxidative stress is an important task of medicine and pharmacy. The purpose of this work was to study the antioxidant activity (AOA of salts of 2-(5-R-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids with non-enzymatic initiation of free radical oxidation and to establish laws concerning chemical structure and biological effects of the studied substances. Materials and methods. Original derivatives of 1,2,4-triazole were used in the series of screening studies. The antioxidant activity of the compounds in vitro was determined according to the methodical recommendations of the State Pharmacological Center MoH Ukraine using the method of non-enzymatic initiation of lipid peroxide oxidation. Results. Dimethylammonium salt of 2-(4-amino-5-(2-bromophenyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acid (3c possessed with a high AOA which reduced the content of TBK-AP by 54,95% ( р˂0,001. Derivatives of 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole had the most distinct AOA containing С5 carbon atoms 2-bromophenyl substituent. Thus, methylammonium salt 3b reduced the TBK-AP content by 80,31 (p˂0,001 which exceeds the reference ascorbic acid by 45,05% and the prototype thiotriazoline by 36,64%. Considering the data of experimental studies it was found

  6. In vitro antioxidant potential and deoxyribonucleic acid protecting activity of CNB-001, a novel pyrazole derivative of curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Jayaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free radicals are underpinned to initiate cascade of toxic events leading to oxidative stress and resultant cell death in many neurodegenerative disorders. Now-a-days antioxidants have become mandatory in the treatment of various diseases apart from the drug′s modes of action. CNB-001, a novel hybrid molecule synthesized by combining curcumin and cyclohexyl bisphenol A is known to possess various biological activities, but the antioxidative property of the compound has not yet been elucidated. Aim: The present study is aimed to analyze various free radicals scavenging by employing in vitro antioxidant assays and to evaluate the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA protecting the ability of CNB-001 against hydroxyl radicals. Materials and methods: The in vitro antioxidant potential of CNB-001 was evaluated by analyzing its ability to scavenge DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide radicals and reducing power using spectroscopic method. The DNA protecting activity of CNB-001 was also evaluated on pUC19 plasmid DNA subjected to hydroxyl radicals using standard agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: From the assays, it was observed that CNB-001 scavenged free radicals effectively in a dose dependent manner. CNB-001 scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (IC50 = 44.99 μg/ml, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (IC50 = 17.99 μg/ml, nitric oxide (IC50 = 1.36 μg/ml, superoxide radical (IC50 = 77.17 μg/ml, hydrogen peroxide (IC50 = 492.7 μg/ml, superoxide (IC50 = 36.92 μg/ml and hydroxyl (IC50 = 456.5 μg/ml radicals effectively and the reducing power was found to be 11.53 μg/ml. CNB-001 showed considerable protecting activity against plasmid DNA (pUC19 strand scission by ·OH at dose dependent manner. Conclusion: Results from these assays concluded that CNB-001 has a good antioxidant potential by reducing reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen radicals and it

  7. Exogenous application of rutin and gallic acid regulate antioxidants and alleviate reactive oxygen generation in Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Gupta, Rupali; Pandey, Rakesh

    2017-04-01

    The effect of rutin and gallic acid on growth, phytochemical and defense gene activation of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) was investigated. The seeds of rice were primed with different concentrations of rutin and gallic acid (10-60 µg mL -1 ) to explicate the effect on germination on water agar plates. Further, to study the effect of most effective concentrations of gallic acid (60 µg mL -1 ) and rutin (50 µg mL -1 ), greenhouse pot experiment was set up to determine the changes in growth, antioxidant and defense parameters. The results revealed more pronounced effect of gallic acid on total chlorophyll and carotenoids as well as on total flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activities. Gene expression analysis of OsWRKY71, PAL, CHS and LOX genes involved in strengthening the plant defense further validated the results obtained from the biochemical analysis. Microscopic analysis also confirmed reduction in total reactive oxygen species, free radicals like H 2 O 2 and O 2 - by exogenous application of gallic acid and rutin. The data obtained thus suggest that both gallic acid and rutin can affect the growth and physiology of rice plants and therefore can be used to develop effective plant growth promoters and as substitute of biofertilizers for maximizing their use in field conditions.

  8. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Seed Oil from Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida and Its Antioxidant Activity and Fatty Acid Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ganjloo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida was investigated. The effects of process variables namely pressure (150–300 bar, temperature (40–50 °C and dynamic extraction time (60–120 min on crude extraction yield (CEY were studied through response surface methodology (RSM. The SC-CO2 extraction process was modified using ethanol (99.9% as co-solvent. Perturbation plot revealed the significant effect of all process variables on the CEY. A central composite design (CCD was used to optimize the process conditions to achieve maximum CEY. The optimum conditions were 244 bar pressure, 46 °C temperature and 97 min dynamic extraction time. Under these optimal conditions, the CEY was predicted to be 176.30 mg-extract/g-dried sample. The validation experiment results agreed with the predicted value. The antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of crude oil obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with published results using Soxhlet extraction (SE and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE. It was found that the antioxidant activity of the extract obtained by SC-CO2 extraction was strongly higher than those obtained by SE and UAE. Identification of fatty acid composition using gas chromatography (GC showed that all the extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids with the most being linoleic acid. In contrast, the amount of saturated fatty acids extracted by SE was higher than that extracted under optimized SC-CO2 extraction conditions.

  9. Antioxidant Activity of Syringic Acid Prevents Oxidative Stress in l-arginine–Induced Acute Pancreatitis: An Experimental Study on Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikman, Oztekin; Soylemez, Omer; Ozkan, Omer Faruk; Kiraz, Hasan Ali; Sayar, Ilyas; Ademoglu, Serkan; Taysi, Seyithan; Karaayvaz, Muammer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of antioxidant treatment with syringic acid (SA) on l-arginine–induced acute pancreatitis (AP) using biochemical and histopathologic approaches. A total of 30 rats were divided into 3 groups. The control group received normal saline intraperitoneally. The AP group was induced by 3.2 g/kg body weight l-arginine intraperitoneally, administered twice with an interval of 1 hour between administrations. The AP plus SA group, after having AP induced by 3.2 g/kg body weight l-arginine, was given SA (50 mg kg−1) in 2 parts within 24 hours. The rats were killed, and pancreatic tissue was removed and used in biochemical and histopathologic examinations. Compared with the control group, the mean pancreatic tissue total oxidant status level, oxidative stress index, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were significantly increased in the AP group, being 30.97 ± 7.13 (P < 0.05), 1.76 ± 0.34 (P < 0.0001), and 19.18 ± 4.91 (P < 0.01), respectively. However, mean total antioxidant status and sulfhydryl group levels were significantly decreased in the AP group compared with the control group, being 1.765 ± 0.21 (P < 0.0001) and 0.21 ± 0.04 (P < 0.0001), respectively. SA reduces oxidative stress markers and has antioxidant effects. It also augments antioxidant capacity in l-arginine–induced acute toxicity of pancreas in rats. PMID:26011211

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Syringic Acid Prevents Oxidative Stress in l-arginine-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: An Experimental Study on Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikman, Oztekin; Soylemez, Omer; Ozkan, Omer Faruk; Kiraz, Hasan Ali; Sayar, Ilyas; Ademoglu, Serkan; Taysi, Seyithan; Karaayvaz, Muammer

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of antioxidant treatment with syringic acid (SA) on l-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) using biochemical and histopathologic approaches. A total of 30 rats were divided into 3 groups. The control group received normal saline intraperitoneally. The AP group was induced by 3.2 g/kg body weight l-arginine intraperitoneally, administered twice with an interval of 1 hour between administrations. The AP plus SA group, after having AP induced by 3.2 g/kg body weight l-arginine, was given SA (50 mg kg(-1)) in 2 parts within 24 hours. The rats were killed, and pancreatic tissue was removed and used in biochemical and histopathologic examinations. Compared with the control group, the mean pancreatic tissue total oxidant status level, oxidative stress index, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were significantly increased in the AP group, being 30.97 ± 7.13 (P < 0.05), 1.76 ± 0.34 (P < 0.0001), and 19.18 ± 4.91 (P < 0.01), respectively. However, mean total antioxidant status and sulfhydryl group levels were significantly decreased in the AP group compared with the control group, being 1.765 ± 0.21 (P < 0.0001) and 0.21 ± 0.04 (P < 0.0001), respectively. SA reduces oxidative stress markers and has antioxidant effects. It also augments antioxidant capacity in l-arginine-induced acute toxicity of pancreas in rats.

  11. Migration of antioxidants from polylactic acid films: A parameter estimation approach and an overview of the current mass transfer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Hayati; Auras, Rafael; Mishra, Dharmendra; Dolan, Kirk; Burgess, Gary; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan; Soto-Valdez, Herlinda

    2018-01-01

    Migration studies of chemicals from contact materials have been widely conducted due to their importance in determining the safety and shelf life of a food product in their packages. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) require this safety assessment for food contact materials. So, migration experiments are theoretically designed and experimentally conducted to obtain data that can be used to assess the kinetics of chemical release. In this work, a parameter estimation approach was used to review and to determine the mass transfer partition and diffusion coefficients governing the migration process of eight antioxidants from poly(lactic acid), PLA, based films into water/ethanol solutions at temperatures between 20 and 50°C. Scaled sensitivity coefficients were calculated to assess simultaneously estimation of a number of mass transfer parameters. An optimal experimental design approach was performed to show the importance of properly designing a migration experiment. Additional parameters also provide better insights on migration of the antioxidants. For example, the partition coefficients could be better estimated using data from the early part of the experiment instead at the end. Experiments could be conducted for shorter periods of time saving time and resources. Diffusion coefficients of the eight antioxidants from PLA films were between 0.2 and 19×10 -14 m 2 /s at ~40°C. The use of parameter estimation approach provided additional and useful insights about the migration of antioxidants from PLA films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modulation of Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities by Certain Antiepileptic Drugs (Valproic Acid, Oxcarbazepine, and Topiramate): Evidence in Humans and Experimental Models

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    Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Romero-Toledo, Arantxa; Sampieri, Aristides III; Ortega-Cuellar, Daniel; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Floriano-Sánchez, Esaú; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that at least 100 million people worldwide will suffer from epilepsy at some point in their lives. This neurological disorder induces brain death due to the excessive liberation of glutamate, which activates the postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, which in turn cause the reuptake of intracellular calcium (excitotoxicity). This excitotoxicity elicits a series of events leading to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several studies in experimental models and in humans have demonstrated that certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) exhibit antioxidant effects by modulating the activity of various enzymes associated with this type of stress. Considering the above-mentioned data, we aimed to compile evidence elucidating how AEDs such as valproic acid (VPA), oxcarbazepine (OXC), and topiramate (TPM) modulate oxidative stress. PMID:24454986

  13. Modulation of Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities by Certain Antiepileptic Drugs (Valproic Acid, Oxcarbazepine, and Topiramate: Evidence in Humans and Experimental Models

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    Noemí Cárdenas-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that at least 100 million people worldwide will suffer from epilepsy at some point in their lives. This neurological disorder induces brain death due to the excessive liberation of glutamate, which activates the postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptors, which in turn cause the reuptake of intracellular calcium (excitotoxicity. This excitotoxicity elicits a series of events leading to nitric oxide synthase (NOS activation and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Several studies in experimental models and in humans have demonstrated that certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs exhibit antioxidant effects by modulating the activity of various enzymes associated with this type of stress. Considering the above-mentioned data, we aimed to compile evidence elucidating how AEDs such as valproic acid (VPA, oxcarbazepine (OXC, and topiramate (TPM modulate oxidative stress.

  14. Fatty acid, carotenoid and tocopherol compositions of 20 Canadian lentil cultivars and synergistic contribution to antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Deng, Zeyuan; Tang, Yao; Chen, Peter; Liu, Ronghua; Ramdath, D Dan; Liu, Qiang; Hernandez, Marta; Tsao, Rong

    2014-10-15

    Understanding the profile of lipophilic phytochemicals in lentils is necessary to better understand the health benefits of lentils. The fatty acid, carotenoid and tocopherol compositions and antioxidant activities of the lipophilic extracts of 20 lentil cultivars (10 red and 10 green) were therefore examined. Lentils contained 1.52-2.95% lipids, of which 77.5-81.7% were unsaturated essential fatty acids. Total tocopherols ranged from 37 to 64μg/g DW, predominantly γ-tocopherol (96-98% of the tocopherol content), followed by δ- and α-tocopherol. trans-Lutein was the primary and major carotenoid (64-78%) followed by trans-zeaxanthin (5-13%). Carotenoids and tocopherols showed weak correlation with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity (r=0.4893 and 0.3259, respectively), but good correlation when combined (r=0.6688), suggesting they may act synergistically. Carotenoids were found to contribute the most to the strong antioxidant activity measured by photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay. Results from this study contribute to the development of lentil cultivars and related functional foods with increased health benefits. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Delivery of vanillin by poly(lactic-acid) nanoparticles: Development, characterization and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity.

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    Dalmolin, Luciana Facco; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2016-05-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles containing vanillin were prepared using an emulsion-solvent evaporation technique and were characterized and assessed for their in vitro antioxidant potential. Physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were characterized by size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and stability. Solid state and thermal properties were assessed using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, while in vitro drug release profile was also evaluated. Results showed PLA nanoparticles having a characteristic amorphous structure, sizes in the range of 240 nm with high homogeneity in size distribution, zeta potential of -22 mV and vanillin encapsulation efficiency of 41%. In vitro release study showed a slow and sustained release of vanillin governed by diffusion. Nanoparticles were stable over a period of three months. Antioxidant ability of the vanillin-loaded PLA nanoparticles in scavenging the radical 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was inferior to free vanillin and due to its prolonged release showed a profile that was both time and concentration dependent, while free vanillin showed concentration-dependent activity. The study concluded that PLA nanoparticles are potential carriers for vanillin delivery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min), temperature (35–45 °C) and pressure (50–90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets. PMID:22174626

  17. Identification, stress tolerance, and antioxidant activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from tropically grown fruits and leaves.

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    Fessard, Amandine; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Payet, Bertrand; Remize, Fabienne

    2016-07-01

    From 6 samples of tropically grown fruits and leaves, 10 lactic acid bacteria belonging Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Lactobacillus species were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and (GTG)5 fingerprinting. Acidification kinetics determined from BHI broth cultures showed genus-related patterns. In particular, Weissella cibaria appeared to act as a potent acidifier. Tolerance of isolates to acid, oxidative, or salt stress was highly variable and strain dependent. Isolate S14 (Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides) growth was not affected by the presence of 0.05% H2O2, while Lactobacillus spp. isolates (S17 and S29) were the most tolerant to pH 4.5. The growth of 4 isolates, S5 (Leuconostoc mesenteroides), S14 and S10 (Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides), and S27 (W. cibaria), was not affected by 5% NaCl. Nutritional beneficial properties were examined through measurement of antioxidant activities of short-term fermented pineapple juice, such as LDL oxidation and polyphenol content, and through exopolysaccharide formation from sucrose. Two isolates, S14 and S27, increased the antioxidant capacity of pineapple juice. The robust capacity of W. cibaria and of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides for vegetable lactic fermentation aimed to ameliorate food nutritional and functional quality was highlighted.

  18. Fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) seed oil extracted by optimized supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20-90 min), temperature (35-45 °C) and pressure (50-90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO(2) extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 ± 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO(2) contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO(2) is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO(2) is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets.

  19. Tolerability in the elderly population of high-dose alpha lipoic acid: a potential antioxidant therapy for the eye

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    Sarezky D

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Sarezky, Aaishah R Raquib, Joshua L Dunaief, Benjamin J Kim Scheie Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Purpose: Alpha lipoic acid (ALA is an antioxidant and iron-chelating supplement that has potential benefits for geographic atrophy in dry age-related macular degeneration as well as other eye diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the tolerability of ALA in the elderly population. Patients and methods: Fifteen subjects, age ≥65 years, took sequential ALA doses of 600, 800, and 1,200 mg. Each dose was taken once daily with a meal for 5 days. After each dose was taken by the subjects for 5 days, the subjects were contacted by phone, a review of systems was performed, and they were asked if they thought they could tolerate taking that dose of ALA for an extended period of time. Results: The 600 mg dose was well tolerated. At the 800 mg dose, one subject had an intolerable flushing sensation. At the 1,200 mg dose, two subjects had intolerable upper gastrointestinal side effects and one subject had an intolerable flushing sensation. Subjects taking gastrointestinal prophylaxis medications had no upper gastrointestinal side effects. Conclusion: High-dose ALA is not completely tolerated by the elderly. These preliminary data suggest that gastrointestinal prophylaxis may improve tolerability. (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02613572. Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, geographic atrophy, antioxidant, gastrointestinal, dietary supplements, lipoic acid

  20. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L. Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas of tea (Camellia sinensis L. plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min, temperature (35–45 °C and pressure (50–90 MPa. The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6% was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that (25.3 ± 1.0% given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets.

  1. Influence of salicylic and succinic acids on antioxidant enzymes activity, heat resistance and productivity of Panicum miliaceum L.

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    Miroshnichenko N.N.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of treatment of millet (Panicum miliaceum L. seeds with the solutions of salicylic and succinic acids on the heat resistance of plantlets and activity of antioxidant enzymes – superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and peroxidase – in them have been investigated. In the micro-field experiment the influence of these acids on the millet yield was estimated. The action of salicylic (10 μM and succinic (1 mM acids caused the increase of plantlets resistance to the damaging heating that expressed in the rise of relative quantity of survived plantlets in 5 days after heating at the temperature of 47°С and in the reduced content of lipid peroxidation product malonic dialdehyde during the poststress period. The increase of activity of SOD, catalase and peroxidase took place in millet plantlets under the influence of salicylic and succinic acids. The increase of productivity of millet grain under the action of salicylic and succinic acids on 13,3-52,0 and 6,4-38,8% respectively depending on weather conditions in the field experiments was noted.

  2. Concomitant ingestion of lactic acid bacteria and black tea synergistically enhances flavonoid bioavailability and attenuates d-galactose-induced oxidative stress in mice via modulating glutathione antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Danyue; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-12-01

    Black tea (BT) has been positively linked to improved redox status, while its efficacy is limited due to the low bioavailability of BT flavonoids. In addition to the direct antioxidant activity, flavonoids regulate redox balance via inducing endogenous antioxidants, particularly glutathione (GSH) and GSH-dependent antioxidant enzymes. This work first examined the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and BT alone or in combination on flavonoid bioavailability and metabolism; next, the effect of LAB-fermented BT diet in attenuating oxidative stress in mice and the underlying mechanisms were studied. Phenolic profiles of plasma, urine and feces from healthy mice consuming plain yogurt, BT milk (BTM) or BT yogurt (BTY) were acquired using LC-MS/MS. Plasma antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation level, content of nonprotein thiols and expression of GSH-related antioxidant enzymes and Nrf2 were examined in d-galactose-treated mice. Total flavonoid content in plasma following a single dose of BTY attained 0.657 μmol/l, increased by 50% compared with the BTM group. Increased excretion of phenolic metabolite and hippuric acid in urine and feces indicated enhanced metabolism of flavonoids in BTY-fed mice. In the second study, 8-week concomitant LAB-BT treatment of oxidatively stressed mice effectively restored plasma antioxidant capacity and GSH levels, and mitigated lipid peroxidation, which were associated with significant induction of GSH-dependent antioxidant enzymes and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. Our results demonstrated the effect of LAB fermentation in enhancing BT flavonoid bioavailability in vivo. The synergistic antioxidant efficacy of LAB-BT diet implied its therapeutic potential in enhancing antioxidant defenses and protecting organisms from oxidative damage. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Antioxidative Activities of Both Oleic Acid and Camellia tenuifolia Seed Oil Are Regulated by the Transcription Factor DAF-16/FOXO in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Chia-Cheng Wei

    Full Text Available Tea seed oil is a high quality edible oil, yet lacking sufficient scientific evidences to support the nutritional and medical purposes. We identified major and minor components in Camellia tenuifolia seed oil and investigated the antioxidative activity and its underlying mechanisms in Caenorhabditis elegans.The results showed that the major constitutes in C. tenuifolia seed oil were unsaturated fatty acids (~78.4%. Moreover, two minor compounds, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol, were identified and their antioxidative activity was examined. We found that oleic acid was the major constitute in C. tenuifolia seed oil and plays a key role in the antioxidative activity of C. tenuifolia seed oil in C. elegans.This study found evidences that the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO was involved in both oleic acid- and C. tenuifolia seed oil-mediated oxidative stress resistance in C. elegans. This study suggests the potential of C. tenuifolia seed oil as nutrient or functional foods.

  4. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Phenols and Oleanolic Acid from Mango Peel and Their Cytotoxic Effect on A549 Cell Line

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    Xuelian Bai

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mango peel, the main by-product of juice processing, possesses appreciable quantities of bioactive phenolic compounds and is worthy of further utilization. The present work reports for the first time the HPLC analysis and in vitro antioxidant evaluation of mango peel phenols (MPPs and their cytotoxic effect on the A549 lung cancer cell line. These results indicated that mango peel has the total phenolic content of 723.2 ± 0.93 mg·kg−1 dry mango peel (DMP, which consisted mainly of vanillic aldehyde, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, procyanidin B2 and oleanolic acid. Antioxidant assays showed that MPPs had strong antioxidant activities, with 92 ± 4.2% of DPPH radical scavenging rate, 79 ± 2.5% of ABTS radical inhibition rate and 4.7 ± 0.5 μM Trolox equivalents per kg−1 DMP of ferric reducing power. Gallic acid possess a stronger antioxidant capacity than other phenols. In vitro cytotoxic tests suggested that mango peel extract (MPE had an IC50 value of 15 mg·mL−1 and MPPs had a stronger inhibitory effect on the A549 cell line. Oleanolic acid exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity, with an IC50 value of 4.7 μM, which was similar with that of the positive control 5-fluorouracil.

  5. GALLIC ACID: A PHENOLIC ACID AND ITS ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY FROM STEM BARK OF CHLOROFORM EXTRACTS OF SYZYGIUM LITORALE (BLUME AMSHOFF (MYRTACEAE

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    Tukiran Tukiran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A phenolic acid had been isolated from chloroform soluble fractions of a methanol extract of stem bark of Syzygium litorale, Fam. Myrtaceae. The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated and established as gallic acid through extensive spectroscopic studies (UV-Vis, FTIR, and NMR and by comparison with literature data and authentic sample. This is the first report of the isolation of compound from this plant, although it has previously been found in Myrtaceae family such as S. aromaticum, S. cumini, S. polyanthum, S. cordatum, etc. The chloroform fraction, isolated compound, and vitamin C showed very strong antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH with IC50 value of 23.2, 7.5, and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively.

  6. Effects of Gallic Acid and Cyclosporine A on Antioxidant Capacity and Cardiac Markers of Rat Isolated Heart After Ischemia/Reperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badavi, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Najmeh; Dianat, Mahin; Samarbafzadeh, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Myocardial infarction is one of the important causes of death during old ages. Gallic acid as an antioxidant or cyclosporine A (CsA) as inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) alone could prevent these complications to some extent, but their combination effect has not been investigated. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the combined effect of gallic acid and CsA on antioxidant capacity of isolated heart tissues during ischemia reperfusion. Materials and Methods: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to different groups: sham, control (Ca, received saline, 1 mL/kg); 3 groups were pretreated with gallic acid (G1a: 7.5, G2a: 15, G3a: 30 mg/kg) for 10 days, and the other 3 groups were pretreated with gallic acid and received CsA (0.2 µM) for 10 minutes before induction of ischemia and during the first 10 minutes of reperfusion (G1b, G2b and G3b) and the last group received CsA alone (Cb). After 10 days of pretreatment, the heart was isolated and transferred to the Langendorff apparatus and exposed to 30 minutes ischemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. After that cardiac markers and antioxidant enzymes were assessed in cardiac tissues. Results: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity increased and malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased in animals pretreated with gallic acid significantly. However, pretreatment with gallic acid followed by CsA during reperfusion improved the antioxidant capacity and cardiac marker enzymes and restored the lipid peroxidation more effective than gallic acid or CsA alone. Nevertheless, CsA did not change the cardiac marker enzymes significantly. Conclusions: Gallic acid and CsA combination improved antioxidant capacity and cell membrane integrity more than each one alone. Therefore, it can be a therapeutic approach to reduce the I/R injury. PMID:25068044

  7. Gallic Acid Content and an Antioxidant Mechanism Are Responsible for the Antiproliferative Activity of ‘Ataulfo’ Mango Peel on LS180 Cells

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    Gustavo. R. Velderrain-Rodríguez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mango “Ataulfo” peel is a rich source of polyphenols (PP, with antioxidant and anti-cancer properties; however, it is unknown whether such antiproliferative activity is related to PP’s antioxidant activity. The content (HPLC-DAD, antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, ORAC, and antiproliferative activities (MTT of free (FP and chemically-released PP from mango ‘Ataulfo’ peel after alkaline (AKP and acid (AP hydrolysis, were evaluated. AKP fraction was higher (µg/g DW in gallic acid (GA; 23,816 ± 284 than AP (5610 ± 8 of FR (not detected fractions. AKP fraction and GA showed the highest antioxidant activity (DPPH/FRAP/ORAC and GA’s antioxidant activity follows a single electron transfer (SET mechanism. AKP and GA also showed the best antiproliferative activity against human colon adenocarcinoma cells (LS180; IC50 (µg/mL 138.2 ± 2.5 and 45.7 ± 5.2 and mouse connective cells (L929; 93.5 ± 7.7 and 65.3 ± 1.2; Cheminformatics confirmed the hydrophilic nature (LogP, 0.6 and a good absorption capacity (75% for GA. Data suggests that GA’s antiproliferative activity appears to be related to its antioxidant mechanism, although other mechanisms after its absorption could also be involved.

  8. Adding of ascorbic acid to the culture medium influences the antioxidant status and some biochemical parameters in the hen granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capcarova, M; Kolesarova, A; Kalafova, A; Bulla, J; Sirotkin, A V

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant status (TAS) of the hen granulosa cells, and selected biochemical parameters, including calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, glucose, cholesterol, proteins, in the culture medium of granulosa cells after exposing them to ascorbic acid in vitro conditions. Ovarian granulosa cells of hens were incubated with various doses of ascorbic acid (E1 0.09 mg/ml, E2 0.13 mg/ml, E3 0.17 mg/ml, E4 0.33 mg/ml, E5 0.5 mg/ml). Ascorbic acid did not manifest antioxidant potential and higher doses of ascorbic acid (0.17; 0.33 and 0.5 mg/ml) decreased the activity of SOD in granulosa cells. Vitamin application resulted in a significantly (pascorbic acid might be involved in the regulation of selected biochemical and physiological processes in ovarian granulosa cells.

  9. Content of Minerals and Fatty Acids and Their Correlation with Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Leguminous Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grela, Eugeniusz R; Samolińska, Wioletta; Kiczorowska, Bożena; Klebaniuk, Renata; Kiczorowski, Piotr

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the mineral composition and fatty acid profile in the seeds of selected Fabaceae species and cultivars and to assess their correlations with phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. The Andean lupine was characterised by a particularly high level of Mg and K as well as Cu, Zn, and Fe (P < 0.05). There were various correlations (P < 0.05) between the total phenols and tannins and these elements. The highest contribution of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3, n-3) in total fatty acids was noted in the lentil (13.8 in 100 g -1 fat), common bean (11.9 in 100 g -1 fat), and pea seeds (10.4 in 100 g -1 fat) (P = 0.028). In turn, the white lupine contained the highest content of ALA-0.67 g 100 g -1 seeds; its lowest level was determined in the broad bean-0.03 g 100 g -1 seeds. The seeds exhibited a high proportion of hypocholesterolemic fatty acids (on average 86%). The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl antiradical activity was positively correlated with UFA and PUFA (P < 0.05). This indicates great protective potential of legume seeds for prevention and treatment of diet-dependent diseases.

  10. Purslane weed (Portulaca oleracea): a prospective plant source of nutrition, omega-3 fatty acid, and antioxidant attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hossain, Md Sabir; Nahar, Most Altaf Un; Ali, Md Eaqub; Rahman, M M

    2014-01-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an important plant naturally found as a weed in field crops and lawns. Purslane is widely distributed around the globe and is popular as a potherb in many areas of Europe, Asia, and the Mediterranean region. This plant possesses mucilaginous substances which are of medicinal importance. It is a rich source of potassium (494 mg/100 g) followed by magnesium (68 mg/100 g) and calcium (65 mg/100 g) and possesses the potential to be used as vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acid. It is very good source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and gamma-linolenic acid (LNA, 18 : 3 w3) (4 mg/g fresh weight) of any green leafy vegetable. It contained the highest amount (22.2 mg and 130 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp.) of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid (26.6 mg and 506 mg per 100 g of fresh and dry weight, resp.). The oxalate content of purslane leaves was reported as 671-869 mg/100 g fresh weight. The antioxidant content and nutritional value of purslane are important for human consumption. It revealed tremendous nutritional potential and has indicated the potential use of this herb for the future.

  11. In Vitro Antioxidant-Activity Evaluation of Gallic-Acid-Grafted Chitosan Conjugate Synthesized by Free-Radical-Induced Grafting Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiaobin; Wang, Taoran; Zhou, Mingyong; Xue, Jingyi; Luo, Yangchao

    2016-07-27

    The major objective of this work was to develop a green and facile process to prepare gallic acid-chitosan conjugate and comprehensively evaluate the physicochemical properties and biological activities of an as-prepared water-soluble chitosan derivative. A free-radical-induced grafting approach using an ascorbic acid-hydrogen peroxide redox pair was adopted. The obtained conjugate was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis, X-ray diffraction, and pKa analysis. The antioxidant activities were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6)-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power, and oxygen-radical antioxidant-capacity assays. The results showed that the mass ratio of gallic acid to chitosan played a vital role in determining the grafting degree and ζ potential of the conjugates, with the ratio of 0.5:1 being the optimal ratio that resulted in the highest grafting degree. The antioxidant assays demonstrated that conjugation significantly improved the antioxidant activities, being dramatically higher than that of free chitosan. It was notable that the DPPH- and ABTS-scavenging activities of conjugate at 0.4 mg/mL reached the same level as the free gallic acid at the equivalent concentration. Our study demonstrated a green and facile synthesis approach to preparing a novel water-soluble chitosan derivative that may have promising potentials in the food industry.

  12. Effect of maceration duration on physicochemical characteristics, organic acid, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wine from Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabey, N; Yilmaztekin, M; Hayaloglu, A A

    2016-09-01

    Effects of different maceration times (5, 10 and 15 days) on composition, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of red wines made from the Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan grown in Malatya were investigated. Maceration duration changed some chemical constituents and color of Karaoglan red wines. A linear relationship was observed between antioxidant activity of wine and maceration duration. Major organic acid was tartaric acid which was at the highest concentration in wine macerated for 10 days. A total of 25 phenolic compounds was determined in wine samples. Within these phenolics; procyanidin B2, trans -caftaric acid, gallic acid, trans -caffeic acid, (+) catechin, (-) epicatechin and quercetin-3- O -glucoside were the most abundant phenolics regardless of maceration duration. In general, extended maceration duration resulted in increase in the concentration of phenolic compounds, reflecting the antioxidant activities of wine. In conclusion, the highest concentrations of total and individual phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant activities were found in wines macerated for 15 days.

  13. Protective effects of a topical antioxidant complex containing vitamins C and E and ferulic acid against ultraviolet irradiation-induced photodamage in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Zheng, Xin; Xu, Xue-Gang; Li, Yuan-Hong; Wang, Bin; Gao, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Duo; Yatskayer, Margarita; Oresajo, Christian

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether a topical antioxidant complex containing vitamins C and E and ferulic acid can protect solar-simulated ultraviolet irradiation (ssUVR)-induced acute photodamage in human skin. Twelve healthy female Chinese subjects were enrolled in this study. Four unexposed sites on dorsal skin were marked for the experiment. The products containing antioxidant complex and vehicle were applied onto 2 sites, respectively, for 4 consecutive days. On day 4, the antioxidant complex-treated site, the vehicle-treated site, and the untreated site (positive control) received ssUVR (5 times the minimal erythema dose). The fourth site (negative control) received neither ssUVR nor treatment. Digital photographs were taken, and skin color was measured pre- and postirradiation. Skin biopsies were obtained 24 hours after exposure to ssUVR, for hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining. A single, 5 times the minimal erythema dose of ssUVR substantially induced large amounts of sunburn cell formation, thymine dimer formation, overexpression of p53 protein, and depletion of CD1a+ Langerhans cells. The antioxidant complex containing vitamins C and E and ferulic acid conferred significant protection against biological events compared with other irradiated sites. A topical antioxidant complex containing vitamins C and E and ferulic acid has potential photoprotective effects against ssUVR-induced acute photodamage in human skin.

  14. Effect of consumption of tomato juice enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipid profile, antioxidant biomarker status, and cardiovascular disease risk in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alonso, F J; Jorge-Vidal, V; Ros, G; Periago, M J

    2012-06-01

    We compared the effects of consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-enriched tomato juice versus plain tomato juice on the serum lipid profile and levels of biomarkers related to antioxidant status and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in women. Eighteen healthy women participated in a 2-week intervention trial involving the daily intake of 500 mL of n-3 PUFA-enriched juice (n = 11) or plain tomato juice (n = 7). Each serving of enriched juice provided 250 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexanoic acid (DHA). Both juices provided natural antioxidant compounds such as phenolics (181 mg) and lycopene (26.5 mg). Intervention with the enriched juice had no effect on the lipid profile, and serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL) remained unchanged. The serum antioxidant status improved following juice intake, as revealed by an increase in total antioxidant capacity and a slight decrease in lipid peroxidation. The serum levels of homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk factor, decreased following n-3 PUFA-enriched juice consumption. A decrease in vascular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) levels was also noted after intake of either plain or enriched tomato juice, whereas intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) levels only decreased following intake of the enriched juice. Overall, stronger positive amelioration of CVD risk factors was observed following the intake of n-3 PUFA-enriched juice than after plain tomato juice consumption, which suggested a possible synergistic action between n-3 PUFAs and tomato antioxidants.

  15. Biodegradable in situ gelling system for subcutaneous administration of ellagic acid and ellagic acid loaded nanoparticles: evaluation of their antioxidant potential against cyclosporine induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G; Italia, J L; Sonaje, K; Tikoo, K; Ravi Kumar, M N V

    2007-03-12

    Ellagic acid (EA) is a potent antioxidant marketed as a nutritional supplement. Its pharmacological activity has been reported in wide variety of disease models; however its use has been limited owing to its poor biopharmaceutical properties, thereby poor bioavailability. The objective of the current study was to develop chitosan-glycerol phosphate (C-GP) in situ gelling system for sustained delivery of ellagic acid (EA) via subcutaneous route. EA was incorporated in the system employing propylene glycol (PG) and triethanolamine (TEA) as co-solvents; on the other hand EA loaded PLGA nanoparticles (np) were dispersed in the gelling system using water. These in situ gelling systems were thoroughly characterized for mechanical, rheological and swelling properties. These systems are liquid at room temperature and gels at 37 degrees C. The EA C-GP system showed an initial burst release in vitro with about 85% drug released in 12 h followed by a steady release till 160 h, on the other hand EA nanoparticles entrapped in the C-GP system displayed sustained release till 360 h. The histopathological analysis indicates the absence of inflammation on administration, suggesting that these formulations are safe during the studied period. Furthermore, the antioxidant potential of EA C-GP and EA np C-GP gels has been evaluated against cyclosporine induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The data indicates that formulations were effective against cyclosporine induced nephrotoxicity, where the EA C-GP gels showed activity at 10 times lower dose and the EA np C-GP gels at 150 times lower dose when compared to orally given EA. Formulating nanoparticles of EA and incorporating them in C-GP system results in 15 times lowering of dose in comparison EA C-GP gels which is quite significant. Together, these results indicate that the bioavailability of ellagic acid can be improved by subcutaneous formulations administered as simple EA or EA nps.

  16. The effect of the antioxidant on the properties of thiolated poly(aspartic acid) polymers in aqueous ocular formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai-Szűcs, Mária; Horvát, Gabriella; Gyarmati, Benjámin; Szilágyi, Barnabás Áron; Szilágyi, András; Berkó, Szilvia; Ambrus, Rita; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Caramella, Carla; Csányi, Erzsébet

    2017-04-01

    Thiolated polymers are a promising new group of excipients, but their stability against atmospheric oxidation has not been investigated in detail, and only a few efforts have been made to improve their stability. The oxidation of the thiol groups in solutions of thiolated polymers may result in a decrease of mucoadhesion and unpredictable in situ gelation. The aims of our work were to study the stability of aqueous solutions of thiolated polymers and the effects of stabilizing agents. We investigated thiolated poly(aspartic acid) polymers stabilized with dithiothreitol, glutathione or acetylcysteine. The effects of these antioxidants on the gel structure, mucoadhesion and drug release were determined by means of scanning electron microscopy, swelling, rheology, adhesion and drug release tests. It was concluded that the stability of polymer solutions containing antioxidants is sufficient for one day. Polymers stabilized with dithiotreitol demonstrated fast swelling and drug release, but weaker mucoadhesion as compared with the other samples. Polymers stabilized with glutathione displayed the weakest cohesive properties, resulting in fast and uncontrolled drug release and moderate mucoadhesion. Acetylcysteine-stabilized polymers exhibited an optimum cross-linked structure, with free thiol groups ensuring polymer-mucin interactions, resulting in the best mucoadhesive properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of novel nano-biocomposite antioxidant films based on poly (lactic acid) and thymol for active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marina; Jiménez, Alfonso; Peltzer, Mercedes; Garrigós, María C

    2014-11-01

    Novel nano-biocomposite films based on poly (lactic acid) (PLA) were prepared by incorporating thymol, as the active additive, and modified montmorillonite (D43B) at two different concentrations. A complete thermal, structural, mechanical and functional characterization of all nano-biocomposites was carried out. Thermal stability was not significantly affected by the addition of thymol, but the incorporation of D43B improved mechanical properties and reduced the oxygen transmission rate by the formation of intercalated structures, as suggested by wide angle X-ray scattering patterns and transmission electron microscopy images. The addition of thymol decreased the PLA glass transition temperature, as the result of the polymer plasticization, and led to modification of the elastic modulus and elongation at break. Finally, the amount of thymol remaining in these formulations was determined by liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV) and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH spectroscopic method, suggesting that the formulated nano-biocomposites could be considered a promising antioxidant active packaging material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An in vitro study on the antioxidant capacity of usnic acid on human erythrocytes and molecular models of its membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalsky, M; Jemiola-Rzeminska, M; Astudillo, C; Gallardo, M J; Staforelli, J P; Villena, F; Strzalka, K

    2015-11-01

    Usnic acid (UA) has been associated with chronic diseases through its antioxidant action. Its main target is the cell membrane; however, its effect on that of human erythrocytes has been scarcely investigated. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between UA and cell membranes human erythrocytes and molecular models of its membrane have been utilized. Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE) were chosen as representative of phospholipid classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the erythrocyte membrane, respectively. Results by X-ray diffraction showed that UA produced structural perturbations on DMPC and DMPE bilayers. DSC studies have indicated that thermotropic behavior of DMPE was most strongly distorted by UA than DMPC, whereas the latter is mainly affected on the pretransition. Scanning electron (SEM) and defocusing microscopy (DM) showed that UA induced alterations to erythrocytes from the normal discoid shape to echinocytes. These results imply that UA molecules were located in the outer monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane. Results of its antioxidant properties showed that UA neutralized the oxidative capacity of HClO on DMPC and DMPE bilayers; SEM, DM and hemolysis assays demonstrated the protective effect of UA against the deleterious oxidant effects of HClO upon human erythrocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Radical-Scavenging Activity of Thiols, Thiobarbituric Acid Derivatives and Phenolic Antioxidants Determined Using the Induction Period Method for Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro Fujisawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The radical-scavenging activities of two thiols, eight (thiobarbituric acid derivatives and six chain-breaking phenolic antioxidants were investigated using the induction period method for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2’-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN and monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The induction period (IP for the thiols 2-mercaptoethanol (ME and 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (MMI was about half that for phenolic antioxidants. Except for the potent inhibitor 5,5-dimethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid (3, the IP for thiobarbituric acid derivatives was about one tenth of that for phenolic antioxidants. The IP for 1,3,5-trimethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid (1 and 5-allyl-1, 3-dimethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid (7 was less than that of the control, possibly due to inhibition by a small amount of atmospheric oxygen in the DSC container. The ratio of the chain inhibition to that of chain propagation (CI/CP for the thiols and thiobarbituric acid compounds except for 1, 3 and 7 was about 10 times greater or greater than that for phenolic compounds. A kinetic chain length (KCL about 10% greater than that of the control was observed for 1, suggesting that 1 had chain transfer reactivity in the polymerization of MMA. The average molecular weight of polymers formed from thiobarbituric acid derivatives is discussed.

  20. Antioxidative activity of 3,4-dihydroxyplienylacetic acid and α-tocopherol on the triglyceride matrix of olive oil. Effect of acidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blekas, Georgios

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Minor constituents of virgin olive oil are important for the remarkable stability of the oil in autoxidation, but the exact role and the extent to which each antioxidant factor contributes to the total antioxidant effect has not been thoroughly Investigated. In this study the role of α-tocopherol is explored at various acidity levels and at low concentrations of ortho-diphenols. A substrate of olive oil triacylglycerols devoid of prooxidant or antioxidant constituents was prepared from refined olive oil by column chromatography To tills substrate, slightly oxidized, the additives (oleic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and α-tocopherol were added and the stability was assessed by periodical measurements of peroxide values. It was found that free fatty adds reduce mainly the protective activity of the ortho-diphenol. It is also concluded that α-tocopherol has a synergistic effect with the ortho-diphenols and contributes significantly to the retardation of peroxide formation. This is Important for oils poor in ortho-diphenols.

    Los constituyentes menores del aceite de oliva virgen son importantes para la notable estabilidad del aceite en la autooxidación, pero el papel exacto y el alcance con que cada factor antioxidante contribuye al efecto antioxidante total no ha sido investigado a fondo. En este estudio el papel del α-tocoferol es examinado a varios niveles de acidez y a baja concentraciones de o-difenoles. Un sustrato de triacilgliceroles de aceite de oliva desprovisto de constituyentes prooxidantes o antioxidantes fue preparado a partir de aceite de oliva refinado mediante cromatografía en columna. A este sustrato, un poco oxidado, los aditivos (ácido oleico, ácido 3,4-dihidroxifenilacético y α-tocoferol fueron añadidos y la estabilidad fue calculada mediante medidas periódicas del índice de peróxido. Se encontró que los ácidos grasos libres reducen principalmente la actividad protectora de los orto-difenoles. Se

  1. Antioxidant activity of pea protein hydrolysates produced by batch fermentation with lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević Nemanja S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine Lactobacillus strains known for surface proteinase activity were chosen from our collection and tested for their ability to grow in pea seed protein-based medium, and to hydrolyze purified pea proteins in order to produce peptides with antioxidant (AO activity. Two strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 and Lactobacillus zeae LMG17315, exhibited strong proteolytic activity against pea proteins. The AO activity of the pea hydrolysate fraction, MW <10 kDa, obtained by the fermentation of purified pea proteins with Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10, was tested by standard spectrophotometric assays (DPPH, ABTS, Fe3+-reducing capacity and the recently developed direct current (DC polarographic assay. The low molecular weight fraction of the obtained hydrolysate was separated using ion exchange chromatography, while the AO activity of eluted fractions was determined by means of a sensitive DC polarographic assay without previous concentration of samples. Results revealed that the fraction present in low abundance that contained basic peptides possessed the highest antioxidant activity. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 should be further investigated as a candidate strain for large-scale production of bioactive peptides from legume proteins. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173005 i br. 173026

  2. Suitability of antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and phenolic acids for floral authentication of honey. Impact of industrial thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriche, Isabel; Kadar, Melinda; Juan-Borrás, Marisol; Domenech, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Total antioxidant activity, physicochemical parameters, and the profile of flavonoids and phenolic acid compounds were evaluated for: their ability to distinguish between the botanical origins of four types of Spanish honey, the impact of industrial thermal treatment, and the effect of the year of collection. Citrus honey had the lowest levels of all the analysed variables, then rosemary and polyfloral, and honeydew the highest ones. Botanical origin affects the profile of flavonoids and phenolic compounds sufficiently to permit discrimination thanks to the predominance of particular compounds such as: hesperetin (in citrus honey); kaempferol, chrysin, pinocembrin, caffeic acid and naringenin (in rosemary honey) and myricetin, quercetin, galangin and particularly p-coumaric acid (in honeydew honey). The impact of industrial thermal treatments is lower than the expected variability as a consequence of the year of collection, though neither factor has enough influence to alter these constituent compounds to the point of affecting the discrimination of honey by botanical origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structure-thermodynamics-antioxidant activity relationships of selected natural phenolic acids and derivatives: an experimental and theoretical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuzhen; Xiao, Huizhi; Zheng, Jie; Liang, Guizhao

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic acids and derivatives have potential biological functions, however, little is known about the structure-activity relationships and the underlying action mechanisms of these phenolic acids to date. Herein we investigate the structure-thermodynamics-antioxidant relationships of 20 natural phenolic acids and derivatives using DPPH• scavenging assay, density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory, and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling. Three main working mechanisms (HAT, SETPT and SPLET) are explored in four micro-environments (gas-phase, benzene, water and ethanol). Computed thermodynamics parameters (BDE, IP, PDE, PA and ETE) are compared with the experimental radical scavenging activities against DPPH•. Available theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated that the extended delocalization and intra-molecular hydrogen bonds are the two main contributions to the stability of the radicals. The C = O or C = C in COOH, COOR, C = CCOOH and C = CCOOR groups, and orthodiphenolic functionalities are shown to favorably stabilize the specific radical species to enhance the radical scavenging activities, while the presence of the single OH in the ortho position of the COOH group disfavors the activities. HAT is the thermodynamically preferred mechanism in the gas phase and benzene, whereas SPLET in water and ethanol. Furthermore, our QSAR models robustly represent the structure-activity relationships of these explored compounds in polar media.

  4. Application of Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformed Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy To Determine the Chlorogenic Acid Isomer Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Lu, Xiaonan; Hu, Yaxi; Kitts, David D

    2016-01-27

    The chlorogenic acid isomer profile and antioxidant activity of both green and roasted coffee beans are reported herein using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric analyses. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantified different chlorogenic acid isomer contents for reference, whereas ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH were used to determine the antioxidant activity of the same coffee bean extracts. FTIR spectral data and reference data of 42 coffee bean samples were processed to build optimized PLSR models, and 18 samples were used for external validation of constructed PLSR models. In total, six PLSR models were constructed for six chlorogenic acid isomers to predict content, with three PLSR models constructed to forecast the free radical scavenging activities, obtained using different chemical assays. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy, coupled with PLSR, serves as a reliable, nondestructive, and rapid analytical method to quantify chlorogenic acids and to assess different free radical-scavenging capacities in coffee beans.

  5. A natural antioxidant, tannic acid mitigates iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice through ROS regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Tapasree; Panja, Sourav; Shendge, Anil Khushalrao; Das, Abhishek; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2018-05-01

    Tannic acid (TA), a water soluble natural polyphenol with 8 gallic acids groups, is abundantly present in various medicinal plants. Previously TA has been investigated for its antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Being a large polyphenol, TA chelates more than 1 metal. Hence TA has been explored for potent antioxidant activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and as iron chelator in vitro thereby mitigating iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity in vivo. Iron dextran was injected intraperitoneally in Swiss albino mice to induce iron-overload triggered hepatotoxicity, followed by oral administration of TA for remediation. After treatment, liver, spleen, and blood samples were processed from sacrificed animals. The liver iron, serum ferritin, serum markers, ROS, liver antioxidant status, and liver damage parameters were assessed, followed by histopathology and protein expression studies. Our results show that TA is a prominent ROS and RNS scavenger as well as iron chelator in vitro. It also reversed the ROS levels in vivo and restricted the liver damage parameters as compared to the standard drug, desirox. Moreover, this natural polyphenol exclusively ameliorates the histopathological and fibrotic changes in liver sections reducing the iron-overload, along with chelation of liver iron and normalization of serum ferritin. The protective role of TA against iron-overload induced apoptosis in liver was further supported by changed levels of caspase 3, PARP as well as Bax/BCl-2 ratio. Thus, TA can be envisaged as a better orally administrable iron chelator to reduce iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity through ROS regulation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The effect of drying temperatures on antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, fatty acid composition and tocopherol contents in citrus seed and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Uslu, Nurhan; Ghafoor, Kashif

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the effect of drying temperature on antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of citrus seeds and oils were studied. Kinnow mandarin seed, dried at 60 °C, exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. Orlendo orange seed had the maximum total phenolic content and α-tocopherol content, with a value of 63.349 mg/100 g and 28.085 mg/g (control samples), respectively. The antioxidant activity of Orlendo orange seed (63.349%) was higher than seeds of Eureka lemon (55.819%) and Kinnow mandarin (28.015%), while the highest total phenolic content was found in seeds of Kinnow mandarin, followed by Orlendo orange and Eureka lemon (113.132). 1.2-Dihydroxybenzene (13.171), kaempferol (10.780), (+)-catechin (9.341) and isorhamnetin (7.592) in mg/100 g were the major phenolic compounds found in Kinnow mandarin. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid was the most abundant acid in all oils, which varied from 44.4% (dried at 80 °C) to 46.1% (dried at 70 °C), from 39.0% (dried at 60 °C) to 40.0% (dried at 70 °C). The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of citrus seeds and tocopherol content of seed oils were significantly affected by drying process and varied depending on the drying temperature.

  7. Phenolic acids profiling and antioxidant potential of mulberry (Morus laevigata W., Morus nigra L., Morus alba L.) leaves and fruits grown in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulberry trees are distributed throughout Pakistan. Besides the use of mulberry in forage and food for animals, it is also used as herbal medicine. The ojbective of this study was to determine phenolic acids profile, sugar content, and the antioxidant activity of the leaves and fruits of three mulb...

  8. Salvianolic acid B, an antioxidant from Salvia miltiorrhiza, prevents A beta(25-35)-induced reduction in BPRP in PC12 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Yan-Hua; Liu, Ai-Hua; Wu, Hong-Li; Westenbroek, Christel; Song, Qian-Liu; Yu, He-Ming; Ter Horst, Gert J.; Li, Xue-Jun; Li, Xiang-yi

    2006-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support that beta-amyloid (A beta)-induced neurotoxicity is mediated through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and elevation of intracellular calcium. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), the major and most active anti-oxidant from Salvia miltiorrhiza. protects diverse

  9. Prophylactic Antioxidant Potential of Gallic Acid in Murine Model of Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Harikesh; Mangal, Vaishali; Gandhi, Sanjay; Prabhu, Kathiresan; Ponnudurai, Kathiresan

    2014-01-01

    Present study is to investigate the effect of Gallic acid pretreatment on survival of septic animals and oxidative stress in different organs like lungs, liver, kidney, spleen, and vascular dysfunction of mice. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in healthy adult male albino mice (25–30 g) and was divided into 3 groups each consisting of 6 animals, that is, sham-operated (SO group (Group I), SO + sepsis (Group II), and Gallic acid + sepsis (Group III)). Group III animals were pretreated with Gallic acid at the dose rate of 20 mg/kg body weight for 2 days before induction of sepsis. Animals were sacrificed on 8th day and the tissue samples were obtained for further investigation on lipid peroxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GSH). Gallic acid pretreatment significant (P Gallic acid pretreated mice showed significant improvement in SOD activity of kidney and spleen when compared to septic mice. Finally, the beneficial effects of Gallic acid pretreatment in sepsis are evident from the observations that Gallic acid partially restored SOD and catalase activity and completely reversed lipid peroxidation. Further studies are required to find out the possible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of Gallic acid on large population. PMID:25018890

  10. Antioxidative phytochemicals from Rhododendron oldhamii Maxim. leaf extracts reduce serum uric acid levels in potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yu-Tang; Lin, Lei-Chen; Liu, Ya-Ling; Ho, Shang-Tse; Lin, Chi-Yang; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Huang, Chi-Chang; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2015-12-01

    Some of the genus Rhododendron was used in traditional medicine for arthritis, acute and chronic bronchitis, asthma, pain, inflammation, rheumatism, hypertension and metabolic diseases and many species of the genus Rhododendron contain a large number of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties that could be developed into pharmaceutical products. In this study, the antioxidative phytochemicals of Rhododendron oldhamii Maxim. leaves were detected by an online HPLC-DPPH method. In addition, the anti-hyperuricemic effect of the active phytochemicals from R. oldhamii leaf extracts was investigated using potassium oxonate (PO)-induced acute hyperuricemia. Six phytochemicals, including (2R, 3R)-epicatechin (1), (2R, 3R)-taxifolin (2), (2R, 3R)-astilbin (3), hyposide (4), guaijaverin (5), and quercitrin (6), were isolated using the developed screening method. Of these, compounds 3, 4, 5, and 6 were found to be major bioactive phytochemicals, and their contents were determined to be 130.8 ± 10.9, 105.5 ± 8.5, 104.1 ± 4.7, and 108.6 ± 4.0 mg per gram of EtOAc fraction, respectively. In addition, the four major bioactive phytochemicals at the same dosage (100 mmol/kg) were administered to the abdominal cavity of potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemic mice, and the serum uric acid level was measured after 3 h of administration. H&E staining showed that PO-induced kidney injury caused renal tubular epithelium nuclear condensation in the cortex areas or the appearance of numerous hyaline casts in the medulla areas; treatment with 100 mmol/kg of EtOAc fraction, (2R, 3R)-astilbin, hyposide, guaijaverin, and quercitrin significantly reduced kidney injury. In addition, the serum uric acid level was significantly suppressed by 54.1, 35.1, 56.3, 56.3, and 53.2 %, respectively, by the administrations of 100 mmol/kg EtOAc fraction and the derived major phytochemicals, (2R, 3R)-astilbin, hyposide, guaijaverin, and quercitrin, compared to the PO group. The administration

  11. Antioxidant activity of phenolic acids and esters present in red wine on human Low-Density Lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urizzi, P.; Monje, M.-C.; Souchard, J.-P.; Abella, A.; Chalas, J.; Lindenbaum, A.; Vergnes, L.; Labidalle, S.; Nepveu, F.

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the antioxidant activity of different phenolic acids and their esters, three types of experiments have been used. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) quantitative analysis was carried out using the acetaldehyde/xanthine oxidase system and Fenton's reaction to generate superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, respectively. In a second test, hydroperoxides generated by Cu2+-catalysed oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL) were quantified by a modified iodometric method. In a third assay, LDL were oxidized with Esterbauer's method and modified LDL species were quantified by HPLC. The results show that the esterified phenolic derivatives present a better antioxidant activity, on the lipoperoxidation of LDL, than the corresponding phenolic acids. Trois expériences ont été menées afin d'évaluer l'activité antioxydante de différents acides et de leurs esters. Une analyse quantitative par résonance paramagnétique électronique (RPE) a été réalisée en utilisant le système acétaldéhyde/xanthine oxydase et la réaction de Fenton générant, respectivement, les radicaux superoxyde et hydroxyle. Dans un second test, les hydroperoxydes générés par une réaction d'oxydation des lipoprotéines de basse densité (LDL) catalysée par Cu2+ ont été quantifiés par une méthode iodométrique modifiée. Dans une troisième étude, les LDL ont été oxydées par la méthode d'Esterbauer et les espèces oxydées ont été quantifiées par HPLC. Les résultats montrent que les dérivés estérifiés présentent une activité antioxydante contre la lipoperoxydation des LDL bien plus importante que celle des acides phénoliques correspondants.

  12. Effects of two antioxidants; α-lipoic acid and fisetin against diabetic cataract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Emrah; Kiliçkan, Elif; Ayar, Ahmet; Çolak, Ramis

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether α-lipoic acid and fisetin have protective effects against cataract in a streptozotocin-induced experimental cataract model. Twenty-eight male BALB/C mice were made diabetic by the intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg). Three weeks after induction of diabetes, mice were divided randomly into 4 groups in which each group contained 7 mice; fisetin-treated group (group 1), α-lipoic acid-treated group (group 2), fisetin placebo group (group 3), α-lipoic acid placebo group (group 4). Fisetin and α-lipoic acid were administered intraperitoneally weekly for 5 weeks. Cataract development was assessed at the end of 8 weeks by slit lamp examination, and cataract formation was graded using a scale. All groups developed at least grade 1 cataract formation. In the fisetin-treated group, the cataract stages were significantly lower than in the placebo group (p = 0.02). In the α-lipoic acid-treated group, the cataract stages were lower than in the placebo group but it did not reach to a significant value. Both fisetin and α-lipoic acid had a protective effect on cataract development in a streptozotocin-induced experimental cataract model. The protective effect of fisetin appears as though more effective than α-lipoic acid.

  13. Prophylactic Antioxidant Potential of Gallic Acid in Murine Model of Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikesh Maurya

    2014-01-01

    healthy adult male albino mice (25–30 g and was divided into 3 groups each consisting of 6 animals, that is, sham-operated (SO group (Group I, SO + sepsis (Group II, and Gallic acid + sepsis (Group III. Group III animals were pretreated with Gallic acid at the dose rate of 20 mg/kg body weight for 2 days before induction of sepsis. Animals were sacrificed on 8th day and the tissue samples were obtained for further investigation on lipid peroxidation (LPO, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione reductase (GSH. Gallic acid pretreatment significant (P<0.05 reduces kidney, spleen, liver, and lungs’ malondialdehyde level in septic mice. However, it fails to improve reduced glutathione level in all given organs, while, Gallic acid pretreated mice showed significant improvement in SOD activity of kidney and spleen when compared to septic mice. Finally, the beneficial effects of Gallic acid pretreatment in sepsis are evident from the observations that Gallic acid partially restored SOD and catalase activity and completely reversed lipid peroxidation. Further studies are required to find out the possible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of Gallic acid on large population.

  14. Effect of abscisic acid on biochemical constituents, enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidant status of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under varied irrigation regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Al Muhairi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economically important vegetable crop lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. of family Asteraceae was selected for the present investigation. It is being cultivated in UAE due to its commercial importance. In lettuce cultivation, the major problem is the requirement of large quantities of irrigation water. The present study was aimed to reduce the water consumption of lettuce cultivation; for that, a varied irrigation regime was used with the application of abscisic acid (ABA. The parameters studied were biochemical constituents, antioxidant potential and antioxidant enzymes’ activities in lettuce plants under drought stress and its response to ABA under stress. Drought stress caused an increase in the biochemical constituents like proline and amino acid contents when compared with control and also increased under individual ABA treatments and treatments under drought stress. The non-enzymatic antioxidant molecules like ascorbate and α-tocopherol showed significant increase under drought condition in lettuce. ABA slightly reduced these contents. The antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase showed significant increase under drought condition and ABA caused significant enhancement in these antioxidant enzymes under drought stress and also in unstressed conditions, thereby protecting the plants from the deleterious effects of drought stress. From the results of this investigation, it can be concluded that ABA in 10 mg g−1 can be used as a potential tool to minimise the drought stress effects in lettuce cultivation.

  15. Indole-3-butyric acid mediates antioxidative defense systems to promote adventitious rooting in mung bean seedlings under cadmium and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Weng; Zeng, Xiao-Ying; Leng, Yan; Feng, Lin; Kang, Xiao-Hu

    2018-06-08

    In vitro experiments were performed to determine whether auxin can mediate the formation of adventitious roots in response to heavy metal and drought stresses using a model rooting plant, mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. The treatments with CdCl 2 or mannitol alone significantly inhibited the formation and growth of adventitious roots in mung bean seedlings. In contrast, when CdCl 2 or mannitol was applied together with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), IBA considerably cancelled the inhibition of adventitious rooting by stresses. Treatment with CdCl 2 or mannitol alone significantly increased the soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. CdCl 2 and mannitol stress each induced differentially significant changes in the activities of antioxidative enzyme and antioxidant levels during adventitious rooting. Notably, both CdCl 2 and mannitol stress strongly reduced the peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities and glutathione (GSH) and phenols levels. Catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were enhanced by CdCl 2 but reduced by mannitol. CdCl 2 increased the ascorbate acid (ASA) level, which was decreased by mannitol. Furthermore, when CdCl 2 or mannitol was applied together with IBA, IBA counteracted the CdCl 2 - or mannitol-induced increase or decrease in certain antioxidants, MDA, and antioxidative enzymes. These results suggest that Cd and mannitol stress inhibition of adventitious rooting is associated with the regulation of antioxidative enzymes and antioxidants in cells to defense the oxidative stress. Moreover, IBA alleviates the effects of Cd and mannitol stress on the rooting process partially through the regulation of antioxidative defense systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lipophilic antioxidants and polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipoprotein classes: distribution and interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, V.H.; Weber, Christine; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    2001-01-01

    supplementations, but fish oil increased the amount of n-3 fatty acids at the expense of n-6 fatty acids. Conclusion: Lipoprotein distribution of CoQ(10) is markedly different from that of alpha -tocopherol, suggesting that they may be metabolised by distinct routes. alpha -Tocopherol is distributed similarly to n......Objective: To study the lipoprotein distribution of supplemented coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)), vitamin E, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Design: Balanced three- period crossover study. Setting: University research unit. Subjects: Eighteen apparently healthy free-living non-smoking volunteers...... the first period and then after each period. Plasma and isolated lipoproteins were analysed for cholesterol, triacylglycerol, alpha- and gamma -tocopherol, CoQ(10), and fatty acid composition. Results: Significant (P

  17. Uric acid but not apple polyphenols is responsible for the rise of plasma antioxidant activity after apple juice consumption in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Krol, Maciej; Krol, Bogusław; Zwolinska, Anna; Kolodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Kasielski, Marek; Padula, Gianluca; Grebowski, Jacek; Grębocki, Jacek; Kazmierska, Paulina; Kazimierska, Paulina; Miatkowski, Marcin; Markowski, Jarosław; Nowak, Dariusz

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether (1) rapid consumption of 1 L of apple juice increases blood antioxidant capacity, measured as ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and serum 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, and (2) apple polyphenols or fructose-induced elevation of plasma uric acid contributes to post-juice increase of blood antioxidant activity. The study involved 12 (mean age 32 ± 5 years, mean body weight 73 ± 7 kg) healthy nonsmoking subjects. Tested subjects consumed 1 L of clear apple juice and then FRAP; serum DPPH-scavenging activity, serum uric acid, and total plasma phenolics and quercetin levels were measured just before juice ingestion and 1, 2.5, and 4 hours after ingestion. This was repeated 3 times with 4-day intervals, but volunteers drank either 1 L of clear apple juice without polyphenols (placebo), or 1 L of cloudy apple juice (positive control), or 1 L of water (negative control) at the time. All juices had similar content of sugars (i.e., saccharose, glucose, and fructose) and precisely defined composition of phenolics and antioxidant activity. Consumption of all 3 juices transiently increased FRAP and serum DPPH-scavenging activity, with peak values at 1 hour post-juice ingestion. This was paralleled by the rise of serum uric acid, but no significant changes in plasma total phenolics and quercetin levels were observed after all dietary interventions. At the same time, no substantial differences were found between juices (especially between clear apple juice and clear apple juice without polyphenols) concerning the measured variables. A strong significant correlation was noted instead between serum uric acid and plasma antioxidant activity at all analyzed time points, before and after juice ingestion. Plasma total phenolics and quercetin levels were not associated with FRAP and serum DPPH radical-scavenging activity. We have demonstrated that rapid consumption of apple juice increased plasma antioxidant activity in

  18. Pristanic acid provokes lipid, protein, and DNA oxidative damage and reduces the antioxidant defenses in cerebellum of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Lobato, Vannessa Gonçalves Araujo; Zanatta, Ângela; Borges, Clarissa Günther; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Viegas, Carolina Maso; Manfredini, Vanusa; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Vargas, Carmen Regla; de Souza, Diogo Onofre Gomes; Wajner, Moacir

    2014-12-01

    Zellweger syndrome (ZS) and some peroxisomal diseases are severe inherited disorders mainly characterized by neurological symptoms and cerebellum abnormalities, whose pathogenesis is poorly understood. Biochemically, these diseases are mainly characterized by accumulation of pristanic acid (Prist) and other fatty acids in the brain and other tissues. In this work, we evaluated the in vitro influence of Prist on redox homeostasis by measuring lipid, protein, and DNA damage, as well as the antioxidant defenses and the activities of aconitase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in cerebellum of 30-day-old rats. The effect of Prist on DNA damage was also evaluated in blood of these animals. Some parameters were also evaluated in cerebellum from neonatal rats and in cerebellum neuronal cultures. Prist significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and carbonyl formation and reduced sulfhydryl content and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in cerebellum of young rats. It also caused DNA strand damage in cerebellum and induced a high micronuclei frequency in blood. On the other hand, this fatty acid significantly reduced α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and aconitase activities in rat cerebellum. We also verified that Prist-induced increase of MDA levels was totally prevented by melatonin and attenuated by α-tocopherol but not by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, indicating the involvement of reactive oxygen species in this effect. Cerebellum from neonate rats also showed marked alterations of redox homeostasis, including an increase of MDA levels and a decrease of sulfhydryl content and GSH concentrations elicited by Prist. Finally, Prist provoked an increase of dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) oxidation in cerebellum-cultivated neurons. Our present data indicate that Prist compromises redox homeostasis in rat cerebellum and blood and inhibits critical enzymes of the citric acid cycle that are susceptible to free radical attack. The

  19. Test for antioxidant ability by scavenging long-lived mutagenic radicals in mammalian cells and by blood test with intentional radicals: an application of gallic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Jun; Kawaura, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Prost, Michel; Prost, Emmanuelle; Watanabe, Masami; Quetin-Leclercq, J.Joeelle

    2003-01-01

    Antioxidant ability of gallic acid (GA) are determined both by electron spin resonance measurement of long-lived radicals produced in γ-ray irradiated Syrian golden hamster embryo cells with GA and by hemolysis measurement with GA when blood cells are submitted to radicals. Scavenging properties of GA are determined by the reaction rate constant with long-lived mutagenic radicals in the cells while the blood test allows to analyze the global effects of this compound: radical scavenger+metal ion chelator+regeneration of intra- and extra-cellular antioxidant

  20. Changes in antioxidant activity, total phenolic and abscisic acid constituents in the aquatic plants Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Myriophyllum triphyllum Orchard exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaci, Aysel; Sivaci, E Ridvan; Sökmen, Münevver

    2007-07-01

    Changes in antioxidant activity, total phenolic and abscisic acid (ABA) constituents of Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Myriophyllum triphyllum Orchard, cadmium (Cd) aqueous macrophytes, were investigated exposed to 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16 mg l(-1) Cd concentrations. M. triphyllum exhibited strong antioxidant activity but not M. spicatum before and after exposure. Free radical scavenging activity of M. triphyllum was significantly affected from the Cd concentrations and a significant increase was observed at 6 mgl(-1) Cd concentration. Total phenolic constituent and ABA concentration of M. triphyllum is higher than that of M. spicatum with or without heavy metal exposure (P macrophytes that grown in polluted aqueous ecosystem.

  1. Wheat germ oil enrichment in broiler feed with α-lipoic acid to enhance the antioxidant potential and lipid stability of meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Lipid peroxidation is the cause of declining the meat quality. Natural antioxidants plays a vital role in enhancing the stability and quality of meat. The supplementation of natural antioxidants in feed decreases lipid peroxidation and improves the stability of meat. Methods The present research was conducted to determine the effect of α-lipoic acid, α-tocopherol and wheat germ oil on the status of antioxidants, quality and lipid stability of broiler meat. One day old male broilers were fed with different feeds containing antioxidants i.e. natural (wheat germ oil) and synthetic α-tocopherol and α-lipoic acid during the two experimental years. Results The feed treatments have significant variation on the body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) while having no influence on the feed intake. The broilers fed on wheat germ oil (natural α-tocopherol) gained maximum body weight (2451.97 g & 2466.07 g) in the experimental years 2010–11 & 2011–12, respectively. The higher total phenolic contents were found in the broilers fed on wheat germ oil plus α-lipoic acid in breast (162.73±4.8 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g & 162.18±4.5 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g) and leg (149.67±3.3 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g & 146.07±3.2 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g) meat during both experimental years. Similar trend was observed for the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The production of malondialdehydes in the breast and leg meat increased with progressive increase in the time period. The deposition of α-tocopherol (AT) and α-lipoic acid (ALA) contents were found to be higher in the broilers fed on wheat germ oil plus α-lipoic acid in breast and leg meat during the both experimental years. Conclusion In conclusion, the combination of wheat germ oil and α-lipoic acid has more beneficial for stability and the quality of the broiler meat and more work should be needed in future for the bio

  2. Growth and antioxidant system under drought stress in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. as sustained by salicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Sarma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major factors limiting chickpea production in arid and semi arid regions. There is meagre information available regarding genotypic variation for drought tolerance in chickpea genotypes. Present investigation was carried out to find out the influence of salicylic acid (SA on drought tolerance in four chickpea genotypes. Reduction in relative injury was observed in plants treated with SA @1.5 mM as compared to control seedlings. Relationship between relative water content (RWC, membrane permeability (MP, ascorbic acid (AsA, proline, lipid peroxidation (LPO, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POX, superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX was determined in order to find out whether these parameters can be used as selection criteria for drought tolerance in this crop. Results indicate wide variation in tolerance to drought stress amongst chickpea cultivars at both the critical stages i.e. pre- and post-anthesis. On the basis of growth and antioxidant activity better genotypes Tyson and ICC-4958 appear to be adapted to drought stress tolerance. Early drought stress (pre-anthesis drought was found to be more damaging than the late drought stress (post- anthesis drought.

  3. An evidence of C16 fatty acid methyl esters extracted from microalga for effective antimicrobial and antioxidant property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodbasha, MubarakAli; Edachery, Baldev; Nooruddin, Thajuddin; Lee, Sang-Yul; Kim, Jung-Wan

    2018-02-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) derived from lipids of microalgae is known to have wide bio-functional materials including antimicrobials. FAME is an ideal super-curator and superior anti-pathogenic. The present study evaluated the efficiency of FAME extracted from microalgae Scenedesmus intermedius as an antimicrobial agent against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Bacillus cereus) Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria and Fungi (Aspergillus parasiticus and Candida albicans). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the gram negative bacteria was determined as 12-24 μg mL -1 , whereas MIC for gram positive bacteria was 24-48 μg mL -1 . MIC for the fungi was as high as 60-192 μg mL -1 . The FAME profiles determined by gas chromatography showed 18 methyl esters. Among them, pharmacologically active FAME such as palmitic acid methyl ester (C16:0) was detected at high percentage (23.08%), which accounted for the bioactivity. FAME obtained in this study exhibited a strong antimicrobial activity at the lowest MIC than those of recent reports. This result clearly indicated that FAME of S. intermedius has a strong antimicrobial and antioxidant property and that could be used as an effective resource against microbial diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants and rosmarinic acid from perilla leaves using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Zhen LI

    Full Text Available Abstract Response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of functional components from perilla leaves. The factors investigated were ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time. The results revealed that ethanol concentration had significant effects on all extraction parameters. Based on the RSM results, the optimal conditions were an ethanol concentration of 56%, a UAE temperature of 54 °C, and a UAE time of 55 min. Under these conditions, the experimental TPC (total phenolic content, RA (rosmarinic acid, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl values were 48.85 mg GAE/g DW (mg gallic acid equivalent /g of dry weight, 31.02 mg/g DW, 85.55 μmol Fe2+/g DW and 73.35%, respectively. The experimental values were in agreement with those predicted by RSM models, confirming suitability of the model employed and the success of RSM for optimization of the extraction conditions.

  5. Effects of indole-3-acetic acid on arsenic uptake and antioxidative enzymes in Pteris cretica var. nervosa and Pteris ensiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shujuan; Hu, Yongjun; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Haijuan; Li, Qinchun

    2017-03-04

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on arsenic (As) uptake and antioxidative enzymes in fronds of Pteris cretica var. nervosa (As hyperaccumulator) and Pteris ensiformis (non-hyperaccumulator). Plants were exposed to 2 mg L -1 As(III), As(V) or dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and IAA concentrations for 14 d. The biomass and total As in the plants significantly increased at 30 mg L -1 IAA. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities significantly increased with IAA addition. Catalase (CAT) activities showed a significant increase in P. ensiformis exposed to three As species at 30 or 50 mg L -1 IAA but varied in P. cretica var. nervosa. Peroxidase (POD) activities were unchanged in P. ensiformis except for a significant decrease at 50 mg L -1 IAA under As(III) treatment. However, a significant increase was observed in P. cretica var. nervosa at 10 mg L -1 IAA under As(III) or DMA treatment and at 50 mg L -1 IAA under As(V) treatment. Under DMA stress, malondialdehyde contents in fronds of P. cretica var. nervosa showed a significant decrease at 10 mg L -1 IAA but remained unchanged in P. ensiformis. Therefore, IAA enhanced As uptake and frond POD activity in P. cretica var. nervosa under As stress.

  6. Optimal germination condition impacts on the antioxidant activity and phenolic acids profile in pigmented desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Arispuro, D M; Cuevas-Rodríguez, E O; Milán-Carrillo, J; León-López, L; Gutiérrez-Dorado, R; Reyes-Moreno, C

    2018-02-01

    Legume sprouts are considered natural, healthy products that provide a source of bioactive compounds to fight against chronic diseases. This study aims to identify the optimal germination temperature (GT) and germination time (Gt) to maximize total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC, FC), and antioxidant activity (AoxA) of desi chickpea. Response surface methodology was used as an optimization tool. An experimental design with two factors (GT and Gt) and five levels was used (13 treatments). The sprouts from each treatment were lyophilized, tempered, and milled to obtain germinated chickpea flours (GCF). To predict the phytochemicals composition and AoxA in GCF, regression models were developed. Maximum TPC, FC, and AoxA were attained during germination 33.7 °C for 171 h. Optimized germinated chickpea flour produced applying the optimal germination conditions resulted in an increase of protein and total dietary fibre content, TPC, FC, phenolic acids profile, and AoxA. Germination at optimal conditions also increased the level of coumaric, ferulic, synapic, ellagic, and syringic acids. This study demonstrated that germination carried out under optimal conditions enhanced the nutraceutical value of desi chickpea seeds.

  7. Cooking methods employing natural anti-oxidant food additives effectively reduced concentration of nephrotoxic and carcinogenic aristolochic acids in contaminated food grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Chan, Chi-Kong; Wong, Yee-Lam; Chan, K K Jason; Chan, Ho Wai; Chan, Wan

    2018-10-30

    Emerging evidence suggests that aristolochic acids (AA) produced naturally by a common weed Aristolochia clematitis in the cultivation fields is contaminating the food products in Balkan Peninsula and acting as the etiological agent in the development of Balkan endemic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the combined use of natural anti-oxidative "food additives" and different cooking methods to find a solution for the widespread contamination of AA in food products. The results indicated that the addition of healthy dietary supplements (such as cysteine, glutathione, ascorbic acid, citric acid and magnesium) during cooking, is a highly efficient method in lowering the concentration of AA in the final food products. Because previous observation indicated one of the toxicological mechanisms by which AA exert its toxicity is to induce oxidative stress in internal organs, it is anticipated that these added anti-oxidants will also help to attenuate the nephrotoxicity of AA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L. and ascorbic acid on antioxidant capacity and oxidative status in rabbit burgers after cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mancini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of turmeric powder and ascorbic acid on lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity in cooked rabbit burgers. The burgers were derived from 3 different formulations (C, control, with no additives; Tu with 3.5% of turmeric powder and AA with 0.1% of ascorbic acid and were stored at 4°C for 0 and 7 d and cooked. The lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS] and antioxidant capacity (2,2-azinobis-[3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] {ABTS}, 1,1-diphenyl-2-pircydrazyl [DPPH] and ferric reducing ability [FRAP] were evaluated. A significant interaction between storage time and formulation (P<0.001 was observed for DPPH, FRAP and TBARS in cooked burgers. At day 0 and day 7, the DPPH value was higher in Tu and AA compared to C burgers. At day 0, C showed a lower level of FRAP than the Tu and AA burgers. At day 7, the FRAP values tended to decrease but remained significantly higher in Tu and AA compared to C burgers. Lipid oxidation at day 0 in Tu and AA showed lower TBARS values compared to C burgers. The addition of 3.5% turmeric powder in rabbit burgers exerts an antioxidant effect during storage and it seems more effective in controlling lipid oxidation than ascorbic acid after cooking.

  9. Comparative analysis of caffeoylquinic acids and lignans in roots and seeds among various burdock (Arctium lappa) genotypes with high antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingyi; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Wong, Ricky Ngok Shun; Lee, Calvin Kai-Fai; Tang, Sydney Chi Wai; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing; Tong, Yao; Zhang, Yanbo

    2012-04-25

    Caffeoylquinic acids and lignans in the crude extracts of both roots and seeds from different burdock ( Arctium lappa L.) genotypes were simultaneously characterized and systematically compared by LC-MS and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-QIT-TOF MS), and their antioxidant activities were also investigated. A total of 14 lignans were identified in burdock seeds and 12 caffeoylquinic acids in burdock roots. High levels of caffeoylquinic acids were also detected in burdock seeds, but only trace amounts of lignans were found in burdock roots. Burdock seeds contained higher concentrations of lignans and caffeoylquinic acids than burdock roots. Quantitative analysis of caffeoylquinic acids and lignans in roots and seeds of various burdock genotypes was reported for the first time. Great variations in contents of both individual and total phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant activities were found among different genotypes. Burdock as a root vegetable or medicinal plants possessed considerably stronger antioxidant activity than common vegetables and fruits.

  10. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Pourashouri, Parastoo; Hajfathalian, Mona; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2018-03-01

    Common carp roe is a rich protein and oil source, which is usually discarded with no specific use. The aims of this study were to extract oil from the discarded roe and examine functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of defatted roe hydrolysates (CDRHs) at various degrees of hydrolysis (DH). Gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters revealed that common carp roe oil contained high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted roe yielded higher content of essential amino acids. CDRHs displayed higher solubility than untreated defatted roe, which increased with DH. Better emulsifying and foaming properties were observed at lower DH and non-isoelectric points. Furthermore, water and oil binding capacity decreased with DH. CDRHs exhibited antioxidant activity both in vitro and in 5% roe oil-in-water emulsions and inhibited the growth of certain bacterial strains. Common carp roe could be a promising source of unsaturated fatty acids and functional bioactive agents. Unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil extracted from common carp roe can be delivered into food systems by roe oil-in-water emulsions fortified by functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial hydrolysates from the defatted roe. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Jasmonic acid Modulates the Physio-Biochemical Attributes, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Gene Expression in Glycine max under Nickel Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetika eSirhindi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study, we evaluated the effects of Jasmonic acid (JA on physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression in soybean (Glycine max L. plants subjected to nickel (Ni stress. Ni stress decreases the shoot and root length and chlorophyll content by 37.23%, 38.31% and 39.21% respectively over the control. However, application of JA was found to improve the chlorophyll content and growth of Ni-stressed seedlings in terms of root and shoot length. Plants supplemented with Jasmonate restores the chlorophyll fluorescence, which was disturbed by Ni stress. The present study demonstrated increase in proline, glycinebetaine, total protein and total soluble sugar (TSS by 33.09%, 51.26%, 22.58% and 49.15% respectively under Ni toxicity as compared to control. Supplementation of JA to Ni stressed plants further enhanced the above parameters. Ni stress increases hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 by 68.49%, lipid peroxidation (MDA by 50.57% and NADPH oxidase by 50.92% over the control. Supplementation of JA minimizes the accumulation of H2O2, MDA and NADPH oxidase, which helps in stabilization of biomolecules. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX increases by 40.04%, 28.22%, 48.53% and 56.79% respectively over the control in Ni treated seedlings and further enhancement in the antioxidant activity was observed by the application of JA. Ni treated soybean seedlings showed increase in expression of Fe-SOD by 77.62%, CAT by 15.25%, POD by 58.33% and APX by 80.58% over the control. Nevertheless, application of JA further enhanced the expression of the above genes in the present study. Our results signified that Ni stress caused negative impacts on soybean seedlings, but, co-application of JA facilitate the seedlings to combat the detrimental effects of Ni through enhanced osmolytes and osmoprotectants, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression.

  12. The Antioxidant Effect of Rosmarinic Acid by Different Delivery Routes in the Animal Model of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetoni, Anna R; Eramo, Sara Letizia Maria; Di Pino, Antonella; Rolesi, Rolando; Paciello, Fabiola; Grassi, Claudio; Troiani, Diana; Paludetti, Gaetano

    2018-03-01

    Trans-tympanic Rosmarinic Acid (RA), as compared with the systemic administration, protects against noise-induced auditory hair cell and hearing losses in rats in vivo. ROS production, lipoperoxidative damage, and an imbalance of antioxidant defences play a significant role in noise-induced hearing loss. Several molecules with antioxidant properties have been tested to restore redox homeostasis; however, drug delivery system represents a challenge for their effectiveness. In our model, acute and intense noise exposure induces hearing loss, hair cell death, and oxidative stress, with an increase in superoxide production and over-expression of lipid peroxidation in cochlear structures. RA was administrated in male Wistar rats by trans-tympanic (20 μl) and systemic (10 mg/kg) modality. In systemic administration, RA was injected 1 hour before noise exposure and once daily for the following 3 days. ABRs were measured before and at days 1, 3, 7, and 30 after noise exposure. Rhodamine-phalloidin staining, dihydroethidium and 8-isoprostane immunostainings were performed to assess and quantify outer hair cells loss, superoxide production, and lipid peroxidation in the different experimental groups. Systemic RA administration significantly decreased noise-induced hearing loss and the improvement of auditory function was paralleled by a significant reduction in cochlear oxidative stress. The trans-tympanic modality of drug administration showed a similar degree of protection both at the functional and morphological levels. The effectiveness of RA given via trans-tympanic injection could be interesting for the future application of this minimally-invasive procedure in the treatment of ROS-induced hearing loss.

  13. Citric acid enhanced the antioxidant defense system and chromium uptake by Lemna minor L. grown in hydroponics under Cr stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallah-Ud-Din, Rasham; Farid, Mujahid; Saeed, Rashid; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Tauqeer, Hafiz Muhammad; Bukhari, Syed Asad Hussain

    2017-07-01

    Phytoextraction is a cost-effective and eco-friendly technique for the removal of pollutants, mainly heavy metal(loids) especially from polluted water and metal-contaminated soils. The phytoextraction of heavy metals is, in general, limited due to the low availability of heavy metals in the growth medium. Organic chelators can help to improve the phytoextraction by increasing metal mobility and solubility in the growth medium. The present research was carried out to examine the possibility of citric acid (CA) in improving chromium (Cr) phytoextraction by Lemna minor (duckweed). For this purpose, healthy plants were collected from nearby marsh and grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. Initial metal contents of both marsh water and plant were measured along with physico-chemical properties of the marsh water. Different concentrations of Cr and CA were applied in the hydroponics in different combinations after defined intervals. Continuous aeration was supplied and pH maintained at 6.5 ± 0.1. Results showed that increasing concentration of Cr significantly decreased the plant biomass, photosynthetic pigments, leaf area, and antioxidant enzyme activities (like catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase). Furthermore, Cr stress increased the Cr concentrations, electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde contents in plants. The addition of CA alleviated the Cr-induced toxicity in plants and further enhanced the Cr uptake and its accumulation in L. minor. The addition of CA enhanced the Cr concentration in L. minor by 6.10, 26.5, 20.5, and 20.2% at 0, 10, 100, and 200 μM Cr treatments, respectively, compared to the respective Cr treatments without CA. Overall, the results of the present study showed that CA addition may enhance the Cr accumulation and tolerance in L. minor by enhancing the plant growth and activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  14. Prophylactic Antioxidant Potential of Gallic Acid in Murine Model of Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Maurya, Harikesh; Mangal, Vaishali; Gandhi, Sanjay; Prabhu, Kathiresan; Ponnudurai, Kathiresan

    2014-01-01

    Present study is to investigate the effect of Gallic acid pretreatment on survival of septic animals and oxidative stress in different organs like lungs, liver, kidney, spleen, and vascular dysfunction of mice. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in healthy adult male albino mice (25–30 g) and was divided into 3 groups each consisting of 6 animals, that is, sham-operated (SO group (Group I), SO + sepsis (Group II), and Gallic acid + sepsis (Group III)). Group III animals w...

  15. Long-chain omega 3 fatty acids: molecular bases of potential antioxidant actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Elena; Visioli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of investigation are being developed to assess the impact of polyunsaturated fatty acids, namely those of the omega 3 series, intake on oxidative stress. Keeping in mind that there might be a dose-response relation, in vivo and in vitro data strongly suggest that omega 3 fatty acids might act as anti- rather than pro-oxidant in several cells such as vascular cells, hence diminishing inflammation, oxidative stress, and, in turn, the risk of atherosclerosis and degenerative disorders such as cardiovascular disease. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Effects of roasting temperature and duration on fatty acid composition, phenolic composition, Maillard reaction degree and antioxidant attribute of almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jau-Tien; Liu, Shih-Chun; Hu, Chao-Chin; Shyu, Yung-Shin; Hsu, Chia-Ying; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2016-01-01

    Roasting treatment increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, oleic and elaidic acids) as well as saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids) in almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel oils with temperature (150 or 180 °C) and duration (5, 10 or 20 min). Nonetheless, higher temperature (200 °C) and longer duration (10 or 20 min) roasting might result in breakdown of fatty acids especially for unsaturated fatty acids. Phenolic components (total phenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins and phenolic acids) of almond kernels substantially lost in the initial phase; afterward these components gradually increased with roasting temperature and duration. Similar results also observed for their antioxidant activities (scavenging DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals and ferric reducing power). The changes of phenolic acid and flavonoid compositions were also determined by HPLC. Maillard reaction products (estimated with non-enzymatic browning index) also increased with roasting temperature and duration; they might also contribute to enhancing the antioxidant attributes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phenolic acids significantly contribute to antioxidant potency of Gynostemma pentaphyllum aqueous and methanol extracts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samec, D.; Valek-Zulj, L.; Martinez, S.; Grúz, Jiří; Piljac, A.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 84, JUN (2016), s. 104-107 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Gynostemma pentaphyllum * Phenolic acids * Mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.181, year: 2016

  18. Ascorbic acid improves the antioxidant activity of European grape juices by improving the juices' ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of human LDL in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    . Red grape juice concentrate inhibited lipid peroxidation of LDL by prolonging the lag phase by 2.7 times relative to a control when evaluated at a total phenolic concentration of 10 muM gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Both red grape juices tested blocked lipid peroxidation of LDL at 20 muM GAE. White.......96, P acid alone did not exert antioxidant activity towards LDL, but combinations of 5 muM ascorbic acid with 5 muM GAE juice phenols eliminated the prooxidant activity of white grape juice, and significantly...

  19. Comparisons of amino acids, body constituents and antioxidative response between long-time HD and normal HD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torigoe, Akira; Sato, Emiko; Mori, Takefumi; Ieiri, Norio; Takahashi, Chika; Ishida, Yoko; Hotta, Osamu; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Oxidative stress is one of the main mediators of progression of chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the transcription factor of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes and related proteins which play an important role in cellular defense. Long-time hemodialysis (HD) therapy (8 hours) has been considered to be more beneficial compared to normal HD therapy (4 hours). We investigated oxidative response related to Nrf2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of long-time HD and normal HD patients. Methods Eight adult long-time HD therapy patients (44.5 ± 3.0 years) and 10 normal HD therapy patients (68.1 ± 2.7 years) were enrolled. PBMCs were isolated and processed for expression of Nrf2 and its related genes by qRT-PCR. Plasma indoxyl sulfate, amino acids, and body constituents were measured. Findings Plasma indoxyl sulfate was significantly low after long-time HD therapy compare to that of normal HD therapy. Although, skeletal muscle mass, lean body mass, mineral and protein were significantly decreased 2 months in normal HD patients, those in long-time HD patients were significantly increased after 2 months. Almost of amino acids were significantly decreased after HD therapy in both HD therapies. Plasma amino acids were significantly low in long-time HD patients compared to normal HD patients. In PBMCs, the expression of Nrf2 was significantly decreased and hemooxygenase-1 expression was significantly increased in long-time HD compared to normal HD. Conclusion These observations indicate the beneficial effects of in long-time HD in improving oxidative stress in patients. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  20. Diabetic nephropathy and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavafi, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress has crucial role in pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Despite satisfactory results from antioxidant therapy in rodent, antioxidant therapy showed conflicting results in combat with DN in diabetic patients. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar,Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. Treatment of DN in human are insufficient with rennin angiotensin system (RAS) blockers, so additional agent ought to combine with this management. Meanwhile based on DN pathogenesis and evidences in experimental and human researches, the antioxidants are the best candidate. New multi-property antioxidants may be improved human DN that show high power antioxidant capacity, long half-life time, high permeability to mitochondrion, improve body antioxidants enzymes activity and anti-inflammatory effects. Based on this review and our studies on diabetic rats, rosmarinic acid a multi-property antioxidant may be useful in DN patients, but of course, needs to be proven in clinical trials studies.

  1. Hypochlorous acid-mediated oxidation of lipid components and antioxidants present in low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pattison, David I; Hawkins, Clare Louise; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is believed to contribute to the increased uptake of LDL by macrophages, which is an early event in atherosclerosis. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) has been implicated as one of the major oxidants involved in these processes. In a previous study, the rates...... of reaction of HOCl with the reactive sites in proteins were investigated (Pattison, D. I., and Davies, M. J. (2001) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 14, 1453-1464). The work presented here expands on those studies to determine absolute second-order rate constants for the reactions of HOCl with various lipid components...... nitrogen- and carbon-centered radicals. Subsequent reactions of these species may induce oxidation of the LDL lipid component. In contrast, phosphoryl-choline reacted much more slowly (k Reaction of HOCl with 3-pentenoic acid was used as a model of lipid double bonds...

  2. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids and Their Derivatives as Natural Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Naoki Wada; Toshio Sakamoto; Seiichi Matsugo

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are water-soluble molecules that absorb UV-A and UV-B radiation and disperse the energy as heat. MAAs show great diversity in their molecular structures, which exhibit a range of molecular weights spanning 188 to 1050 Daltons. MAAs are utilized in a wide variety of organisms including prokaryotes and eukaryotic micro-organisms that inhabit aquatic, terrestrial, and marine environments. These features suggest that MAAs are stable and fundamental molecules th...

  3. Identification, determination, and study of antioxidative activities of hesperetin and gallic acid in hydro-alcoholic extract from flowers of Eriobotrya japonica (Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Esmaeili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Eriobotrya japonica belongs to the Rosaceae. Studies have shown that the flowers of this plant are rich in phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Accorrdingly, the evaluation of antioxidative effects of Eriobotrya japonica Flower Extract (EJFE have been performed in vitro. Material and Methods: In this study, to investigate the influences of components of EJFE on its antioxidative activity, extract was prepared using hydro-alcoholic (25:75 V/V solvent and the antioxidative activity of the extract was evaluated based on the scavenging of various radicals (DPPH and H2O2 by spectrophotometric method and chelating of ferrous ions by ferrozine reagent. Results: HPLC analysis of the Eriobotrya japonica Flower Extract (EJFE revealed hesperetin and gallic acid as the major antioxidants. When the content of total flavonoid and polyphenolic compounds in the flower extract of this plant was examined, a significantly higher level of total polyphenols was found in Eriobotrya japonica flower extract. Conclusion: Results demonstrate that the high ability to scavenge free radicals, reducing power, and Fe+2chelating activity exerted by the EJFE were due to the high content of hesperetin and gallic acid in the flowers.

  4. Effect of Antioxidants, Amino Acids and Plant Growth Regulators on in vitro Propagation of Rosa centifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Gulzar; Jaskani, Muhammad Jafar; Sajjad, Yasar; Akram, Ahsan

    2016-03-01

    Rosa centifoliais commercially propagated by asexual means but in vitro propagation ensure the production of disease free and healthy plants and browning of explants creates hurdle in their multiplication. The aim was to reduce oxidative browning of shoots of R. centifolia in MS medium during in vitro propagation. Axillary buds of R. centifolia were sterilized with 70% ethyl alcohol for 4 min and 5% sodium hypochlorite for 2 min followed by three washing with sterilized double distilled water. In order to control oxidative browning, Ascorbic acid (100 mg.L -1 ), citric acid (100 mg.L -1 ) and activated charcoal (3 g.L -1 ) were used while to control withering of shoots, different concentrations (3.0 mg.L -1 , 6.0 mg.L -1 , 9.0 mg.L -1 ) of either glutamine, asparagine and proline were put into trial. Different concentrations of Benzyl aminopurine (BAP) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) were used for in vitro shoot and root formation. Minimum browning percentage (20%) was achieved in the presence of activated charcoal (3.0 g.L -1 ) and pretreatment of explants with running tap water. Asparagin (9.0 mg.L -1 ) produced maximum shooting (93%), minimum withering (6.67%), and it took longer period (27 days) for shoots to wither. BAP (3.0 mg.L -1 ) + NAA (0.5 mg.L -1 ) was produced the highest number of shoots (1.63), in a shortest periods (9 days). For root production, NAA (1.5 mg.L -1 ) + BAP (0.5 mg.L -1 ) reduced the time to 11 days with maximum number of roots (4.33) and root length (4.20 cm). The supplement of activated charcoal (3.0 g.L -1 ), a sparagin (9.0 mg.L -1 ) and combination of BAP and NAA in the MS medium is effective for in vitro propagation of R. centifolia.

  5. Protective effect of Bauhinia tomentosa on acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis by regulating antioxidant and inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Narayanan; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekharan

    2013-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis (UC), are life-long and recurrent disorders of the gastrointestinal tract with unknown etiology. The present study is designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of Bauhinia tomentosa during ulcerative colitis (UC). Three groups of animals (n=6) were treated with B. tomentosa (5, 10, 20 mg/kg B.wt respectively) for 5 consecutive days before induction of UC. UC was induced by intracolonic injection of 3% acetic acid. The colonic mucosal injury was assessed by macroscopic scoring and histological examination. Furthermore, the mucosal content of lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity confirms that B. tomentosa could significantly inhibit colitis in a dose dependent manner. The myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression studies and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay also supported that B. tomentosa could significantly inhibit experimental colitis. The effect was comparable to the standard drug sulfasalazine. Colonic mucosal injury parallels with the result of histological and biochemical evaluations. The extracts obtained from B. tomentosa possess active substances, which exert marked protective effects in acute experimental colitis, possibly by regulating the antioxidant and inflammatory mediators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microwave-assisted extraction of silkworm pupal oil and evaluation of its fatty acid composition, physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Li, Cheng; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Qing; Zhu, Yadong; Su, Zhao; Chen, Yizi

    2017-09-15

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of oil from silkworm pupae was firstly performed in the present research. The response surface methodology was applied to optimize the parameters for MAE. The yield of oil by MAE was 30.16% under optimal conditions of a mixed solvent consisting of ethanol and n-hexane (1:1, v/v), microwave power (360W), liquid to solid ratio (7.5/1mL/g), microwave time (29min). Moreover, oil extracted by MAE was quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (fatty acid profile) similar to those obtained using Soxhlet extraction (SE), but oil extracted by MAE exhibited favourable physicochemical properties and oxidation stability. Additionally, oil extracted by MAE had a higher content of total phenolic, and it showed stronger antioxidant activities. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that microwave technique efficiently promoted the release of oil by breaking down the cell structure of silkworm pupae. Therefore, MAE can be an effective method for the silkworm pupal oil extraction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuroprotective role of antioxidant and pyranocarboxylic acid derivative against AlCl3 induced Alzheimer’s disease in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjeet Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess potential of quercetin and etodolac to treat oxidative stress in neuronal death and inflammation in Alzheimer’s disease of AlCl3 induced rat models. All results of this AlCl3 model are compared with those obtained in controls. Methods: Wistar rats, housed in a controlled environment were treated with aluminum chloride (4.2 mg/kg of body weight, i.p. for 28 d rather than oral to ensure neurotoxic concentration in hippocampus and hypothalamic region, part highly active in memory control and cognition, while control group was injected with saline. Estimation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and acetylcholine levels gave estimation of neuronal damage. Low (20 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg and high (40 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg doses of quercetin and etodolac were administered to the test groups respectively. Histopathology study was conducted to perform relative study. Results: Co-administration of quercetin and etodolac either alone or in combination prevented the changes in biochemical markers of Alzheimer’s disease, but significant results (P<0.05 were seen when a combination of two was administered at low dose levels. Good correlation was developed between chemical estimations and histopathology study. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a combined role of anti-oxidant and cyclooxygenase inhibitor in protection of neural degeneration and inflammation due to oxidative stress.

  8. Antioxidant effect of erdosteine and lipoic acid in ovarian ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuyucu, R; Karateke, A; Gokce, H; Kurt, R K; Ozcan, O; Ozturk, S; Tas, Z A; Karateke, F; Duru, M

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effects of erdosteine and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) in a rat model of ovarian ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Forty-eight female Wistar albino rats were separated, at random, into six groups of eight rats. The groups were classified as: sham, torsion, detorsion, detorsion+erdosteine 100mg/kg, detorsion+alpha lipoic acid (ALA) 100mg/kg, and detorsion+erdosteine+ALA. The investigators executing the biochemical and histological analyses were blinded to the randomization until the end of the study. The TOS (Total Oxidant Status) and OSI (Oxidative Stress Index) levels are higher in the Torsion and Detorsion groups when compared with the ones in the Sham group (pOSI and total histological score in the sham, torsion and detorsion groups (r=0.765, pOSI in the rats that received erdosteine and/or ALA were significantly lower compared with the sham, torsion and detorsion groups (pOSI were lower in the detorsion+erdosteine+ALA group compared with the detorsion+erdosteine and detorsion+ALA groups (pmodel; combination treatment had a greater effect than either agent alone. Treatment with erdosteine and/or ALA was found to preserve the loss of reproductive capacity normally observed after ovarian torsion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. HPLC PROFILING OF PHENOLIC ACIDS AND FLAVONOIDS AND EVALUATION OF ANTI-LIPOXYGENASE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF AQUATIC VEGETABLE LIMNOCHARIS FLAVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooh, Keng-fei; Ong, Hean-Chooi; Wong, Fai-Chu; Chai, Tsun-Thai

    2015-01-01

    Limnocharis flava is an edible wetland plant, whose phenolic acid and flavonoid compositions as well as bioactivities were underexplored. This study analyzed the profiles of selected hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids in the aqueous extracts of L. flava leaf, rhizome and root by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Anti-lipoxygenase and antioxidant (iron chelating, 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging) activities of the extracts were also evaluated. Leaf extract had the highest phenolic contents, being most abundant in p-hydroxybenzoic acid (3861.2 nmol/g dry matter), ferulic acid (648.8 nmol/g dry matter), and rutin (4110.7 nmol/g dry matter). Leaf extract exhibited the strongest anti-lipoxygenase (EC50 6.47 mg/mL), iron chelating (EC50 6.65 mg/mL), DPPH scavenging (EC50 15.82 mg/mL) and NO scavenging (EC50 3.80 mg/mL) activities. Leaf extract also had the highest ferric reducing ability. This is the most extensive HPLC profiling of phenolic acids and flavonoids in L.flava to date. In conclusion, L. flava leaf is a source of health-promoting phenolics, anti-lipoxygenase agents and antioxidants.

  10. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) production, antioxidant activity in some germinated dietary seeds and the effect of cooking on their GABA content

    OpenAIRE

    TIANSAWANG,Kasarin; LUANGPITUKSA,Pairoj; VARANYANOND,Warunee; HANSAWASDI,Chanida

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Germinated grains have been known as sources of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that provide beneficial effects for human health. This study was aimed to investigate GABA production, dietary fiber, antioxidant activity, and the effect of cooking on GABA loss in germinated legumes and sesame. The highest GABA content was found in germinated mung bean, (0.8068 g kg-1, 24 h incubation) followed by germinated soybean, germinated black bean and soaked sesame. Beside GABA, dietary fiber con...

  11. Patients undergoing long-term treatment with antihypertensive eye drops responded positively with respect to their ocular surface disorder to oral supplementation with antioxidants and essential fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbis-Estrada, Carmen; Pinazo-Durán, Maria D; Cantú-Dibildox, Jorge; Marco-Ramírez, Carla; Díaz-Llópis, Manuel; Benítez-del-Castillo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma and dry eye disorders (DEDs) are frequent comorbidities. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied in relation to eye diseases. Our objective was to determine the effects of oral supplementation with a combined formulation of antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids on expression of cytokines and chemokines in tears from patients with DEDs or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Participants (n = 97) were distributed into three groups: (1) individuals with nonsevere DEDs (DEDG), (2) individuals with nonadvanced POAG (POAGG), and (3) healthy controls. These groups were randomized into two subgroups: one received a daily antioxidant and essential polyunsaturated fatty acid supplement (two pills) for 3 months (+S), and the other did not (-NS). Participants were interviewed and ophthalmologically examined. Concentrations of specific cytokines and chemokines in reflex tears were determined by multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry. The data were analyzed statistically (SPSS version 15.0). Comparison of the results from the DEDG and POAGG patients showed significant differences in tear expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (P = 0.008), tumor necrosis factor α (P = 0.005), vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.038), interleukin-4 (P = 0.030), and interleukin-6 (P = 0.044). The main signs and symptoms of dry eyes such as dryness, burning, photophobia, eye heaviness, and blurred vision, as well as positive changes in eyelashes, hair, nails and skin, were significantly improved in DEDG +S and POAGG +S patients relative to unsupplemented patients. Inflammation biomarkers were differentially expressed in glaucomatous tears, but the differences changed upon antioxidant/essential polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation. Chronic instillation of antihypertensive eye drops must be considered for integrating protocols to glaucoma standards of care.

  12. Lactic Acid Fermentation of Cactus Cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) Generates Flavonoid Derivatives with Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Filannino, Pasquale; Cavoski, Ivana; Thlien, Nadia; Vincentini, Olimpia; De Angelis, Maria; Silano, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) is widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In the last decades, the interest towards vegetative crop increased, and cladodes are exploited for nutraceutical and health-promoting properties. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to increase the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of cactus cladodes pulp, with the perspective of producing a functional ingredient, dietary s...

  13. Chemical composition, fatty acid content and antioxidant potential of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves, sunflower cake and grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qwele, K; Hugo, A; Oyedemi, S O; Moyo, B; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2013-03-01

    The present study determined the chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) content and antioxidant capacity of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) or sunflower cake (SC) or grass hay (GH). The meat from goat supplemented with MOL had higher concentrations of total phenolic content (10.62±0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent E/g). The MOL significantly scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS) radical to 93.51±0.19% (93.51±0.19%) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical to 58.95±0.3% than other supplements. The antioxidative effect of MOL supplemented meat on catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid oxidation (LO) was significantly (Pmeat from goat feed on grass hay or those supplemented with sunflower seed cake. The present study indicated that the anti-oxidative potential of MOL may play a role in improving meat quality (chemical composition, colour and lipid stability). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantification of the antioxidant 3, 4, 5,-Trihydroxybenzoic acid in radioprotective drug SBL-1 and its modifying effects on radiation induced changes in renal oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Manu; Madhu Bala

    2013-01-01

    Development of radioprotective drug is international challenge and till date no radioprotective agent has been approved for human use. Leaf extract of Hippophae rhamnoides, code name SBL-1, was demonstrated to have significant radioprotective properties. Antioxidant properties have contributed significantly to radiation protection potential of many herbs. In this study we have developed simple, sensitive, reliable, rapid and validated HPTLC protocol, for quantification of a major antioxidant 3, 4, 5,-Trihydroxybenzoic acid (Gallic acid ethyl ester) in SBL-1 and also studied the effect of treatment of mice with SBL-1 before total body irradiation (10 Gy, lethal dose) on renal anti-oxidant enzymes. Separation was carried out on silica gel 60F 254 pre-coated TLC aluminum plates, while allowing linear ascending development in twin trough glass chamber, saturated with suitably designed mobile phase. Densitometric detection of Gallic acid was at 280 nm. The protocol produced a discrete band where retention factor was 0.58; correlation coefficient for linear relationship between concentrations and peak areas was 0.9999; detection limits was 25 ng; limits of quantification was 50 ng and percentage recovery was 98.76. Administration of SBL-1 to mice before total body irradiation with lethal dose of low LET 60 Co-gamma rays (10 Gy), resulted in significant countering of the radiation induced disturbances in the levels of Glutathione S-Transferase (GST), Catalase and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) in kidney. This study elucidated an important mechanism of protection to kidney in total body lethally irradiated mice. (author)

  15. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Activity, Antioxidant Properties, Phenolic Content and Amino Acid Profiles of Fucus spiralis L. Protein Hydrolysate Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete Paiva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food protein-derived hydrolysates with multi-bioactivities such as antihypertensive and antioxidant properties have recently received special attention since both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. This study reports, for the first time, the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-inhibition and antioxidant properties of ultrafiltrate fractions (UF with different molecular weight ranges (<1, 1–3 and ≥3 kDa obtained from Fucus spiralis protein hydrolysate (FSPH digested with cellulase–bromelain. The amino acids profile, recovery yield, protein, peptide and total phenolic contents of these FSPH-UF, and the in vitro digestibility of F. spiralis crude protein were also investigated. FSPH-UF ≥3 kDa presented remarkably higher ACE-inhibition, yield, peptide and polyphenolic (phlorotannins contents. Antioxidant analysis showed that FSPH-UF <1 kDa and ≥3 kDa exhibited significantly higher scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC activity. FSPH-UF ≥3 kDa had also notably higher ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. Strong correlations were observed between ACE-inhibition and antioxidant activities (FIC and FRAP. The results suggest that ACE-inhibition and antioxidant properties of FSPH-UF may be due to the bioactive peptides and polyphenols released during the enzymatic hydrolysis. In conclusion, this study shows the potential use of defined size FSPH-UF for the prevention/treatment of hypertension and/or oxidative stress-related diseases.

  16. Total phenolics, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant properties of fresh-cut mango (Mangifera indica L., cv. Tommy Atkin) as affected by infrared heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogi, D S; Siddiq, M; Roidoung, S; Dolan, K D

    2012-11-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a major tropical fruit that has not been exploited for fresh-cut or minimally processed products on a scale similar to apples, pineapples, or melons. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of infrared (IR) treatment on total phenolics, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant properties of fresh-cut cubes from 'Tommy Atkin' mangoes. Mango cubes were IR treated (5, 10, 15 min) and evaluated at 4-d intervals during 16-d storage at 4 ± 1 °C. Total phenolics, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid content in fresh-cut control mango cubes were 43.33, 1.37, and 15.97 mg/100 g FW, respectively. IR treatments increased total phenolics (59.23 to 71.16 mg/100 g FW) and decreased ascorbic acid (12.14 to 15.38 mg/100 g, FW). Total carotenoids showed a mixed trend (1.13 to 1.66 mg/100 g, FW). The IR treatment showed a significant positive impact on antioxidant properties (μM TE/100 g, FW) of mango cubes, as assayed by ABTS (261.5 compared with 338.0 to 416.4), DPPH (270.5 compared with 289.4 to 360.5), and ORAC (6686 compared with 8450 to 12230). Total phenolics, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant capacity decreased over 16-d storage. However, IR treated samples had consistently higher ABTS, DPPH, and total phenolics during storage. It was demonstrated that IR treatment can be effectively used in improving antioxidant properties of fresh-cut mangoes with minimal effect on the visual appearance. Various methods/treatments are in use for extending the quality of fresh-cut fruits, including mild heat treatment. This study explored the application of infrared (IR) heat for processing fresh-cut mango cubes and evaluated its effect on vitamin C and antioxidant capacity during 16-d storage. This is the first study reporting on the use of IR heat in fresh-cut fruits. IR treatment was shown to be effective in retaining antioxidant properties of fresh-cut mango cubes with minimal effect on the visual appearance. © 2012 Institute

  17. Chlorogenic acid loaded chitosan nanoparticles with sustained release property, retained antioxidant activity and enhanced bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaiyaraja Nallamuthu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, chlorogenic acid (CGA, a phenolic compound widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, was encapsulated into chitosan nanoparticles by ionic gelation method. The particles exhibited the size and zeta potential of 210 nm and 33 mV respectively. A regular, spherical shaped distribution of nanoparticles was observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the success of entrapment was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The encapsulation efficiency of CGA was at about 59% with the loading efficiency of 5.2%. In vitro ABTS assay indicated that the radical scavenging activity of CAG was retained in the nanostructure and further, the release kinetics study revealed the burst release of 69% CGA from nanoparticles at the end of 100th hours. Pharmacokinetic analysis in rats showed a lower level of Cmax, longer Tmax, longer MRT, larger AUC0–t and AUC0–∞ for the CGA nanoparticles compared to free CGA. Collectively, these results suggest that the synthesised nanoparticle with sustained release property can therefore ease the fortification of food-matrices targeted for health benefits through effective delivery of CGA in body.

  18. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E and 5-aminosalicylic acid on acrylamide induced kidney injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeh, Nisreen A.; Al-Dhaheri, Najlaa M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore renal toxicity caused by sub-acute exposure of acrylamide and to study the protective effect of 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and Vitamin E (vit-E)on Acrylamide (ACR) induced renal toxicity. Methods: This study was conducted at King Fahad Medical Research Centre, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between August and November 2015. A total of 49 adult Wistar rats (250 ± 20g) aged 60 days were kept in a controlled environment and used in the present study. The rats were divided into 7 groups (control, ACR alone, ACR+5-ASA, ACR+vit-E, ACR+ASA+vit-E, vit-E alone, and ASA alone). After 5 days of ACR oral gavage treatment, the rats were observed for 24 hours then killed. Histopathology for the kidney and lactate dehydrogenase assay were carried out. Results: Acrylamide produced significant pathological changes in the kidney with acute tubular necrosis in the distal tubules that could be reversed by concomitant injection of rat with 5-ASA. Together with vitamin E, 5-ASA, showed maximum renal protection. No statistically significant difference was observed in either body weights or lactate dehydrogenase activity of ACR treated rats. Conclusion: Acrylamide exposure leads to adverse clinical pathologies of renal tubules, which were reversed by a concomitant treatment with 5-ASA and vitamin-E PMID:28133684

  19. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E and 5-aminosalicylic acid on acrylamide induced kidney injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen A. Rajeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available exposure of acrylamide and to study the protective effect of 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA and Vitamin E (vit-Eon Acrylamide (ACR induced renal toxicity. Methods: This study was conducted at King Fahad Medical Research Centre, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between August and November 2015. A total of 49 adult Wistar rats (250 ± 20g aged 60 days were kept in a controlled environment and used in the present study. The rats were divided into 7 groups (control, ACR alone, ACR+5-ASA, ACR+vit-E, ACR+ASA+vit-E, vit-E alone, and ASA alone. After 5 days of ACR oral gavage treatment, the rats were observed for 24 hours then killed. Histopathology for the kidney and lactate dehydrogenase assay were carried out. Results: Acrylamide produced significant pathological changes in the kidney with acute tubular necrosis in the distal tubules that could be reversed by concomitant injection of rat with 5-ASA. Together with vitamin E, 5-ASA, showed maximum renal protection. No statistically significant difference was observed in either body weights or lactate dehydrogenase activity of ACR treated rats. Conclusion: Acrylamide exposure leads to adverse clinical pathologies of renal tubules, which were reversed by a concomitant treatment with 5-ASA and vitamin-E

  20. Gallic Acid Content in Taiwanese Teas at Different Degrees of Fermentation and Its Antioxidant Activity by Inhibiting PKCδ Activation: In Vitro and in Silico Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongpichitchoke, Teeradate; Chiu, Ming-Tzu; Huang, Tzou-Chi; Hsu, Jue-Liang

    2016-10-12

    Teas can be classified according to their degree of fermentation, which has been reported to affect both the bioactive components in the teas and their antioxidative activity. In this study, four kinds of commercial Taiwanese tea at different degrees of fermentation, which include green (non-fermented), oolong (semi-fermented), black (fully fermented), and Pu-erh (post-fermented) tea, were profiled for catechin levels by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The result indicated that the gallic acid content in tea was directly proportional to the degree of fermentation in which the lowest and highest gallic acid content were 1.67 and 21.98 mg/g from green and Pu-erh tea, respectively. The antioxidative mechanism of the gallic acid was further determined by in vitro and in silico analyses. In vitro assays included the use of phorbol ester-induced macrophage RAW264.7 cell model for determining the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and PKCδ and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunit (p47) activations. The results showed that only at a concentration of 5.00 μM could gallic acid significantly ( p gallic acid could block PKCδ activation by occupying the phorbol ester binding sites of the protein.

  1. Cryopreservation of ram semen in extenders containing soybean lecithin as cryoprotectant and hyaluronic acid as antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, A; Najafi, M H; Zanganeh, Z; Sharafi, M; Martinez-Pastor, F; Adeldust, H

    2014-12-01

    A soybean lecithin-based extender supplemented with hyaluronic acid (HA) was assayed for effectiveness to improve the quality of frozen-thawed ram semen. HA has not been tested yet in an extender containing soybean lecithin for freezing ram semen. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse the effects of soybean lecithin at 1% or 1.5% along with HA at 0, 0.5 and 1 mg ml(-1) in a Tris-based extender on the motion characteristics, membrane integrity (HOST), viability, GSH peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity, lipid peroxidation and acrosomal status after freezing-thawing. Semen was collected from four Mehraban rams during the breeding season and frozen in the six lecithin×HA extenders. The extender containing 1.5% lecithin supplemented with no HA yielded higher total motility (52.5%±1.6), viability (55.8%±1.6) and membrane integrity (44.5%±1.7), but the effects of the lecithin concentration did not reach signification. Linearity-related parameters, ALH, BCF, lipid peroxidation, GSH-PX activity, morphology and acrosomal status were not affected by the extender composition. In general, adding HA significantly decreased sperm velocity (1 mg ml(-1) HA), total motility (only with 1.5% lecithin), viability (1 mg ml(-1) HA for 1% lecithin; both concentrations for 1.5% lecithin) and membrane integrity. In conclusion, adding HA to the freezing extender supplemented with soybean lecithin failed to improve quality-related variables in ram semen. Increasing the lecithin content could have a positive effect, but further studies are needed. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Patients undergoing long-term treatment with antihypertensive eye drops responded positively with respect to their ocular surface disorder to oral supplementation with antioxidants and essential fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbis-Estrada C

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carmen Galbis-Estrada,1,* Maria D Pinazo-Durán,1,* Jorge Cantú-Dibildox,2 Carla Marco-Ramírez,1 Manuel Díaz-Llópis,1,3 Javier Benítez-del-Castillo21Ophthalmic Research Unit Santiago Grisolia, Department of Surgery/Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital of Jerez, Jerez de la Frontera, Cádiz, Spain; 3University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Glaucoma and dry eye disorders (DEDs are frequent comorbidities. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied in relation to eye diseases.Objective: Our objective was to determine the effects of oral supplementation with a combined formulation of antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids on expression of cytokines and chemokines in tears from patients with DEDs or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG.Methods: Participants (n = 97 were distributed into three groups: (1 individuals with nonsevere DEDs (DEDG, (2 individuals with nonadvanced POAG (POAGG, and (3 healthy controls. These groups were randomized into two subgroups: one received a daily antioxidant and essential polyunsaturated fatty acid supplement (two pills for 3 months (+S, and the other did not (−NS. Participants were interviewed and ophthalmologically examined. Concentrations of specific cytokines and chemokines in reflex tears were determined by multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry. The data were analyzed statistically (SPSS version 15.0.Results: Comparison of the results from the DEDG and POAGG patients showed significant differences in tear expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (P = 0.008, tumor necrosis factor α (P = 0.005, vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.038, interleukin-4 (P = 0.030, and interleukin-6 (P = 0.044. The main signs and symptoms of dry eyes such

  3. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid has an anti-oxidant effect via the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, Chisato, E-mail: yosizaki@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Yang, Liu; Yoshizaki, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Ishikado, Atsushi; Kondo, Motoyuki; Morino, Katsutaro; Sekine, Osamu; Ugi, Satoshi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Nishio, Yoshihiko [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA has a direct anti-oxidant effect in adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPA and DHA induce HO-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA and its end-product, 4-HHE, activates the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA protects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Oxidative stress is produced in adipose tissue of obese subjects and has been associated with obesity-related disorders. Recent studies have shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ({omega}3-PUFA) has beneficial effects in preventing atherosclerotic diseases and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. However, the role of {omega}3-PUFA on adipocytes has not been elucidated. In this study, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with {omega}3-PUFA and its metabolites, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE). {omega}3-PUFA and its metabolites dose-dependently increased mRNA and protein levels of the anti-oxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1); whereas no changes in the well-known anti-oxidant molecules, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were observed. Knockdown of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) significantly reduced EPA, DHA or 4-HHE-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. Also, pretreatment with {omega}3-PUFA prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity in a HO-1 dependent manner. In conclusion, treatment with EPA and DHA induced HO-1 through the activation of Nrf-2 and prevented oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This anti-oxidant defense may be of high therapeutic value for clinical conditions associated with systemic oxidative stress.

  4. Post-Stroke Depression Modulation and in Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Gallic Acid and Its Synthetic Derivatives in a Murine Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Habtemariam, Solomon; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Sureda, Antoni; Khanjani, Sedigheh; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Daglia, Maria

    2016-04-28

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) is a plant secondary metabolite, which shows antioxidant activity and is commonly found in many plant-based foods and beverages. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress contributes to the development of many human chronic diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative pathologies, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cancer. GA and its derivative, methyl-3-O-methyl gallate (M3OMG), possess physiological and pharmacological activities closely related to their antioxidant properties. This paper describes the antidepressive-like effects of intraperitoneal administration of GA and two synthetic analogues, M3OMG and P3OMG (propyl-3-O-methylgallate), in balb/c mice with post-stroke depression, a secondary form of depression that could be due to oxidative stress occurring during cerebral ischemia and the following reperfusion. Moreover, this study determined the in vivo antioxidant activity of these compounds through the evaluation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat) activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in mouse brain. GA and its synthetic analogues were found to be active (at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg) in the modulation of depressive symptoms and the reduction of oxidative stress, restoring normal behavior and, at least in part, antioxidant endogenous defenses, with M3OMG being the most active of these compounds. SOD, TBARS, and GSH all showed strong correlation with behavioral parameters, suggesting that oxidative stress is tightly linked to the pathological processes involved in stroke and PSD. As a whole, the obtained results show that the administration of GA, M3OMG and P3OMG induce a reduction in depressive symptoms and oxidative stress.

  5. Prevention of iron- and copper-mediated DNA damage by catecholamine and amino acid neurotransmitters, L-DOPA, and curcumin: metal binding as a general antioxidant mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carla R; Angelé-Martínez, Carlos; Wilkes, Jenna A; Wang, Hsiao C; Battin, Erin E; Brumaghim, Julia L

    2012-06-07

    Concentrations of labile iron and copper are elevated in patients with neurological disorders, causing interest in metal-neurotransmitter interactions. Catecholamine (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) and amino acid (glycine, glutamate, and 4-aminobutyrate) neurotransmitters are antioxidants also known to bind metal ions. To investigate the role of metal binding as an antioxidant mechanism for these neurotransmitters, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), and curcumin, their abilities to prevent iron- and copper-mediated DNA damage were quantified, cyclic voltammetry was used to determine the relationship between their redox potentials and DNA damage prevention, and UV-vis studies were conducted to determine iron and copper binding as well as iron oxidation rates. In contrast to amino acid neurotransmitters, catecholamine neurotransmitters, L-DOPA, and curcumin prevent significant iron-mediated DNA damage (IC(50) values of 3.2 to 18 μM) and are electrochemically active. However, glycine and glutamate are more effective at preventing copper-mediated DNA damage (IC(50) values of 35 and 12.9 μM, respectively) than L-DOPA, the only catecholamine to prevent this damage (IC(50) = 73 μM). This metal-mediated DNA damage prevention is directly related to the metal-binding behaviour of these compounds. When bound to iron or copper, the catecholamines, amino acids, and curcumin significantly shift iron oxidation potentials and stabilize Fe(3+) over Fe(2+) and Cu(2+) over Cu(+), a factor that may prevent metal redox cycling in vivo. These results highlight the disparate antioxidant activities of neurotransmitters, drugs, and supplements and highlight the importance of considering metal binding when identifying antioxidants to treat and prevent neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Post-Stroke Depression Modulation and in Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Gallic Acid and Its Synthetic Derivatives in a Murine Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Fazel Nabavi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA is a plant secondary metabolite, which shows antioxidant activity and is commonly found in many plant-based foods and beverages. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress contributes to the development of many human chronic diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative pathologies, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cancer. GA and its derivative, methyl-3-O-methyl gallate (M3OMG, possess physiological and pharmacological activities closely related to their antioxidant properties. This paper describes the antidepressive-like effects of intraperitoneal administration of GA and two synthetic analogues, M3OMG and P3OMG (propyl-3-O-methylgallate, in balb/c mice with post-stroke depression, a secondary form of depression that could be due to oxidative stress occurring during cerebral ischemia and the following reperfusion. Moreover, this study determined the in vivo antioxidant activity of these compounds through the evaluation of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (Cat activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS and reduced glutathione (GSH levels in mouse brain. GA and its synthetic analogues were found to be active (at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg in the modulation of depressive symptoms and the reduction of oxidative stress, restoring normal behavior and, at least in part, antioxidant endogenous defenses, with M3OMG being the most active of these compounds. SOD, TBARS, and GSH all showed strong correlation with behavioral parameters, suggesting that oxidative stress is tightly linked to the pathological processes involved in stroke and PSD. As a whole, the obtained results show that the administration of GA, M3OMG and P3OMG induce a reduction in depressive symptoms and oxidative stress.

  7. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid has an anti-oxidant effect via the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Chisato; Yang, Liu; Yoshizaki, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Ishikado, Atsushi; Kondo, Motoyuki; Morino, Katsutaro; Sekine, Osamu; Ugi, Satoshi; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Omega-3 PUFA has a direct anti-oxidant effect in adipocytes. ► EPA and DHA induce HO-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► Omega-3 PUFA and its end-product, 4-HHE, activates the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway. ► Omega-3 PUFA protects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Oxidative stress is produced in adipose tissue of obese subjects and has been associated with obesity-related disorders. Recent studies have shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω3-PUFA) has beneficial effects in preventing atherosclerotic diseases and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. However, the role of ω3-PUFA on adipocytes has not been elucidated. In this study, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with ω3-PUFA and its metabolites, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE). ω3-PUFA and its metabolites dose-dependently increased mRNA and protein levels of the anti-oxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1); whereas no changes in the well-known anti-oxidant molecules, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were observed. Knockdown of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) significantly reduced EPA, DHA or 4-HHE-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. Also, pretreatment with ω3-PUFA prevented H 2 O 2 -induced cytotoxicity in a HO-1 dependent manner. In conclusion, treatment with EPA and DHA induced HO-1 through the activation of Nrf-2 and prevented oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This anti-oxidant defense may be of high therapeutic value for clinical conditions associated with systemic oxidative stress.

  8. Improvement of phytoextraction and antioxidative defense in Solanum nigrum L. under cadmium stress by application of cadmium-resistant strain and citric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Yang, E-mail: gaoyang0898@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of Soil and Water Conservation and Desertification Control, College of Soil and Water Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Miao Chiyuan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Mao Liang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Zhou Pei [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai 200240 (China); Jin Zhiguo; Shi Wanjun [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Remediation of plant-microorganism-chelates synergy has been proposed as an effective remediation method for enhancing the removal efficiency of heavy metal. Manipulation of the antioxidative system increases plant tolerance, thereby potentially enhancing the uptake capacity to heavy metal. In this study, we investigated the possibility of improving the phytoextraction of Cd and the antioxidative defense of Solanum nigrum L. by application of a new isolated strain (Paecilomyces lilacinus NH1) (PLNH1) and citric acid (CA). The results showed that application of CA or PLNH1 significantly promoted S. nigrum's growth under Cd stress, but the synergistic effect of CA and PLNH1 on S. nigrum's growth was more obvious. The coexistence of CA and PLNH1 could enhance about 30% of Cd accumulation in different organs of S. nigrum compared to the treatment without the addition of CA and PLNH1, whereas single CA or PLNH1 added treatment only enhanced about 10-15% of Cd accumulation in different organs of S. nigrum. The antioxidative defense in S. nigrum under Cd stress was significantly improved as result of application of CA and PLNH1. The responses of antioxidative enzymes to Cd stress significantly decreased following application of CA and PLNH1, and the oxidative stress experienced by the plant due to Cd in the soil was significantly alleviated.

  9. Improvement of phytoextraction and antioxidative defense in Solanum nigrum L. under cadmium stress by application of cadmium-resistant strain and citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yang; Miao Chiyuan; Mao Liang; Zhou Pei; Jin Zhiguo; Shi Wanjun

    2010-01-01

    Remediation of plant-microorganism-chelates synergy has been proposed as an effective remediation method for enhancing the removal efficiency of heavy metal. Manipulation of the antioxidative system increases plant tolerance, thereby potentially enhancing the uptake capacity to heavy metal. In this study, we investigated the possibility of improving the phytoextraction of Cd and the antioxidative defense of Solanum nigrum L. by application of a new isolated strain (Paecilomyces lilacinus NH1) (PLNH1) and citric acid (CA). The results showed that application of CA or PLNH1 significantly promoted S. nigrum's growth under Cd stress, but the synergistic effect of CA and PLNH1 on S. nigrum's growth was more obvious. The coexistence of CA and PLNH1 could enhance about 30% of Cd accumulation in different organs of S. nigrum compared to the treatment without the addition of CA and PLNH1, whereas single CA or PLNH1 added treatment only enhanced about 10-15% of Cd accumulation in different organs of S. nigrum. The antioxidative defense in S. nigrum under Cd stress was significantly improved as result of application of CA and PLNH1. The responses of antioxidative enzymes to Cd stress significantly decreased following application of CA and PLNH1, and the oxidative stress experienced by the plant due to Cd in the soil was significantly alleviated.

  10. Evolution of availability of curcumin inside poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles: impact on antioxidant and antinitrosant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betbeder D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Didier Betbeder,1–4 Emmanuelle Lipka,1,2,5 Mike Howsam,6 Rodolphe Carpentier1–3 1U995-LIRIC, Inserm (Institut National de la Recherche Médicale, Lille, France; 2U995-LIRIC, CHRU de Lille, Lille, France; 3U995-LIRIC, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Lille, Lille, France; 4Faculté des Sciences du Sport, Université d’Artois, Arras, France; 5Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Lille, Lille, France; 6Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Lille, Centre Universitaire de Mesures et d’Analyses, Lille, France Purpose: Curcumin exhibits antioxidant properties potentially beneficial for human health; however, its use in clinical applications is limited by its poor solubility and relative instability. Nanoparticles exhibit interesting features for the efficient distribution and delivery of curcumin into cells, and could also increase curcumin stability in biological systems. There is a paucity of information regarding the evolution of the antioxidant properties of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin.Method: We described a simple method of curcumin encapsulation in poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles without the use of detergent. We assessed, in epithelial cells and in an acellular model, the evolution of direct antioxidant and antinitrosant properties of free versus PLGA-encapsulated curcumin after storage under different conditions (light vs darkness, 4°C vs 25°C vs 37°C.Results: In epithelial cells, endocytosis and efflux pump inhibitors showed that the increased antioxidant activity of PLGA-encapsulated curcumin relied on bypassing the efflux pump system. Acellular assays showed that the antioxidant effect of curcumin was greater when loaded in PLGA nanoparticles. Furthermore, we observed that light decreased, though heat restored, antioxidant activity of PLGA-encapsulated curcumin, probably by modulating the accessibility of curcumin to reactive oxygen species, an observation supported by results from quenching

  11. Methanol Extracts of 28 Hieracium Species from the Balkan Peninsula - Comparative LC-MS Analysis, Chemosystematic Evaluation of their Flavonoid and Phenolic Acid Profiles and Antioxidant Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Violeta; Niketić, Marjan; Ušjak, Ljuboš; Nikolić, Dejan; Krunić, Aleksej; Zidorn, Christian; Petrović, Silvana

    2018-01-01

    Hieracium s. str. represents one of the largest and most complex genera of flowering plants. As molecular genetics seems unlikely to disentangle intricate relationships within this reticulate species complex, analysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids, known as good chemosystematic markers, promise to be more reliable. Data about pharmacological activity of Hieracium species are scarce. Evaluation of the chemosystematic significance of flavonoids and phenolic acids of methanol extracts of aerial flowering parts of 28 Hieracium species from the Balkans. Additionally, investigation of antioxidant potentials of the extracts. Comparative qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids was performed by LC-MS. Multivariate statistical data analysis included non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), unweighted pair-group arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Antioxidant activity was evaluated using three colorimetric tests. Dominant phenolics in almost all species were luteolin type flavonoids, followed by phenolic acids. Although the investigated Hieracium species share many compounds, the current classification of the genus was supported by nMDS and UPGMA analyses with a good resolution to the group level. Hieracium naegelianum was clearly separated from the other investigated species. Spatial and ecological distances of the samples were likely to influence unexpected differentiation of some groups within H. sect. Pannosa. The vast majority of dominant compounds significantly contributed to differences between taxa. The antioxidant potential of the extracts was satisfactory and in accordance with their phenolics composition. Comparative LC-MS analysis demonstrated that flavonoids and phenolic acids are good indicators of chemosystematic relationships within Hieracium, particularly between non-hybrid species and groups from the same location. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley

  12. Interactive Effect of Salicylic Acid on Some Physiological Features and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z. E. Jaafar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliar salicylic acid (SA applications (10−3 and 10−5 M on activities of nitrate reductase, guaiacol peroxidase (POD, superoxide dismutases (SOD, catalase (CAT and proline enzymes and physiological parameters was evaluated in two ginger varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara under greenhouse conditions. In both varieties, tested treatments generally enhanced photosynthetic rate and total dry weight. Photosynthetic rate increases were generally accompanied by increased or unchanged stomatal conductance levels, although intercellular CO2 concentrations of treated plants were typically lower than in controls. Lower SA concentrations were generally more effective in enhancing photosynthetic rate and plant growth. Exogenous application of SA increased antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content; the greatest responses were obtained in plants sprayed with 10–5 M SA, with significant increases observed in CAT (20.1%, POD (45.2%, SOD (44.1% and proline (43.1% activities. Increased CAT activity in leaves is naturally expected to increase photosynthetic efficiency and thus net photosynthesis by maintaining a constant CO2 supply. Our results support the idea that low SA concentrations (10–5 M may induce nitrite reductase synthesis by mobilizing intracellular NO3− and can provide protection to nitrite reductase degradation in vivo in the absence of NO3–. Observed positive correlations among proline, SOD, CAT and POD activities in the studied varieties suggest that increased SOD activity was accompanied by increases in CAT and POD activities because of the high demands of H2O2 quenching.

  13. Asiatic Acid Exhibits Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities against Lipopolysaccharide and d-Galactosamine-Induced Fulminant Hepatic Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongming Lv

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress are essential for the pathogenesis of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF. Asiatic acid (AA, which is a pentacyclic triterpene that widely occurs in various vegetables and fruits, has been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of AA against lipopolysaccharide (LPS and d-galactosamine (GalN-induced FHF and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our findings suggested that AA treatment effectively protected against LPS/d-GalN-induced FHF by lessening the lethality; decreasing the alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α production, malondialdehyde formation, myeloperoxidase level and reactive oxygen species generation (i.e., H2O2, NO, and O2−, and increasing the glutathione and superoxide dismutase contents. Moreover, AA treatment significantly inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathway activation via the partial induction of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4 protein expressions, which are involved in inflammatory responses. Furthermore, AA treatment dramatically induced the expression of the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, heme oxygenase-1, and NAD (P H: quinoneoxidoreductase 1 (NQO1, which are largely dependent on activation of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 through the induction of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β phosphorylation. Accordingly, AA exhibited protective roles against LPS/d-GalN-induced FHF by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation. The underlying mechanism may be associated with the inhibition of MAPK and NF-κB activation via the partial induction of PDCD4 and upregulation of Nrf2 in an AMPK/GSK3β pathway activation-dependent manner.

  14. Improved production of poly-γ-glutamic acid by Bacillus subtilis D7 isolated from Doenjang, a Korean traditional fermented food, and its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Ri; Lee, Sang-Mee; Cho, Kwang-Sik; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Hwang, Dae-Youn; Kim, Dong-Seob; Hong, Chang-Oh; Son, Hong-Joo

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study was to improve poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) production by Bacillus subtilis D7 isolated from a Korean traditional fermented food and to assess its antioxidant activity for applications in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Strain D7 produced γ-PGA in the absence of L-glutamic acid, indicating L-glutamic acid-independent production. However, the addition of L-glutamic acid increased γ-PGA production. Several tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and amino acids could serve as the metabolic precursors for γ-PGA production, and the addition of pyruvic acid and D-glutamic acid to culture medium improved the yield of γ-PGA markedly. The maximum yield of γ-PGA obtained was 24.93 ± 0.64 g/l in improved medium, which was about 5.4-fold higher than the yield obtained in basal medium. γ-PGA was found to have 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (46.8 ± 1.5 %), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (52.0 ± 1.8 %), 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) radical scavenging activity (42.1 ± 1.8 %), nitric oxide scavenging activity (35.1 ± 1.3 %), reducing power (0.304 ± 0.008), and metal chelating activity (91.3 ± 3.5 %). These results indicate that γ-PGA has a potential use in the food, cosmetics, and biomedical industries for the development of novel products with radical scavenging activity. As far as we are aware, this is the first report to describe the antioxidant activityof γ-PGA produced by bacteria.

  15. Phenolic Acids Profiles and Cellular Antioxidant Activity in Tortillas Produced from Mexican Maize Landrace Processed by Nixtamalization and Lime Extrusion Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola-Cuevas, Nallely; Mora-Rochín, Saraid; Cuevas-Rodriguez, Edith Oliva; León-López, Liliana; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc; Montoya-Rodríguez, Alvaro; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge

    2017-09-01

    Phenolic acids profiles, chemical antioxidant activities (ABTS and ORAC), as well as cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) of tortilla of Mexican native maize landraces elaborated from nixtamalization and lime cooking extrusion processes were studied. Both cooking procedures decreased total phenolics, chemicals antioxidant activity when compared to raw grains. Extruded tortillas retained 79.6-83.5%, 74.1-77.6% and 79.8-80.5% of total phenolics, ABTS and ORAC values, respectively, compared to 47.8-49.8%, 41.3-42.3% and 43.7-44.4% assayed in traditional tortillas, respectively. Approximately 72.5-88.2% of ferulic acid in raw grains and their tortillas were in the bound form. Regarding of the CAA initially found in raw grains, the retained percentage for traditional and extruded tortillas ranged from 47.4 to 48.7% and 72.8 to 77.5%, respectively. These results suggest that Mexican maize landrace used in this study could be considered for the elaboration of nixtamalized and extruded food products with nutraceutical potential.

  16. Combined effects of temperature and metal exposure on the fatty acid composition of cell membranes, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhlaoui, Mariem; Couture, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The fatty acid composition of yellow perch muscle at 9 °C was enhanced in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to fish maintained at 28 °C. • The thermal adjustment of muscle phospholipid fatty acid profiles is likely due to modifications of desaturase and elongase activities. • Exposure to Ni and Cd modified muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in a temperature-dependent manner. • The higher fatty polyinsaturation in cold-acclimated fish did not increase their vulnerability to peroxidation. • Lower concentrations of malondialdehyde were measured in warm-acclimated, Ni-exposed fish, suggesting an overcompensation of antioxidant mechanisms that could explain their lower condition. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of temperature and metal contamination (cadmium and nickel) on phospholipid fatty acid composition, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in fish. Yellow perch were acclimated to two different temperatures (9 °C and 28 °C) and exposed either to Cd or Ni (respectively 4 μg/L and 600 μg/L) for seven weeks. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase activities and glutathione concentration were measured as indicators of antioxidant capacities, while malondialdehyde concentration was used as an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Poikilotherms including fish counteract the effects of temperature on phospholipid fatty acid ordering by remodelling their composition to maintain optimal fluidity. Accordingly, in our study, the fatty acid composition of yellow perch muscle at 9 °C was enhanced in monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compared to fish maintained at 28 °C, in agreement with the theory of homeoviscous adaptation. Using ratios of various fatty acids as surrogates for desaturase and elongase activities, our data suggests that modification of the activity of these enzymes is

  17. Combined effects of temperature and metal exposure on the fatty acid composition of cell membranes, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadhlaoui, Mariem; Couture, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.couture@ete.inrs.ca

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The fatty acid composition of yellow perch muscle at 9 °C was enhanced in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to fish maintained at 28 °C. • The thermal adjustment of muscle phospholipid fatty acid profiles is likely due to modifications of desaturase and elongase activities. • Exposure to Ni and Cd modified muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in a temperature-dependent manner. • The higher fatty polyinsaturation in cold-acclimated fish did not increase their vulnerability to peroxidation. • Lower concentrations of malondialdehyde were measured in warm-acclimated, Ni-exposed fish, suggesting an overcompensation of antioxidant mechanisms that could explain their lower condition. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of temperature and metal contamination (cadmium and nickel) on phospholipid fatty acid composition, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in fish. Yellow perch were acclimated to two different temperatures (9 °C and 28 °C) and exposed either to Cd or Ni (respectively 4 μg/L and 600 μg/L) for seven weeks. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase activities and glutathione concentration were measured as indicators of antioxidant capacities, while malondialdehyde concentration was used as an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Poikilotherms including fish counteract the effects of temperature on phospholipid fatty acid ordering by remodelling their composition to maintain optimal fluidity. Accordingly, in our study, the fatty acid composition of yellow perch muscle at 9 °C was enhanced in monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compared to fish maintained at 28 °C, in agreement with the theory of homeoviscous adaptation. Using ratios of various fatty acids as surrogates for desaturase and elongase activities, our data suggests that modification of the activity of these enzymes is

  18. The antioxidant capacity of erythrocyte concentrates is increased during the first week of storage and correlated with the uric acid level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardyn, M; Maye, S; Lesch, A; Delobel, J; Tissot, J-D; Cortés-Salazar, F; Tacchini, P; Lion, N; Girault, H H; Prudent, M

    2017-10-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) suffer from lesions during cold storage, depending in part on their ability to counterbalance oxidative stress by activating their antioxidant defence. The aim of this study was to monitor the antioxidant power (AOP) in erythrocyte concentrates (ECs) during cold storage. Six ECs were prepared in saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) additive solution and followed during 43 days. The AOP was quantified electrochemically using disposable electrode strips and compared with results obtained from a colorimetric assay. Haematological data, data on haemolysis and the extracellular concentration of uric acid were also recorded. Additionally, a kinetic model was developed to extract quantitative kinetic data on the AOP behaviour. The AOP of total ECs and their extracellular samples attained a maximum after 1 week of storage prior to decaying and reaching a plateau, as shown by the electrochemical measurements. The observed trend was confirmed with a colorimetric assay. Uric acid had a major contribution to the extracellular AOP. Interestingly, the AOP and uric acid levels were linked to the sex of the donors. The marked increase in AOP during the first week of storage suggests that RBCs are impacted early by the modification of their environment. The AOP behaviour reflects the changes in metabolism activity following the adjustment of the extracellular uric acid level. Knowing the origin, interdonor variability and the effects of the AOP on the RBCs could be beneficial for the storage quality, which will have to be further studied. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  19. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo, E-mail: sjung@knu.ac.kr

    2015-04-03

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, F{sub v}/F{sub m}, as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production and greater increases in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. - Highlights: • We employ two different types of photodynamic stress, white and brown necrosis. • We examine molecular mechanisms of antioxidative and detoxification systems. • ALA and OF develop differential actions of antioxidant and detoxification systems. • Coordinated mechanism of antioxidants and detoxification works against toxic ROS. • Detoxification system plays critical roles in protection against photodynamic stress.

  20. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, F v /F m , as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H 2 O 2 production and greater increases in H 2 O 2 -decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. - Highlights: • We employ two different types of photodynamic stress, white and brown necrosis. • We examine molecular mechanisms of antioxidative and detoxification systems. • ALA and OF develop differential actions of antioxidant and detoxification systems. • Coordinated mechanism of antioxidants and detoxification works against toxic ROS. • Detoxification system plays critical roles in protection against photodynamic stress

  1. From seed to cooked pasta: influence of traditional and non-conventional transformation processes on total antioxidant capacity and phenolic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Daniela; Ciccoritti, Roberto; Nicoletti, Isabella; Nocente, Francesca; Corradini, Danilo; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Taddei, Federica

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the traditional with a non-conventional (i.e. kernel micronisation) durum wheat milling process by monitoring the content of bound, conjugated and free phenolic acids (PAs) and the level of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) occurring in the durum wheat pasta production chain, from seed to cooked pasta. The traditional transformation processes negatively influenced TAC and PA content (40% and 89% decrease from seed to cooked pasta, respectively), mainly during the milling process (25% and 84% decrease of TAC and PA, respectively), which has been related to the removal of external layers of kernels. Conversely, the micronisation applied on durum wheat kernels allowed to obtain whole-wheat pasta that preserved the seed endowment of antioxidant compounds even in cooked pasta. These results indicate the micronisation as a valuable approach to produce pasta with improved nutritional value and potential health-promoting effects compared to the traditional pasta.

  2. Feeding rumen-protected gamma-aminobutyric acid enhances the immune response and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianbo; Zheng, Nan; Sun, Xianzhi; Li, Songli; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Yangdong

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on immune function and antioxidant status in heat-stressed dairy cows. Sixty Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely randomized block design. The treatments consisted of 0 (control), 40, 80, or 120mg of GABA/kg DM from rumen-protected GABA. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The average temperature-humidity indices at 0700, 1400 and 2200h were 78.4, 80.2 and 78.7, respectively. Rectal temperatures decreased linearly at 0700, 1400, and 2200h with increasing GABA. As the GABA increased, the immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG contents and the proportions of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes increased linearly (Pheat-stressed dairy cows can improve their immune function and antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Azadirachta indica leaves extract on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats:Role of antioxidants, free radicals and myeloperoxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghatule RR

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the healing effects of extract of dried leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Neem tree is known as ‘arishtha ’ in Sanskrit, meaning ‘reliever of sicknesses ’. Methods: 50% ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves was administered orally, once daily for 14 days in rats after the induction of colitis with acetic acid and 500 mg/kg dose of extract was found to have an optimal effect against acetic acid-induced colonic damage score, weight and adhesions (Macroscopic. Effect of Azadirachta indica extract was then further studied on various physical (mucous/blood in stool, food and water intake and body weight changes, colonic mucosal damage and inflammation (microscopic, antibacterial and biochemical parameters viz. i antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione and ii free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase (acute inflammatory marker activities in acetic acid-induced colitis. Results: Azadirachta indica extract decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation (macroscopic and microscopic, mucous/bloody diarrhea, fecal frequency and increased body weight. Azadirachta indica extract showed intestinal antibacterial activity and enhanced the antioxidants but decreased free radicals and myeloperoxidase activities. Acute toxicity study indicated no mortality or other ANS or CNS related adverse effects even with 5.0 g/kg dose (10 times of effective dose indicating its safety. Conclusions: Azadirachta indica seemed to be safe and effective in colitis by its predominant effect on promoting antioxidant status and decreasing intestinal bacterial load, free radicals and myeloperoxidase responsible for tissue damage and delayed healing.

  4. [The impact of ascorbic acid on the concentrations of antioxidative vitamins in the plasma of patients with non-small cell lung cancer undergoing first-line chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarski, Sławomir; Rutkowski, Maciej; Godala, Małgorzata; Mejer, Anna; Kowalski, Jan

    2013-09-01

    One of the main after-effects of chemotherapy used in cancer treatment is an augmented production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In turn ROS become a source of unwanted side effects of chemotherapy, often forcing the discontinuation of the therapy. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C), being an antioxidant, can strengthen the antioxidative barrier of an organism. The aim of the study was an assessment of the concentrations of A, C and E vitamins in the plasma of NSCLC patients undergoing chemotherapy supplemented with vitamin C. 25 first-line chemotherapy patients with inoperable NSCLC, including 19 men and 6 women aged between 37-73 years (average age 60.1 +/- 8.8 years) have undergone the examination. Their chemotherapy has been supplemented with ascorbic acid (vitamin C dose of 600 mg per 24 hours). Control group consisted of 24 healthy individuals, including 18 men and 6 women aged between 49-71 years (average age 59.5 +/- 6.6 years). In cancer patients the concentration of A, C and E vitamins was assessed by spectrophotometry using T60V spectrophotometer (PG Instruments) before and after first-line chemotherapy which was supplemented with vitamin C. In control group the concentrations of antioxidative vitamins was assessed only once. In comparison to the control group the concentrations of the A, C and E vitamins in the plasma of NSCLC patients was significantly lower (p vitamin C a significant rise of concentrations (p vitamins tested for was observed. The biggest rise was noted for vitamin C (99.8%). The supplementation of the chemotherapy of NSCLC patients with C vitamin leads to rise of the low concentrations of A, C and E vitamins in the plasma. This suggests strengthening of the antioxidative barrier in patients.

  5. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Pourashouri, Parastoo

    2018-01-01

    content of essential amino acids. CDRHs displayed higher solubility than untreated defatted roe, which increased with DH. Better emulsifying and foaming properties were observed at lower DH and non-isoelectric points. Furthermore, water and oil binding capacity decreased with DH. CDRHs exhibited......Common carp roe is a rich protein and oil source, which is usually discarded with no specific use. The aims of this study were to extract oil from the discarded roe and examine functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of defatted roe hydrolysates (CDRHs) at various degrees...... of hydrolysis (DH). Gas chromatography (GC) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) revealed that common carp roe oil contained high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted roe yielded higher...

  6. Reduction of the DNA damages, Hepatoprotective Effect and Antioxidant Potential of the Coconut Water, ascorbic and Caffeic Acids in Oxidative Stress Mediated by Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANDERSON S. BISPO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hepatic disorders such as steatosis and alcoholic steatohepatitis are common diseases that affect thousands of people around the globe. This study aims to identify the main phenol compounds using a new HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS method, to evaluate some oxidative stress parameters and the hepatoprotective action of green dwarf coconut water, caffeic and ascorbic acids on the liver and serum of rats treated with ethanol. The results showed five polyphenols in the lyophilized coconut water spiked with standards: chlorogenic acid (0.18 µM, caffeic acid (1.1 µM, methyl caffeate (0.03 µM, quercetin (0.08 µM and ferulic acid (0.02 µM isomers. In the animals, the activity of the serum γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GT was reduced to 1.8 I.U/L in the coconut water group, 3.6 I.U/L in the ascorbic acid group and 2.9 I.U/L in the caffeic acid groups, when compared with the ethanol group (5.1 I.U/L, p<0.05. Still in liver, the DNA analysis demonstrated a decrease of oxidized bases compared to ethanol group of 36.2% and 48.0% for pretreated and post treated coconut water group respectively, 42.5% for the caffeic acid group, and 34.5% for the ascorbic acid group. The ascorbic acid was efficient in inhibiting the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in the liver by 16.5% in comparison with the ethanol group. These data indicate that the green dwarf coconut water, caffeic and ascorbic acids have antioxidant, hepatoprotective and reduced DNA damage properties, thus decreasing the oxidative stress induced by ethanol metabolism.

  7. The effects of bud load and regulated deficit irrigation on sugar, organic acid, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Razakı table grape berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangolar Semih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing the effects of increased bud load and irrigation applications on berry quality of the Razakı table grape. Two Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI having different irrigation levels (RDI-I and RDI-II based on the growth stages, in addition to a non-irrigated control treatment together with two different bud load practices (K-normal and 2K-two-fold buds of the normal were examined for their effects on quality attributes such as sugar and organic acids contents, phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant capacity of the berries. The non-irrigated vines had highest sugar level (198.86 g/kg in the first year (2013 of the experiment whilst the sugar content of the berries was increased with irrigation (RDI-II in 2014. However the highest organic acid (7.10 g/kg was recorded from the RDI-II treatment in 2013 whereas those of from non-irrigated vines were highest (7.81 g/kg in 2014. Considering the sugar and organic acid content of the berries, bud load effects were not significant. The total phenolic acids were higher under non-irrigated and 2K bud load conditions. Antioxidant activity of berries was increased with RDI-I irrigation and 2K practices in the first year (2013 although no significant effect was recorded in the second year of the experiment. In all applications, glucose among the sugars, tartaric acid among the organic acids, catechin and epicatechin among the phenolic compounds were detected to be higher compared to other components in berries.

  8. The effects of different lipid emulsions on the lipid profile, fatty acid composition, and antioxidant capacity of preterm infants: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Feng, Yi; Lu, Li-Na; Wang, Wei-Ping; He, Zhen-Juan; Xie, Li-Juan; Hong, Li; Tang, Qing-Ya; Cai, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Olive oil (OO), medium-chain triglycerides (MCT)/long-chain triglycerides (LCT) mixture and soybean oil (SO) lipid emulsions are currently used for preterm infants in China. The aim of our study was to compare the lipid profile, fatty acid composition, and antioxidant capacity of preterm infants administered OO, MCT/LCT, or SO lipid emulsions. In this study, 156 preterm infants (birth weight emulsions for a minimum of 14 d. On days 0, 7, and 14, the lipid profile, fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity were analyzed. On day 7, HDL levels in the MCT/LCT group were significantly lower than in the OO (1.06 ± 0.40 mmol/L) or SO groups. LDL levels were higher in the OO group than in the MCT/LCT or SO groups on day 7. A-I/B was higher in MCT/LCT than in OO or SO groups. Myristic acid (C14:0) levels on days 7 and 14 increased in MCT/LCT compared to the OO and SO groups. The OO group had higher oleic acid (C18:1n9) levels than the two other groups. Linoleic acid (C18:2n6), linolenic acid (C18:3n3), and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3) were significantly lower in the OO group than in MCT/LCT or SO groups. Monounsaturated fatty acid levels decreased, and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid and essential fatty acids levels increased in MCT/LCT and SO groups. No significant differences were obtained in SOD, MDA, GSH-Px, and T-AOC among the groups. The three lipid emulsions were safe and well tolerated in preterm infants. Oleic acid (C18:1n9) levels increased and LA (C18:2n6), ALA (C18:3n3), and EPA (C20:5n23) levels decreased in OO compared to MCT/LCT or SO. NCT01683162, https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Total Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), Antioxidant Activity, and Acceptance of Synbiotic Yoghurt with Binahong Leaf Extract (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, R. P.; Nissa, C.; Afifah, D. N.; Anjani, G.; Rustanti, N.

    2018-02-01

    Alternative treatment for metabolic syndrome can be done by providing a diet consist of functional foods or beverages. Synbiotic yoghurt containing binahong leaf extract which high in antioxidant, total LAB and fiber can be selected to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. The effect of binahong leaf extract in synbiotic yoghurt against total LAB, antioxidant activity, and acceptance were analyzed. The experiment was done with complete randomized design with addition of binahong leaf extract 0% (control); 0.12%; 0.25%; 0.5% in synbiotic yoghurt. Analysis of total LAB using Total Plate Count test, antioxidant activity using DPPH, and acceptance were analyzed by hedonic test. The addition of binahong leaf extract in various doses in synbiotic yoghurt decreased total LAB without significant effect (p=0,145). There was no effect of addition binahong leaf extract on antioxidant activity (p=0,297). The addition of binahong leaf extract had an effect on color, but not on aroma, texture and taste. The best result was yoghurt synbiotic with addition of 0,12% binahong leaf extract. Conclusion of the research was the addition of binahong leaf extract to synbiotic yogurt did not significantly affect total LAB, antioxidant activity, aroma, texture and taste; but had a significant effect on color.

  10. Histological changes and antioxidant enzyme activity in signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) associated with sub-acute peracetic acid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupani, Latifeh; Zuskova, Eliska; Stara, Alzbeta; Velisek, Josef; Kouba, Antonin

    2016-01-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a powerful disinfectant recently adopted as a therapeutic agent in aquaculture. A concentration of 10 mg L(-1) PAA effectively suppresses zoospores of Aphanomyces astaci, the agent of crayfish plague. To aid in establishing safe therapeutic guideline, the effects of PAA on treated crayfish were investigated through assessment of histological changes and oxidative damage. Adult female signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus (n = 135) were exposed to 2 mg L(-1) and 10 mg L(-1) of PAA for 7 days followed by a 7 day recovery period in clean water. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in gill and hepatopancreas after three days exposure to 10 mg L(1) PAA than in the group treated with 2 mg L(-1) PAA and a control in only clean water. Catalase activity in gill and hepatopancreas remained unaffected by both exposures. Glutathione reductase was significantly decreased in gill of 10 mg L(-1) PAA treated crayfish and increased in group exposed to 2 mg L(-1) compared to control after 7 days exposure. Antioxidant enzyme activity in exposed groups returned to control values after recovery period. Gill, hepatopancreas, and antennal gland showed slight damage in crayfish treated with 2 mg L(-1) of PAA compared to the control group. The extent and frequency of histological alterations were more pronounced in animals exposed to 10 mg L(-1). The gill was the most affected organ, infiltrated by granular hemocytes and displaying malformations of lamella tips and disorganization of epithelial cells. After a 7 day recovery period, the infiltrating cells in affected tissues of the exposed crayfish began to return to normal levels. Results suggested that the given concentrations could be applied to signal crayfish against crayfish plague agent in aquaculture; however, further studies are required for safe use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant status, lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on high-cholesterol diet containing currant oil rich in n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, R; Skottová, N; Vána, P; Kazdová, L; Chmela, Z; Svagera, Z; Walterá, D; Ulrichová, J; Simánek, V

    2003-01-01

    Plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) possess a prospective antiatherogenic potential. Currant oil from Ribes nigrum L. is one of the few plant oils containing PUFAn-3 (15.3 mol%) in addition to PUFAn-6 (60.5 mol%). This study was aimed at comparing the effects of currant oil with those of lard fat, rich in saturated (43.8 mol%) and monounsaturated (47.0 mol%) fatty acids, on antioxidant parameters, the lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on 1 % (w/w) cholesterol diets containing either 10 % of currant oil (COD) or lard fat (LFD). After 3 weeks of feeding, the COD induced a significant decrease in blood glutathione (GSH) and an increase in Cu(2+) induced oxidizability of serum lipids, but did not affect liver GSH and t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced lipoperoxidation of liver microsomes. Although the COD did not cause accumulation of liver triacylglycerols as LFD, the lipoprotein profile (VLDL, LDL, HDL) was not significantly improved after COD. The consumption of PUFAn-3 was reflected in LDL as an increase in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. These results suggest that currant oil affects positively the lipid metabolism in the liver, above all it does not cause the development of a fatty liver. However, adverse effects of currant oil on the antioxidant status in the blood still remain of concern.

  12. Effect of pad-fan cooling and dietary organic acid supplementation during late gestation and lactation on reproductive performance and antioxidant status of multiparous sows in hot weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Guo, Ji; Guan, Wu-Tai; Song, Jun-Jie; Deng, Zi-Xiao; Cheng, Lin; Deng, Yue-Lin; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Shi-Hai; Zhang, Yin-Zi; Yang, Fei; Ren, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Chao-Xian

    2018-06-01

    A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (rearing room with or without pad-fan cooling × diet with or without 2.5 kg/t organic acid) was used to evaluate the effect of pad-fan cooling and dietary organic acid supplementation during perinatal period on reproductive performance and antioxidant status of sows in hot weather. This study was conducted in a subtropical city in Guangdong Province in South China between August and October, 2015. At day 85 of gestation, a total of 112 sows were randomly assigned to the four treatments with 28 sows per treatment, and maintained until day 21 of lactation, and the feeding trial lasted for 51 days. During the experimental period, room temperature and humidity were recorded hourly. The lactation feed intake of sows (P = 0.109) and stillbirths (P fan cooling against the room without pad-fan cooling. The number of weak newborns per litter and the malondialdehyde content in days 14 and 21 milk decreased (P fan cooling in rearing room improved the lactation feed intake of sows, and dietary organic acid supplementation improved reproductive performance and milk antioxidant status of sows. Pad-fan cooling is recommended in farrowing room, but not in gestating room.

  13. Sclerotial biomass and carotenoid yield of Penicillium sp. PT95 under oxidative growth conditions and in the presence of antioxidant ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X L; Cui, X H; Han, J R

    2006-09-01

    To determine the effect of oxidative stress and exogenous ascorbic acid on sclerotial biomass and carotenoid yield of Penicillium sp. PT95. In this experiment, high oxidative stress was applied by the inclusion of FeSO(4) in the growth medium and exposure to light. Low oxidative stress was applied by omitting iron from the growth medium and by incubation in the dark. Supplementation of exogenous ascorbic acid (as antioxidant) to the basal medium caused a concentration-dependent delay of sclerotial differentiation (up to 48 h), decrease of sclerotial biomass (up to 40%) and reduction of carotenoid yield (up to 91%). On the contrary, the exogenous ascorbic acid also caused a concentration-dependent decrease of lipid peroxidation in colonies of this fungus. Under high oxidative stress growth condition, the sclerotial biomass and carotenoid yield of PT95 strain in each plate culture reached 305 mg and 32.94 microg, which were 1.23 and 3.71 times higher, respectively, than those at low oxidative stress growth condition. These data prompted us to consider that in order to attain higher sclerotial biomass and pigment yield, the strain PT95 should be grown under high oxidative stress and in the absence of antioxidants. These results suggest that strain PT95 may be used for solid-state fermentation of carotenoid production under high oxidative stress growth conditions.

  14. Studying anti-oxidative properties of inclusion complexes of α-lipoic acid with γ-cyclodextrin in single living fission yeast by confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noothalapati, Hemanth; Ikarashi, Ryo; Iwasaki, Keita; Nishida, Tatsuro; Kaino, Tomohiro; Yoshikiyo, Keisuke; Terao, Keiji; Nakata, Daisuke; Ikuta, Naoko; Ando, Masahiro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o.; Kawamukai, Makoto; Yamamoto, Tatsuyuki

    2018-05-01

    α-lipoic acid (ALA) is an essential cofactor for many enzyme complexes in aerobic metabolism, especially in mitochondria of eukaryotic cells where respiration takes place. It also has excellent anti-oxidative properties. The acid has two stereo-isomers, R- and S- lipoic acid (R-LA and S-LA), but only the R-LA has biological significance and is exclusively produced in our body. A mutant strain of fission yeast, Δdps1, cannot synthesize coenzyme Q10, which is essential during yeast respiration, leading to oxidative stress. Therefore, it shows growth delay in the minimal medium. We studied anti-oxidant properties of ALA in its free form and their inclusion complexes with γ-cyclodextrin using this mutant yeast model. Both free forms R- and S-LA as well as 1:1 inclusion complexes with γ-cyclodextrin recovered growth of Δdps1 depending on the concentration and form. However, it has no effect on the growth of wild type fission yeast strain at all. Raman microspectroscopy was employed to understand the anti-oxidant property at the molecular level. A sensitive Raman band at 1602 cm-1 was monitored with and without addition of ALAs. It was found that 0.5 mM and 1.0 mM concentrations of ALAs had similar effect in both free and inclusion forms. At 2.5 mM ALAs, free forms inhibited the growth while inclusion complexes helped in recovered. 5.0 mM ALA showed inhibitory effect irrespective of form. Our results suggest that the Raman band at 1602 cm-1 is a good measure of oxidative stress in fission yeast.

  15. Study on the Efficiency of Grape Seed Meals Used as Antioxidants in Layer Diets Enriched with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Compared with Vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Olteanu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The 4-week study was conducted with 180 Lohmann Brown layers (52 weeks of age. The layers were assigned to three groups (C, E1 and E2. The basal diet (group C consisted mainly of corn, soybean meal and corn gluten, and contained 19% crude protein and 11.58 MJ/kg metabolizable energy. The diets for groups E1 and E2 differed from group C by the inclusion of 5% flax meal and of dietary antioxidants. The concentration of α-linolenic acid in the fat of E1 and E2 diets was almost 10 times higher than in group C. E1 diet was supplemented with vitamin E (100 mg/kg feed, DM, while E2 diet was supplemented with 2% grape seed meal (polyphenols: 630.890 µg gallic acid equivalents/g sample; flavonoids: 5.065 µg rutin equivalents/g sample; antioxidant capacity: 28.468 mM trolox equivalents/g sample. The antioxidant capacity of E2 was higher than in C, but lower than in E1. Haugh units of the eggs (18 eggs/group harvested during the last experimental week were not significantly different among groups. The ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs ratio in the fat from the eggs was 4.46 ± 0.11 (E1 and 4.52 ± 0.21 (E2, three times lower (p<0.05 than the control group (14.70 ± 0.43. In group E1 in particular, but also in group E2, the concentration of total polyphenols in the egg yolk was higher (p<0.05 than in group C.

  16. Interaction of phenolic antioxidants and hydroxyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenfeng; Luo Jian; Yao Side; Lian Zhirui; Zhang Jiashan; Lin Nianyun

    1992-01-01

    Based on pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of four phenolic antioxidants including green tea polyphenols, quercetin, caffeic acid and sinapic acid the rate constants for reactions of OH and the antioxidants were determined. And green tea polyphenols and quercetin are the strongest antioxidants

  17. Interaction of phenolic antioxidants and hydroxyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.F.; Luo, J.; Yao, S.D.; Lian, Z.R.; Zhang, J.S.; Lin, N.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Based on pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of four phenolic antioxidants including green tea polyphenols, quercetin, caffeic acid and sinapic acid the rate constants for reactions of OH and the antioxidants were determined. Green tea polyphenols and quercetin are the strongest antioxidants. (author)

  18. Lactic Acid Fermentation of Cactus Cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) Generates Flavonoid Derivatives with Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, Pasquale; Cavoski, Ivana; Thlien, Nadia; Vincentini, Olimpia; De Angelis, Maria; Silano, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) is widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In the last decades, the interest towards vegetative crop increased, and cladodes are exploited for nutraceutical and health-promoting properties. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to increase the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of cactus cladodes pulp, with the perspective of producing a functional ingredient, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparation. Preliminarily, the antioxidant activity was determined through in vitro assays. Further, it was confirmed through ex vivo analysis on intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells, and the profile of flavonoids was characterized. Cactus cladode pulp was fermented with lactic acid bacteria, which were previously selected from plant materials. Chemically acidified suspension, without bacterial inoculum and incubated under the same conditions, was used as the control. Lactobacillus plantarum CIL6, POM1 and 1MR20, Lactobacillus brevis POM2 and POM4, Lactobacillus rossiae 2LC8 and Pediococcus pentosaceus CILSWE5 were the best growing strains. Fermentation of cladode pulp with L. brevis POM2 and POM4 allowed the highest concentration of γ-amino butyric acid. Lactic acid fermentation had preservative effects (P<0.05) on the levels of vitamin C and carotenoids. Two flavonoid derivatives (kaemferol and isorhamnetin) were identified in the ethyl acetate extracts, which were considered to be the major compounds responsible for the increased radical scavenging activity. After inducing oxidative stress by IL-1β, the increased antioxidant activity (P<0.05) of fermented cladode pulp was confirmed using Caco-2/TC7 cells. Fermented cladode pulp had also immune-modulatory effects towards Caco-2 cells. Compared to the control, fermented cladode pulp exhibited a significantly (P<0.05) higher inhibition of IL-8, TNFα and prostaglandins PGE2 synthesis. The highest

  19. Combined effect of CO2 enrichment and foliar application of salicylic acid on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from ginger

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasemzadeh Ali; Jaafar Hawa ZE; Karimi Ehsan; Ibrahim Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration caused by climate change and agricultural practices is likely to affect biota by producing changes in plant growth, allocation and chemical composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA, at two levels: 0 and 10-3 M) and CO2 enrichment (at two levels: 400 and 800 μmol·mol−1) on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids f...

  20. Lactic Acid Fermentation of Cactus Cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Generates Flavonoid Derivatives with Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Filannino

    Full Text Available Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. is widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In the last decades, the interest towards vegetative crop increased, and cladodes are exploited for nutraceutical and health-promoting properties. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to increase the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of cactus cladodes pulp, with the perspective of producing a functional ingredient, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparation. Preliminarily, the antioxidant activity was determined through in vitro assays. Further, it was confirmed through ex vivo analysis on intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells, and the profile of flavonoids was characterized. Cactus cladode pulp was fermented with lactic acid bacteria, which were previously selected from plant materials. Chemically acidified suspension, without bacterial inoculum and incubated under the same conditions, was used as the control. Lactobacillus plantarum CIL6, POM1 and 1MR20, Lactobacillus brevis POM2 and POM4, Lactobacillus rossiae 2LC8 and Pediococcus pentosaceus CILSWE5 were the best growing strains. Fermentation of cladode pulp with L. brevis POM2 and POM4 allowed the highest concentration of γ-amino butyric acid. Lactic acid fermentation had preservative effects (P<0.05 on the levels of vitamin C and carotenoids. Two flavonoid derivatives (kaemferol and isorhamnetin were identified in the ethyl acetate extracts, which were considered to be the major compounds responsible for the increased radical scavenging activity. After inducing oxidative stress by IL-1β, the increased antioxidant activity (P<0.05 of fermented cladode pulp was confirmed using Caco-2/TC7 cells. Fermented cladode pulp had also immune-modulatory effects towards Caco-2 cells. Compared to the control, fermented cladode pulp exhibited a significantly (P<0.05 higher inhibition of IL-8, TNFα and prostaglandins PGE2 synthesis. The

  1. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase activities of benzoic acid derivate from the bark of Myristica fatua Houtt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawati, Darmawan, Akhmad; Fajriah, Sofa; Primahana, Gian; Dewi, Rizna Triana; Minarti, Meiliawati, Lia

    2017-11-01

    Myrictica fatua Houtt widely used in Indonesian as one of the traditional medicinal plants. Cancer and diabetic mellitus (DM) type 2 are two degenerative diseases caused by the presence of excessive free radicals in the body. Antioxidant and anti-diabetic active compounds were needed to reduce the risk of the diseases. One of the chemical compound groups that can be used as antioxidant and antidiabetic is phenolic compound. Isolation of the methanolic extract of the bark of M. fatua Houtt using chromatography methods led to the isolation of phenolic compound. Methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate showed antioxidant and antidiabetic activities through DPPH free radicals scavenger and α-glucosidase inhibitions activities test showed IC50 value 7.96 and 7.68 ug / mL, respectively

  2. The Effect of E-Selen Antioxidant on the Fatty Acids Content of the Homogenate of Unirradiated and Irradiated Pupae of Ceratitis Capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, Y.S.; Abbassy, S.A.; Elakhdar, E.A.H.; Elakhdar, E.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    As antioxidant E-selen was added to the larval artificial diets of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. The produced full grown pupae were exposed to gamma rays at dose rate of 90 Gy. The fatty acid contents of the normal and irradiated insects were analyzed to test to what extent, the uptake of the antioxidant will ameliorate the physiological damage induced to the medfly pupae, as a result of their exposure to irradiation. The results obtained by using Gas-liquid chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters, showed the palmitic and oleic acids to be the most predominant fatty acids in all pupal homogenates in both normal and irradiated pupae, either by the uptake of doses of the E-selen or without. The uptake of E-Selen with a dose of 0.3 mg led to a complete absence of the lauric and myristic acids in the homogenates of the unirradiated pupae of the medfly. This absence of lauric and myristic acids was accompanied by a decrease in the concentrations of the palmitic and linoleic acids reaching 25.17% and 32.98%, respectively as compared to pupae without the uptake of antioxidant. The concentrations of both the stearic and oleic acids showed an obvious increment reaching 199.22% and 58.94%, respectively, relative to those reared on the defined media and no added E.Selen. Exposure of the pupae to a dose of 90 Gy, resulted in an increment in the concentrations of the saturated lauric and myristic acid reaching 96.77% and 34.07%, respectively, relative to the untreated ones. While, at the same dose level, there were decrements in the concentrations of the palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids with percentages reaching 6.4, 9.22, 3.65 and 1.15%, respectively as compared to unirradiated controls. Irradiation of the pupae with sterilizing dose (90 Gy) after up taking the E-Selen in their larval diets, led to the increase of the concentrations of lauric, oleic and linoleic acids by ratios of 16.82, 8.84 and 29.26%, respectively as compared to their

  3. Sun-drying diminishes the antioxidative potentials of leaves of Eugenia uniflora against formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances induced in homogenates of rat brain and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kade, Ige Joseph; Ibukun, Emmanuel Oluwafemi; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; da Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira

    2008-08-01

    Extracts from leaves of Pitanga cherry (Eugenia uniflora) are considered to be effective against many diseases, and are therefore used in popular traditional medicines. In the present study, the antioxidative effect of sun-dried (PCS) and air-dried (PCA) ethanolic extracts of Pitanga cherry leaves were investigated. The antioxidant effects were tested by measuring the ability of both PCS and PCA to inhibit the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) induced by prooxidant agents such as iron (II) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in rat brain and liver tissues. The results showed that while PCA significantly (P<0.0001) inhibited the formation of TBARS in both liver and brain tissues homogenates, PCS did not. Further investigation reveals that the phenolic content of the PCS was significantly (P<0.0001) lower compared to PCA. Since phenolics in plants largely contributed to the antioxidative potency of plants, we conclude that air-drying should be employed in the preparation of extracts of Pitanga cherry leaves before it is administered empirically as a traditional medicament, and hence this study serves a public awareness to traditional medical practitioners.

  4. The Effect of increasing levels of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed on the performance, ruminal fermentation, antioxidant status and milk fatty acid profile of Saanen dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, M; Bashtani, M; Naserian, A A; Farhangfar, H

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed (DPS) on the performance, ruminal fermentation, antioxidant status and milk fatty acid (FA) profile of dairy goats. Eight multiparous Saanen dairy goats, averaging 97 ± 7 days in milk (DIM) and 2150 ± 130 g of milk production, were used in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design. Experimental diets contained 0% (control), 6% (DPS6), 12% (DPS12) and 18% (DPS18) of DPS. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and the composition and digestibility of the dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) were not affected by the diets. Adding DPS to the diet increased linearly total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in milk and blood (p content in milk and blood. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the blood, ruminal pH, NH 3 -N, ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA), acetate, butyrate, isovalerate and valeric acid concentration had no significant effect among the diets. The propionate acid concentration decreased linearly as DPS was added to the diet, and DPS18 had minimum propionate acid concentration (p < 0.05). The inclusion of DPS18 to diets increased linearly the proportion of C18:0 (compared to control) as well as cis-18:1, trans-18:1 (compared to control and DPS6) and decreased C14:1 (compared to control) in milk fat (p < 0.05). The concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in DPS18 was higher than other diets (p = 0.04). The results of this study implied that replacing DPS with a part of dairy goats' ration had no negative effects on the performance of the animals and could also improve the antioxidant activity and increase the concentration of CLA in their milk. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. A Comprehensive Study on the Effect of Roasting and Frying on Fatty Acids Profiles and Antioxidant Capacity of Almonds, Pine, Cashew, and Pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeel Ali Ghazzawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to evaluate the effects of frying and roasting on nuts. Frying and roasting were performed according to the local Jordanian home-made cuisine, and the nuts under experiment were raw almonds, pine, cashew, and pistachio. Nuts samples were roasted at 110°C for 16 minutes and fried at 175°C for 2.5 minutes. The results show that both roasting and frying of nuts did not affect the flavonoids content except for roasted pistachios where significant rise of flavonoids content was detected. Total phenolic content showed no significant differences except for pine nuts in which it increased significantly in both roasting and frying. Oxidative stability, presented by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH, was significantly different in all nuts except for pistachio nuts that have shown no differences. Fatty acids profile, presented by saturated fatty acids (SFA, oleic acid (OL, and essential fatty acids (EFA, was affected significantly by roasting and frying, especially for SFA in almonds and pine nuts and α-linoleic acid (ALA contents of pine. In conclusion, the effects of roasting and frying on the aforementioned nuts species were positive for fatty acids profile and antioxidants activity.

  6. Enhancing emulsification and antioxidant ability of egg albumin by moderately acid hydrolysis: Modulating an emulsion-based system for mulberry seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jing; Kang, Xu; Yuan, Jiang-Lan

    2018-07-01

    Mulberry seed oil (MSO) is a kind of potential health-care lipids. This study, we investigated unsaturated fatty acids profiles of freshly squeezed MSO by GC-MS and modulated an oil-in-water emulsion system stabilized by acid hydrolyzed egg albumin (AHEA) to protect MSO from oxidation. The results showed that the content of total unsaturated fatty acids in MSO was almost 80%, of which 9, 12- and 10, 13-linoleic acid was over 60% and 10% respectively. In the case of the MSO-in-AHEA emulsions, it was observed that acid hydrolysis improved emulsifying effect, emulsifying stability and antioxidant activity of egg albumin (EA). The hydrolysates of EA (1%, w/w) acid hydrolyzed for 4 h at 85 °C had the best DPPH radical scavenging efficiency. It was suitable for EA to hydrolyze for 4 to 12 h at pH 2.5 and 85 °C because of their better emulsification and oxidation stability than the others. The results about AHEA could be valuable for designing delivery and protect systems for MSO or other bioactive component to avoid their oxidative damage or control their release. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of antioxidant activities of different parts from snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.) and identification of their natural antioxidants using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L X; Hu, D J; Lam, S C; Ge, L; Wu, D; Zhao, J; Long, Z R; Yang, W J; Fan, B; Li, S P

    2016-01-08

    Snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.), a world-widely well-known flower tea material, has attracted more and more attention because of its beneficial health effects such as antioxidant activity and special flavor. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) based assay was employed for comparison and identification of antioxidants in different samples of snow chrysanthemum. The results showed that snow chrysanthemum flowers possessed the highest while stems presented the lowest antioxidant capacities. Fourteen detected peaks with antioxidant activity were temporarily identified as 3,4',5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, chlorogenic acid, 2R-3',4',8-trihydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, flavanomarein, flavanocorepsin, flavanokanin, quercetagitin-7-O-glucoside, 3',5,5',7-tetrahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, marein, maritimein, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coreopsin, okanin and acetyl-marein by comparing their UV spectra, retention times and MS data with standards or literature data. Antioxidants existed in snow chrysanthemum are quite different from those reported in Chrysanthemum morifolium, a well-known traditional beverage in China, which indicated that snow chrysanthemum may be a promising herbal tea material with obvious antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Phenolic Acid Profiling, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities, and miRNA Regulation in the Polyphenols of 16 Blueberry Samples from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xianming; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Hongqing; Xu, Jing; He, Jiuming; Liu, Liying; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Ruoyun; Kang, Jie

    2017-02-18

    To investigate the anti-atherosclerosis related mechanism of blueberries, the phenolic acids (PAs) content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as the microRNA (miRNA) regulation of polyphenol fractions in blueberry samples from China were studied. Sixteen batches of blueberries including 14 commercialized cultivars (Reka, Patriot, Brigitta, Bluecrop, Berkeley, Duke, Darrow, Northland, Northblue, Northcountry, Bluesource, Southgood, O'Neal, and Misty) were used in this study. Seven PAs in the polyphenol fractions from 16 blueberry samples in China were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS²). The antioxidant activities of blueberry polyphenols were tested by (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH]) assay. The anti-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) activities of the polyphenol fractions of the blueberries were investigated by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The correlation analysis showed that the antioxidant (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH]) and anti-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) activities of the polyphenol fractions of the blueberries were in accordance with their PA contents. Although the polyphenol-enriched fractions of blueberries could inhibit the microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-125b) to different extents, no significant contribution from the PAs was observed. The inhibition of these miRNAs could mostly be attributed to the other compounds present in the polyphenol-enriched fraction of the blueberries. This is the first study to evaluate the PAs content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and miRNA regulation of Chinese blueberries.

  9. Phenolic Acid Profiling, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities, and miRNA Regulation in the Polyphenols of 16 Blueberry Samples from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the anti-atherosclerosis related mechanism of blueberries, the phenolic acids (PAs content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as the microRNA (miRNA regulation of polyphenol fractions in blueberry samples from China were studied. Sixteen batches of blueberries including 14 commercialized cultivars (Reka, Patriot, Brigitta, Bluecrop, Berkeley, Duke, Darrow, Northland, Northblue, Northcountry, Bluesource, Southgood, O’Neal, and Misty were used in this study. Seven PAs in the polyphenol fractions from 16 blueberry samples in China were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS2. The antioxidant activities of blueberry polyphenols were tested by (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] assay. The anti-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6] activities of the polyphenol fractions of the blueberries were investigated by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The correlation analysis showed that the antioxidant (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] and anti-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6] activities of the polyphenol fractions of the blueberries were in accordance with their PA contents. Although the polyphenol-enriched fractions of blueberries could inhibit the microRNAs (miRNAs (miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-125b to different extents, no significant contribution from the PAs was observed. The inhibition of these miRNAs could mostly be attributed to the other compounds present in the polyphenol-enriched fraction of the blueberries. This is the first study to evaluate the PAs content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and miRNA regulation of Chinese blueberries.

  10. Effect of different drying methods on chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and antioxidant compounds retention of leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandopu Sravan; Manoj, Prabhakaran; Shetty, Nandini P; Giridhar, Parvatam

    2015-07-01

    Use of the indigenous, easily accessible leafy vegetable roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) for value addition is gaining impetus as its nutritive and nutraceutical compounds are exposed by investigations. Being a perishable, storage is challenging, hence different methods of drying have been an attractive alternative for its postharvest usage in foods without much compromising its quality and antioxidant potential. Room- and freeze-dried samples were found to have best quality in terms of colour, total flavonoid content (18.53 ± 2.39 and 18.66 ± 1.06 g kg(-1) respectively), total phenolic content (17.76 ± 1.93 and 18.91 ± 0.48 g kg(-1)), chlorophyll content (1.59 ± 0.001 and 1.55 ± 0.001 g kg(-1)) and ascorbic acid content (11.11 ± 1.04 and 8.92 ± 0.94 g kg(-1)) compared with those subjected to infrared, crossflow, microwave, oven or sun drying. Samples treated by room and freeze drying retained maximum antioxidant potential as shown by the phosphomolybdate method and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays. Cold water and hot water extracts showed significantly higher total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity owing to the greater solubility of phenolics and destruction of cellular components in polar solvents than in organic solvents. The data obtained show the potential for retaining quality parameters of roselle leaf under suitable drying methods. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effects of dietary chlorogenic acid on growth performance, antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Li, Zheng; Li, Jian; Duan, Ya-Fei; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Huang, Zhong; Lin, Hei-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    An eight-week feeding trial followed by an acute combined stress test of low-salinity and nitrite were performed to evaluate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp were randomly allocated in 12 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different levels of CGA (100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) feed) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WG), biomass gain (BG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed intake were determined after feeding for 56 days. Antioxidant capacity were evaluated by determining the activity of total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) as well as the gene expression of GSH-Px and CAT in the hepatopancreas of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at the end of the combined stress test. The results indicated that supplemention of CGA had no significant effects on the growth performance and the activities of TAS, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in hepatopancreas of shrimp cultured under normal conditions for 56 days. However, compared with the control group, CGA (200, 400 mg kg(-1) feed) significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite, as indicated by the significant (P shrimp treated with CGA in the combined tress test. Our findings suggested that CGA possessed dual-modulatory effects on antioxidant capacity of L. vannamei and could be a potential feed additive that can enhance shrimp resistance against environmental stresses. The recommended application dosage is 200 mg kg(-1) and further studies are needed to clarify the action model of CGA efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antioxidant food supplements in human health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Packer, Lester; Hiramatsu, Midori; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    1999-01-01

    ... of many of nature's antioxidant substances; grapes: starting source for red wine production; rich in antioxidants; onions: rich source of the bioflavonoid quercetin. This book is printed on acid-...

  13. Investigation of free amino acid, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and purine alkaloids to assess the health properties of non-Camellia tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Bi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC, total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and antioxidant activity (DPPH. The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62–18.99 mg/g are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55–24.99 mg/g. However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g. Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL. Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs.

  14. Investigation of free amino acid, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and purine alkaloids to assess the health properties of non-Camellia tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wu; He, Chunnian; Ma, Yunyun; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Linghua Harris; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Peigen

    2016-03-01

    To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia) were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea) for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs) and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC), total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay), and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62-18.99 mg/g) are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55-24.99 mg/g). However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g). Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL). Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline) were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs.

  15. Dietary olive oil effect on antioxidant status and fatty acid profile in the erythrocyte of 2,4-D- exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakbi Amel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS has been linked to the development of several diseases such as cardiovascular, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. This study investigates the possible protective effect of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO, lipophilic fraction (OOLF and hydrophilic fraction (OOHF on oxidative stress and fatty acid profile of erythrocytes in 2,4-D treated rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups: control (C, (2,4-D at a dose of 5 mg/kg b.w., (2,4-D/EVOO was given 2,4-D plus EVOO, (2,4-D/OOHF that received 2,4-D plus hydrophilic fraction, (2,4-D/OOLF treated with 2,4-D plus lipophilic fraction, (EVOO that received only EVOO, (OOHF was given hydrophilic fraction and (OOLF treated with lipophilic fraction. These components were daily administered by gavages for 4 weeks. Results 2,4-D treatment lead to decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione reductase (GR associated with a higher amount of MDA level. Erythrocyte membranes' fatty acid composition was also significantly modified with 2,4-D exposure. EVOO and hydrophilic fraction supplemented to rats with or not 2,4-D treatment enhanced the antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced the MDA level. However, lipophilic fraction did not show any improvement in oxidative damage induced by 2,4-D in spite its richness in MUFA and vitamins. Conclusion EVOO administered to 2,4-D-treated rats protected erythrocyte membranes against oxidative damage by means of preventing excessive lipid peroxidation to increase the MUFA composition and increase maintaining antioxidants enzymes at normal concentrations.

  16. Effects of administration of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, persimmons, and pods on antioxidative ability in UV-irradiated ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosotani, Keisuke; Yoshida, Minoru; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of supplementing diets with carotenoid and ascorbic acid (AsA) on the antioxidative ability of Osteogenic Disorder-Shionogi (ODS) rats, we added synthetic beta-carotene (betaC), AsA, and powders of persimmon (Ka) and pods (Po) containing betaC and AsA to the diet and obtained the following results. The urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentration was low in the -betaC.AsA and +AsA groups but high in the +betaC.AsA, +Ka, and +Po groups. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in both the liver and skin were higher in the -betaC.AsA group than in the +betaC.AsA group and were low in the +Ka and +Po groups. As antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was high in the +betaC.AsA group, low in the -beta3C.AsA group in both the skin and liver, and also high in the + Ka and +Po group in the liver. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was high in the -betaC.AsA group and low in the +betaC.AsA and +Ka groups in both the skin and liver. Catalase (CAT) activity in the liver was low in the -betaC.AsA, +AsA, and +betaC groups and high in the +betaC.AsA and +Po groups. These results confirmed that the administration of betaC, AsA, and persimmons and pods increases antioxidative ability in the skin and liver of ultraviolet-b(UV-B)-irradiated ODS rats.

  17. Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin–tannic acid complex as influenced by types of interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2010-01-01

    The non-covalent interaction between cuttlefish skin gelatin and tannic acid was observed in gelatin modified with unoxidized tannic acid at pH 7, whereas covalent interaction was found in gelatin modified with oxidized tannic acid at pH 9. Degree of tannic acid incorporation into gelatin via

  18. Muscle antioxidant (vitamin E) and major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour of meat from lambs fed a roughage based diet with flaxseed or algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Burnett, Viv F; Norng, Sorn; Hopkins, David L; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of feeding flaxseed or algae supplements to lambs on muscle antioxidant potential (vitamin E), major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour was investigated. Lambs (n=120) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments according to liveweight and fed the following diets for eight weeks: Annual ryegrass hay [60%]+subterranean clover hay [40%] pellets=Basal diet; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%)=Flax; Basal diet with algae (1.8%)=Algae; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) and algae (1.8%)=FlaxAlgae. Flaxseed or algae supplementation significantly affected major fatty acid groups in muscle. The addition of algae (average of Algae and FlaxAlgae) resulted in lower vitamin E concentration in muscle (Palgae (average of Basal and Flax). Increasing muscle EPA+DHA by algae supplementation significantly increased lipid oxidation, but retail display colour of fresh meat was not affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A multiple free-radical scavenging (MULTIS) study on the antioxidant capacity of a neuroprotective drug, edaravone as compared with uric acid, glutathione, and trolox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamogawa, Erisa; Sueishi, Yoshimi

    2014-03-01

    Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-5-one) is a neuroprotective drug that has been used for brain ischemia injury treatment. Because its activity is speculated to be due to free radical scavenging activity, we carried out a quantitative determination of edaravone's free radical scavenging activity against multiple free radical species. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping-based multiple free-radical scavenging (MULTIS) method was employed, where target free radicals were hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, alkoxyl radical, alkylperoxyl radical, methyl radical, and singlet oxygen. Edaravone showed relatively high scavenging abilities against hydroxyl radical (scavenging rate constant k=2.98×10(11) M(-1) s(-1)), singlet oxygen (k=2.75×10(7) M(-1) s(-1)), and methyl radical (k=3.00×10(7) M(-1) s(-1)). Overall, edaravone's scavenging activity against multiple free radical species is as robust as other known potent antioxidant such as uric acid, glutathione, and trolox. A radar chart illustration of the MULTIS activity relative to uric acid, glutathione, and trolox indicates that edaravone has a high and balanced antioxidant activity with low specificity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Increasing Doses of UV-B on Main Phenolic Acids Content, Antioxidant Activity and Estimated Biomass in Lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usano-Alemany, Jaime; Panjai, Lachinee

    2015-07-01

    Lavandin is a well-known aromatic plant cultivated mainly for its valuable essential oil. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid so far to the quantification of other natural products such as polyphenols. Accordingly, we examined the effect of increasing doses of UV-B radiation on the main phenolic content, antioxidant activity and estimated biomass of one year old lavandin pots compared with pots grown outdoors. Significantly higher total phenolic content and concentration of main polyphenols have been found in outdoor plants. Rosmarinic acid has been described as the major phenolic compound in methanolic extracts (max. 25.9 ± 9.7 mg/g(-1) DW). Furthermore, we found that increasing doses of UV-B promote the plant growth of this species as well as the accumulation of phenolic compounds although with less antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals. On the other hand, our results showed a remarkable variability among individual plants regarding the content of major phenolic acids. The application of UV-B doses during plant growth could be a method to promote biomass in this species along with the promotion of higher content of valuable secondary metabolites.

  1. Changes in the flavonoid and phenolic acid contents and antioxidant activity of red leaf lettuce (Lollo Rosso) due to cultivation under plastic films varying in ultraviolet transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Macías, Paulina; Ordidge, Matthew; Vysini, Eleni; Waroonphan, Saran; Battey, Nicholas H; Gordon, Michael H; Hadley, Paul; John, Philip; Lovegrove, Julie A; Wagstaffe, Alexandra

    2007-12-12

    Red leaf lettuce (Lollo Rosso) was grown under three types of plastic films that varied in transparency to UV radiation (designated as UV block, UV low, and UV window). Flavonoid composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and antioxidant capacity by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Exposure to increased levels of UV radiation during cultivation caused the leaves to redden and increased concentrations of total phenols and the main flavonoids, quercetin and cyanidin glycosides, as well as luteolin conjugates and phenolic acids. The total phenol content increased from 1.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of fresh weight (FW) for lettuce grown under UV block film to 2.9 and 3.5 mg of GAE/g of FW for lettuce grown under the UV low and UV window films. The antioxidant activity was also higher in lettuce exposed to higher levels of UV radiation with ORAC values of 25.4 and 55.1 micromol of Trolox equivalents/g of FW for lettuce grown under the UV block and UV window films, respectively. The content of phenolic acids, quantified as caffeic acid, was also different, ranging from 6.2 to 11.1 micromol/g of FW for lettuce cultivated under the lowest and highest UV exposure plastic films, respectively. Higher concentrations of the flavonoid glycosides were observed with increased exposure to UV radiation, as demonstrated by the concentrations of aglycones after hydrolysis, which were cyanidin (ranging from 165 to 793 microg/g), quercetin (ranging from 196 to 880 microg/g), and luteolin (ranging from 19 to 152 microg/g). The results demonstrate the potential of the use of UV-transparent plastic as a means of increasing beneficial flavonoid content of red leaf lettuce when the crop is grown in polytunnels.

  2. Effects of feeding a Moringa oleifera rachis and twig preparation to dairy cows on their milk production and fatty acid composition, and plasma antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Si, Bingwen; Deng, Kaidong; Tu, Yan; Zhou, Chaolong; Diao, Qiyu

    2018-01-01

    We determined how supplementing the diet of lactating, multiparous Holstein dairy cows with a preparation of Moringa oleifera rachises and twigs affected their milk production and quality and the levels of plasma antioxidants. We found that milk yield increased in cows receiving the 6% (w/w) moringa supplement compared with that of the control. Addition of the moringa supplement increased the concentration of milk fat and decreased the somatic cell count in the milk. However, protein, glucose and total solid and urea nitrogen concentrations in the milk were the same for all treatments. The concentration of glutathione peroxidase increased for cows fed the moringa supplement compared with the control. The percentages of total unsaturated fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid increased in the milk of cows fed the moringa supplement compared with those of the controls. Addition of the moringa supplement into the diet of lactating multiparous cows improved milk production and health status and modified milk fatty acid profile positively. The results suggested that moringa supplement could be used as a diet supplement for producing high quality and healthier milk. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) seed using response surface methodology and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali

    2012-10-08

    In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon seeds was investigated through response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables were power level (25-75%), temperature (45-55 °C) and sonication time (20-40 min). It was found that all process variables have significant (p yield (108.62 mg-extract/g-dried matter). The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition of extract obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with those of oil obtained by the Soxhlet method. It was found that crude extract yield (CEY) of ultrasound-assisted extraction was lower than that of the Soxhlet method, whereas antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were clearly higher than those of the Soxhlet extract. Furthermore, both extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids of the both extracts were linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  4. Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase Underpins Persistent Cardiac Nutritional-Preconditioning by Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace G. Abdukeyum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species paradoxically underpin both ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R damage and ischaemic preconditioning (IPC cardioprotection. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to peroxidation, but are paradoxically cardioprotective. This study tested the hypothesis that LCn-3 PUFA cardioprotection is underpinned by peroxidation, upregulating antioxidant activity to reduce I/R-induced lipid oxidation, and the mechanisms of this nutritional preconditioning contrast to mechanisms of IPC. Rats were fed: fish oil (LCn-3 PUFA; sunflower seed oil (n-6 PUFA; or beef tallow (saturated fat, SF enriched diets for six weeks. Isolated hearts were subject to: 180 min normoxic perfusion; a 30 min coronary occlusion ischaemia protocol then 120 min normoxic reperfusion; or a 3 × 5 min global IPC protocol, 30 min ischaemia, then reperfusion. Dietary LCn-3 PUFA raised basal: membrane docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA; fatty acid peroxidisability index; concentrations of lipid oxidation products; and superoxide dismutase (MnSOD activity (but not CuZnSOD or glutathione peroxidase. Infarct size correlated inversely with basal MnSOD activity (r2 = 0.85 in the ischaemia protocol and positively with I/R-induced lipid oxidation (lipid hydroperoxides (LPO, r2 = 0.475; malondialdehyde (MDA, r2 = 0.583 across ischaemia and IPC protocols. While both dietary fish oil and IPC infarct-reduction were associated with reduced I/R-induced lipid oxidation, fish oil produced nutritional preconditioning by prior LCn-3 PUFA incorporation and increased peroxidisability leading to up-regulated mitochondrial SOD antioxidant activity.

  5. An electrochemical sensor for gallic acid based on Fe2O3/electro-reduced graphene oxide composite: Estimation for the antioxidant capacity index of wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Feng; Zheng, Delun; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Zhan, Fengping; Yuan, Xiaoning; Gao, Fei; Wang, Qingxiang

    2015-01-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for gallic acid (GA), an important polyphenolic compound, was fabricated using the hybrid material of chitosan (CS), fishbone-shaped Fe 2 O 3 (fFe 2 O 3 ), and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) as the sensing matrix. The electrochemical characterization experiments showed that the CS–fFe 2 O 3 –ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (CS–fFe 2 O 3 –ERGO/GCE) had large surface area, excellent electronic conductivity and high stability. The GA presented a superior electrochemical response on CS–fFe 2 O 3 –ERGO/GCE in comparison with the single-component modified electrode. The electrochemical mechanism and optimal test conditions of GA on the electrode surface were carefully investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak currents in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) experiments exhibited a good linear relationship with the logarithmic values of GA concentration over the range from 1.0 × 10 −6 M to 1.0 × 10 −4 M. Based on signal-to-noise (S/N) characteristic of 3, the detection limit was estimated to be 1.5 × 10 −7 M. The proposed sensor has also been applied for estimating the antioxidant capacity index of real samples of red and white wines. - Highlights: • Fishbone-shaped Fe 2 O 3 (fFe 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple template-free solvothermal method. • The nanocomposite of fFe 2 O 3 , graphene and chitosan was used as the sensing platform for gallic acid. • The sensor shows a wide linear range and low detection limit for gallic acid. • The antioxidant capacity index of wines was successfully evaluated by the sensor

  6. Antioxidant activity of gallic acid and methyl gallate in triacylglycerols of Kilka fish oil and its oil-in-water emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Maryam; Farhoosh, Reza; Sharif, Ali

    2014-09-15

    The anti-DPPH radical effect as well as anti-peroxide activity of gallic acid, methyl gallate, and α-tocopherol in a bulk Kilka fish oil and its oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by soy protein isolate at 55°C were investigated. Gallic acid with the lowest hydrophobicity (log P=-0.28) was found to be the most active antiradical agent (IC50=29.5 μM), followed by methyl gallate (IC50=38.0 μM, log P=-0.23) and α-tocopherol (IC50=105.3 μM, log P=0.70). The anti-peroxide activity in the bulk oil system decreased in the order of methyl gallate>gallic acid>α-tocopherol. In the emulsion system, methyl gallate still behaved better than gallic acid, but the highest activity belonged to α-tocopherol. Based on the calculation of a number of kinetic parameters, the antioxidants, in general, showed better performances in the bulk oil system than in the emulsion system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic capacity of a roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Ramírez-de León, José A; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2015-04-01

    Plant infusions are consumed due to their beneficial effects on health, which is attributed to their bioactive compounds content. However, these compounds are susceptible to degradation during processing and storage. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibitory activity of roselle beverages during storage. The optimum extraction conditions of roselle polyphenolic compounds was of 95 °C/60 min, which was obtained by a second order experimental design. The incorporation of stevia increased the stability of colour and some polyphenols, such as quercetin, gallic acid and rosmarinic acid, during storage. In addition, stevia decreased the loss of ABTS, DPPH scavenging activity and α-amylase inhibitory capacity, whereas the incorporation of citric acid showed no effect. These results may contribute to the improvement of technological processes for the elaboration of hypocaloric and functional beverages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Skin delivery of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and hyaluronic acid loaded nano-transfersomes for antioxidant and anti-aging effects in UV radiation induced skin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avadhani, Kiran S; Manikkath, Jyothsna; Tiwari, Mradul; Chandrasekhar, Misra; Godavarthi, Ashok; Vidya, Shimoga M; Hariharapura, Raghu C; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Udupa, Nayanabhirama; Mutalik, Srinivas

    2017-11-01

    The present work attempts to develop and statistically optimize transfersomes containing EGCG and hyaluronic acid to synergize the UV radiation-protective ability of both compounds, along with imparting antioxidant and anti-aging effects. Transfersomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique, using soy phosphatidylcholine and sodium cholate, combined with high-pressure homogenization. They were characterized with respect to size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, entrapment efficiency, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), in vitro antioxidant activity and ex vivo skin permeation studies. Cell viability, lipid peroxidation, intracellular ROS levels and expression of MMPs (2 and 9) were determined in human keratinocyte cell lines (HaCaT). The composition of the transfersomes was statistically optimized by Design of Experiments using Box-Behnken design with four factors at three levels. The optimized transfersome formulation showed vesicle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of 101.2 ± 6.0 nm, 0.245 ± 0.069 and -44.8 ± 5.24 mV, respectively. FTIR and DSC showed no interaction between EGCG and the selected excipients. XRD results revealed no form conversion of EGCG in its transfersomal form. The optimized transfersomes were found to increase the cell viability and reduce the lipid peroxidation, intracellular ROS and expression of MMPs in HaCaT cells. The optimized transfersomal formulation of EGCG and HA exhibited considerably higher skin permeation and deposition of EGCG than that observed with plain EGCG. The results underline the potential application of the developed transfersomes in sunscreen cream/lotions for improvement of UV radiation-protection along with deriving antioxidant and anti-aging effects.

  9. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in different stages on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z Y; Li, J L; Zhang, L; Jiang, Y; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of basal dietary supplementation with 500 mg/kg alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in different stages in broiler chickens. A total of 240 Arbor Acre chickens were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups, each treatment containing 6 replicates of 10 chickens each. Group 1 was the control group without LA supplementation; Group 2 was supplied with LA in the starter period; Group 3 was supplied with LA in the grower period; and Group 4 was supplied with LA in the whole period. The results showed that LA supplementation improved average feed intake and body weight gain in all three experimental groups, especially in Group 2. LA supplementation significantly decreased abdominal fat yield in Groups 3 and 4. LA supplementation all improved hepatic total antioxidant capacity, the level of glutathione, the activities of total superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase, in particular in Group 4. LA supplementation decreased the activity of liver xanthine oxidase (XO) in all experimental groups, and that of liver monoamine oxidase in Group 3. The activities of liver CAT and XO in Group 2 were higher than that in Group 3. LA supplementation elevated the pH24 h and decreased drip loss in breast meat in Groups 3 and 4. In conclusion, LA supplementation can improve growth performance, antioxidant properties and meat quality in broiler chicken. LA supplementation in the starter period can improve growth performance and supplementation in the grower - and in the whole period can improve carcass characteristics. There was no significant difference in meat quality of broiler chickens fed on LA-supplemented diet in different stages.

  10. Microwave-assisted synthesis, structural characterization, DFT studies, antibacterial and antioxidant activity of 2-methyl-4-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoline-2-carboxylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obafemi, Craig A.; Fadare, Olatomide A.; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Millikan, Sean P.; Obuotor, Efere M.; Iwalewa, Ezekiel O.; Famuyiwa, Samson O.; Sanusi, Kayode; Yilmaz, Yusuf; Ceylan, Ümit

    2018-03-01

    In the present study a new tetrahydroquinazoline-2-carboxylic, C10H10N2O3, 1‧, was synthesized and its structure was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR data and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The spectral results are in line with the proposed structure. Single crystal X-ray structural analysis of the compound showed that the crystal structure adopts a monoclinic space group P21/c, with the packing of the molecule stabilized by Cdbnd O … …Hsbnd O, Nsbnd H … ….Odbnd Csbnd Osbnd intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The theoretical geometrical parameters of the compound have been calculated using density functional (DFT) and time-dependent density functional (TD-DFT) theory methods and have been used to predict the thermodynamic one-electron redox potential and the electronic absorption property of the compound. The theoretical characterization matched the experimental measurements, showing a good correlation. The calculated HOMO-LUMO gap (4.79 eV) suggests that compound 1‧ could be a potential antioxidant. The synthesized compound was screened for its in vitro antimicrobial activity against selected bacterial strains and antioxidant activity using the TAC, FRAP, NO and ABTS models. In vitro antioxidant activity of 1' showed a moderate activity, but weaker scavenging activity than the standards of ascorbic acid and trolox. Results of the antibacterial activity of the tested compound showed that it possesses a higher activity against Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus polymyxa, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus than the two standard drugs, streptomycin and tetracycline, and better activity than tetracycline against Escherichia coli.

  11. Effect of different dietary energy and protein sources on antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and microstructure of salted yolks in laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, D; Hu, Y J; Fouad, A M; Lin, C X; Xu, Z P; Chen, W; Fan, Q L; Xia, W G; Wang, S; Wang, Y; Yang, L; Zheng, C T

    2018-01-08

    The study investigated whether different dietary energy and protein sources affect laying performance, antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and quality of salted yolks in laying ducks. In all, 360 19-week-old Longyan ducks were randomly assigned to four diets in a factorial arrangement (2×2). The four diets consisted of two energy sources, corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and two protein sources, soybean meal (SM) and rapeseed meal with corn distillers dried grains with solubles (RMD), and each treatment contained six replicates of 15 birds each. The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 10.84 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 17%). The results showed that egg production, average egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio were not affected by diets (P>0.05). Plasma contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH/oxidized glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were lower (P<0.05) in ducks fed the RMD diets compared with those fed SM diets with a substantial increase (P=0.006) in plasma content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Egg yolks from ducks fed SO diets had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids compared with CO diets (P<0.001). Similarly, ducks fed RMD diets had a higher content of PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio in fresh yolks (P<0.001), and increased salted yolk MDA, carbonylated proteins content and incidence of hard salted yolks (P<0.05) compared with SM diets. Scanning electron microscopy showed that salted yolks contained rougher polyhedral granules and fewer fat droplets, and were surrounded with a layer of bunchy fibers in ducks fed SO+RMD than those fed CO+SM diet. In conclusion, the current study showed that feeding laying ducks with diets containing SO or RMD reduced antioxidant capacity and increased egg yolk concentrations of PUFA. It appeared that egg yolks from ducks fed these diets were more sensitive to lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation during salting, and

  12. Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Adverse Effects of Salt Stress on Dianthus superbus (Caryophyllaceae) by Activating Photosynthesis, Protecting Morphological Structure, and Enhancing the Antioxidant System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaohua; Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Xule; Hu, Qingdi; Qian, Renjuan

    2017-01-01

    Salt stress critically affects the physiological processes and morphological structure of plants, resulting in reduced plant growth. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule that mitigates the adverse effects of salt stress on plants. Large pink Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae) usually exhibit salt-tolerant traits under natural conditions. To further clarify the salt-tolerance level of D. superbus and the regulating mechanism of exogenous SA on the growth of D. superbus under different salt stresses, we conducted a pot experiment to examine the biomass, photosynthetic parameters, stomatal structure, chloroplast ultrastructure, reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations, and antioxidant activities of D. superbus young shoots under 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% NaCl conditions, with and without 0.5 mM SA. D. superbus exhibited reduced growth rate, decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), increased relative electric conductivity (REC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, and poorly developed stomata and chloroplasts under 0.6 and 0.9% salt stress. However, exogenously SA effectively improved the growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activity, and stoma and chloroplast development of D. superbus. However, when the plants were grown under severe salt stress (0.9% NaCl condition), there was no significant difference in the plant growth and physiological responses between SA-treated and non-SA-treated plants. Therefore, our research suggests that exogenous SA can effectively counteract the adverse effect of moderate salt stress on D. superbus growth and development. PMID:28484476

  13. Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Adverse Effects of Salt Stress on Dianthus superbus (Caryophyllaceae by Activating Photosynthesis, Protecting Morphological Structure, and Enhancing the Antioxidant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Ma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress critically affects the physiological processes and morphological structure of plants, resulting in reduced plant growth. Salicylic acid (SA is an important signal molecule that mitigates the adverse effects of salt stress on plants. Large pink Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae usually exhibit salt-tolerant traits under natural conditions. To further clarify the salt-tolerance level of D. superbus and the regulating mechanism of exogenous SA on the growth of D. superbus under different salt stresses, we conducted a pot experiment to examine the biomass, photosynthetic parameters, stomatal structure, chloroplast ultrastructure, reactive oxygen species (ROS concentrations, and antioxidant activities of D. superbus young shoots under 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% NaCl conditions, with and without 0.5 mM SA. D. superbus exhibited reduced growth rate, decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn, increased relative electric conductivity (REC and malondialdehyde (MDA contents, and poorly developed stomata and chloroplasts under 0.6 and 0.9% salt stress. However, exogenously SA effectively improved the growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activity, and stoma and chloroplast development of D. superbus. However, when the plants were grown under severe salt stress (0.9% NaCl condition, there was no significant difference in the plant growth and physiological responses between SA-treated and non-SA-treated plants. Therefore, our research suggests that exogenous SA can effectively counteract the adverse effect of moderate salt stress on D. superbus growth and development.

  14. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo

    2015-04-03

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, Fv/Fm, as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H2O2 production and greater increases in H2O2-decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA Producing Bacteria on Rumen Fermentation, Biogenic Amine Production and Anti-oxidation Using Corn Meal as Substrate

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    Bum Seung Ku

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects and significance of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA producing bacteria (GPB on in vitro rumen fermentation and reduction of biogenic amines (histamine, methylamine, ethylamine, and tyramine using corn meal as a substrate were determined. Ruminal samples collected from ruminally fistulated Holstein cows served as inoculum and corn was used as substrate at 2% dry matter (DM. Different inclusion rates of GPB and GABA were evaluated. After incubation, addition of GPB had no significant effect on in vitro fermentation pH and total gas production, but significantly increased the ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N concentration and reduced the total biogenic amines production (p<0.05. Furthermore, antioxidation activity was improved as indicated by the significantly higher concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px among treated samples when compared to the control (p<0.05. Additionally, 0.2% GPB was established as the optimum inclusion level. Taken together, these results suggest the potential of utilizing GPB as feed additives to improve growth performance in ruminants by reducing biogenic amines and increasing anti-oxidation.

  16. A Polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum Improves Liver Function in Type 2 Diabetic Rats via Antioxidant Action and Short-Chain Fatty Acids Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ke-Xue; Nie, Shao-Ping; Tan, Le-He; Li, Chuan; Gong, De-Ming; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-03-09

    The present study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of polysaccharide isolated from Ganoderma atrum (PSG-1) on liver function in type 2 diabetic rats. Results showed that PSG-1 decreased the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), while increasing hepatic glycogen levels. PSG-1 also exerted strong antioxidant activities, together with upregulated mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt) in the liver of diabetic rats. Moreover, the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were significantly higher in the liver, serum, and faeces of diabetic rats after treating with PSG-1 for 4 weeks. These results suggest that the improvement of PSG-1 on liver function in type 2 diabetic rats may be due to its antioxidant effects, SCFA excretion in the colon from PSG-1, and regulation of hepatic glucose uptake by inducing GLUT4 translocation through PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.

  17. Tree age, fruit size and storage conditions affect levels of ascorbic acid, total phenolic concentrations and total antioxidant activity of 'Kinnow' mandarin juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Samina; Malik, Aman U; Khan, Ahmad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Shafique, Muhammad

    2016-03-15

    Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidants) are important constituents of citrus fruit juice; however, information with regard to their concentrations and changes in relation to tree age and storage conditions is limited. 'Kinnow' (Citrus nobilis Lour × Citrus deliciosa Tenora) mandarin juice from fruit of three tree ages (6, 18 and 35 years old) and fruit sizes (large, medium and small) were examined for their bioactive compounds during 7 days under ambient storage conditions (20 ± 2 °C and 60-65% relative humidity (RH)) and during 60 days under cold storage (4 ± 1 °C and 75-80% RH) conditions. Under ambient conditions, a reduction in total phenolic concentrations (TPC) and in total antioxidant activity (TAA) was found for the juice from all tree ages and fruit sizes. Overall, fruit from 18-year-old trees had higher mean TPC (95.86 µg mL(-1) ) and TAA (93.68 mg L(-1) ), as compared to 6 and 35-year-old trees. Likewise, in cold storage, TAA decreased in all fruit size groups from 18 and 35-year-old trees. In all tree age and fruit size groups, TPC decreased initially during 15 days of cold storage and then increased gradually with increase in storage duration. Ascorbic acid concentrations showed an increasing trend in all fruit size groups from 35-year-old trees. Overall, during cold storage, fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher mean ascorbic acid (33.05 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees had higher TAA (153.1 mg L(-1) ) and TPC (115.1 µg mL(-1) ). Large-sized fruit had higher ascorbic acid (32.08 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations and TAA (157.5 mg L(-1) ). Fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA under ambient storage conditions, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA during cold storage. Small-sized fruit had higher TPC after ambient temperature storage, whereas large fruit size showed higher ascorbic acid concentrations and TAA after cold

  18. Evaluation of Fatty Acid Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity, Mineral Composition and Calorie Values of Some Nuts and Seeds from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Gülay Kırbaşlar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The samples of the hazelnut, peanut, pistachio, almond, walnut, chestnut, pumpkin seed and sunflower seed were collected from Turkey. The fatty acid compositions of Turkish nut and seed oils were analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC were determined. The antioxidant activity of the samples was assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay toward BHT and Vitamin C. Retinol and a -tocopherol were analyzed using High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography with UV Detector (HPLC-UV. The antimicrobial and antifungal activities of Turkish nut and seeds were evaluated using the disk diffusion method toward 9 bacteria and 5 yeasts. The nut and seeds showed strong antimicrobial activity against the test organisms. Spectroscopic determination of minerals (Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, copper, manganese, selenium, zinc, chromium, aluminum of nuts and seeds was performed with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES. The calorie values of samples were measured using a Bomb Calorimeter.

  19. [Exploration on feasibility of introducing bioassay method into quality evaluation of Chinese herbal medicines by studying on the correlation between antioxidant activity of Prunella vulgaris and its total phenolic acids content for example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei-Hong; Li, Chun; Xin, Wei-Mei; Lin, Li-Mei; Xia, Bo-Hou; Rong, Li-Xin; Yang, Li-Xin; Yi, Hong; Zhang, Yong-Xin; Chen, Liang-Mian; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2016-07-01

    This paper aims to investigate the correlation between the antioxidant activity of Prunella vulgaris and its total phenolic acids content by measuring the antioxidant activity of different sources and different organs of P. vulgaris and the total contents of protocatechuic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde, caffeic acid, salviaflaside and rosmarinic acid in these samples. Using the 50% methanol extract of P. vulgaris samples as the research object, DPPH method and HPLC method were used respectively to determine the antioxidant activities and the total contents of the above-mentioned five analytes in P. vulgaris samples. 0.5 mL of 50% methanol extract of P. vulgaris reacts with 0.1 mmol•L⁻¹ DPPH ethanol solution for 60 min, then the absorbance of the reaction solution was measured at 517 nm, scavenging rate and IC₅₀ values were calculated by the absorbance and the sample concentration for evaluating the antioxidant activity. HPLC analysis was made on a C₁₈ Epic column, with acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase (gradient elution), and the detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. The correlation between the antioxidant capacity of different habitats and different organs of P. vulgaris and the total contents of five kinds of phenolic acids was analyzed by partial least squares method. The reaction dose-response range of 50% methanol extract of P. vulgaris with 0.1 mmol•L⁻¹ DPPH ethanol solution was 0.300-1.65 g•L⁻¹. When the quantities of potocatechuic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde, caffeic acid, salviaflaside and rosmarinic acid were respectively in 0.007 84-0.980, 0.011 5-1.44, 0.008 64-1.08, 0.080 0-1.00 and 0.079 8-0.998 μg range, their quantities were in good linear relationship with the corresponding peak areas. The average recovery of 5 components were 97.76%, 96.88%, 100.3%, 102.1%, 104.5%, with RSD of 1.8%, 1.6%, 1.7%, 1.6% and 1.7%, respectively. In a certain range of crude drug quantity, the antioxidant activity

  20. Ethanolic extract of roots from Arctium lappa L. accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats: Involvement of the antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Allemand, Alexandra; Mendes, Daniel Augusto G B; Dos Santos, Ana Cristina; André, Eunice; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; Dartora, Nessana; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Werner, Maria Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the curative efficacy of the ethanolic extract (EET) of roots from Arctium lappa (bardana) in healing of chronic gastric ulcers induced by 80% acetic acid in rats and additionally studies the possible mechanisms underlying this action. Oral administration of EET (1, 3, 10 and 30mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion area in 29.2%, 41.4%, 59.3% and 38.5%, respectively, and at 10mg/kg promoted significant regeneration of the gastric mucosa, which was confirmed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. EET (10mg/kg) treatment did not increase the gastric mucus content but restored the superoxide dismutase activity, prevented the reduction of glutathione levels, reduced lipid hydroperoxides levels, inhibited the myeloperoxidase activity and reduced the microvascular permeability. In addition, EET reduced the free radical generation and increased scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, intraduodenal EET (10 and 30mg/kg) decreased volume and acidity of gastric secretion. Total phenolic compounds were high in EET (Folin-Ciocalteau assay) and the analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the main compounds present in EET were a serie of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acid isomers. In conclusion, these data reveal that EET promotes regeneration of damaged gastric mucosa, probably through its antisecretory and antioxidative mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antioxidant activity of Arbutus unedo leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabuçcuoğlu, A; Kivçak, B; Baş, M; Mert, T

    2003-09-01

    The ethanol and methanol extracts of Arbutus unedo leaves were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS). The ethanol and methanol extract of A. unedo leaves displayed potent antioxidant activity.

  2. Study of the protective effect of ascorbic acid against the toxicity of stannous chloride on oxidative damage, antioxidant enzymes and biochemical parameters in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, M I; Awad, T I; Elhag, F A; Khaled, F A

    2007-06-25

    Stannous chloride (SnCl2) is a reducing chemical agent used in several man-made products. SnCl2 can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, the present study has been carried out to investigate the antioxidant action of l-ascorbic acid (AA) in minimizing SnCl2 toxicity on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme, and biochemical parameters in male New Zealand white rabbits. Animals were assigned to one of four treatment groups: 0mg AA and 0mg SnCl2/kg BW (control); 40 mg AA/kg BW; 20mg SnCl2/kg BW; 20mg SnCl2 plus 40 mg AA/kg BW. Rabbits were orally administered the respective doses every other day for 12 weeks. Results obtained showed that SnCl2 significantly (Pacid-reactive substances (TBARS; the marker of lipid peroxidation) in plasma, while the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the level of sulfhydryl groups (SH-group) were decreased (Pacid phosphatase (AcP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were decreased (Pcholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), glucose, urea and total bilirubin. On the other hand, the level of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total protein (TP), albumin (A) and globulin (G) were significantly (PAscorbic acid alone significantly decreased the levels of TBARS, lipids and urea, and increased the activities of GST, SOD and CAT, and the levels of SH-group and proteins. While the rest of the tested parameters were not affected. Also, the presence of AA with SnCl2 alleviated its harmful effects on most of the tested parameters. Therefore, the present results revealed that treatment with AA could minimize the toxic effects of stannous chloride.

  3. Dietary Supplementation of Benzoic Acid and Essential Oil Compounds Affects Buffering Capacity of the Feeds, Performance of Turkey Poults and Their Antioxidant Status, pH in the Digestive Tract, Intestinal Microbiota and Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Giannenas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a basal diet with benzoic acid or thymol or a mixture of essential oil blends (MEO or a combination of benzoic acid with MEO (BMEO on growth performance of turkey poults. Control groups were fed a basal diet. In trial 1, benzoic acid was supplied at levels of 300 and 1,000 mg/kg. In trial 2, thymol or the MEO were supplied at levels of 30 mg/kg. In trial 3, the combination of benzoic acid with MEO was evaluated. Benzoic acid, MEO and BMEO improved performance, increased lactic acid bacteria populations and decreased coliform bacteria in the caeca. Thymol, MEO and BMEO improved antioxidant status of turkeys. Benzoic acid and BMEO reduced the buffering capacity compared to control feed and the pH values of the caecal content. Benzoic acid and EOs may be suggested as an effective alternative to AGP in turkeys.

  4. Concentrating biomass of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea) and spinach (Amaranthus sp.) by ultrafiltration for source of organic acids and natural antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspiyanto, Susilowati, Agustine; Lotulung, Puspa D.; Maryati, Yati

    2017-11-01

    Organic acids and polyphenol from fermentation of green vegetables by Kombucha culture are novelty functional food to achieve prebiotic and natural antioxidant. Ultrafiltration (UF) mode was performed to concentrate biomass of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) and spinach (Amaranthus spp.) at stirrer rotation speed of 200, 300 and 400 rpm, room temperature and trans membrane pressure 40 psia for 30 minutes. Based on total organic acids, experiment activity showed that the best treatment on biomass of fermented broccoli and spinach were reached at stirrer rotation speed of 400 rpm and 300 rpm, respectively. In this condition, fermented broccoli and spinach concentrates gave total acids 0.83 % and 0.81 %, total polyphenol 0.06 % and 0.11 %, reducing sugar 63.95 mg/mL and 20.54 mg/mL, total sugars 2.43 ug/mL and 2.28 ug/mL, total solids 6.42 % and 7.17 %, respectively. Compared with feed, the optimum condition on fermented spinach and broccoli concentrates increased total acids 13.33 % and 10 %, however decreased total polyphenol 34.1 % and 41 %. Identification on monomer from fermented spinach and broccoli at optimum condition on lactic acid were dominated by monomers with molecular weights (MWs) 252.19 and 252.36 Dalton (Da.), and monomer of polyphenol dominated by monomer with MWs 193.17 and 193.22 Da. and relative intensity 100 %. Fermented broccoli has potency as prebiotic, meanwhile fermented spinach has potency as anti oxidant.

  5. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Teng

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation.

  6. Alterations in blood pressure, antioxidant status and caspase 8 expression in cobalt chloride-induced cardio-renal dysfunction are reversed by Ocimum gratissimum and gallic acid in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinrinde, A S; Oyagbemi, A A; Omobowale, T O; Asenuga, E R; Ajibade, T O

    2016-07-01

    The protective abilities of the chloroform extract of Ocimum gratissimum (COG) and gallic acid against cobalt chloride (CoCl2) - induced cardiac and renal toxicity were evaluated. Rats were exposed to CoCl2 (350ppm) for 7 days, either alone, or in combination with COG (100 and 200mg/kg) or gallic acid (120mg/kg). CoCl2 given alone, caused significant increases (pgallic acid treatment significantly reduced (pgallic acid by modulation of CoCl2-induced alterations in blood pressure, antioxidant status and pro-apoptotic caspase 8 in Wistar rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Antioxidative activity of Geranium macrorrhizum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, P.R.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Waard, de P.

    2004-01-01

    The composition of radical-scavenging compounds from Geranium macrorrhizum leaves was analyzed and the antioxidative activities of various extracts was determined. Seven compounds, namely gallic acid, ellagic acid, 4-galloyl quinic acid, the flavonoid quercetin and three of its glycosides,

  8. Antioxidant Capacities of Fractions of Bamboo Shaving Extract and Their Antioxidant Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jinyan; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Gongnian; Chen, Feng; Lee, Bolim; Ge, Qing; You, Yuru; Liu, Shiwang; Zhang, Ying

    2016-07-30

    This research was conducted for evaluation of antioxidant activities of four fractions from bamboo shavings extract (BSE) and their antioxidant components. The antioxidant capacities of BSE and four fractions on ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays exhibited the following descending order: DF > n-butanol fraction (BF) > BSE ≈ ethyl acetate fraction (AF) > water fraction (WF). Among the identified phenolic compounds, caffeic acid exhibited the highest antioxidant capacities on DPPH, FRAP and total antioxidant capacity assays. An extremely significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities with the contents of total flavonoids, total phenolic acids, or total phenolics was observed in this study. The result indicated that the bamboo shaving extract and its solvent fractions could act as natural antioxidants in light of their potent antioxidant activities.

  9. In silico PASS analysis and determination of antimycobacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant efficacies of maslinic acid in an extract rich in pentacyclic triterpenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad G Jamkhande

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This work provides scientific evidence of the antioxidant, antifungal, and antimycobacterial activities of MA, showing its potential application in the development of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial agents for the agro-food and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda M.S.; Cintra R.G.; Barros S.B.M.; Mancini-Filho J.

    1998-01-01

    Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated ...

  11. Enzymatic lipophilization of epicatechin with free fatty acids and its effect on antioxidative capacity in crude camellia seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sa-Sa; Luo, Shui-Zhong; Zheng, Zhi; Zhao, Yan-Yan; Pang, Min; Jiang, Shao-Tong

    2017-02-01

    Crude camellia seed oil is rich in free fatty acids, which must be removed to produce an oil of acceptable quality. In the present study, we reduced the free fatty acid content of crude camellia seed oil by lipophilization of epicatechin with these free fatty acids in the presence of Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435), and this may enhance the oxidative stability of the oil at the same time. The acid value of crude camellia seed oil reduced from 3.7 to 2.5 mgKOH g -1 after lipophilization. Gas chomatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that epicatechin oleate and epicatechin palmitate were synthesized in the lipophilized oil. The peroxide, p-anisidine, and total oxidation values during heating of the lipophilized oil were much lower than that of the crude oil and commercially available camellia seed oil, suggesting that lipophilized epicatechin derivatives could help enhance the oxidative stability of edible oil. The enzymatic process to lipophilize epicatechin with the free fatty acids in crude camellia seed oil described in the present study could decrease the acid value to meet the quality standards for commercial camellia seed oil and, at the same time, obtain a new edible camellia seed oil product with good oxidative stability. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus CSY-P13 Mitigates Stress of Ferulic and p-Hydroxybenzoic Acids in Cucumber by Affecting Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Soil Bacterial Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghui Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferulic acid (FA and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA are main phenolic compounds accumulated in rhizosphere of continuously cropped cucumber, causing stress in plants. Microbial degradation of a mixture of FA and PHBA is not well understood in soil. We isolated a strain CSY-P13 of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, inoculated it into soil to protect cucumber from FA and PHBA stress, and explored a mechanism underlying the protection. CSY-P13 effectively degraded a mixture of FA and PHBA in culture solution under conditions of 39.37°C, pH 6.97, and 21.59 g L-1 potassium dihydrogen phosphate, giving rise to 4-vinyl guaiacol, vanillin, vanillic acid, and protocatechuic acid. During FA and PHBA degradation, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase in CSY-P13 were induced. Inoculated into cucumber-planted soil containing 220 μg g-1 mixture of FA and PHBA, CSY-P13 degraded FA and PHBA in soil, increased plant height, and decreased malonaldehyde, superoxide radical, and hydrogen peroxide levels in leaves. CSY-P13 also enhanced SOD, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase activities; increased ascorbate and glutathione contents; and elevated transcript levels of copper/zinc SOD, manganese SOD, and catalase in leaves under FA and PHBA. Moreover, CSY-P13 increased phosphatase, catalase, urease, and sucrase activities and changed bacterial richness, diversity, and community composition by high throughput sequencing in cucumber-planted soil supplemented with the mixture of FA and PHBA. So CSY-P13 degrades the mixture of FA and PHBA in soil and mitigates stress from the two phenolic compounds in cucumber by activating antioxidant enzymes, changing soil bacterial community, and inducing soil enzymes.

  13. Alterations in the fatty acid profile, antioxidant enzymes and protein pattern of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to the pesticides diazinon and profenfos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Fayez A; El-Hommossany, Karem; Abd El-Atti, Mahmoud; Ismail, Somaya M

    2016-04-01

    The use of pesticides is widespread in agricultural activities. These pesticides may contaminate the irrigation and drainage systems during agriculture activities and pests' control and then negatively affect the biotic and a biotic component of the polluted water courses. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the pesticides diazinon and profenfos on some biological activities of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails such as fatty acid profile, some antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) as well as glutathione reductase (GR) and lipid peroxidation (LP)) and protein patterns in snails' tissues exposed for 4 weeks to LC10 of diazinon and profenfos. The results showed that the two pesticides caused considerable reduction in survival rates and egg production of treated snails. Identification of fatty acid composition in snail tissues treated with diazinon and profenfos pesticides was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The results declared alteration in fatty acid profile, fluctuation in percentage of long chain and short chain fatty acid contributions either saturated or unsaturated ones, and a decrease in total lipid content in tissues of snails treated with these pesticides. The data demonstrate that there was a significant inhibition in the activities of tissues SOD, CAT, glutathione reductase (GR), TrxR, and SDH in tissues of treated snails, while a significant elevation was detected in LP as compared to the normal control. On the other hand, the electrophoretic pattern of total protein showed differences in number and molecular weights of protein bands due to the treatment of snails. It was concluded that the residues of diazinon and profenfos pesticides in aquatic environments have toxic effects onB. alexandrina snails. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Effects of ultrahigh pressure extraction on yield and antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside extracted from flower buds of Lonicera japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen; Guo, Ting; Jiang, Wen-Jun; Dong, Guang-Li; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Shi-Lin; Li, He-Ran

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to establish and optimize a new method for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from Lonicera japonica Thunb. through orthogonal experimental designl. A new ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from L. japonica. The influential factors, including solvent type, ethanol concentration, extraction pressure, time, and temperature, and the solid/liquid ratio, have been studied to optimize the extraction process. The optimal conditions for the UPE were developed by quantitative analysis of the extraction products by HPLC-DAD in comparison with standard samples. In addition, the microstructures of the medicinal materials before and after extraction were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the extraction efficiency of different extraction methods and the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of the extracts were investigated. The optimal conditions for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were as follows: ethanol concentration, 60%; extraction pressure, 400 MPa; extraction time, 2 min; extraction temperature, 30 °C; and the solid/liquid ratio, 1 : 50. Under these conditions, the yields of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were raised to 4.863% and 0.080%, respectively. Compared with other extraction methods, such as heat reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and Sohxlet extraction (SE), the UPE method showed several advantages, including higher extraction yield, shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption, and higher purity of the extracts. This study could help better utilize L. japonica flower buds as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Involvement of abscisic acid in regulating antioxidative defense systems and IAA-oxidase activity and improving adventitious rooting in mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] seedlings under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Weng; Leng, Yan; Feng, Lin; Zeng, Xiao-Ying

    2014-01-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) and Cd on antioxidative defense systems and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase during adventitious rooting in mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] seedlings. The exogenous ABA significantly enhanced the number and fresh weight of the adventitious roots. CdCl2 strongly inhibited adventitious rooting. Pretreatment with 10 μM ABA clearly alleviated the inhibitory effect of Cd on rooting. ABA significantly reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as the levels of glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASA) during adventitious rooting. ABA strongly increased IAA-oxidase activity during the induction (0-12 h) and expression (after 48 h) phases and increased the phenols levels. Cd treatment significantly reduced the activities of SOD, APX, POD, and IAA oxidase, as well as GSH level. Cd strongly increased ASA levels. ABA pretreatment counteracted Cd-induced alterations of certain antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes, e.g., remarkably rescued APX and POD activities, reduced the elevated SOD and CAT activities and ASA levels, and recovered the reduced GSH levels, caused by Cd stress. Thus, the physiological effects of the combination of ABA and Cd treatments were opposite of those obtained with Cd treatment alone, suggesting that ABA involved in the regulation of antioxidative defense systems and the alleviation of wounding- and Cd-induced oxidative stress.

  16. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactivity: reaction conditions and the role of iron, antioxidants and lipid peroxy radicals on the quantitation of plasma lipid peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, C.R.; van Rij, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of Fe/sup 3 +/, lipid peroxy radicals and the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene on the 2-thiobarbituric (TBA) acid quantitation of plasma lipid peroxides were investigated. Whole plasma and plasma fractions prepared by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) protein precipitation and lipid extraction, demonstrated markedly differing TBA reactivities in the presence or absence of added Fe/sup 3 +/. Examination of the spectral profiles of the TBA reacted whole plasma and TCA precipitated fractions demonstrated the presence of interfering compounds which gave rise to an artifactual increase in lipid peroxide concentrations. In contrast the TBA reacted lipid extracts had low levels of interfering compounds that could be removed by our previously described high pressure liquid chromatographic method. Further characterization of the TBA reactivity of the lipid extract showed that Fe/sup 3 +/ at an optimal concentration of 0.5 mM was necessary for the quantitative decomposition of the lipid peroxides to the TBA reactive product malondialdehyde (MDA). However the presence of Fe/sup 3 +/ resulted in further peroxidation of any unsaturated lipids present.

  17. Microwave-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of oil from pumpkin seeds and evaluation of its physicochemical properties, fatty acid compositions and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jiao; Li, Zhu-Gang; Gai, Qing-Yan; Li, Xiao-Juan; Wei, Fu-Yao; Fu, Yu-Jie; Ma, Wei

    2014-03-15

    Microwave-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction (MAAEE) of pumpkin seed oil was performed in this study. An enzyme cocktail comprised of cellulase, pectinase and proteinase (w/w/w) was found to be the most effective in releasing oils. The highest oil recovery of 64.17% was achieved under optimal conditions of enzyme concentration (1.4%, w/w), temperature (44°C), time (66 min) and irradiation power (419W). Moreover, there were no significant variations in physicochemical properties of MAAEE-extracted oil (MAAEEO) and Soxhlet-extracted oil (SEO), but MAAEEO exhibited better oxidation stability. Additionally, MAAEEO had a higher content of linoleic acid (57.33%) than SEO (53.72%), and it showed stronger antioxidant activities with the IC50 values 123.93 and 152.84, mg/mL, according to DPPH radical scavenging assay and β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching test. SEM results illustrated the destruction of cell walls and membranes by MAAEE. MAAEE is, therefore, a promising and environmental-friendly technique for oil extraction in the food industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ellagic acid derivatives, ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins and other phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of two powder products from camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracassetti, Daniela; Costa, Carlos; Moulay, Leila; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2013-08-15

    The aims of this study were the evaluation of polyphenols and vitamin C content, and antioxidant capacity of dehydrated pulp powder and the dried flour obtained from the skin and seeds residue remaining after pulp preparation from camu-camu (Myrciaria dudia). Fifty-three different phenolics were characterised by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS and UPLC-HR-QTOF-MS-MS. The phenolic content of camu-camu flour was higher than that of the pulp powder (4007.95 mg/100 g vs. 48.54 mg/100 g). In both products the flavonol myricetin and conjugates, ellagic acid and conjugates and ellagitannins were detected. Cyanidin 3-glucoside, and quercetin and its glycosides were only found in the pulp powder, while proanthocyanidins were only present in the flour (3.5 g/100 g, mean degree of polymerisation 3). The vitamin C content was lower in pulp powder (3.5%) than in the flour (9.1%). The radical-scavenging capacity of both powders was determined by the DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays, and was higher for camu-camu flour as could be expected for its higher phenolics and vitamin C content. Comparative analyses with fresh camu-camu berries indicate that some transformations occur during processing. Analysis of fresh berries showed that ellagic acid derivatives and ellagitannins were mainly present in the seeds, while proanthocyanidins were present both in the seeds and skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Helichrysum foetidum Moench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirillini, Bruno; Menghini, Luigi; Leporini, Lidia; Scanu, Nadia; Marino, Stefania; Pintore, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Methanol extract of Helichrysum foetidum Moench (Asteraceae) was investigated for antioxidative properties. The antioxidant activities were investigated by 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging, ß-carotene/linoleic acid assay, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide (HRPO test), superoxide anion scavenging (S.A.S. test) and hypochlorous acid scavenging (taurine test). The antioxidant activity was reported as IC50 and reveals Trolox-like antioxidative effects.

  20. Low Ascorbic Acid in the vtc-1 Mutant of Arabidopsis Is Associated with Decreased Growth and Intracellular Redistribution of the Antioxidant System1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veljovic-Jovanovic, Sonja D.; Pignocchi, Cristina; Noctor, Graham; Foyer, Christine H.

    2001-01-01

    Ascorbic acid has numerous and diverse roles in plant metabolism. We have used the vtc-1 mutant of Arabidopsis, which is deficient in ascorbate biosynthesis, to investigate the role of ascorbate concentration in growth, regulation of photosynthesis, and control of the partitioning of antioxidative enyzmes. The mutant possessed 70% less ascorbate in the leaves compared with the wild type. This lesion was associated with a slight increase in total glutathione but no change in the redox state of either ascorbate or glutathione. In vtc-1, total ascorbate in the apoplast was decreased to 23% of the wild-type value. The mutant displayed much slower shoot growth than the wild type when grown in air or at high CO2 (3 mL L−1), where oxidative stress is diminished. Leaves were smaller, and shoot fresh weight and dry weight were lower in the mutant. No significant differences in the light saturation curves for CO2 assimilation were found in air or at high CO2, suggesting that the effect on growth was not due to decreased photosynthetic capacity in the mutant. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence quenching revealed only a slight effect on non-photochemical energy dissipation. Hydrogen peroxide contents were similar in the leaves of the vtc-1 mutant and the wild type. Total leaf peroxidase activity was increased in the mutant and compartment-specific differences in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity were observed. In agreement with the measurements of enzyme activity, the expression of cytosolic APX was increased, whereas that for chloroplast APX isoforms was either unchanged or slightly decreased. These data implicate ascorbate concentration in the regulation of the compartmentalization of the antioxidant system in Arabidopsis. PMID:11598218

  1. Comparison of myofibrillar protein degradation, antioxidant profile, fatty acids, metmyoglobin reducing activity, physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of gluteus medius and infraspinatus muscles in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem D. Adeyemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functionality of myofibrillar proteins is a major factor influencing the quality attributes of muscle foods. Nonetheless, the relationships between muscle type and oxidative changes in chevon during ageing are meagrely elucidated. Postmortem changes in antioxidant status and physicochemical properties of glycolytic gluteus medius (GM and oxidative infraspinatus (IS muscles in goats were compared. Methods Twenty Boer bucks (9–10 months old, body weight of 36.9 ± 0.725 kg were slaughtered and the carcasses were subjected to chill storage (4 ± 0.5 °C. Analyses were conducted on GM and IS muscles sampled on 0, 1, 4 and 7 d postmortem. Results Chill storage did not affect the antioxidant enzyme activities in both muscles. The IS had greater (P  0.05 on free thiol, MRA and TBARS. The GM had lower (P  0.05 on consumer preference for flavour, juiciness and overall acceptability. However, IS had higher (P < 0.05 tenderness score than GM on d 1 and 4 postmortem. Intramuscular fat was higher (P < 0.05 in IS compared with GM. Fatty acid composition did not differ between the muscles. However, GM had lower (P < 0.05 n-6/n-3 ratio than IS. The n-3 and n-6 PUFA declined (P < 0.05 while the SFA increased (P < 0.05 over storage. Conclusion The changes in myofibrillar proteins and physicochemical properties of goat meat during postmortem chill storage are muscle-dependent.

  2. Antioxidant profiling of native Andean potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals cultivars with high levels of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, chlorogenic acid, and petanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Oufir, Mouhssin; Guignard, Cédric; Hoffmann, Lucien; Hausman, Jean-François; Evers, Danièle; Larondelle, Yvan

    2007-12-26

    The antioxidant profile of 23 native Andean potato cultivars has been investigated from a human nutrition perspective. The main carotenoid and tocopherol compounds were studied using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and a fluorescence detector, respectively, whereas polyphenols (including anthocyanins in colored tubers) were identified by means of both HPLC-mass spectrometry and HPLC-DAD. Antioxidant profiling revealed significant genotypic variations as well as cultivars of particular interest from a nutritional point of view. Concentrations of the health-promoting carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, ranged from 1.12 to 17.69 microg g(-1) of dry weight (DW) and from 0 to 17.7 microg g(-1) of DW, with cultivars 704353 and 702472 showing the highest levels in lutein and zeaxanthin, respectively. Whereas beta-carotene is rarely reported in potato tubers, remarkable levels of this dietary provitamin A carotenoid were detected in 16 native varieties, ranging from 0.42 to 2.19 microg g(-1) of DW. The amounts of alpha-tocopherol found in Andean potato tubers, extending from 2.73 to 20.80 microg g(-1) of DW, were clearly above the quantities generally reported for commercial varieties. Chlorogenic acid and its isomers dominated the polyphenolic profile of each cultivar. Dark purple-fleshed tubers from the cultivar 704429 contained exceptionally high levels of total anthocyanins (16.33 mg g(-1) of DW). The main anthocyanin was identified as petanin (petunidin-3-p-coumaroyl-rutinoside-5-glucoside). The results suggest that Andean potato cultivars should be exploited in screening and breeding programs for the development of potato varieties with enhanced health and nutritional benefits.

  3. In Vivo Effects of Vanadium Pentoxide and Antioxidants (Ascorbic Acid and Alpha-Tocopherol on Apoptotic, Cytotoxic, and Genotoxic Damage in Peripheral Blood of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen García-Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5, ascorbic acid (AA, and alpha-tocopherol (α-TOH on apoptotic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic activity. Groups of five Hsd:ICR mice were treated with the following: (a vehicle, distilled water; (b vehicle, corn oil; (c AA, 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip; (d α-TOH, 20 mg/kg by gavage; (e V2O5, 40 mg/kg by ip injection; (f AA + V2O5; and (g α-TOH + V2O5. Genotoxic damage was evaluated by examining micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCE obtained from the caudal vein at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatments. Induction of apoptosis and cell viability were assessed at 48 h after treatment in nucleated cells of peripheral blood. Treatment with AA alone reduced basal MN-PCE, while V2O5 treatment marginally increased MN-PCE at all times after injection. Antioxidants treatments prior to V2O5 administration decreased MN-PCE compared to the V2O5 group, with the most significant effect in the AA + V2O5 group. The apoptotic cells increased with all treatments, suggesting that this process may contribute to the elimination of the cells with V2O5-induced DNA damage (MN-PCE. The necrotic cells only increased in the V2O5 group. Therefore, antioxidants such as AA and α-TOH can be used effectively to protect or reduce the genotoxic effects induced by vanadium compounds like V2O5.

  4. Improved production of kojic acid by mutagenesis of Aspergillus flavus HAk1 and Aspergillus oryzae HAk2 and their potential antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Hala A M; Ezzat, Saeid M; Houseny, Asmaa M

    2017-10-01

    Two wild-type (WT) Aspergillus strains, A. flavus HAk1 and A. oryzae HAk2, were selected for kojic acid (KA) biosynthesis. Malt extract sucrose culture medium (MES) was the best culture medium for maximum production of KA. The maximum production of KA has been estimated at pH 4 after 7 days of incubation at 30 °C. Overproduction of KA was attained by mutagenesis of both A. flavus HAk1 and A. oryzae HAk2 through their exposer to different doses of gamma irradiation. The mutant strains (MT) A. flavus HAk1-M2 and A. oryzae HAk2-M26 were the most stable mutants for maximum production of KA through four generations. Yield of KA by A. oryzae HAk2-M26 and A. flavus HAk1-M2 has been 2.03-fold and 1.9-fold, respectively, higher than their wild-type strains. All WT and MT strains were used for KA production from different agricultural raw materials. Apple peel was the best waste for KA production by WT strains of A. flavus and A. oryzae, while orange peel and rice stalk are best material for KA production by MT strains, A. flavus HAk1-M2 and A. oryzae HAk2-M26, respectively. All experimental strains have the ability to produce considerable amounts of KA from sugarcane molasse (SCM) and sugar-beet molasse (SBM). SBM was better than SCM for KA production by all strains. The antioxidant activity of biosynthesizing KA was strongly affected with production conditions, where the highest antioxidant activity of all strains was recorded at the optimum environmental and nutritional conditions for KA production.

  5. Fungal cultures of tar bush and creosote bush for production of two phenolic antioxidants (pyrocatechol and gallic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, J; Gutiérrez-Sanchez, G; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Aguilar, C N

    2009-01-01

    'Tar bush' and 'creosote bush' were substrates of fungal cultivation for tannase production and gallic acid and pyrocatechol accumulation. Aspergillus niger GH1 grew similarly on both plant materials under solid state culture conditions, reaching maximal levels after 4 d. Fungal strain degraded all tannin content of creosote bush after 4 d of fermentation and >75 % of tar bush after 5 d. Higher level of tannase activity was detected in tar bush fermentation. Biotransformation of tannins to gallic acid was high (93 % in creosote bush and 89 % in tar bush). Pyrocatechol was released poorly. Kinetic parameters of tannin conversion were calculated.

  6. Migration of antioxidants from polylactic acid films, a parameter estimation approach: Part I - A model including convective mass transfer coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Hayati; Auras, Rafael; Burgess, Gary; Dolan, Kirk; Soto-Valdez, Herlinda

    2018-03-01

    A two-step solution based on the boundary conditions of Crank's equations for mass transfer in a film was developed. Three driving factors, the diffusion (D), partition (K p,f ) and convective mass transfer coefficients (h), govern the sorption and/or desorption kinetics of migrants from polymer films. These three parameters were simultaneously estimated. They provide in-depth insight into the physics of a migration process. The first step was used to find the combination of D, K p,f and h that minimized the sums of squared errors (SSE) between the predicted and actual results. In step 2, an ordinary least square (OLS) estimation was performed by using the proposed analytical solution containing D, K p,f and h. Three selected migration studies of PLA/antioxidant-based films were used to demonstrate the use of this two-step solution. Additional parameter estimation approaches such as sequential and bootstrap were also performed to acquire a better knowledge about the kinetics of migration. The proposed model successfully provided the initial guesses for D, K p,f and h. The h value was determined without performing a specific experiment for it. By determining h together with D, under or overestimation issues pertaining to a migration process can be avoided since these two parameters are correlated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Free radical grafting of gallic acid (GA) on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCS) and evaluation of antioxidant reinforced gellan gum films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, P.; Fraschini, C.; Salmieri, S.; Becher, D.; Safrany, A.; Lacroix, M.

    2016-01-01

    Antiradical properties were introduced on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by redox pair (RP) initiator and γ-radiation treatments. Different procedures were tested on CNC, first a 2 h reaction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)/ascorbic acid (AA) was performed on CNC solution. γ-Radiation treatment at 20 kGy dose was then applied and immediately after GA was reacted during 24 h with the pretreated CNCs, giving CNC-H2O2-AA-γ-GA. The formation of new carboxylic acids and carbonyl groups were characterized by FT-IR at 1650 and 1730 cm-1 respectively. Carboxylic acid functionalities were also analyzed by conductometric titration where an increase from 49 to 134 mmol COOH kg-1 was found from native to irradiated CNCs. A similar increase in the carboxylic acid content (132 mmol kg-1) was observed for CNC-H2O2-AA-γ-GA, showing the highest radical scavenging properties (8 mM Trolox eq/mg CNC). Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the structural changes onto CNC. Film packaging containing 20% of CNC-H2O2-AA-γ-GA was then added to a gellan-based film packaging. A significant improvement (p<0.05) of the tensile strength (TS), the tensile modulus (TM) and the elongation at break (EB) and water vapor permeability reduction was observed when CNC-H2O2-AA-γ-GA was added to the film packaging formulation.

  8. Production of novel antioxidative phenolic amides through heterologous expression of the plant’s chlorogenic acid biosynthesis genes in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moglia, A.; Comino, C.; Lanteri, S.; Vos, de C.H.; Waard, de P.; Beek, van T.A.; Goitre, L.; Retta, S.F.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Phenolic esters like chlorogenic acid play an important role in therapeutic properties of many plant extracts. We aimed to produce phenolic esters in baker’s yeast, by expressing tobacco 4CL and globe artichoke HCT. Indeed yeast produced phenolic esters. However, the primary product was identified

  9. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of garden sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. Th...

  10. Combined effect of CO2 enrichment and foliar application of salicylic acid on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from ginger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration caused by climate change and agricultural practices is likely to affect biota by producing changes in plant growth, allocation and chemical composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA, at two levels: 0 and 10-3 M) and CO2 enrichment (at two levels: 400 and 800 μmol·mol−1) on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from two Malaysian ginger varieties, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry was employed to identify and quantify the flavonoids and anthocyanins in the ginger extracts. The antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assays. The substrate specificity of chalcone synthase, the key enzyme for flavonoid biosynthesis, was investigated using the chalcone synthase (CHS) assay. Results CO2 levels of 800 μmol·mol−1 significantly increased anthocyanin, rutin, naringenin, myricetin, apigenin, fisetin and morin contents in ginger leaves. Meanwhile, the combined effect of SA and CO2 enrichment enhanced anthocyanin and flavonoid production compared with single treatment effects. High anthocyanin content was observed in H Bara leaves treated with elevated CO2 and SA. The highest chalcone synthase (CHS) activity was observed in plants treated with SA and CO2 enrichment. Plants not treated with SA and kept under ambient CO2 conditions showed the lowest CHS activity. The highest free radical scavenging activity corresponded to H Bara treated with SA under high CO2 conditions, while the lowest activity corresponded to H Bentong without SA treatment and under atmospheric CO2 levels. As the level of CO2 increased, the DPPH activity increased. Higher TBA activity was also recorded in the extracts of H Bara

  11. Combined effect of CO2 enrichment and foliar application of salicylic acid on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemzadeh Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration caused by climate change and agricultural practices is likely to affect biota by producing changes in plant growth, allocation and chemical composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA, at two levels: 0 and 10-3 M and CO2 enrichment (at two levels: 400 and 800 μmol·mol−1 on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from two Malaysian ginger varieties, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry was employed to identify and quantify the flavonoids and anthocyanins in the ginger extracts. The antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and thiobarbituric acid (TBA assays. The substrate specificity of chalcone synthase, the key enzyme for flavonoid biosynthesis, was investigated using the chalcone synthase (CHS assay. Results CO2 levels of 800 μmol·mol−1 significantly increased anthocyanin, rutin, naringenin, myricetin, apigenin, fisetin and morin contents in ginger leaves. Meanwhile, the combined effect of SA and CO2 enrichment enhanced anthocyanin and flavonoid production compared with single treatment effects. High anthocyanin content was observed in H Bara leaves treated with elevated CO2 and SA. The highest chalcone synthase (CHS activity was observed in plants treated with SA and CO2 enrichment. Plants not treated with SA and kept under ambient CO2 conditions showed the lowest CHS activity. The highest free radical scavenging activity corresponded to H Bara treated with SA under high CO2 conditions, while the lowest activity corresponded to H Bentong without SA treatment and under atmospheric CO2 levels. As the level of CO2 increased, the DPPH activity increased. Higher TBA activity was also recorded in the

  12. Antioxidative and antiradical properties of plant phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    The plant phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acids appeared to be strong antiradical and antioxidant compounds. The number of hydroxy groups and the presence of a 2,3-double bond and orthodiphenolic structure enhance antiradical and antioxidative activity of flavonoids. The glycosylation, blocking the 3-OH group in C-ring, lack of a hydroxy group or the presence of only a methoxy group in B-ring have a decreasing effect on antiradical or antioxidative activity of these compounds. Tannins show strong antioxidative properties. Some tannins in red wine or gallate esters were proved to have antioxidative effect in vivo. The number of hydroxy groups connected with the aromatic ring, in ortho or para position relative to each other, enhance antioxidative and antiradical activity of phenolic acids. The substitution of a methoxy group in ortho position to the OH in monophenols seems to favour the antioxidative activity of the former.

  13. New insight into quinoa seed quality under salinity: changes in proteomic and amino acid profiles, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of protein extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eAloisi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa seeds. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49 and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR, exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins. The composition of the resulting protein fractions was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results confirmed a high polymorphism in seed storage proteins; the two most representative genotype-specific bands of the albumin/globulin fraction were the 30- and 32-kDa bands, while the 11S globulin showed genotype-specific polymorphism for the 40- and 42-kDa bands. Spot analysis by mass spectrometry followed by in silico analyses were conducted to identify the proteins whose expression changed most significantly in response to salinity in VR. Proteins belonging to several functional categories (i.e., stress protein, metabolism, and storage were affected by salinity. Other nutritional and functional properties, namely amino acid profiles, total polyphenol (TPC and flavonoid (TFC contents, and antioxidant activity (AA of protein extracts were also analyzed. With the exception of Ala and Met in R49, all amino acids derived from protein hydrolysis were diminished in seeds from salt-treated plants, especially in landrace VI-1. By contrast, several free amino acids were unchanged or increased by salinity in R49 as compared with VR and VI-1, suggesting a greater tolerance in the salares landrace

  14. New Insight into Quinoa Seed Quality under Salinity: Changes in Proteomic and Amino Acid Profiles, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Protein Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Iris; Parrotta, Luigi; Ruiz, Karina B.; Landi, Claudia; Bini, Luca; Cai, Giampiero; Biondi, Stefania; Del Duca, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Seed storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49) and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR), exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl) were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins. The composition of the resulting protein fractions was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results confirmed a high polymorphism in seed storage proteins; the two most representative genotype-specific bands of the albumin/globulin fraction were the 30- and 32-kDa bands, while the 11S globulin showed genotype-specific polymorphism for the 40- and 42-kDa bands. Spot analysis by mass spectrometry followed by in silico analyses were conducted to identify the proteins whose expression changed most significantly in response to salinity in VR. Proteins belonging to several functional categories (i.e., stress protein, metabolism, and storage) were affected by salinity. Other nutritional and functional properties, namely amino acid profiles, total polyphenol (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents, and antioxidant activity (AA) of protein extracts were also analyzed. With the exception of Ala and Met in R49, all amino acids derived from protein hydrolysis were diminished in seeds from salt-treated plants, especially in landrace VI-1. By contrast, several free amino acids were unchanged or increased by salinity in R49 as compared with VR and VI-1, suggesting a greater tolerance in the salares landrace. VR had the

  15. Effect of ascorbic acid and dehydration on concentrations of total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, anthocyanins, and color in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Taha M; Ereifej, Khalil I; Howard, L

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to report on the total phenolics, anthocyanins, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of strawberry, peach, and apple, the influence of dehydration and ascorbic acid treatments on the levels of these compounds, and the effect of these treatments on fruit color. Results showed that fresh strawberry had the highest levels for total phenolics [5317.9 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents (CAE)/kg], whereas lower levels were found in fresh apple and peach (3392.1 and 1973.1 mg of CAE/kg, respectively), and for anthocyanins (138.8 mg/kg), whereas lower levels were found in fresh apple and peaches (11.0 and 18.9 mg/kg, respectively; fresh strawberry had an ORAC value of 62.9 mM/kg Trolox equivalents. The fresh apple and peach were found to have ORAC values of 14.7 and 11.4 mM/kg of Trolox equivalents, respectively. The color values indicated that the addition of 0.1% ascorbic acid increased the lightness (L) and decreased the redness (a) and yellowness (b) color values of fresh strawberry, peach, and apple, sliced samples, and the puree made from them. Also, results showed that dehydration is a good method to keep the concentrations of total phenolics and anthocyanins and ORAC values at high levels.

  16. Partitioning of selected antioxidants in mayonnaise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Schwarz, K.; Stockmann, H.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined partitioning of alpha-, beta-, and gamma- tocopherol and six polar antioxidants (Trolox, ferulic acid, caffeic aci