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Sample records for antioxidant defence system

  1. Compromised Rat Testicular Antioxidant Defence System by Hypothyroidism before Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak K. Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered thyroid function during early stages of development is known to affect adversely testicular growth, physiology, and antioxidant defence status at adulthood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the modulation of antioxidant defence status in neonatal persistent hypothyroid rats before their sexual maturation and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in immature rats. Hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by feeding the lactating mother with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU through the drinking water. From the day of parturition till weaning (25 day postpartum, the pups received PTU through mother's milk (or drinking water and then directly from drinking water containing PTU for the remaining period of experimentation. On the 31st day postpartum, the animals were sacrificed for the study. An altered antioxidant defence system marked by elevated SOD, CAT, and GR activities, with decreased GPx and GST activities were observed along with increased protein carbonylation, disturbed redox status in hypothyroid immature rat testis. This compromised testicular antioxidant status might have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as indicated by reduced germ cell number, complete absence of round spermatids, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and decreased testosterone level.

  2. Maternal obesity in the rat impairs male offspring aging of the testicular antioxidant defence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Claudia J; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L; Morales, Angélica; Lomas-Soria, Consuelo; Cruz-Pérez, Fabiola; Reyes-Castro, Luis A; Zambrano, Elena

    2017-09-01

    A high-fat diet during intrauterine development predisposes offspring (F 1 ) to phenotypic alterations, such as lipid synthesis imbalance and increased oxidative stress, causing changes in male fertility. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal obesity during pregnancy and lactation on antioxidant enzymes in the F 1 testes. Female Wistar rats (F 0 ) were fed either a control (C, 5% fat) or an obesogenic (MO, maternal obesity, 25% fat) diet from weaning and throughout subsequent pregnancy and lactation. F 1 offspring were weaned to the control diet. Testes were retrieved at 110, 450 and 650 postnatal days (PND) for real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemical (IHC) antioxidant enzyme analyses. Catalase was similar between groups by RT-qPCR, whereas by IHC it was higher in the MO group at all ages than in the C group. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) had lower expression at PND 110 in MO than in C by both techniques; at PND 450 and 650 by immunoanalysis SOD1 was higher in MO than in C. Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), GPX2 and GPX4 by RT-qPCR were similar between groups and ages; by IHC GPX1/2 was higher in MO than in C, whereas GPX4 showed the opposite result at PND 110 and 450. In conclusion, antioxidant enzymes in the rat testes are modified with age. Maternal obesity negatively affects the F 1 testicular antioxidant defence system, which, in turn, can explain the decrease in reproductive capacity.

  3. Hypothyroidism alters antioxidant defence system in rat brainstem during postnatal development and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Srikanta; Bhanja, Shravani

    2014-08-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate alterations in oxidative stress parameter [lipid peroxidation (LPx)] and antioxidant enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] in rat brainstem in response to neonatal hypothyroidism during development (from birth to 7, 15 and 30 days old) and adulthood (90 days old). Hypothyroidism in rats was induced by feeding the lactating mothers (from the day of parturition till weaning, 25 days old) or directly to the pups with 0.05 % [6-n-propyl 2-thiouracil (PTU)] in drinking water. Increased level of LPx was observed in brainstem of 7 days old hypothyroid rats, accompanied by augmented activities of SOD and GPx. In 15 and 30 days old hypothyroid rat brainstem, a significant decline in LPx was observed. Significantly increased activities of CAT and GPx were observed in 15 and 30 days PTU-treated rats. Decreased level of LPx was observed in brainstem of rats treated with PTU from birth to 30 days followed by withdrawal up to 90 days of age (transient hypothyroidism) as compared to control and persistent treatment of PTU up to 90 days of age. Activities of CAT and GPx were decreased in persistent hypothyroid rats of 90 days old with respect to control and transient hypothyroid rats. On the other hand, SOD activity was decreased in both persistent and transient hypothyroid rats with respect to control rats. These results suggest that the PTU-induced neonatal hypothyroidism modulates the antioxidant defence system during postnatal development and adulthood in brainstem of rats.

  4. Temporal Dynamics of Antioxidant Defence System in Relation to Polyamine Catabolism in Rice under Direct-Seeded and Transplanted Conditions

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    Manisha KUMARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Six rice cultivars viz. PR120, PR116, Feng Ai Zan, PR115, PAU201 and Punjab Mehak 1 under the direct-seeded and transplanted conditions were used to investigate the involvement of antioxidative defence system in relation to polyamine catabolism in temporal regulation of developing grains. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APx, guaiacol peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, polyamine oxidases (PAO and contents of ascorbate, α-tocopherol, proline and polyamines increased gradually until mid-milky stage and then declined towards maturity stage under both planting conditions. The transplanted condition led to higher activities of antioxidative enzymes (APx, GPx and CAT and contents of ascorbate, α-tocopherol and proline whereas the direct-seeded condition had elevated levels of PAO and SOD activities and contents of polyamines, lipid peroxide and hydrogen peroxide. Cultivars Feng Ai Zan and PR120 exhibited superior tolerance over other cultivars by accumulating higher contents of ascorbate, α-tocopherol and proline with increasing level of PAO and SOD activities under the direct-seeded condition. However, under the transplanted condition PR116 and PAU201 showed higher activities of antioxidative enzymes with decreasing content of lipid peroxide. Therefore, we concluded that under the direct-seeded condition, enhancements of polyamines content and PAO activity enabled rice cultivars more tolerant to oxidative stress, while under the transplanted condition, antioxidative defence with decreasing of lipid peroxide content was closely associated with the protection of grains by maintaining membrane integrity during rice grain filling. The results indicated that temporal dynamics of H2O2 metabolic machinery was strongly up-regulated especially at the mid-milky stage.

  5. Effect of alpha-tocopherol on pulmonary antioxidant defence system and lipid peroxidation in cigarette smoke inhaling mice

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    Bhatia Vipin

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Free radicals generated in biological systems by cigarette smoke (CS inhalation can cause oxidative stress in tissues, resulting in lipid peroxidation (LPO. In view of the antioxidant properties of α-tocopherol (AT, in the present study, effects of AT on antioxidant defence system and LPO were investigated in mice inhaling CS for different time intervals. Results Male Balb/c mice were fed orally with AT (5 I.U./Kg.b.wt. and /or exposed to CS for 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks. No effect was observed on body growth, diet consumption, water intake and lung weight due to AT and /or CS treatment in any of the groups as compared to their control counterparts. After two weeks of treatment, no change in LPO, reduced glutathione (GSH levels and antioxidant enzymes were observed except for glutathione reductase (GR which increased in all the treated groups. A significant increase in pulmonary LPO levels was observed in mice exposed to CS inhalation for 4, 6 or 8 weeks. There was a gradual increase in the LPO levels as the extent of CS inhalation increased from 4 to 8 weeks. However, the extent of increase in LPO levels due to CS exposure for 4, 6 or 8 weeks in the mice treated with AT was comparatively less. A significant decrease in the GSH levels was also observed in all the animals exposed to CS for 4, 6 or 8 weeks. There was a significant increase in the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and GR observed in all the groups exposed to CS for 4,6 or 8 weeks. The increase in above antioxidant enzymes seems to be insufficient to combat the oxidative stress posed by CS inhalation. There was a marked decrease observed in the LPO levels in the animals treated with AT alone for 4, 6, or 8 weeks, when compared to their control counterparts. However, the supplementation of AT for 4, 6 or 8 weeks demonstrated a significant increase in GSH levels. Conclusion It appears from our studies that AT exhibits its antioxidant role either

  6. Limiting immunopathology: Interaction between carotenoids and enzymatic antioxidant defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, A; Saciat, C; Teixeira, M; Troussard, J-P; Motreuil, S; Moreau, J; Moret, Y

    2015-04-01

    The release of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) during the inflammatory response generates damages to host tissues, referred to as immunopathology, and is an important factor in ecological immunology. The integrated antioxidant system, comprising endogenous antioxidant enzymes (e.g. superoxide dismutase SOD, and catalase CAT) and dietary antioxidants (e.g. carotenoids), helps to cope with immune-mediated oxidative stress. Crustaceans store large amounts of dietary carotenoids for yet unclear reasons. While being immunostimulants and antioxidants, the interaction of these pigments with antioxidant enzymes remains unclear. Here, we tested the interaction between dietary supplementation with carotenoids and immune challenge on immune defences and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT, in the amphipod crustacean Gammarus pulex. Dietary supplementation increased the concentrations of circulating carotenoids and haemocytes in the haemolymph, while the immune response induced the consumption of circulating carotenoids and a drop of haemocyte density. Interestingly, supplemented gammarids exhibited down-regulated SOD activity but high CAT activity compared to control ones. Our study reveals specific interactions of dietary carotenoids with endogenous antioxidant enzymes, and further underlines the potential importance of carotenoids in the evolution of immunity and/or of antioxidant mechanisms in crustaceans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The functional state of cellular antioxidant defence system of shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to the chronic ionizing radiation in the Chornobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozova, V.S.; Kashparov, V.A.; Levchuk, S.Ye.; Umanska, A.O.; Bishchuk, Ye.V.; Otreshko, L.M

    2016-01-01

    The functional state of the cellular antioxidant defence system of shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana plants that grow in natural conditions in the areas of the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone with the values of the external dose rate of 0.45, 0.61, 1.05, 4.81 and 6.80 .Gy/h was evaluated. The decrease of the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive compounds in the shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana was revealed under the external dose rate of 4.81 and 6.80 .Gy/h by 38 and 48 %, respectively, compared to this parameter value under the external dose rate of 0.45 .Gy/h. In the investigated samples the capacity of guaiacol peroxidase increases, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase decreases significantly with the increase of the external dose rate from 0.45 to 6.80 .Gy/h. Probably, revealed changes in the functional state of the cellular antioxidant defence system of the shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana in the conditions of radioactive contamination are adaptive in nature.

  8. Differential responses of the antioxidant defence system and ultrastructure in a salt-adapted potato cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Filipa; Rodrigues, José A; Almeida, José M; Almeida, Domingos P F; Fidalgo, Fernanda

    2011-12-01

    Changes in lipid peroxidation and ion content and the possible involvement of the antioxidant system in salt tolerance at the cellular level was studied in a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) callus line grown on 150 mM NaCl (salt-adapted) and in a non-adapted line exposed to 150 mM NaCl (salt-stressed). Salinity reduced the growth rate and increased lipid peroxidation in salt-stressed line, which remained unaltered in the adapted line. Na⁺ and Cl⁻ content increased due to salinity in both lines, but the adapted line displayed greater K⁺/Na⁺ ratio than the stressed one. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) activities decreased in both salt-exposed lines; catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity did not change in the adapted line, but decreased in the stressed cell line. Salinity caused the suppression of one GR isoform, while the isozyme patterns of SOD, APX, and CAT were not affected. Ascorbate and reduced glutathione increased in both salt-exposed calli lines. α-Tocopherol increased as a result of salt exposure, with higher levels found in adapted calli. Electron microscopy showed that neither the structural integrity of the cells nor membrane structure were affected by salinity, but plastids from adapted cells had higher starch content. The results suggest that the enzymic and non-enzymic components of the antioxidant system are differentially modulated by salt. Different concentrations of antioxidant metabolites are more relevant to the adaptive response to salinity in potato calli than the differences in activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Antioxidant defences of Norway spruce bark against bark beetles and its associated blue-stain fungus

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    Felicijan Mateja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles and their fungal associates are integral parts of forest ecosystems, the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus Linnaeus, 1758 and the associated pathogenic blue stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica (SIEM. C. MOREAU, are the most devastating pests regarding Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. H. KARST.]. Bark beetles commonly inhabit weakened and felled trees as well as vital trees. They cause physiological disorders in trees by destroying a phloem and cambium or interrupt the transpiration -ow in the xylem. Conifers have a wide range of effective defence mechanisms that are based on the inner bark anatomy and physiological state of the tree. The basic function of bark defences is to protect the nutrient-and energy-rich phloem, the vital meristematic region of the vascular cambium, and the transpiration -ow in the sapwood. The main area of defence mechanisms is secondary phloem, which is physically and chemically protected by polyphenolic parenchyma (PP cells, sclerenchyma, calcium oxalate crystals and resin ducts. Conifer trunk pest resistance includes constitutive, inducible defences and acquired resistance. Both constitutive and inducible defences may deter beetle invasion, impede fungal growth and close entrance wounds. During a successful attack, systemic acquired resistance (SAR becomes effective and represents a third defence strategy. It gradually develops throughout the plant and provides a systemic change within the whole tree’s metabolism, which is maintained over a longer period of time. The broad range of defence mechanisms that contribute to the activation and utilisation of SAR, includes antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, which are generally linked to the actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The presented review discusses the current knowledge on the antioxidant defence strategies of spruce inner bark against the bark beetle (Ips typographus and associated blue stain fungus (Ceratocystis polonica.

  10. Antioxidant defence during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyten, Chris R.; van Overveld, Frans J.; de Backer, Lieve A.; Sadowska, Anna M.; Rodrigus, Inez E.; de Hert, Stefan G.; de Backer, Wilfried A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiac surgery may lead to severe oxidative stress due to formation of oxidation products generated during ischemia and reperfusion. We investigated to which extent oxidative stress influences a number of endogenous antioxidants and markers of cellular activation. METHODS: At six time

  11. An Overview of Seasonal Changes in Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defence Parameters in Some Invertebrate and Vertebrate Species

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    Gagan Bihari Nityananda Chainy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defence system, a highly conserved biochemical mechanism, protects organisms from harmful effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS, a by-product of metabolism. Both invertebrates and vertebrates are unable to modify environmental physical factors such as photoperiod, temperature, salinity, humidity, oxygen content, and food availability as per their requirement. Therefore, they have evolved mechanisms to modulate their metabolic pathways to cope their physiology with changing environmental challenges for survival. Antioxidant defences are one of such biochemical mechanisms. At low concentration, ROS regulates several physiological processes, whereas at higher concentration they are toxic to organisms because they impair cellular functions by oxidizing biomolecules. Seasonal changes in antioxidant defences make species able to maintain their correct ROS titre to take various physiological functions such as hibernation, aestivation, migration, and reproduction against changing environmental physical parameters. In this paper, we have compiled information available in the literature on seasonal variation in antioxidant defence system in various species of invertebrates and vertebrates. The primary objective was to understand the relationship between varied biological phenomena seen in different animal species and conserved antioxidant defence system with respect to seasons.

  12. The blood antioxidant defence capacity during intermittent hypoxic training in elite swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poprzęcki, S; Zając, A; Karpiński, J; Wilk, R; Bril, G; Maszczyk, A; Toborek, M

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the chronic effect of simulated intermittent normobaric hypoxia on blood antioxidant defence capacity in swimmers. The study included 14 male and 14 female competitive swimmers performing part of land training under simulated intermittent normobaric hypoxia (O2 = 15.5%) or in normoxia. Land interval training took place twice per week, with a total of 8 training units during the study, performed with individualized intensity. The activities of blood antioxidant enzymes did not change significantly during the first and last training unit in the hypoxic and normoxic group. However, when comparing individual variables a significant effect of exercise was observed on GPx an CAT activities, whereas training units significantly differentiated GPx and GR activities. The oxygen conditions and gender had a significant influence on CAT activity. The total antioxidant capacity was not significantly affected. Only in male swimmers from the hypoxic group did the training significantly increase resting levels of MDA. In conclusion, training in normobaric hypoxia was not an adequate stimulus for the excessive response of the antioxidant defence system, despite increased oxidative stress in these conditions. PMID:28090139

  13. The blood antioxidant defence capacity during intermittent hypoxic training in elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poprzęcki, S; Czuba, M; Zając, A; Karpiński, J; Wilk, R; Bril, G; Maszczyk, A; Toborek, M

    2016-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the chronic effect of simulated intermittent normobaric hypoxia on blood antioxidant defence capacity in swimmers. The study included 14 male and 14 female competitive swimmers performing part of land training under simulated intermittent normobaric hypoxia (O 2 = 15.5%) or in normoxia. Land interval training took place twice per week, with a total of 8 training units during the study, performed with individualized intensity. The activities of blood antioxidant enzymes did not change significantly during the first and last training unit in the hypoxic and normoxic group. However, when comparing individual variables a significant effect of exercise was observed on GPx an CAT activities, whereas training units significantly differentiated GPx and GR activities. The oxygen conditions and gender had a significant influence on CAT activity. The total antioxidant capacity was not significantly affected. Only in male swimmers from the hypoxic group did the training significantly increase resting levels of MDA. In conclusion, training in normobaric hypoxia was not an adequate stimulus for the excessive response of the antioxidant defence system, despite increased oxidative stress in these conditions.

  14. Salinity stress constrains photosynthesis in Fraxinus ornus more when growing in partial shading than in full sunlight: consequences for the antioxidant defence system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, Alessio; Guidi, Lucia; Giordano, Cristiana; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Ferrini, Francesco; Brunetti, Cecilia; Calamai, Luca; Tattini, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    plants growing under partial shading more severely than that of plants growing under full sun during summer. The results suggest co-ordination within the antioxidant defence network aimed at detoxifying salt-induced generation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:25006177

  15. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Immune System and Bodily Defence. 3. How Does the Immune System Organize Itself so as to Connect. Target Recognition to Expected Functions? Vineeta Bal and Satyajit Rath. How is the immune system designed to choose between making antibodies against some targets, killer cells against viral infections and ...

  16. Dry up and survive: the role of antioxidant defences in anhydrobiotic organisms

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    Lorena Rebecchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the evolution of life has turned oxygen into a vital chemical for aerobic organisms, this element can also have deleterious effects on living systems through the production of oxidative stress. This is a process resulting from an imbalance between the excessive production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and the limited action of antioxidant defences. It is a particularly harmful health risk factor, involved in the development of several chronic human pathologies and believed to play a major role in the ageing process. Consequently aerobic metabolism needs a stringent control of ROS. Water too is essential for life, but some organisms widespread throughout nature have the ability to survive complete desiccation by entering an anhydrobiotic state. The loss of water induces changes in metabolism, cell membrane organization, and molecular composition. In the anhydrobiotic state, high temperatures, high humidity, light exposure, and high oxygen partial pressure negatively affect organism survival and directly influence the time required to reactivate the metabolism after a period of desiccation. These abiotic factors induce damages that are accumulated in proportion to the time spent in the desiccated state, potentially leading to organism death. Oxidative stress seems to be one of the most deleterious damages due to water depletion, therefore anhydrobiosis also needs a stringent control of ROS production. Anhydrobiotic organisms seem to apply two main strategies to cope with the danger of oxygen toxicity, namely an increased efficiency of antioxidant defences and a metabolic control of both energy-production and energy-consuming processes. Experimental studies provide evidence that antioxidant defences such as ROS scavenging enzymes (e.g. peroxidases, catalases, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidases and other molecules (e.g. glutathione, carotenoids, vitamins C and E represent a key group of molecules required for desiccation

  17. Reliability analysis of flood defence systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, H.M.G.M.; Lassing, B.L.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Waarts, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years an advanced program for the reliability analysis of flood defence systems has been under development. This paper describes the global data requirements for the application and the setup of the models. The analysis generates the probability of system failure and the contribution of

  18. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Do Parasites and the Immune System Choose their Dances? ... Author Affiliations. Vineeta Bal1 Satyajit Rath1. National Institute of Immunology Aruna Asaf Ali Road New Delhi 110 067, India ...

  19. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Do Parasites and the Immune System Choose their Dances? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 17-24 ...

  20. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Does the Immune System Organize Itself so as to Connect Target Recognition to Expected Functions? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 25-38 ...

  1. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Does the Immune System Recognize Everything Under the Sun? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 9 September 1997 pp 6-10 ...

  2. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Immune System and Bodily Defence. 4.How Does the Immune System Recognize Everything Under the Sun? ... A major exception to this is, of course, the fairly recent innovation in biology called Homo sapiens that ... To do all this, first it is necessary to break the receptor down to its basic functional elements, so that the ...

  3. Creatine-induced activation of antioxidative defence in myotube cultures revealed by explorative NMR-based metabonomics and proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Jette Feveile; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Malmendal, Anders

    2010-01-01

    of protein separation was pI 5-8 and second dimension was a 12.5% Criterion gel. Differentially expressed protein spots of significance were excised from the gel, desalted and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting using MALDI-TOF MS. For NMR metabonomic studies, chloroform/methanol extractions....... The identified differentially regulated proteins were related to energy metabolism, glucose regulated stress, cellular structure and the antioxidative defence system. The suggested improvement of the antioxidative defence was confirmed by a reduced intracellular DCFH2 oxidation with increasing concentrations...... of CMH in the 24 h pre-incubation medium. CONCLUSIONS: The explorative approach of this study combined with the determination of a decreased intracellular DCFH2 oxidation revealed an additional stimulation of cellular antioxidative mechanisms when myotubes were exposed to CMH. This may contribute...

  4. Centella asiatica extract protects against amyloid β1–40-induced neurotoxicity in neuronal cells by activating the antioxidative defence system

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    Chien-Li Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica (雷公根 léi gōng gēn is a traditional medicinal herb with high antioxidant activity, which decreases amyloid-β (Aβ deposition in the brain. At the same time, aggregated Aβ-induced oxidative stress is the trigger in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Here, we investigated the ability of C. asiatica ethanol extract (CAE to protect PC12 and IMR32 cells from Aβ1–40-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and concomitant neurotoxicity. Aggregated Aβ1–40 treatment resulted in reduced cell viability, which can be reversed by cotreatment with 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL CAE. Moreover, CAE eliminated the Aβ1–40-mediated increase in ROS production. Thus, CAE-mediated protection against aggregated Aβ1–40-induced neurotoxicity is attributable to modulation of the antioxidative defense system in cells, including the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and levels of glutathione and glutathione disulfide by CAE. This emphasizes the potential therapeutic and preventive value of CAE in the treatment of AD.

  5. Autonomous Systems: Issues for Defence Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    can be split into two separate functions : ͳ Navigation and localisation : common systems are based on global navigation satellite systems, radio...held different functions within the Swiss Federal Department of Defence (DoD). Between 2012 and 2015 she worked as researcher for the Chair of...activated, performs some task or function on its own. A robot combines an uninhabited platform or vehicle with some degree of autonomy, which is generally

  6. Respiratory tract lining fluid antioxidants: the first line of defence against gaseous pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, F J; Cotgrove, M; Mudway, I S

    1996-01-01

    All tissues are vulnerable to oxidant damage, but by virtue of its location, anatomy and function, the epithelial surface of the lung is one of the most vulnerable targets in the body. Recent studies have shown that epithelial lining fluid (ELF), a thin layer of fluid which covers the epithelial surface of the respiratory tract, contains an interesting complement of antioxidants, some of which, like glutathione, are present in concentrations much higher than those found in plasma. It is likely that ELF forms the first line of defence against inhaled toxins such as ozone and nitrogen dioxide. By employing an ex vivo exposure system we have demonstrated that when lung lining fluid is in contact with environmentally relevant concentrations of ozone or nitrogen dioxide, there is differential consumption of the water-soluble antioxidants in the order, uric acid > ascorbic acid > glutathione. Given that the majority of ozone and nitrogen dioxide reacts within the ELF compartment, the antioxidant composition of this fluid is critically important in determining an individual's sensitivity to gaseous pollutants.

  7. Assessment methodology for air defence control systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available is to defend own assets against air attack through optimisation of AD firepower as well as preventing fratricide or collateral damage. AD Control is a special case of the basic C2 process and system discussed above. The time pressure, execution risk...) and is used to ensure safe and effective defence of Vulnerable Points against air attack during operations. The AD Control system is in essence a Command and Control (C2) system that has to make sense of complex situations and manage the risks during...

  8. Fraxetin and ethyl acetate extract from Lawsonia inermis L. ameliorate oxidative stress in P. berghei infected mice by augmenting antioxidant defence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dhananjay Kumar; Cheema, Harveer Singh; Saxena, Archana; Jyotshana; Singh, Shilpi; Darokar, Mahendra P; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar U; Shanker, Karuna; Luqman, Suaib

    2017-12-01

    Lawsonia inermis L. is a well-documented plant for cosmetic as well as medicinal properties. It is used by local communities in India and Nigeria for the treatment of many parasitic diseases, including malaria. Earlier studies on the plant's antiplasmodial activity were not assigned to any phytochemical with no quality assurance data. In this report, a recent chemically characterized extract and it's major constituent were investigated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity on chloroquine sensitive NF-54 strain. Furtherly, the potent extract and this constituent were assessed in vivo in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. The bioactive phytochemical and enriched extract were also monitored against various oxidative stress parameters. The extract characterization was done by the quantitative analysis of eight phytochemicals using gradient reverse phase HPLC method. In vitro antiplasmodial activity was evaluated on chloroquine sensitive NF-54 strain by the determination of pfLDH activity. In vivo activity of the most potent extract and constituent were evaluated in P. berghei infected mice upon oral administration. The estimation of oxidative stress was done by monitoring various enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters. The ethyl acetate extract of leaves (IC 50 9.00 ± 0.68 µg/ml) and fraxetin (IC 50 19.21 ± 1.04 µM) were the most effective in in vitro assays therefore selected for in vivo tests. The administration of the ethyl acetate extract of leaves and fraxetin to the infected mice resulted in significant (p ethyl acetate extract of L. inermis and fraxetin were able to suppress the oxidative damage by augmenting endogenous antioxidant system and thus ameliorated the plasmodium infection in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Garlic and vitamin E provides antioxidant defence in tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicotine is known to induce oxidative stress in rat tissues and the antioxidant properties of garlic have been reported. This study was designed to determine if the peroxidative damage caused by nicotine administration can be effectively prevented with garlic juice, and vitamin E, a known antioxidant.Four groups of six rats ...

  10. The status of antioxidant defences in Glucose-6-phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of G6PD in cellular antioxidant defense; the level of glutathione, catalase, NADPH and estimate the level of malondialdehyde which reflect the oxidative stress across the cell membrane. Also to study the effect of antioxidant treatment (vitamins C and E) to ameliorate high sensitivity ...

  11. How Trypanosoma cruzi deals with oxidative stress: Antioxidant defence and DNA repair pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Silva, Alice; Cerqueira, Paula Gonçalves; Grazielle-Silva, Viviane; Gadelha, Fernanda Ramos; Peloso, Eduardo de Figueiredo; Teixeira, Santuza Maria Ribeiro; Machado, Carlos Renato

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is an obligatory intracellular parasite with a digenetic life cycle. Due to the variety of host environments, it faces several sources of oxidative stress. In addition to reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by its own metabolism, T. cruzi must deal with high ROS levels generated as part of the host's immune responses. Hence, the conclusion that T. cruzi has limited ability to deal with ROS (based on the lack of a few enzymes involved with oxidative stress responses) seems somewhat paradoxical. Actually, to withstand such variable sources of oxidative stress, T. cruzi has developed complex defence mechanisms. This includes ROS detoxification pathways that are distinct from the ones in the mammalian host, DNA repair pathways and specialized polymerases, which not only protect its genome from the resulting oxidative damage but also contribute to the generation of genetic diversity within the parasite population. Recent studies on T. cruzi's DNA repair pathways as mismatch repair (MMR) and GO system suggested that, besides a role associated with DNA repair, some proteins of these pathways may also be involved in signalling oxidative damage. Recent data also suggested that an oxidative environment might be beneficial for parasite survival within the host cell as it contributes to iron mobilization from the host's intracellular storages. Besides contributing to the understanding of basic aspects of T. cruzi biology, these studies are highly relevant since oxidative stress pathways are part of the poorly understood mechanisms behind the mode of action of drugs currently used against this parasite. By unveiling new peculiar aspects of T. cruzi biology, emerging data on DNA repair pathways and other antioxidant defences from this parasite have revealed potential new targets for a much needed boost in drug development efforts towards a better treatment for Chagas disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Ecological mechanisms for the coevolution of mating systems and defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart A

    2015-02-01

    The diversity of flowering plants is evident in two seemingly unrelated aspects of life history: sexual reproduction, exemplified by the stunning variation in flower form and function, and defence, often in the form of an impressive arsenal of secondary chemistry. Researchers are beginning to appreciate that plant defence and reproduction do not evolve independently, but, instead, may have reciprocal and interactive (coevolutionary) effects on each other. Understanding the mechanisms for mating-defence interactions promises to broaden our understanding of how ecological processes can generate these two rich sources of angiosperm diversity. Here, I review current research on the role of herbivory as a driver of mating system evolution, and the role of mating systems in the evolution of defence strategies. I outline different ecological mechanisms and processes that could generate these coevolutionary patterns, and summarize theoretical and empirical support for each. I provide a conceptual framework for linking plant defence with mating system theory to better integrate these two research fields.

  13. Effect of water deficiency on the cellular status and antioxidant defences in anthyllis sericea. A saharian plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triki, T.; Selmi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Drought is known as an important restricting factor of plant productivity in arid and semi arid areas of the world. The intended increase of temperature in many areas will intensify this problem. In this study the effect of drought stress was studied in a Saharan plant, Anthyllissericea, by Poly-ethylene glycol (PEG-6000) in three different treatments (-0.2 MPa (control), -1.2 MPa (moderate stress) and -2.1 MPa (severe stress)) after 14 days. Nitric oxide (NO) content, Hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/), RWC, lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidant levels from the leaves were analyzed. Initially, plant growth, RWC and the water potentiel (/psi/ w) were decreased with increase of osmotic stress. Drought induces the increase of NO and hydrogen peroxide levels reaching maximum in severe stress period. MDA, proline content and soluble sugars were found to be higher under moderate and severe stress conditions. Plant employs enzymatic antioxidant system to avoid the subproduction of (ROS) resulting by drought. The analysis of CAT, APX and POD activities showed a significant increase during drought stress. Under moderate and severe stress treatments, the higher activities of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, NO, CAT and POD showed a stronger system of antioxidant defences in the metabolic regulation during the applied stress. These results propose that A. sericea has the capacity to activate important adaptative mechanisms under dry conditions involving activation of enzymatic antioxidative defense system and higher osmoprotectants accumulation. (author)

  14. Reinforcing Defence in Depth: A Practical Systemic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, G.; Misak, J.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of defence in depth for ensuring nuclear safety of nuclear installations is often oversimplified and interpreted as a set of physical barriers, whose integrity is ensured by safety provisions in the form of the plant systems implemented independently at various levels of defence. However, the provisions established at each level of defence should in general terms include not only hardware components (active and passive systems), but more comprehensively, also inherent safety characteristics, safety margins, operating procedures and guidelines, quality assurance, safety culture, staff training, and many other organizational measures as parts of management of safety. Many of the above mentioned provisions belong to the category of human and organizational factors. While various hardware components are typically specific for different levels of defence, human and organizational factors may have an impact on several levels of defence. These factors are associated with large uncertainties and can result in latent weaknesses. Their implementation can negatively affect several levels of defence at the same time. The proposed paper will underline the need for a more comprehensive view of the defence in depth concept in order to provide a practical and effective tool for a systemic approach to safety. The paper will consist of two main parts. The first part will introduce a screening method developed by the IAEA as a tool for facilitating the assessment of the comprehensiveness of defence in depth. The method uses screening of safety provisions at five levels of defence to ensure integrity of the physical barriers and achievement of safety objectives at each level of defence. The second part of the paper will focus on human and organizational factors considered as provisions for reliable performance of safety functions. It will explain the significant shift in the demands on the human system between levels 3 and 4 of the defence in depth framework, and will

  15. Anti-oxidative defences are modulated differentially in three freshwater teleosts in response to ammonia-induced oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sinha

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and the antioxidant response induced by high environmental ammonia (HEA were investigated in the liver and gills of three freshwater teleosts differing in their sensitivities to ammonia. The highly ammonia-sensitive salmonid Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout, the less ammonia sensitive cyprinid Cyprinus carpio (common carp and the highly ammonia-resistant cyprinid Carassius auratus (goldfish were exposed to 1 mM ammonia (as NH4HCO3 for 0 h (control, 3 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h. Results show that HEA exposure increased ammonia accumulation significantly in the liver of all the three fish species from 24 h-48 h onwards which was associated with an increment in oxidative stress, evidenced by elevation of xanthine oxidase activity and levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA. Unlike in trout, H2O2 and MDA accumulation in carp and goldfish liver was restored to control levels (84 h-180 h; which was accompanied by a concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbate content. Many of these defence parameters remained unaffected in trout liver, while components of the glutathione redox cycle (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase enhanced to a greater extent. The present findings suggest that trout rely mainly on glutathione dependent defensive mechanism while carp utilize SOD, CAT and ascorbate as anti-oxidative sentinels. Hepatic cells of goldfish appear to utilize each of these protective systems, and showed more effective anti-oxidative compensatory responses towards HEA than carp, while trout were least effective. The present work also indicates that HEA exposure resulted in a relatively mild oxidative stress in the gills of all three species. This probably explains the almost complete lack of anti-oxidative responses in branchial tissue. This research suggests that oxidative stress, as well as the

  16. Anti-oxidative defences are modulated differentially in three freshwater teleosts in response to ammonia-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Giblen, Terri; Zinta, Gaurav; De Rop, Michelle; Asard, Han; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and the antioxidant response induced by high environmental ammonia (HEA) were investigated in the liver and gills of three freshwater teleosts differing in their sensitivities to ammonia. The highly ammonia-sensitive salmonid Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), the less ammonia sensitive cyprinid Cyprinus carpio (common carp) and the highly ammonia-resistant cyprinid Carassius auratus (goldfish) were exposed to 1 mM ammonia (as NH4HCO3) for 0 h (control), 3 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h. Results show that HEA exposure increased ammonia accumulation significantly in the liver of all the three fish species from 24 h-48 h onwards which was associated with an increment in oxidative stress, evidenced by elevation of xanthine oxidase activity and levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Unlike in trout, H2O2 and MDA accumulation in carp and goldfish liver was restored to control levels (84 h-180 h); which was accompanied by a concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbate content. Many of these defence parameters remained unaffected in trout liver, while components of the glutathione redox cycle (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) enhanced to a greater extent. The present findings suggest that trout rely mainly on glutathione dependent defensive mechanism while carp utilize SOD, CAT and ascorbate as anti-oxidative sentinels. Hepatic cells of goldfish appear to utilize each of these protective systems, and showed more effective anti-oxidative compensatory responses towards HEA than carp, while trout were least effective. The present work also indicates that HEA exposure resulted in a relatively mild oxidative stress in the gills of all three species. This probably explains the almost complete lack of anti-oxidative responses in branchial tissue. This research suggests that oxidative stress, as well as the antioxidant

  17. Changes in pulmonary antioxidant defence mechanisms during separate and combined treatment with paraquat and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylovski, P.; Rachin, E.; Nechev, Kh.; Shopova, V.; Rachina, V.; Gylybova, V.; Grozeva, M.

    1987-01-01

    Two-hundred-fifty white male Wistar rats were poisoned with a daily dose of 1/100 LD 50 paraquat water solution, five days weekly, over a period of 4 months. Immediately after that the animals were exposed to a single whole-body irradiation with a dose rate of 2 and 4 Gy on a linear accelerator with photon energy 9 MeV and radiation power 2 Gy/min. The biological effects of the isolated and combined two factors on the pulmonary antioxidant defence mechanisms were studied from the 1st up to the 60th post-irradiation days. It was established that paraquat and ionizing radiation inhibited the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and decreased the content of non-protein weight groups in lung homogenate at an early stage. The combined application of both factors had a significant synergic effect

  18. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Does the Immune ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Does the Immune System Generate a Truly Infinite Repertoire Capability? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 8-13 ...

  19. Torpedo and countermeasures modelling in the Torpedo Defence System Testbed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, F.P.A.; Witberg, R.R.; H.J. Grootendorst, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Several years ago, TNO-FEL started the development of the Torpedo Defence System Testbed (TDSTB) based on the TORpedo SIMulation (TORSIM) model and the Maritime Operations Simulation and Evaluation System (MOSES). MOSES provides the simulation and modelling environment for the evaluation and

  20. Perinatal hypothyroidism modulates antioxidant defence status in the developing rat liver and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Dong, Yan; Su, Qing

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant defence status in perinatal hypothyroid rat liver and heart. We found that the proteincarbonyl content did not differ significantly between the three groups both in the pup liver and in the heart. The OH˙ level was significantly decreased in the hypothyroid heart but not in the liver compared with controls. A slight but not significant decrease in SOD activity was observed in both perinatal hypothyroid liver and heart. A significantly increased activity of CAT was observed in the liver but not in the heart of hypothyroid pups. The GPx activity was considerably increased compared with controls in the perinatal hypothyroid heart and was unaltered in the liver of hypothyroid pups. We also found that vitamin E levels in the liver decreased significantly in hypothyroidism and were unaltered in the heart of perinatal hypothyroid rats. The GSH content was elevated significantly in both hypothyroid liver and heart. The total antioxidant capacity was higher in the liver of the hypothyroid group but not in the hypothyroid heart. Thyroxine replacement could not repair the above changes to normal. In conclusion, perinatal hypothyroidism modulates the oxidative stress status of the perinatal liver and heart.

  1. Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik

    Increasing levels of penetration of wind power and other renewable generations in European power systems pose challenges to power system security. The power system operators are continuously challenged especially when generations from renewables are high thereby reducing online capacity of conven......Increasing levels of penetration of wind power and other renewable generations in European power systems pose challenges to power system security. The power system operators are continuously challenged especially when generations from renewables are high thereby reducing online capacity......, one of them being the North East area with high share of wind power generation.The aim of this study is to investigate how renewable generations like wind power can contribute to the power system defence plans. This PhD project “Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans...

  2. Creatine-induced activation of antioxidative defence in myotube cultures revealed by explorative NMR-based metabonomics and proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Niels

    2010-02-01

    antioxidative defence system. The suggested improvement of the antioxidative defence was confirmed by a reduced intracellular DCFH2 oxidation with increasing concentrations of CMH in the 24 h pre-incubation medium. Conclusions The explorative approach of this study combined with the determination of a decreased intracellular DCFH2 oxidation revealed an additional stimulation of cellular antioxidative mechanisms when myotubes were exposed to CMH. This may contribute to an increased exercise performance mediated by increased ability to cope with training-induced increases in oxidative stress.

  3. Exogenous melatonin improves antioxidant defence in cucumber seeds (Cucumis sativus L. germinated under chilling stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martaa eBałabusta

    2016-04-01

    way we try to fill lack of information about melatonin-regulated pathways involved in antioxidant strategy of plant defence.

  4. Landscape settings as part of earth wall systems for defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2013-04-01

    Remnants of earth wall systems from different periods are preserved in many European countries. They were built for different functions, such as defence, demarcating ownership or keeping wild animals or cattle in or out a terrain, and often changed function over time. Earth walls date from a past in which man had limited access to man- and horsepower. In the case of defence systems, our ancestors made use of the landscape settings to improve the strength. The poster gives an overview of landscape settings used for this purpose, from prehistoric up to medieval age, for building round and linear earth wall defence systems. Round earth walls systems are found on: • High viewpoints along a river, often in combination with marshland at its feet, • Almost completely cut-off meanders of antecedent rivers. This natural setting offered an ideal defence. It allowed an almost 360 degree view and exposed the enemy for a long time when passing the river, while the steep slopes and narrow entrance made the hill fort difficult to access, • Islands in lakes, • Bordering a lake at one side, • Confluences of rivers, • Hills near the sea and a natural harbour with possibilities for defence, • High flat hill tops of medium size with steep sides. Of each situation examples are presented. Linear earth wall defence systems For linear defence earth walls no overview of landscape settings can be given, for lack of sufficient data. The Celtic, 10 m steep Beech Bottom Dyke earth wall system from around 20 A.D. connects two steeply incised river valleys. For building the Hadrian Wall (UK) the Romans made use of earth walls paralleling the steepest cuesta of the Cheviot hills. The Viking Danewerk (Ger), was built on push moraines and used the coastal marsh lands at their feet for defence. And the defence of the earth wall around the Velder (NL, probably 13th century) made use of the many small streams crossing this marshy coversand landscape, by diverting them into a canal

  5. Indicators of Macromolecular Oxidative Damage and Antioxidant Defence Examinees Exposed to the Radar Frequencies 1.5 - 10.9 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjanovic, A.M.; Flajs, D.; Pavicic, I.; Domijan, A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar is an object-detection system which uses microwaves (Mw). As a result of increased use of radar there is a rising concern regarding health effects of Mw radiation on human body. Living organisms are complex electrochemical systems being evolved in a relatively narrow range of well-defined environmental parameters. For life to be maintained these parameters must be kept within their normal range, since deviations can induce biochemical effects causing cell function impairment and disease. Some theories indicate connection between Mw radiation, oxidative damage as well as antioxidant defence of organism. Aim of this study was to evaluate level and damage of macromolecular structures - proteins and lipids in blood of men occupationally exposed to Mw radiation. Concentration of glutathione (GSH), a known indicator of organism antioxidant defence, was also determined. Blood samples were collected from 27 male workers occupationally exposed to radar frequencies 1.5 to 10.9 GHz. Corresponding control group (N = 8) was a part of study. Concentrations of total and oxidised proteins, protein carbonyls, and GSH were measured by spectrophotometric method, while malondialdeyde (MDA), product of lipid peroxidation, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Gained concentrations of oxidised proteins, GSH and MDA were presented in relation to total proteins. Concentration of oxidised proteins between control and exposed group of examinees did not show any significant statistical difference. However, concentration of GSH in exposed group was found considerably decreased, while concentration of MDA was found to be increased. Results indicate that Mw radiation of radar operating at frequencies 1.5 - 10.9 GHz could cause damage to proteins and lipids in addition to impairment of antioxidant defence of organism. (author)

  6. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , we have simply referred to 'cells of the immune system', as though they were a homogeneous population. But clearly, given the number of functions they are expected to carry out, ..... easily susceptible to such digestion themselves (Figure 3).

  7. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Immunology, New Delhi, and have been working there on various aspects of cellular and molecular immunology for the past six years or so. ..... can maintain immune memory and make vaccines possible. Of course, the complications of the clonally diverse system of immune target recognition leads to a variety of practical ...

  8. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    receptor, making them potential levers for immunological con- fusion, especially if one of the two receptors recognises some target shape that is normal and intrinsic to the body itself! However, this is a problem that we must think about in the context of the larger issue of how the immune system weeds out such potentially ...

  9. Lipid mediators involved in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defence of human lung cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gęgotek

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: This study shows significant differences in the redox status, Nrf2 pathway and endocannabinoid system between SCC and AC tissues. Understanding the relation between the various lipid mediators and antioxidants in different lung cancer subtypes may be beginning for further research on the effective anticancer therapy.

  10. H(2) enhances arabidopsis salt tolerance by manipulating ZAT10/12-mediated antioxidant defence and controlling sodium exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanjie; Mao, Yu; Lai, Diwen; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Wenbiao

    2012-01-01

    The metabolism of hydrogen gas (H(2)) in bacteria and algae has been extensively studied for the interesting of developing H(2)-based fuel. Recently, H(2) is recognized as a therapeutic antioxidant and activates several signalling pathways in clinical trials. However, underlying physiological roles and mechanisms of H(2) in plants as well as its signalling cascade remain unknown. In this report, histochemical, molecular, immunological and genetic approaches were applied to characterize the participation of H(2) in enhancing Arabidopsis salt tolerance. An increase of endogenous H(2) release was observed 6 hr after exposure to 150 mM NaCl. Arabidopsis pretreated with 50% H(2)-saturated liquid medium, mimicking the induction of endogenous H(2) release when subsequently exposed to NaCl, effectively decreased salinity-induced growth inhibition. Further results showed that H(2) pretreatment modulated genes/proteins of zinc-finger transcription factor ZAT10/12 and related antioxidant defence enzymes, thus significantly counteracting the NaCl-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and lipid peroxidation. Additionally, H(2) pretreatment maintained ion homeostasis by regulating the antiporters and H(+) pump responsible for Na(+) exclusion (in particular) and compartmentation. Genetic evidence suggested that SOS1 and cAPX1 might be the target genes of H(2) signalling. Overall, our findings indicate that H(2) acts as a novel and cytoprotective regulator in coupling ZAT10/12-mediated antioxidant defence and maintenance of ion homeostasis in the improvement of Arabidopsis salt tolerance.

  11. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of the root bark extract of the African laburnum “Cassia sieberiana” and its effect on the anti-oxidant defence system in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nartey Edmund T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the widespread use of roots of Cassia sieberiana in managing several health conditions including gastric ulcer disease, there is little scientific data to support the rational phytotherapeutics as an anti-ulcer agent. This paper reports an evaluation of the in vivo anti-oxidant properties of an aqueous root bark extract of C. sieberiana in experimental gastric ulcer rats in a bid to elucidate its mechanism of action. Methods Fisher 344 (F344 rats received pretreatment of C. sieberiana root bark extract (500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg body wt. for 7 days after which there was induction of gastric injury with absolute ethanol. The mean ulcer index (MUI was calculated and serum total anti-oxidant level determined. Gastric mucosal tissues were prepared and the activity level of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and myeloperoxidase (MPO were measured together with the level of lipid hydroperoxides (LPO. Statistical difference between treatment groups was analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s post hoc t test. Statistical significance was calculated at P Results The administration of ethanol triggered severe acute gastric ulcer and pretreatment with C. sieberiana root bark extract significantly and dose dependently protected against this effect. The root bark extract also dose dependently and significantly inhibited the ethanol induced decrease in activity levels of the enzymes SOD, CAT and GPx. The extract also inhibited the ethanol-induced decrease in level of serum total anti-oxidant capacity. The increase in ethanol-induced LPO level and MPO activity were also significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by the root bark extract. Conclusions The gastro-cytoprotective effect, inhibition of decrease in activity of gastric anti-oxidant enzymes and MPO as well as the inhibition of gastric LPO level suggests that one of the anti-ulcer mechanisms of

  12. Modelling an infrared Man Portable Air Defence System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenall, Richard P.; Richardson, Mark A.; Brian, Butters; Roy, Walmsley

    2010-09-01

    The global proliferation of shoulder launched IR Man Portable Air Defence Systems (ManPADS) has resulted in the existence of a serious threat to both civilian and military aircraft from terrorist attack. Some of the older generations of ManPADS can be defeated with modern countermeasures but even the most sophisticated protection still has vulnerabilities to the latest family of ManPADS. This paper describes the work undertaken by the authors to model a second generation ManPAD, based on the Russian SA-14, and assess the vulnerabilities of aircraft both with and without flare countermeasures from these systems. The conclusions are the results of over 11,000 simulated firings against targets of varying aspects, velocities and altitudes.

  13. H(2 enhances arabidopsis salt tolerance by manipulating ZAT10/12-mediated antioxidant defence and controlling sodium exclusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjie Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metabolism of hydrogen gas (H(2 in bacteria and algae has been extensively studied for the interesting of developing H(2-based fuel. Recently, H(2 is recognized as a therapeutic antioxidant and activates several signalling pathways in clinical trials. However, underlying physiological roles and mechanisms of H(2 in plants as well as its signalling cascade remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, histochemical, molecular, immunological and genetic approaches were applied to characterize the participation of H(2 in enhancing Arabidopsis salt tolerance. An increase of endogenous H(2 release was observed 6 hr after exposure to 150 mM NaCl. Arabidopsis pretreated with 50% H(2-saturated liquid medium, mimicking the induction of endogenous H(2 release when subsequently exposed to NaCl, effectively decreased salinity-induced growth inhibition. Further results showed that H(2 pretreatment modulated genes/proteins of zinc-finger transcription factor ZAT10/12 and related antioxidant defence enzymes, thus significantly counteracting the NaCl-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS overproduction and lipid peroxidation. Additionally, H(2 pretreatment maintained ion homeostasis by regulating the antiporters and H(+ pump responsible for Na(+ exclusion (in particular and compartmentation. Genetic evidence suggested that SOS1 and cAPX1 might be the target genes of H(2 signalling. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings indicate that H(2 acts as a novel and cytoprotective regulator in coupling ZAT10/12-mediated antioxidant defence and maintenance of ion homeostasis in the improvement of Arabidopsis salt tolerance.

  14. Antioxidant defence-related genetic variants are not associated with higher risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodusek Ana Lina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. Thyroid gland is very sensitive to the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation, especially in children. Imbalance between pro- and anti-oxidant factors may play a role in thyroid carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between genetic variability of antioxidant defence-related genes and the risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence.

  15. Modelling the effects of a CBRN defence system using a Bayesian Belief Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillipson, F.; Bastings, I.C.L.; Vink, N.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a Bayes model to quantify the effects of a passive CBRN defence system is presented. The model gives insight in the way of the mutual influence of all the elements of passive CBRN defence, by the use of detailed scenario analysis, sensitivity analysis and root cause analysis. This can

  16. Anti-oxidant defence mechanism in vitiliginous skin increases with skin type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briganti, S.; Caron-Schreinemachers, A.-L. D. B.; Picardo, M.; Westerhof, W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitiligo skin shows different burning capacity in people with different phototype. In normal skin antioxidant status is correlated to skin phototype, but unexpectedly it appears that there is a gradual decrease in burning susceptibility of depigmented skin of individuals with increasing

  17. Modulation of antioxidant defences in digestive gland of Perna viridis (L.), on mercury exposures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    , and mixtures of B[a]P and Aroclor 1254. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 46, 1285–1293. Sweetman, S.F., Strain, J.J., McKelvey-Martin, V.J., 1997. Effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on DNA damage and repair in human lymphoblastoid cells. Nutrit. Cancer 27, 122...

  18. Seawater irrigation: antioxidant defence responses in leaves and roots of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) ecotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baccio, Daniela; Navari-Izzo, Flavia; Izzo, Riccardo

    2004-12-01

    Salinity is a widespread environmental stress for crop plants. It is common in arid, semiarid, and coast regions. In those environments, seawater infiltrations can occur or the sea provides the only source of water for irrigation. The effects of 10% and 20% seawater in nutrient solutions were studied in 30 day-old plants of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) ecotype Katharina Piacenza. Growth parameters, ascorbate and glutathione contents, and the activities of ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase were determined in shoots and roots. The results showed antioxidative responses of the ecotype to both salt treatments. The different activity patterns of antioxidant molecules and enzymes in the leaves and roots suggested a different kind of reaction to the two seawater concentrations.

  19. Oxidative stress and antioxidant defences generated by solar UV in a Subantarctic marine phytoflagellate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pablo Hernando

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of the Antarctic stratospheric ozone resulted in significant increases in ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm reaching the surface of the ocean. The main objective of this work was to study long-term (growth rate scale, days stress responses (lipid oxidative damage, TBARS, and lipid soluble antioxidants to UV-B and UV-A of a phytoflagellate species (Asteromonas sp. isolated from a natural phytoplankton community of the Subantarctic Beagle Channel. The growth rate was inhibited by UV-B and UV-A radiation during the exponential phase. A marked increase in the TBARS content was observed on day 1 of the experiment, with significant differences between algae subjected to UV-B and UV-A treatments, thus suggesting high damage to the cell membrane. During the second day of the experiment TBARS in UV-A treatments were higher than under photosynthetically active radiation (PAR. The concentration of TBARS decreased to the level of the PAR control on day 3, remaining low until the end of the experiment. Lipid antioxidant concentrations (?-tocopherol and ?-carotene were delayed with respect to variations in TBARS, showing maximum values on day 3 of the experiment. This coincided with the minimum TBARS concentrations in all treatments. The content of both antioxidants increased significantly in cultures exposed to UV-B and UV-A on days 3 and 4. In Antarctic species (phytoflagellate Asteromonas sp., AP and diatom Thalassiosira sp., AT a-tocopherol was more abundant than b-carotene. The phytoflagellate species showed a lag in reaching the maximum content of both antioxidants in relation to AT, which reached the maximum concentration within a short time scale (3 h suggesting a more rapid response to oxidative stress. AT was more resistant to UVR stress than the phytoflagellate species. Overall, our results show that UVR damage/repair balance involves the combined action of several internal factors in the cell.

  20. The Protective Role of Antioxidants in the Defence against ROS/RNS-Mediated Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljšak, Borut; Fink, Rok

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can result from exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ionising and nonionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation, elevated concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke, asbestos, particulate matter, pesticides, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and many other compounds present in the environment. It appears that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is often neglected mechanism by which environmental pollutants affect human health. Oxidation of and oxidative damage to cellular components and biomolecules have been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of several chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and aging. Several studies have demonstrated that the human body can alleviate oxidative stress using exogenous antioxidants. However, not all dietary antioxidant supplements display protective effects, for example, β-carotene for lung cancer prevention in smokers or tocopherols for photooxidative stress. In this review, we explore the increases in oxidative stress caused by exposure to environmental pollutants and the protective effects of antioxidants. PMID:25140198

  1. Antioxidant defences and haemocyte internalization in Limnoperna fortunei exposed to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardello, Francine, E-mail: fgirardello@yahoo.com.br [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Caxias do Sul (UCS), Rua Francisco Getúlio Vargas 1130, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Leite, Camila Custódio; Branco, Catia Santos; Roesch-Ely, Mariana [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Caxias do Sul (UCS), Rua Francisco Getúlio Vargas 1130, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Fernandes, Andreia Neves [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Salvador, Mirian [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Caxias do Sul (UCS), Rua Francisco Getúlio Vargas 1130, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Caxias do Sul (UCS), Rua Francisco Getúlio Vargas 1130, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Department of Biophysics/Center of Biotechnology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, Campus do Vale Setor 4, Box 43422, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); InnVitro Research and Development, Rua Mariante 180, Sala 902, 90430-180 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}-NP was internalized by Limnoperna fortunei cells. • TiO{sub 2}-NP can promote alterations in haemocytes membrane of golden mussel. • Antioxidant activity of Sod and Cat decreased after 2 h TiO{sub 2}-NP exposure. • The protein sulfhydryl content decreased after 2 h TiO{sub 2}-NP exposure. • The antioxidants activities were restored after 4 h TiO{sub 2}-NP exposure. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2}-NP) have been incorporated into a large range of materials for different applications in the last decades and are very likely to appear in wastewater and effluents, eventually reaching the aquatic environment. Therefore, the assessment of the biological impact of TiO{sub 2}-NP on aquatic ecosystem is of a major concern. The mussels represent a target group for TiO{sub 2}-NP toxicity, as they are filter feeders and are capable of bioaccumulating toxic compounds. Furthermore, the exotic organism Limnoperna fortunei, golden mussel, is a freshwater bivalve that has been used in biomonitoring environmental conditions. In this work, the TiO{sub 2}-NP’s ability to interact with haemocytes of golden mussel was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses were evaluated by superoxide dismutase (Sod) and catalase (Cat) activities and protein sulfhydryl content, which were measured after the golden mussel was exposed to TiO{sub 2}-NP (1, 5, 10 and 50 μg mL{sup −1}). Results demonstrate that TiO{sub 2}-NP was internalized by cells, causing alterations in haemocytes membrane. Antioxidant activity of Sod and Cat decreased after 2 h TiO{sub 2}-NP exposure. After 4 h exposure, the enzymatic antioxidant activity was restored. Notably, the protein sulfhydryl content decreased after 2 h to all the TiO{sub 2}-NP concentrations and no alterations were observed after 4 h of TiO{sub 2}-NP exposure. These results demonstrate the potential of golden mussel as sentinel organism to Ti

  2. Effects of Inulin Supplementation in Low- or High-Fat Diets on Reproductive Performance of Sows and Antioxidant Defence Capacity in Sows and Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y S; Zhou, P; Liu, H; Li, S; Zhao, Y; Deng, K; Cao, D D; Che, L Q; Fang, Z F; Xu, S Y; Lin, Y; Feng, B; Li, J; Wu, D

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin supplementation in low- or high-fat diets on both the reproductive performance of sow and the antioxidant defence capacity in sows and offspring. Sixty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were randomly allocated to four treatments with low-fat diet (L), low-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (LI), high-fat diet (H) and high-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (HI). Inulin-rich diets lowered the within-litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CV, p = 0.05) of piglets, increased the proportion of piglets weighing 1.0-1.5 kg at farrowing (p Inulin-rich diets fed to sow during gestation had beneficial effects on within-litter uniformity of piglet birthweight and enhanced the antioxidant defence capacity of sows and piglets. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Applying systems engineering principles towards developing defence capabilities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, CJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available missions defined in [2]. The South African Department of Defence (DOD) Information Strategy [3] has responded to the requirement of a single joint C4I3RS capability by adopting network enabling approaches to achieve optimal benefit of resources... is responsible to coordinate joint operations for the SANDF. This requires a certain level of Capability Based Planning to direct and guide planning at Services and Division levels in the SANDF. The SANDF Capability Portfolios are structured as indicated...

  4. Antioxidant and molecular chaperone defences during estivation and arousal in the South American apple snail Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud-Billoud, Maximiliano; Vega, Israel A; Tosi, Martín E Rinaldi; Abud, María A; Calderón, María L; Castro-Vazquez, Alfredo

    2013-02-15

    The invasive Pomacea canaliculata estivates during periods of drought and should cope with harmful effects of reoxygenation during arousal. We studied thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (uric acid and reduced glutathione), and heat shock protein expression (Hsc70, Hsp70 and Hsp90) in (1) active control snails, (2) snails after 45 days of estivation, and (3) aroused snails 20 min and (4) 24 h after water exposure, in midgut gland, kidney and foot. Both kidney and foot (but not the midgut gland) showed a TBARS increase during estivation and a decrease after arousal. Tissue SOD and CAT did not change in any experimental groups. Uric acid increased during estivation in all tissues, and it decreased after arousal in the kidney. Allantoin, the oxidation product of uric acid, remained constant in the midgut gland but it decreased in the kidney until 20 min after arousal; however, allantoin levels rose in both kidney and foot 24 h after arousal. Reduced glutathione decreased during estivation and arousal, in both midgut gland and kidney, and it remained constant in the foot. Hsc70 and Hsp70 kidney levels were stable during the activity-estivation cycle and Hsp90 expression decreases during estivation and recovers in the early arousal. In foot, the expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 was high during activity and estivation periods and disminished after arousal. Results indicate that a panoply of antioxidant and molecular chaperone defences may be involved during the activity-estivation cycle in this freshwater gastropod.

  5. Heat stress in the heart and muscle of the Antarctic fishes Notothenia rossii and Notothenia coriiceps: Carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidant defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Maria Rosa Dmengeon Pedreiro de; Herrerias, Tatiana; Zaleski, Tania; Forgati, Mariana; Kandalski, Priscila Krebsbach; Machado, Cintia; Silva, Dilza Trevisan; Piechnik, Cláudio Adriano; Moura, Maurício Osvaldo; Donatti, Lucélia

    2018-03-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism and the antioxidant defence system of heart and muscle of the Antarctic notothenioids Notothenia rossii and Notothenia coriiceps were evaluated in response to heat stress (8 °C) over 144 h. N. rossii heart exhibited decreased glycolysis and aerobic metabolism after up to 12 h of exposure to 8 °C, and anaerobiosis was inhibited within 24 h. However, these pathways were stimulated after 72 h at 8 °C. The consumption of glucose-6-phosphate, derived from hexokinase (HK), by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) decreased in N. rossii heart within 6 h at 8 °C, with a subsequent increase at 72 h. In N. rossii muscle at 8 °C, glycolysis was stimulated within 2 h by an increase in pyruvate kinase (PK), and aerobic metabolism was stimulated at 144 h, together with anaerobiosis. In N. coriiceps heart at 8 °C, glucose break down by HK decreased within 2 h and subsequently increased at 12 and 24 h. Increased glucose-6-phosphate consumption by G6PDH occurred within 6 h at 8 °C. In N. coriiceps muscle at 8 °C, glycolysis was stimulated at 2 and 6 h, with subsequent inhibition within 24 h, as indicated by HK activity. Aerobic metabolism was inhibited at 72 and 144 h at 8 °C through the inhibition of citrate synthase (CS). Heat stress caused responses were only occasional and transient in antioxidant defence system of both species in the heart and muscle, leading to increased glutathione (GSH) and decreased levels of lipoperoxidation in the heart of both species. The results obtained in this study in the heart and muscles indicate that under heat stress at 8 °C, N. rossii is more responsive than N. coriiceps with respect to carbohydrate metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  6. Annona muricata leaves accelerate wound healing in rats via involvement of Hsp70 and antioxidant defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Rouhollahi, Elham; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Karimian, Hamed; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2015-06-01

    Annona muricata, a member of the Annonaceae family, is commonly known as soursop and graviola. The leaves of this tropical fruit tree are widely used in folk medicine against skin diseases and abscesses, however there is no scientific evidence justifying the use of A. muricata leaves. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the wound healing potential of ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAM) towards excisional wound models in rats. Sprague Dawley rats (24) were randomly divided into four groups, viz. (A) vehicle control, (B) low dose of EEAM (5% w/w), (C) high dose of EEAM (10% w/w) and (D) positive control with excisional wound created on the neck area. Wounds were topically dressed twice a day for 15 days. On the 15th day, animals were sacrificed and then processed for immunohistochemical and histological evaluations, including Hematoxylin & Eosin and Masson Trichrome stainings. The activity of antioxidants, namely catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured in wound tissue homogenate. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of wounds demonstrated a significant wound healing activity shown by EEAM at two doses. Treatment of wounds with ointment containing EEAM caused significant surge in antioxidants activities and decrease in the MDA level of wound tissues compared with vehicle control. The immunohistochemical evaluation revealed conspicuous up-regulation of Hsp70 in treated wounds with EEAM, suggesting the anti-inflammatory effect of EEAM. EEAM exhibited a promising wound healing potential towards excisional wound models in rats. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The Immune System and Bodily Defence-How Does the Immune ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. The Immune System and Bodily Defence - How Does the Immune System Live With a Randomly Generated Repertoire? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 3 Issue 1 January 1998 pp 15-20 ...

  8. The Learning Management System at the Defence University: Awareness and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhary, Jowati

    2013-01-01

    This brief paper examines the issues of awareness and application of a Learning Management System (LMS) used at the National Defence University of Malaysia (NDUM), Kuala Lumpur Malaysia. The paper argues that due to the discouraging responses from academics at the university on using the LMS, proactive measures must be taken immediately in order…

  9. The Arabidopsis defensin gene, AtPDF1.1, mediates defence against Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum via an iron-withholding defence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Pao-Yuan; Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Koh, Kah Wee; Chan, Ming-Tsair

    2017-08-23

    Plant defensins (PDFs) are cysteine-rich peptides that have a range of biological functions, including defence against fungal pathogens. However, little is known about their role in defence against bacteria. In this study, we showed that the protein encoded by ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA PLANT DEFENSIN TYPE 1.1 (AtPDF1.1) is a secreted protein that can chelate apoplastic iron. Transcripts of AtPDF1.1 were induced in both systemic non-infected leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants and those infected with the necrotrophic bacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc). The expression levels of AtPDF1.1 with correct subcellular localization in transgenic A. thaliana plants were positively correlated with tolerance to Pcc, suggesting its involvement in the defence against this bacterium. Expression analysis of genes associated with iron homeostasis/deficiency and hormone signalling indicated that the increased sequestration of iron by apoplastic AtPDF1.1 overexpression perturbs iron homeostasis in leaves and consequently activates an iron-deficiency-mediated response in roots via the ethylene signalling pathway. This in turn triggers ethylene-mediated signalling in systemic leaves, which is involved in suppressing the infection of necrotrophic pathogens. These findings provide new insight into the key functions of plant defensins in limiting the infection by the necrotrophic bacterium Pcc via an iron-deficiency-mediated defence response.

  10. Pulsed Laser Shearography System for Defence Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Defense Research and Education LONG-TERM GOALS The University of Mississippi purchased a pulsed digital shearography system for research...and education involving vibration analysis under the Defense University Research Instrumentation Program (DURIP). This system will be used to...acquire a pulsed digital shearography system for use in research and education . APPROACH The University of Mississippi issued a subcontract

  11. A Framework for the Automation of Air Defence Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choenni, R.S.; Leijnse, C.

    The need for more efficiency in military organizations is growing. It is expected that a significant increase in efficiency can be obtained by an integration of communication and information technology. This integration may result in (sub)systems that are fully automated, i.e., systems that are

  12. Shipborne Laser Beam Weapon System for Defence against Cruise Missiles

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. Dudeja; G.S. Kalsey

    2000-01-01

    Sea-skim~ing cruise missiles pose the greatest threat to a surface ship in the present-day war scenario. The convenitional close-in-weapon-systems (CIWSs) are becoming less reliable against these new challenges requiring extremely fast reaction time. Naval Forces see a high energy laser as a feasible andjeffective directed energy weapon against sea-skimming antiship cruise missiles becauseof its .ability to deliver destructive energy at the speed of light on to a distant target. The paper com...

  13. Bacteriophages use hypermodified nucleosides to evade host's defence systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kot, Witold; Olsen, Nikoline S.; Carstens, Alexander Byth

    Since the very beginning of life, primitive cells were forced to face selfish genetic elements like viruses or plasmids. Bacteria, continually exposed to infections, developed several phage resistance mechanisms e.g. restriction-modification and CRISPR-Cas systems. On the other hand, bacteriophages...... to investigate this mechanism in detail we have used several methods including direct plaque sequencing, restriction endonuclease analysis and CRISPR-Cas genome editing. Through generation of specific mutants, we were able to introduce a restriction sensitive phenotype in the CAjan bacteriophage providing new...... insight on use of alternative bases by bacteriophages....

  14. Antioxidant defence-related genetic variants are not associated with higher risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vodusek, Ana Lina; Goricar, Katja; Gazic, Barbara; Dolzan, Vita; Jazbec, Janez

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. Thyroid gland is very sensitive to the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation, especially in children. Imbalance between pro- and anti-oxidant factors may play a role in thyroid carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between genetic variability of antioxidant defence-related genes and the risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. In a retrospective study, we compared patients with childhood or adolescence primary malignancy between 1960 and 2006 that developed a secondary thyroid cancer (cases) with patients (controls), with the same primary malignancy but did not develop any secondary cancer. They were matched for age, gender, primary diagnosis and treatment (especially radiotherapy) of primary malignancy. They were all genotyped for SOD2 p.Ala16Val, CAT c.-262C>T, GPX1 p.Pro200Leu, GSTP1 p.Ile105Val, GSTP1 p.Ala114Val and GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions. The influence of polymorphisms on occurrence of secondary cancer was examined by McNemar test and Cox proportional hazards model. Between 1960 and 2006 a total of 2641 patients were diagnosed with primary malignancy before the age of 21 years in Slovenia. Among them 155 developed a secondary cancer, 28 of which were secondary thyroid cancers. No significant differences in the genotype frequency distribution were observed between cases and controls. Additionally we observed no significant influence of investigated polymorphisms on time to the development of secondary thyroid cancer. We observed no association of polymorphisms in antioxidant genes with the risk for secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. However, thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers in patients treated for malignancy in childhood or adolescence and the lifelong follow up of these patients is of utmost

  15. AlGaInN laser diode technology and systems for defence and security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najda, Stephen P.; Perlin, Piotr; Suski, Tadek; Marona, Lujca; Boćkowski, Mike; Leszczyński, Mike; Wisniewski, Przemek; Czernecki, Robert; Kucharski, Robert; Targowski, Grzegorz; Watson, Scott; Kelly, Antony E.

    2015-10-01

    AlGaInN laser diodes is an emerging technology for defence and security applications such as underwater communications and sensing, atomic clocks and quantum information. The AlGaInN material system allows for laser diodes to be fabricated over a very wide range of wavelengths from u.v., ~380nm, to the visible ~530nm, by tuning the indium content of the laser GaInN quantum well. Thus AlGaInN laser diode technology is a key enabler for the development of new disruptive system level applications in displays, telecom, defence and other industries. Ridge waveguide laser diodes are fabricated to achieve single mode operation with optical powers up to 100mW with the 400-440nm wavelength range with high reliability. Visible free-space and underwater communication at frequencies up to 2.5GHz is reported using a directly modulated 422nm GaN laser diode. Low defectivity and highly uniform GaN substrates allow arrays and bars to be fabricated. High power operation operation of AlGaInN laser bars with up to 20 emitters have been demonstrated at optical powers up to 4W in a CS package with common contact configuration. An alternative package configuration for AlGaInN laser arrays allows for each individual laser to be individually addressable allowing complex free-space or optical fibre system integration with a very small form-factor.

  16. Systemic antioxidants and skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Gloria; Torres, Abel

    2012-09-01

    Most dermatologists agree that antioxidants help fight free radical damage and can help maintain healthy skin. They do so by affecting intracellular signaling pathways involved in skin damage and protecting against photodamage, as well as preventing wrinkles and inflammation. In today's modern world of the rising nutraceutical industry, many people, in addition to applying topical skin care products, turn to supplementation of the nutrients missing in their diets by taking multivitamins or isolated, man-made nutraceuticals, in what is known as the Inside-Out approach to skin care. However, ingestion of large quantities of isolated, fragmented nutrients can be harmful and is a poor representation of the kind of nutrition that can be obtained from whole food sources. In this comprehensive review, it was found that few studies on oral antioxidants benefiting the skin have been done using whole foods, and that the vast majority of current research is focused on the study of compounds in isolation. However, the public stands to benefit greatly if more research were to be devoted toward the impact that physiologic doses of antioxidants (obtained from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) can have on skin health, and on health in general.

  17. [The changes of processes of free radical oxidation of lipids and proteins, antioxidant defence in rats with hypofunction of the thyroid gland in conditions of iodine and copper deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronych-Semchenko, N M; Huranych, T V

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid status, copper balance, correlation of processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids (POL), proteins (POP), antioxidant defence (AOD) were examined in experiments on rats with hypofunction of thyroid gland under iodine monodeficit (HTGI) and combined iodine and copper deficit (HTGI+Cu). It was determined that a combined deficit of microelements is accompanied by a distribution of copper content between different tissues (increase in red blood cell mass and cerebrum, decrease in myocardium), essential changes of indexes of hypotalamo-hypophysis-thyroid axis, oxygen-dependent metabolism, antiradical defense, exacerbating the effects of negative influence of each of them on organism. It was established that HTGI+Cu causes a suppression of oxygen-dependent processes. In thyroid gland, it is shown a decrease of content of dyenic conjugates (DC) by 69,70% , of TBA-reacting products (TBA-RP) by 47,72% in diencephalon, the volume of modified proteins (VMP) - by 37,10-98,98% in the tissues of diencephalons. The results obtained let us to suggest a pivotal role ofmicroelement dysbalance and metabolic mechanisms in pathogenesis of cardiological pathology under thyroid dysfunction. The development of HTGI +Cu exhausts the resources of AOD: decreases the activity of catalase (on 47,05%), superoxide dismutase (on 33,13%), ceruloplasmine (on 33,93%) and saturation of transferrin with iron (on 56,76%) against the background of selective rise in the activity of glu-tationreductase (in 2,8 time) in comparison with the control data. The long-term disturbances ofantyoxidative defence can be the reason of manifestation of oxygendependent processes and the development of pathological changes in separate physiological systems of organism.

  18. Phenolipids as antioxidants in emulsified systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Bayrasy, Christelle; Laguerre, Mickäel

    Lipid oxidation is a major issue in foods containing LC PUFA and substantial efforts have been made to protect lipids against oxidation. Recent studies carried out with phenolipids (lipophilized phenolics) in emulsified systems have shown that increased lipophilicity did not necessarily lead...... antioxidant effect has been shown to be influenced by the specific phenolic compound and the type of emulsion. The overall aim for our work was to evaluate phenolipids with different lipophilicity as antioxidants in emulsified food. In the study presented here caffeic, ferulic and coumaric acid were selected...... along with their corresponding alkyl esters (C4-C20). The methods used to evaluate the antioxidative effect of the different phenolipids were the CAT assay (o/w emulsion), antioxidant assays (DPPH, Iron chelating and reducing power) and partitioning studies. Moreover, the results from the CAT assay...

  19. Multi-channel, passive, short-range anti-aircraft defence system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapiński, Daniel; Krzysztofik, Izabela; Koruba, Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a novel method for tracking several air targets simultaneously. The developed concept concerns a multi-channel, passive, short-range anti-aircraft defence system based on the programmed selection of air targets and an algorithm of simultaneous synchronisation of several modified optical scanning seekers. The above system is supposed to facilitate simultaneous firing of several self-guided infrared rocket missiles at many different air targets. From the available information, it appears that, currently, there are no passive self-guided seekers that fulfil such tasks. This paper contains theoretical discussions and simulations of simultaneous detection and tracking of many air targets by mutually integrated seekers of several rocket missiles. The results of computer simulation research have been presented in a graphical form.

  20. The Threat from European Missile Defence System to Russian National Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Podberezkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the political and military aspects of progress in the dialogue between Russia and the U.S./NATO on cooperation in missile defense; investigates the past experiences and current state of cooperation between Russia and the Alliance on missile defense issues; examines the technical features of American missile defence systems today; finds a solution to question whether or not the European Missile Defence Program actually threatens Russia's nuclear deterrent and strategic stability in general; identifies both potential benefits and possible losses for Russia stemming from the development of cooperation with the United States and NATO in countering ballistic missile threats, or from refusal to have such cooperation. Evidently, the initiative of creation of a missile defense in Europe surely belongs to the USA. Washington has enormous technological, financial, economic, military and institutional capabilities in the field of a missile defense, exceeding by far other NATO member-states. In February 2010, the President of the United States B. Obama adopted a project "European Phased Adaptive Approach" (EPAA as an alternative to G. Bush's global strategic missile defense plan. The first two stages of the Phased Adaptive Approach are focused on creating a system capable of intercepting small, medium and intermediate-range ballistic missiles. The possibility of intercepting long-range missiles is postponed to the third (2018 and forth phases (2020. Moscow finds especially troublesome the third and the fourth phases of Washington's project of creating a European segment of the global antiballistic missile system, considering prospective capabilities of the U.S. interceptor missiles 61 and the envisioned areas of their deployment. The U.S. counter-evidence is that phase four interceptors do not exist yet. Russia insists on getting the political and legal guarantees from the U.S. and NATO that their missile defense systems will not slash

  1. Defence mechanisms and immune evasion in the interplay between the humane immune system and Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G

    1992-01-01

    in the liver and the spleen are avoided by sequestration of the mature parasites to the vascular endothelium. The interplay between the human defence system and the malaria parasite governs the symptomatology, the pathology and the development of immunity to the disease. These interactions are extremely......Immunity to P. falciparum malaria is developed as a result of long term exposure to the parasite and depends on immunological memory. The key directors in immune recognition and regulation of the immunological responses are the T-cells. It seems reasonable to propose that immunity is acquired when...... a critical mass of T-cells, recognizing relevant malaria antigens, has been developed. These T-cells mediate immunity by regulating macrophage and B-cell activity, but they may also act directly as cytotoxic cells on infected hepatocytes and through production of parasite-toxic cytokines. The potential...

  2. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant System in Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Andrukhov, Oleh; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease, which is initiated by bacterial infection and subsequently progressed by aberrant host response. It can result in the destruction of teeth supporting tissues and have an influence on systemic health. When periodontitis occurs, reactive oxygen species, which are overproduced mostly by hyperactive neutrophils, could not be balanced by antioxidant defense system and cause tissues damage. This is characterized by increased metabolites of lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and protein damage. Local and systemic activities of antioxidants can also be influenced by periodontitis. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index have been used to evaluate the oxidative stress associated with periodontitis. Studies have confirmed that inflammatory response in periodontitis is associated with an increased local and systemic oxidative stress and compromised antioxidant capacity. Our review focuses on increased oxidative stress in periodontal disease, specifically, on the relationship between the local and systemic biomarkers of oxidative stress and periodontitis and their association with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Also, the relationship between periodontitis and systemic inflammation, and the effects of periodontal therapy on oxidative stress parameters will be discussed. PMID:29180965

  3. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant System in Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease, which is initiated by bacterial infection and subsequently progressed by aberrant host response. It can result in the destruction of teeth supporting tissues and have an influence on systemic health. When periodontitis occurs, reactive oxygen species, which are overproduced mostly by hyperactive neutrophils, could not be balanced by antioxidant defense system and cause tissues damage. This is characterized by increased metabolites of lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and protein damage. Local and systemic activities of antioxidants can also be influenced by periodontitis. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index have been used to evaluate the oxidative stress associated with periodontitis. Studies have confirmed that inflammatory response in periodontitis is associated with an increased local and systemic oxidative stress and compromised antioxidant capacity. Our review focuses on increased oxidative stress in periodontal disease, specifically, on the relationship between the local and systemic biomarkers of oxidative stress and periodontitis and their association with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Also, the relationship between periodontitis and systemic inflammation, and the effects of periodontal therapy on oxidative stress parameters will be discussed.

  4. Microglia antioxidant systems and redox signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhardt, F; Haslund-Vinding, J; Jaquet, V

    2017-01-01

    't stand alone however, and are not always pernicious. We discuss in general terms, and where available in microglia, GSH synthesis and relation to cystine import and glutamate export, and the thioredoxin system as the most important antioxidative defense mechanism, and further, we discuss in the context...

  5. Integrating resource defence theory with a neural nonapeptide pathway to explain territory-based mating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Ronald G; Harris, Rayna M; Hofmann, Hans A

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate-level factors that drive the evolution of mating systems have been well studied, but an evolutionarily conserved neural mechanism involved in shaping behaviour and social organization across species has remained elusive. Here, we review studies that have investigated the role of neural arginine vasopressin (AVP), vasotocin (AVT), and their receptor V1a in mediating variation in territorial behaviour. First, we discuss how aggression and territoriality are a function of population density in an inverted-U relationship according to resource defence theory, and how territoriality influences some mating systems. Next, we find that neural AVP, AVT, and V1a expression, especially in one particular neural circuit involving the lateral septum of the forebrain, are associated with territorial behaviour in males of diverse species, most likely due to their role in enhancing social cognition. Then we review studies that examined multiple species and find that neural AVP, AVT, and V1a expression is associated with territory size in mammals and fishes. Because territoriality plays an important role in shaping mating systems in many species, we present the idea that neural AVP, AVT, and V1a expression that is selected to mediate territory size may also influence the evolution of different mating systems. Future research that interprets proximate-level neuro-molecular mechanisms in the context of ultimate-level ecological theory may provide deep insight into the brain-behaviour relationships that underlie the diversity of social organization and mating systems seen across the animal kingdom.

  6. Operational Analysis on Torpedo Defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootendorst, H.J.; Benders, F.P.A.; Fitski, H.J.; Veldhoven, E.R. van

    2007-01-01

    Since 1998, TNO Defence, Security and Safety has performed operational analysis with the Underwater Warfare Testbed, which provides an environment for evaluation and validation of systems, concepts, and tactics. On top of this testbed the Torpedo Defence System TestBed has been built to simulate

  7. Antioxidants and embryo phenotype: is there experimental evidence for strong integration of the antioxidant system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possenti, Cristina Daniela; Karadas, Filiz; Colombo, Graziano; Caprioli, Manuela; Rubolini, Diego; Milzani, Aldo; Donne, Isabella Dalle; Saino, Nicola; Parolini, Marco

    2017-02-15

    Organisms have evolved complex defense systems against oxidative stress. Bird eggs contain maternally derived antioxidants that protect embryos from oxidative damage. The antioxidant system components are thought to be integrated, but few studies have analyzed the covariation between antioxidant concentrations, embryo 'oxidative status' and morphology. In addition, no study has tested the effects of experimental change in yolk antioxidant concentration on other antioxidants, on their reciprocal relationships and on their relationships with embryo oxidative status or growth, which are expected if antioxidants defenses are integrated. In yellow-legged gull ( Larus michahellis ) embryos, we analyzed the covariation between several antioxidants, markers of 'oxidative status' [total antioxidant capacity (TAC), concentration of pro-oxidants (TOS), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonylation (PC)] in the yolk, liver and brain, and morphology. Yolk and liver antioxidant concentrations were positively correlated reciprocally and with embryo size, and positively predicted TAC but not oxidative status. TOS and LPO were positively correlated in the liver, while TAC and LPO were negatively correlated in the brain. Weak relationships existed between antioxidants and TOS, PC and LPO. The effects of antioxidants on oxidative status and morphology were non-synergistic. An experimental physiological increase in yolk vitamin E had very weak effects on the relationships between other antioxidants or oxidative status and vitamin E concentration, the concentration of other antioxidants or oxidative status; the covariation between other antioxidants and oxidative status, and relationships between morphology or oxidative status and other antioxidants, challenging the common wisdom of strong functional relationships among antioxidants, at least for embryos in the wild. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Enhanced defence in depth: a fundamental approach for innovative nuclear systems recommended by INPRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczera, B.; Juhn, P.E.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2001, the IAEA initiated the 'International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)'. Having in mind that nuclear power will be an important option for meeting future electricity needs, the scope of INPRO covers nuclear reactors expected to come into service in the next fifty years, together with their associated fuel cycles. This article deals with enhanced defence in depth (DID) strategy that is recommended by INPRO. This strategy is twofold: first, to prevent accidents and second, if prevention fails, to limit their potential consequences and prevent any evolution to more serious conditions. Accident prevention is the first priority. For innovative nuclear systems, the effectiveness of preventive measures should be enhanced compared with existing systems. DID is generally structured in 5 levels of protection, including successive barriers preventing the release of radioactive material to the environment. These levels are: 1) prevention of abnormal operation and failures, 2) control of abnormal operation and detection of failures, 3) control of accidents within the design basis, 4) control of severe plant conditions, including prevention and mitigation of the consequences of severe accidents, and 5) mitigation of radiological consequences of significant release of radioactive materials. In the area of nuclear safety, INPRO has set 5 principles: 1) incorporate DID as a part of the safety approach and make the 5 levels of DID more independent from each other than in current installations; 2) prevent, reduce or contain releases of radioactive or hazardous materials in any normal or abnormal plant operation; 3) incorporate increased emphasis on inherent safety characteristics and passive safety features; 4) include research and development work to bring the capability of computer codes used for the safety of innovative nuclear systems to the standard of codes used for the safety of current reactors; and 5) include a holistic life

  9. Polyphenols, Antioxidants and the Sympathetic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Rosa Maria; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo

    2017-11-14

    A high dietary intake of polyphenols has been associated with a reduced cardiovascular mortality, due to their antioxidant properties. However, growing evidence suggests that counteracting oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease might also reduce sympathetic nervous system overactivity. This article reviews the most commonly used techniques to measure sympathetic activity in humans; the role of sympathetic activation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases; current evidence demonstrating that oxidative stress is involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity and how antioxidants and polyphenols might counteract sympathetic overactivity, particularly focusing on preliminary data from human studies. The main mechanisms by which polyphenols are cardioprotective are related to the improvement of vascular function and their anti-atherogenic effect. Furthermore, a blood pressure-lowering effect was consistently demonstrated in randomized controlled trials in humans, when the effect of flavonoid-rich foods, such as tea and chocolate, was tested. More recent studies suggest that inhibition of sympathetic overactivity might be one of the mechanisms by which these substances exert their cardioprotective effects. Indeed, an increased adrenergic traffic to the vasculature is a major mechanism of disease in a number of cardiovascular and extra-cardiac diseases, including hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome and heart failure. A considerable body of evidence, mostly from experimental studies, support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species might exert sympatho-excitatory effects both at the central and at the peripheral level. Accordingly, supplementation with antioxidants might reduce adrenergic overdrive to the vasculature and blunt cardiovascular reactivity to stress. While supplementation with "classical" antioxidants such as ROS-scavengers has many limitations, increasing the intake of polyphenol-rich foods seems to be a promising novel

  10. Characteristics of Antioxidant Systems of Yellow Fraction of Red Deer's (Cervus elaphus L.) Semen During the Rutting Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Szurnicka, M; Dziekonska, A; Kordan, W; Giżejewski, Z; Filipowicz, K

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to make the preliminary characterization of the antioxidant defence systems of the yellow fraction (YF) of red deer's (Cervus elaphus L.) semen during the rutting period. The semen was collected using artificial vagina (AV). The studies included spectrophotometric determination of antioxidant enzymes activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). We also analysed the contents of low-molecular antioxidants such as L-glutathione (GSH + GSSG), L-ascorbate (ASC) and total antioxidant status (TAS). Additionally, the samples were subjected to PAGE and stained for SOD and GPx activities. It was demonstrated that the yellow fraction exhibited activities of SOD and GPx, with the highest activities in September and October. CAT activity was not detected. Staining for the SOD and GPx activities confirmed three protein bands with SOD activity and one protein band with GPx activity. The content of GSH + GSSG was similar in trials dating from October to December contrary to the content of ASC which was high in samples from September and October. The stable rate of TAS was observed during the whole rutting period. The results of this study showed that the YF of red deer semen is equipped with basic battery of antioxidant enzymes comprising SOD and GPx, with the supporting role of GSH + GSSG and ASC. Moreover, the samples obtained at the peak of the rutting period occurring from September to October had the highest enzymatic activity in comparison with remaining months of the rutting period, which contributed to the high quality of the semen by preventing it from the formation of oxidative stress during the short period of intense sexual activity of male red deer. The better understanding of the mechanisms of antioxidant defence systems in the YF of deer's semen may contribute to the potential use of this fraction in technology of wild ruminant semen preservation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Scuba diving activates vascular antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, A; Batle, J M; Ferrer, M D; Mestre-Alfaro, A; Tur, J A; Pons, A

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to study the effects of scuba diving immersion on plasma antioxidant defenses, nitric oxide production, endothelin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels. 9 male divers performed an immersion at 50 m depth for a total time of 35 min. Blood samples were obtained before diving at rest, immediately after diving, and 3 h after the diving session. Leukocyte counts, plasma 8oxoHG, malondialdehyde and nitrite levels significantly increased after recovery. Activities of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, catalase and superoxide significantly increased immediately after diving and these activities remained high after recovery. Plasma myeloperoxidase activity and protein levels and extracellular superoxide dismutase protein levels increased after 3 h. Endothelin-1 concentration significantly decreased after diving and after recovery. Vascular endothelial growth factor concentration significantly increased after diving when compared to pre-diving values, returning to initial values after recovery. Scuba diving at great depth activated the plasma antioxidant system against the oxidative stress induced by elevated pO₂ oxygen associated with hyperbaria. The decrease in endothelin-1 levels and the increase in nitric oxide synthesis could be factors that contribute to post-diving vasodilation. Diving increases vascular endothelial growth factor plasma levels which can contribute to the stimulation of tissue resistance to diving-derived oxidative damage. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Defence mechanisms and immune evasion in the interplay between the humane immune system and Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G

    1992-01-01

    antigens, which probably is precipitated by defects in the early events of T-cell activation and inhibition of IL-2 function elucidated, but soluble factors secreted either by the parasites, or by host cells as a result of exposure to the parasite, seem to be involved. 4) Immune effector mechanisms...... in the liver and the spleen are avoided by sequestration of the mature parasites to the vascular endothelium. The interplay between the human defence system and the malaria parasite governs the symptomatology, the pathology and the development of immunity to the disease. These interactions are extremely...

  13. Defence Mechanisms during Intestinal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Buret

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This review examines and compares host defence mechanisms during intestinal infection with three types of organisms: a virus, a bacterium and a nematode parasite (ie, transmissible gastroenteritis virus [TGEV], Helicobacter jejuni and Trichinella spiralis. Diarrhea is commonly associated with all of these infections. It appears that T spiralis initiates the most elaborate defence system of the three organisms, involving full range humoral and cellular immunity, as well as mucus hypersecretion, epithelial alterations, altered gut motility and parasite impairment (morphological and physiological. In contrast, intestinal defence against H jejuni and TGEV involves fewer components. The latter seems to initiate the most rudimentary host response. Despite such differences, these mechanisms exhibit many similarities, thus further illustrating the relatively limited repertoire of defence systems that the intestine can mount. The mediators translating the insult of any intestinal pathogen into a common response deserve further investigation.

  14. Contractor Final Report: For the Technology Demonstration of the Joint Network Defence and Management System (JNDMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    by the Minister of National Defence, 2009 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale...opérationnel. Importance: Nous avons démontré des fonctions cruciales en utilisant des outils d’entreprise pour comprendre en profondeur un domaine...Demonstration. Résumé …..... Le présent document a été rédigé pour répondre aux exigences DID-PM-007 visant le démonstrateur de technologies du Système

  15. Transition Plan For the Technology Demonstration of the Joint Network Defence and Management System (JNDMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    œuvre de nouvelles applications commerciales et de nouveaux services réseau qu’avec la croissance des réseaux du MDN. Pour atteindre cet objectif...Approved for release by © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2009 © Sa Majesté la Reine...en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2009 Abstract In today’s modern warfare environment the ability

  16. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  17. Systemic resistance and lipoxygenase-related defence response induced in tomato by Pseudomonas putida strain BTP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dommes Jacques

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies showed the ability of Pseudomonas putida strain BTP1 to promote induced systemic resistance (ISR in different host plants. Since ISR is long-lasting and not conducive for development of resistance of the targeted pathogen, this phenomenon can take part of disease control strategies. However, in spite of the numerous examples of ISR induced by PGPR in plants, only a few biochemical studies have associated the protective effect with specific host metabolic changes. Results In this study, we showed the protective effect of this bacterium in tomato against Botrytis cinerea. Following treatment by P. putida BTP1, analyses of acid-hydrolyzed leaf extracts showed an accumulation of antifungal material after pathogen infection. The fungitoxic compounds thus mainly accumulate as conjugates from which active aglycones may be liberated through the activity of hydrolytic enzymes. These results suggest that strain BTP1 can elicit systemic phytoalexin accumulation in tomato as one defence mechanism. On another hand, we have shown that key enzymes of the lipoxygenase pathway are stimulated in plants treated with the bacteria as compared with control plants. Interestingly, this stimulation is observed only after pathogen challenge in agreement with the priming concept almost invariably associated with the ISR phenomenon. Conclusion Through the demonstration of phytoalexin accumulation and LOX pathway stimulation in tomato, this work provides new insights into the diversity of defence mechanisms that are inducible by non-pathogenic bacteria in the context of ISR.

  18. Plant Immune System: Crosstalk Between Responses to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses the Missing Link in Understanding Plant Defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejat, Naghmeh; Mantri, Nitin

    2017-01-01

    Environmental pollution, global warming and climate change exacerbate the impact of biotic and abiotic stresses on plant growth and yield. Plants have evolved sophisticated defence network, also called innate immune system, in response to ever- changing environmental conditions. Significant progress has been made in identifying the key stress-inducible genes associated with defence response to single stressors. However, relatively little information is available on the signaling crosstalk in response to combined biotic/abiotic stresses. Recent evidence highlights the complex nature of interactions between biotic and abiotic stress responses, significant aberrant signaling crosstalk in response to combined stresses and a degree of overlap, but unique response to each environmental stimulus. Further, the results of simultaneous combined biotic and abiotic stress studies indicate that abiotic stresses particularly heat and drought enhance plant susceptibility to plant pathogens. It is noteworthy that global climate change is predicted to have a negative impact on biotic stress resistance in plants. Therefore, it is vital to conduct plant transcriptome analysis in response to combined stresses to identify general or multiple stress- and pathogen-specific genes that confer multiple stress tolerance in plants under climate change. Here, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of crosstalk in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Pinpointing both, common and specific components of the signaling crosstalk in plants, allows identification of new targets and development of novel methods to combat biotic and abiotic stresses under global climate change.

  19. Climate change and adaptational impacts in coastal systems: the case of sea defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Louise B; Mieszkowska, Nova; Thompson, Richard C; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2013-09-01

    We briefly review how coastal ecosystems are responding to and being impacted by climate change, one of the greatest challenges facing society today. In adapting to rising and stormier seas associated with climate change, coastal defence structures are proliferating and becoming dominant coastal features, particularly in urbanised areas. Whilst the primary function of these structures is to protect coastal property and infrastructure, they inevitably have a significant secondary impact on the local environment and ecosystems. In this review we outline some of the negative and positive effects of these structures on physical processes, impacts on marine species, and the novel engineering approaches that have been employed to improve the ecological value of these structures in recent years. Finally we outline guidelines for an environmentally sensitive approach to design of such structures in the marine environment.

  20. Effects of supplementation with acai ( Euterpe oleracea Mart. berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Sadowska-Krępa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes. Seven junior hurdlers (17.5±1.2 years taking part in a pre-season conditioning camp were supplemented once a day, for six weeks, with 100 ml of the juice blend. At the start and the end of the camp the athletes performed a 300-m sprint running test on an outdoor track. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after the test and after 1 h of recovery. Blood antioxidant status was evaluated based on activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px], glutathione reductase [GR], concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione [GSH], uric acid, total plasma polyphenols, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and activities of creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH as muscle damage markers. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of the acai berry, the post-treatment changes in lipid profile parameters (triglycerides, cholesterol and its fractions were analysed. Six weeks’ consumption of acai berry-based juice blend had no effect on sprint performance, but it led to a marked increase in the total antioxidant capacity of plasma, attenuation of the exercise-induced muscle damage, and a substantial improvement of serum lipid profile. These findings strongly support the view of the health benefits of supplementation with the acai berry-based juice blend, mainly attributed to its high total polyphenol content and the related high in vivo antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic activities of this supplement.

  1. Effects of supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska-Krępa, E; Kłapcińska, B; Podgórski, T; Szade, B; Tyl, K; Hadzik, A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes. Seven junior hurdlers (17.5±1.2 years) taking part in a pre-season conditioning camp were supplemented once a day, for six weeks, with 100 ml of the juice blend. At the start and the end of the camp the athletes performed a 300-m sprint running test on an outdoor track. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after the test and after 1 h of recovery. Blood antioxidant status was evaluated based on activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px], glutathione reductase [GR]), concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione [GSH], uric acid), total plasma polyphenols, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as muscle damage markers. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of the acai berry, the post-treatment changes in lipid profile parameters (triglycerides, cholesterol and its fractions) were analysed. Six weeks' consumption of acai berry-based juice blend had no effect on sprint performance, but it led to a marked increase in the total antioxidant capacity of plasma, attenuation of the exercise-induced muscle damage, and a substantial improvement of serum lipid profile. These findings strongly support the view of the health benefits of supplementation with the acai berry-based juice blend, mainly attributed to its high total polyphenol content and the related high in vivo antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic activities of this supplement.

  2. Failure probability of regional flood defences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; lang, M.; Klijn, F.; Samuels, P.

    2016-01-01

    Polders in the Netherlands are protected from flooding by primary and regional flood defence systems. During the last decade, scientific research in flood risk focused on the development of a probabilistic approach to quantify the probability of flooding of the primary flood defence system. This

  3. Improvement of Antioxidant Defences and Mood Status by Oral GABA Tea Administration in a Mouse Model of Post-Stroke Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Daglia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Green GABA (GGABA and Oolong GABA (OGABA teas are relatively new varieties of tea, whose chemical composition and functional properties are largely under-studied, despite their promising health capacities. Post stroke depression (PSD is a complication of stroke with high clinical relevance, yielding increasing mortality and morbidity rates, and a lower response to common therapies and rehabilitation. Methods: Two chemically characterized commercial samples of GGABA and OGABA were investigated for effects on mood following oral administration using a mouse model of PSD, through common validated tests including the Despair Swimming Test and Tail Suspension Test. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of GGABA and OGABA was evaluated by determining the levels of lipid peroxidation products and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the mouse brain in vivo. Results: GGABA and OGABA attenuated depressed mood by influencing behavioral parameters linked to depression. GGABA was more active than OGABA in this study, and this effect may be likely due to a higher content of polyphenolic substances and amino acids in GGABA compared to OGABA. GGABA also exerted a greater antioxidant activity. Conclusions: Our data suggests that GABA tea is a promising candidate that can be used as an adjuvant in the management of PSD.

  4. Antioxidant Delivery Pathways in the Anterior Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Umapathy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissues in the anterior segment of the eye are particular vulnerable to oxidative stress. To minimise oxidative stress, ocular tissues utilise a range of antioxidant defence systems which include nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants in combination with repair and chaperone systems. However, as we age our antioxidant defence systems are overwhelmed resulting in increased oxidative stress and damage to tissues of the eye and the onset of various ocular pathologies such as corneal opacities, lens cataracts, and glaucoma. While it is well established that nonenzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and glutathione are important in protecting ocular tissues from oxidative stress, less is known about the delivery mechanisms used to accumulate these endogenous antioxidants in the different tissues of the eye. This review aims to summarise what is currently known about the antioxidant transport pathways in the anterior eye and how a deeper understanding of these transport systems with respect to ocular physiology could be used to increase antioxidant levels and delay the onset of eye diseases.

  5. Effects of supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Sadowska-Kr?pa, E; K?apci?ska, B; Podg?rski, T; Szade, B; Tyl, K; Hadzik, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes. Seven junior hurdlers (17.5±1.2 years) taking part in a pre-season conditioning camp were supplemented once a day, for six weeks, with 100 ml of the juice blend. At the start and the end of the camp the athletes performed a 300-m sprint running test on an outdoor track. Blood sam...

  6. Cumulative effects of exposure to cyanobacteria bloom extracts and benzo[a]pyrene on antioxidant defence biomarkers in Gammarus oceanicus (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turja, Raisa; Guimarães, Laura; Nevala, Anna; Kankaanpää, Harri; Korpinen, Samuli; Lehtonen, Kari K

    2014-02-01

    The Baltic Sea suffers from extensive blooms of the toxic cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena that produces nodularin toxin (NOD). Additionally, intensification of oil transportation and related activities in the area increase the risk of oil spills. The current experiment was designed to mimic a situation where an oil spill occurs during a cyanobacterial bloom by exposing the amphipod Gammarus oceanicus to a NOD-rich cyanobacterial extract and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compound benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a common constituent of oil. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were examined after 48 and 96 h of exposure. Exposure to low and high levels of the NOD-rich extract produced a time-dependent activation of GST, GPx and SOD. CAT levels were elevated only by high NOD treatment. Also the toxicity of B[a]P was indicated by significantly elevated antioxidant response. In the combined exposures treatment-dependent additive increases in the activity of GPx and SOD were observed as well as inhibitory (antagonistic) effects on GST, CAT and GPx. Rapid concentration-dependent accumulation of NOD by G. oceanicus was observed. The addition of B[a]P reduced the accumulation of NOD and resulted in different biomarker response patterns compared to single exposures demonstrating the effects of mixture toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ameliorative effect of fisetin on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats via modulation of NF-κB activation and antioxidant defence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidya Dhar Sahu

    Full Text Available Nephrotoxicity is a dose-dependent side effect of cisplatin limiting its clinical usage in the field of cancer chemotherapy. Fisetin is a bioactive flavonoid with recognized antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the potential renoprotective effect and underlying mechanism of fisetin using rat model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The elevation in serum biomarkers of renal damage (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine; degree of histopathological alterations and oxidative stress were significantly restored towards normal in fisetin treated, cisplatin challenged animals. Fisetin treatment also significantly attenuated the cisplatin-induced IκBα degradation and phosphorylation and blocked the NF-κB (p65 nuclear translocation, with subsequent elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, protein expression of iNOS and myeloperoxidase activities. Furthermore, fisetin markedly attenuated the translocation of cytochrome c protein from the mitochondria to the cytosol; decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins including Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and p53; and prevented the decline of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. The cisplatin-induced mRNA expression of NOX2/gp91phox and NOX4/RENOX and the NADPH oxidase enzyme activity were also significantly lowered by fisetin treatment. Moreover, the evaluated mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities and mitochondrial antioxidants were restored by fisetin treatment. Estimation of platinum concentration in kidney tissues revealed that fisetin treatment along with cisplatin did not alter the cisplatin uptake in kidney tissues. In conclusion, these findings suggest that fisetin may be used as a promising adjunct candidate for cisplatin use.

  8. Ameliorative Effect of Fisetin on Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats via Modulation of NF-κB Activation and Antioxidant Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Kalvala, Anil Kumar; Koneru, Meghana; Mahesh Kumar, Jerald; Kuncha, Madhusudana; Rachamalla, Shyam Sunder; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2014-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity is a dose-dependent side effect of cisplatin limiting its clinical usage in the field of cancer chemotherapy. Fisetin is a bioactive flavonoid with recognized antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the potential renoprotective effect and underlying mechanism of fisetin using rat model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The elevation in serum biomarkers of renal damage (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine); degree of histopathological alterations and oxidative stress were significantly restored towards normal in fisetin treated, cisplatin challenged animals. Fisetin treatment also significantly attenuated the cisplatin-induced IκBα degradation and phosphorylation and blocked the NF-κB (p65) nuclear translocation, with subsequent elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, protein expression of iNOS and myeloperoxidase activities. Furthermore, fisetin markedly attenuated the translocation of cytochrome c protein from the mitochondria to the cytosol; decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins including Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and p53; and prevented the decline of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. The cisplatin-induced mRNA expression of NOX2/gp91phox and NOX4/RENOX and the NADPH oxidase enzyme activity were also significantly lowered by fisetin treatment. Moreover, the evaluated mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities and mitochondrial antioxidants were restored by fisetin treatment. Estimation of platinum concentration in kidney tissues revealed that fisetin treatment along with cisplatin did not alter the cisplatin uptake in kidney tissues. In conclusion, these findings suggest that fisetin may be used as a promising adjunct candidate for cisplatin use. PMID:25184746

  9. CSNI Technical Opinion Papers No. 16 - Defence in Depth of Electrical Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    As all safety systems in the majority of existing nuclear power plants use the preferred power supply, any voltage surges in these systems could lead to common-cause failures. In the event of an unusual electrical system transient, it is essential that safety-related equipment be isolated or protected from the fault in order to ensure its ability to safely shut down the reactor and remove decay heat. Based on the analysis of the voltage surges observed at Forsmark-1 in 2006 and Olkiluoto-1 in 2008, this technical opinion paper summarises the current state of knowledge of in-plant and external grid-related challenges to nuclear power plant safety-related electrical equipment. It will be of particular interest to nuclear safety regulators, nuclear power plant operators and grid system regulators and operators

  10. Antioxidant status, immune system, blood metabolites and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary turmeric rhizome powder (TP) on performance, blood metabolite, immune system, antioxidant status, and relative weight of organs in pre and post heat stressed broilers. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) day-old male Arian broiler chicks were randomly ...

  11. How to Generate Security Cameras: Towards Defence Generation for Socio-Technical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadyatskaya, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Recently security researchers have started to look into automated generation of attack trees from socio-technical system models. The obvious next step in this trend of automated risk analysis is automating the selection of security controls to treat the detected threats. However, the existing

  12. The role of glycans in immune evasion: the human fetoembryonic defence system hypothesis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gary F

    2014-03-01

    Emerging data suggest that mechanisms to evade the human immune system may be shared by the conceptus, tumour cells, persistent pathogens and viruses. It is therefore timely to revisit the human fetoembryonic defense system (Hu-FEDS) hypothesis that was proposed in two papers in the 1990s. The initial paper suggested that glycoconjugates expressed in the human reproductive system inhibited immune responses directed against gametes and the developing human by employing their carbohydrate sequences as functional groups. These glycoconjugates were proposed to block specific binding interactions and interact with lectins linked to signal transduction pathways that modulated immune cell functions. The second article suggested that aggressive tumour cells and persistent pathogens (HIV, H. pylori, schistosomes) either mimicked or acquired the same carbohydrate functional groups employed in this system to evade immune responses. This subterfuge enabled these pathogens and tumour cells to couple their survival to the human reproductive imperative. The Hu-FEDS model has been repeatedly tested since its inception. Data relevant to this model have also been obtained in other studies. Herein, the Hu-FEDS hypothesis is revisited in the context of these more recent findings. Far more supportive evidence for this model now exists than when it was first proposed, and many of the original predictions have been validated. This type of subterfuge by pathogens and tumour cells likely applies to all sexually reproducing metazoans that must protect their gametes from immune responses. Intervention in these pathological states will likely remain problematic until this system of immune evasion is fully understood and appreciated.

  13. Systems engineering in the transformed South African Defence evaluation and research institutes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, AG

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available during the industrialisation phase. Due to pressure on such developments from the Angolan war effort, many products reached production while issues like logistic support, verification and validation received very little attention. In some cases where... Research and Development (R&D) The “Science” part refers to knowledge of the laws and characteristics of the natural world. It also includes mathematical tools and techniques required to describe, model and predict the behaviour of systems based...

  14. Systemic RNA delivery to dendritic cells exploits antiviral defence for cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Lena M.; Diken, Mustafa; Haas, Heinrich; Kreiter, Sebastian; Loquai, Carmen; Reuter, Kerstin C.; Meng, Martin; Fritz, Daniel; Vascotto, Fulvia; Hefesha, Hossam; Grunwitz, Christian; Vormehr, Mathias; Hüsemann, Yves; Selmi, Abderraouf; Kuhn, Andreas N.; Buck, Janina; Derhovanessian, Evelyna; Rae, Richard; Attig, Sebastian; Diekmann, Jan; Jabulowsky, Robert A.; Heesch, Sandra; Hassel, Jessica; Langguth, Peter; Grabbe, Stephan; Huber, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2016-06-01

    Lymphoid organs, in which antigen presenting cells (APCs) are in close proximity to T cells, are the ideal microenvironment for efficient priming and amplification of T-cell responses. However, the systemic delivery of vaccine antigens into dendritic cells (DCs) is hampered by various technical challenges. Here we show that DCs can be targeted precisely and effectively in vivo using intravenously administered RNA-lipoplexes (RNA-LPX) based on well-known lipid carriers by optimally adjusting net charge, without the need for functionalization of particles with molecular ligands. The LPX protects RNA from extracellular ribonucleases and mediates its efficient uptake and expression of the encoded antigen by DC populations and macrophages in various lymphoid compartments. RNA-LPX triggers interferon-α (IFNα) release by plasmacytoid DCs and macrophages. Consequently, DC maturation in situ and inflammatory immune mechanisms reminiscent of those in the early systemic phase of viral infection are activated. We show that RNA-LPX encoding viral or mutant neo-antigens or endogenous self-antigens induce strong effector and memory T-cell responses, and mediate potent IFNα-dependent rejection of progressive tumours. A phase I dose-escalation trial testing RNA-LPX that encode shared tumour antigens is ongoing. In the first three melanoma patients treated at a low-dose level, IFNα and strong antigen-specific T-cell responses were induced, supporting the identified mode of action and potency. As any polypeptide-based antigen can be encoded as RNA, RNA-LPX represent a universally applicable vaccine class for systemic DC targeting and synchronized induction of both highly potent adaptive as well as type-I-IFN-mediated innate immune mechanisms for cancer immunotherapy.

  15. The possibilities to develop the logistics of electrical and electronic waste in the military defence system of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin V. Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The military defence system of the Republic of Serbia (the Ministry of Defence and the Serbian Army represents a complex organisational and technical-technological system. The nature of its operations imposes it to be equipped with a considerable amount of electrical and electronic equipment and devices. Such equipment and devices during operation, over time, lose their primary function, become useless and turn into electrical and electronic equipment waste; therefore, they must be handled properly. This article discusses the problems and possible directions of the logistics of development and implementation of electrical and electronic waste generated in the defence as the logistics of waste and reverse waste logistics, which is, in a narrower sense, a part of waste materials management. For the purpose of this paper, the logistics of electrical and electronic waste in the defence is regarded as the process of planning, implementation, control and realisation of flows, processes and activities of electrical and electronic waste materials from their place of origin to their place of disposal, through collecting and transportation to the final destination (places of  treatment, reuse, disposal and destruction in order to meet the requirements of all stakeholders at minimal cost. The legislation and European initiatives in the area of electrical and electronic waste In 2003, the European Union, stimulated by the rapid emergence and amount of e-waste, as well as its hazardous influence on the environment, adopted two directives: Directive 2002/96/EC of the European Parliament and the European Council on 27.01.2003 on the management of electrical and electronic waste (WEEE - Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment and Directive 2002/95/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of Europe 27.01.2003 on the restrictions on the use of hazardous substances in electronic and electrical equipment (RoHS - Restriction of the use of hazardous

  16. The antioxidant system of the respiratory tract. The intracellular antioxidant protection in the respiratory tract (part 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Abaturov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature review presents the current data about peroxiredoxin system in the functioning of the intracellular antioxidant protection in the respiratory tract. We present a model of the molecular structure of certain peroxiredoxins. The peroxiredoxin-dependent oxidation reactions, antiapoptotic action and other physiological effects of peroxiredoxins system are considered in detail. Model of the molecular structure and biological function of the antioxidant factors with an indirect effect (APEX nuclease 1/Ref-1 are described.

  17. Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to the immune system, the gastrointestinal tract and defence against pathogenic microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has asked the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) to update the guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to gut and immune function published in 2011. Since then, the NDA Panel has completed the evaluation...... for stakeholders for health claims applications which addresses general issues that are common to all health claims. This guidance is intended to assist applicants in preparing applications for the authorisation of health claims related to the immune system, the gastrointestinal tract and defence against...

  18. Characterization of antioxidant system parameters in four freshwater fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atli, Gülüzar; Canli, Esin G; Eroglu, Ali; Canli, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The potential use of antioxidant system parameters has gained considerable interest due to their pivotal role of detoxification mechanisms in environmental studies and culture fish point of view. Fish with different ecological needs may have different antioxidant capacity and response to environmental contaminants. Thus, the optimal working conditions and specific enzyme activities (Vmax and Km) of antioxidant system parameters (Superoxide dismutase, SOD; Catalase, CAT; Glutathione peroxidase, GPX; Glutathione reductase, GR and Glutathione S-transferase, GST) and glutathione (GSH) were determined in four commonly cultured freshwater fish species (tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus, carp; Cyprinus carpio, trout; Onchorhynchus mykiss and catfish; Clarias garipienus). Data showed that optimal concentrations of different buffers, pH and specific chemicals for each enzyme and GSH were similar in most cases for all fish species, except a few differences. The highest Vmax and Km values were found in carp for GPX and GST, though these values were the highest in tilapia, catfish and trout for CAT, SOD and GR, respectively. As a conclusion, optimization assays of these parameters in different bioindicator organisms based on their physiological and ecological differences may be useful for the aquatic ecosystem biomonitoring studies and also present fundamental data for utilization in aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lipophilized phenolics as antioxidants in fish oil enriched food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Food products containing long chain omega-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to oxidation, which causes undesirable flavors and loss of health beneficial fatty acids. Many omega-3 enriched food products on the market are oil-in-water emulsions. According to the so called “polar paradox”, polar compounds...... hypothesis is that lipophilization of such polar phenolic compounds may improve their efficacy in fish oil enriched food systems. Our study aimed at evaluating rutin and dihydrocaffeic acid and their esters as antioxidants in o/w emulsion model system and milk enriched with fish oil. Moreover, the effect...

  20. Chemical defences against herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavia, Henrik; Baumgartner, Finn; Cervin, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the recent and emerging research involving chemical defences against herbivory in aquatic primary producers. It provides an overview of plant chemical defence theories and highlights recent research on aquatic primary producers addressing a number of aspects...... of these theories, concluding with new chemical approaches to tackle the questions and suggestions for future research directions. It explains that aquatic primary producers are a taxonomically and functionally diverse group of organisms that includes macroalgae, microalgae, and vascular plants. It also states...... that despite the fact that aquatic primary producers constitute a large and diverse group of organisms that vary in their evolutionary histories, selection for chemical defences to resist or reduce grazing are commonplace across the phylogenetic boundaries....

  1. Cognitive functions and the antioxidant system in phenylketonuric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassió, Rosa; Artuch, Rafael; Vilaseca, Maria Antonia; Fusté, Eugenia; Colome, Roser; Campistol, Jaume

    2008-07-01

    The authors studied the relationship between the antioxidant system and cognitive functions in a group of 36 early and continuously treated phenylketonuric (PKU) patients (mean age=9.7 years) and 29 controls. The authors measured antioxidant cofactors and free radical damage markers in plasma (selenium, retinol, tocopherol, coenzyme Q10, malondialdehide) and antioxidant enzymes in red blood cells (glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase). The authors used neuropsychological tests to screen for several cognitive functions. PKU patients showed significantly lower values of selenium, coenzyme Q10, and catalase, and significantly higher levels of malondialdehide. PKU patients showed a significantly negative correlation between plasma selenium concentrations and several Conner's Continuous Performance Test measures (more omission errors, fluctuating attention and inconsistency of response times, and slowing reaction time as the test progressed). Selenium deficiency was thus associated with a worsened performance on the Conner's Continuous Performance Test among PKU patients. In conclusion, it is important not only to control blood Phe levels in PKU but also other nutritional components such as selenium. Selenium status seems to be associated with attention functions in these PKU patients. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The Arabidopsis Pep-PEPR system is induced by herbivore feeding and contributes to JA-mediated plant defence against herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauser, Dominik; Desurmont, Gaylord A; Glauser, Gaétan; Vallat, Armelle; Flury, Pascale; Boller, Thomas; Turlings, Ted C J; Bartels, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    A number of plant endogenous elicitors have been identified that induce pattern-triggered immunity upon perception. In Arabidopsis thaliana eight small precursor proteins, called PROPEPs, are thought to be cleaved upon danger to release eight peptides known as the plant elicitor peptides Peps. As the expression of some PROPEPs is induced upon biotic stress and perception of any of the eight Peps triggers a defence response, they are regarded as amplifiers of immunity. Besides the induction of defences directed against microbial colonization Peps have also been connected with herbivore deterrence as they share certain similarities to systemins, known mediators of defence signalling against herbivores in solanaceous plants, and they positively interact with the phytohormone jasmonic acid. A recent study using maize indicated that the application of ZmPep3, a maize AtPep-orthologue, elicits anti-herbivore responses. However, as this study only assessed the responses triggered by the exogenous application of Peps, the biological significance of these findings remained open. By using Arabidopsis GUS-reporter lines, it is now shown that the promoters of both Pep-receptors, PEPR1 and PEPR2, as well as PROPEP3 are strongly activated upon herbivore attack. Moreover, pepr1 pepr2 double mutant plants, which are insensitive to Peps, display a reduced resistance to feeding Spodoptera littoralis larvae and a reduced accumulation of jasmonic acid upon exposure to herbivore oral secretions. Taken together, these lines of evidence extend the role of the AtPep-PEPR system as a danger detection mechanism from microbial pathogens to herbivores and further underline its strong interaction with jasmonic acid signalling. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. Antioxidant relevance to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Human ecology requires both oxygen and water with the generation from food of an immediate energy source, ATP, by oxidative phosphorylation. A continuing balance between oxidation and antioxidation is necessary for longer less-disabled lives, taking account of oxidative stresses and the critical roles of oxidants in defence against infection, tissue repair and signalling. Antioxidant capacity is derived both exogenously (from food, beverage and sunlight) and endogenously (from enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways). A number of oxidant food factors service antioxidant metallo-enzymes. The capacity operates extra- or intracellularly. Uric acid is the major antioxidant in primate blood. Uric acid synthesis is increased by dietary fructose from fruit, sugary foods and drinks. This indirect antioxidant effect of fruit is separate from that attributable to its flavonoids. Alcohol also increases serum uric acid. Urate excess and retention is associated with disease. The high prevalence of hyperuricaemia in NE Asia presents a major public health dilemma in regard to putative benefits and risks. Foods with high antioxidant activity include berries, nuts and legumes, tomatoes and sweet potato leaves. Each of the antioxidants in these foods is pleiotropic being inter-alia anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic or anti-neoplastic. Moreover, food matrices and patterns contribute to the safety of antioxidant consumption. There is no evidence to date that isolated antioxidants as food supplements improve health outcomes or survival; and some that indicate unacceptable risk. Their use as biomarkers of food cannot justify their isolated use. Nevertheless, a spectrum of dietary pluripotential antioxidants for tissues, metabolic and immune systems is advantageous.

  4. New materials in defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sikandar S.; Khan, Shahid A.; Butt, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    National defence is very important and always needs new such materials which have technological and socio-economic development of human society. The types of materials used by a society reflect its level of sophistication. These modern materials are basically the same conventional materials but with a greater knowledge content which include superalloys, modern polymers, engineering ceramics and the advanced composite. The production and use of new materials is playing and important role in the recent development in the defence industry. (A.B.)

  5. Antioxidant Activity of Flaxseed Extracts in Lipid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Slavova-Kazakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the antioxidant activity of the extract of flaxseed and its alkaline hydrolysate in two model systems: lipid autoxidation of triacylglycerols of sunflower oil (TGSO—in a homogeneous lipid media and during β-carotene-linoleate emulsion system. In addition, pure lignans were tested. The material was defatted with hexane and then phenolic compounds were extracted using dioxane-ethanol (50:50, v/v mixture. Carbohydrates were removed from the crude extract using an Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. The content of total phenolic compounds in the crude extract and after alkaline hydrolysis was determined using a Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent. Individual phenolic compounds were determined by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (RP-HPLC method in gradient system. The alkaline hydrolysis increased the content of total phenolics in the extract approximately by 10%. In the extracts of flaxseed, phenolic compounds were present in the form of macromolecular complex. In the alkaline hydrolysate, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG was found as the main phenolic compound. Small amounts of p-coumaric and ferulic acids were also determined. SDG and both extracts were not able to inhibit effectively lipid autoxidation. The kinetics of TGSO autoxidation at 80 °C in absence and in presence of the extract before hydrolysis (EBH and after hydrolysis (EAH was monitored and compared with known standard antioxidants. Ferulic acid (FA and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT showed much higher antioxidant efficiency and reactivity than that of both extracts. Secoisolariciresinol (SECO showed a higher activity in both model systems than SDG. However, the activity of SECO was much lower than that of nordihydroquaiaretic acid (NDGA.

  6. TNO and CBRN defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Within the Defence, Safety & Security branch of TNO a dedicated department focuses on Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Protection. This is a world class research department consisting of about 50 people and a High Tox laboratory that is the only facility in The Netherlands that

  7. From Defence To Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    'Such activities include the production and testing of weapons, training and exercises, the establishment of military bases and installations, the maintenance of a ...... Economist arguments maintain that the defence industry is a national asset, a crucial repository of advanced technology, skills and expertise and, on the basis ...

  8. Defence in depth perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneau, Tania; Ferrier, Agnes; Barbaud, Jean

    2017-01-01

    complex technical solutions. The independence between DiD levels should not be an absolute design principle but risk analysis should be used to identify the areas where this would be necessary. For instance, devoting equipments/systems to a single level (without possibility of sharing them with other levels) could negatively impact the overall plant safety: it might complexify the facility and affect operator reliability (even if the operators are trained to face accidental situations, they are more familiar with normal system operation on a daily basis). The paper presents first how the concept of DiD evolved over time, the link with the barriers notion, the current consensus on DiD definitions obtained despite some differences observed between standards (eg. IAEA and WENRA definitions), and discusses the subjects identified above, before raising perspectives on how to achieve a sufficient independence of DiD levels. They are based on a minimum level of redundancy, on physical separation, on diversity (even though they are not systematically recommended), but also on strengthening the robustness of defence lines. In practice, DiD concept should be implemented in a manner that ensures that each level is effective in meeting its specific objective. (author)

  9. NATO Defence Planning Process. Implications for defence posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Fleischer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The NATO Defence Planning Process (NDPP is the most important element affecting the Alliance's defence posture. Under the process states commit themselves to provide capabilities and forces required to fulfil NATO missions, defined in the NATO Strategic Concept. The NDPP directly affects national defence plans by harmonizing them with identified security and defence objectives as well by influencing development of the novel national defence capabilities. The emergence of new threats in the NATO environment, demands modifications in the defense planning process and establishing new goals for the Alliance. Enhancement of the NDPP should be priority during the time of unrest.

  10. Dietary antioxidant synergy in chemical and biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan

    2017-07-24

    Antioxidant (AOX) synergies have been much reported in chemical ("test-tube" based assays focusing on pure chemicals), biological (tissue culture, animal and clinical models), and food systems during the past decade. Tentative synergies differ from each other due to the composition of AOX and the quantification methods. Regeneration mechanism responsible for synergy in chemical systems has been discussed. Solvent effects could contribute to the artifacts of synergy observed in the chemical models. Synergy in chemical models may hardly be relevant to biological systems that have been much less studied. Apparent discrepancies exist in understanding the molecular mechanisms in both chemical and biological systems. This review discusses diverse variables associated with AOX synergy and molecular scenarios for explanation. Future research to better utilize the synergy is suggested.

  11. Ginsan activated the antioxidant defense systems in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie Young; Son, Soo Jung; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Shim, Ji Young; Han, Young Soo; Jung, In Sung; Yun, Yeon Sook [KIRMS Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Ginsan, a polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng, has hematopoietic activity and is also known as a good biological-response modifier. In this investigation, we studied the effects of ginsan on the {gamma}-radiation induced alterations of some antioxidant systems in spleen of Balb/c mice. There are many data that irradiation induces Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which plays an important causative role in radiation damage of cell. The level of ROS in cells is regulated by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems. The most powerful ones among them are superoxide dismutases (SODs) catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide anion radical o{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, catalase deactivating h-2O{sub 2} and reduced glutathion (GSH) detoxifying H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and other ROS> At the 5{sub th} day after sublethal whole body irradiation, splenocytes of irradiated mice expressed only marginally increased levels of Mn-SOD, however, Cu/Zn-SOD, catalase, thioredoxine reductase (TR) and thioredoxine (TRX) mRNA (135% increase compared to control), however, the combination of irradiation with ginsan increased the SODs and GPX production more effectively. In addition to the above results, we obtained the similar data of protein expression. The enzyme activities of SOD, catalase, and GPX of ginsan-treated and irradiated mice were significantly enhanced by 140, 115, 126% respectively, compared with those of irradiated mice. Based on these results, we propose that the induction of antioxidant enzymes of ginsan is at least in part due to its capacity to protect against radiation.

  12. Networks and network analysis for defence and security

    CERN Document Server

    Masys, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Networks and Network Analysis for Defence and Security discusses relevant theoretical frameworks and applications of network analysis in support of the defence and security domains. This book details real world applications of network analysis to support defence and security. Shocks to regional, national and global systems stemming from natural hazards, acts of armed violence, terrorism and serious and organized crime have significant defence and security implications. Today, nations face an uncertain and complex security landscape in which threats impact/target the physical, social, economic

  13. Antioxidant system of ginseng under stress by cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Lara Lanza de Sá e Melo Marques

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxic levels of Cd can cause protein denaturation and oxidative stress, which result in membrane damage, enzimatic activity changes and other metabolic damage. Some plants may show alteration in the activity of their antioxidant enzymes as a heavy metal tolerance mechanism. This study aims at evaluating the role of enzymes of the antioxidant system in adaptive responses of the accumulator P. glomerata species to levels of cadmium (Cd. Plants were cultivated in nutrient solutions containing concentrations of Cd in the form of CdSO4 (0, 45 and 90 µmol L-1, for 20 d. Cd concentrations and yields of root and shoot dry matter were determined at the end of the experiment. Malondialdehyde (MDA production and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were determined after days 1, 12 and 20. Higher Cd concentrations in tissues of P. glomerata were found to reduce biomass production in both roots and shoots. The lipid peroxidation rates in leaves and roots were smaller at the start of the experiment for all Cd levels. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity increased in leaves on day 1 and in roots on day 20 as Cd levels increased. Cd stress induced an increase in the activity of APX in leaves, whereas in roots ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity was reduced at high concentration of Cd. At the end of the experiment, catalase (CAT activity in leaves was reduced as Cd concentration increased. Nevertheless, the glutathione reductase (GR and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX activities increased. In roots, GR activity was reduced on days 1 and 20.

  14. Zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles influence the antioxidative status in a higher aquatic plant, Spirodela punctata

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thwala, Melusi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available during the 14-d exposure. The biochemical anti-oxidative status of the plant specimens were investigated using quantitative analysis of total antioxidant capacity, peroxidase and activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase. The anti-oxidative defence...

  15. Defence White Paper 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    nurtured, particularly in Australia’s highly competitive labour market. The Government recognises that Defence’s approach to its people must be... satisfaction , increase attraction and retention, improve cost-effectiveness and support the contemporary Total Force employment model. Defence White...improve job satisfaction and thereby increase attraction and retention in areas of critical skill. Recruiting 10.13 To ensure that we have the high

  16. Fallout: the defence, industrial and technological benefits of nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In the current climate of budgetary restrictions, it is fair to question the weight of military nuclear defence spending. Upon examination, however, nuclear deterrence has numerous military, industrial, and technological benefits. It is, in fact, totally intertwined with the other elements of our defence system. (author)

  17. Antioxidant defense system state in blood plasma and heart muscle of rats under the influence of histamine and sodium hypoclorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Bishko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide spectrum of antihistamine drugs in the pharmaceutical market, however all these chemical preparations cause side effects. Therefore, new alternative ways for histamine detoxication are to be found. For this aim in our experiment sodium hypochlorite was used because its solution possesses strong oxidizing properties. The influence of histamine and sodium hypochlorite on the antioxidant defence system state of blood plasma and cardiac muscle in rats has been researched. It was shown, that the investigated factors result in the disruption of the antioxidant system. It was found that histamine injection in concentration of 1 and 8 μg/kg in plasma leads to the increase of superoxi­de dismutase activity during all the experiment. When studying enzymes, that catalyze hydroperoxides and Н2О2 decomposition it was shown that under the influence of histamine in a dose 1 μg/kg, the glutathione peroxidase activity increased on the 1st day of the experiment. However, on the 7th day of the experiment the increase of both glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity was fixed. The deviation in superoxide dismutase function in rats plasma under the action of sodium hypochlorite has been established. The activity of enzymes that decompose Н2О2 and hydroperoxides were inhibi­ted. Under the influence of histamine in the heart tissues we have stated the disturbance of superoxide dismutase work and increase of catalase activity and decrease of glutathione peroxidase activity. The influence of sodium hypochlorite on the myocardium of intact animals as well as joint influence of sodium hypochlorite and histamine result in the increase of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and lead to the conside­rable decline of activity of glutathione peroxidase.

  18. Ultrasound effects on the antioxidative defense systems of Porphyridium cruentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bilian; Huang, Jian; Wang, Juan; Huang, Lingling

    2008-01-15

    Ultrasound is a special physical stimulus that has a variety of biological effects. This study provides a first systemic investigation on the ultrasound-induced oxidation and protection actions of the antioxidant defense system in Porphyridium cruentum. The hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging ability of the cells and the electrolyte leakage of the cell membrane were examined. The change of glutathione and carotenoids produced with/without ultrasonic processing were measured; the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and membrane bound ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase) were evaluated for either ultrasound-treated or untreated P. cruentum. The hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging ability of ultrasound-treated P. cruentum increase 49.8 and 76.0%, respectively, of which the electrolyte leakage and malonyldialdehyde accumulation are also found increased 48.6 and 48.0%, respectively, indicating a state of oxidative stress. A significant enhancement of the activities of superoxide dismutase by 53.5%, catalase, membrane bound ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase increased by 67.7 and 69.3%, respectively), and the increment of glutathione and carotenoids production are also observed. These results suggested that oxidative stress manifested by elevated reactive oxygen species levels and malonyldialdehyde contents might be resulted from the biophysical responses of P. cruentum to the physical stimuli, and most likely the enhanced antioxidation ability of the algal cells stimuli by ultrasonic comes from the enhancement of enzymatic and nonenzymatic preventive substances as observed in this work.

  19. Impact of antimissile defence on nuclear strategies in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delory, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    As antimissile defence has become a mean to compensate the limitations of nuclear deterrence in Asia, notably within the frame of the US-North Korea relationship, but has also influence on the relationships between countries which do not possess an actual operational antimissile defence like Pakistan and India, the author proposes an assessment of the consequences antimissile defence may have on deterrence logics in Asia. He also notices that various issues must be taken into account: arsenal sizes, the slow rate of ballistic modernisation processes, the weaknesses of C4ISR systems and advanced alarm systems. He recalls the peculiarities of antimissile defence, and then addresses the cases of North Korea, India and Pakistan, and China. For each country, he analyses and discusses the influence of a choice or of the existence of an antimissile defence on the nuclear strategy and doctrine, but also on the posture of other countries like the USA

  20. Possibility of determination of the level of antioxidants in human body using spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, E; Gorbunova, E

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the processes of antioxidant defence against aggressive free radicals in human body were investigated theoretically; and the existing methods of diagnosis of oxidative stress and disturbance of antioxidant activity were reviewed. Also, the kinetics of free radical reactions in the oxidation of luminol and interaction antioxidants (such as chlorophyll in the multicomponent system of plant's leaves and ubiquinone) with the UV radiation were investigated experimentally by spectroscopic method. The results showed that this method is effective for recording the luminescence of antioxidants, free radicals, chemiluminescent reactions and fluorescence. In addition these results reveal new opportunities for the study of the antioxidant activity and antioxidant balance in a multicomponent system by allocating features of the individual components in spectral composition. A creation of quality control method for drugs, that are required for oxidative stress diagnosis, is a promising direction in the development of given work. (paper)

  1. Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are

  2. Psychobiology of coping and defence strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursin, H.; Olff, M.

    1993-01-01

    The stress response should be regarded as an alarm system, occurring whenever there is something missing. Lack of information (uncertainty), and the absence or loss of control produce alarm, presence of information and control (coping), or cognitive defence mechanisms (distorted stimulus

  3. The Cooperative Ballistic Missile Defence Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction poses new risks worldwide. For a threatened nation and given the characteristics of this threat a layered ballistic missile defence system strategy appears to be the preferred solution. However, such a strategy

  4. Studies on oxidants and antioxidants with a brief glance at their relevance to the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir Aslani, Banafsheh; Ghobadi, Sirous

    2016-02-01

    Free radical generation occurs continuously within cells as a consequence of common metabolic processes. However, in high concentrations, whether from endogenous or exogenous sources, free radicals can lead to oxidative stress; a harmful process that cause serious damages to all biomolecules in our body hence impairs cell functions and even results in cell death and diseased states. Oxidative injuries accumulate over time and participate in cancer development, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders as well as aging. Nature has bestowed the human body with a complex web of antioxidant defense system including enzymatic antioxidants like glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, catalase and superoxide dismutase as well as non-enzymatic antioxidants such as thiol antioxidants, melatonin, coenzyme Q, and metal chelating proteins, which are efficient enough to fight against excessive free radicals. Also, nutrient antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, polyphenols, and trace elements are known to have high antioxidant potency to assist in minimizing harmful effects of reactive species. The immune system is also extremely vulnerable to oxidant and antioxidant balance as uncontrolled free radical production can impair its function and defense mechanism. The present paper reviews the ways by which free radicals form in the body and promote tissue damage, as well as the role of the antioxidants defense mechanisms. Finally, we will have a brief glance at oxidants and antioxidants relevance to the immune system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Resolving defence mechanisms: A perspective based on dissipative structure theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Guo, Ben-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Theories and classifications of defence mechanisms are not unified. This study addresses the psychological system as a dissipative structure which exchanges information with the external and internal world. When using defence mechanisms, the cognitive-affective schema of an individual could remain stable and ordered by excluding psychological entropy, obtaining psychological negentropy or by dissipating the energy of self-presentation. From this perspective, defences can be classified into three basic types: isolation, compensation and self-dissipation. However, not every kind of defence mechanisms can actually help the individual. Non-adaptive defences are just functioning as an effective strategy in the short run but can be a harmful approach in the long run, while adaptive defences could instead help the individual as a long-term mechanism. Thus, we would like to suggest that it is more useful for the individual to use more adaptive defence mechanisms and seek out social or interpersonal support when undergoing psychic difficulties. As this model of defences is theoretical at present, we therefore aim to support and enrich this viewpoint with empirical evidence. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  6. European defence industry consolidation and domestic procurement bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    2017-01-01

    How have European cross-border defence industrial mergers and acquisitions affected domestic procurement bias among the major EU powers? This article departs from the findings of Andrew Moravcsik more than two decades ago suggesting that major West European states had no ingrained preferences...... for defence industrial autarchy. When cross-national armament projects were derailed, this could be attributed to political efforts of national defence industrial champions favouring purely domestic projects. As former national champions join pan-European defence groups, their preferences are likely modified....... Does this shift procurement towards non-European “off-the-shelf” solutions which, according to Moravcsik, are favoured by defence departments? Or does it give impetus to a stronger preference for European as opposed to domestic systems? In this article, procurement patterns in the aftermath of cross...

  7. The role of the antioxidant system during intense endurance exercise: lessons from migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Mullin, Clara; McWilliams, Scott R

    2016-12-01

    During migration, birds substantially increase their metabolic rate and burn fats as fuel and yet somehow avoid succumbing to overwhelming oxidative damage. The physiological means by which vertebrates such as migrating birds can counteract an increased production of reactive species (RS) are rather limited: they can upregulate their endogenous antioxidant system and/or consume dietary antioxidants (prophylactically or therapeutically). Thus, birds can alter different components of their antioxidant system to respond to the demands of long-duration flights, but much remains to be discovered about the complexities of RS production and antioxidant protection throughout migration. Here, we use bird migration as an example to discuss how RS are produced during endurance exercise and how the complex antioxidant system can protect against cellular damage caused by RS. Understanding how a bird's antioxidant system responds during migration can lend insights into how antioxidants protect birds during other life-history stages when metabolic rate may be high, and how antioxidants protect other vertebrates from oxidative damage during endurance exercise. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. The State of the Antioxidant System in Chronic Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnozakhon Z. Aripkhodjaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis of viral etiology ranks very high in human pathology with respect to its socio-economic and medical significance. In viral hepatitis, membrane destruction occurs via the processes of lipoperoxidation, a valid factor that triggers the mechanism of hepatocyte necrosis. The glutathione system is also involved in the first line of cell defense actions against the effect of the free radicals. In this study, 128 patients with Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC were examined. The degree of antioxidant defense was determined by the indicators of the activity of the glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes. The total, reduced and oxidized glutathione levels were determined by V. G. Chernishov. The activity of the glutathione-dependent enzymes, viz., glutathione peroxidase (GP, glutathione reductase (GR and glutathione transferase (GT was measured by the method prescribed by S. N. Vlasova and co-authors (1990. The results of the investigations performed revealed that in CHC patients, deep-seated disorders were observed in the glutathione system manifested by a decrease in the total glutathione levels, its oxidized and reduced forms, changes in the glutathione enzymes and the interrelationships between the intensity of the changes and the degree of the intoxication syndrome.

  9. Studies on the hepatic antioxidant defense system in λ cyhalothrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    induced oxidative stress in fresh water tilapia ... Key words: Antioxidant status, λ cyhalothrin, lipid peroxidation, Oreochromis mossambicus, oxidative stress, synthetic pyrethroid. ..... and Stress: A case history for red–sore disease in largemouth bass.

  10. FREE FLAVONOID CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WINTER WHEAT IN SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the free flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of winter wheat white flour, whole grain flour and bran in ecological and integrated farming system in the years 2009-2010. The experiment was established on a scientific research base Dolná Malanta in western Slovakia during the years 2009 and 2010. Content of free flavonoids and antioxidant activity of white flour and whole grain flour was not affected by farming systems. Antioxidant activity of whole grain flour was more effected by a year and by a forecrop. White flour contain two times less free flavonoids and antioxidant activity than whole grain flour. By milling process most of the free flavonoids and other compounds with higher antioxidant activity remain in outer layers of grain.

  11. Antioxidant system parameters in children from different follow-up groups who suffered from Chernobyl accident and their changes at application of antioxidants (vitamin E and iskador)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipkyin, Yu.G.; Pochinok, T.V.; Omel'chenko, L.Yi.; Arabs'ka, L.P.; Osins'ka, L.F.; Vasyuk, O.M.

    1998-01-01

    Low-dose radiation causes changes in the lipid peroxidation-antioxidant protective system in children who frequently suffer from acute respiratory virus infections. To improve the general condition and to normalize the metabolic disturbances it is advisable to administer antioxidants (vitamin E, Iskador)

  12. Sepsis in the central nervous system and antioxidant strategies with N-acetylcysteine, vitamins and statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckert, Amanda Valnier; de Castro, Adalberto Alves; Quevedo, Joao; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2014-02-01

    Sepsis is the complex syndrome characterized by an imbalance between proinflammatory and antiinflammatory response to infection. The brain may be affected during the sepsis, and acute and long-term brain dysfunctions have been observed in both animal models and septic patients. Oxidative stress and antioxidant systems may prove the basis underling brain dysfunction in sepsis. The antioxidant therapy may be theoretically achieved by the following strategies: restoring endogenous antioxidants and nutrients and supplementation with exogenous trace elements, vitamins, and nutrients with antioxidant proprieties; or administering drugs that reduce oxidative stress, such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamins and statins. In the review, we described below the involvement of oxidative stress and antioxidants defenses and potential utility of these strategies and present data regarding their use in sepsis.

  13. Defence Industrial Policies and Their Impact on Acquisition Outcomes: A Comparative Analysis of the United Kingdom and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    warfare, high frequency and phased array radars, "high end" system and "system of systems" integration, through-life and real-time support of...prompted by increasing pressure on defence budgets; consolidation of the UK defence industry; “ globalisation ” of UK defence companies & threat of exit

  14. The role of disorders of the prooxidant-antioxidant system in diabetes etiopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Mrowicka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hyperglycemia is believed to play a pivotal role in the development of diabetic complications. It was found that hyperglycemia triggered a number of mechanisms that evoke overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased level of free radicals, disturbances of the enzymatic antioxidant defense system and lower concentration of exogenous antioxidants. In consequence, these abnormalities lead to a redox imbalance called oxidative stress. The aim of the present study is to summarize the role of reactive oxygen species and changes in the antioxidant defense system in the development of diabetic complications.

  15. Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of successive solvent extracts of leaves of Indigofera caerulea Roxb using various in vitro antioxidant assay systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponmari Guruvaiah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of successive solvent extracts of Indigofera caerulea Roxb using various in vitro antioxidant assay systems. Methods: Total phenol and antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of Indigofera caerulea Roxb leaves were investigated. Extraction was done sequentially in soxhlet apparatus using various solvents (Petroleum ether, Ethyl acetate and Methanol. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl free radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging assay and Total ion reducing power assay. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were also measured. Results: Methanolic extract had more total phenol content and more antioxidant activities, confirming to the hypothesis that phenol content and antioxidant activity has a direct correlation. Conclusions: All the results of the in vitro antioxidant assays revealed that the methanolic extract of Indigofera caerulea Roxb leaves had notable antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. The results obtained appeared to confirm the antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of Indigofera caerulea Roxb.

  16. Metabolomics reveals simultaneous influences of plant defence system and fungal growth in Botrytis cinerea-infected Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Young-Shick; Martinez, Agathe; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Jeandet, Philippe; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Cilindre, Clara

    2012-10-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a fungal plant pathogen of grape berries, leading to economic and quality losses in wine production. The global metabolite changes induced by B. cinerea infection in grape have not been established to date, even though B. cinerea infection is known to cause significant changes in chemicals or metabolites. In order to better understand metabolic mechanisms linked to the infection process and to identify the metabolites associated with B. cinerea infection, (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used in global metabolite profiling and multivariate statistical analysis of berries from healthy and botrytized bunches. Pattern recognition methods, such as principal component analysis, revealed clear metabolic discriminations between healthy and botrytized berries of botrytized bunches and healthy berries of healthy bunches. Significantly high levels of proline, glutamate, arginine, and alanine, which are accumulated upon plant stress, were found in healthy and botrytized berries of botrytized bunches. Moreover, largely degraded phenylpropanoids, flavonoid compounds, and sucrose together with markedly produced glycerol, gluconic acid, and succinate, all being directly associated with B. cinerea growth, were only found in botrytized berries of botrytized bunches. This study reports that B. cinerea infection causes significant metabolic changes in grape berry and highlights that both the metabolic perturbations associated with the plant defence system and those directly derived from fungal pathogen growth should be considered to better understand the interaction between metabolic variation and biotic pathogen stress in plants.

  17. Interaction between primary and secondary sporocysts of Schistosoma mansoni and the internal defence system of Biomphalaria resistant and susceptible to the parasite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Alves de Mattos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of the interaction between Biomphalaria and Schistosoma mansoni depends on the response of the host internal defence system (IDS and the escape mechanisms of the parasite. The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the IDS (haemocytes and soluble haemolymph factors of resistant and susceptible Biomphalaria tenagophila lineages and Biomphalaria glabrata lineages in the presence of in vitro-transformed primary sporocysts and secondary sporocysts obtained from infected B. glabrata. To do this, we assayed the cellular adhesion index (CAI, analysed viability/mortality, used fluorescent markers to evaluate the tegumental damage and transplanted secondary sporocysts. B. tenagophila Taim was more effective against primary and secondary sporocystes than the susceptible lineage and B. glabrata. Compared with secondary sporocysts exposed to B. tenagophila, primary sporocysts showed a higher CAI, a greater percentage of dead sporocysts and were labelled by lectin from Glycine max and Alexa-Fluor 488 fluorescent probes at a higher rate than the secondary sporocysts. However, the two B. tenagophila lineages showed no cercarial shedding after inoculation with secondary sporocysts. Our hypothesis that secondary sporocysts can escape the B. tenagophila IDS cannot be confirmed by the transplantation experiments. These data suggest that there are additional mechanisms involved in the lower susceptibilty of B. tenagophila to S. mansoni infection.

  18. Effects of Rhizobium inoculation on Trifolium resupinatum antioxidant system under sulfur dioxide pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Bayat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plant growth stimulating rhizobacteria are beneficial bacteria that can cause resistance to various stresses in plants. One of these stresses is SO2 air pollution. SO2 is known as a strong damaging air pollutant that limits growth of plants. The aim of this study is evaluation of the effects of bacterial inoculation with native and standard Rhizobium on Persian clover root growth and antioxidants activity and capacity under air SO2 pollution. Materials and methods: In this study, 31 days plants (no-inoculated and inoculated with two strains of Rhizobium exposed to the different concentrations of SO2 (0 as a control, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 ppm for 5 consecutive days and 2 hours per day. Results: Results showed different concentrations of SO2 had a significant effect on Persian clover root weight and antioxidant system. Increasing SO2 stress decreased root fresh and dry weight and antioxidant capacities (IC50 and increased antioxidant activities (I% of Persian clover leaves significantly in comparison to the control plants (under 0 ppm and increased SOD, CAT and GPX activity. Inoculation of Persian clover plants with native and standard Rhizobium increased root weight and did not show a significant effect on antioxidants activity and capacity, but interaction between Rhizobium inoculation and SO2 treatment reduced significantly the stress effects of high concentration of SO2 on root growth and antioxidants activity and capacity. In fact, level of this change of root growth and antioxidant system under SO2 pollution stress in inoculated plants was lower than in the non-inoculated plants. Discussion and conclusion: As a result, an increase in SO2 concentration caused a decrease in root weight, increase in antioxidants activity and capacity of Persian clover. Inoculation with Rhizobium strains could alleviate the effect of SO2 pollution on antioxidant system by effects on root growth.

  19. Swedish Defence Acquisition Transformation - A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The-Shelf (COTS and MOTS ) goods and services are being utilised; and Public Private Cooperation (PPC2), and Partnerships (PPPs) are being...costs in Sweden is based on historical data from the total defence during the Cold War, when the systems were only used for preparedness, education ...England: Pearson Education Limited. Sols, A., Nowicki, D., & Verma, D. (2007). Defining the fundamental framework of an effective performance

  20. Analysis of the Civil Defence system and service of radiation-ecological safety in nuclear and chemical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    System of Civil Defense (CD) and service of radiation-ecological safety of the population of Belarus in case of nuclear and chemical accidents are analysed. Shortcomings in CD system organization are marked. Recommendations on the removal of available shortcomings are given. Necessity of modern information techniques for continuous monitoring of hazards sources is shown as well as operative control of preventive and rescue actions

  1. Antioxidant effect of seaweed extracts in food emulsion systems enriched with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ditte Baun; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    a wide range of polyphenols with potential antioxidant activity. Thus, in vitro antioxidant properties of F. vesiculosus extracts have been found to be related to the total polyphenolic content. It has been suggested that the primary antioxidant activity comes from secondary metabolites......Natural antioxidants derived from marine algae have a high content of bioactive components with potential for improving oxidative stability of lipids in food systems. In this presentation we will discuss results from our ongoing work on the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus. This seaweed contains...... such as phlorotannins, a dominant polyphenolic compound. However, studies on the effectiveness of seaweed extracts in food model systems are sparse, therefore there is a need to look further into this area. Results obtained in our lab with different extracts of F. Vesiculosus in a range of different food models...

  2. Antioxidant Effect of Seaweed Extracts in Vitro and in Food Emulsion Systems Enriched With Fish Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ditte Baun; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    ongoing work on the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus. This seaweed contains a wide range of polyphenols with potential antioxidant activity. Thus, in vitro antioxidant properties of F. vesiculosus extracts have been found to be related to the total polyphenolic content. It has been suggested that the primary...... antioxidant activity comes from secondary metabolites such as phlorotannins, a dominant polyphenolic compound. However, studies on the effectiveness of seaweed extracts in food model systems are sparse, therefore there is a need to look further into this area. Results obtained in our lab with different......Natural antioxidants derived from marine algae have a high content of bioactive components with potential for improving oxidative stability of lipids in food systems. Bioactive components like polyphenols have been identified in marine algae. In this presentation we will discuss results from our...

  3. Physiological antioxidant system and oxidative stress in stomach cancer patients with normal renal and hepatic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Prabhakar Reddy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Role of free radicals has been proposed in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Gastric cancer is a common disease worldwide, and leading cause of cancer death in India. Severe oxidative stress produces reactive oxygen species (ROS and induces uncontrolled lipid peroxidation. Albumin, uric acid (UA and Bilirubin are important physiological antioxidants. We aimed to evaluate and assess the role of oxidative stress (OS and physiological antioxidant system in stomach cancer patients. Lipid peroxidation measured as plasma Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive substances (TBARS, was found to be elevated significantly (p=0.001 in stomach cancer compared to controls along with a decrease in plasma physiological antioxidant system. The documented results were due to increased lipid peroxidation and involvement of physiological antioxidants in scavenging free radicals but not because of impaired hepatic and renal functions.

  4. Probabilistic Flood Defence Assessment Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slomp Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The WTI2017 project is responsible for the development of flood defence assessment tools for the 3600 km of Dutch primary flood defences, dikes/levees, dunes and hydraulic structures. These tools are necessary, as per January 1st 2017, the new flood risk management policy for the Netherlands will be implemented. Then, the seven decades old design practice (maximum water level methodology of 1958 and two decades old safety standards (and maximum hydraulic load methodology of 1996 will formally be replaced by a more risked based approach for the national policy in flood risk management. The formal flood defence assessment is an important part of this new policy, especially for flood defence managers, since national and regional funding for reinforcement is based on this assessment. This new flood defence policy is based on a maximum allowable probability of flooding. For this, a maximum acceptable individual risk was determined at 1/100 000 per year, this is the probability of life loss of for every protected area in the Netherlands. Safety standards of flood defences were then determined based on this acceptable individual risk. The results were adjusted based on information from cost -benefit analysis, societal risk and large scale societal disruption due to the failure of critical infrastructure e.g. power stations. The resulting riskbased flood defence safety standards range from a 300 to a 100 000 year return period for failure. Two policy studies, WV21 (Safety from floods in the 21st century and VNK-2 (the National Flood Risk in 2010 provided the essential information to determine the new risk based safety standards for flood defences. The WTI2017 project will provide the safety assessment tools based on these new standards and is thus an essential element for the implementation of this policy change. A major issue to be tackled was the development of user-friendly tools, as the new assessment is to be carried out by personnel of the

  5. Future systems for regional defence: The case in an enlarged European Union. Report on working group 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Report deals with the future systems for regional defense in case of an enlarged European Union. In the frame of security issues the future of nuclear arms control and disarmament if of concern. The implications of NATO expansion to the east and desirability of establishing a nuclear-weapon-free-zone from the Baltic to the Black Sea are discussed at length

  6. 4th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sillitti, Alberto; Succi, Giancarlo; Messina, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents high-quality original contributions on new software engineering models, approaches, methods, and tools and their evaluation in the context of defence and security applications. In addition, important business and economic aspects are discussed, with a particular focus on cost/benefit analysis, new business models, organizational evolution, and business intelligence systems. The contents are based on presentations delivered at SEDA 2015, the 4th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications, which was held in Rome, Italy, in May 2015. This conference series represents a targeted response to the growing need for research that reports and debates the practical implications of software engineering within the defence environment and also for software performance evaluation in real settings through controlled experiments as well as case and field studies. The book will appeal to all with an interest in modeling, managing, and implementing defence-related software devel...

  7. IL-1RI (Interleukin-1 Receptor Type I Signalling is Essential for Host Defence and Hemichannel Activity During Acute Central Nervous System Bacterial Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Xiong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a common aetiological agent of bacterial brain abscesses. We have previously established that a considerable IL-1 (interleukin-1 response is elicited immediately following S. aureus infection, where the cytokine can exert pleiotropic effects on glial activation and blood–brain barrier permeability. To assess the combined actions of IL-1α and IL-1β during CNS (central nervous system infection, host defence responses were evaluated in IL-1RI (IL-1 receptor type I KO (knockout animals. IL-1RI KO mice were exquisitely sensitive to intracerebral S. aureus infection, as demonstrated by enhanced mortality rates and bacterial burdens within the first 24 h following pathogen exposure compared with WT (wild-type animals. Loss of IL-1RI signalling also dampened the expression of select cytokines and chemokines, concomitant with significant reductions in neutrophil and macrophage infiltrates into the brain. In addition, the opening of astrocyte hemichannels during acute infection was shown to be dependent on IL-1RI activity. Collectively, these results demonstrate that IL-1RI signalling plays a pivotal role in the genesis of immune responses during the acute stage of brain abscess development through S. aureus containment, inflammatory mediator production, peripheral immune cell recruitment, and regulation of astrocyte hemichannel activity. Taken in the context of previous studies with MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 and TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2 KO animals, the current report advances our understanding of MyD88-dependent cascades and implicates IL-1RI signalling as a major antimicrobial effector pathway during acute brain-abscess formation.

  8. Antioxidant effects of resveratrol in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ning; Daiber, Andreas; Förstermann, Ulrich; Li, Huige

    2017-06-01

    The antioxidant effects of resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) contribute substantially to the health benefits of this compound. Resveratrol has been shown to be a scavenger of a number of free radicals. However, the direct scavenging activities of resveratrol are relatively poor. The antioxidant properties of resveratrol in vivo are more likely to be attributable to its effect as a gene regulator. Resveratrol inhibits NADPH oxidase-mediated production of ROS by down-regulating the expression and activity of the oxidase. This polyphenolic compound reduces mitochondrial superoxide generation by stimulating mitochondria biogenesis. Resveratrol prevents superoxide production from uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase by up-regulating the tetrahydrobiopterin-synthesizing enzyme GTP cyclohydrolase I. In addition, resveratrol increases the expression of various antioxidant enzymes. Some of the gene-regulating effects of resveratrol are mediated by the histone/protein deacetylase sirtuin 1 or by the nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2. In this review article, we have also summarized the cardiovascular effects of resveratrol observed in clinical trials. This article is part of a themed section on Redox Biology and Oxidative Stress in Health and Disease. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.12/issuetoc. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Oxidative stress and the antioxidant enzyme system in the developing brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Yeon Shim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants are vulnerable to the oxidative stress due to the production of large amounts of free radicals, antioxidant system insufficiency, and immature oligodendroglial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a pivotal role in the development of periventricular leukomalacia. The three most common ROS are superoxide (O2•-, hydroxyl radical (OH•, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Under normal physiological conditions, a balance is maintained between the production of ROS and the capacity of the antioxidant enzyme system. However, if this balance breaks down, ROS can exert toxic effects. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase are considered the classical antioxidant enzymes. A recently discovered antioxidant enzyme family, peroxiredoxin (Prdx, is also an important scavenger of free radicals. Prdx1 expression is induced at birth, whereas Prdx2 is constitutively expressed, and Prdx6 expression is consistent with the classical antioxidant enzymes. Several antioxidant substances have been studied as potential therapeutic agents; however, further preclinical and clinical studies are required before allowing clinical application.

  10. Intracellular antioxidants dissolve man-made antioxidant nanoparticles: using redox vulnerability of nanoceria to develop a responsive drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Faheem; Wang, Aifei; Qi, Wenxiu; Zhang, Shixing; Zhu, Guangshan

    2014-01-01

    Regeneratable antioxidant property of nanoceria has widely been explored to minimize the deleterious influences of reactive oxygen species. Limited information is, however, available regarding the biological interactions and subsequent fate of nanoceria in body fluids. This study demonstrates a surprising dissolution of stable and ultrasmall (4 nm) cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) in response to biologically prevalent antioxidant molecules (glutathione, vitamin C). Such a redox sensitive behavior of CeO2 NPs is subsequently exploited to design a redox responsive drug delivery system for transporting anticancer drug (camptothecin). Upon exposing the CeO2 capped and drug loaded nanoconstruct to vitamin c or glutathione, dissolution-accompanied aggregation of CeO2 nanolids unleashes the drug molecules from porous silica to achieve a significant anticancer activity. Besides stimuli responsive drug delivery, immobilization of nanoceria onto the surface of mesoporous silica also facilitates us to gain a basic insight into the biotransformation of CeO2 in physiological mediums.

  11. Cyanogenesis of wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) is an efficient direct defence in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Kautz, Stefanie; Heil, Martin; Hegeman, Adrian D

    2009-01-01

    In natural systems plants face a plethora of antagonists and thus have evolved multiple defence strategies. Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) is a model plant for studies of inducible indirect anti-herbivore defences including the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and extrafloral nectar (EFN). In contrast, studies on direct chemical defence mechanisms as crucial components of lima beans' defence syndrome under natural conditions are nonexistent. In this study, we focus on the cyanogenic potential (HCNp; concentration of cyanogenic glycosides) as a crucial parameter determining lima beans' cyanogenesis, i.e. the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide from preformed precursors. Quantitative variability of cyanogenesis in a natural population of wild lima bean in Mexico was significantly correlated with missing leaf area. Since existing correlations do not by necessity mean causal associations, the function of cyanogenesis as efficient plant defence was subsequently analysed in feeding trials. We used natural chrysomelid herbivores and clonal lima beans with known cyanogenic features produced from field-grown mother plants. We show that in addition to extensively investigated indirect defences, cyanogenesis has to be considered as an important direct defensive trait affecting lima beans' overall defence in nature. Our results indicate the general importance of analysing 'multiple defence syndromes' rather than single defence mechanisms in future functional analyses of plant defences.

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Phytic Acid in Lipid Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Sakač

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals formed during thermal (60 °C, 24 h and catalytic (Fe2+ ions, room temperature (23±1 °C, 3 h oxidative degradation of hydroperoxyde-enriched soybean oil (HESO were stabilized in the presence of spin trap N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN and detected by electron spin resonance (ESR spectrometry. In both thermal and catalytic oxidation of HESO, the same hyperfine coupling parameters (aN=14.75 G and aH β=2.80 G confirmed the generation of PBN-OOL/-OL spin adducts. The antiradical activity (AA of phytic acid, in the 0.076–0.30 mM concentration range, was tested by measuring its ability to inhibit the generation of PBN-OOL/-OL spin adducts during thermal and catalytic oxidation of HESO. Phytic acid did not inhibit the thermal oxidation of HESO and showed no effect in the β-carotene bleaching test (AOA. Contrary to this, phytic acid exhibited antioxidant effect on the catalytic oxidation of HESO by chelating Fe2+ ions. The mechanism of antioxidant activity was confirmed by the results of chelating activity on Fe2+ in Fe2+-ferrozine test where a dose-dependent chelating activity of phytic acid was obtained.

  13. Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muiño-Blanco Teresa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GRD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and catalase (CAT were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system.

  14. Are bacteriophage defence and virulence two sides of the same coin in Campylobacter jejuni?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.L. Louwen (Rogier); P. van Baarlen (Peter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe continuous battle for survival in the environment has led to the development or acquisition of sophisticated defence systems in bacteria. These defence systems have contributed to the survival of the bacterial species in the environment for millions of years. Some systems appear to

  15. Are bacteriophage defence and virulence two sides of the same coin in Campylobacter jejuni?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.; Baarlen, van P.

    2013-01-01

    The continuous battle for survival in the environment has led to the development or acquisition of sophisticated defence systems in bacteria. These defence systems have contributed to the survival of the bacterial species in the environment for millions of years. Some systems appear to have evolved

  16. Modification of antioxidant systems in cell walls of maize roots by different nitrogen sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadži-Tašković Šukalović V; Vuletić, M.; Marković, K.; Željko, Vučinić; Kravić, N.

    2016-07-01

    Antioxidant systems of maize root cell walls grown on different nitrogen sources were evaluated. Plants were grown on a medium containing only NO3- or the mixture of NO3-+NH4+, in a 2:1 ratio. Eleven-day old plants, two days after the initiation of lateral roots, were used for the experiments. Cell walls were isolated from lateral roots and primary root segments, 2-7 cm from tip to base, representing zones of intense or decreased growth rates, respectively. Protein content and the activity of enzymes peroxidase, malate dehydrogenase and ascorbate oxidase ionically or covalently bound to the walls, as well as cell wall phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, were determined. Cell walls of plants grown on mixed N possess more developed enzymatic antioxidant systems and lower non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses than cell walls grown on NO3-. Irrespective of N treatment, the activities of all studied enzymes and protein content were higher in cell walls of lateral compared to primary roots. Phenolic content of cell walls isolated from lateral roots was higher in NO3--grown than in mixed N grown plants. No significant differences could be observed in the isozyme patterns of cell wall peroxidases isolated from plants grown on different nutrient solution. Our results indicate that different N treatments modify the antioxidant systems of root cell walls. Treatment with NO3- resulted in an increase of constitutive phenolic content, while the combination of NO3-+NH4+ elevated the redox enzyme activities in root cell walls.

  17. Alterations in the antioxidant defense system in prepubertal children with a history of extrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Espejo, M; Gil-Campos, M; Mesa, M D; García-Rodríguez, C E; Muñoz-Villanueva, M C; Pérez-Navero, J L

    2014-01-01

    The role of oxidative stress is well known in the pathogenesis of acquired malnutrition. Intrauterine growth restriction has been associated with an imbalance in oxidative stress/antioxidant system. Therefore, early postnatal environment and, consequently, extrauterine growth restriction might be associated with alterations in the antioxidant defense system, even in the prepubertal stage. This is a descriptive, analytical, and observational case-control study. The study included two groups; 38 Caucasian prepubertal children born prematurely and with a history of extrauterine growth restriction as the case group, and 123 gender- and age-matched controls. Plasma exogenous antioxidant (retinol, β-carotene, and α-tocopherol) concentrations were measured by HPLC; antioxidant enzyme activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were determined in lysed erythrocytes by spectrophotometric techniques. Catalase and glutathione peroxidase concentrations were significantly lower in extrauterine growth restriction children than in controls (P restriction prepubertal children as compared with controls. After correction by gestational age, birth weight, and length, statistically significant differences were also found, except for retinol. Prepubertal children with a history of extrauterine growth restriction present alterations in their antioxidant defense system. Knowing these alterations may be important in establishing pharmacological and nutritional treatments as this situation might be associated with higher metabolic disorders in adulthood.

  18. Protective effect of thymoquinone against lead-induced antioxidant defense system alteration in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Aymen

    2017-09-01

    Alteration of the antioxidant system may be related to lead (Pb) hepatotoxicity. This study was carried out to investigate the possible beneficial effect of thymoquinone (TQ), the major active ingredient of volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds, against Pb-induced liver antioxidant defense system impairment. Adult male rats were randomized into four groups: control group received no treatment, Pb group was exposed to 2000 ppm of Pb acetate in drinking water, Pb-TQ group was cotreated with Pb plus TQ (5 mg/kg/day, per os) and TQ group receiving only TQ. All treatments were applied for five weeks. TQ alone did not induce any significant changes in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status. By contrast, Pb exposure significantly decreased not only reduced glutathione level, but also superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase activities in the liver tissue. Interestingly, when coadministrated with Pb, TQ significantly improved the affected antioxidant parameters. In conclusion, our results indicate a protective effect of TQ against Pb-induced liver antioxidant capacity impairment and suggest that this component might be a clinically promising alternative in Pb hepatotoxicity.

  19. Operational Analysis on Torpedo Defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootendordt, H.J.; Benders, F.P.A.; Fitski, H.J.; Veldhoven, E.R. van

    2008-01-01

    Surface vessels and submarines must be able to defend themselves against a torpedo attack. Self-defence can be approached as a modular concept. The first module involves 'Detection, Classification and Localisation (DCL)'. DCL triggers the second module: the 'evaluator'. This module starts the last

  20. Immune and antioxidizing response in cancer patients to photodynamic therapy with photohem and photosens as photosensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubovskaya, Raisa I.; Sokolov, Victor V.; Nemtzova, H. R.; Oganezov, Victor K.; Scherbitskaya, I. Y.; Filonenko, H. V.; Aristarkhova, E. I.; Chissov, Valery I.

    1996-01-01

    Free radicals are the main basis of anticancer effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT). At the same time, they cause different complications. The goal of this study is to investigate the changes in homeostasis of cancer patients under the influence of PDT. It was shown, as a result of study of antioxidizing and immune status of these patients, that there are significant deviations in their indices even before PDT. The treatment leads to further development of disbalance in these systems which demands correction. Several remedies have been offered for correction therapy. The application of these remedies causes the reduction of overstrain in antioxidizing defence and leads to decrease in cases of complications.

  1. Identification of plant defence regulators through transcriptional

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A sustainable balance between defence and growth is essential for optimal fitness under pathogen stress. Plants activate immune response at the cost of normal metabolic requirements. Thus, plants that constitutively activate defence are deprived of growth. Arabidopsis thaliana mutant constitutive defence without defect in ...

  2. The Forum for Defence of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) and its role in building community participation in the fight against the privatization of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lara, Lutiane; Guareschi, Neuza Maria de Fátima

    2016-03-01

    Based on a Foucauldian framework, this article discusses the involvement of the Forum for Defence of the Sistema Único de Saúde in the fight against health care privatization. Community participation is a locus of experience that produces subjects implicated in the production of public health care. The locus of experience in this instance derives from the rejection of private elements that historically have been part of Brazilian public policies. It is an experience that produces workers and service users as agents able to defend the public system and endowed with instituting power. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Time-dependent reliability analysis of flood defences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buijs, F.A.; Hall, J.W.; Sayers, P.B.; Gelder, P.H.A.J.M. van

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the underlying theory and a practical process for establishing time-dependent reliability models for components in a realistic and complex flood defence system. Though time-dependent reliability models have been applied frequently in, for example, the offshore, structural safety and nuclear industry, application in the safety-critical field of flood defence has to date been limited. The modelling methodology involves identifying relevant variables and processes, characterisation of those processes in appropriate mathematical terms, numerical implementation, parameter estimation and prediction. A combination of stochastic, hierarchical and parametric processes is employed. The approach is demonstrated for selected deterioration mechanisms in the context of a flood defence system. The paper demonstrates that this structured methodology enables the definition of credible statistical models for time-dependence of flood defences in data scarce situations. In the application of those models one of the main findings is that the time variability in the deterioration process tends to be governed the time-dependence of one or a small number of critical attributes. It is demonstrated how the need for further data collection depends upon the relevance of the time-dependence in the performance of the flood defence system.

  4. RITA plus 3-MA overcomes chemoresistance of head and neck cancer cells via dual inhibition of autophagy and antioxidant systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiha Shin

    2017-10-01

    Condensed abstract: This study revealed a novel RITA resistant mechanism associated with the sustained induction of autophagy, p62 overexpression, and Keap1-Nrf2 antioxidant system activation. The combined treatment of RITA with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine overcomes RITA resistance via dual inhibition of autophagy and antioxidant systems in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Fate of the synergistic antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin, and tocopherol in mayonnaise: Partion of ascorbic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne Merete Boye; Jacobsen, Charlotte Munch

    1996-01-01

    Meyer, A. S. & C. Jacobsen, 1996. Fate of the synergistic antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin, and tocopherol in mayonnaise: Partion of ascorbic acid, J. Food Lipids, 3, 139-147.......Meyer, A. S. & C. Jacobsen, 1996. Fate of the synergistic antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin, and tocopherol in mayonnaise: Partion of ascorbic acid, J. Food Lipids, 3, 139-147....

  6. IPNs from Cyclodextrin:Chitosan Antioxidants: Bonding, Bio-Adhesion, Antioxidant Capacity and Drug Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tamara Perchyonok

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available IPNs are unique “alloys” of cross-linked polymers in which at least one network is synthesized and/or cross-linked in the presence of the other. IPNs are also known as entanglements of polymer networks that are ideally held together only by permanent topological interactions. The objectives of this study are to evaluate novel chitosan-based functional drug delivery systems that can be successfully incorporated into “dual action bioactive tooth restorative materials”. These materials should be capable of inducing an improved wound healing prototype. The novel hydrogels will be investigated with respect to the antioxidant capacity of conventional antioxidants, such as resveratrol, b-carotene and propolis, as a designer drug delivery system, with the use of SEM imaging for the characterization of the surfaces, bio-adhesive property, antioxidant capacity, free radical defence, antioxidant, active ingredient stability and reactive features of novel materials. The additional benefit of the site-specific “functional restorative material” for use in dressings to deliver antibiotics to wound sites can provide tissue compatibility and reduced interference with wound healing. The materials were tested using an effective in vitro free radical generation model as functional additive prototypes for further development of “dual function restorative wound healing materials”. We quantified the effects of functional designer biomaterials on the dentin bond strength of a composite and evaluated the bio-adhesive capacity of the materials in the two separate “in vitro” systems. The added benefits of the chitosan/vitamin C/cyclodextrin (CD host:guest complex-treated hydrogels involved a positive influence on the tetracycline release, increased dentin bond strength, as well as a demonstrated in vitro “built-in” free radical defence mechanism and, therefore, acting as a “proof of concept” for functional multi-dimensional restorative wound

  7. Establishment of a ternary network system for evaluating the antioxidant fraction of Danhong injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Jiang, Zhenzuo; Yang, Fan; Chai, Xin; Zhu, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoya; Jiang, Miaomiao; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Buchang; Qian, Ke; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in numerous cardiovascular diseases. As an effective therapy, Danhong injection (DHI) is considered to act through an antioxidant mechanism for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. In our study, we focused on the potential contribution of the antioxidant capacity of DHI fractions (Frs) and established an innovative screening method based on a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay. A ternary network evaluation system, which was constructed based on the radical scavenging activity, the area under the activity-concentration curve and the solid content of the fractions, was implemented to select the fractions that posed the greatest antioxidant effect. As a result, Frs 5-7 and Frs 17-19 were shown to exhibit superior antioxidant activity according to the regression area of the ternary network, which was >0.5. Furthermore, the active fractions were characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with nuclear magnetic resonance. This study provided an effective method for the comprehensive evaluation of the antioxidant effect of DHI fractions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. EXTRACT OF Punica granatum L.: AN ALTERNATIVE TO BHT AS AN ANTIOXIDANT IN SEMISSOLID EMULSIFIED SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Tiago Tozetto

    Full Text Available Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. is a fruit which has important pharmacological activities and has been attracting attention due to its important antioxidant activity, a significant feature in relation to cosmetics. Formulations containing different concentrations of an ethanolic extract of pomegranate (0.1, 1.0 and 5.0% (w/w as an antioxidant agent showed that this is an interesting alternative for the use of natural products with biological activity. The stability and rheology of semissolid systems containing an extract of this plant were evaluated. Preliminary stability studies showed greater physico-chemical stability of the formulation, and thus it was used in an accelerated stability study, as well the quantification of total phenolic compounds and the determination of antioxidant activity. It was observed that different concentrations of the extract did not significantly influence the stability. Moreover, the formulation was found to have better stability when stored at room temperature than under heated or cooled conditions. Formulations containing 0.1 and 5.0% of extract showed more stable rheological behavior, due to the absence of a solid/liquid transition in the rheogram. Tests confirmed the high phenolic content and antioxidant activity, demonstrating the potential of this plant for use in cosmetology as an antioxidant.

  9. Hepatitis B virus alters the antioxidant system in transgenic mice and sensitizes hepatocytes to Fas signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a major etiological factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, the precise pathogenetic mechanisms linking HBV infection and HCC remain uncertain. It has been reported that decreased antioxidant enzyme activities are associated with severe liver injury and hepatocarcinogenesis in mouse models. It is unclear if HBV can interfere with the activities of antioxidant enzymes. We established a HBV transgenic mouse line, which spontaneously developed HCC at 2 years of age. We studied the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in the liver of the HBV transgenic mice. Our results showed that the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase 2 were down-regulated in HBV transgenic mice and correlated with JNK activation. HBV enhanced the Fas-mediated activation of caspase 6, caspase 8 and JNK without enhancing the activation of caspase 3 and hepatocellular apoptosis. As a proper redox balance is important for maintaining cellular homeostasis, these effects of HBV on the host antioxidant system and Fas-signaling may play an important role in HBV-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

  10. [Total antioxidant blood capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and distal symmetrical polyneuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordević, Gordana; Durić, Stojanka; Apostolskit, Slobodan; Dordević, Vidosava; Zivković, Miroslava

    2008-09-01

    Reduced systemic antioxidant defence is considerd to play an important mediating role in pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the total antioxidant blood capacity (TAC) is reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DDSP) and to correlate this antioxidant capacity with the degree of peripheral nerve dysfunction. This study involved 100 patients with type 2 DM and signs of DDSP, as well as the control group of 50 healthy subjects. The evaluation of DDSP was based on physical examination and nerve conduction studies. The degree of peripheral nerve dysfunction was estimated by scoring and analysing sensory and motor nerve conduction parameters (distal latency and amplitude of evoked potential, conduction velocity). Laboratory analyses involved blood glucose and HbA1C levels, as well as plasma TAC. Blood glucose and HbA1C level was significantly higher in the patients than in the control group (p diabetic group and the depletion was statistically significant (p nerve conduction parameters. Total antioxidant blood capacity is reduced in patients with DDSP, but it does not correlate with blood sugar level, with the duration of DM or with the degree of functional nerve damage. These results show a reduced systemic antioxidant defence in patients with type 2 DM and DDSP. However, it is still unclear to what extent the oxidative stress is a contributing factor or leading cause of diabetic neuropathy, suggesting that further studies are necessary.

  11. Effect of Putrescine Treatment on Chilling Injury, Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant System in Kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingzhen; Wang, Feng; Rao, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 1, 2 and 4 mM) of putrescine on chilling injury, fruit quality, ethylene production rate, fatty acid composition and the antioxidant system of cold-stored kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis 'Hongyang'). We achieved a significant decrease in ethylene production, maintained fruit quality and alleviated chilling injury during storage via treatment with 2 mM putrescine. Furthermore, putrescine treatment inhibited increases in superoxide anion production rate and H2O2 concentration, while maintaining higher membrane lipid unsaturation as well as increased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. In addition, putrescine treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes related to the ascorbate-glutathione cycle while causing higher levels of ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione. Our results suggest that induced tolerance against chilling injury via putrescine treatment in cold-stored kiwifruit may be due to enhanced antioxidant activity, increased unsaturation of membrane lipids, and inhibited ethylene production.

  12. Development of new antioxidant systems for frying oil and omega-3 oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of natural antioxidant systems for frying oil will be discussed in this presentation. This study aimed to utilize vegetable oils such as soybean oil for frying, of which the United States is the world’s largest producer. To overcome the vulnerability of soybean oil to oxidation due t...

  13. Defence Reporter. Winter 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    System Model User Manual Dstl, Porton Down (GB) (2012) This document contains instructions on how to run the Capability Systems Model ( CSM ) and gives...an overview of the input files to the model and the output results from the model. It relates to the Java Script CSM . R0002BAB7 Chemical and...Biological (CB) Hazard Model Technical Description ( TD ) Dstl, Porton Down (GB) (2012) The CB Hazard model predicts the human response to exposure to

  14. Impact of the age of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails on Schistosoma mansoni transmission: modulation of the genetic outcome and the internal defence system of the snail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Fathy Abou-El-Naga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Of the approximately 34 identified Biomphalariaspecies,Biomphalaria alexandrinarepresents the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoniin Egypt. Using parasitological and SOD1 enzyme assay, this study aimed to elucidate the impact of the age of B. alexandrinasnails on their genetic variability and internal defence against S. mansoniinfection. Susceptible and resistant snails were reared individually for self-reproduction; four subgroups of their progeny were used in experiment. The young susceptible subgroup showed the highest infection rate, the shortest pre-patent period, the highest total cercarial production, the highest mortality rate and the lowest SOD1 activity. Among the young and adult susceptible subgroups, 8% and 26% were found to be resistant, indicating the inheritance of resistance alleles from parents. The adult resistant subgroup, however, contained only resistant snails and showed the highest enzyme activity. The complex interaction between snail age, genetic background and internal defence resulted in great variability in compatibility patterns, with the highest significant difference between young susceptible and adult resistant snails. The results demonstrate that resistance alleles function to a greater degree in adults, with higher SOD1 activity and provide potential implications for Biomphalariacontrol. The identification of the most susceptible snail age enables determination of the best timing for applying molluscicides. Moreover, adult resistant snails could be beneficial in biological snail control.

  15. Credible defence capability: command and control at the core

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the acquisition environment, smart systems and equipment represent the tip of the proverbial iceberg – it takes much more to realise a credible defence capability, that is, one that comprises all components of a user system to enable a mission...

  16. SERPINA3K plays antioxidant roles in cultured pterygial epithelial cells through regulating ROS system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengpeng Zhu

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that SERPINA3K, a serine proteinase inhibitor, has antioxidant activity in the cornea. Here we investigated the antioxidant effects of SERPINA3K on the pterygial, which is partially caused by oxidative stress in pathogenesis. The head part of primary pterygial tissue was dissected and then cultured in keratinocyte serum-free defined medium (KSFM. The cultured pterygial epithelial cells (PECs were treated with SERPINA3K. The cell proliferation and migration of PECs were measured and analyzed. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay were performed. It showed that SERPINA3K significantly suppressed the cell proliferation of PECs in a concentration-dependent manner, compared with cultured human conjunctival epithelial cells. SERPINA3K also inhibited the cell migration of PECs. Towards its underlying mechanism, SERPINA3K had antioxidant activities on the PECs by significantly inhibiting NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4, which is an important enzyme of ROS generation, and by elevating the levels of key antioxidant factors of ROS: such as NAD(PH dehydrogenase (quinone 1 (NQO1, NF-E2-related factor-2 (NRF2 and superoxide dismutases (SOD2. Meanwhile, SERPINA3K down-regulated the key effectors of Wnt signaling pathway: β-catenin, nonphospho-β-catenin, and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6. We provided novel evidence that SERPINA3K had inhibitory effects on pterygium and SERPINA3K played antioxidant role via regulating the ROS system and antioxidants.

  17. River flood defence. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toensmann, F. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Hydraulic and Water-Resources Engineering; Koch, M. (eds.) [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geohydraulics and Engineering Hydrology

    2001-07-01

    The present proceedings volume is complementary to the previous two proceedings volumes of the International Symposium on 'River Flood Defence' that was held in Kassel, September, 20-23, 2000. Apart from two supplementary contributions that did not meet the deadline to be published in the first two volumes, the present volume contains contributions to the special symposium 'Pollutants and Disease Pathogens in Floods'. (orig.)

  18. Reproducing butterflies do not increase intake of antioxidants when they could benefit from them

    OpenAIRE

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Bischofberger, Ines; Lorenz, Isabel; Scheelen, Lucie; Fischer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The significance of dietary antioxidants may be limited by the ability of animals to exploit them. However, past studies have focused on the effects of dietary antioxidants after ‘antioxidant forced-feeding’, and have overlooked spontaneous antioxidant intake. Here, we found that reproducing female Bicyclus anynana butterflies had higher antioxidant defences and enhanced fecundity when forced to consume antioxidants (polyphenols). Interestingly, these positive effects were not constant across...

  19. A laws of war review of contemporary land-based missile defence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated precise guided missile defence has been around for some years, and is a modern-day mechanism used frequently since 2011 to defend against rocket attacks penetrating national airspace. Israel's automated Iron Dome Missile Defence System has intercepted over 1 000 rockets during two recent military ...

  20. Effect of Whole-Body Cryotherapy on Antioxidant Systems in Experimental Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronisława Skrzep-Poloczek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC in rats on their antioxidant systems, lipid peroxidation products, and their total oxidative status at different exposure times and temperatures. Methods. Antioxidants in serum, plasma, liver, and erythrocytes were evaluated in two study groups following 1 min of exposure to −60°C and −90°C, for 5 and 10 consecutive days. Results. WBC increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase in the group subjected to 5 and 10 days exposure, −60°C. The glutathione S-transferase activity increased in the groups subjected to 10 days WBC sessions. Total antioxidant capacity increased after 5 and 10 days of 1 min WBC, −60°C; a decrease was observed at −90°C. A decreased level of erythrocyte malondialdehyde concentration was observed at −60°C after 5 and 10 days of cryostimulation. An increased concentration was measured at −90°C after 10 days, and increase of erythrocyte malondialdehyde concentration after 5 days, −90°C. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research showing the effect of WBC in rats at different exposure times and temperatures. The effect of cryotherapy on enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems was observed in the serum of animals exposed to a temperature of −60°C in comparison to control.

  1. l-Arginine supplementation improves rats' antioxidant system and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E P; Borges, L S; Mendes-da-Silva, C; Hirabara, S M; Lambertucci, R H

    2017-03-01

    Reactive species have great importance in sports performance, once they can directly regulate energy production, muscular contraction, inflammation, and fatigue. Therefore, the redox control is essential for athletes' performance. Studies demonstrated that l-arginine has an important role in the synthesis of urea, cell growth and production of nitric oxide, moreover, there are indications that it is also able to induce benefits to muscle antioxidant system through the upregulation of some antioxidant enzymes, and by inhibiting some pathways of reactive species production. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of l-arginine supplementation on performance and oxidative stress of male rats (trained or not), submitted to a single session of high intensity exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, control (C), control+l-arginine (C + A), trained (T), and trained+l-arginine (T + A). The aerobic training was conducted for 8 weeks. Data of maximum speed and time from tests were used as indicators of performance. Variables related to oxidative stress and antioxidant system were also evaluated. Aerobic training was capable to induce enhancements on animals' exercise performance and on their redox state. Additionally, supplementation improved rats' physical performance on both groups, control and trained. Different improvements between groups on the antioxidant capacity were observed. Nevertheless, considering the ergogenic effect of l-arginine and the lack of all positive adaptations promoted by the exercise training, untrained animals may be more exposed to oxidative damages after the practice of intense exercises.

  2. Characterization and antioxidant activity of bovine serum albumin and sulforaphane complex in different solvent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xueyan; Zhou, Rui; Jing, Hao, E-mail: h200521@cau.edu.cn

    2014-02-15

    Modes and influencing factors of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and sulforaphane (SFN) interaction will help us understand the interaction mechanisms and functional changes of bioactive small molecule and biomacromolecule. This study investigated interaction mechanisms of BSA and SFN and associated antioxidant activity in three solvent systems of deionized water (dH{sub 2}O), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol (EtOH), using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), fluorescence spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. The results revealed that SFN had ability to quench BSA's fluorescence in static modes, and to interact with BSA at both tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Trp) residues, while the Trp residues were highly sensitive, which was demonstrated by fluorescence at 340 nm. Hydrophobic forces, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions were all involved in BSA and SFN interaction, which were not significantly changed by three solvents. The binding constant values and binding site numbers were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH. The values of free energy change were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH, which indicated that the binding forces were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH. There was no significant difference in antioxidant activity between SFN and BSA–SFN. Moreover, three solvents had not significant influence on antioxidant activity of SFN and BSA–SFN. -- Highlights: • We report interaction mechanisms of BSA and sulforaphane in three solvent systems. • We report antioxidant activity of BSA–sulforaphane complex in three solvent systems. • Decreasing the solvent polarity will decrease the binding of BSA and sulforaphane. • Three solvents had not influence on antioxidant activity of BSA–sulforaphane.

  3. Grape marc extract acts as elicitor of plant defence responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupil, Pascale; Benouaret, Razik; Charrier, Olivia; Ter Halle, Alexandra; Richard, Claire; Eyheraguibel, Boris; Thiery, Denis; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2012-07-01

    Plant protection based on novel alternative strategies is a major concern in agriculture to sustain pest management. The marc extract of red grape cultivars reveals plant defence inducer properties. Treatment with grape marc extract efficiently induced hypersensitive reaction-like lesions with cell death evidenced by Evans Blue staining of tobacco leaves. Examination of the infiltration zone and the surrounding areas under UV light revealed the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds. Both leaf infiltration and a foliar spray of the red grape extract on tobacco leaves induced defence gene expression. The PR1 and PR2 target genes were upregulated locally and systemically in tobacco plants following grape marc extract treatment. The grape extract elicited an array of plant defence responses making this natural compound a potential phytosanitary product with a challenging issue and a rather attractive option for sustainable agriculture and environmentally friendly practices.

  4. Induction of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidative Mechanisms in Arabidopsis thaliana after Uranium Exposure at pH 7.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Saenen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the environmental impact of uranium (U contamination, it is important to investigate the effects of U at ecologically relevant conditions. Since U speciation, and hence its toxicity, strongly depends on environmental pH, the present study aimed to investigate dose-dependent effects of U at pH 7.5. Arabidopsis thaliana plants (Mouse-ear Cress were exposed for three days to different U concentrations at pH 7.5. In the roots, the increased capacities of ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase indicate an important role for the ascorbate-glutathione cycle during U-induced stress. However, a significant decrease in the ascorbate redox state was observed after exposure to 75 and 100 µM U, indicating that those roots are severely stressed. In accordance with the roots, the ascorbate-glutathione cycle plays an important role in the antioxidative defence systems in A. thaliana leaves exposed to U at pH 7.5 as the ascorbate and glutathione biosynthesis were upregulated. In addition, small inductions of enzymes of the antioxidative defence system were observed at lower U concentrations to counteract the U-induced stress. However, at higher U concentrations it seems that the antioxidative defence system of the leaves collapses as reductions in enzyme activities and gene expression levels were observed.

  5. Urolithins display both antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities depending on assay system and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Tuija; Kallio, Johanna; Jaakkola, Mari; Mäki, Marianne; Kilpeläinen, Pekka; Virtanen, Vesa

    2013-11-13

    The biological effects of polyphenolic ellagitannins are mediated by their intestinal metabolites, urolithins. This study investigated redox properties of urolithins A and B using ORAC assay, three cell-based assays, copper-initiated pro-oxidant activity (CIPA) assay, and cyclic voltammetry. Urolithins were strong antioxidants in the ORAC assay, but mostly pro-oxidants in cell-based assays, although urolithin A was an antioxidant in cell culture medium. Parent compound ellagic acid was a strong extracellular antioxidant, but showed no response in the intracellular assay. The CIPA assay confirmed the pro-oxidant activity of ellagitannin metabolites. In the cell proliferation assay, urolithins but not ellagic acid decreased growth and metabolism of HepG2 liver cells. In cyclic voltammetry, the oxidation of urolithin A was partly reversible, but that of urolithin B was irreversible. These results illustrate how strongly measured redox properties depend on the employed assay system and conditions and emphasize the importance of studying pro-oxidant and antioxidant activities in parallel.

  6. The proper time for antioxidant consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Schaefer, H Martin

    2014-04-10

    Consuming food rich in antioxidants may help organisms to increase their antioxidant defences and avoid oxidative damage. Under the hypothesis that organisms actively consume food for its antioxidant properties, they would need to do so in view of other physiological requirements, such as energy requirements. Here, we observed that Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) consumed most seeds rich in antioxidants in the middle of the day, while their consumption of staple seeds more profitable in energy intake (and poor in antioxidants) was maximal in the morning and the evening. This consumption of seeds rich in antioxidants in the middle of the day may be explicable (1) because birds took advantage of a time window associated with relaxed energy requirements to ingest antioxidant resources, or (2) because birds consumed antioxidant resources as a response to the highest antioxidant requirements in the middle of the day. If the latter hypothesis holds true, having the possibility to ingest antioxidants should be most beneficial in terms of oxidative balance in the middle of the day. Even though feeding on seeds rich in antioxidants improved Gouldian finches' overall antioxidant capacity, we did not detect any diurnal effect of antioxidant intake on plasma oxidative markers (as measured by the d-ROM and the OXY-adsorbent tests). This indicates that the diurnal pattern of antioxidant intake that we observed was most likely constrained by the high consumption of staple food to replenish or build up body reserves in the morning and in the evening, and not primarily determined by elevated antioxidant requirements in the middle of the day. Consequently, animals appear to have the possibility to increase antioxidant defences by selecting food rich in antioxidants, only when energetic constraints are relaxed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of human milk

    OpenAIRE

    Živković, Jelena; Sunarić, Slavica; Trutić, Nataša; Denić, Marko; Kocić, Gordana; Jovanović, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Milk contains plenty of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant components that probably account for the vital antioxidant protection of the infants at early stages of life against the development of complications induced by oxygen free radicals. Indigenous milk enzymes play a key role in regulating lactogenesis, including active involution of mammary gland. Moreover, they are essential constituents of antioxidation and the innate immune system of milk. Among antioxidant enzymes, superoxide d...

  8. Raise your defence: a baseline for security

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    It is an unfair imbalance: the (computer) security of a system/service is only as strong as the weakest link in the chain of protection. This provides attackers with an incredible advantage: they can choose when to attack, where and with which means. The defence side is permanently under pressure: they must defend at all times all assets against all eventualities. For computer security, this means that every computer system, every account, every web site and every service must be properly protected --- always.   In particular, at CERN, those services visible to the Internet are permanently probed. Web sites and servers are permanently scanned by adversaries for vulnerabilities; attackers repeatedly try to guess user passwords on our remote access gateways like LXPLUS or CERNTS; computing services, e.g. for Grid computing, are analysed again and again by malicious attackers for weaknesses which can be exploited. Thanks to the vigilance of the corresponding system and service experts, these atta...

  9. The psychiatric defence and international criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, John

    2007-01-01

    Following the development of the International Criminal Court (ICC) the mental state of the perpetrators of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes will become a more important issue in regard to defence and mitigating factors. This article examines how the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in particular has dealt with the mental illness defence to date, and how its judgements can serve as guidance for the ICC as it becomes the major international court of the future. The absence of a mental health defence in the Statutes of the ICTY and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda has led to a reliance on the Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the two tribunals. There are major difficulties in using the mental health defence as it is defined in the Statutes of the ICC because of a requirement for the destruction of mental capacity as a valid defence. Fitness to plead and the defence of intoxication are also examined.

  10. Whole body exposure to low-dose γ-radiation enhances the antioxidant defense system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, C.M.; Avti, P.K.; Khanduja, K.L.; Sharma, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that the extent of cellular damage by low- radiation dose is proportional to the effects observed at high radiation dose as per the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) hypothesis. However, this notion may not be true at low-dose radiation exposure in the living system. Recent evidence suggest that the living organisms do not respond to ionizing radiations in a linear manner in the low dose range 0.01-0.5Gy and rather restore the homeostasis both in vivo and in vitro by normal physiological mechanisms such as cellular and DNA repair processes, immune reactions, antioxidant defense, adaptive responses, activation of immune functions, stimulation of growth etc. In this study, we have attempted to find the critical radiation dose range and the post irradiation period during which the antioxidant defense systems in the lungs, liver and kidneys remain stimulated in these organs after whole body exposure of the animals to low-dose radiation

  11. Chemistry of ascorbic acid and sulfur dioxide as an antioxidant system relevant to white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barril, Célia; Clark, Andrew C; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2012-06-30

    The impact of the combined ascorbic acid and sulfur dioxide antioxidants on white wine oxidation processes was investigated using a range of analytical techniques, including flow injection analysis for free and total sulfur dioxide and two chromatographic methods for ascorbic acid, its oxidative degradation products and phenolic compounds. The combination of different analytical techniques provided a fast and simultaneous means for the monitoring of oxidation processes in a model wine system. In addition, the initial mole ratio of sulfur dioxide to ascorbic acid was varied and the model wine complexity was increased by the inclusion of metal ions (copper(II) and iron(II)). Sulfur dioxide was found not to be a significant binder of ascorbic acid oxidative degradation products and could not prevent the formation of certain phenolic pigment precursors. The results provide a detailed insight into the ascorbic acid/sulfur dioxide antioxidant system in wine conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. SELF-DEFENCE IN SPECIAL SITUATIONS (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamya-Diana HĂRĂTĂU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the reality of practical cases and in certain special situations, self-defence may present some complex forms consisting either in accidental amplification of the issue in fact when self-defence is claimed, or in the correlation in fact of self-defence to other cases which remove the criminal nature of act1. For these reasons, we decided to analyse few of such special situations.

  13. Effects of fish size on the response of antioxidant systems of Oreochromis niloticus following metal exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanak, E G; Dogan, Z; Eroglu, A; Atli, G; Canli, M

    2014-08-01

    The size of a fish is an important factor in its physiology, and metal uptake is affected by animal physiology. In this study, small and large tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) differing approximately twofold in length and fivefold in weight were compared for their antioxidant response. Both groups were exposed to Cu or Cr (1.0 μg/mL) in a freshwater (-80 mg CaCO3/L, conductivity 1.77 mS/cm) using 2 exposure protocols (20 μM for 48 h and 10 μM for 6 days). Following the exposures, the antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GPX; glutathione reductase, GR and glutathione S-transferase, GST) and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured in the liver of fish. Results showed that small fish was affected from exposure conditions much more than large ones as their antioxidant parameters significantly decreased even in controls. Metal exposures of small fish caused significant increases in SOD and CAT activity in acute Cu or Cr exposures. Subchronic Cr exposure of small fish also caused significant increases in CAT, GPx and GST activities, while there was no significant change in Cu-exposed ones. Large fish, however, showed different antioxidant responses as their levels mostly decreased. This study demonstrated that the response of antioxidant system in the liver of tilapia varied in relation to fish sizes and emphasized using different size groups in environmental monitoring and also in evaluation of fish biomarkers.

  14. Toward the Defence of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    i~li tr - _y- ----Q QD . New York: Random House , 1987. Kerr, Pauline, " Australia -Indonesian Relations Developing.- FlifRi s_] rc~h, August 1989, pp...AD- A234 907Ol? RESEARCH REPORT 8 T(WILRD TVF DEFENCE OF AUSTRALIA O)T IC VZA P R 24 1 GROUP CAPTAIN BRENTON J. ESPELAND, AM ROYAL AUSTRALIAN AIR... AUSTRALIA by Group Captain B.J. Espeland, AM, RAAF A RESEARCH REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY IN FULFILLMENT OF THE RESEARCH REQUIREMENT Research Advisor

  15. THE STATE OF THE ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM OF THE INTERNAL ORGANS IN RATS DURING BURN DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Netyukhailo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of research was to study the state of prooxidant and antioxidant systems in the tissues of the lungs, kidneys, pancreas and salivary glands at burn disease. The intensity of the free radical processes was evaluated on the basis of the content of malondialdehyde (MDA and antioxidant system – based on the indexes of its enzymatic chain: superoxide dismutase and catalase in homogenates of the studied organs. It has been found that changes in experimental burn disease depend on the studied organs and the stage of burn disease. The activation of free radical processes observed in all investigated organs (lungs, kidneys, pancreas and salivary glands. Reactive oxygen species induce lipid peroxidation, which is a universal marker of tissue damage. MDA appears in the body during degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and it’s a marker of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. It was found the increasing of MDA in all organs, especially in the lungs and kidneys at stage of burn shock. Under these conditions it was observed the decrease of superoxide dismutase and catalase in all investigated organs. At burn disease there is development of disbalance between the action of prooxidant and antioxidant systems due to the activation of free radical processes.

  16. [The activity of prooxidant-antioxidant system in loach embryos under the action of microwave radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaremchuk, M M; Dyka, M V; Sanahurs'kyĭ, D I

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) affects biological organisms, primarily on the cellular level. However, the effects of EMR at low-intensity exposure on animals and state of metabolic systems are not fully defined yet. Thus, research of microwave radiation influence on the processes of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection system is important for understanding the mechanisms of EMR action on the cell, in particular, and organism development on the whole. The content of lipid peroxidation products--lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activity of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in loach embryos under the action of microwave radiation (GSM-900 MHz, SAR = 1.1 Vt/kg) lasting 1; 5; 10 and 20 min during early embryogenesis were studied. It has been found that content of lipid peroxidation products in germ cells undergoes significant changes under the action of low-intensity EMR. The effect of microwave radiation (1, 5, 10 min) leads to the increase of superoxide dismutase activity, nevertheless, 20 min exposure decreased this index to the level of control values as it is shown. It has been established that EMR at frequencies used for mobile communications reduce the activity of antioxidant protection system components, especially catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The growth of catalase activity at the 10-cell stage of blastomere division (P microwave radiation factor causes the large part of all observable modifications.

  17. The activity of prooxidant-antioxidant system in loach embryos under the action of microwave radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Yaremchuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic radiation (EMR affects biological organisms, primarily on the cellular level. However, the effects of EMR at low-intensity exposure on animals and state of metabolic systems are not fully defined yet. Thus, research of microwave radiation influence on the processes of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection system is important for understanding the mechanisms of EMR action on the cell, in particular, and organism development on the whole. The content of lipid peroxidation products – lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activity of antioxidant enzymes – superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in loach embryos under the action of microwave radiation (GSM-900 MHz, SAR = 1.1 Vt/kg lasting 1; 5; 10 and 20 min during early embryogenesis were studied. It has been found that content of lipid peroxidation products in germ cells undergoes significant changes under the action of low-intensity EMR. The effect of microwave radiation (1, 5, 10 min leads to the increase of superoxide dismutase activity, nevertheless, 20 min exposure decreased this index to the level of control values as it is shown. It has been established that EMR at frequencies used for mobile communications reduce the activity of antioxidant protection system components, especially catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The growth of catalase activity at the 10-cell stage of blastomere division (P < 0.05 is an exception. The results of two-way analysis of variance attest that microwave radiation factor causes the large part of all observable modifications.

  18. Time-dependent Reliability Analysis of Flood Defence Assets Using Generic Fragility Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepal Jaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood defence assets such as earth embankments comprise the vital part of linear flood defences in many countries including the UK and protect inland from flooding. The risks of flooding are likely to increase in the future due to increasing pressure on land use, increasing rainfall events and rising sea level caused by climate change also affect aging flood defence assets. Therefore, it is important that the flood defence assets are maintained at a high level of safety and serviceability. The high costs associated with preserving these deteriorating flood defence assets and the limited funds available for their maintenance require the development of systematic approaches to ensure the sustainable flood-risk management system. The integration of realistic deterioration measurement and reliabilitybased performance assessment techniques has tremendous potential for structural safety and economic feasibility of flood defence assets. Therefore, the need for reliability-based performance assessment is evident. However, investigations on time-dependent reliability analysis of flood defence assets are limited. This paper presents a novel approach for time-dependent reliability analysis of flood defence assets. In the analysis, time-dependent fragility curve is developed by using the state-based stochastic deterioration model. The applicability of the proposed approach is then demonstrated with a case study.

  19. Effect of oil refinery sludges on the growth and antioxidant system of alfalfa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, M Carmen; Camejo, Daymi; Fernández-García, Nieves; Rellán-Alvarez, Rubén; Marques, Silvia; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana

    2009-11-15

    The refining process in the petrochemical industry generates oil refinery sludges, a potentially contaminating waste product, with a high content of hydrocarbons and heavy metals. Faster degradation of hydrocarbons has been reported in vegetated soils than in non-vegetated soils, but the impact of these contaminants on the plants physiology and on their antioxidant system is not well known. In this study, the effect of the addition of petroleum sludge to soil on the physiological parameters, nutrient contents, and oxidative and antioxidant status in alfalfa was investigated. An inhibition of alfalfa growth and an induction of oxidative stress, as indicated by an increase in protein oxidation, were found. Also, the superoxide dismutase isoenzymes, peroxidase, and those enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle showed significant activity increases, parallel to an enhancement of total homoglutathione, allowing plants being tolerant to this situation. This information is necessary to establish successful and sustainable plant-based remediation strategies.

  20. Determination of antioxidant activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Croton caudatus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhaswaraj, Pattnaik; Sowmya, M; Bhavana, V; Dyavaiah, Madhu; Siddhardha, Busi

    2017-08-01

    From ancient times, plants and plant derived products are exploited as a prominent source of folkloric medicines with tremendous therapeutic potential for an array of health disorders. In the present study, ethanolic leaf extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Croton caudatus were evaluated for free radical scavenging activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system. H. sabdariffa and C. caudatus showed tremendous DPPH free radical scavenging potential with an IC 50 value of 184.88 and 305.39 µg/mL respectively at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. The ethanolic leaf extract of H. sabdariffa and C. caudatus also showed significant hydoxyl radical scavenging and total antioxidant activity. Ascorbic acid was used as positive control. The in vitro antioxidant activity was further supported by in vivo studies using radical scavenging mechanism in S. cerevisiae wild type and its isogenic deletion strains sod1∆ and tsa1∆ . The mutant yeast cells substantially scavenged the stress generated by H 2 O 2 when supplemented with ethanolic leaf extract of H. sabdariffa and C. caudatus as evident from spot assays followed by fluorescence assay (DCF-DA) using fluorescence microscopic and intensity studies. H. sabdariffa and C.caudatus significantly neutralize the ROS level in yeast mutants with concomitant decrease in fluorescence intensity as compared to the untreated yeast cells. The results suggested the efficacy of H. sabdariffa and C. caudatus as potent antioxidants in yeast system and thus their futuristic applications in therapeutics.

  1. Critical Role of Zinc as Either an Antioxidant or a Prooxidant in Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ryul Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is recognized as an essential trace metal required for human health; its deficiency is strongly associated with neuronal and immune system defects. Although zinc is a redox-inert metal, it functions as an antioxidant through the catalytic action of copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase, stabilization of membrane structure, protection of the protein sulfhydryl groups, and upregulation of the expression of metallothionein, which possesses a metal-binding capacity and also exhibits antioxidant functions. In addition, zinc suppresses anti-inflammatory responses that would otherwise augment oxidative stress. The actions of zinc are not straightforward owing to its numerous roles in biological systems. It has been shown that zinc deficiency and zinc excess cause cellular oxidative stress. To gain insights into the dual action of zinc, as either an antioxidant or a prooxidant, and the conditions under which each role is performed, the oxidative stresses that occur in zinc deficiency and zinc overload in conjunction with the intracellular regulation of free zinc are summarized. Additionally, the regulatory role of zinc in mitochondrial homeostasis and its impact on oxidative stress are briefly addressed.

  2. Evaluation of treatment with hydrocortisone on oxidant/antioxidant system in preterm infants with BPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandal, G; Mutlu, B; Uras, N; Erdeve, O; Oguz, S S; Dilmen, U

    2013-10-01

    Evidence that oxidative stress plays a role in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). There is a close relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, it is aimed to investigate influences of hydrocortisone used in the treatment of BPD on anti-oxidant system in preterm infants with BPD. The study enrolled 33 infants with severe BPD who were undergone inpatient treatment in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of our Hospital and received therapy with hydrocortisone. Total oxidant status (TOS) and total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC) levels of infants enrolled to the study before and one week after the hydrocortisone therapy were studies and oxidative stress index levels were calculated. Pre- and post-treatment TOS, TAC and OSI index levels were statistically compared. In preterm infants with BPD, who were enrolled into the study, TOS and OSI index were found high, whereas TAC values were low. Following the treatment with hydrocortisone, statistically significant decrease in TOS and OSI index and statistically significant elevation in TAC levels were found in comparison with pre-treatment levels. The treatment with hydrocortisone, which is used for BPD, improves anti-oxidant system and reduces oxidative stress in infants with BPD. There is need for further studies in order to clarify the physio-pathogenesis.

  3. Changes in antioxidant systems in soybean as affected by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenčić, Djordje; Kiprovski, Biljana; Popović, Milan; Prvulović, Dejan; Miladinović, Jegor; Djordjević, Vuk

    2010-01-01

    Changes in antioxidant systems in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr., Fabaceae] genotypes infected with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were studied 12, 24, 48 and 72h after inoculation. Generation of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals was evaluated together with the production of malonyldialdehyde, main end product of lipid peroxidation. Several enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters were monitored as well, such as the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and pyrogallol and guaiacol peroxidases, reduced glutathione, soluble proteins and total carotenoids content. Results showed that genotypes expressed oxidative burst as well as different antioxidant systems in response to biotic stress caused by pathogen invasion. It has been confirmed that, although hypersensitive cell death is efficient against biotrophic pathogens, it does not protect soybean plants against infection by the necrotrophic pathogen such as S. sclerotiorum. Still, some genotypes showed distinctive and combined activity of several biochemical parameters which may point to further directions in exploring host-pathogen relations and lead to selection and production of new genotypes with higher levels of tolerance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Martial art training enhances the glutathione antioxidant system in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter C; Elokda, Ahmed S; Handrakis, John P; Principal, Suze; Rondo, Eleni; Bovell, Juan; Coughlin, William P; Mastroianni, Charles N; Wong, Michael J; Zimmerman, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antioxidant capacity of physically active middle-aged martial artists to age-matched sedentary controls. Nine sedentary subjects (mean age 52.9 yr) and 9 martial artists (mean age 51.8 yr) who practice Soo Bahk Do, a Korean martial art and were age- and sex-matched performed a graded exercise test (GXT) using a modified Bruce protocol. Ages ranged from 41 to 58 years. A GXT has been shown to be an effective technique for inducing oxidative stress. Glutathione (GSH) is the body's most highly concentrated antioxidant, is the central component of the antioxidant system, and plays an essential role in protecting tissues against oxidative stress. Free radical oxidation leads to the transformation of GSH to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Venous blood samples for GSH and GSSG were collected before and immediately after the GXT. Repeated measures analysis of variance were performed on the resting baseline values and immediate post-GXT values of GSH, GSSG, and GSH:GSSG to compare groups. The blood GSH, GSSG, and GSH:GSSG levels were significantly different (p < 0.001) between the 2 groups at rest and after the GXT. The Soo Bahk Do practitioners had higher resting levels of GSH and lower levels of GSSG and responded more effectively to acute oxidative stress than the age-matched sedentary controls. Soo Bahk Do appears to enhance the antioxidant defense system and may be an effective intervention for improving overall health by protecting against the adverse effects of oxidative stress that is associated with the free radical theory of aging. Health professionals should be aware of alternative methods of training, conditioning, and exercise that can improve the general adaptation response to oxidative stress.

  5. Prevention of lipid oxidation in omega-3 enriched oofds by antioxidants and the use of delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    oxidation products. Efficients strategies to prevent lipid oxidation are therefore required. Such strategies include addition of antioxidants or the use of omega-3 delivery emulsions. However, antioxidant efficacy in complex omega-3 enriched foods are influenced by many factors including the lipophilicity...... of the antioxidants. Selection of the optimal antioxidant system is therefore a major challenge. Likewise, a range of factors can influence the ability of omega-3 delivery systems to protect the omega-3 fatty acids against oxidation after addition to food systems. These challenges will be discussed......Due to the health beneficial effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids there is an increasing interest in developing functional foods containing these healthy fatty acids. However, such foods are very susceptible to lipid oxidation, which will give rise to undesirable off-flavours and unhealthy...

  6. South Africa's Defence Industrial Participation in Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jvdyk

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... industry had acquired the ability to design, reverse-engineer, manufacture, produce, maintain, refurbish, upgrade and modify a wide range of defence equipment. ... The 2014 Aerospace Maritime and Defence (AMD) review on the effect of. DIP acknowledges that an extended DIP negotiation process could ...

  7. Inducible defences and the paradox of enrichment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M.; Kooi, B.W.; Mooij, W.M.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of inducible defences on community stability and persistence, we analyzed models of bitrophic and tritrophic food chains that incorporate consumer-induced polymorphisms. These models predict that intraspecific heterogeneity in defence levels resolves the paradox of

  8. Inducible defences and the paradox of enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M.; Kooi, B.W.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Mooij, W.M.

    2004-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of inducible defences on community stability and persistence, we analyzed models of bitrophic and tritrophic food chains that incorporate consumer-induced polymorphisms. These models predict that intra-specific heterogeneity in defence levels resolves the paradox of

  9. Identification of plant defence regulators through transcriptional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-04

    Feb 4, 2015 ... The cdd1 mutant is constitutive for salicylic acid accumulation, signalling, and defence against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens, without having much impact on growth. Thus, cdd1 offers an ideal genetic background to identify novel regulators of plant defence. Here we report the differential gene.

  10. Defence counsel in international criminal law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temminck Tuinstra, J.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The field of international criminal law is relatively new and rapidly developing. This dissertation examines whether international criminal courts enable defence counsel to conduct an effective defence. When the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda (the ad hoc

  11. Modulation of Antioxidant Enzyme Expression and Activity by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renal toxicity produced by paraquat involves the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can overwhelm antioxidant defences, leading to oxidant injury. However, there are conflicting reports regarding the activity and/or expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) ...

  12. Simple growth patterns can create complex trajectories for the ontogeny of constitutive chemical defences in seaweeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Paul

    Full Text Available All of the theory and most of the data on the ecology and evolution of chemical defences derive from terrestrial plants, which have considerable capacity for internal movement of resources. In contrast, most macroalgae--seaweeds--have no or very limited capacity for resource translocation, meaning that trade-offs between growth and defence, for example, should be localised rather than systemic. This may change the predictions of chemical defence theories for seaweeds. We developed a model that mimicked the simple growth pattern of the red seaweed Asparagopsis armata which is composed of repeating clusters of somatic cells and cells which contain deterrent secondary chemicals (gland cells. To do this we created a distinct growth curve for the somatic cells and another for the gland cells using empirical data. The somatic growth function was linked to the growth function for defence via differential equations modelling, which effectively generated a trade-off between growth and defence as these neighbouring cells develop. By treating growth and defence as separate functions we were also able to model a trade-off in growth of 2-3% under most circumstances. However, we found contrasting evidence for this trade-off in the empirical relationships between growth and defence, depending on the light level under which the alga was cultured. After developing a model that incorporated both branching and cell division rates, we formally demonstrated that positive correlations between growth and defence are predicted in many circumstances and also that allocation costs, if they exist, will be constrained by the intrinsic growth patterns of the seaweed. Growth patterns could therefore explain contrasting evidence for cost of constitutive chemical defence in many studies, highlighting the need to consider the fundamental biology and ontogeny of organisms when assessing the allocation theories for defence.

  13. Simple growth patterns can create complex trajectories for the ontogeny of constitutive chemical defences in seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Nicholas A; Svensson, Carl Johan; de Nys, Rocky; Steinberg, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    All of the theory and most of the data on the ecology and evolution of chemical defences derive from terrestrial plants, which have considerable capacity for internal movement of resources. In contrast, most macroalgae--seaweeds--have no or very limited capacity for resource translocation, meaning that trade-offs between growth and defence, for example, should be localised rather than systemic. This may change the predictions of chemical defence theories for seaweeds. We developed a model that mimicked the simple growth pattern of the red seaweed Asparagopsis armata which is composed of repeating clusters of somatic cells and cells which contain deterrent secondary chemicals (gland cells). To do this we created a distinct growth curve for the somatic cells and another for the gland cells using empirical data. The somatic growth function was linked to the growth function for defence via differential equations modelling, which effectively generated a trade-off between growth and defence as these neighbouring cells develop. By treating growth and defence as separate functions we were also able to model a trade-off in growth of 2-3% under most circumstances. However, we found contrasting evidence for this trade-off in the empirical relationships between growth and defence, depending on the light level under which the alga was cultured. After developing a model that incorporated both branching and cell division rates, we formally demonstrated that positive correlations between growth and defence are predicted in many circumstances and also that allocation costs, if they exist, will be constrained by the intrinsic growth patterns of the seaweed. Growth patterns could therefore explain contrasting evidence for cost of constitutive chemical defence in many studies, highlighting the need to consider the fundamental biology and ontogeny of organisms when assessing the allocation theories for defence.

  14. Antioxidant defence of L-glutamine on mitochondrial function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Myocardial infarction is a major public health concern and the leading cause of death all over the world. A better understanding of the processes involved in myocardial infarction has stimulated the search for biomolecules, which could limit the myocardial injury. We determined the protective activity of L-glutamine on ...

  15. Carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of grapes (Vitis vinifera) cultivated in organic and conventional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Organic agriculture involve plants which are cultivated without using synthetic pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers and promotes biodiversity, biological cycles and improve the product quality. The carotenoids, total polyphenols and the antioxidant activity from skins of some wine and table grapes cultivated in organic and conventional agriculture were studied. Results The main carotenoids identified using high performance liquid chromatography were lutein and ß-carotene. Muscat Ottonel variety has the highest ß-carotene concentration 504.9 μg/kg for organic and 593.2 μg/kg for conventional grapes. For the organic farming, the total polyphenols content were in the range of 163.23 – 1341.37 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW) and 148.47 – 1231.38 mg GAE/kg FW for the conventional grapes. The highest ORAC values were obtained for blue-black variety Napoca in both farming system (43.5 ± 0.95 μmol TE/g organic; 40.4 ± 0.5 μmol TE/g conventional) and lowest for Aromat de Iaşi (16.8 ± 0.6 μmol TE/g organic; 14.7 ± 1.6 μmol TE/g conventional). Napoca variety showed also the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method in both cultivated system. Conclusion Nine grape varieties cultivated in organic and conventional systems were compared regarding the carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The white grape varieties have a higher carotenoids content compared with the blue-black cultivars while the blue-black varieties contain higher TPC and exhibit higher antioxidant activity (except for Muscat Hamburg-ORAC). Vitis vinifera grape skins originating from wine or table grape varieties can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22762349

  16. Carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of grapes (Vitis vinifera cultivated in organic and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunea Claudiu-Ioan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organic agriculture involve plants which are cultivated without using synthetic pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers and promotes biodiversity, biological cycles and improve the product quality. The carotenoids, total polyphenols and the antioxidant activity from skins of some wine and table grapes cultivated in organic and conventional agriculture were studied. Results The main carotenoids identified using high performance liquid chromatography were lutein and ß-carotene. Muscat Ottonel variety has the highest ß-carotene concentration 504.9 μg/kg for organic and 593.2 μg/kg for conventional grapes. For the organic farming, the total polyphenols content were in the range of 163.23 – 1341.37 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW and 148.47 – 1231.38 mg GAE/kg FW for the conventional grapes. The highest ORAC values were obtained for blue-black variety Napoca in both farming system (43.5 ± 0.95 μmol TE/g organic; 40.4 ± 0.5 μmol TE/g conventional and lowest for Aromat de Iaşi (16.8 ± 0.6 μmol TE/g organic; 14.7 ± 1.6 μmol TE/g conventional. Napoca variety showed also the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method in both cultivated system. Conclusion Nine grape varieties cultivated in organic and conventional systems were compared regarding the carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The white grape varieties have a higher carotenoids content compared with the blue-black cultivars while the blue-black varieties contain higher TPC and exhibit higher antioxidant activity (except for Muscat Hamburg-ORAC. Vitis vinifera grape skins originating from wine or table grape varieties can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  17. [The effect of enalapril maleate on the lipid peroxidation processes and on the body's antioxidant system in patients with hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalova, S A

    1999-01-01

    Overall, forty-five patients with essential hypertension (EH) were examined. EH patients revealed dysbalance between lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant system. These disorders were found to correlate, to a certain extent, with severity of the malady, and to affect the character of the course of the process. Enalapril in a dose of 2.5 to 20 mg for 15 days, along with its hypotensive effect, has an antioxidant action on the metabolic processes at the expense of increase in the activity of enzymes of the antioxidant defense, such as catalase and peroxidase, which fact leads to augmentation of the antiperoxidative potential and prevention of further EH progression.

  18. Stronger inducible defences enhance persistence of intraguild prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratina, Pavel; Hammill, Edd; Anholt, Bradley R

    2010-09-01

    1. Intraguild predation is widespread in nature despite its potentially destabilizing effect on food web dynamics. 2. Anti-predator inducible defences affect both birth and death rates of populations and have the potential to substantially modify food web dynamics and possibly increase persistence of intraguild prey. 3. In a chemostat experiment, we investigated the long-term effects of inducible defences on the dynamics of aquatic microbial food webs consisting of an intraguild predator, intraguild prey, and a basal resource. We controlled environmental conditions and selected strains of intraguild prey that varied in the strength of expressed inducible defences. 4. We found that intraguild prey with a stronger tendency to induce an anti-predator morphology persist for significantly longer periods of time. In addition, model selection analysis implied that flexibility in defensive phenotype (inducibility itself) is most likely the factor responsible for the enhanced persistence. 5. As patterns at the community level often emerge as a result of the life-history traits of individuals, we propose that inducible defences increase the persistence of populations and may contribute to the widespread occurrence of theoretically unstable intraguild predation systems in nature.

  19. Simulating of Top-Cross system for enhancement of antioxidants in maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vancetovic

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Blue maize (Zea mays L. is grown for its high content of antioxidants. Conversion of yellow and white to blue maize is time consuming because several genes affect blue color. After each backcross selfing is needed for color to be expressed. In order to overcome the problem of time and effort needed for conversion to blue kernel color, we have set a pilot experiment simulating a Top-cross system for increasing antioxidants in maize grain. The idea is to alternately sow six rows of sterile standard quality hybrid and two rows of blue maize in commercial production. Five commercial ZP hybrids were crossed with a blue pop-corn population. Xenia effect caused by cross-pollination produced blue grain on all hybrids in the same year. Chemical analyses of the grains of five selfed original hybrids, five cross-pollinated hybrids and selfed blue popcorn pollinator were performed. Cross-fertilization with blue popcorn had different impact on antioxidant capacity and phytonutrients, increasing them significantly in some but not all cross-pollinated hybrids. Popcorn blue pollinator had higher values for all the analyzed traits than either selfed or cross-pollinated hybrids. Selfed vs. pollinated hybrids showed significant difference for total antioxidant capacity (p<0.1, total phenolics and total yellow pigments (p<0.01, with the increase of total phenolics and decrease of total yellow pigments in pollinated ones. Total flavonoids showed a little non-significant decrease in pollinated hybrids, while total anthocyanins were not detected in selfed yellow hybrids. Blue maize obtained this way has shown good potential for growing high quality phytonutrient genotypes.

  20. Investigations into the suppression of the nonspecific defence system by ionising radiation. Untersuchungen ueber die Suppression der unspezifischen Abwehr durch ionisierende Strahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlas, S.; Mayr, A.

    1988-03-10

    While nonspecific mechanisms such as activity of NK-cells and induction of interferon were not suppressed after inhomogenous total body irradiation of mice with 1,95/3,90 and 5,85 Gy, an extreme decrease in spleen weight, in the yield of lymphocytes from the spleen and their response to mitogenic stimulation was observed. The general effect of these influences on the interaction of the numerous factors and mechanisms of the nonspecific part of defence was investigated in an antigen-challenge model with stomatitis vesicularis virus in babymice after total body irradiation (3,90 Gy) of the babymice or their pregnant mothers. Irradiation of the babymice showed no significant influence on mortality after infection, while irradiation of their pregnant mothers caused an astonishing decrease of mortality compared to that of animals with no exposure to X-rays. In the same model it was demonstrated that the protective effect of the paramunity inducer 'PIND ORF' on mortality after infection was impaired neither by irradiation of the babymice nor by irradiating their pregnant mothers. The antigen-challenge model Aujeszky virus/adult mouse (exposure to 1,95/3,90 and 5,85 Gy) proved that the influence of irradiation not only depends on the dose but also on the moment of the exposure. The behaviour of opportunistic germs (P. multocida, Ps. aeruginosa) and vaccination viruses (Vaccinia virus, strain Elstree and MVA) in mice remained unchanged after irradiation with 1,95/3,90 Gy, whereas irradiation with 5,85 Gy caused a varying increase of mortality after infection with P. multocida and Ps. aeruginosa. (orig./MG) With 5 refs., 11 tabs.

  1. Visual colorimetric sensor array for discrimination of antioxidants in serum using MnO2nanosheets triggered multicolor chromogenic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Deng, Yuequan; He, Yi

    2017-05-15

    Here we report a unique visual colorimetric sensor array for discrimination of antioxidants in serum based on MnO 2 nanosheets-3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) multicolor chromogenic system. The absorbance values of the system at 370, 450, and 650nm provide three cross-reactive sensing elements. The presence of antioxidant will inhibit the reaction between TMB and MnO 2 nanosheets due to the presence of the competitive reaction of MnO 2 nanosheets and antioxidants. Different antioxidants containing uric acid, glutathione, ascorbic acid, cysteine, and melatonin have distinct reducing ability, producing a differential inhibition of MnO 2 nanosheets-TMB system, and therefore generating distinct colorimetric response patterns at 370, 450, and 650nm. The obtained patterns for each antioxidant at a concentration of 20μM were successfully discriminated using principal component analysis both in buffer and when spiked into fetal bovine serum (FBS). The identification accuracy of 45 unknown samples was found to be 100%. Remarkably, this sensor assay can visually discriminate antioxidants in diluted FBS with the naked eye. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of artea, a systemic fungicide, on the antioxidant system and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... determine catalase, ascorbate-peroxidase and guaïacol-peroxidase enzymatic activities. Root respiratory activity was also determined using a polarographic method (Clark electrode). Treatment with Artea resulted in an enhancement of respiratory activity and increased antioxidative enzymatic levels in ...

  3. Effects of Artea, a systemic fungicide, on the antioxidant system and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... vulgaris. Pest. Biochem. Physiol. 37: 74-82. Nakano Y, Asada K (1981). Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant Cell. Physiol. 22: 867-880. Seneratna T, Mackay B, Mckersie R, Fletcher R (1988). Relationship to antioxidant content. J. Plant Physiol.

  4. The evolution of photosynthetic capacity and the antioxidant enzymatic system during acclimatization of micropropagated Calathea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Huylenbroeck JM; Piqueras; Debergh

    2000-06-12

    The effects of an increased PPFD on photosynthesis, the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus and the response of the antioxidant enzymatic system were studied during the ex vitro establishment of micropropagated Calathea 'Maui Queen' plantlets. Measured chlorophyll and carotenoids contents in ex vitro formed leaves were almost three times higher compared to the in vitro formed ones. At the end of the acclimatization, an inverse relation between PPFD and the chlorophyll (a+b)/carotenoids ratio was observed. During the first days after transplantation Calathea plants are not photosynthetically active, as is illustrated by the photosynthetic light response curves. With the appearance of new leaves, higher photosynthetic capacities were observed and light saturation point increased (days 17 and 25). Also the maximal photosynthetic efficiency enlarged as shown by the increased initial slope of the curves. F(v)/F(m) decreased directly after transplantation of the micropropagated plantlets, afterwards a recovery was observed, but highest F(v)/F(m) values were observed in low light (LL) plants. The photochemical quenching coefficient increased gradually during the first two weeks of the acclimatization. In high light (HL) plants, q(P) decreased directly after transfer, while this was not observed in LL and medium light (ML). During the acclimatization period to increasing light intensities significant changes in the activity of the antioxidant enzymatic system were observed. A decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was measured during the first half of the acclimatization period followed by a recovery in ML and HL plants by day 35. Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) activity decreased during acclimatization. At the end of the experimental period the lowest levels were measured in ML plants. Catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly during the first two weeks after transfer, a clear inverse relationship to PPFD was detected. The relation between the

  5. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants.

  6. The evolution of plant chemical defence - new roles for hydroxynitrile glucosides in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Camilla

    Plants are sessile organisms well-known to produce a vast array of chemical compounds of which many are used in chemical defence against herbivores and pathogens. The biosynthesis of these plant chemical defence compounds poses a considerable risk of self-toxicity for the plant itself. Several...... function and evolution. Further, it contributes to our understanding of the formation and role of biosynthetic gene clusters in plant chemical defence. The bifurcation in hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis and catabolism observed in Lotus japonicus makes it a very suitable model system to study...

  7. Differential Responses of the Antioxidant System of Ametryn and Clomazone Tolerant Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Leila Priscila; Carvalho, Giselle; Martins, Paula Fabiane; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Vilhena, Milca Bartz; Pileggi, Marcos; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2014-01-01

    The herbicides ametryn and clomazone are widely used in sugarcane cultivation, and following microbial degradation are considered as soil and water contaminants. The exposure of microorganisms to pesticides can result in oxidative damage due to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study investigated the response of the antioxidant systems of two bacterial strains tolerant to the herbicides ametryn and clomazone. Bacteria were isolated from soil with a long history of ametryn and clomazone application. Comparative analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CC07 is phylogenetically related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and strain 4C07 to P. fulva. The two bacterial strains were grown for 14 h in the presence of separate and combined herbicides. Lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione content (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes activities were evaluated. The overall results indicated that strain 4C07 formed an efficient mechanism to maintain the cellular redox balance by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequently scavenging ROS in the presence of the herbicides. The growth of bacterium strain 4C07 was inhibited in the presence of clomazone alone, or in combination with ametryn, but increased glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, and a higher GSH concentration were detected. Meanwhile, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and GST activities and a lower concentration of GSH were detected in the bacterium strain CC07, which was able to achieve better growth in the presence of the herbicides. The results suggest that the two bacterial strains tolerate the ametryn and clomazone herbicides with distinctly different responses of the antioxidant systems. PMID:25380132

  8. Systemic DNA damage accumulation under in vivo tumor growth can be inhibited by the antioxidant Tempol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Redon, Christophe E; Ferguson, Nicholas F; Kryston, Thomas B; Parekh, Palak; Dickey, Jennifer S; Nakamura, Asako J; Mitchell, James B; Bonner, William M; Martin, Olga A

    2014-10-28

    Recently we found that mice bearing subcutaneous non-metastatic tumors exhibited elevated levels of two types of complex DNA damage, i.e., double-strand breaks and oxidatively-induced clustered DNA lesions in various tissues throughout the body, both adjacent to and distant from the tumor site. This DNA damage was dependent on CCL2, a cytokine involved in the recruitment and activation of macrophages, suggesting that this systemic DNA damage was mediated via tumor-induced chronic inflammatory responses involving cytokines, activation of macrophages, and consequent free radical production. If free radicals are involved, then a diet containing an antioxidant may decrease the distant DNA damage. Here we repeated our standard protocol in cohorts of two syngeneic tumor-bearing C57BL/6NCr mice that were on a Tempol-supplemented diet. We show that double-strand break and oxidatively-induced clustered DNA lesion levels were considerably decreased, about two- to three fold, in the majority of tissues studied from the tumor-bearing mice fed the antioxidant Tempol compared to the control tumor-bearing mice. Similar results were also observed in nude mice suggesting that the Tempol effects are independent of functioning adaptive immunity. This is the first in vivo study demonstrating the effect of a dietary antioxidant on abscopal DNA damage in tissues distant from a localized source of genotoxic stress. These findings may be important for understanding the mechanisms of genomic instability and carcinogenesis caused by chronic stress-induced systemic DNA damage and for developing preventative strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Muscle Fiber Specific Antioxidative System Adaptation to Swim Training in Rats: Influence of Intermittent Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchar, Olga

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of intermittent hypoxia at rest and in combination with long-term high-intensity swimming exercise on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system adaptation in skeletal muscles differing in fiber type composition. High-intensity chronic exercise was performed as swimming training with load that corresponded to ~ 75 % VO2max (30 min·day-1, 5 days·wk-1, for 4 wk). Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) consisted of repeated episodes of hypoxia (12%O2, 15 min), interrupted by equal periods of recovery (5 sessions/day, for 2 wk). Sessions of IHT were used during the first two weeks and during the last two weeks of chronic exercise. Oxidative (red gastrocnemius and soleus, mix) and glycolytic (white gastrocnemius) muscles were sampled. Our results indicated that high-intensity swim training in combination with sessions of IHT induced more profound antioxidative adaptations in skeletal muscles than the exercise training only. This adaptation has muscle fiber type specificity and is reflected in significantly elevated superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in highly oxidative muscle only. Training adaptation of GSH system (reduced glutathione content, activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, NADPH-supplying enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) occurred both in slow- and fast-twitch muscles. However, this process was more effective in oxidative muscles. IHT attenuated the increase in TBARS content induced by high-intensity swimming training. The test on exercise tolerance demonstrated a significant elevation of the swimming time to exhaustion after IHT at rest and after IHT in conjunction with high-intensity exercise in comparison with untrained and chronically exercised rats. These results confirmed that sessions of IHT might improve exercise tolerance and increase maximal work capacity. Key PointsSingle high-intensity exercise induces a significant increase in TBARS content

  10. Antioxidant and chelating capacity of Maillard reaction products in amino acid-sugar model systems: applications for food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondaca-Navarro, Blanca A; Ávila-Villa, Luz A; González-Córdova, Aarón F; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; Campas-Baypoli, Olga N; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRP) have gained increasing interest owing to their both positive and negative effects on human health. Aqueous amino acid-sugar model systems were studied in order to evaluate the antioxidant and chelating activity of MRP under conditions similar to those of food processing. Amino acids (cysteine, glycine, isoleucine and lysine) combined with different sugars (fructose or glucose) were heated to 100 and 130 °C for 30, 60 and 90 min. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated via ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging assays, in addition to Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ ion chelating capacity. In the ABTS assay, the cysteine-fructose model system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 7.05 µmol mL -1 (130 °C, 60 min), expressed in Trolox equivalents. In the DPPH assay, the cysteine-glucose system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 3.79 µmol mL -1 (100 °C, 90 min). The maximum rate of chelation of Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ was 96.31 and 59.44% respectively in the lysine-fructose and cysteine-glucose systems (100 °C, 30 min). The model systems presented antioxidant and chelating activity under the analyzed temperatures and heating times, which are similar to the processing conditions of some foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Altruistic defence behaviours in aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodeur Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic anti-predatory behaviours pose an evolutionary problem because they are costly to the actor and beneficial to the recipients. Altruistic behaviours can evolve through indirect fitness benefits when directed toward kin. The altruistic nature of anti-predatory behaviours is often difficult to establish because the actor can obtain direct fitness benefits, or the behaviour could result from selfish coercion by others, especially in eusocial animals. Non-eusocial parthenogenetically reproducing aphids form colonies of clone-mates, which are ideal to test the altruistic nature of anti-predatory defence behaviours. Many aphids release cornicle secretions when attacked by natural enemies such as parasitoids. These secretions contain an alarm pheromone that alerts neighbours (clone-mates of danger, thereby providing indirect fitness benefits to the actor. However, contact with cornicle secretions also hampers an attacker and could provide direct fitness to the actor. Results We tested the hypothesis that cornicle secretions are altruistic by assessing direct and indirect fitness consequences of smearing cornicle secretions onto an attacker, and by manipulating the number of clone-mates that could benefit from the behaviour. We observed parasitoids, Aphidius rhopalosiphi, foraging singly in patches of the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae of varied patch size (2, 6, and 12 aphids. Aphids that smeared parasitoids did not benefit from a reduced probability of parasitism, or increase the parasitoids' handling time. Smeared parasitoids, however, spent proportionately more time grooming and less time foraging, which resulted in a decreased host-encounter and oviposition rate within the host patch. In addition, individual smearing rate increased with the number of clone-mates in the colony. Conclusions Cornicle secretions of aphids were altruistic against parasitoids, as they provided no direct fitness benefits to secretion

  12. Coordinated Actions of Glyoxalase and Antioxidant Defense Systems in Conferring Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Hossain, Md Shahadat; Mahmud, Jubayer Al; Rahman, Anisur; Inafuku, Masashi; Oku, Hirosuke; Fujita, Masayuki

    2017-01-20

    Being sessile organisms, plants are frequently exposed to various environmental stresses that cause several physiological disorders and even death. Oxidative stress is one of the common consequences of abiotic stress in plants, which is caused by excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sometimes ROS production exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense systems, which leads to oxidative stress. In line with ROS, plants also produce a high amount of methylglyoxal (MG), which is an α-oxoaldehyde compound, highly reactive, cytotoxic, and produced via different enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. This MG can impair cells or cell components and can even destroy DNA or cause mutation. Under stress conditions, MG concentration in plants can be increased 2- to 6-fold compared with normal conditions depending on the plant species. However, plants have a system developed to detoxify this MG consisting of two major enzymes: glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II), and hence known as the glyoxalase system. Recently, a novel glyoxalase enzyme, named glyoxalase III (Gly III), has been detected in plants, providing a shorter pathway for MG detoxification, which is also a signpost in the research of abiotic stress tolerance. Glutathione (GSH) acts as a co-factor for this system. Therefore, this system not only detoxifies MG but also plays a role in maintaining GSH homeostasis and subsequent ROS detoxification. Upregulation of both Gly I and Gly II as well as their overexpression in plant species showed enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses including salinity, drought, metal toxicity, and extreme temperature. In the past few decades, a considerable amount of reports have indicated that both antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems have strong interactions in conferring abiotic stress tolerance in plants through the detoxification of ROS and MG. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of these interactions and the coordinated action of

  13. Improved Antioxidant Capacity of Optimization of a Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System for Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of nano-encapsulated resveratrol (RSV in self-micro-emulsified drug delivery systems (SMEDDS formulations was investigated. Self-emulsifying grading tests were used to establish the optimal ratio of oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant. The optimized system was further investigated for the droplet size and zeta potential at the different medium pH values by a Malvern Zetasizer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The antioxidant capacity and cytotoxicity of the formulation were detected by DCFH-DA and a CCK-8 assays. The results showed that the nano-emulsion based on ethyl oleate, Tween-80, and PEG-400 (35:40:25, w/w/w was the most stable formulation due to the small droplet size (approximately 50 nm and high zeta potential in a neutral environment. Furthermore, this formulation also exhibited a greater antioxidant capacity with less toxicity than free RSV. Taken together, considering these results and the simple fabrication process, this formulation could be used to deliver nutritional food supplements in a stable, efficient, and safe manner.

  14. Tenoxicam modulates antioxidant redox system and lipid peroxidation in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Uğuz, Abdulhadi Cihangir; Gokçimen, Alpaslan; Bülbül, Metin; Karatopuk, Dilek Ulusoy; Türker, Yasin; Cerçi, Celal

    2008-09-01

    We investigated effects of two doses of Tenoxicam, a type 2 cyclooxygenase inhibitor, administration on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant redox system in cortex of the brain in rats. Twenty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. First group was used as control. 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight Tenoxicam were intramuscularly administrated to rats constituting the second and third groups for 10 days, respectively. Both dose of Tenoxicam administration resulted in significant increase in the glutathione peroxidase activity, reduced glutathione and vitamins C and E of cortex of the brain. The lipid peroxidation levels in the cortex of the brain were significantly decreased by the administration. Vitamin A and beta-carotene concentration was not affected by the administration. There was no statistical difference in all values between 10 and 20 mg Tenoxicam administrated groups. In conclusion, treatment of brain with 10 and 20 mg Tenoxicam has protective effects on the oxidative stress by inhibiting free radical and supporting antioxidant redox system.

  15. De Nederlandse missile defence capaciteit: Strategisch onmisbaar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimar, P.W.L.

    2013-01-01

    Surface based air & missile defence behelst enerzijds de verdediging tegen conventionele luchtdreigingen, zoals vliegtuigen, helikopters en onbemande vliegtuigen (luchtverdediging). Aan de andere kant houdt het de verdediging tegen ballistische raketten en kruisraketten in (raketverdediging). De

  16. Response of Daphnia's antioxidant system to spatial heterogeneity in Cyanobacteria concentrations in a lowland reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Wojtal-Frankiewicz

    Full Text Available Many species and clones of Daphnia inhabit ecosystems with permanent algal blooms, and they can develop tolerance to cyanobacterial toxins. In the current study, we examined the spatial differences in the response of Daphnia longispina to the toxic Microcystis aeruginosa in a lowland eutrophic dam reservoir between June (before blooms and September (during blooms. The reservoir showed a distinct spatial pattern in cyanobacteria abundance resulting from the wind direction: the station closest to the dam was characterised by persistently high Microcystis biomass, whereas the upstream stations had a significantly lower biomass of Microcystis. Microcystin concentrations were closely correlated with the cyanobacteria abundance (r = 0.93. The density of daphniids did not differ among the stations. The main objective of this study was to investigate how the distribution of toxic Microcystis blooms affects the antioxidant system of Daphnia. We examined catalase (CAT activity, the level of the low molecular weight antioxidant glutathione (GSH, glutathione S-transferase (GST activity and oxidative stress parameters, such as lipid peroxidation (LPO. We found that the higher the abundance (and toxicity of the cyanobacteria, the lower the values of the antioxidant parameters. The CAT activity and LPO level were always significantly lower at the station with the highest M. aeruginosa biomass, which indicated the low oxidative stress of D. longispina at the site with the potentially high toxic thread. However, the low concentration of GSH and the highest activity of GST indicated the occurrence of detoxification processes at this site. These results demonstrate that daphniids that have coexisted with a high biomass of toxic cyanobacteria have effective mechanisms that protect them against the toxic effects of microcystins. We also conclude that Daphnia's resistance capacity to Microcystis toxins may differ within an ecosystem, depending on the bloom

  17. Response of antioxidant system to drought stress and re-watering in Alfalfa during branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tina, R. R.; Shan, X. R.; Wang, Y.; Guo, S. Y.; Mao, B.; Wang, W.; Wu, H. Y.; Zhao, T. H.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aimed to reveal the response mechanism of active oxygen metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activities in Alfalfa under drought stress and re-watering, and the pot experiment was used, to explore the changes of H2O2, O2·-, electrolyte leakage conductivity and MDA, SOD, POD, CAT activity in Golden Empress (tolerant cultivar) and Sanditi (non-tolerant cultivar) under drought stress and re-watering during branching stage. Three water gradients were set up: CK (Maximum field capacity of 75%±5%), T1 (Maximum field capacity of 45%±5%), T2 (Maximum field capacity of 35%±5%) to compare, and the drought rehydration was also studied. Results: the results indicated that H2O2 content, O2·-production rate, relative conductivity and MDA content were higher than the control, and the increase extent of Golden Empress was higher than the Sanditi under drought stress and after re-watering the recovery capability of Golden Empress was also higher than the Sanditi. After 7 days of re-watering, all indexes were restored to the control level, indicating that the re-watering have compensation effect after drought. After drought stress, to weaken the damage of active oxygen Golden Empress was mainly by increasing the activity of POD and SOD, but Sanditi was mainly through the POD and CAT activity increased to effectively remove ROS. Under drought stress, active oxygen in leaves of Alfalfa increased, and thus the membrane system was damaged which lead to the increase of MDA content and relative electric conductivity. Plants play a defensive role by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and scavenging reactive oxygen species. After re-watering, the stress effect was reduced, and the physiological indexes of plants were restored to the control level. In general, tolerant cultivar has stronger antioxidant properties under drought and re-watering.

  18. An Efficient Antioxidant System in a Long-Lived Termite Queen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisuke Tasaki

    Full Text Available The trade-off between reproduction and longevity is known in wide variety of animals. Social insect queens are rare organisms that can achieve a long lifespan without sacrificing fecundity. The extended longevity of social insect queens, which contradicts the trade-off, has attracted much attention because it implies the existence of an extraordinary anti-aging mechanism. Here, we show that queens of the termite Reticulitermes speratus incur significantly lower oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipid and have higher activity of antioxidant enzymes than non-reproductive individuals (workers and soldiers. The levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (oxidative damage marker of DNA were lower in queens than in workers after UV irradiation. Queens also showed lower levels of protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde (oxidative damage markers of protein and lipid, respectively. The antioxidant enzymes of insects are generally composed of catalase (CAT and peroxiredoxin (Prx. Queens showed more than two times higher CAT activity and more than seven times higher expression levels of the CAT gene RsCAT1 than workers. The CAT activity of termite queens was also markedly higher in comparison with other solitary insects and the queens of eusocial Hymenoptera. In addition, queens showed higher expression levels of the Prx gene RsPRX6. These results suggested that this efficient antioxidant system can partly explain why termite queens achieve long life. This study provides important insights into the evolutionary linkage of reproductive division of labor and the development of queens' oxidative stress resistance in social insects.

  19. Multisensor system based on bisphthalocyanine nanowires for the detection of antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay Martín, Mónica; Saja, José Antonio de; Muñoz, Raquel; Rodríguez-Méndez, María Luz

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sensors based on LnPc 2 nanowires can be prepared by electrodeposition (EDP). ► An electronic tongue can be constructed by combining EDP sensors with a data treatment system. ► The e-tongue is able to discriminate antioxidants of interest in the food industry. ► The fast preparation and excellent performance of these nanostructured sensors is an advantage. - Abstract: Electrophoretic deposition has been used to prepare thin films based on nanowires of three lanthanoid bisphthalocyaninates (including dysprosium, gadolinium and lutetium). Nanowires of similar structural characteristics have been obtained for the three compounds by tuning the electrophoretic conditions according to the redox properties of each phthalocyanine. The three electrodes have been used to form an array of sensors that has been employed to discriminate phenolic antioxidants of interest in the food industry including caffeic, gallic, vanillic and ferulic acids. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) of the electrochemical signals has allowed a clear discrimination of the four phenols analyzed according to the number of phenolic groups attached to the structure (monophenol, diphenol or triphenol). The PCA loading plots indicate that the three electrodes bring complementary information facilitating the discrimination of the studied solutions. In addition, good correlations between the intensity of the redox processes observed in the electrodes and the concentration of phenolic compounds have been found with detection limits in the range of 10 −5 –10 −6 mol L −1 and good reproducibility. The fast preparation of these nanowires based films and their excellent performance offer a new sensing platform for the detection of antioxidants in a fast, reliable way.

  20. Dematerialization in the defence sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedberg, L.; During Aahs, C.; Eriksson, Bjoern; Jungmar, M. [Stockholm Univ. and Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) (Sweden). Environmental Strategies Research Group

    2001-07-01

    The goal of dematerialization is to reduce flows of resources from the biosphere and the lithosphere to the technosphere, and to increase the efficiency within the technosphere. Dematerialization can be obtained in many different ways, for example through product design and changed or reduced use of products. Recycling and reuse of material or products are two ways to achieve more efficient use of resources and reduced exploitation of raw material. Substantial amounts of material are stored within the armed forces. An assessment of the total weight of the defence materiel has been made and the result amounts to about 230 000 tons, mainly different metals. The calculation is not complete and excludes for example munitions. The scrapping of the Bofors S-tank is studied as an example of a MIPS-analysis. The MIPS-analysis is a kind of material flow analysis where the weight of all material affected by human activity related to the life-cycle of a product or service utility is estimated. Each tank is assumed to give 20 tons of recycled steel. Recycling will also lead to avoidance of waste rock and slag from extraction, the 'rucksack'. Comparing recycling of an S-tank with landfilling a material flow of roughly 160 tons from the lithosphere to the technosphere is avoided.

  1. Host defences against Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Romero, G; Quintero, J; Astiazarán-García, H; Velazquez, C

    2015-08-01

    Giardia spp. is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of mammals and other species and is the aetiological agent of giardiasis. It has been demonstrated that nitric oxide, mast cells and dendritic cells are the first line of defence against Giardia. IL-6 and IL-17 play an important role during infection. Several cytokines possess overlapping functions in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. IgA and CD4(+) T cells are fundamental to the process of Giardia clearance. It has been suggested that CD4(+) T cells play a double role during the anti-Giardia immune response. First, they activate and stimulate the differentiation of B cells to generate Giardia-specific antibodies. Second, they act through a B-cell-independent mechanism that is probably mediated by Th17 cells. Several Giardia proteins that stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses have been described. Variant surface proteins, α-1 giardin, and cyst wall protein 2 can induce host protective responses to future Giardia challenges. The characterization and evaluation of the protective potential of the immunogenic proteins that are associated with Giardia will offer new insights into host-parasite interactions and may aid in the development of an effective vaccine against the parasite. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Some practical examples of defence in depth analysis for category IV gamma irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Junior, Ary de Araujo, E-mail: aryarj@ig.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2014-07-01

    The Defence in Depth concept provides a major contribution to the safety philosophy of irradiation facilities. But problems occur when somebody tries to understand or analyse a safety system or develop a new one because there is a lack of practical examples in Safety Series 107 or other IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) publications for irradiation facilities. This paper tries to fill this lack of information by providing a series of practical examples and explanations about Defence in Depth concepts. (author)

  3. Some practical examples of defence in depth analysis for category IV gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Junior, Ary de Araujo

    2014-01-01

    The Defence in Depth concept provides a major contribution to the safety philosophy of irradiation facilities. But problems occur when somebody tries to understand or analyse a safety system or develop a new one because there is a lack of practical examples in Safety Series 107 or other IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) publications for irradiation facilities. This paper tries to fill this lack of information by providing a series of practical examples and explanations about Defence in Depth concepts. (author)

  4. Modulation of Fibrosis in Systemic Sclerosis by Nitric Oxide and Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Dooley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma: SSc is a multisystem, connective tissue disease of unknown aetiology characterized by vascular dysfunction, autoimmunity, and enhanced fibroblast activity resulting in fibrosis of the skin, heart, and lungs, and ultimately internal organ failure, and death. One of the most important and early modulators of disease activity is thought to be oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that the free radical nitric oxide (NO, a key mediator of oxidative stress, can profoundly influence the early microvasculopathy, and possibly the ensuing fibrogenic response. Animal models and human studies have also identified dietary antioxidants, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, to function as a protective system against oxidative stress and fibrosis. Hence, targeting EGCG may prove a possible candidate for therapeutic treatment aimed at reducing both oxidant stress and the fibrotic effects associated with SSc.

  5. Redox Homeostasis and Cellular Antioxidant Systems: Crucial Players in Cancer Growth and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Marengo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and their products are components of cell signaling pathways and play important roles in cellular physiology and pathophysiology. Under physiological conditions, cells control ROS levels by the use of scavenging systems such as superoxide dismutases, peroxiredoxins, and glutathione that balance ROS generation and elimination. Under oxidative stress conditions, excessive ROS can damage cellular proteins, lipids, and DNA, leading to cell damage that may contribute to carcinogenesis. Several studies have shown that cancer cells display an adaptive response to oxidative stress by increasing expression of antioxidant enzymes and molecules. As a double-edged sword, ROS influence signaling pathways determining beneficial or detrimental outcomes in cancer therapy. In this review, we address the role of redox homeostasis in cancer growth and therapy and examine the current literature regarding the redox regulatory systems that become upregulated in cancer and their role in promoting tumor progression and resistance to chemotherapy.

  6. Thyroid Hormones and Antioxidant Systems: Focus on Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mancini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In previous works we demonstrated an inverse correlation between plasma Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 and thyroid hormones; in fact, CoQ10 levels in hyperthyroid patients were found among the lowest detected in human diseases. On the contrary, CoQ10 is elevated in hypothyroid subjects, also in subclinical conditions, suggesting the usefulness of this index in assessing metabolic status in thyroid disorders. A Low-T3 syndrome is a condition observed in several chronic diseases: it is considered an adaptation mechanism, where there is a reduction in pro-hormone T4 conversion. Low T3-Syndrome is not usually considered to be corrected with replacement therapy. We review the role of thyroid hormones in regulation of antioxidant systems, also presenting data on total antioxidant capacity and Coenzyme Q10. Published studies suggest that oxidative stress could be involved in the clinical course of different heart diseases; our data could support the rationale of replacement therapy in low-T3 conditions.

  7. Nutrient intake, anthropometric data and correlations with the systemic antioxidant capacity of women with pelvic endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaris, Ana Luiza; do Amaral, Vivian F

    2011-10-01

    Endometriosis is a multifactorial disease of uncertain etiology. There is currently insufficient evidence to assess the participation of nutritional and anthropometric aspects and their association with systemic oxidative stress. Twenty-five women with endometriosis and twenty controls were selected and evaluated to determine calorie and nutrient intake, to obtain data on body composition and analyze antioxidant capacity by measuring total serum thiol levels using DTNB (5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). Mean total daily calorie intake in the women in the endometriosis group was significantly higher than that of the women in the control group (p=0.005). With respect to nutrient intake, the only statistically significant difference found referred to a higher intake of fiber in the endometriosis group and of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the control group (p<0.05). Nutrient intake by the women in the endometriosis group was similar to that of women in the control group, the only differences being a higher intake of fiber in the endometriosis group and of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the control group. Antioxidant capacity was lower in the women with endometriosis but there was no correlation with nutrient intake or overweight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thyroid Hormones and Antioxidant Systems: Focus on Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Antonio; Raimondo, Sebastiano; Di Segni, Chantal; Persano, Mariasara; Gadotti, Giovanni; Silvestrini, Andrea; Festa, Roberto; Tiano, Luca; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Meucci, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    In previous works we demonstrated an inverse correlation between plasma Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and thyroid hormones; in fact, CoQ10 levels in hyperthyroid patients were found among the lowest detected in human diseases. On the contrary, CoQ10 is elevated in hypothyroid subjects, also in subclinical conditions, suggesting the usefulness of this index in assessing metabolic status in thyroid disorders. A Low-T3 syndrome is a condition observed in several chronic diseases: it is considered an adaptation mechanism, where there is a reduction in pro-hormone T4 conversion. Low T3-Syndrome is not usually considered to be corrected with replacement therapy. We review the role of thyroid hormones in regulation of antioxidant systems, also presenting data on total antioxidant capacity and Coenzyme Q10. Published studies suggest that oxidative stress could be involved in the clinical course of different heart diseases; our data could support the rationale of replacement therapy in low-T3 conditions. PMID:24351864

  9. Brassinosteroids Denigrate the Seasonal Stress through Antioxidant Defense System in Seedlings of Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work has been undertaken to study the effect of exogenously application of 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL on soluble protein, proline contents and antioxidant defense system of Brassica juncea L. RLM 619 under the influence of seasonal stress. It was observed that 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL treatment enhance the soluble protein, dry weight and shoot length of B. juncea seedlings under seasonal stress. If seeds treated with the different concentrations (10-6, 10-8 and 10-10 M of 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL revealed batter growth, protein and proline contents as compare to untreated seedlings. Similarly the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, APOX, DHAR, PPO and Auxinases were enhanced by the application of different concentration of both brassinosteroids, whereas MDA content was decrease with both brassinosteroids treatments. Then we have concluded that both brassinolides have the seasonal stress ameliorative properties in B. juncea seedlings grown under the influence of seasonal stress. This study culminates to the role of brassinolides as an anti-stress property for protection of plant from various types of stresses.

  10. Responses of Phospholipase D and Antioxidant System to Mechanical Wounding in Postharvest Banana Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana fruits are susceptible to mechanical damage. The present study was to investigate the responses of phospholipase D (PLD and antioxidant system to mechanical wounding in postharvest banana fruits. During 16 d storage at 25°C and 90% relative humidity, PLD activity in wounded fruits was significantly higher than that in control (without artificial wounding fruits. The higher value of PLD mRNA was found in wounded fruits than in control. PLD mRNA expression reached the highest peak on day 4 in both groups, but it was 2.67 times in wounded fruits compared to control at that time, indicating that PLD gene expression was activated in response to wounding stress. In response to wounding stress, the higher lipoxygenase (LOX activity was observed and malondialdehyde (MDA production was accelerated. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX in wounded fruits were significantly higher than those in control. The concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS such as superoxide anion (O2•- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in fruits increased under mechanical wounding. The above results provided a basis for further investigating the mechanism of postharvest banana fruits adapting to environmental stress.

  11. Interactive effects of silicon and arbuscular mycorrhiza in modulating ascorbate-glutathione cycle and antioxidant scavenging capacity in differentially salt-tolerant Cicer arietinum L. genotypes subjected to long-term salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neera; Bhandari, Purnima

    2016-09-01

    Salinity is the major environmental constraint that affects legume productivity by inducing oxidative stress. Individually, both silicon (Si) nutrition and mycorrhization have been reported to alleviate salt stress. However, the mechanisms adopted by both in mediating stress responses are poorly understood. Thus, pot trials were undertaken to evaluate comparative as well as interactive effects of Si and/or arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) in alleviating NaCl toxicity in modulating oxidative stress and antioxidant defence mechanisms in two Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea) genotypes-HC 3 (salt-tolerant) and CSG 9505 (salt-sensitive). Plants subjected to different NaCl concentrations (0-100 mM) recorded a substantial increase in the rate of superoxide radical (O2 (·-)), H2O2, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which induced leakage of ions and disturbed Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratio in roots and leaves. Individually, Si and AM reduced oxidative burst by strengthening antioxidant enzymatic activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX)). Si was relatively more efficient in reducing accumulation of stress metabolites, while mycorrhization significantly up-regulated antioxidant machinery and modulated ascorbate-glutathione (ASA-GSH) cycle. Combined applications of Si and AM complemented each other in reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) build-up by further enhancing the antioxidant defence responses. Magnitude of ROS-mediated oxidative burden was lower in HC 3 which correlated strongly with more effective AM symbiosis, better capacity to accumulate Si and stronger defence response when compared with CSG 9505. Study indicated that Si and/or AM fungal amendments upgraded salt tolerance through a dynamic shift from oxidative destruction towards favourable antioxidant defence system in stressed chickpea plants.

  12. Fate of the synergistic antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin, and tocopherol in mayonnaise : Partition of ascorbic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A.S.; Jacobsen, Charlotte Munch

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of ascorbic acid between the lipid and aqueous phase was investigated in mayonnaises enriched with fish oil containing a synergistic antioxidant mixture of ascorbic acid, lecithin and gamma-tocopherol, i.e., the A/L/T system (Loliger and Saucy 1989). The ascorbic acid was found...... to be located in the aqueous phase indicating that the A/L/T system broke down in mayonnaises. Based on the hypothesis that synergistic antioxidant action between ascorbic acid, lecithin and tocopherol requires that the three components are in close assembly, the results offer an explanation as to why the A...

  13. The Morality and Economics of Safety in Defence Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Tim

    Ministry of Defence policy is to conform as closely as possible to UK health and safety legislation in all its operations. We consider the implications of the law and the guidance provided by the Health and Safety Executive for the arguments we need to make for the safety of defence procurements, and extract four general principles to help in answering the questions that arise when considering the safety of systems with complex behaviour. One of these principles is analysed further to identify how case law and the guidance interpret the requirement for risks to be reduced so far as is reasonably practicable. We then apply the principles to answer some questions that have arisen in our work as Independent Safety Auditors, including the limits to the tolerability of risk to armed forces personnel and civilians in wartime, and the acceptability of the transfer of risk from one group to another when controls on risk are introduced.

  14. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.) fruit extracts in an oil model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusto-Obara, T.R.; Pirce, F.; Scheuermann, E.; Spoto, M.H.F.; Vieira, T.M.F.S.

    2017-01-01

    An oil model system was used to analyze the antioxidant activity of Chilean fruit extracts and to determine their odor sensory effect. Hydroalcoholic extracts from wild and 14-4 genotype murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.) fruit were assessed by the Response Surface Methodology. The optimal conditions for producing high total phenolic-content extracts were 49.5% (v/v) ethanol at 30 ºC, which yielded 18.39 and 26.14 mg GAE·g−1 dry matter, respectively. The optimized extracts were added to a lipid model system and evaluated via the Schaal Oven Test. After 96 hours, 150 and 200 mg·kg−1 oil of the wild and 14-4 genotype extracts, respectively, showed an antioxidant capacity similar to TBHQ (200 mg·kg−1 oil) in terms of peroxide values and odor. Thus, murtilla fruit extracts are a natural source of antioxidants for protecting lipidic foods, such as soybean oil. [es

  15. [Glutathione redox system, immune status, antioxidant enzymes and metabolism of purine nucleotides in hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapbergenov, S O; Sovetov, B S; Bekbosynova, R B; Bolysbekova, S M

    2015-01-01

    The immune status, components of the glutathione redox system, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and metabolism of purine nucleotides have been investigated in animals with experimental hypothyroidism. On day 8 after an increase in the number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, T-helpers and T-suppressors as well as increased number of B-lymphocytes was found in blood of thyroidectomized rats. This was accompanied by decreased activity of adenosine deaminase (AD), AMP-deaminase (AMPD), and 5'-nucleotidase (5'N) in blood, but the ratio of enzyme activity AD/AMPD increased. These changes in the activity of enzymes, involved in purine catabolism can be regarded as increased functional relationships between T and B lymphocytes in hypothyroidism. The functional changes of immune system cells were accompanied by increased activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), a decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and the ratio GH/GPx. Thyroidectomized rats had increased amounts of total, oxidized (GSSG) and reduced glutathione (GSH), but the ratio GSH/GSSG decerased as compared with control animals. In the liver, hypothyroidism resulted in activation of SOD, GPx, decreased activity of GR and decreased ratio GR/GPx. At the same time, the levels of total, oxidized, and reduced glutathione increased, but the ratio GSH/GSSG as well as activities of enzymes involved in purine nucleotide metabolism ratio (and their ratio 5'N/AD + AMPD) decreased. All these data suggest a functional relationship of the glutathione redox system not only with antioxidant enzymes, but also activity of enzymes involved purine nucleotide metabolism and immune status.

  16. Effect of NaN3 on oxygen-dependent lethality of UV-A in Escherichia coli mutants lacking active oxygen-defence and DNA-repair systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kazumasa; Ono, Tetsuyoshi; Nishioka, Hajime

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli mutants which lack defence systems against such active oxygen forms as OxyR (ΔoxyR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (sodA and sodB) and catalase (katE and katG) are sensitive to UV-A lethality under aerobic conditions, whereas OxyR- and SOD-mutants have resistance under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of sodium azide (NaN 3 ) during irradiation. UV-A induces lipid peroxidation in the ΔoxyR mutant, which is suppressed by NaN 3 . These results suggest that UV-A generates 1 O 2 or the hydroxyl radical to produce lipid peroxides intracellularly in the ΔoxyR mutant and that O 2 - stress may be generated in the sodAB mutant after 8 hr of exposure to UV-A. The sensitivities of such DNA repair-deficient mutants as recA ind- and uvrA to UV-A also were examined and compared. These mutants are sensitive to UV-A lethality under aerobic conditions but show only slight resistance under anaerobic conditions or in the presence of NaN 3 during irradiation. We conclude that NaN 3 protects these mutant cells from oxygen-dependent UV-A lethality. (author)

  17. An Organ System Approach to Explore the Antioxidative, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytoprotective Actions of Resveratrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a phenolic phytochemical, with a stilbene backbone, derived from edible plants such as grape and peanut. It is a bioactive molecule with physiological effects on multiple organ systems. Its effects range from the neuroprotective to the nephroprotective, including cardiovascular, neuronal, and antineoplastic responses as a part of its broad spectrum of action. In this review, we examine the effects of resveratrol on the following organ systems: the central nervous system, including neurological pathology such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease; the cardiovascular system, including disorders such as atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; the kidneys, including primary and secondary nephropathies and nephrolithiasis; multiple forms of cancer; and metabolic syndromes including diabetes. We emphasize commonalities in extracellular matrix protein alterations and intracellular signal transduction system induction following resveratrol treatment. We summarize the known anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cytoprotective effects of resveratrol across disparate organ systems. Additionally, we analyze the available literature regarding the pharmacokinetics of resveratrol formulations used in these studies. Finally, we critically examine select clinical trials documenting a lack of effect following resveratrol treatment. PMID:26180596

  18. Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, antioxidant enzyme systems, and selenium: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venardos, Kylie M; Perkins, Anthony; Headrick, John; Kaye, David M

    2007-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the greatest killer in the Western world, and although the death rate from CHD has been falling, the current increased prevalence of major risk factors including obesity and diabetes, suggests it is likely that CHD incidence will increase over the next 20 years. In conjunction with preventive strategies, major advances in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes and myocardial infarction have occurred over the past 20 years. In particular the ability to rapidly restore blood flow to the myocardium during heart attack, using interventional cardiologic or thrombolytic approaches has been a major step forward. Nevertheless, while 'reperfusion' is a major therapeutic aim, the process of ischemia followed by reperfusion is often followed by the activation of an injurious cascade. While the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion is not completely understood, there is considerable evidence implicating reactive oxygen species (ROS) as an initial cause of the injury. ROS formed during oxidative stress can initiate lipid peroxidation, oxidize proteins to inactive states and cause DNA strand breaks, all potentially damaging to normal cellular function. ROS have been shown to be generated following routine clinical procedures such as coronary bypass surgery and thrombolysis, due to the unavoidable episode of ischemia-reperfusion. Furthermore, they have been associated with poor cardiac recovery post-ischemia, with recent studies supporting a role for them in infarction, necrosis, apoptosis, arrhythmogenesis and endothelial dysfunction following ischemia-reperfusion. In normal physiological condition, ROS production is usually homeostatically controlled by endogenous free radical scavengers such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and the glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase systems. Accordingly, targeting the generation of ROS with various antioxidants has been shown to reduce injury following oxidative stress, and improve

  19. Laminated Copper Nanocluster Incorporated Antioxidative Paper Device with RGB System-Assisted Signal Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-You Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Paper-based analytical devices are an emerging class of lightweight and simple-to-use analytical platform. However, challenges such as instrumental requirements and chemical reagents durability, represent a barrier for less-developed countries and markets. Herein, we report an advanced laminated device using red emitting copper nanocluster and RGB digital analysis for signal improvement. Upon RGB system assistance, the device signal-to-background ratio and the calibration sensitivity are highly enhanced under a filter-free setup. In addition, the calibration sensitivity, limit of detection, and coefficient of determination are on par with those determined by instrumental fluorescence analysis. Moreover, the limitation of using oxidation-susceptible fluorescent nanomaterials is overcome by the introduction of protecting tape barriers, antioxidative sheets, and lamination enclosing. The robustness of device is highly advanced, and the durability is prolonged to more than tenfold.

  20. China's nuclear arsenal and missile defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappai, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    Over the last few years, major focus of the nuclear debate has been turned towards the United States' proposal to erect a National Missile Defence (NMD) shield for itself. Of the existing nuclear weapon powers, China has been the most vociferous critic of this proposal. As and when this shield does become a reality, China will be the first to lose credibility as a deterrent against USA's existing nuclear arsenal. Therefore taking countermeasures against such a proposal is quite natural. China's approach towards non-proliferation mechanisms is steeped in realpolitik and its ability to manoeuvre them in its favour as a P5 and N5 power. Further, the Chinese leadership have been clear about the capabilities and limitations of nuclear weapons and treated them as diplomatic and political tools. The underlying aim is to preserve China's status as a dominant player in the international system while checkmating other possible challengers. Such a pragmatic approach is of far-reaching significance to all nations, especially those that possess nuclear weapons themselves. It will also be in India's long-term strategic interest to assess and take necessary corrective measures in its national security strategy, and make the composition of Indian nuclear strategy meet the desired goal. (author)

  1. Effects of geographical origin, variety and farming system on the chemical markers and in vitro antioxidant capacity of Brazilian purple grape juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margraf, Tiago; Santos, Érica Neulyana Taborda; Andrade, de Eriel Forville; Ruth, van Saskia M.; Granato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The effects of farming system, geographical origin, and grape variety on the in vitro antioxidant capacity, some physicochemical properties and chemical composition were investigated. Major and minor phenolic compounds, reducing and antioxidant assays using chemical and biological systems were

  2. Lipoxygenase pathway and antioxidant system in salt stressed tomato seedlings (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    du Jardin P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil or growing media salinity is an increasing problem in agriculture throughout the world. Therefore, there is a real interest in a better understanding of the mechanisms set by the plants to respond to this stress. The present study concerns tomato, which is one of the most important cultivated vegetables. Tomato seeds (Lycopersicon esculentum var. ‘Moneymaker’ were disinfected and a salt stress (NaCl 100 mM was applied 8 days after the onset of germination. Samples were collected after 4 days of stress. In this study, attention was focused on the antioxidant system and the lipoxygenase pathway because salt stress is often associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species and polyunsaturated fatty acids are one of the most susceptible targets to oxidative attacks. The perception of the stress by the plantlets was confirmed by the overexpression of an aquaporin-coding gene (aqua2. Concerning the antioxidant system, the activities of ascorbate peroxydase and catalase enzymes were studied but no significant variation was observed between stressed seedlings and controls. Similar results were obtained for ascorbate measurements. Complementarily, the lipoxygenase pathway was studied at three levels in the plantlets. The expression of two genes (lipoxygenase-A and oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase was first followed at the mRNA level by RT-PCR. The oxylipin content was determined by HPLC and the lipoxygenase activity as well as the hydroperoxide degradation activity were measured spectrophotometrically. The obtained results indicate that no clear accumulation of oxylipin occurs in our stress conditions. However, an increase in lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide degradation activities was observed and seems to indicate that several enzymes of the lipoxygenase pathway are involved in the plant response to salt stress.

  3. MUSCLE FIBER SPECIFIC ANTIOXIDATIVE SYSTEM ADAPTATION TO SWIM TRAINING IN RATS: INFLUENCE OF INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gonchar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of intermittent hypoxia at rest and in combination with long-term high-intensity swimming exercise on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system adaptation in skeletal muscles differing in fiber type composition. High-intensity chronic exercise was performed as swimming training with load that corresponded to ~ 75 % VO2max (30 min·day-1, 5 days·wk-1, for 4 wk. Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT consisted of repeated episodes of hypoxia (12%O2, 15 min, interrupted by equal periods of recovery (5 sessions/day, for 2 wk. Sessions of IHT were used during the first two weeks and during the last two weeks of chronic exercise. Oxidative (red gastrocnemius and soleus, mix and glycolytic (white gastrocnemius muscles were sampled. Our results indicated that high-intensity swim training in combination with sessions of IHT induced more profound antioxidative adaptations in skeletal muscles than the exercise training only. This adaptation has muscle fiber type specificity and is reflected in significantly elevated superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in highly oxidative muscle only. Training adaptation of GSH system (reduced glutathione content, activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, NADPH-supplying enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase occurred both in slow- and fast-twitch muscles. However, this process was more effective in oxidative muscles. IHT attenuated the increase in TBARS content induced by high-intensity swimming training. The test on exercise tolerance demonstrated a significant elevation of the swimming time to exhaustion after IHT at rest and after IHT in conjunction with high-intensity exercise in comparison with untrained and chronically exercised rats. These results confirmed that sessions of IHT might improve exercise tolerance and increase maximal work capacity

  4. Signalling network construction for modelling plant defence response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Miljkovic

    Full Text Available Plant defence signalling response against various pathogens, including viruses, is a complex phenomenon. In resistant interaction a plant cell perceives the pathogen signal, transduces it within the cell and performs a reprogramming of the cell metabolism leading to the pathogen replication arrest. This work focuses on signalling pathways crucial for the plant defence response, i.e., the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene signal transduction pathways, in the Arabidopsis thaliana model plant. The initial signalling network topology was constructed manually by defining the representation formalism, encoding the information from public databases and literature, and composing a pathway diagram. The manually constructed network structure consists of 175 components and 387 reactions. In order to complement the network topology with possibly missing relations, a new approach to automated information extraction from biological literature was developed. This approach, named Bio3graph, allows for automated extraction of biological relations from the literature, resulting in a set of (component1, reaction, component2 triplets and composing a graph structure which can be visualised, compared to the manually constructed topology and examined by the experts. Using a plant defence response vocabulary of components and reaction types, Bio3graph was applied to a set of 9,586 relevant full text articles, resulting in 137 newly detected reactions between the components. Finally, the manually constructed topology and the new reactions were merged to form a network structure consisting of 175 components and 524 reactions. The resulting pathway diagram of plant defence signalling represents a valuable source for further computational modelling and interpretation of omics data. The developed Bio3graph approach, implemented as an executable language processing and graph visualisation workflow, is publically available at http://ropot.ijs.si/bio3graph/and can be

  5. Plant elicitor peptides promote plant defences against nematodes in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Woo; Huffaker, Alisa; Crippen, Devany; Robbins, Robert T; Goggin, Fiona L

    2018-04-01

    Plant elicitor peptides (Peps) are widely distributed among angiosperms, and have been shown to amplify immune responses in multiple plant families. Here, we characterize three Peps from soybean (Glycine max) and describe their effects on plant defences against two damaging agricultural pests, the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). Seed treatments with exogenous GmPep1, GmPep2 or GmPep3 significantly reduced the reproduction of both nematodes. Pep treatment also protected plants from the inhibitory effects of root-knot nematodes on above-ground growth, and up-regulated basal expression levels of nematode-responsive defence genes. GmPep1 induced the expression of its propeptide precursor (GmPROPEP1), a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat protein (NBS-LRR), a pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI), Respiratory Burst Oxidase Protein D (RBOHD) and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in leaves. In addition, GmPep2 and GmPep3 seed treatments up-regulated RBOHD expression and ROS accumulation in roots and leaves. These results suggest that GmPeps activate plant defences through systemic transcriptional reprogramming and ROS signalling, and that Pep seed treatments represent a potential strategy for nematode management. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  6. Anosognosia as motivated unawareness: the 'defence' hypothesis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Oliver H; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini; Solms, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Anosognosia for hemiplegia has seen a century of almost continuous research, yet a definitive understanding of its mechanism remains elusive. Essentially, anosognosic patients hold quasi-delusional beliefs about their paralysed limbs, in spite of all the contrary evidence, repeated questioning, and logical argument. We review a range of findings suggesting that emotion and motivation play an important role in anosognosia. We conclude that anosognosia involves (amongst other things) a process of psychological defence. This conclusion stems from a wide variety of clinical and experimental investigations, including data on implicit awareness of deficit, fluctuations in awareness over time, and dramatic effects upon awareness of psychological interventions such as psychotherapy, reframing of the emotional consequences of the paralysis, and first versus third person perspectival manipulations. In addition, we review and refute the (eight) arguments historically raised against the 'defence' hypothesis, including the claim that a defence-based account cannot explain the lateralised nature of the disorder. We argue that damage to a well-established right-lateralised emotion regulation system, with links to psychological processes that appear to underpin allocentric spatial cognition, plays a key role in anosognosia (at least in some patients). We conclude with a discussion of implications for clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of Ultrasound in a Closed System: Optimum Condition for Antioxidants Extraction of Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Y; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly S; Quintero-Lira, Aurora; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Cervantes-Elizarrarás, Alicia; Güemes-Vera, Norma; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2016-07-21

    Blackberry processing generates up to 20% of residues composed mainly of peel, seeds and pulp that are abundant in flavonoids. The objective of this study was to optimize the ultrasound conditions, in a closed system, for antioxidants extraction, using the response surface methodology. Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) residues were analyzed for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH. The selected independent variables were ultrasound amplitude (X₁: 80%-90%) and extraction time (X₂: 10-15 min), and results were compared with conventional extraction methods. The optimal conditions for antioxidants extraction were 91% amplitude for 15 min. The results for total phenolic content and anthocyanins and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH were of 1201.23 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g dry weight basis (dw); 379.12 mg/100 g·dw; 6318.98 µmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g·dw and 9617.22 µmol TE/100 g·dw, respectively. Compared to solvent extraction methods (water and ethanol), ultrasound achieved higher extraction of all compounds except for anthocyanins. The results obtained demonstrated that ultrasound is an alternative to improve extraction yield of antioxidants from fruit residues such as blackberry.

  8. Application of Ultrasound in a Closed System: Optimum Condition for Antioxidants Extraction of Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinatzin Y. Zafra-Rojas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry processing generates up to 20% of residues composed mainly of peel, seeds and pulp that are abundant in flavonoids. The objective of this study was to optimize the ultrasound conditions, in a closed system, for antioxidants extraction, using the response surface methodology. Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus residues were analyzed for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH. The selected independent variables were ultrasound amplitude (X1: 80%–90% and extraction time (X2: 10–15 min, and results were compared with conventional extraction methods. The optimal conditions for antioxidants extraction were 91% amplitude for 15 min. The results for total phenolic content and anthocyanins and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH were of 1201.23 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g dry weight basis (dw; 379.12 mg/100 g·dw; 6318.98 µmol Trolox equivalent (TE/100 g·dw and 9617.22 µmol TE/100 g·dw, respectively. Compared to solvent extraction methods (water and ethanol, ultrasound achieved higher extraction of all compounds except for anthocyanins. The results obtained demonstrated that ultrasound is an alternative to improve extraction yield of antioxidants from fruit residues such as blackberry.

  9. [Activity of lipid peroxidation processes and the condition of antioxidative defense system in children with rheumatic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanidze, E; Zhvania, M

    2005-10-01

    Aim of study consists of establishing of some clinical-biological correlates for rheumatic fever (RF) in children, namely correlations between clinical status and lipoperoxidation products -- malonidialdehide (MDA) and antioxidative enzymes in the blood. In the neutralization process of superoxside anions ceruloplazmin (CP), catalase (CAT) and transferin (TF) are key antioxidant enzymes (AOE) of antioxidative defense system (AOD). We studied 38 patients 3-15 years of age with different variants of RF. We measured the levels of MDA, CAT, CP, TF in the plasma in patients with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and chronic rheumatic heart disease (CRHD). In all of our cases AOE (CAT, CP, TF) were high at time of diagnosis, concomitant with increased MDA and inflammatory tests. Our study revealed intensified activity of AOD enzymes in children with RF.

  10. Analysis of effects of a new environmental pollutant, bisphenol A, on antioxidant systems in soybean roots at different growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiazhi; Li, Xingyi; Zhou, Li; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial raw material. Because of its widespread use and increasing release into environment, BPA has become a new environmental pollutant. Previous studies about BPA’s effects in plants focus on a certain growth stage. However, the plant’s response to pollutants varies at different growth stages. Therefore, in this work, BPA’s effects in soybean roots at different growth stages were investigated by determining the reactive oxygen species levels, membrane lipid fatty acid composition, membrane lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant systems. The results showed that low-dose BPA exposure slightly caused membrane lipid peroxidation but didn’t activate antioxidant systems at the seedling stage, and this exposure did not affect above process at other growth stages; high-dose BPA increased reactive oxygen species levels and then caused membrane lipid peroxidation at all growth stages although it activated antioxidant systems, and these effects were weaker with prolonging the growth stages. The recovery degree after withdrawal of BPA exposure was negatively related to BPA dose, but was positively related to growth stage. Taken together, the effects of BPA on antioxidant systems in soybean roots were associated with BPA exposure dose and soybean growth stage.

  11. beta-D(+) glucose-glucose oxidase-catalase for use as an antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppoor, R; Niebergall, P J

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of beta-D(+) glucose-glucose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.4)-catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) (BDG-GO-CAT) as a new antioxidant system in solutions. A novel method for estimation of activity of the system was developed using a dissolved oxygen (DO) meter and an oxygen probe. The method can be used to determine the enzymatic activity of the system at GO concentrations of 0.005 to 0.030 unit/ml, with an r2 of 0.995 for the linearity of the standard curve, and can be adapted for analysis in any solution. At room temperature of 23.0 degrees +/- 2.0 degrees C, the maximum activity of the BDG-GO-CAT system was found to occur at pH 5.40. The half-life values for the stability of GO-CAT in 0.10 M phosphate buffer solutions of pH 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, and 10.0 were 9.78, 49.43, 53.46, 36.51, 12.68, 1.84, and 0.80 weeks, respectively. Dextrose was used in place of beta-D(+) glucose for cost-saving purposes, and a standard curve for the activity of GO-CAT was obtained using 20 mg/ml dextrose. The BDG-GO-CAT was effective as a DO-scavenger in closed containers, when the containers were opened and exposed to atmosphere for 2 days between tests, and upon reclosing them. Pharmaceutical excipients such as ethanol, glycerin, propylene glycol, methylparaben, propylparaben, artificial strawberry flavor, and sodium benzoate did not show any adverse effect on the activity of BDG-GO-CAT. Sorbitol, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and polyethylene glycol 3350 increased the rate of DO removal. Sodium carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) at 2.0% w/v decreased the rate of DO removal. These studies indicate that the BDG(dextrose)-GO-CAT system warrants serious consideration for use an antioxidant system in aqueous formulations.

  12. Condition of the prooxidant-antioxidant system of some strains of Basidiomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Fedotov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the calculation and comparison indications of the condition of the prooxidant-antioxidant system (PAS of strains of Basidiomycetes under periodic surface cultivation on a glucose-peptone medium. The research material consisted of the mycelium and culture filtrate (CF from 57 strains, 52 of them belonging to 7 species of the order Agaricales and 5 belonging to 5 species of the order Polyporales. The intensity of the processes of lipid peroxidation was determined by a modified spectrophotometric method for contents of active products to thiobarbituric acid. Total antioxidant activity (АОА of the mycological material was evaluated by intensity of inhibition from accumulated products of lipid peroxide oxidation (LPO in a model reaction of oxidation by Twin-80 oxygen of the air. From the data obtained, indicators of prooxidant activity (POA, indicators of reserve of substrate peroxidation (SPO and the balance coefficient of the prooxidant-antioxidant system (CbPАS were calculated. It was established that strains of Basidiomycetes are characterized by significant predominance of prooxidant activity characteristic of PAS in the culture filtrate in comparison with the mycelium indicator. The highest values of POA in the Culture Filtrate were observed on the 12-th day of cultivation for the strain Р-089 genus Pleurotus and strain Gl-2 genus Ganoderma, and for the mycelium on the 9-th day of cultivation for the strains Р-сіtr, Р-089, Р-er and Р-082 of the genus Pleurotus. There is a direct dependence between the indicators of POA in the CF and mycelium for each strain, this dependence and level of indication do not reflect their systematic placement. We distinguished a more significant prevalence of indicators of reserve of substrates peroxidation of mycelium for most strains, than for such indicators with CF The highest value of reserve SPO of mycelium was recorded for strains Р-447, Р-998, Р-039, Р-94, Р-2175,

  13. A novel in vitro whole plant system for analysis of polyphenolics and their antioxidant potential in cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shivani; Cahill, David M; Conlan, Xavier A; Adholeya, Alok

    2014-10-15

    Plants are an important source for medicinal compounds. Chemical screening and selection is critical for identification of compounds of interest. Ocimum basilicum (Basil) is a rich source of polyphenolics and exhibits high diversity, therefore bioprospecting of a suitable cultivar is a necessity. This study reports on the development of a true to type novel "in vitro system" and its comparison with a conventional system for screening and selection of cultivars for high total phenolics, individual polyphenolics, and antioxidant content. We have shown for the first time using online acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence that extracts from Ocimum basilicum showed antioxidant potential. The current study identified the cultivar specific composition of polyphenolics and their antioxidant properties. Further, a distinct relationship between plant morphotype and polyphenolic content was also found. Of the 15 cultivars examined, "Holy Green", "Red Rubin", and "Basil Genovese" were identified as high polyphenolic producing cultivars while "Subja" was determined to be a low producer. The "in vitro system" enabled differentiation of the cultivars in their morphology, polyphenolic content, and antioxidant activity and is a cheap and efficient method for bioprospecting studies.

  14. Brassinosteroids-Induced Systemic Stress Tolerance was Associated with Increased Transcripts of Several Defence-Related Genes in the Phloem in Cucumis sativus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingfang Li

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs, a group of naturally occurring plant steroidal compounds, are essential for plant growth, development and stress tolerance. Recent studies showed that BRs could induce systemic tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses; however, the molecular mechanisms by which BRs signals lead to responses in the whole plant are largely unknown. In this study, 24-epibrassinosteroid (EBR-induced systemic tolerance in Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinyan No. 4 was analyzed through the assessment of symptoms of photooxidative stress by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging pulse amplitude modulation. Expression of defense/stress related genes were induced in both treated local leaves and untreated systemic leaves by local EBR application. With the suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH library using cDNA from the phloem sap of EBR-treated plants as the tester and distilled water (DW-treated plants as the driver, 14 transcripts out of 260 clones were identified. Quantitative Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR validated the specific up-regulation of these transcripts. Of the differentially expressed transcripts with known functions, transcripts for the selected four cDNAs, which encode an auxin-responsive protein (IAA14, a putative ankyrin-repeat protein, an F-box protein (PP2, and a major latex, pathogenesis-related (MLP-like protein, were induced in local leaves, systemic leaves and roots after foliar application of EBR onto mature leaves. Our results demonstrated that EBR-induced systemic tolerance is accompanied with increased transcript of genes in the defense response in other organs. The potential role of phloem mRNAs as signaling components in mediating BR-regulated systemic resistance is discussed.

  15. Tissue Specificity of a Response of the Pro- and Antioxidative System After Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Zhukova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was undertaken to study the resistance of membrane structures and the level of the intracellular defense systems of the heart, brain, and liver in animals with active versus passive behavior in different periods (days 7 and 30 after resuscitation made 10 minutes following systemic circulatory arrest. All the animals in which systemic circulation had been stopped were survivors with the cession of neurological deficit. The activity of antioxidative defense enzymes, such as cata-lase and superoxide dismutase, in cardiac, cerebral, and hepatic tissues was assayed by spectrophotometry using the conventional methods. The level of stress-induced protein HSP70 was measured in the tissue cytosolic fraction by the Western blotting assay. The activity of Ca2+ transport in the myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum was determined on an Orion EA 940 ionomer («Orion Research», USA having a Ca2+-selective electrode. The findings show a significant tissue specificity in different postresuscitative periods (days 7 and 30 and varying (protective to damaging cardiac, cerebral, and hepatic responses in active and passive animals to hypoxia.

  16. Prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation: novel and safe strategy based on the modulation of the antioxidant system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón eRodrigo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common arrhythmia following cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. The pathogenesis of postoperative AF is multifactorial. Oxidative stress, caused by the unavoidable ischemia-reperfusion event occurring in this setting, is a major contributory factor. ROS-derived effects could result in lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation or DNA oxidation of cardiac tissue, thus leading to functional and structural myocardial remodeling. The vulnerability of myocardial tissue to the oxidative challenge is also dependent on the activity of the antioxidant system. High ROS levels, overwhelming this system, should result in deleterious cellular effects, such as the induction of necrosis, apoptosis or autophagy. Nevertheless, tissue exposure to low to moderate ROS levels could trigger a survival response with a trend to reinforce the antioxidant defense system. Administration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, known to involve a moderate ROS production, is consistent with a diminished vulnerability to the development of postoperative AF. Accordingly, supplementation of n-3 PUFA successfully reduced the incidence of postoperative AF after coronary bypass grafting. This response is due to an up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, as shown in experimental models. In turn, non-enzymatic antioxidant reinforcement through vitamin C administration prior to cardiac surgery has also reduced the postoperative AF incidence. Therefore, it should be expected that a mixed therapy result in an improvement of the cardioprotective effect by modulating both components of the antioxidant system. We present available evidence supporting the view of an effective prevention of postoperative AF including a 2-step therapeutic strategy: n-3 PUFA followed by vitamin C supplementation to patients scheduled for cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. The present study should encourage the design of clinical

  17. Cultivated Sea Lettuce is a Multiorgan Protector from Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress by Enhancing the Endogenous Antioxidant Defense System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Ranjala; Liu, Yanxia; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    The health-promoting effects of seaweeds have been linked to antioxidant activity that may counteract cancer-causing oxidative stress-induced damage and inflammation. While antioxidant activity is commonly associated with direct radical scavenging activity, an alternative way to increase the antioxidant status of a cell is to enhance the endogenous (phase II) defense system consisting of cytoprotective antioxidant enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). These enzymes are transcriptionally regulated by the antioxidant response element (ARE) via the transcription factor Nrf2. Extracts derived from cultivated Ulva sp., a green alga regarded as a marine vegetable (sea lettuce), potently activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway in IMR-32 neuroblastoma and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. RNA interference studies demonstrated that Nrf2 and PI3 kinase are essential for the phase II response in IMR-32 cells. Activity-enriched fractions induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and target gene transcription, and boosted the cellular glutathione level and therefore antioxidant status. A single-dose gavage feeding of Ulva-derived fractions increased Nqo1 transcript levels in various organs. Nqo1 induction spiked in different tissues, depending on the specific chemical composition of each administered fraction. We purified and characterized four ARE inducers in this extract, including loliolide (1), isololiolide (2), a megastigmen (3), and a novel chlorinated unsaturated aldehyde (4). The ARE-active fractions attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and Cox2 gene expression in macrophagic RAW264.7 cells, decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, respectively. Nqo1 activity and NO production were abrogated in nrf2−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts, providing a direct link between the induction of phase II response and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:24005795

  18. 2015 Status Report on Major Defence Equipment Procurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Perry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Federal elections may be good for democracy, but the campaigns — particularly the lengthy one recently held in Canada — can be crippling for plans to better arm our military. Just before the election was called, there were public signs of important progress being made in what has long been a frustratingly slow and bureaucratically complex procurement process. But then the campaign left the Department of National Defence and other federal departments unable to secure approvals from either a defence minister or the Treasury Board, until the election ended and the new prime minister appointed the current cabinet. There had already been upheaval prior to that: In the first seven months of 2015, the three senior leaders at the Canadian Forces and the Defence Department (including the minister had been replaced, along with many other people critical to the procurement process. In addition, there had been changes in the Public Works Department and the Defence Procurement Strategy Secretariat. Frustrating and disappointing delays have long been a matter of course in Canada’s defence procurement process. In 2014/15, the number of ministerial or Treasury Board approvals to allow projects to proceed was half of that in 2009/10. Yet the demand for approvals has not abated. In addition to the turnover of key figures involved in the procurement and approval process, delays have come from a number of major steps added to the process, making an already lengthy and complex system even more so. To be sure, these steps were added in the pursuit of improved financial management and project management, with the aim of addressing longstanding problems. But it will take years to see if those objectives have been realized. An irony here is that the budget for military procurement has increased. Between 2004 and 2009, the Defence Department’s procurement budget nearly doubled. But the funding was never matched by the capacity to manage it. In 2003, the Material

  19. Inducible indirect defence of plants : from mechanisms to ecological functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Poecke, van R.M.P.; Boer, de J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Inducible defences allow plants to be phenotypically plastic. Inducible indirect defence of plants by attracting carnivorous enemies of herbivorous arthropods can vary with plant species and genotype, with herbivore species or instar and potentially with other environmental conditions. So far,

  20. Influence of genotype, cultivation system and irrigation regime on antioxidant capacity and selected phenolics of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Muriel, José Luis; Moreno, Diego A; Moreno-Rojas, José M

    2016-07-01

    Demand for and availability of blueberries has increased substantially over recent years, driven in part by their health-promoting properties. Three blueberry varieties ('Rocío', V2, and V3) were grown under two cultivation systems (open-field and plastic tunnels) and subjected to two irrigations regimes (100% and 80% of crop evapotranspiration) in two consecutive years (2011-2012). They were evaluated for their phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity. Genotype influenced the antioxidant capacity and the content of the three groups of phenolics in the blueberries. The antioxidant activity and total flavonols content increased when the blueberries were grown under open-field conditions. Deficit irrigation conditions led to additional positive effects on their phenolics (delphinidn-3-acetilhexoside content was increased under plastic tunnel with deficit irrigation). In conclusion, the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity of blueberries were not negatively affected by water restriction; Moreover, several changes were recorded due to growing system and genotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and L-arginine in the antioxidant system of C2C12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, E P; Lambertucci, R H

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of N-acetylcysteine or L-arginine in the antioxidant system of skeletal muscle cells in culture. We used C2C12 cells which were supplemented or not with N-acetylcysteine or L-arginine at different time points. Antioxidant enzymes' activities and protein expression were evaluated. Additionally, superoxide production by cytochrome c reduction method was carried out. It was observed that the supplementation with either N-acetylcysteine or L-arginine was capable to acutely reduce superoxide production (after 30 and 60 minutes). Surprisingly, N-acetylcysteine supplementation also induced an increased production of superoxide during the period of 24 hours. Moreover, both supplements were capable to improve the activity and protein expression of some antioxidants enzymes. In conclusion, we have found new evidences showing that N-acetylcysteine or L-arginine supplementation can provide some benefits to the antioxidant system of skeletal muscle cells in culture. Further studies have to be carried out to evaluate if such benefits could also occur in an in vivo model, with possible benefits for athletes' health and performance.

  2. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Saponarin, Isolated from Gypsophila trichotoma Wend. on Paracetamol-Induced Liver Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumyana Simeonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective potential of saponarin, isolated from Gypsophila trichotoma, was evaluated in vitro/in vivo using a hepatotoxicity model of paracetamol-induced liver injury. In freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, paracetamol (100 μmol led to a significant decrease in cell viability, increased LDH leakage, decreased levels of cellular GSH, and elevated MDA quantity. Saponarin (60–0.006 μg/mL preincubation, however, significantly ameliorated paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. The beneficial effect of saponarin was also observed in vivo. Rats were challenged with paracetamol alone (600 mg/kg, i.p. and after 7-day pretreatment with saponarin (80 mg/kg, oral gavage. Paracetamol toxicity was evidenced by increase in MDA quantity and decrease in cell GSH levels and antioxidant defence system. No changes in phase I enzyme activities of AH and EMND and cytochrome P 450 quantity were detected. Saponarin pretreatment resulted in significant increase in cell antioxidant defence system and GSH levels and decrease in lipid peroxidation. The biochemical changes are in good correlation with the histopathological data. Protective activity of saponarin was similar to the activity of positive control silymarin. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that saponarin exerts antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol liver injury in vitro/in vivo.

  3. Review of Defence Plans in Europe: Current Status, Strengths and Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Boeck, Steven; Van Hertem, Dirk; Das, Kaushik

    2016-01-01

    electricity market is causing an increase in flows on interconnections between different areas of the European power system. Furthermore the time needed to construct new infrastructure pushes Transmission System Operators (TSOs) to better utilize the installed infrastructure. As the power system is strongly...... interconnected, a contingency in one area can affect the whole power system and possibly lead to a wide area black out. Therefore adequate defence plans need to be designed and in place to handle these situations. This paper starts with an overview of the terminology used in defence plans. Subsequently...... the current status of defence plans in Europe and the preferred sequence of actions to mitigate contingencies, is given based on a survey conducted among several European TSOs. Furthermore his paper gives an overview of how the ongoing changes with renewables, phasor measurement units (PMUs), power flow...

  4. AS A DEFENCE LIMITING DELICTUAL LIABILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    but for the provisions of this section, have given rise to the defence of contributory negligence". The provisions .... Insurance Co of SA Ltd v Van der Vyver41 the Appellate Division did not find it necessary to decide upon the issue. ...... (c) a breach of a duty of care arising from a contract,. Whether or not it is intentional. 131.

  5. Identification of plant defence regulators through transcriptional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-04

    Feb 4, 2015 ... [Swain S, Singh N and Nandi AK 2015 Identification of plant defence regulators through transcriptional profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana cdd1 mutant. J. Biosci ... Through gene expression profiling of cdd1, followed by screening of mutants ..... Ishikawa K, Yoshimura K, Harada K, Fukusaki E, Ogawa T, Tamoi.

  6. Genetics of insect resistance to plant defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, K.M.C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are chemically defended against insect herbivory in various ways. They produce a broad range of secondary metabolites that may be toxic or deterrent to insects. Specialist insects, however, are often capable of overcoming these defences. The yellow striped flea beetle

  7. Antioxidant activity stimulated by ultraviolet radiation in the nervous system of a crustacean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollmann, Gabriela; Ferreira, Gabrielle de Jesus; Geihs, Márcio Alberto; Vargas, Marcelo Alves

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation produces biological damage, principally oxidative stress. • We analyzed oxidative stress in the central nervous system (CNS) of a crab. • The damage was evaluated using biochemical tests and immunohistochemistry. • We verified the occurrence of apoptosis in the brain of the UV-exposed crabs. • Environmental doses of UV can cause oxidative damage to CNS, including apoptosis. - Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can produce biological damage, principally oxidative stress, by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study evaluated biochemical impairments related to the oxidative stress induced by UVA, UVB and UVA + UVB (solar simulator-SIM) in environmental doses, during five consecutive days of exposure, in the brain and eyestalk of the crab Ucides cordatus. We evaluated these regions by sampling on the 1st, 3rd and 5th days of UV exposure for lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant capacity against the peroxyl radical (ACAP), and the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting assays were performed for anti-activated-caspase 3 in the brains. After the first day of exposure, LPO increased in the eyestalks and brains of the UV-exposed animals; ACAP, and CAT, GPX and GST activities also increased in the brains. On the third day, the LPO values in the eyestalk remained high in the UV-exposed groups, while ACAP decreased in the brain and eyestalk and CAT activity remained high in all irradiated groups in both regions. On the fifth day, LPO decreased in the eyestalk and brain of the UV-exposed groups. These results may have been a consequence of the antioxidant defense system (ADS) activity, since CAT activity was high in both regions, ACAP was high in the eyestalks of the SIM group, and GPX activity remained high in the eyestalks of the UVA and UVB groups. Immunohistochemical assays and immunoblotting

  8. Antioxidant activity stimulated by ultraviolet radiation in the nervous system of a crustacean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmann, Gabriela, E-mail: gabrielahollmann@biof.ufrj.br [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Fisiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil); Ferreira, Gabrielle de Jesus, E-mail: gabi_ferreiira@hotmail.com [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Fisiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil); Geihs, Márcio Alberto, E-mail: geihs@hotmail.com [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas-Fisiologia Animal Comparada. Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande-FURG, Rio Grande, RS 96201-900 (Brazil); Vargas, Marcelo Alves, E-mail: biovargas@gmail.com [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas-Fisiologia Animal Comparada. Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande-FURG, Rio Grande, RS 96201-900 (Brazil); and others

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation produces biological damage, principally oxidative stress. • We analyzed oxidative stress in the central nervous system (CNS) of a crab. • The damage was evaluated using biochemical tests and immunohistochemistry. • We verified the occurrence of apoptosis in the brain of the UV-exposed crabs. • Environmental doses of UV can cause oxidative damage to CNS, including apoptosis. - Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can produce biological damage, principally oxidative stress, by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study evaluated biochemical impairments related to the oxidative stress induced by UVA, UVB and UVA + UVB (solar simulator-SIM) in environmental doses, during five consecutive days of exposure, in the brain and eyestalk of the crab Ucides cordatus. We evaluated these regions by sampling on the 1st, 3rd and 5th days of UV exposure for lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant capacity against the peroxyl radical (ACAP), and the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting assays were performed for anti-activated-caspase 3 in the brains. After the first day of exposure, LPO increased in the eyestalks and brains of the UV-exposed animals; ACAP, and CAT, GPX and GST activities also increased in the brains. On the third day, the LPO values in the eyestalk remained high in the UV-exposed groups, while ACAP decreased in the brain and eyestalk and CAT activity remained high in all irradiated groups in both regions. On the fifth day, LPO decreased in the eyestalk and brain of the UV-exposed groups. These results may have been a consequence of the antioxidant defense system (ADS) activity, since CAT activity was high in both regions, ACAP was high in the eyestalks of the SIM group, and GPX activity remained high in the eyestalks of the UVA and UVB groups. Immunohistochemical assays and immunoblotting

  9. Radioprotective action of beta-carotin and vitamin A, C and E complexes at reproductive system and indices of antioxidant system in male rat blood and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereshchako, G.G.; Konoplya, E.F.; Khodosovskaya, A.M.; Rutkovskaya, Zh.A.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of total irradiation in low dose at the state of rat mail reproductive system, lipid peroxidation processes and antioxidant system in rat blood and liver tissues as well as radioprotective capacity of beta-carotin with vitamin A, C and E complexes were investigated. It was established that injection of this substances to rat's organism one day before irradiation in 1.0 Gy dose led to normalization of spermatogenic cells number, increase of nucleic acids content in testes and significant improvement of antioxidant status of blood and liver tissue. (authors)

  10. Takeover defences and IPO firm value in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosenboom, P.; van der Goot, L.R.T.

    2003-01-01

    The central question of this study involves the relation between the use of takeover defences and IPO firm value. We report that management frequently uses takeover defences before taking the firm public. The use of takeover defences is primarily motivated by managerial entrenchment. IPO investors

  11. Innate immune defences in the human endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Rodney W

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human endometrium is an important site of innate immune defence, giving protection against uterine infection. Such protection is critical to successful implantation and pregnancy. Infection is a major cause of preterm birth and can also cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Natural anti-microbial peptides are key mediators of the innate immune system. These peptides, between them, have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral activity and are expressed at epithelial surfaces throughout the female genital tract. Two families of natural anti-microbials, the defensins and the whey acidic protein (WAP motif proteins, appear to be prominent in endometrium. The human endometrial epithelium expresses beta-defensins 1–4 and the WAP motif protein, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. Each beta-defensin has a different expression profile in relation to the stage of the menstrual cycle, providing potential protection throughout the cycle. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor is expressed during the secretory phase of the cycle and has a range of possible roles including anti-protease and anti-microbial activity as well as having effects on epithelial cell growth. The leukocyte populations in the endometrium are also a source of anti-microbial production. Neutrophils are a particularly rich source of alpha-defensins, lactoferrin, lysozyme and the WAP motif protein, elafin. The presence of neutrophils during menstruation will enhance anti-microbial protection at a time when the epithelial barrier is disrupted. Several other anti-microbials including the natural killer cell product, granulysin, are likely to have a role in endometrium. The sequential production of natural anti-microbial peptides by the endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle and at other sites in the female genital tract will offer protection from many pathogens, including those that are sexually transmitted.

  12. Light acclimation, retrograde signalling, cell death and immune defences in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiński, Stanisław; Szechyńska-Hebda, Magdalena; Wituszyńska, Weronika; Burdiak, Paweł

    2013-04-01

    This review confronts the classical view of plant immune defence and light acclimation with recently published data. Earlier findings have linked plant immune defences to nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR)-dependent recognition of pathogen effectors and to the role of plasma membrane-localized NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase (AtRbohD), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and salicylic acid (SA). However, recent results suggest that plant immune defence also depends on the absorption of excessive light energy and photorespiration. Rapid changes in light intensity and quality often cause the absorption of energy, which is in excess of that required for photosynthesis. Such excessive light energy is considered to be a factor triggering photoinhibition and disturbance in ROS/hormonal homeostasis, which leads to cell death in foliar tissues. We highlight here the tight crosstalk between ROS- and SA-dependent pathways leading to light acclimation, and defence responses leading to pathogen resistance. We also show that LESION SIMULATING DISEASE 1 (LSD1) regulates and integrates these processes. Moreover, we discuss the role of plastid-nucleus signal transduction, photorespiration, photoelectrochemical signalling and 'light memory' in the regulation of acclimation and immune defence responses. All of these results suggest that plants have evolved a genetic system that simultaneously regulates systemic acquired resistance (SAR), cell death and systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. High-density lipopoprotein antioxidant capacity, subpopulation distribution and paraoxonase-1 activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaál, Krisztina; Tarr, Tünde; Lőrincz, Hajnalka; Borbás, Viktor; Seres, Ildikó; Harangi, Mariann; Fülöp, Péter; Paragh, György

    2016-03-22

    The causes of increased cardiovascular risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are not understood thoroughly, although presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and disease-specific agents were also proposed. In this study, we investigated the quantitative changes in the lipid profile, as well as qualitative characteristics of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and markers of inflammation and disease activity in SLE patients. Lipoprotein levels were determined in 51 SLE patients and 49 healthy controls, matched in age and gender. HDL antioxidant capacity was determined spectrophotometrically with a cell-free method of hemin-induced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis was used for HDL subfraction analysis. Human paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and oxidized LDL concentrations, as well as interleukin-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels were determined. HDL-cholesterol and ApoA1 concentrations decreased significantly in SLE subjects. Also, PON1 arylesterase activity (125.65 ± 26.87 vs. 148.35 ± 39.34 U/L, p = 0.001) and total HDL antioxidant capacity (165.82 ± 58.28% vs. 217.71 ± 54.36%, p < 0.001) were significantly reduced in patients compared to controls. Additionally, all HDL subfraction concentrations were significantly decreased in patients, while the levels of the examined inflammatory markers were significantly elevated in SLE subjects. The latter correlated positively with disease activity, and negatively with HDL concentration and total HDL antioxidant capacity, respectively. PON1 arylesterase activity and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were independent predictors of total HDL antioxidant capacity. Induced by the systemic inflammation, altered composition and antioxidant activity may diminish the anti-atherogenic effect of HDL and therefore may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk of SLE patients.

  14. PVA/Dextran hydrogel patches as delivery system of antioxidant astaxanthin: a cardiovascular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, M; Gregnanin, G; Cencetti, C; Di Meo, C; Gueguen, V; Letourneur, D; Meddahi-Pellé, A; Pavon-Djavid, G; Matricardi, P

    2017-12-28

    After myocardial infarction, the heart's mechanical properties and its intrinsic capability to recover are compromised. To improve this recovery, several groups have developed cardiac patches based on different biomaterials strategies. Here, we developed polyvinylalcohol/dextran (PVA/Dex) elastic hydrogel patches, obtained through the freeze thawing (FT) process, with the aim to deliver locally a potent natural antioxidant molecule, astaxanthin, and to assist the heart's response against the generated myofibril stress. Extensive rheological and dynamo-mechanical characterization of the effect of the PVA molecular weight, number of freeze-thawing cycles and Dex addition on the mechanical properties of the resulting hydrogels, were carried out. Hydrogel systems based on PVA 145 kDa and PVA 47 kDa blended with Dex 40 kDa, were chosen as the most promising candidates for this application. In order to improve astaxanthin solubility, an inclusion system using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin was prepared. This system was posteriorly loaded within the PVA/Dex hydrogels. PVA145/Dex 1FT and PVA47/Dex 3FT showed the best rheological and mechanical properties when compared to the other studied systems; environmental scanning electron microscope and confocal imaging evidenced a porous structure of the hydrogels allowing astaxanthin release. In vitro cellular behavior was analyzed after 24 h of contact with astaxanthin-loaded hydrogels. In vivo subcutaneous biocompatibility was performed in rats using PVA145/Dex 1FT, as the best compromise between mechanical support and astaxanthin delivery. Finally, ex vivo and in vivo experiments showed good mechanical and compatibility properties of this hydrogel. The obtained results showed that the studied materials have a potential to be used as myocardial patches to assist infarcted heart mechanical function and to reduce oxidative stress by the in situ release of astaxanthin.

  15. The Role of the Nrf2/ARE Antioxidant System in Preventing Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that consuming foods and beverages that have high concentrations of antioxidants can prevent cardiovascular diseases and many types of cancer. As a result, many articles have been published that give the total antioxidant capacities of foods in vitro. However, many antioxidants behave quite differently in vivo. Some of them, such as resveratrol (in red wine and epigallocatechin gallate or EGCG (in green tea can activate the nuclear erythroid-2 like factor-2 (Nrf2 transcription factor. It is a master regulator of endogenous cellular defense mechanisms. Nrf2 controls the expression of many antioxidant and detoxification genes, by binding to antioxidant response elements (AREs that are commonly found in the promoter region of antioxidant (and other genes, and that control expression of those genes. The mechanisms by which Nrf2 relieves oxidative stress and limits cardiac injury as well as the progression to heart failure are described. Also, the ability of statins to induce Nrf2 in the heart, brain, lung, and liver is mentioned. However, there is a negative side of Nrf2. When over-activated, it can cause (not prevent cardiovascular diseases and multi-drug resistance cancer.

  16. Quantitative electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis of antioxidative properties using the acetaldehyde/xanthine oxidase system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchard, J.-P.; Nepveu, F.

    1998-05-01

    We present a method for the quantitative ESR analysis of the antioxidant properties of drugs using the acetaldhehyde/xanthine oxidase (AC/XOD) superoxide generating system and 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as spin trap. In stoichiometric conditions (AC/XOD, 60 mM/0.018 U), the resulting paramagnetic DMPO adduct disappeared with superoxide dismutase and remained when catalase or DMSO were used. That adduct was dependent only on superoxide and resulted from the trapping of a carboxyl radical by DMPO (aN = 15.2 G, aH = 18.9 G). Similar results were obtained using 4-pyridyl-l-oxide-N-t-butyl nitrone (POBN) as spin trap. The ESR signal of the DMPO-CO2- adduct was very stable and allowed quantitative analysis of the antioxidative activity of redox molecules from an IC{50} value representing the concentration causing 50% inhibition of its intensity. Among the tested compounds, manganese(II), complexes were the most effective, 25 times as active as ascorbic acid or (+)catechin and 500-fold more antioxidative than Trolox^R. Nous présentons une méthode d'analyse quantitative de l'activité antioxydante de composés d'intérêt pharmaceutique basée sur le système acétaldéhyde/xanthine oxydase (AC/XOD), l'utilisation de la RPE et du piégeage de spin avec le 5,5-diméthyl-l-pyrroline-N-oxyde (DMPO). Dans les conditions stoechiométriques {AC/XOD, 60 mM/0,018 U/ml}, l'adduit radicalaire résultant de ce système disparaît en présence de superoxyde dismutase et persiste en présence de catalase ou de DMSO. Cet adduit ne dépend que de la présence de l'anion superoxyde et provient du piégeage d'un radical carboxyle CO2- sur le DMPO (aN = 15.2 G, aH = 18.9 G). Des résultats similaires ont été obtenus avec le piégeur de spin 4-pyridyl-l-oxyde-N-t-butyl nitrone (POBN). Le signal RPE de l'adduit DMPO-CO2- est très stable et permet la quantification de l'activité antioxydante de pharmacophores redox par la détermination de la CI{50}, concentration qui

  17. Effect of sulphachloropyrazine on antioxidative systems in blood and liver of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana M. Kostadinović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the effects of therapeutic doses of coccidiocid sulphachloropyrazine on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative systems in haemolysed blood and liver homogenate from broilers (glutathione, glutathione-reductase, glutathione-peroxidase, peroxidase, superoxide-dismutase, xantine-oxidase and lipid peroxidation. The in vivo investigation was carried out on 120 heavy-line broilers (Arbor acres of both sexes. One-day-old broilers were randomly distributed into 2 groups, each numbering 60 individuals of both sexes: Group 1 - control group; Group 2 - group of broilers inoculated with laboratory derived coccidia species on the 21st day-of-age. When symptoms of coccidiosis appeared (30th day-of-age, blood sampling and decapitation of 20 chickens were carried out (Group 2a. The remaining broilers were treated with therapeutic doses of sulphachloropyrazine (60 ppm. Decapitation of 20 chickens was carried out after the therapy was concluded (38th day-of-age – Group 2b. Infection of broilers with coccidia intensified free radical processing in haemolysed blood and liver homogenate. This was evident from the increased levels of lipid peroxidation and the catalytic activity of almost all examined enzymes (SOD, GSHPx and Px. Therapeutic doses of sulphachloropyrazine inhibited free-radical activity induced by disease and establishing of physiological values of lipid peroxidation and catalase activity of examined enzymes.

  18. Terpenoids in plant and arbuscular mycorrhiza-reinforced defence against herbivorous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Esha; Anand, Garima; Kapoor, Rupam

    2017-03-01

    Plants, though sessile, employ various strategies to defend themselves against herbivorous insects and convey signals of an impending herbivore attack to other plant(s). Strategies include the production of volatiles that include terpenoids and the formation of symbiotic associations with fungi, such as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). This constitutes a two-pronged above-ground/below-ground attack-defence strategy against insect herbivores. Terpenoids represent an important constituent of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that deter herbivores and/or attract their predators. Terpenoids serve as airborne signals that can induce defence responses in systemic undamaged parts of the plant and also prime defence responses in neighbouring plants. Colonization of roots by AM fungi is known to influence secondary metabolism in plants; this includes alteration of the concentration and composition of terpenoids, which can boost both direct and indirect plant defence against herbivorous insects. Enhanced nutrient uptake facilitated by AM, changes in plant morphology and physiology and increased transcription levels of certain genes involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway result in alterations in plant terpenoid profiles. The common mycorrhizal networks of external hyphae have added a dimension to the two-pronged plant defence strategy. These act as conduits to transfer defence signals and terpenoids. Improved understanding of the roles of terpenoids in plant and AM defences against herbivory and of interplant signalling in natural communities has significant implications for sustainable management of pests in agricultural ecosystems. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Evaluation of polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity in two onion varieties grown under organic and conventional production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feiyue; Reilly, Kim; Gaffney, Michael; Kerry, Joseph P; Hossain, Mohammad; Rai, Dilip K

    2017-07-01

    Onions contain a number of bioactive compounds, in particular polyphenols. They are rich sources of such compounds in the human diet and offer significant health benefits to the consumer. Demand for organic crops is steadily increasing partly based on the expected health benefits of organic food consumption. The current study examines the influence of organic and conventional crop management practices on bioactive polyphenolic content of onion. We examined the effect of conventional, organic, and mixed cultivation practices on the content of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity in two varieties of onion grown over 4 years in a split-plot factorial systems comparison trial. Levels of total phenolics and total flavonoids showed a significant year-on-year variation and were significantly different between organic and conventional production systems. The levels of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity in general were significantly higher (P onion. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Secure Middleware for Defence Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Therefore, requirements for such a large, complex distributed system are manifold, and include interoperability, flexibility, modularity, rapid...tackle complexity , the Achilles heel of system vulnerabilities. These demanding requirements, the need to cope with increased uncertainty and...currently consists of the CCM implementation Qedo (Quality of Service enabled distributed objects), MICO as the underlying ORB, with enhanced security

  1. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The authors are scientists at the National Institute of. Immunology, New Delhi, and have been working on various aspects of cellular and molecular immunology for the past six years or so. In addition to teaching post-graduate immunology, their research interests and ongoing projects address the differential commitment of ...

  2. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    escape the control of the organism and take off on its own on an autonomous lifestyle, using the controlled internal environment and the nutrients available in it to make hay. This is what we commonly call a malignant or cancerous cell. Such aberrant cells also have to be dealt with. In other words, metazoan life neces-.

  3. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    recombined are aligned by their 7-12-9 and 7-23-9 recognition signal sequences [A). The last two nucleotides of the coding regions of both the D and the J segments are shown in colour. After DNA cutting, a hairpin loop is formed between the two strands at the cut ends of the coding regions [B). The loop is then 'resolved' ...

  4. Role of Nrf2 antioxidant defense in mitigating cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the olfactory system of zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lu; Gallagher, Evan P., E-mail: evang3@uw.edu

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to trace metals can disrupt olfactory function in fish leading to a loss of behaviors critical to survival. Cadmium (Cd) is an olfactory toxicant that elicits cellular oxidative stress as a mechanism of toxicity while also inducing protective cellular antioxidant genes via activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms of Cd-induced olfactory injury have not been characterized. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense pathway in protecting against Cd-induced olfactory injury in zebrafish. A dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress was observed in the olfactory system of adult zebrafish following 24 h Cd exposure. Zebrafish larvae exposed to Cd for 3 h showed increased glutathione S-transferase pi (gst pi), glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (gclc), heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1) and peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1) mRNA levels indicative of Nrf2 activation, and which were blocked by morpholino-mediated Nrf2 knockdown. The inhibition of antioxidant gene induction in Cd-exposed Nrf2 morphants was associated with disruption of olfactory driven behaviors, increased cell death and loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Nrf2 morphants also exhibited a downregulation of OSN-specific genes after Cd exposure. Pre-incubation of embryos with sulforaphane (SFN) partially protected against Cd-induced olfactory tissue damage. Collectively, our results indicate that oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated injury in the zebrafish olfactory system. Moreover, the Nrf2 pathway plays a protective role against cellular oxidative damage and is important in maintaining zebrafish olfactory function. -- Highlights: ► Oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated olfactory injury. ► Cd induces antioxidant gene expression in the zebrafish olfactory system. ► The

  5. Serum antioxidant vitamins levels in non-insulin-dependent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence is accumulating that most of the degenerative diseases including diabetes mellitus have their origin in deleterious free radical reactions. Humans are well endowed with antioxidant defences primarily by free radical scavengers, such as ascorbic acid, alphatocopherol, betacarotene, and trace elements.

  6. Serum Antioxidant Vitamins Levels in Children with Sickle Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sickle cell anaemia is associated with elevated oxidative stress via increase generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decline in antioxidant defences. Increased oxidative stress is thought to play a role in the development of sickle cell anaemic complications. In the current study, vitamins A, C, and E levels were ...

  7. Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements Status of Diabetics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with elevated oxidative stress via increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decline in antioxidant defences. Increased oxidative stress is thought to play a role in the development of diabetic complications. In the current study, vitamins A, C, and E, chromium, manganese ...

  8. Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements Status of Diabetics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is associated with elevated oxidative stress via increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decline in antioxidant defences. Increased oxidative stress is thought to play a role in the development of diabetic complications. In the current study, vitamins A, C, and E, chromium ...

  9. Justification for antioxidant preconditioning (or how to protect insulin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Insulin resistance is characterized by impaired glucose utilization in the peripheral tissues, accelerated muscle protein degradation, impaired antioxidant defences and extensive cell death. Apparently, both insulin and IGF-1 at physiological concentrations support cell survival by phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-dependent ...

  10. Reproducing butterflies do not increase intake of antioxidants when they could benefit from them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Bischofberger, Ines; Lorenz, Isabel; Scheelen, Lucie; Fischer, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    The significance of dietary antioxidants may be limited by the ability of animals to exploit them. However, past studies have focused on the effects of dietary antioxidants after 'antioxidant forced-feeding', and have overlooked spontaneous antioxidant intake. Here, we found that reproducing female Bicyclus anynana butterflies had higher antioxidant defences and enhanced fecundity when forced to consume antioxidants (polyphenols). Interestingly, these positive effects were not constant across the oviposition period. When given the choice between food resources with and without antioxidants, reproducing butterflies did not target antioxidants when they could have benefited the most from them. Moreover, they did not consume more antioxidants than non-reproducing butterflies. These results emphasize that, despite potential positive effects of dietary antioxidants, the ability of animals to exploit them is likely to restrict their ecological significance. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Modulatory role of allopurinol on xanthine oxidoreductase system and antioxidant status in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, A.M.; Azab, Kh.Sh.; Abbady, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor, used for management of hyperuricaema. It acts on purine catabolism without disrupting the biosynthesis of purine. The present work was conducted to examine the role of xanthine oxidase inhibitor (allopurinol) in minimizing radiation injuries in male albino rats. Allopurinol was given to rats via intraperitoneal (i.p) injection at a dose of 30 mg/kg body wt/day for 7 successive days before starting irradiation and 14 successive days during and in between exposure to gamma radiation. Rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation, delivered as 1 Gy every other day up to total dose 8 Gy. Results demonstrate that treatment with allopurinol by the regime assumed in the present study minimized significantly the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), product of lipid peroxidation, in liver, intestine and plasma. This effect was associated with significant amelioration in xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) system as observed on the 1st and 7th days post last radiation fraction. The severity of changes in antioxidant parameters namely: superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were less manifested in liver, intestine and blood as compared to irradiated rats. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) were significantly improved in plasma and the two investigated tissues as compared to irradiated rats. A significant decrease in plasma uric acid concentration was recorded on the 1st and 7th days post last allopurinol dose. However, significant amelioration was recorded in the plasma uric acid of rats treated with allopurinol before and during radiation exposure as compared to irradiated rats. Accordingly, it could be concluded that XO inhibitor (allopurinol) play a significant role in minimizing the tissue damages upon exposure to ionizing radiation via preventing the over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in irradiated cells through the XOR system of irradiation rats

  12. Strain-Related Differences on Response of Liver and Kidney Antioxidant Defense System in Two Rat Strains Following Diazinon Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salehi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Diazinon (DZN is one of the most organophosphates that widely used in agriculture and ectoparasiticide formulations. Its extensive use as an effective pesticide was associated with the environmental deleterious effects on biological systems. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the potency of DZN to affect serum biochemical parameters and the antioxidant defense system in the liver and kidney of two rat strains. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 30 female Wistar and 30 female Norway rats were randomly divided into control and DZN groups. DZN group was divided into four subgroups: 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of DZN administered groups by i.p. injection. The parameters were evaluated after 24 hours. Results At higher doses of DZN, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities and glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde levels in liver and kidney of Wistar rats were higher than Norway rats. At these concentrations, DZN increased some serum biochemical indices such as liver enzymes activities and levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in Wistar rat. Conclusions DZN at higher doses alters the oxidant-antioxidant balance in liver and kidney of both rat strains and induces oxidative stress, which is associated with a depletion of GSH and increased lipid peroxidation. However, Wistar rats are found to be more sensitive to the toxicity of DZN compared to Norway rats. In addition, the effect of DZN on liver antioxidant system was more than kidney.

  13. Fermented wheat powder induces the antioxidant and detoxifying system in primary rat hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita La Marca

    Full Text Available Many plants exhibit antioxidant properties which may be useful in the prevention of oxidative stress reactions, such as those mediated by the formation of free radical species in different pathological situations. In recent years a number of studies have shown that whole grain products in particular have strong antioxidant activity. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were used to investigate whether and how a fermented powder of wheat (Lisosan G is able to modulate antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes, and whether or not it can activate Nrf2 transcription factor or inhibit NF-kB activation. All of the antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes studied were significantly up-regulated by 0.7 mg/ml Lisosan G treatment. In particular,quinone oxidoreductase and heme oxygenase-1 were induced, although to different degrees, at the transcriptional, protein and/or activity levels by the treatment. As for the Nrf2 transcription factor, a partial translocation of its protein from the cytosol to the nucleus after 1 h of Lisosan G treatment was revealed by immunoblotting. Lisosan G was also observed to decrease H2O2-induced toxicity Taken together, these results show that this powder of wheat is an effective inducer of ARE/Nrf2-regulated antioxidant and detoxifying genes and has the potential to inhibit the translocation of NF-kB into the nucleus.

  14. Role of antioxidant enzymes and small molecular weight antioxidants in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Paulina; Kaarniranta, Kai; Blasiak, Janusz

    2013-10-01

    Cells in aerobic condition are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may induce damage to biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. In normal circumstances, the amount of ROS is counterbalanced by cellular antioxidant defence, with its main components-antioxidant enzymes, DNA repair and small molecular weight antioxidants. An imbalance between the production and neutralization of ROS by antioxidant defence is associated with oxidative stress, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many age-related and degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), affecting the macula-the central part of the retina. The retina is especially prone to oxidative stress due to high oxygen pressure and exposure to UV and blue light promoting ROS generation. Because oxidative stress has an established role in AMD pathogenesis, proper functioning of antioxidant defence may be crucial for the occurrence and progression of this disease. Antioxidant enzymes play a major role in ROS scavenging and changes of their expression or/and activity are reported to be associated with AMD. Therefore, the enzymes in the retina along with their genes may constitute a perspective target in AMD prevention and therapy.

  15. Sensory neuron regulation of gastrointestinal inflammation and bacterial host defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, N Y; Mills, K; Chiu, I M

    2017-07-01

    Sensory neurons in the gastrointestinal tract have multifaceted roles in maintaining homeostasis, detecting danger and initiating protective responses. The gastrointestinal tract is innervated by three types of sensory neurons: dorsal root ganglia, nodose/jugular ganglia and intrinsic primary afferent neurons. Here, we examine how these distinct sensory neurons and their signal transducers participate in regulating gastrointestinal inflammation and host defence. Sensory neurons are equipped with molecular sensors that enable neuronal detection of diverse environmental signals including thermal and mechanical stimuli, inflammatory mediators and tissue damage. Emerging evidence shows that sensory neurons participate in host-microbe interactions. Sensory neurons are able to detect pathogenic and commensal bacteria through specific metabolites, cell-wall components, and toxins. Here, we review recent work on the mechanisms of bacterial detection by distinct subtypes of gut-innervating sensory neurons. Upon activation, sensory neurons communicate to the immune system to modulate tissue inflammation through antidromic signalling and efferent neural circuits. We discuss how this neuro-immune regulation is orchestrated through transient receptor potential ion channels and sensory neuropeptides including substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide. Recent studies also highlight a role for sensory neurons in regulating host defence against enteric bacterial pathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Citrobacter rodentium and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Understanding how sensory neurons respond to gastrointestinal flora and communicate with immune cells to regulate host defence enhances our knowledge of host physiology and may form the basis for new approaches to treat gastrointestinal diseases. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  16. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low and superatmospheric oxygen on the quality and antioxidant enzyme system of golden needle mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes) during postharvest storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Cheng T.; Wang, Chang T.; Cao, Y.P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sun, B.G.; Liu, L.

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the effect of oxygen concentrations on the quality and antioxidant enzyme system of stored golden needle mushroom, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low and initial superatmospheric oxygen was applied during mushroom storage, and physiological changes associated with postharvest

  17. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Green

    Full Text Available Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour.

  18. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jonathan P; Foster, Rosie; Wilkins, Lucas; Osorio, Daniel; Hartley, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates) and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae) and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae) herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour.

  19. An on-line post-column detection system for the detection of reactive-oxygen-species-producing compounds and antioxidants in mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Jeroen; Van Liempd, Sebastiaan M.; Harmsen, Stefan; Schenk, Tim; Irth, Hubertus; Commandeur, Jan N. M.

    2007-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can damage proteins, cause lipid peroxidation, and react with DNA, ultimately resulting in harmful effects. Antioxidants constitute one of the defense systems used to neutralize pro-oxidants. Since pro-oxidants and antioxidants are found ubiquitously in nature, pro-and antioxidant effects of individual compounds and of mixtures receive much attention in scientific research. A major bottleneck in these studies, however, is the identification of the individual pro-oxidants and antioxidants in mixtures. Here, we describe the development and validation of an on-line post-column biochemical detection system for ROS-producing compounds and antioxidants in mixtures. Inclusion of cytochrome P450s and cytochrome P450 reductase also permitted the screening of compounds that need bioactivation to exert their ROS-producing properties. This pro-oxidant and antioxidant detection system was integrated on-line with gradient HPLC. The resulting high-resolution screening technology was able to separate mixtures of ROS-producing compounds and antioxidants, allowing each species to be characterized rapidly and sensitively. PMID:17468853

  20. Immune Defence Factors In Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sanjeev

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence is accumulating to prove the nutritional, anti-infective, anti-fertility, psychosomal and economic advantages of breast-feeding. A number of studies have shown that breast milk protects against diarrheal, respiratory and other infections. Its value in protecting against allergy has also been established. This article reviews the studies on various immune defence factors present in the human milk. The available scientific knowledge makes a very strong case in favour of promoting breast-feeding.

  1. Radiation Protection and Civil defence Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.; Elshinawy, R.M.K.; Abdelfattah, A.T.

    1991-01-01

    This conference involves subjects of radiation protection, programming of civil defence, on the implementation of 1990 ICRP recommendation, thermoluminescence properties of bone equivalent calcium phosphate ceramics, potassium body burdens in occupational users of egyptian nuclear research centre, transport of radionuclides in fresh water stream, water treatment process for nuclear reactor, research activities related to internal contamination and bioassay and experience and environmental radiation monitoring in inshass. it contains of figures and tables

  2. Defence Output Measures: An Economics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    is even more challenging. Economic theory simply asserts the concept of defence output without exploring its definition and multi-product nature...It also protects national interests, including independence and ‘appropriate sovereignty’ (e.g. protecting a nation’s interests in a globalised ...of success in delivering protection. “There is no definitive way of knowing what might have happened, but did not happen, because of the activities

  3. Defence Science and Technology Organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    impacto (vlnv borne debis 2 1 with weapon guidance. remotely piloted aircraft and gun propulsion resear’h )r I.\\. Napier weapons systems are rocket...the Tasnman ticeanic front which extends ducting over water, ambient seta notise and the thetry oL between Australia and New Zealand. This work ho

  4. Metallothionein-mediated antioxidant defense system and its response to exercise training are impaired in human type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan

    2005-01-01

    lower levels of MT-I+II were also detected in the plasma of type 2 diabetic subjects compared with control subjects. These results suggest that, in control subjects, the MT-I+II defense system is active and inducible within skeletal muscle tissue and plasma. In type 2 diabetes, reduced levels of MT......Oxidative stress is implicated in diabetes complications, during which endogenous antioxidant defenses have important pathophysiological consequences. To date, the significance of endogenous antioxidants such as metallothioneins I and II (MT-I+II) in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. To examine....... Immunohistochemical analysis revealed reduced MT-I+II levels in the skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic subjects compared with control subjects. Control subjects produced a robust increase of MT-I+II in response to training; however, in type 2 diabetes, MT-I+II levels remained essentially unchanged. Significantly...

  5. Involvement of an antioxidant defense system in the adaptive response to cadmium in maize seedlings (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Liu, Cuiying; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Li, Renying; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Chemical and biological analyses were used to investigate the growth response and antioxidant defense mechanism of maize seedlings (Zea mays L.) grown in soils with 0-100 mg kg(-1) Cd. Results showed that maize seedlings have strong abilities to accumulate and tolerate high concentrations of Cd. For soil with 50 mg kg(-1) Cd, the Cd contents in roots and shoots of maize seedlings are as large as 295.6 and 153.0 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively, without visible symptoms of toxicity. Lower soil Cd concentrations lead to a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content in leaves of maize seedlings, whereas higher soil Cd concentrations resulted in an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase. Maize seedlings have strong capacities to adapt to low concentrations of Cd by consuming GSH and to develop an antioxidative enzyme system to defend against high-Cd stress.

  6. Consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. aqueous extract and its impact on systemic antioxidant potential in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Thomas; Netzel, Gabriele; Kammerer, Dietmar R; Carle, Reinhold; Kler, Adolf; Kriesl, Erwin; Bitsch, Irmgard; Bitsch, Roland; Netzel, Michael

    2012-08-15

    To evaluate health benefits attributed to Hibiscus sabdariffa L. a randomized, open-label, two-way crossover study was undertaken to compare the impact of an aqueous H. sabdariffa L. extract (HSE) on the systemic antioxidant potential (AOP; assayed by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) with a reference treatment (water) in eight healthy volunteers. The biokinetic variables were the areas under the curve (AUC) of plasma FRAP, ascorbic acid and urate that are above the pre-dose concentration, and the amounts excreted into urine within 24 h (Ae(0-24) ) of antioxidants as assayed by FRAP, ascorbic acid, uric acid, malondialdehyde (biomarker for oxidative stress), and hippuric acid (metabolite and potential biomarker for total polyphenol intake). HSE caused significantly higher plasma AUC of FRAP, an increase in Ae(0-24) of FRAP, ascorbic acid and hippuric acid, whereas malondialdehyde excretion was reduced. Furthermore, the main hibiscus anthocyanins as well as one glucuronide conjugate could be quantified in the volunteers' urine (0.02% of the administered dose). The aqueous HSE investigated in this study enhanced the systemic AOP and reduced the oxidative stress in humans. Furthermore, the increased urinary hippuric acid excretion after HSE consumption indicates a high biotransformation of the ingested HSE polyphenols, most likely caused by the colonic microbiota. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit extracts in an oil model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Augusto-Obara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An oil model system was used to analyze the antioxidant activity of Chilean fruit extracts and to determine their odor sensory effect. Hydroalcoholic extracts from wild and 14-4 genotype murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit were assessed by the Response Surface Methodology. The optimal conditions for producing high total phenolic-content extracts were 49.5% (v/v ethanol at 30 ºC, which yielded 18.39 and 26.14 mg GAE·g-1 dry matter, respectively. The optimized extracts were added to a lipid model system and evaluated via the Schaal Oven Test. After 96 hours, 150 and 200 mg·kg-1 oil of the wild and 14-4 genotype extracts, respectively, showed an antioxidant capacity similar to TBHQ (200 mg·kg-1 oil in terms of peroxide values and odor. Thus, murtilla fruit extracts are a natural source of antioxidants for protecting lipidic foods, such as soybean oil.

  8. In vitro antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of Maillard reaction products from phloridzin-amino acid model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Linna; Li, Feng; Yu, Qijian; Li, Dapeng

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effect of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from phloridzin (Pz)-amino acid model systems. Their structures were also characterised by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). MRPs were prepared from the Pz-methionine (Met), Pz-lysine (Lys), Pz-isoleucine (Ile), Pz-histidine (His) or Pz-glutamic acid (Glu) model system. The Pz-Lys MRPs, rich in antioxidant potency, were subjected to ultrafiltration to yield four MRPs fractions with different molecular weights (Mw). The fraction with Mw 30-50 kDa had significantly (P Maillard reaction. The results obtained in this study may provide some basis for the purported health-promoting effects of MRPs and their potential application as antioxidant agents in food industry. Also, it is important for our understanding of the variation of bioactive substances in food during thermal processing. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effects of Artea, a systemic fungicide, on the antioxidant system and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work is aimed at the study of Artea (a systemic fungicide) effects on durum wheat (Triticum durum L. CV. Hard GTA). Seeds were grown in a medium containing 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of Artea under controlled conditions. Roots of eight day old were used to determine the enzymatic activities of catalase, ...

  10. Effects of artea, a systemic fungicide, on the antioxidant system and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work aimed at the study of the effects of Artea, a systemic azole fungicide, on durum Wheat (Triticum durum L. cv. GTA dur). Seeds were grown in a medium containing respectively 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of Artea under controlled conditions. Roots of eight-day-old plants were used to determine catalase, ...

  11. Optimised formation of blue Maillard reaction products of xylose and glycine model systems and associated antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi; Sun, Qian; Zhang, Xi; Jing, Hao

    2014-05-01

    A blue colour can be formed in the xylose (Xyl) and glycine (Gly) Maillard reaction (MR) model system. However, there are fewer studies on the reaction conditions for the blue Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The objective of this study is to investigate characteristic colour formation and antioxidant activities in four different MR model systems and to determine the optimum reaction conditions for the blue colour formation in a Xyl-Gly MR model system, using the random centroid optimisation program. The blue colour with an absorbance peak at 630 nm appeared before browning in the Xyl-Gly MR model system, while no blue colour formation but only browning was observed in the xylose-alanine, xylose-aspartic acid and glucose-glycine MR model systems. The Xyl-Gly MR model system also showed higher antioxidant activity than the other three model systems. The optimum conditions for blue colour formation were as follows: xylose and glycine ratio 1:0.16 (M:M), 0.20 mol L⁻¹ NaHCO₃, 406.1 mL L⁻¹ ethanol, initial pH 8.63, 33.7°C for 22.06 h, which gave a much brighter blue colour and a higher peak at 630 nm. A characteristic blue colour could be formed in the Xyl-Gly MR model system and the optimum conditions for the blue colour formation were proposed and confirmed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Vanadyl sulfate, taurine, and combined vanadyl sulfate and taurine treatments in diabetic rats: effects on the oxidative and antioxidative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Sibel; Sarandol, Emre; Ayvalik, Sedef Ziyanok; Serdar, Zehra; Dirican, Melahat

    2007-04-01

    Vanadyl sulfate (VS) and taurine are two promising agents in the treatment of diabetes related to their antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and hyperinsulinemic effects. Data about the effects of VS on the oxidant-antioxidant system is limited and controversial. However, taurine is a well-documented antioxidant agent and our aim was to investigate the effects of VS, taurine and VS and taurine combination on the oxidative-antioxidative systems in streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) diabetic rats. Nicotinamide (230 mg/kg, i.p.) and streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered. VS (0.75 mg/mL) and taurine (1%) were added to drinking water for 5 weeks. Rats were divided as control (C), diabetes (D), diabetes+VS (D+VS), diabetes+taurine (D+T), diabetes+VS and taurine (D+VST). Plasma and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry, respectively. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured by spectrophotometric methods and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined using commercial kits. VS, taurine and VS and taurine combination treatments reduced the enhanced blood glucose, serum total cholesterol and triglyceride, tissue MDA and plasma MDA (except in the D+VS group) levels and increased the reduced serum insulin level, serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, GSH-Px activity and SOD activity (except in the D+VS group). The findings of the present study suggest that VS and taurine exert beneficial effects on the blood glucose and lipid levels in STZ-NA diabetic rats. However, VS might exert prooxidative or antioxidative effects in various components of the body and taurine and VS combination might be an alternative for sole VS administration.

  13. Similar effect of sodium nitroprusside and acetylsalicylic acid on antioxidant system improvement in mouse liver but not in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Maria; Góralska, Joanna; Jurkowska, Halina; Sura, Piotr

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the relative antioxidant effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in mouse liver and brain. The activity of rhodanese, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST) and γ-cystathionase (CSE), functioning as antioxidant proteins and capable of producing H 2 S, was investigated in mouse liver and brain after intraperitoneal once a day administration of sodium nitroprusside (5 mg/kg body weight) or acetylsalicylic acid (500 mg/kg body weight) continued for 5 days. The tissues were homogenized and then the obtained supernatants were used for further determinations. At the same time, the levels of sulfane sulfur, reduced and oxidized glutathione, cysteine, cystine, and cystathionine were also studied in these tissues. Both ASA and SNP show a statistically significant increase of sulfurtransferases activities in liver. The mechanism of action of sodium nitroprusside appears to consist in liberation of nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule in the mammalian body. SNP also releases cyanide ions, which are converted in the liver to thiocyanate by the enzyme rhodanese and/or MPST and/or γ-cystathionase - the activities of all the enzymes were elevated in reaction to SNP. The action of γ-cystathionase is dependent upon converting cystathionine to cysteine, a precursor of the major cellular antioxidant, glutathione. Under oxidizing conditions, an increase in cystathionine β-synthase activity might indirectly result in an increase in the antioxidant glutathione level; this was reflected by the increased GSH/GSSG ratio in the liver, but not in the brain, where a trace activity of γ-cystathionase is normally detected. The results of the present investigations show that ASA and SNP may stimulate the GSH-dependent antioxidant system and protect liver cells from oxidative stress. An increased activity of the H 2 S-producing enzymes and the increased GSH/GSSG ratio may lead to an elevated level

  14. Hyper Velocity Missiles For Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqir Minhas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the history of technical development in the field of hypervelocity missiles. It highlights the fact that the development of anti-ballistic systems in USA, Russia, France, UK, Sweden, and Israel is moving toward the final deployment stage; that USA and Israel are trying to sell PAC 2 and Arrow 2 to India; and that India’s Agni and Prithvi missiles have improved their accuracy, with assistance from Russia. Consequently, the paper proposes enhanced effort for development in Pakistan of a basic hypersonic tactical missile, with 300 KM range, 500 KG payload, and multi-rolecapability. The author argues that a system, developed within the country, at the existing or upgraded facilities, will not violate MTCR restrictions, and would greatly enhance the country’s defense capability. Furthermore, it would provide high technology jobs toPakistani citizens. The paper reinforces the idea by suggesting that evolution in the field of aviation and electronics favors the development of ballistic, cruise and guided missile technologies; and that flight time of short and intermediate range missiles is so short that its interception is virtually impossible.

  15. The bile acid deoxycholate elicits defences in Arabidopsis and reduces bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarattini, Marco; Launay, Alban; Farjad, Mahsa; Wénès, Estelle; Taconnat, Ludivine; Boutet, Stéphanie; Bernacchia, Giovanni; Fagard, Mathilde

    2017-05-01

    Disease has an effect on crop yields, causing significant losses. As the worldwide demand for agricultural products increases, there is a need to pursue the development of new methods to protect crops from disease. One mechanism of plant protection is through the activation of the plant immune system. By exogenous application, 'plant activator molecules' with elicitor properties can be used to activate the plant immune system. These defence-inducing molecules represent a powerful and often environmentally friendly tool to fight pathogens. We show that the secondary bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) induces defence in Arabidopsis and reduces the proliferation of two bacterial phytopathogens: Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. We describe the global defence response triggered by this new plant activator in Arabidopsis at the transcriptional level. Several induced genes were selected for further analysis by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We describe the kinetics of their induction and show that abiotic stress, such as moderate drought or nitrogen limitation, does not impede DCA induction of defence. Finally, we investigate the role in the activation of defence by this bile acid of the salicylic acid biosynthesis gene SID2, of the receptor-like kinase family genes WAK1-3 and of the NADPH oxidase-encoding RbohD gene. Altogether, we show that DCA constitutes a promising molecule for plant protection which can induce complementary lines of defence, such as callose deposition, reactive oxygen species accumulation and the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signalling pathways. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  16. Influence of Roasting on the Antioxidant Activity and HMF Formation of a Cocoa Bean Model Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, T.; Capuano, E.; Cämmerer, B.; Fogliano, V.

    2009-01-01

    During the roasting of cocoa beans chemical reactions lead to the formation of Maillard reaction (MR) products and to the degradation of catechin-containing compounds, which are very abundant in these seeds. To study the modifications occurring during thermal treatment of fat and antioxidant rich

  17. Protective roles of nitric oxide on antioxidant systems in tall fescue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... (PTIO) before light treatment. Pronounced increases of NO production were found in tall fescue leaves after exposure to high-light stress. The results suggested that high-light stress elevated NO level and that NO might act as a signalling molecule to enhance antioxidant enzyme activities, further protecting.

  18. A comparison of chemical systems for luminometric determination of antioxidant capacity towards individual reactive oxygen species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komrsková, Daniela; Lojek, Antonín; Hrbáč, J.; Číž, Milan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2006), s. 239-244 ISSN 1522-7235 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/01/1219 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : antioxidant capacity * luminometry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.874, year: 2006

  19. In defence of discovery learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereijken, B; Whiting, H T

    1990-06-01

    The present paper discusses the influence of different training methods--i.e., knowledge of results, preferred frequency, and the availability of a model--on the learning of a complex motor skill, in this case the learning of slalom ski-type movements on a ski-simulator. Results of three experiments performed on this apparatus showed that, although the training methods used influence the course of learning, none of the methods used was actually superior to discovery learning. It is suggested that discovery learning forces the learner to explore the dynamics of the system in which he or she operates, in an iterative way. Possibilities for cooperative working between prescription and discovery learning are discussed.

  20. Characterisation of antioxidant compounds in sweet bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under organic and conventional growing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, Ewelina; Rembiałkowska, Ewa

    2012-09-01

    Sweet red bell pepper is one of the best sources of ascorbic acid and carotenoids as well as phenolic compounds important in the human diet. There have been some studies showing a higher level of bioactive compounds in organic bell pepper fruits compared with conventional fruits, but not all studies have been consistent in this respect. The levels of carotenoids and phenolics are very variable and may be affected by ripeness, genotype and cultivation. The results obtained in this study showed that an organic growing system affected the level of bioactive compounds (carotenoids and polyphenols) in sweet bell pepper fruits cultivated in Poland. Organic bell pepper fruits contained significantly more dry matter, vitamin C, total carotenoids, β-carotene, α-carotene, cis-β-carotene, total phenolic acids (as well as individual gallic and chlorogenic acids) and flavonoids (quercetin D-glucoside, quercetin and kaempferol) compared with conventional fruits. The bell pepper variety also affected the level of antioxidant compounds in fruits. Organic growing increased the level of antioxidant compounds such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds and vitamin C in sweet bell pepper. The second significant factor affecting the antioxidant compound content of sweet bell pepper was variety. It would be necessary to continue this study as a long-term experiment in order to eliminate the influence of seasonality. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Mitochondrial structural and antioxidant system responses to aging in oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds with different moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fangshan; Wang, Xianguo; Li, Manli; Mao, Peisheng

    2015-09-01

    We observed the relationship between lifespan and mitochondria, including antioxidant systems, ultrastructure, and the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents in 4 h imbibed oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds that were aged with different moisture contents (4%, 10% and 16%) for 0 (the control), 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 d at 45 °C. The results showed that the decline in the oat seed vigor and in the integrity of the mitochondrial ultrastructure occurred during the aging process, and that these changes were enhanced by higher moisture contents. Mitochondrial antioxidants in imbibed oat seeds aged with a 4% moisture content were maintained at higher levels than imbibed oat seeds aged with a 10% and 16% moisture content. These results indicated that the levels of mitochondrial antioxidants and malondialdehyde after imbibition were related to the integrity of the mitochondrial membrane in aged oat seeds. The scavenging role of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase was inhibited in imbibed oat seeds aged at the early stage. Monodehydroascorbate reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase played more important roles than glutathione reductase in ascorbate regeneration in aged oat seeds during imbibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The Assessment of the Integrated Antioxidant System of the Body in the Course of Radon Therapy: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Kuciel-Lewandowska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The sources of Reactive Oxidative Species (ROS in the organism are the respiratory processes occurring in cells catalyzed by different enzymes. Operation of ROS is balanced by antioxidants, the compounds; although present in low concentrations, they significantly inhibit the degree of oxidation of particular molecules. The Aim of the Study. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the integrated antioxidant system under the influence of radon therapy in osteoarthritis patients. Material and Methods. Observation included 35 patients suffering from degenerative joints and disc disease (mean age 56.5 years undergoing radon water therapy and control group that consisted of 15 osteoarthritis patients (mean age 54.2 without contact with radon water. Before therapy and after 18 days of treatment, serum total antioxidant status (TAS was assessed with the use of standard colorimetric assay. Results. In the study group, we observed trends to increase TAS concentration, whereas, in the control group, TAS concentration was decreasing. Conclusions. (1 Radon waters treatment influenced the level of TAS of osteoarthritis patients treated with the radon water. (2 The change in TAS concentrations in the study group may be the result of low doses of ionizing radiation, but further studies on larger patient’s groups are demanded. This study is registered with number NCT03274128.

  3. Influence of different wild-garlic (Allium ursinum) extracts on the gastrointestinal system: spasmolytic, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Dragana R; Veljković, Milica; Stojanović, Nikola M; Gočmanac-Ignjatović, Marija; Mihailov-Krstev, Tatjana; Branković, Suzana; Sokolović, Dušan; Marčetić, Mirjana; Radulović, Niko; Radenković, Mirjana

    2017-09-01

    As there are no previous studies of the European wild-garlic (Allium ursinum) effects on the gastrointestinal system, despite its traditional applications in gastrointestinal disorders' treatment and regular use in the human diet, we have quantified and compared spasmolytic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of its different leaf extracts. Wild-garlic extracts were tested for spasmolytic activity on isolated rat ileum, antimicrobial activity on selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi by microdilution method and antioxidant capacity by DPPH radical-scavenging assay. Wild-garlic extracts were found to decrease ileal basal tone. As the relaxation of K + -induced contractions was similar to one caused by papaverin, the observed spasmolytic effect was most likely mediated through Ca 2+ -channel inhibition. Ethanolic extract (with the highest phenolic and high alk(en)yl cysteine sulphoxides' levels) produced the strongest spasmolytic activity. In case of acetylcholine-induced contractions, only hydromethanolic extract showed no statistical difference in comparison with positive control. All samples exhibited certain antioxidant potential and strong antimicrobial activity against tested enteropathogenic strains (Salmonella enteritidis was the most sensitive, followed by Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Enterococcus faecalis). Besides other already established health-promoting effects, wild garlic could be useful in treatment of mild gastrointestinal disturbances. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Recent developments on polyphenol–protein interactions: effects on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Ghosh, Amit K; Ghosh, Chandrasekhar

    2012-06-01

    Tea and coffee are widely consumed beverages across the world and they are rich sources of various polyphenols. Polyphenols are responsible for the bitterness and astringency of beverages and are also well known to impart antioxidant properties which is beneficial against several oxidative stress related diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and aging. On the other hand, proteins are also known to display many important roles in several physiological activities. Polyphenols can interact with proteins through hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions, leading to the formation of soluble or insoluble complexes. According to recent studies, this complex formation can affect the bioavailability and beneficiary properties of both the individual components, in either way. For example, polyphenol-protein complex formation can reduce or enhance the antioxidant activity of polyphenols; similarly it can also affect the digestion ability of several digestive enzymes present in our body. Surprisingly, no review article has been published recently which has focused on the progress in this area, despite numerous articles having appeared in this field. This review summarizes the recent trends and patterns (2005 onwards) in polyphenol-protein interaction studies focusing on the characterization of the complex, the effect of this complex formation on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

  5. The Assessment of the Integrated Antioxidant System of the Body in the Course of Radon Therapy: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuciel-Lewandowska, Jadwiga; Gnus, Jan; Pawlik-Sobecka, Lilla; Płaczkowska, Sylwia; Kokot, Izabela; Kasperczak, Michał; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata

    2018-01-01

    The sources of Reactive Oxidative Species (ROS) in the organism are the respiratory processes occurring in cells catalyzed by different enzymes. Operation of ROS is balanced by antioxidants, the compounds; although present in low concentrations, they significantly inhibit the degree of oxidation of particular molecules. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the integrated antioxidant system under the influence of radon therapy in osteoarthritis patients. Observation included 35 patients suffering from degenerative joints and disc disease (mean age 56.5 years) undergoing radon water therapy and control group that consisted of 15 osteoarthritis patients (mean age 54.2) without contact with radon water. Before therapy and after 18 days of treatment, serum total antioxidant status (TAS) was assessed with the use of standard colorimetric assay. In the study group, we observed trends to increase TAS concentration, whereas, in the control group, TAS concentration was decreasing. (1) Radon waters treatment influenced the level of TAS of osteoarthritis patients treated with the radon water. (2) The change in TAS concentrations in the study group may be the result of low doses of ionizing radiation, but further studies on larger patient's groups are demanded. This study is registered with number NCT03274128.

  6. Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems Containing Plantago lanceolata—An Assessment of Their Antioxidant and Antiinflammatory Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Kalantari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The most important components of Plantago lanceolata L. leaves are catalpol, aucubin, and acteoside (=verbascoside. These bioactive compounds possess different pharmacological effects: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antineoplastic, and hepatoprotective. The aim of this study was to protect Plantago lanceolata extract from hydrolysis and to improve its antioxidant effect using self-nano-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS. Eight SNEDDS compositions were prepared, and their physical properties, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vivo AST/ALT values were investigated. MTT cell viability assay was performed on Caco-2 cells. The well-diluted samples (200 to 1000-fold dilutions proved to be non-cytotoxic. The acute administration of PL-SNEDDS compositions resulted in minor changes in hepatic markers (AST, ALT, except for compositions 4 and 8 due to their high Transcutol contents (80%. The non-toxic compositions showed a significant increase in free radical scavenger activity measured by the DPPH test compared to the blank SNEDDS. An indirect dissolution test was performed, based on the result of the DPPH antioxidant assay; the dissolution profiles of Plantago lancolata extract were statistically different from each SNEDDS. The anti-inflammatory effect of PL-SNEDDS compositions was confirmed by the ear inflammation test. For the complete examination period, all compositions decreased ear edema as compared to the positive (untreated control. It can be concluded that PL-SNEDDS compositions could be used to deliver active natural compounds in a stable, efficient, and safe manner.

  7. Comparison of effects on the oxidant/antioxidant system of sevoflurane, desflurane and propofol infusion during general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Erbas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Desflurane and sevoflurane are frequently used for maintenance of anesthesia and studies have shown that these anesthetics cause a variety of changes to the oxidative stress and antioxidative defense mechanisms. This study aims to compare the effects of sevoflurane, desflurane and propofol infusion anesthesia on the oxidant and antioxidant systems of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: 45 patients between 18 and 50 years with planned laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthetic were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups on the way to surgery: propofol (group P n: 15, sevoflurane (group S n: 15 and desflurane (group D n: 15. All groups were given hypnotic 2 mg/kg propofol IV, 1 mcg/kg fentanyl IV and 0.1 mg/kg vecuronium IV for induction. For maintenance of anesthesia group S were ventilated with 2% sevoflurane, group D cases were given 6% desflurane and group P were given propofol infusions of 12 mg/kg/h for the first 10 min, 9 mg/kg/h for the second 10 min and 6 mg/kg/h after that. Before induction and after the operation venous blood samples were taken to evaluate the levels of glutation peroxidase, total oxidants and antioxidants. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The 45 patients included in the study were 22 male and 23 female patients. The demographic characteristics of the groups were similar. In the postoperative period we observed that while sevoflurane and propofol increased antioxidants by a statistically significant level, desflurane increased the total oxidants level by a significant amount compared to levels before the operation.

  8. Exogenous low-dose hydrogen peroxide enhances drought tolerance of soybean (Glycine max L.) through inducing antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Neslihan Saruhan; Pehlivan, Necla

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) functions as a signal molecule in plants under abiotic and biotic stress. In this study, the role of exogenous H(2)O(2) in improving drought tolerance in two soybean cultivars (Glycine max L. Merrill) differing in their tolerance to drought was evaluated. Plants were grown in plastic pots with normal irrigation in a phytotron. Four weeks after radicle emergence, either 1 mM H(2)O(2) or distilled water was sprayed as foliar onto the leaves of each plant, after drought stress was applied. Leaf samples were harvested on the 4(th) and 7(th) days of the drought. Antioxidant-related enzyme activity, such as the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was measured during the drought period. Drought stress decreased leaf water potential, relative water content and photosynthetic pigment content but enhanced lipid peroxidation and endogenous H(2)O(2) concentration. By contrast, exogenous low dose H(2)O(2) improved water status, pigment content and lipid peroxidation under drought stress. Endogenous H(2)O(2) concentration was reduced by exogenous H(2)O(2) as compared to drought treatment alone. H(2)O(2) pre-treatment induced all the antioxidant enzyme activities, to a greater extent than the control leaves, during drought. H(2)O(2) pretreatment further enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the tolerant cultivar compared to the sensitive cultivar. Results suggested that low dose H(2)O(2) pre-treatment alleviated water loss and H(2)O(2) content and increased drought stress tolerance by inducing the antioxidant system.

  9. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Andrew Shanely

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p < 0.0125. Exercise performance did not differ between WM puree or carbohydrate beverage trials (p > 0.05, however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05. WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05, but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine, antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function.

  10. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Kasperczyk, Janusz [Dept. of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning.

  11. EU Defence Industry Integration between Spillover and High Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    Defence industry regulation falls in between the ‘Low Politics' of ensuring market efficiency and the ‘High Politics' of preserving the national defence industrial and technological base. It has been exempt from internal market regulation and integrative initiatives have been managed on an interg...... adaptation? Or may we attribute it to changing outlooks on the part of states so long exposed to the process of integration?......Defence industry regulation falls in between the ‘Low Politics' of ensuring market efficiency and the ‘High Politics' of preserving the national defence industrial and technological base. It has been exempt from internal market regulation and integrative initiatives have been managed....... This raises the question: are we witnessing an incursion of spillover mechanisms into the ‘High Politics' domain of the defence industry? What are the drivers eroding the ‘High Politics' character of defence industry integration? Are market forces at play? Does it reflect pressures for institutional...

  12. Quantitative Verification and Synthesis of Attack-Defence Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming; Parker, David

    2016-01-01

    Attack-defence trees are a powerful technique for formally evaluating attack-defence scenarios. They represent in an intuitive, graphical way the interaction between an attacker and a defender who compete in order to achieve conflicting objectives. We propose a novel framework for the formal...... analysis of quantitative properties of complex attack-defence scenarios, using an extension of attack-defence trees which models temporal ordering of actions and allows explicit dependencies in the strategies adopted by attackers and defenders. We adopt a game-theoretic approach, translating attack......-defence trees to two-player stochastic games, and then employ probabilistic model checking techniques to formally analyse these models. This provides a means to both verify formally specified security properties of the attack-defence scenarios and, dually, to synthesise strategies for attackers or defenders...

  13. Ecological trade-offs between jasmonic acid-dependent direct and indirect plant defences in tritrophic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianing; Wang, Lizhong; Zhao, Jiuhai; Li, Chuanyou; Ge, Feng; Kang, Le

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies on plants genetically modified in jasmonic acid (JA) signalling support the hypothesis that the jasmonate family of oxylipins plays an important role in mediating direct and indirect plant defences. However, the interaction of two modes of defence in tritrophic systems is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the preference and performance of a herbivorous leafminer (Liriomyza huidobrensis) and its parasitic wasp (Opius dissitus) on three tomato genotypes: a wild-type (WT) plant, a JA biosynthesis (spr2) mutant, and a JA-overexpression 35S::prosys plant. Their proteinase inhibitor production and volatile emission were used as direct and indirect defence factors to evaluate the responses of leafminers and parasitoids. Here, we show that although spr2 mutant plants are compromised in direct defence against the larval leafminers and in attracting parasitoids, they are less attractive to adult flies compared with WT plants. Moreover, in comparison to other genotypes, the 35S::prosys plant displays greater direct and constitutive indirect defences, but reduced success of parasitism by parasitoids. Taken together, these results suggest that there are distinguished ecological trade-offs between JA-dependent direct and indirect defences in genetically modified plants whose fitness should be assessed in tritrophic systems and under natural conditions. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  14. Real-time threat evaluation in a ground based air defence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a military environment a ground based air defence operator is required to evaluate the tactical situation in real-time and protect Defended Assets (DAs) on the ground against aerial threats by assigning available Weapon Systems (WSs) to engage enemy aircraft. Since this aerial environment requires rapid operational ...

  15. Mechanisms involved in the evasion of the host defence by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharazmi, A

    1991-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an extracellular opportunistic pathogen, utilizes two major mechanisms to evade the host defence system. One of these mechanisms is the production of a large number of extracellular products, such as proteases, toxins, and lipases. The two proteases, alkaline protease and ...

  16. Post-translational modification of host proteins in pathogen-triggered defence signalling in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulemeijer, I.J.E.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial plant pathogens impose a continuous threat to global food production. Similar to animals, an innate immune system allows plants to recognize pathogens and swiftly activate defence. To activate a rapid response, receptor-mediated pathogen perception and subsequent downstream signalling

  17. Serum Antioxidative Enzymes Levels and Oxidative Stress Products in Age-Related Cataract Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the activity of antioxidative enzymes and the products of oxidative stress in patients with age-related cataracts and compare the findings with those in healthy control subjects. Method. Sixty patients with age-related cataract and sixty healthy controls of matched age and gender were included in this study. Serum samples were obtained to detect the antioxidative enzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and oxidation degradation products of malondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, conjugated diene (CD, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, protein carbonyl (PC, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG. Results. Serum SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities in cataract group were significantly decreased as compared to the control subjects (P<0.05. The levels of MDA, 4-HNE, and CD in cataract patients were significantly higher than those in the control subjects (P<0.05, P<0.01. Cataract patients had higher levels of 8-OHdG, AOPP, and PC with respect to the comparative group of normal subjects (P<0.01. And there was no statistical significance in concentration of antioxidative enzymes and oxidative stress products in patients with different subtype cataract. Conclusions. Oxidative stress is an important risk factor in the development of age-related cataract, and augmentation of the antioxidant defence systems may be of benefit to prevent or delay cataractogenesis.

  18. Metabolic Engineering of Chemical Defence Pathways in Plant Disease Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rook, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    with antimicrobial properties for use in crop protection. It presents an overview of the metabolic engineering efforts made in the area of plant chemical defence. For in-depth information on the characteristics of a specific class of chemical defence compounds, the reader is referred to the specialized reviews......Plants produce a wide variety of specialized (or secondary) metabolites that function as chemical defence compounds and provide protection against microbial pathogens or herbivores. This chapter focuses on the metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways for plant chemical defence compounds...

  19. The European Security and Defence Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    -making capacities and capabilities. For many years, a genuine European defence policy remained a distant dream for an exclusive group of political leaders from federally oriented states such as Belgium and Luxembourg. Yet since 1999, the EU has carried out 23 military missions in the Balkans, Africa and Asia....... The Union is thus gradually emerging as an important player on the international scene, with a strategic vision, as well as diplomatic, civilian and military crisis-management instruments that complement the existing economic, commercial, humanitarian and development policies on which the EU has hitherto...

  20. Defence and illustration of nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    After having shown that nuclear deterrence has been efficient since 1945 (nuclear weapons prevented from war, nuclear deterrence contributed to the reduction of risks related to proliferation), the author discusses the amorality and illegality of nuclear deterrence (its ethics can indeed be a matter of discussion, as well as issues like self-defence and international humanitarian law). On another hand, he shows that deterrence costs remain acceptable and that substitutes to nuclear deterrence are not credible. He concludes that deterrence is therefore still useful and legitimate

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Trx2/TXNIP and TrxR2 genes of the mitochondrial thioredoxin antioxidant system and the risk of diabetic retinopathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramus, Sara Mankoc; Cilensek, Ines; Petrovic, Mojca Globocnik; Soucek, Miroslav; Kruzliak, Peter; Petrovic, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to examine the possible association between seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the Trx2/TXNIP and TrxR2 genes encoding proteins involved in the thioredoxin antioxidant defence system and the risk of diabetic retinopthy (DR). Cross-sectional case-control study. A total of 802 Slovenian patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus; 277 patients with DR and 525 with no DR were enrolled. Patients genotypes of the SNPs; including rs8140110, rs7211, rs7212, rs4755, rs1548357, rs4485648 and rs5748469 were determined by the competitive allele specific PCR method. Each genotype of examined SNPs was regressed in a logistic model, assuming the co-dominant, dominant and the recessive models of inheritance with covariates of duration of diabetes, HbA1c, insulin therapy, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. In the present study, for the first time we identified an association between the rs4485648 polymorphism of the TrxR2 gene and DR in Caucasians with Type 2 DM. The estimated ORs of adjusted logistic regression models were found to be as follows: 4.4 for CT heterozygotes, 4.3 for TT homozygotes (co-dominant genetic model) and 4.4 for CT+TT genotypes (dominant genetic model). In our case-control study we were not able to demonstrate any association between rs8140110, rs7211, rs7212, rs4755, rs1548357, and rs5748469 and DR, however, our findings provide evidence that the rs4485648 polymorphism of the TrxR2 gene might exert an independent effect on the development of DR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of Aluminium Chloride on Antioxidant System in the Testis and Epididymis of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Kalaiselvi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the use of chemicals in agriculture, industry, and public health has become so common that the environment is continuously contaminated by the toxic substance-like metals. Aluminum released due to anthropogenic activities such as mining and industrial uses. Aluminium has several industrial uses. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aluminium chloride (AlCl3 on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the testis and epididymis of rats. Methods: Adult male rats were administered with aluminium chloride at two different doses, 50 mg and 100 mg/kg body weight, orally, daily for 45 days. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and their testis and the epididymis were removed. Antioxidant enzymes like catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR, and glutathione-s-transferase (GST were assayed. Lipid peroxidation (LPO, vitamin C, and vitamin E levels were also determined. Results: Aluminium chloride administration had no effect on the bodyweight of the animals but the weight of the testis and epididymis was decreased. Almost all the antioxidant enzymes studied markedly diminished in the testis and epididymis of aluminium chloride treated animals. The non-enzymatic antioxidants, vitamin C and vitamin E, also declined. Lipid peroxidation, on the other hand, significantly increased. The influence was found to be more in 100 mg treated rats when compared to 50 mg treated rats. Conclusions: The present study suggests the reproductive toxicity of aluminium by inducing the oxidative stress in the testis and epididymis and possible interference in sperm production and further maturational processes.

  3. Cardioprotective and nonprotective regimens of chronic hypoxia diversely affect the myocardial antioxidant systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašparová, D.; Neckář, Jan; Dabrowská, L.; Novotný, J.; Mráz, J.; Kolář, František; Žurmanová, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 12 (2015), s. 612-620 ISSN 1094-8341 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1162; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10267S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : adaptation to hypoxia * cardioprotection * ischemia-reperfusion injury * oxidative stress * antioxidant defense Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.615, year: 2015

  4. Investigation of the antioxidant properties of five aromatic plants in model food systems

    OpenAIRE

    Azman, Nurul Aini Binti Mohd

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD it has been analyzed the antioxidant activity of five plants: Camelia sinensis, Gentian lutea, Betula pendula, Convolvulus arvensis and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. An Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance has been tuned up to determine the antiradical activity of white tea against the methoxy radical using ferulic acid as a standard. It has been proven that the components with more antiradical activity, against the methoxy radical, are the ones with the gallate group, EGCG and ECG. ...

  5. Effect of phosphogypsum on growth, physiology, and the antioxidative defense system in sunflower seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi, Nada; Zouari, Mohamed; Chaari, Leila; Abdallah, Ferjani Ben; Woodward, Steve; Kallel, Monem

    2015-10-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is the solid waste product of phosphate fertilizer production and is characterized by high concentrations of salts, heavy metals, and certain natural radionuclides. The work reported in this paper examined the influence of PG amendment on soil physicochemical proprieties, along with its potential impact on several physiological traits of sunflower seedlings grown under controlled conditions. Sunflower seedlings were grown on agricultural soil substrates amended with PG at rates of 0, 2.5, and 5 %. The pH of the soil decreased but electrical conductivity and organic matter, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and heavy metal contents increased in proportion to PG concentration. In contrast, no variations were observed in magnesium content and small increases were recorded in potassium content. The effects of PG on sunflower growth, leaf chlorophyll content, nutritional status, osmotic regulator content, heavy metal accumulation, and antioxidative enzymes were investigated. Concentrations of trace elements in sunflower seedlings grown in PG-amended soil were considerably lower than ranges considered phytotoxic for vascular plants. The 5 % PG dose inhibited shoot extension and accumulation of biomass and caused a decline in total protein content. However, chlorophyll, lipid peroxidation, proline and sugar contents, and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase increased. Collectively, these results strongly support the hypothesis that enzymatic antioxidation capacity is an important mechanism in tolerance of PG salinity in sunflower seedlings.

  6. An apparent trade-off between direct and signal-based induced indirect defence against herbivores in willow trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinuyo Yoneya

    Full Text Available Signal-based induced indirect defence refers to herbivore-induced production of plant volatiles that attract carnivorous natural enemies of herbivores. Relationships between direct and indirect defence strategies were studied using tritrophic systems consisting of six sympatric willow species, willow leaf beetles (Plagiodera versicolora, and their natural predators, ladybeetles (Aiolocaria hexaspilota. Relative preferences of ladybeetles for prey-infested willow plant volatiles, indicating levels of signal-based induced indirect defence, were positively correlated with the vulnerability of willow species to leaf beetles, assigned as relative levels of direct defence. This correlation suggested a possible trade-off among the species, in terms of resource limitation between direct defence and signal-based induced indirect defence. However, analyses of volatiles from infested and uninfested plants showed that the specificity of infested volatile blends (an important factor determining the costs of signal-based induced indirect defence did not affect the attractiveness of infested plant volatiles. Thus, the suggested trade-off in resource limitation was unlikely. Rather, principal coordinates analysis showed that this 'apparent trade-off' between direct and signal-based induced indirect defence was partially explained by differential preferences of ladybeetles to infested plant volatiles of the six willow species. We also showed that relative preferences of ladybeetles for prey-infested willow plant volatiles were positively correlated with oviposition preferences of leaf beetles and with the distributions of leaf beetles in the field. These correlations suggest that ladybeetles use the specificity of infested willow plant volatiles to find suitable prey patches.

  7. How insects overcome two-component plant chemical defence: plant β-glucosidases as the main target for herbivore adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Rook, Fred; Bak, Søren

    2014-08-01

    Insect herbivory is often restricted by glucosylated plant chemical defence compounds that are activated by plant β-glucosidases to release toxic aglucones upon plant tissue damage. Such two-component plant defences are widespread in the plant kingdom and examples of these classes of compounds are alkaloid, benzoxazinoid, cyanogenic and iridoid glucosides as well as glucosinolates and salicinoids. Conversely, many insects have evolved a diversity of counteradaptations to overcome this type of constitutive chemical defence. Here we discuss that such counter-adaptations occur at different time points, before and during feeding as well as during digestion, and at several levels such as the insects’ feeding behaviour, physiology and metabolism. Insect adaptations frequently circumvent or counteract the activity of the plant β-glucosidases, bioactivating enzymes that are a key element in the plant’s two-component chemical defence. These adaptations include host plant choice, non-disruptive feeding guilds and various physiological adaptations as well as metabolic enzymatic strategies of the insect’s digestive system. Furthermore, insect adaptations often act in combination, may exist in both generalists and specialists, and can act on different classes of defence compounds. We discuss how generalist and specialist insects appear to differ in their ability to use these different types of adaptations: in generalists, adaptations are often inducible, whereas in specialists they are often constitutive. Future studies are suggested to investigate in detail how insect adaptations act in combination to overcome plant chemical defences and to allow ecologically relevant conclusions.

  8. Antioxidants in Translational Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Harald H.H.W.; Stocker, Roland; Vollbracht, Claudia; Paulsen, Gøran; Riley, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: It is generally accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging molecules or antioxidants exert health-promoting effects and thus their consumption as food additives and nutraceuticals has been greatly encouraged. Antioxidants may be beneficial in situations of subclinical deficiency and increased demand or acutely upon high-dose infusion. However, to date, there is little clinical evidence for the long-term benefit of most antioxidants. Alarmingly, recent evidence points even to health risks, in particular for supplements of lipophilic antioxidants. Recent Advances: The biological impact of ROS depends not only on their quantities but also on their chemical nature, (sub)cellular and tissue location, and the rates of their formation and degradation. Moreover, ROS serve important physiological functions; thus, inappropriate removal of ROS may cause paradoxical reductive stress and thereby induce or promote disease. Critical Issues: Any recommendation on antioxidants must be based on solid clinical evidence and patient-relevant outcomes rather than surrogate parameters. Future Directions: Such evidence-based use may include site-directed application, time-limited high dosing, (functional) pharmacological repair of oxidized biomolecules, and triggers of endogenous antioxidant response systems. Ideally, these approaches need guidance by patient stratification through predictive biomarkers and possibly imaging modalities. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 1130–1143. PMID:26154592

  9. Beneficial effects of Aesculus hippocastanum L. seed extract on the body's own antioxidant defense system on subacute administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükkurt, Ismail; Ince, Sinan; Keleş, Hikmet; Akkol, Esra Küpeli; Avci, Gülcan; Yeşilada, Erdem; Bacak, Elif

    2010-05-04

    Seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L. have long been used in European phytotherapy to treat inflammatory and vascular problems. In Turkish folk medicine, tea prepared from the crushed seeds was used to pass kidney stone and against stomach ache, while a fraction of seed was swallowed to alleviate hemorrhoids symptoms. In order to evaluate the in vivo effects of escin mixture from Aesculus hippocastanum seed on the blood and tissue antioxidant defense systems in standard pellet diet (SPD) and in high-fat diet (HFD) consumed male mice. Escin mixture was obtained from the ethanol extract of seeds. Escin mixture was administered orally to male mice fed either standard pellet diet (SPD) or high-fat diet (HFD) at 100mg/kg doses daily for 5 weeks and the tissue (liver, kidney and heart) and blood samples were collected at the end of experimental period. The effect of escin mixture on the plasma antioxidant activity; blood and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels; erythrocyte and tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT) in SPD and HFD consumed animals were experimentally studied. Escin mixture prohibited the adverse effects of oxidative stress and showed a protective effect on the liver architecture both in SPD and HFD consumed male mice. Escin mixture prohibited the adverse effects of oxidative stress and showed a protective effect on the liver architecture both in SPD and HFD consumed male mice. Combined administration of high-fat diet with escin mixture decreased blood (p<0.01), liver (p<0.01), kidney (p<0.05), and heart (p<0.05) of MDA, liver SOD (p<0.01) and CAT (p<0.05) levels and increased blood (p<0.01) and liver GSH (p<0.001) levels in mice. The present results indicate that Aesculus hippocastanum increase the antioxidative defense system of the body and prevent HFD-induced lipid peroxidation in male mice. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of dietary oxidized fish oil supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Larroquet, Laurence; Dias, Karine; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Heraud, Cécile; Corlay, Dominique

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the response of the antioxidant defense system against dietary prooxidant conditions in rainbow trout juveniles. Fish (initial mean weight: 62 ± 1 g) were fed three fishmeal and plant-derived protein-based diets supplemented with 15% fresh fish oil (CTL diet), 15% fresh fish oil from tuna by-products (BYP diet) or 15% autooxidized fish oil (OX diet) over a 12-week growth trial at 17.5 ± 0.5 °C. No significant differences in growth performance were recorded between dietary groups. Muscle lipid content was reduced and n-6 PUFA levels were increased in rainbow trout fed diets BYP and OX compared to CTL. After 12 weeks of feeding, the level of lipid peroxidation products in muscle was not affected whereas the 8-isoprostane content in liver was increased in fish fed diet OX as well as plasma total and oxidized glutathione contents. The hepatic and muscle contents for α-tocopherol were decreased in fish fed BYP and OX. Hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities and mRNA levels were not affected after 12 weeks of feeding, except for catalase and glutathione peroxidase 1b2 mRNA levels that were decreased in trout fed diet OX. Fish fed diet OX and BYP displayed also reduced cytosolic Nrf2 and both cytosolic and nuclear NF-κB protein levels in liver. The present work indicates that feeding rainbow trout juveniles with fresh fish oil from by-products or moderately oxidized lipid appears not to be detrimental to the growth performance of fish. The mechanisms beyond the control of the antioxidant defense system by moderately oxidized lipid require further investigations in rainbow trout juveniles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prenatal methylmercury exposure hampers glutathione antioxidant system ontogenesis and causes long-lasting oxidative stress in the mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringari, James; Nunes, Adriana K.C.; Franco, Jeferson L.; Bohrer, Denise; Garcia, Solange C.; Dafre, Alcir L.; Milatovic, Dejan; Souza, Diogo O.; Rocha, Joao B.T.; Aschner, Michael; Farina, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    During the perinatal period, the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely sensitive to metals, including methylmercury (MeHg). Although the mechanism(s) associated with MeHg-induced developmental neurotoxicity remains obscure, several studies point to the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system as an important molecular target for this toxicant. To extend our recent findings of MeHg-induced GSH dyshomeostasis, the present study was designed to assess the developmental profile of the GSH antioxidant system in the mouse brain during the early postnatal period after in utero exposure to MeHg. Pregnant mice were exposed to different doses of MeHg (1, 3 and 10 mg/l, diluted in drinking water, ad libitum) during the gestational period. After delivery, pups were killed at different time points - postnatal days (PND) 1, 11 and 21 - and the whole brain was used for determining biochemical parameters related to the antioxidant GSH system, as well as mercury content and the levels of F 2 -isoprostane. In control animals, cerebral GSH levels significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period; gestational exposure to MeHg caused a dose-dependent inhibition of this developmental event. Cerebral glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period in control animals; gestational MeHg exposure induced a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both developmental phenomena. These adverse effects of prenatal MeHg exposure were corroborated by marked increases in cerebral F 2 -isoprostanes levels at all time points. Significant negative correlations were found between F 2 -isoprostanes and GSH, as well as between F 2 -isoprostanes and GPx activity, suggesting that MeHg-induced disruption of the GSH system maturation is related to MeHg-induced increased lipid peroxidation in the pup brain. In utero MeHg exposure also caused a dose-dependent increase in the cerebral levels of mercury at

  12. Gelatin hydrolysate from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme: Antioxidant activity and its potential in model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2012-12-01

    Antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates from blacktip shark skin prepared using papaya latex enzyme with different degrees of hydrolysis (DHs: 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) were evaluated. All antioxidant activity indices of hydrolysates increased with increasing DH (Pshark skin (40%DH) can potentially be used as an alternative source of natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of the functional efficacy of an antioxidative probiotic in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hütt Pirje

    2005-08-01

    be assessed by improvement of some measurable laboratory indices of well-established physiological functions of host, e.g. markers of antioxidative defence system.

  14. Paradigm shifts, South African Defence Policy and the South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elements of Kuhn's theory on scientific revolutions and its applicability to the political domain also promote explanations of military change. In this regard, changes in the South African defence realm during the past decade and the rise of the South African National Defence Force need not be viewed as inexplicable.

  15. the south african national defence force: from here to where

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francois Vreÿ

    Defence White Paper, and the 2004 Defence Budget Vote represent prominent indicators of the ongoing maturation process. The theory of Kuhn on scientific .... accommodation and interpretation of the unfolding context of future warfare. However, for this to materialise requires from the proponents of warfighting futures.

  16. Quantitative Verification and Synthesis of Attack-Defence Scenarios Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming; Parker, David

    Attack-defence trees are a powerful technique for formally evaluating attack-defence scenarios. They represent in an intuitive, graphical way the interaction between an attacker and a defender who compete in order to achieve conflicting objectives. We propose a novel framework for the formal

  17. Pareto Efficient Solution of Attack-Defence Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming

    Attack-defence trees are a promising approach for representing threat scenarios and possible countermeasures in a concise and intuitive manner. An attack-defence tree describes the interaction between an attacker and a defender, and is evaluated by assigning parameters to the nodes, such as

  18. Methodology to detect gaps in a soccer defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikolas Sten; Andersen, Thomas Bull

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to create a methodology which can provide information about gaps in an opposing team’s defence. To illustrate the methodology, a defence was tracked during a game in the danish Superliga using ZXY radio tracking and analysed using the methodology. Results show...

  19. 240 THE RELEVANCE OF THE DEFENCE OF ALIBI IN CRIMINAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    EWULUM: The Relevance of the Defence of Alibi in Criminal Trials in Nigeria. Page | 240 ... Abstract. Criminal trials in Nigeria usually require that the defendant will raise a defence on his behalf. There .... pursuance of the original agreement to kill, it seems to me that the five who took no active part in the killing are yet ...

  20. Semantic technologies and big data analytics for cyber defence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leenen, L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available are essential in the cyber defence domain. Big data technologies supported by semantic technologies can improve cybersecurity, and thus cyber defence by providing support for the processing and understanding of the huge amounts of information in the cyber...

  1. Contribution of Macromolecular Antioxidants to Dietary Antioxidant Capacity: A Study in the Spanish Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Díaz-Rubio, M Elena; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies show that diets with a high antioxidant capacity, such us those rich in plant food and beverages, are associated with significant decreases in the overall risk of cardiovascular disease or colorectal cancer. Current studies on dietary antioxidants and dietary antioxidant capacity focus exclusively on low molecular weight or soluble antioxidants (vitamins C and E, phenolic compounds and carotenoids), ignoring macromolecular antioxidants. These are polymeric phenolic compounds or polyphenols and carotenoids linked to plant food macromolecules that yield bioavailable metabolites by the action of the microbiota with significant effects either local and/or systemic after absorption. This study determined the antioxidant capacity of the Spanish Mediterranean diet including for the first time both soluble and macromolecular antioxidants. Antioxidant capacity and consumption data of the 54 most consumed plant foods and beverages were used. Results showed that macromolecular antioxidants are the major dietary antioxidants, contributing a 61% to the diet antioxidant capacity (8000 μmol Trolox, determined by ABTS method). The antioxidant capacity data for foods and beverages provided here may be used to estimate the dietary antioxidant capacity in different populations, where similar contributions of macromolecular antioxidants may be expected, and also to design antioxidant-rich diets. Including macromolecular antioxidants in mechanistic, intervention and observational studies on dietary antioxidants may contribute to a better understanding of the role of antioxidants in nutrition and health.

  2. Interaction of electromagnetic field (10 kHz with ferritin nanoparticles and antioxidant system of wheat at reproductive phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Behmanesh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of magnetic and electromagnetic fields on the living organisms have drawn attention in the recent years, but their exact mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, the effects of 10 kHz electromagnetic magnetic field on some physiological parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were evaluated. The plants in their reproductive phase were treated for 4 days, each 5 h. Then the iron content, ratio of Fe-bound proteins to total proteins, content, size and secondary structure of ferritin nanoparticles as well as activity of antioxidant system were evaluated. The results showed that in comparison with the control plants, treatment with electromagnetic field significantly increased the iron contents of all organs except seeds and ratio of Fe-bound proteins to total proteins of seeds. The content and secondary structure of ferritin nanoparticles in edible parts of magnetic field treated plants were decreased significantly, but the hydrodynamic diameter was increased significantly compared to the control plants. This treatment also caused the significant increase of catalase activity and remarkably decreased peroxidase activity of wheat seeds, which in turn led to maintenance of membrane lipid peroxidation. These results suggested that electromagnetic field with applied frequency affected wheat plants by changing the content of total iron, Fe-bound proteins special ferritin and its characteristics and activation of antioxidant system.

  3. Effect of antioxidants on x-ray induced DNA SSB and DSB in different cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadu, Kadem

    1998-01-01

    The effect of x-ray radiation or antioxidants such as actinomycin D, cycloheximide and mitomycin C is studied on CHO, BHK and HeLa cells. X-ray radiation caused DNA single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) are prevented by cycloheximide and actinomycin-D. The DSB and SSB are significant in the case of x-ray radiation in combination with MMC, but different with actinomycin-D and cycloheximide in combination with x-ray radiation which causes less number of SSB and DSB. The ISC is observed more with x-ray radiation in combination with antioxidants mitomycin C (MMC) than that of cycloheximide and actinomycin-D, which individually causes inhibition of ISC induced by x-ray radiation. This observation proves that the MMC has an additive effect on x-ray induced ISC during cell proliferation. During cell proliferation, cell viability is observed with x-ray radiation and antioxidants which are dependent on the cell cycle phase. However, in the control cells, the initial Go-phase has shown negligible difference in percent cell viability thereby during S-phase gradual increase in the cell viability, and cell proliferation have been found to be stopped at G2+M-phase. On the contrary, cell viability and the extent of cell proliferation with x-ray radiation in combination with MMC have shown more damage (OH-damage) than is caused by x-ray radiation and MMC, separately. But, the fact is that actinomycin-D and cycloheximide act as antioxidants preventing thereby free radical formation and cell death, caused by x-ray radiation. During cell proliferation, cells observed from S and (G2+M) phase exhibit difference in cell viability in all the treatments alone and in combination. HeLa cells have been found insensitive to x-ray radiation and could be ascribed to the presence of glutathione transferase, which is less in CHO/BHK cell line. (author)

  4. Heat-induced regulation of antioxidant defense system and nutrient accumulation in hexaploid bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Akram, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ten cultivars (five registered S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, and Lasani, and five candidate cultivars P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10, and G.A-20) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined for high temperature stress tolerance. Plants were grown in soil filled pots in the Botanical Garden of the Department of Botany University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three different temperature regimes (30, 40 and 50 degree C) were applied at two different growth stages (tillering and boot) for three temperature durations 30, 60 and 90 min in a growth chamber. The leaf and root samples were collected after two weeks of temperature treatment and then analyzed for enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as inorganic nutrients (N, P, K+, Ca2+). At the end, data obtained were statistically analyzed to distinguish heat tolerant from non-tolerant wheat cultivars. After appraisal of growth, antioxidant defense system and uptake of nutrients it was found that cvs. S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and G.A-20 exhibited better thermo-tolerance capabilities than the other wheat cultivars (P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10). Among the thermo-tolerant wheat cultivars, G.A-20 and Lasani were superior in maintaining shoot fresh weights and shoot length, high antioxidant activities and better nutrient uptake at both tillering and boot stages. The response of all cultivars to heat stress applied at the tillering stage or boot stage was almost the same. (author)

  5. A saponin-detoxifying enzyme mediates suppression of plant defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouarab, K.; Melton, R.; Peart, J.; Baulcombe, D.; Osbourn, A.

    2002-08-01

    Plant disease resistance can be conferred by constitutive features such as structural barriers or preformed antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Additional defence mechanisms are activated in response to pathogen attack and include localized cell death (the hypersensitive response). Pathogens use different strategies to counter constitutive and induced plant defences, including degradation of preformed antimicrobial compounds and the production of molecules that suppress induced plant defences. Here we present evidence for a two-component process in which a fungal pathogen subverts the preformed antimicrobial compounds of its host and uses them to interfere with induced defence responses. Antimicrobial saponins are first hydrolysed by a fungal saponin-detoxifying enzyme. The degradation product of this hydrolysis then suppresses induced defence responses by interfering with fundamental signal transduction processes leading to disease resistance.

  6. Getting prepared for future attack : induction of plant defences by herbivore egg deposition and consequences for the insect community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashalidou, F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved intriguing defences against insect herbivores. Compared to constitutive Plants have evolved intriguing defences against insect herbivores. Compared to constitutive defences that are always present, plants can respond with inducible defences when they are attacked. Insect

  7. Optimal binary solvent extraction system for phenolic antioxidants from mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoo, Yin Yin; Ho, Swee Kheng; Abas, Faridah; Lai, Oi Ming; Ho, Chun Wai; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-06-14

    Antioxidants have been widely used in the food industry to enhance product quality by preventing oxidation of susceptible substances. This work was carried out to maximise the recovery of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity from Morinda citrifolia fruit via modification of the ethanol concentration, extraction time and extraction temperature at minimal processing cost. The optimised conditions yielded values of 881.57 ± 17.74 mg GAE/100 g DW for TPC, 552.53 ± 34.16 mg CE/100 g DW for TFC, 799.20 ± 2.97 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for ABTS and 2,317.01 ± 18.13 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for DPPH were 75% ethanol, 40 min of time and 57 °C. The four responses did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) from predicted values, indicating that models obtained are suitable to the optimisation of extraction conditions for phenolics from M. citrifolia. The relative amounts of flavonoids were 0.784 ± 0.01 mg quercetin/g of extract and 1.021 ± 0.04 mg rutin/g of extract. On the basis of the results obtained, M. citrifolia extract can be used as a valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.

  8. Antioxidant defense system responses and DNA damage of earthworms exposed to Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Dongmei; Li, Chandan; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    The use of earthworms as a sublethal endpoint has significantly contributed to the ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils. Few studies have focused on the potential toxicity of PFOS to earthworms in the soil. In this work, artificial soils were tested, and contact filter paper studies were used. The results showed that earthworm growth was generally inhibited. The antioxidant activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were initially activated and then inhibited. Reduced glutathione content was observed, and malondialdehyde content was elevated over the duration of the exposure. These results suggested that PFOS induced oxidative stress in earthworms. In addition, the values of olive tail moment, tail DNA% and tail length using SCGE showed similar frequency distributions and increased with increases in the PFOS concentration. These results suggest that all concentrations of PFOS cause DNA damage. Highlights: ► We studied the potential ecotoxicity of PFOS to earthworm in soil. ► Eisenia foetida was used as a model organism and its growth was generally inhibited. ► Antioxidant enzyme activities were initially activated and then inhibited. ► Reduced glutathione content was observed and malondialdehyde content was elevated. ► PFOS induced DNA damage in earthworms. -- Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in earthworms

  9. Hypoxia tolerance and antioxidant defense system of juvenile jumbo squids in oxygen minimum zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trübenbach, Katja; Teixeira, Tatiana; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2013-10-01

    Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) is a large oceanic squid endemic off the Eastern Tropical Pacific that undertakes diel vertical migrations into mesopelagic oxygen minimum zones. One of the expected physiological effects of such migration is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the surface, promoted by the transition between hypoxia and reoxygenation states. The aim of this study was to investigate the energy expenditure rates and the antioxidant stress strategies of juvenile D. gigas under normoxia and hypoxia, namely by quantifying oxygen consumption rates, antioxidant enzyme activities [including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)], heat shock protein expression (Hsp70/Hsc70), and lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels]. A high significant decrease (68%) in squid's metabolic rates was observed during hypoxia (p0.05), with the latter indicating no enhancement of lipid peroxidation (i.e. cellular damage) at the warmer and normoxic surface waters. The understanding of such physiological strategies that are linked to oxygen deprivation and reoxygenation phases may provide valuable information about how this species is quickly responding to the impacts of environmental stressors coupled with global climate change.

  10. Oxidative stress and antioxidative systems: recipes for successful data collection and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noctor, Graham; Mhamdi, Amna; Foyer, Christine H

    2016-05-01

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common to many fundamental responses of plants. Enormous and ever-growing interest has focused on this research area, leading to an extensive literature that documents the tremendous progress made in recent years. As in other areas of plant biology, advances have been greatly facilitated by developments in genomics-dependent technologies and the application of interdisciplinary techniques that generate information at multiple levels. At the same time, advances in understanding ROS are fundamentally reliant on the use of biochemical and cell biology techniques that are specific to the study of oxidative stress. It is therefore timely to revisit these approaches with the aim of providing a guide to convenient methods and assisting interested researchers in avoiding potential pitfalls. Our critical overview of currently popular methodologies includes a detailed discussion of approaches used to generate oxidative stress, measurements of ROS themselves, determination of major antioxidant metabolites, assays of antioxidative enzymes and marker transcripts for oxidative stress. We consider the applicability of metabolomics, proteomics and transcriptomics approaches and discuss markers such as damage to DNA and RNA. Our discussion of current methodologies is firmly anchored to future technological developments within this popular research field. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Designing of Biodegradable and Biocompatible Release and Delivery Systems of Selected Antioxidants Used in Cosmetology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymiak, Magdalena; Debowska, Renata; Bazela, Karolina; Dzwigalowska, Agata; Orchel, Arkadiusz; Jelonek, Katarzyna; Dolegowska, Barbara; Kowalczuk, Marek; Adamus, Grazyna

    2015-11-09

    Conjugates of antioxidants p-anisic (p-AA) and vanillic (VA) acids with nontoxic, biocompatible, and biodegradedable oligo-(R,S)-(3-hydoxybutyrate) carrier were synthesized, and their structural and biological characterization was performed. The molecular structure of the bioconjugates, in which antioxidants are covalently bonded with oligo(3-hydroxybutyrate) (OHB) chains, has been proven by mass spectrometry supported by NMR. The bioconjugate hydrolytic degradation studies allowed gaining thorough insight into the hydrolysis process and confirmed the release of p-AA and VA. In vitro studies demonstrated that all of the conjugates studied were well tolerated by KB and HaCaT cell lines, as they had no marked cytotoxicity, while conjugates with a relatively short OHB carrier are optimal to support keratinocyte function. The preliminary study of the biological activity confirmed the protective effect of VA-OHB conjugates against H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation in human keratinocytes (HaCaT). It was also demonstrated that the selected bioconjugates can penetrate all layers of the skin, which shows their functionality and opens up their potential application in cosmetology.

  12. Effect of Artemisia absinthium essential oil on antioxidative systems of broiler's liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadinović Ljiljana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Artemisia absinthium essential oil (AAEO on enzymatic activity of super-oxide-dismutase (SOD, glutathione-peroxidase (GSHPx, glutathione-reductase (GR, peroxidase (POD, xantine-oxidase (XOD and non-enzymatic (content of lipid peroxides (LPx and gluthathione (GSH antioxidative status of broilers infected with mixture of oocysts of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria mitis and Eimeria necatrix in comparison to coccidiostat salinomycin was investigated. The in vivo investigation were carried out on 120 Arbor acres broilers of both sexes. Broilers were randomly distributed into four groups. Group A was uninfected and untreated; group B was infected and was kept untreated; group C preventively received coccidiostatic salinomycin in quantity of 60 mg/kg of feed and was inoculated with coccidia species at 21st day-of-age and group D received in feed AAEO in quantity of 3 g/kg and was infected with Eimeria oocysts at 21st day-of-age. Livers were collected for the subsequent evaluation of antioxidative status. It was concluded that AAEO added in feed for broilers prevented the development of coccidia oocysts and therefore it can be used as prophylactic feed additive.

  13. Effects of Platycodin D on Reflux Esophagitis due to Modulation of Antioxidant Defense Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Yeon Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The effects of platycodin D (PD pretreatment were examined in reflux esophagitis (RE induced rats. Methods. Sham, control, and omeprazole (OMP group were pretreated with distilled water or OMP as a reference, respectively, and PD pretreated groups were given 3 different PD doses once a day for 7 days. One hour after last pretreatment, RE was induced by ligation of the forestomach and pylorus. At 8 h after operation, all animals were sacrificed. Results. PD showed significant dose-dependent reduction of gastric secretion, myeloperoxidase activity, and RE lesion areas of esophagus and stomach mucosa. There was a reduction of lipid peroxidation in 2 doses of PD groups and elevation of antioxidant enzyme activity in all PD groups. Gastric hexose and sialic acid were significantly increased in PD groups, while collagen was reduced. Plasma histamine levels were significantly reduced in all PD groups, but not in the OMP group. Total invasive lesion sizes of esophagus and gastric fundus were significantly decreased in all PD groups. Thicknesses in esophagus of all PD groups were significantly decreased and thicknesses of funds were significantly increased except lowest PD dose. Conclusions. Therapeutic effects of PD on the esophageal and gastric lesions were shown in RE induced rats dose-dependently. The PD pretreatment had significant antioxidant effects with regulation of histamine levels. This study provides useful information regarding the effectiveness of the drug for RE and further novel drug discovery using natural herbal products.

  14. Effect of Calcium and Potassium on Antioxidant System of Vicia faba L. Under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayssam M. Ali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd in soil poses a major threat to plant growth and productivity. In the present experiment, we studied the effect of calcium (Ca2+ and/or potassium (K+ on the antioxidant system, accumulation of proline (Pro, malondialdehyde (MDA, and content of photosynthetic pigments, cadmium (Cd and nutrients, i.e., Ca2+ and K+ in leaf of Vicia faba L. (cv. TARA under Cd stress. Plants grown in the presence of Cd exhibited reduced growth traits [root length (RL plant−1, shoot length (SL plant−1, root fresh weight (RFW plant−1, shoot fresh weight (SFW plant−1, root dry weight (RDW plant−1 and shoot dry weight (SDW plant−1] and concentration of Ca2+, K+, Chlorophyll (Chl a and Chl b content, except content of MDA, Cd and (Pro. The antioxidant enzymes [peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD] slightly increased as compared to control under Cd stress. However, a significant improvement was observed in all growth traits and content of Ca2+, K+, Chl a, Chl b ,Pro and activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT, POD and SOD in plants subjected to Ca2+ and/or K+. The maximum alleviating effect was recorded in the plants grown in medium containing Ca2+ and K+ together. This study indicates that the application of Ca2+ and/or K+ had a significant and synergistic effect on plant growth. Also, application of Ca2+ and/or K+ was highly effective against the toxicity of Cd by improving activity of antioxidant enzymes and solute that led to the enhanced plant growth of faba bean plants.

  15. The Transformation from Defence Procurement to Defence Acquisition - Opportunities for New Forms of Analytical Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    then led a coalition of more than 30 different countries. The US code name for its own efforts in this phase of what is now known as the First Gulf...War was Operation Desert Storm (ODS, 1991). The UK, the other major contributor to the war, code name for both phases of the war was Operation...to the Nordic Battle Group, NBG. Also, the defence industry in Sweden was domestic during the Cold War Era. With the current globalisation and

  16. The reconfiguration of the SA defence industry in the post-2015-defence review environment: prospects & challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khanyile, Moses

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available / Services Accessible finance Industry Development • Land / Buildings Finance • Equipment Finance • Project Finance • Working Capital Finance • Bridging Finance • VAT loans • Finance Guarantees • Revolving Credit • Business Plan Development... business community? • Intra-Africa trade: ~10% • Intra-North American trade: ~40% • Intra-WE trade: ~60% DEFENCE REVIEW CONTEXT Main goals (4) & tasks (13) for the SANDF Five (5) Planning Milestones Milestone 1: Arrest the decline Milestone 2...

  17. [Effects of brassinolide on the antioxidant system and photosynthesis of cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature, light and salt environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiu; Lu, Xiao-min

    2015-09-01

    The effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on antioxidant system and photosynthesis of cucumber seedlings were studied under suboptimal temperature, light and salt environment. Compared with the control, the leaf H2O2 content, lipid peroxidation and cell membrane permeability significantly increased, and the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (g(s)), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr) and dry matter accumulation decreased by 39.3%, 40.0%, 21.2%, 47.2% and 35.9% in the suboptimal environment, respectively. Applying EBR could further improve the antioxidant enzyme activity, reduce the H2O2 content and membrane permeability of seedlings, alleviate the drop range of Pn, g(s) and Tr, improve the growth of seedlings and increase the dry matter accumulation by 25.9%. Therefore, EBR treatment could keep higher photosynthetic performance to effectively promote cucumber seedlings growth through adjusting the protective enzyme activity and reducing membrane lipid peroxide level under suboptimal temperature, light and salt environment.

  18. Changes in Antioxidant Defense System Using Different Lipid Emulsions in Parenteral Nutrition in Children after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Auxiliadora Baena-Gómez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditionally, lipids used in parenteral nutrition (PN are based on ω-6 fatty acid-rich vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, with potential adverse effects involving oxidative stress. Methods: We evaluated the antioxidant defense system in children, after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, who were randomized to use a lipid emulsion with fish oil or soybean oil. Blood samples at baseline, at 10 days, and at the end of the PN were taken to analyze plasma retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, coenzyme Q9 and coenzyme Q10 levels, and catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPOX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in lysed erythrocytes. Results: An increase in plasma α-tocopherol levels in the group of patients receiving the fish oil-containing emulsion (FO compared with the group receiving the soybean emulsion was observed at day 10 of PN. Concurrently, plasma α-tocopherol increased in the FO group and β-carotene decreased in both groups at day 10 compared with baseline levels, being more significant in the group receiving the FO emulsion. Conclusion: FO-containing emulsions in PN could improve the antioxidant profile by increasing levels of α-tocopherol in children after HSCT who are at higher risk of suffering oxidative stress and metabolic disorders.

  19. Prooxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Its Relationship with Clinical and Laboratory Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mehdi Jafari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study was aimed at evaluating prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and its relationship with laboratory findings and clinical manifestations. Methods. In this case-control study, 60 patients with SLE and 60 healthy individuals were enrolled. The blood samples were collected and their sera were separated. Subsequently, the prooxidant-antioxidant balance value was evaluated using PAB assay for each sample. Results. The mean of PAB values in SLE patients was significantly higher than healthy controls (147.3±42 versus 84.8±32.2 HK, P<0.0001. Furthermore, in SLE patients, there was a positive significant correlation between the PAB and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR (r=0.492, P<0.001. In addition, the PAB values in patients with alopecia, discoid rash, oral ulcers, arthritis, and nephritis were significantly higher than those without these manifestations. Conclusion. The findings of current study showed that the mean of PAB was significantly higher in SLE patients and PAB was correlated with ESR. Moreover increased PAB was found in SLE patients with alopecia, discoid rash, oral ulcers, arthritis, and nephritis. These findings suggest that the measurement of PAB may be useful to show oxidative stress condition in SLE patients.

  20. The antioxidative defense system is involved in the premature senescence in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum NC89

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    Yu Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: α-Farnesene is a volatile sesquiterpene synthesized by the plant mevalonate (MVA pathway through the action of α-farnesene synthase. The α-farnesene synthase 1 (MdAFS1 gene was isolated from apple peel (var. white winterpearmain, and transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum NC89. The transgenic plants had faster stem elongation during vegetative growth and earlier flowering than wild type (WT. Our studies focused on the transgenic tobacco phenotype. RESULTS: The levels of chlorophyll and soluble protein decreased and a lower seed biomass and reduced net photosynthetic rate (Pn in transgenic plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and superoxide radicals (O2._ had higher levels in transgenics compared to controls. Transgenic plants also had enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress. The transcriptome of 8-week-old plants was studied to detect molecular changes. Differentially expressed unigene analysis showed that ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, cell growth, and death unigenes were upregulated. Unigenes related to photosynthesis, antioxidant activity, and nitrogen metabolism were downregulated. Combined with the expression analysis of senescence marker genes, these results indicate that senescence started in the leaves of the transgenic plants at the vegetative growth stage. CONCLUSIONS: The antioxidative defense system was compromised and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS played an important role in the premature aging of transgenic plants.

  1. Effects of two different high doses of irradiation on antioxidant system in the liver of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yildiz; Bukan, Neslihan; Dizman, Aysen; Hicsonmez, Ayse; Bilgihan, Ayse

    2004-03-01

    To examine the state of the oxidant-antioxidant system in the liver of guinea pig caused by high doses of ionizing radiation in the early period. The research was carried out on guinea pigs irradiated with the doses of 8 Gy (group 2) or 15 Gy (group 3) (single dose/whole body) in comparison with control group (group 1). The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathione (GSH), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the levels of selenium in the liver were measured. TBARS levels in the irradiated animals were markedly higher than those in controls. In group 3, GSH levels and GSH-Px activity were significantly increased while activity of SOD and CAT were significantly decreased compared to groups 1 and 2. Liver selenium levels were not influenced by irradiation. The data have shown that gamma-irradiation at the doses of 8 Gy or 15 Gy results in significant increase in free radical formation while antioxidant enzymes were affected only at a dose of 15 Gy.

  2. Effect of a Static Magnetic Fields and Fluoride Ions on the Antioxidant Defense System of Mice Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzeja, Ewa; Synowiec-Wojtarowicz, Agnieszka; Stec, Małgorzata; Glinka, Marek; Gawron, Stanisław; Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    The results of studies on the biological influence of magnetic fields are controversial and do not provide clear answers regarding their impact on cell functioning. Fluoride compounds are substances that influence free radical processes, which occur when the reactive forms of oxygen are present. It is not known whether static magnetic fields (SMF) cause any changes in fluoride assimilation or activity. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the potential relationship between magnetic field exposure to, and the antioxidant system of, fibroblasts cultured with fluoride ions. Three chambers with static magnetic fields of different intensities (0.4, 0.6, and 0.7 T) were used in this work. Fluoride ions were added at a concentration of 0.12 mM, which did not cause the precipitation of calcium or magnesium. The results of this study show that static magnetic fields reduce the oxidative stress caused by fluoride ions and normalize the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT). Static magnetic fields modify the energy state of fibroblasts, causing an increase in the ATP concentration and a decrease in the MDA concentration. These results suggest that exposure to fluoride and an SMF improves the tolerance of cells to the oxidative stress induced by fluoride ions. PMID:23873295

  3. Effect of a Static Magnetic Fields and Fluoride Ions on the Antioxidant Defense System of Mice Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Pawłowska-Góral

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on the biological influence of magnetic fields are controversial and do not provide clear answers regarding their impact on cell functioning. Fluoride compounds are substances that influence free radical processes, which occur when the reactive forms of oxygen are present. It is not known whether static magnetic fields (SMF cause any changes in fluoride assimilation or activity. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the potential relationship between magnetic field exposure to, and the antioxidant system of, fibroblasts cultured with fluoride ions. Three chambers with static magnetic fields of different intensities (0.4, 0.6, and 0.7 T were used in this work. Fluoride ions were added at a concentration of 0.12 mM, which did not cause the precipitation of calcium or magnesium. The results of this study show that static magnetic fields reduce the oxidative stress caused by fluoride ions and normalize the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase (CAT. Static magnetic fields modify the energy state of fibroblasts, causing an increase in the ATP concentration and a decrease in the MDA concentration. These results suggest that exposure to fluoride and an SMF improves the tolerance of cells to the oxidative stress induced by fluoride ions.

  4. Prooxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Its Relationship with Clinical and Laboratory Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seyyed Mehdi; Salimi, Saeedeh; Nakhaee, Alireza; Kalani, Hamed; Tavallaie, Shima; Farajian-Mashhadi, Farzaneh; Zakeri, Zahra; Sandoughi, Mahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Aim. This study was aimed at evaluating prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its relationship with laboratory findings and clinical manifestations. Methods. In this case-control study, 60 patients with SLE and 60 healthy individuals were enrolled. The blood samples were collected and their sera were separated. Subsequently, the prooxidant-antioxidant balance value was evaluated using PAB assay for each sample. Results. The mean of PAB values in SLE patients was significantly higher than healthy controls (147.3 ± 42 versus 84.8 ± 32.2 HK, P oral ulcers, arthritis, and nephritis were significantly higher than those without these manifestations. Conclusion. The findings of current study showed that the mean of PAB was significantly higher in SLE patients and PAB was correlated with ESR. Moreover increased PAB was found in SLE patients with alopecia, discoid rash, oral ulcers, arthritis, and nephritis. These findings suggest that the measurement of PAB may be useful to show oxidative stress condition in SLE patients.

  5. Oxidation in fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise 2 : Assessment of the efficacy of different tocopherol antioxidant systems by discriminant partial least squares regression analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Lund, Pia

    2000-01-01

    ) preparation and a water-soluble (Grindox 1032) preparation, The physical structure of the fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise was manipulated by adding extra emulsifier (Panodan TR) with the purpose of investigating whether or not this affected the antioxidative activity of the tocopherol mixtures. A number......Oxidative protection of mayonnaises with 16% fish oil was studied during cold storage (5 degrees C) after supplementation with different tocopherol systems: the ternary antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin and tocopherol (A/L/T), and two commercial mixtures, an oil-soluble (Toco 70...

  6. Total antioxidant blood capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and distal symmetrical polyneuropathy

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    Đorđević Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Reduced systemic antioxidant defense is considered to play an important mediating role in pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the total antioxidant blood capacity (TAC is reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM and diabetic distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DDSP and to correlate this antioxidant capacity with the degree of peripheral nerve dysfunction. Methods. This study involved 100 patients with type 2 DM and signs of DDSP, as well as the control group of 50 healthy subjects. The evaluation of DDSP was based on physical examination and nerve conduction studies. The degree of peripheral nerve dysfunction was estimated by scoring and analysing sensory and motor nerve conduction parameters (distal latency and amplitude of evoked potential, conduction velocity. Laboratory analyses involved blood glucose and HbA1C levels, as well as plasma TAC. Results. Blood glucose and HbA1C level was significantly higher in the patients than in the control group (p < 0.0001. The TAC was depleted in the diabetic group and the depletion was statistically significant (p < 0.0001. There was no significant correlation between the TAC and the serum glucose level, TAC and HbA1C level as well as between TAC and the duration of DM. There was no significant correlation between TAC and peripheral nerve conduction parameters. Conclusion. Total antioxidant blood capacity is reduced in patients with DDSP, but it does not correlate with blood sugar level, with the duration of DM or with the degree of functional nerve damage. These results show a reduced systemic antioxidant defence in patients with type 2 DM and DDSP. However, it is still unclear to what extent the oxidative stress is a contributing factor or leading cause of diabetic neuropathy, suggesting that further studies are necessary.

  7. Antioxidants in Translational Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Harald H H W; Stocker, Roland; Vollbracht, Claudia; Paulsen, Gøran; Riley, Dennis; Daiber, Andreas; Cuadrado, Antonio

    2015-11-10

    It is generally accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging molecules or antioxidants exert health-promoting effects and thus their consumption as food additives and nutraceuticals has been greatly encouraged. Antioxidants may be beneficial in situations of subclinical deficiency and increased demand or acutely upon high-dose infusion. However, to date, there is little clinical evidence for the long-term benefit of most antioxidants. Alarmingly, recent evidence points even to health risks, in particular for supplements of lipophilic antioxidants. The biological impact of ROS depends not only on their quantities but also on their chemical nature, (sub)cellular and tissue location, and the rates of their formation and degradation. Moreover, ROS serve important physiological functions; thus, inappropriate removal of ROS may cause paradoxical reductive stress and thereby induce or promote disease. Any recommendation on antioxidants must be based on solid clinical evidence and patient-relevant outcomes rather than surrogate parameters. Such evidence-based use may include site-directed application, time-limited high dosing, (functional) pharmacological repair of oxidized biomolecules, and triggers of endogenous antioxidant response systems. Ideally, these approaches need guidance by patient stratification through predictive biomarkers and possibly imaging modalities.

  8. Response of antioxidant system of tomato to water deficit stress and its interaction with ascorbic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Daneshmand

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses including water deficit stress may produce oxidants such as reactive oxygen species that damage the membrane structure in plants. Among the antioxidants, ascorbic acid has a critical role in the cell and scavenges reactive oxygen species. In this research, effects of ascorbic acid at two levels (0 and 10 mM and water deficit stress based on 3 levels of field capacity (100, 60 and 30% were studied in tomato plants. Both levels of stress increased lipid peroxidation, reduced the amount of ascorbic acid and glutathione and increased the activity of enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, guaiacol peroxidase and reduced the growth parameters. Ascorbic acid treatment, reduced lipid peroxidation, increased ascorbic acid and glutathione levels and decreased the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase and positive effects of ascorbic acid treatment appeared to improve the plant growth parameters.

  9. Involvement of Antioxidative Defense System in Rice Seedlings Exposed to Aluminum Toxicity and Phosphorus Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-rong GUO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing in acid soils may suffer both phosphorus (P deficiency and aluminum (Al toxicity. Hydroponic experiments were undertaken to assess the single and combination effects of Al toxicity and low P stress on seedling growth, chlorophyll and proline contents, antioxidative response and lipid peroxidation of two rice genotypes (Yongyou 8 and Xiushui 132 differing in Al tolerance. Al toxicity and P deficiency both inhibited rice seedling growth. The development of toxic symptoms was characterized by reduced chlorophyll content, increased proline and malondialdehyde contents in both roots and leaves, and increased peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in roots, but decreased in leaves. The stress condition induced more severe growth inhibition and oxidative stress in Yongyou 8, and Xiushui 132 showed higher tolerance to both Al toxicity and P deficiency. P deficiency aggravated Al toxicity to plant growth and induced more severe lipid peroxidation.

  10. The antioxidative response system in Glycine max (L.) Merr. exposed to Deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashir, Fozia [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062 (India); Mahmooduzzafar [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062 (India); Siddiqi, T.O. [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062 (India); Iqbal, Muhammad [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062 (India)]. E-mail: iqbalg5@yahoo.co.in

    2007-05-15

    Forty-five-day-old plants of Glycine max (soybean) were exposed to several Deltamethrin (synthetic pyrethroid insecticide) concentrations (0.00 %, 0.05 %, 0.10 %, 0.15 % and 0.20 %) through foliar spray in the field conditions. In the treated plants, as observed at the pre-flowering (10 DAT), flowering (45 DAT) and post-flowering (70 DAT) stages, lipid peroxidation, proline content and total glutathione content increased, whereas the total ascorbate content decreased, as compared with the control. Among the enzymatic antioxidants, activity of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase increased significantly whereas that of catalase declined markedly in relation to increasing concentration of Deltamethrin applied. The changes observed were dose-dependent, showing a strong correlation with the degree of treatment. - The Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress alters the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in Glycine max.

  11. The antioxidative response system in Glycine max (L.) Merr. exposed to Deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, Fozia; Mahmooduzzafar; Siddiqi, T.O.; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2007-01-01

    Forty-five-day-old plants of Glycine max (soybean) were exposed to several Deltamethrin (synthetic pyrethroid insecticide) concentrations (0.00 %, 0.05 %, 0.10 %, 0.15 % and 0.20 %) through foliar spray in the field conditions. In the treated plants, as observed at the pre-flowering (10 DAT), flowering (45 DAT) and post-flowering (70 DAT) stages, lipid peroxidation, proline content and total glutathione content increased, whereas the total ascorbate content decreased, as compared with the control. Among the enzymatic antioxidants, activity of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase increased significantly whereas that of catalase declined markedly in relation to increasing concentration of Deltamethrin applied. The changes observed were dose-dependent, showing a strong correlation with the degree of treatment. - The Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress alters the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in Glycine max

  12. Responses of Landoltia punctata to cobalt and nickel: Removal, growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant system and starch metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling; Ding, Yanqiang; Xu, Yaliang; Li, Zhidan; Jin, Yanling; He, Kaize; Fang, Yang; Zhao, Hai

    2017-09-01

    Landoltia punctata has been considered as a potential bioenergy crop due to its high biomass and starch yields in different cultivations. Cobalt and nickel are known to induce starch accumulation in duckweed. We monitored the growth rate, net photosynthesis rate, total chlorophyll content, Rubisco activity, Co 2+ and Ni 2+ contents, activity of antioxidant enzymes, starch content and activity of related enzymes under various concentrations of cobalt and nickel. The results indicate that Co 2+ and Ni 2+ (≤0.5mgL -1 ) can facilitate growth in the beginning. Although the growth rate, net photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content and Rubisco activity were significantly inhibited at higher concentrations (5mgL -1 ), the starch content increased sharply up to 53.3% dry weight (DW) in L. punctata. These results were attributed to the increase in adenosine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and soluble starch synthase (SSS) activities and the decrease in α-amylase activity upon exposure to excess Co 2+ and Ni 2+ . In addition, a substantial increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities and high flavonoid contents in L. punctata may have largely resulted in the metal tolerance. Furthermore, the high Co 2+ and Ni 2+ contents (2012.9±18.8 and 1997.7±29.2mgkg -1 DW) in the tissue indicate that L. punctata is a hyperaccumulator. Thus, L. punctata can be considered as a potential candidate for the simultaneous bioremediation of Co 2+ - and Ni 2+ -polluted water and high-quality biomass production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mineralization in newborn calves contributes to health, improve the antioxidant system and reduces bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glombowsky, Patrícia; da Silva, Aleksandro S; Soldá, Natan M; Galli, Gabriela M; Biazus, Angelisa H; Campigotto, Gabriela; Bottari, Nathieli B; Sousa, Rejane S; Brisola, Maiara C; Stefani, Lenita M; Baldissera, Matheus D; Leal, Marta L R; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Machado, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    The first phase of life of dairy calves has elevated mortality indices linked with low immunity and sanitary challenges, mainly bacterial infections are involved in the pathogenesis of diarrhea, the leading cause of death. Also, other important problem is the nutritional deficiencies, such as the mineral deficiency. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether an intramuscular mineral supplementation based on selenium, copper, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus possess beneficial effects on health of dairy calves. For this, ten calves were divided in two groups: the group A was supplemented with injectable mineral, while the group B was used as control group (without mineral supplementation). The mineral complex was administrated via intramuscularly at dose of 3 mL/animal on days 2 and 14 post-birth. The total blood was collected on days 2, 10, 20 and 30 of life of animals in order to analyze the antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)), blood count and seric biochemistry linked with proteic, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Feces samples were also collected on days 10, 20 and 30 of life of animals to perform the total bacterial count, parasitological exam and fecal consistency score. Moreover, the weight and corporal temperature were also evaluated. The mineral supplementation presented beneficial properties to calves from birth to the 30th of life through the increase on activity of antioxidant enzymes, improvement of immunity, and avoiding problems linked with diarrhea and anemia, can be considered an interesting approach to prevent these alterations linked with high mortality in the period of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Amelioration of Heat Stress Induced Disturbances of Antioxidant Defense System in Chicken by Brahma Rasayana

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    V. Ramnath

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the range of comfort zone or thermo neutral zone of domestic chickens is narrow, they become easily susceptible to heat and cold environmental stress. We evaluated Brahma Rasayana (BR supplementation on concentrations of certain oxidative stress markers associated with heat stress. A total of 48 egg type male chickens of local strain were divided into six groups (n = 8 for the study. Three groups were fed with BR orally at the rate of 2 g/kg bw daily for 10 days prior to and during the period of experiment. Two of the four groups that were exposed to heat stress (HST i.e. to a temperature of 40 ± 1°C and relative humidity of 80 ± 5% in an environmental chamber for 4 h daily for 5 or 10 days, received BR orally. The other two groups remained as BR treated and untreated non-heat stressed (NHST controls. There was a significant (P < 0.05 increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood such as catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD, as well as liver CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and glutathione reductase (GR in NHST-BR treated and HST-BR treated (both 5 and 10 days chickens when compared with untreated controls. A great deal of significant (P < 0.05 variations were seen in serum and liver reduced glutathione (GSH concentration in NHST-BR treated and HST-BR treated (both 5 and 10 days chickens. Serum and liver lipid peroxidation levels were found to be significantly (P < 0.05 higher in HST-untreated (both 5 and 10 days chickens when compared with other groups. Thus BR supplementation during HST brings about enhanced action of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, which nullified the undesired side effects of free radicals that are generated during HST.

  15. Imbalance in the blood antioxidant system in growth hormone-deficient children before and after 1 year of recombinant growth hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Pankratova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the effects of 12-month therapy with recombinant growth hormone (rGH on the blood antioxidant system in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC of plasma was measured by FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power or ferric reducing ability of plasma; activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in erythrocytes were assessed; non-protein thiols (NT and ceruloplasmin (CP levels were also measured. These parameters were determined before and after 12 month of rGH treatment. Eleven treatment-naive prepubertal children with growth hormone deficiency were included in the study. Another 11 prepubertal children comprised a control group. Before rGH treatment, TAC of plasma and NT level in the control group were significantly lower (726 ± 196 vs. 525 ± 166 µmol/L, P = 0.0182 and 0.92 ± 0.18 vs. 0.70 ± 0.22 µmol/ml, P = 0.0319, before and after the therapy, respectively. The only parameter that significantly (19.6 ± 4.7 vs. 14.5 ± 3.4 Units/g Hb, P = 0.0396 exceeded the same in the control group after rGH therapy was SOD activity. However, none of the measured parameters of antioxidant system in GHD children, except for TAC (525 ± 166 vs. 658 ± 115 µmol/L, P = 0.0205, exhibited significant improvement toward the end of the 12-month treatment period, although non-significant changes in CAT activity and CP level were also observed. This work has demonstrated that some parameters of the blood antioxidant system are out of balance and even impaired in GHD children. A 12-month treatment with rGH resulted in a partial improvement of the antioxidant system.

  16. Specificity in Mesograzer-Induced Defences in Seagrasses.

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    Begoña Martínez-Crego

    Full Text Available Grazing-induced plant defences that reduce palatability to herbivores are widespread in terrestrial plants and seaweeds, but they have not yet been reported in seagrasses. We investigated the ability of two seagrass species to induce defences in response to direct grazing by three associated mesograzers. Specifically, we conducted feeding-assayed induction experiments to examine how mesograzer-specific grazing impact affects seagrass induction of defences within the context of the optimal defence theory. We found that the amphipod Gammarus insensibilis and the isopod Idotea chelipes exerted a low-intensity grazing on older blades of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, which reflects a weak grazing impact that may explain the lack of inducible defences. The isopod Synischia hectica exerted the strongest grazing impact on C. nodosa via high-intensity feeding on young blades with a higher fitness value. This isopod grazing induced defences in C. nodosa as indicated by a consistently lower consumption of blades previously grazed for 5, 12 and 16 days. The lower consumption was maintained when offered tissues with no plant structure (agar-reconstituted food, but showing a reduced size of the previous grazing effect. This indicates that structural traits act in combination with chemical traits to reduce seagrass palatability to the isopod. Increase in total phenolics but not in C:N ratio and total nitrogen of grazed C. nodosa suggests chemical defences rather than a modified nutritional quality as primarily induced chemical traits. We detected no induction of defences in Zostera noltei, which showed the ability to replace moderate losses of young biomass to mesograzers via compensatory growth. Our study provides the first experimental evidence of induction of defences against meso-herbivory that reduce further consumption in seagrasses. It also emphasizes the relevance of grazer identity in determining the level of grazing impact triggering resistance and

  17. Specificity in Mesograzer-Induced Defences in Seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Crego, Begoña; Arteaga, Pedro; Ueber, Alexandra; Engelen, Aschwin H; Santos, Rui; Molis, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Grazing-induced plant defences that reduce palatability to herbivores are widespread in terrestrial plants and seaweeds, but they have not yet been reported in seagrasses. We investigated the ability of two seagrass species to induce defences in response to direct grazing by three associated mesograzers. Specifically, we conducted feeding-assayed induction experiments to examine how mesograzer-specific grazing impact affects seagrass induction of defences within the context of the optimal defence theory. We found that the amphipod Gammarus insensibilis and the isopod Idotea chelipes exerted a low-intensity grazing on older blades of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, which reflects a weak grazing impact that may explain the lack of inducible defences. The isopod Synischia hectica exerted the strongest grazing impact on C. nodosa via high-intensity feeding on young blades with a higher fitness value. This isopod grazing induced defences in C. nodosa as indicated by a consistently lower consumption of blades previously grazed for 5, 12 and 16 days. The lower consumption was maintained when offered tissues with no plant structure (agar-reconstituted food), but showing a reduced size of the previous grazing effect. This indicates that structural traits act in combination with chemical traits to reduce seagrass palatability to the isopod. Increase in total phenolics but not in C:N ratio and total nitrogen of grazed C. nodosa suggests chemical defences rather than a modified nutritional quality as primarily induced chemical traits. We detected no induction of defences in Zostera noltei, which showed the ability to replace moderate losses of young biomass to mesograzers via compensatory growth. Our study provides the first experimental evidence of induction of defences against meso-herbivory that reduce further consumption in seagrasses. It also emphasizes the relevance of grazer identity in determining the level of grazing impact triggering resistance and compensatory

  18. Antioxidant Properties of Probiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wu, Yanping; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Han; Mei, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Dongyou; Wang, Yibing; Li, Weifen

    2017-05-19

    Oxidative stress defines a condition in which the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in the cell is disturbed, resulting in DNA hydroxylation, protein denaturation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, ultimately compromising cells' viability. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects, and the consumption of probiotics alone or in food shows that strain-specific probiotics can present antioxidant activity and reduce damages caused by oxidation. However, the oxidation-resistant ability of probiotics, especially the underling mechanisms, is not properly understood. In this view, there is interest to figure out the antioxidant property of probiotics and summarize the mode of action of probiotic bacteria in antioxidation. Therefore, in the present paper, the antioxidant mechanisms of probiotics have been reviewed in terms of their ability to improve the antioxidant system and their ability to decrease radical generation. Since in recent years, oxidative stress has been associated with an altered gut microbiota, the effects of probiotics on intestinal flora composition are also elaborated.

  19. Altered antioxidant-oxidant status in the aqueous humor and peripheral blood of patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Martínez-Fernández de la Cámara

    Full Text Available Retinitis Pigmentosa is a common form of hereditary retinal degeneration constituting the largest Mendelian genetic cause of blindness in the developed world. It has been widely suggested that oxidative stress possibly contributes to its pathogenesis. We measured the levels of total antioxidant capacity, free nitrotyrosine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS formation, extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3 activity, protein, metabolites of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway, heme oxygenase-I and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in aqueous humor or/and peripheral blood from fifty-six patients with retinitis pigmentosa and sixty subjects without systemic or ocular oxidative stress-related disease. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that retinitis pigmentosa alters ocular antioxidant defence machinery and the redox status in blood. Patients with retinitis pigmentosa present low total antioxidant capacity including reduced SOD3 activity and protein concentration in aqueous humor. Patients also show reduced SOD3 activity, increased TBARS formation and upregulation of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway in peripheral blood. Together these findings confirmed the hypothesis that patients with retinitis pigmentosa present reduced ocular antioxidant status. Moreover, these patients show changes in some oxidative-nitrosative markers in the peripheral blood. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between these peripheral markers and retinitis pigmentosa.

  20. Radiation accidents and defence of population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memmedov, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    ), don't pollute the industry environ and surroundings, don't do real danger of reirradiation and pollution but demand investigation of their origin; accidents as a result when personal and persons from population have gotten a doze of outward irradiation (over PN); accidents as a result when industry or surroundings have been polluted (over PN);.accidents, as a result of outward and inside irradiation of personal, persons from population (over NPP-norms of radiation safety). Volume and character of measures by foregoing radiation accidents and their consequence depend on groups and scale of accident. They include investigation of the accident reasons; realization the radiation control for estimation degree of ionizing radiation pressure to personal and individual persons from population; rendering medical help to victims; definition of surroundings pollution level; equipment, industrial and habitable places; prevention of further influence of ionizing radiation to population and spreading radionuclides in surroundings; elimination of disrepairs and liquidation of radiation accident source. Radiation accident in the nuclear engineering establishments and industry have been divided into accident and proper-crash. At present international organizations have divided a school of crashes and accidents at NPP. According to that scale 3 levels of accidents and 4 levels of crashes have been chosen. The accidents have been qualified: insignificant (1 level), middle difficulty (2 level), serious (3 level), but crashes - within the NPP (4 level), at the risk of surroundings (5 level), difficult (6 level), global (7 level). Character, volume and forms of measures by defence of population in the crashes at NPP depend on both the level of crash and the concrete radiation situation and stage of crash development. Those measures include: notification about crash; rendering medical help to victims, primary measures of personal and population defence (cover, iodine precautions

  1. The effect of biologically active feed additives of humilid substances on the antioxidant system in liver mitochondria of gerbils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Dyomshina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are organelles that are most sensitive to the action of stressors on any cell of the entire organism and exposure to chemicals which can cause its dysfunction and cell death in general. Especially sensitive to adverse conditions are liver mitochondria, where the processes of biotransformation of endogenous and exogenous metabolites are formed, not only in the liver, but also in other organs and tissues. Mitochondrial dysfunction can cause instant hepatic cytolysis and steatosis. Therefore, early detection of mitochondrial toxicity is important during preclinical studies of new pharmacological agents, as this will help avoid remote negative effects. The biologically active feed additive Humilid, a complex of humic acids known for their antidiarrheal, analgesic, immune-stimulating, and antimicrobial properties; shows a corrective effect on the activity of the lysosomal cathepsin; enhances the positive effect of hematopoiesis on hemoglobin and its quality indicators consisting of red blood cells; and activates the synthesis and accumulation of fibronectin expression that takes part in the formation of immunological protection of animals. The objective of our experiment was to determine the effect of complex biologically active feed additives based on humic substances on the biochemical indicators of the liver mitochondrial antioxidant system of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards, 1867. The experiment was conducted on mature (6 months Mongolian gerbils. The data obtained showing the influence of the biologically active feed additives Humilid, alone or in combination with ascorbate and Eco-impulse Animal, on the antioxidant defense system of liver mitochondria of gerbils are presented in this article. The proven antioxidant effect of humic substances in the mitochondrial fraction of the liver which inhibits the accumulation of oxidized products in the cells is shown, confirmed by the decrease in the number of TBA

  2. Alternative oxidase pathway optimizes photosynthesis during osmotic and temperature stress by regulating cellular ROS, malate valve and antioxidative systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINAKAR eCHALLABATHULA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study reveals the importance of alternative oxidase (AOX pathway in optimizing photosynthesis under osmotic and temperature stress conditions in the mesophyll protoplasts of Pisum sativum. The responses of photosynthesis and respiration were monitored at saturating light intensity of 1000 µmoles m-2 s-1 at 25 oC under a range of sorbitol concentrations from 0.4 M to 1.0M to induce hyper-osmotic stress and by varying the temperature of the thermo-jacketed pre-incubation chamber from 25 oC to 10 oC to impose sub-optimal temperature stress. Compared to controls (0.4 M sorbitol and 25 OC, the mesophyll protoplasts showed remarkable decrease in NaHCO3-dependent O2 evolution (indicator of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, under both hyper-osmotic (1.0 M sorbitol and sub-optimal temperature stress conditions (10 OC, while the decrease in rates of respiratory O2 uptake were marginal. The capacity of AOX pathway increased significantly in parallel to increase in intracellular pyruvate and reactive oxygen species (ROS levels under both hyper-osmotic stress and sub-optimal temperature stress under the background of saturating light. The ratio of redox couple (Malate/OAA related to malate valve increased in contrast to the ratio of redox couple (GSH/GSSG related to antioxidative system during hyper-osmotic stress. Nevertheless, the ratio of GSH/GSSG decreased in the presence of sub-optimal temperature, while the ratio of Malate/OAA showed no visible changes. Also, the redox ratios of pyridine nucleotides increased under hyper-osmotic (NADH/NAD and sub-optimal temperature (NADPH/NADP stresses, respectively. However, upon restriction of AOX pathway by using salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, the observed changes in NaHCO3 dependent O2 evolution, cellular ROS, redox ratios of Malate/OAA, NAD(PH/NAD(P and GSH/GSSG were further aggravated under stress conditions with concomitant modulations in NADP-MDH and antioxidant enzymes. Taken together, the

  3. New filtration systems for extra-virgin olive oil: effect on antioxidant compounds, oxidative stability, and physicochemical and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Bendini, Alessandra; Gallina-Toschi, Tullia; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2012-04-11

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate some new filtration systems in relation to the quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). Filtration processes were undertaken using a polypropylene filter bag and two different inert gas flows as filter aids (argon and nitrogen). Qualitative and quantitative variations of the glyceride composition, antioxidant and pro-oxidant compounds, and water content were correlated with the oxidative stability to establish the effect on EVOO shelf life. The influence on physicochemical and sensorial properties was also evaluated. After filtration, the oxidative stability was reduced. The behavior of the polyphenols and water content on the filtration process could explain the lowest oxidative stability of filtered EVOO. Moreover, the results of the sensorial analysis confirmed that filtration using inert gases did not decrease the intensity of the main positive sensory attributes. The results could help olive-oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish optimal storage conditions.

  4. Pioglitazone improves cognitive function via increasing insulin sensitivity and strengthening antioxidant defense system in fructose-drinking insulin resistance rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Qing Yin

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance (IR links Alzheimer's disease (AD with oxidative damage, cholinergic deficit, and cognitive impairment. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ agonist pioglitazone previously used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM has also been demonstrated to be effective in anti-inflammatory reaction and anti-oxidative stress in the animal models of AD and other neuroinflammatory diseases. Here, we investigated the effect of pioglitazone on learning and memory impairment and the molecular events that may cause it in fructose-drinking insulin resistance rats. We found that long-term fructose-drinking causes insulin resistance, oxidative stress, down-regulated activity of cholinergic system, and cognitive deficit, which could be ameliorated by pioglitazone administration. The results from the present study provide experimental evidence for using pioglitazone in the treatment of brain damage caused by insulin resistance.

  5. Effect of different cultural systems on antioxidant capacity, phenolic content, and fruit quality of strawberries (Fragaria x aranassa Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiow Y; Millner, Patricia

    2009-10-28

    The effect of cultivation practices for controlling strawberry black root rot (BRR) on fruit quality, antioxidant capacity, and flavonoid content in two strawberry cultivars Allstar and Chandler (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) was evaluated. Strawberry fruits used in this study were from plants grown in soils which had a prior history of BRR and red stele, and had not been fumigated during the seven years prior to the study. Results from this study showed that fruit from plants grown in compost socks had significantly higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), flavonoids, anthocyanins, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acid (TA), fructose, glucose, sucrose, malic acid, and citric acid than fruit produced in the black plastic mulch or matted row systems. Cultivar Chandler surpassed cv. Allstar in sugar content, acid content, and flavonoid content regardless of preplanting vinegar drenching and various culture treatments. However, preplanting vinegar treatment increased cyanidin-based and pelargonidin-based anthocyanins but decreased sugar content in fruits of both cultivars.

  6. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants and Uncouplers of Oxidative Phosphorylation in Treatment of the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Vlada V; Pletjushkina, Olga Yu; Zinovkin, Roman A; Popova, Ekaterina N; Chernyak, Boris V

    2017-05-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) development is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive ROS production. Mitochondrial dysfunctions also occur in many SIRS-related diseases and may be critical for their pathogenesis; therefore, a use of mitochondria-targeted drugs is a promising trend in SIRS research and therapy. Here, we review recent studies concerning the application of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidants and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation in animal models of SIRS and related diseases. We propose that a new class of uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, lipophilic cations could be a base for a new generation of drugs for SIRS treatment. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 904-912, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Response and adaptation of photosynthesis, respiration, and antioxidant systems to elevated CO2 with environmental stress in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhu eXu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that plant photosynthesis and respiration are two fundamental and crucial physiological processes, while the critical role of the antioxidant system in response to abiotic factors is still a focus point for investigating physiological stress. Although one key metabolic process and its response to climatic change have already been reported and reviewed, an integrative review, including several biological processes at multiple scales, has not been well reported. The current review will present a synthesis focusing on the underlying mechanisms in the responses to elevated CO2 at multiple scales, including molecular, cellular, biochemical, physiological, and individual aspects, particularly, for these biological processes under elevated CO2 with other key abiotic stresses, such as heat, drought, and ozone pollution, as well as nitrogen limitation. The present comprehensive review may add timely and substantial information about the topic in recent studies, while it presents what has been well established in previous reviews. First, an outline of the critical biological processes, and an overview of their roles in environmental regulation, is presented. Second, the research advances with regard to the individual subtopics are reviewed, including the response and adaptation of the photosynthetic capacity, respiration, and antioxidant system to CO2 enrichment alone, and its combination with other climatic change factors. Finally, the potential applications for plant responses at various levels to climate change are discussed. The above issue is currently of crucial concern worldwide, and this review may help in a better understanding of how plants deal with elevated CO2 using other mainstream abiotic factors, including molecular, cellular, biochemical, physiological, and whole individual processes, and the better management of the ecological environment, climate change, and sustainable development.

  8. Uniconazole-induced tolerance of soybean to water deficit stress in relation to changes in photosynthesis, hormones and antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingcai; Duan, Liusheng; Tian, Xiaoli; He, Zhongpei; Li, Jianmin; Wang, Baomin; Li, Zhaohu

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated whether uniconazole confers drought tolerance to soybean and if such tolerance is correlated with changes in photosynthesis, hormones and antioxidant system of leaves. Soybean plants were foliar treated with uniconazole at 50 mg L-1 at the beginning of bloom and then exposed to water deficit stress at pod initiation for 7 d. Uniconazole promoted biomass accumulation and seed yield under both water conditions. Plants treated with uniconazole showed higher leaf water potential only in water-stressed condition. Water stress decreased the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate, but those of uniconazole-treated plants were higher than the stressed control. Uniconazole increased the maximum quantum yield of photosystemand ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity of water-stressed plants. Water stress decreased partitioning of assimilated 14C from labeled leaf to the other parts of the plant. In contrast, uniconazole enhanced translocation of assimilated 14C from labeled leaves to the other parts, except stems, regardless of water treatment. Uniconazole-treated plants contained less GA3, GA4 and ABA under well-watered condition than untreated plants, while the IAA and zeatin levels were increased substantially under both water conditions, and ABA concentration was also increased under water stressed condition. Under water-stressed conditions, uniconazole increased the content of proline and soluble sugars, and the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in soybean leaves but not the malondialdehyde content or electrical conductivity. These results suggest that uniconazole-induced tolerance to water deficit stress in soybean was related to the changes of photosynthesis, hormones and antioxidant system of leaves.

  9. Correlation of nucleotides and carbohydrates metabolism with pro-oxidant and antioxidant systems of erythrocytes depending on age in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuikov, S A; Borzenko, B G; Shatova, O P; Bakurova, E M; Polunin, G E

    2014-06-01

    To examine the relationship between metabolic features of purine nucleotides and antioxidant system depending on the age of patients with colorectal cancer. The activity of adenosine deaminase, xanthine oxidase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the NOx concentration and the oxidative modification of proteins were determined spectrophotometricaly in 50 apparently healthy people and 26 patients with colorectal cancer stage -III---IV, aged 40 to 79 years. Increase of pro-oxidant system of erythrocytes with the age against decrease in level of antioxidant protection in both healthy individuals and colorectal cancer patients was determined. A significant increase of pro-ducts of oxidative proteins modification in erythrocytes with ageing was shown. Statistically significant correlation between enzymatic and non enzymatic markers pro-oxidant system and the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes in erythrocytes of patient with colorectal cancer was determined. Obtained results have demonstrated the imbalance in the antioxidant system of erythrocytes in colorectal cancer patients that improve the survival of cancer cells that is more distinctly manifested in ageing.

  10. Oxidation in fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise 2 : Assessment of the efficacy of different tocopherol antioxidant systems by discriminant partial least squares regression analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Lund, Pia

    2000-01-01

    Oxidative protection of mayonnaises with 16% fish oil was studied during cold storage (5 degrees C) after supplementation with different tocopherol systems: the ternary antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin and tocopherol (A/L/T), and two commercial mixtures, an oil-soluble (Toco 70) prepara......Oxidative protection of mayonnaises with 16% fish oil was studied during cold storage (5 degrees C) after supplementation with different tocopherol systems: the ternary antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin and tocopherol (A/L/T), and two commercial mixtures, an oil-soluble (Toco 70......) preparation and a water-soluble (Grindox 1032) preparation, The physical structure of the fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise was manipulated by adding extra emulsifier (Panodan TR) with the purpose of investigating whether or not this affected the antioxidative activity of the tocopherol mixtures. A number...... without antioxidant. This flavour-protective effect of Grindox 1032 was correlated to an increase in the size of the droplet diameter of mayonnaises supplemented with Grindox 1032...

  11. Effects of mercuric chloride on antioxidant system and DNA integrity of the crab Charybdis japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Pan, Luqing; Miao, Jingjing; Xu, Chaoqun

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the commonly encountered heavy metals, which is widespread in inshore sediments of China. In order to investigate the toxicity of Hg on marine invertebrates, we studied the effects of the divalent mercuricion (Hg2+) (at two final concentrations of 0.0025 and 0.0050 mg L-1, prepared with HgCl2) on metallothionein (MT) content, DNA integrity (DNA strand breaks) and catalase (CAT) in the gills and hepatopancreas, antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the hemolymph, gills and hepatopancreas of the portunid crab Charybdis japonica for an experiment period up to 15 d. The results indicated that MT was significantly induced after 3 d, with a positive correlation with Hg2+ dose and time in the hepatopancreas and a negative correlation with Hg2+ dose and time in the gills. While CAT in the hemolymph was not detected, it increased in the hepatopancreas during the entire experiment; SOD and GPx in the three tissues were stimulated after 12 h, both attained peak value and then reduced during the experimental period. Meanwhile, DNA strand breaks were all induced significantly after 12 h. These results suggested the detoxification strategies against Hg2+ in three tissues of C. japonica.

  12. Heavy Metals and Human Health: Mechanistic Insight into Toxicity and Counter Defense System of Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Tasleem Jan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals, which have widespread environmental distribution and originate from natural and anthropogenic sources, are common environmental pollutants. In recent decades, their contamination has increased dramatically because of continuous discharge in sewage and untreated industrial effluents. Because they are non-degradable, they persist in the environment; accordingly, they have received a great deal of attention owing to their potential health and environmental risks. Although the toxic effects of metals depend on the forms and routes of exposure, interruptions of intracellular homeostasis include damage to lipids, proteins, enzymes and DNA via the production of free radicals. Following exposure to heavy metals, their metabolism and subsequent excretion from the body depends on the presence of antioxidants (glutathione, α-tocopherol, ascorbate, etc. associated with the quenching of free radicals by suspending the activity of enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. Therefore, this review was written to provide a deep understanding of the mechanisms involved in eliciting their toxicity in order to highlight the necessity for development of strategies to decrease exposure to these metals, as well as to identify substances that contribute significantly to overcome their hazardous effects within the body of living organisms.

  13. Heavy Metals and Human Health: Mechanistic Insight into Toxicity and Counter Defense System of Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Arif Tasleem; Azam, Mudsser; Siddiqui, Kehkashan; Ali, Arif; Choi, Inho; Haq, Qazi Mohd Rizwanul

    2015-12-10

    Heavy metals, which have widespread environmental distribution and originate from natural and anthropogenic sources, are common environmental pollutants. In recent decades, their contamination has increased dramatically because of continuous discharge in sewage and untreated industrial effluents. Because they are non-degradable, they persist in the environment; accordingly, they have received a great deal of attention owing to their potential health and environmental risks. Although the toxic effects of metals depend on the forms and routes of exposure, interruptions of intracellular homeostasis include damage to lipids, proteins, enzymes and DNA via the production of free radicals. Following exposure to heavy metals, their metabolism and subsequent excretion from the body depends on the presence of antioxidants (glutathione, α-tocopherol, ascorbate, etc.) associated with the quenching of free radicals by suspending the activity of enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase). Therefore, this review was written to provide a deep understanding of the mechanisms involved in eliciting their toxicity in order to highlight the necessity for development of strategies to decrease exposure to these metals, as well as to identify substances that contribute significantly to overcome their hazardous effects within the body of living organisms.

  14. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on oxidant/antioxidant balance system inducing hepatic steatosis in male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansoumane Kourouma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An emerging literature suggests that early life exposure to 4-nonylphenol (4-NP, a widespread endocrine disrupting chemical, may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that intraperitoneal administration of 4-NP induces hepatic steatosis in rat. 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with 4-NP (0, 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg b.wt in corn oil for 30 days. Liver histology, biochemical analysis and gene expression profiling were examined. After treatment, abnormal liver morphology and function were observed in the 4-NP-treated rat, and significant changes in gene expression an indicator of hepatic steatosis and apoptosis were observed compared with controls. Up-regulated genes involved in apoptosis, hepatotoxity and oxidative stress, increased ROS and decrease of antioxidant enzyme were observed in the 4-NP exposed rat. Extensive fatty accumulation in liver section and elevated serum GOT, GPT, LDH and γ-GT were also observed. Incidence and severity of liver steatosis was scored and taken into consideration (steatosis, ballooning and lobular inflammation. Hepatocytes apoptosis could promote NAFLD progression; Fas/FasL, TNF-α and Caspase-9 mRNA activation were important contributing factors to hepatic steatosis. These findings provide the first evidence that 4-NP affects the gene expression related to liver hepatotoxicity, which is correlated with hepatic steatosis.

  15. Modulation of Antioxidant Defense System Is Associated with Combined Drought and Heat Stress Tolerance in Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara I. Zandalinas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought and high temperatures are two major abiotic stress factors that often occur simultaneously in nature, affecting negatively crop performance and yield. Moreover, these environmental challenges induce oxidative stress in plants through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin are two citrus genotypes with contrasting ability to cope with the combination of drought and heat stress. In this work, a direct relationship between an increased antioxidant activity and stress tolerance is reported. According to our results, the ability of Carrizo plants to efficiently coordinate superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, and glutathione reductase (GR activities involved in ROS detoxification along with the maintenance of a favorable GSH/GSSG ratio could be related to their relative tolerance to this stress combination. On the other hand, the increment of SOD activity and the inefficient GR activation along with the lack of CAT and APX activities in Cleopatra plants in response to the combination of drought and heat stress, could contribute to an increased oxidative stress and the higher sensibility of this citrus genotype to this stress combination.

  16. Modulation of Antioxidant Defense System Is Associated with Combined Drought and Heat Stress Tolerance in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandalinas, Sara I; Balfagón, Damián; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2017-01-01

    Drought and high temperatures are two major abiotic stress factors that often occur simultaneously in nature, affecting negatively crop performance and yield. Moreover, these environmental challenges induce oxidative stress in plants through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin are two citrus genotypes with contrasting ability to cope with the combination of drought and heat stress. In this work, a direct relationship between an increased antioxidant activity and stress tolerance is reported. According to our results, the ability of Carrizo plants to efficiently coordinate superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities involved in ROS detoxification along with the maintenance of a favorable GSH/GSSG ratio could be related to their relative tolerance to this stress combination. On the other hand, the increment of SOD activity and the inefficient GR activation along with the lack of CAT and APX activities in Cleopatra plants in response to the combination of drought and heat stress, could contribute to an increased oxidative stress and the higher sensibility of this citrus genotype to this stress combination.

  17. Formetanate toxicity and changes in antioxidant enzyme system of Apis mellifera larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroň, Martin; Sabo, Rastislav; Sobeková, Anna; Sabová, Lucia; Legáth, Jaroslav; Lohajová, Ľuboslava; Javorský, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Substantial percentage of world food production depends on pollinating service of honeybees that directly depends on their health status. Among other factors, the success of bee colonies depends on health of developed larvae. The crucial phase of larval development is the first 6 days after hatching when a worker larva grows exponentially and larvae are potentially exposed to xenobiotics via diet. In the present study, we determined the lethal concentration LC 50 (72 h) following single dietary exposure of honeybee larvae to formetanate under laboratory conditions, being also the first report available in scientific literature. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were also measured in the homogenates of in vitro reared honeybee larvae after single formetanate exposure. Decreased specific activity of SOD and increased activities of CAT and GST suggest the induction of oxidative stress. Higher levels of thiobarbituric reactive species in all samples supported this fact. Comparing determined larval toxicity (LC 50 of 206.01 mg a.i./kg diet) with adult toxicity data, we can suppose that the larvae may be less sensitive to formetanate than the adult bees.

  18. Synthesis, characterization of thiosemicarabzone metal complexes and antioxidant activity in different in vitro model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Kumar Harikishore Desireddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of bimetallic Cu(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Zn(II and U(VI complexes with general stoichiometry [H2L M(X2(H2O2] (where H2L=dideprotanated ligand and X=chloride/sulphate were obtained by the ligand terepthaladehyde Bis(thiosemicarbazione (H2L has been discussed. The ligand and its binuclear complexes have been characterized by micro analysis (CHNS, 1H NMR, FT-IR, UV-vis, TG-DTA and conductance measurements. The thermal behavior of these complexes showed that the hydrated complexes loss water molecules of hydration in the first step followed immediately by decomposition of the anions and ligand molecules in the subsequent steps. The molar conductance measurements of the complexes in DMF correspond to the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of the ligand and its complexes were determined by hydroxyl radical scavenging, DPPH, NO, reducing power methods in vitro. The obtained IC50 value of the DPPH activity for the complex 2 (IC50 = 0.254 m was shown to be better.

  19. Understanding plant defence responses against herbivore attacks: an essential first step towards the development of sustainable resistance against pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, M Estrella; Martínez, Manuel; Cambra, Inés; Grbic, Vojislava; Diaz, Isabel

    2013-08-01

    Plant-herbivore relationships are complex interactions encompassing elaborate networks of molecules, signals and strategies used to overcome defences developed by each other. Herbivores use multiple feeding strategies to obtain nutrients from host plants. In turn, plants respond by triggering defence mechanisms to inhibit, block or modify the metabolism of the pest. As part of these defences, herbivore-challenged plants emit volatiles to attract natural enemies and warn neighbouring plants of the imminent threat. In response, herbivores develop a variety of strategies to suppress plant-induced protection. Our understanding of the plant-herbivore interphase is limited, although recent molecular approaches have revealed the participation of a battery of genes, proteins and volatile metabolites in attack-defence processes. This review describes the intricate and dynamic defence systems governing plant-herbivore interactions by examining the diverse strategies plants employ to deny phytophagous arthropods the ability to breach newly developed mechanisms of plant resistance. A cornerstone of this understanding is the use of transgenic tools to unravel the complex networks that control these interactions.

  20. Australia's National Defence Strategy - Old Wine in New Bottles?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gray, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    .... Although contemplated throughout the 1970s, this strategy was first articulated in 1986, and was most recently reinforced through the release of the 1994 Defence White Paper "Defending Australia...

  1. Australian DefenceScience. Volume 15, Number 3, Spring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... velocities almost simultaneously. A hidden property of light that makes the invisible visible - Defence is sponsoring an investigation into a new technology that can sight targets obscured by natural causes such as smoke, mist...

  2. Between-population outbreeding affects plant defence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosa Leimu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Between-population crosses may replenish genetic variation of populations, but may also result in outbreeding depression. Apart from direct effects on plant fitness, these outbreeding effects can also alter plant-herbivore interactions by influencing plant tolerance and resistance to herbivory. We investigated effects of experimental within- and between-population outbreeding on herbivore resistance, tolerance and plant fitness using plants from 13 to 19 Lychnis flos-cuculi populations. We found no evidence for outbreeding depression in resistance reflected by the amount of leaf area consumed. However, herbivore performance was greater when fed on plants from between-population compared to within-population crosses. This can reflect outbreeding depression in resistance and/or outbreeding effects on plant quality for the herbivores. The effects of type of cross on the relationship between herbivore damage and plant fitness varied among populations. This demonstrates how between-population outbreeding effects on tolerance range from outbreeding depression to outbreeding benefits among plant populations. Finally, herbivore damage strengthened the observed outbreeding effects on plant fitness in several populations. These results raise novel considerations on the impact of outbreeding on the joint evolution of resistance and tolerance, and on the evolution of multiple defence strategies.

  3. Transformational Leadership in the Estonian Defence Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antek Kasemaa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The study is a contribution to the validation of the 15 items and 5 subscales Transformational Leadership Scale (TLS proposed by Rafferty and Griffin (2004. Design/methodology/approach – The sample includes participants from different levels of the Estonian Defence Forces (EDF military hierarchy (N=2570. The structure of the TLS was examined by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally ANOVA was used to compare the results between different subsamples. Findings – TLS showed satisfactory reliability. Confirmatory factor analyses found TLS as valid five dimensions instrument to measure transformational leadership in the Estonian military context. Different management levels showed different emphases among the dimensions of transformational leadership. Research and practical limitations/implications – TLS will be an important tool to use in transformational leadership research in the Estonian military context and beyond. Additionally, the current research contributes to the development of alternative measurement tools besides the most commonly used MLQ. The limitation of the work will be the rather homogenous sample from the Estonian military, however it will open the door for the subsequent research using different samplings. Originality/value – The current research found TLS to be a reliable and valid instrument, very short and therefore easy to administrate, having the possibility to use it with five dimensional and as one general transformational instrument as well.

  4. Method of defence of solder surface from oxidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurmashev Sh. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Compositions are developed for defence of fusion solder from oxidization on the basis of mixture of glycerin, urea and powders of refractory oxides, carbides (Al2O3, TiO2, SIC, graphite. The offered compositions can be used for defence of fusion of solder from oxidization in the process of soludering and tinning of explorers, and also electric conclusions of elements of radio electronic apparatus by the method of immersion in stationary baths.

  5. The xanthophyll cycle and antioxidative defense system are enhanced in the wheat hybrid subjected to high light stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoying; Li, Wei; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang; Li, Hongwei; Kuang, Tingyun; Li, Zhensheng; Lu, Congming

    2011-10-15

    Although the wheat hybrids have often shown higher grain yields, the physiological basis of the higher yields remains unknown. Previous studies suggest that tolerance to photoinhibition in the hybrid may be one of the physiological bases (Yang et al., 2006, Plant Sci 171:389-97). The objective of this study was to further investigate the possible mechanism responsible for tolerance to photoinhibition in the hybrid. Photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry, the xanthophyll cycle, and antioxidative defense system were compared between the hybrid and its parents subjected to high light stress (1500μmolm(-2)s(-1)). The analyses of oxygen-evolving activity, chlorophyll fluorescence, and protein blotting demonstrated that the higher tolerance in the hybrid than in its parents was associated with its higher tolerance of PSII to photoinhibition. High light induced an increase in non-photochemical quenching, and this increase was greater in the hybrid than in its parents. There were no differences in the pool size of the xanthophyll cycle between the hybrid and its parents. The content of violaxanthin decreased significantly, whereas the content of zeaxanthin+antherxanthin increased considerably during high light treatments. However, the decrease in violaxanthin content and the increase in zeaxanthin+antherxanthin content were greater in the hybrid than in its parents. High light resulted in a significant accumulation of H(2)O(2), O(2)(-) and catalytic Fe, and this accumulation was less in the hybrid than in its parents. High light induced a significant increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase, and these increases were greater in the hybrid than its parents. These results suggest that the higher tolerance to photoinhibition in the hybrid may be associated with its higher capacity for antioxidative defense metabolism and the xanthophyll cycle

  6. Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Curcumin From Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity in Multi-Test Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bener

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric ( Curcuma longa L. is a medicinal plant, and its biological activities mainly arise from the main constituent, known as diferuloylmethane or curcumin. In the present paper, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE was investigated for the recovery of curcumin from turmeric in comparison to conventional heat-assisted extraction (CHAE technique. Various experimental conditions, such as solvent concentration (0-100%, v/v, MAE temperature (30-130 oC and MAE time (0-20 min were investigated to optimize the extraction of curcumin from turmeric. The identification and quantification of curcumin in extracts were performed by HPLC-DAD system. Antioxidant potential and radical scavenging abilities of microwave-assisted extract and conventional heat-assisted extract of turmeric (MAET and CHAET were evaluated using different systems including total phenolic content (TPC, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, and radical scavenging activities. MAET and CHAET showed high antioxidant activity in all test systems, but the antioxidant properties of MAET were stronger than those of CHAET.

  7. Risk management as a social defence against anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Geldenhuys

    2012-03-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study is to describe how risk management unconsciously influences behaviour when doing business in an African country. Motivation for the study: Operational risk management is a rational management imperative. However, this does not take cognisance of the unconscious role of risk management. A systems-psychodynamic perspective might be particularly relevant if the anxiety implied in risk management is not appropriately contained. Awareness of these dynamics may provide an opportunity for addressing them and allow for a more holistic way of managing risk. Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted the study as a qualitative case study in an African country. They used purposive sampling and analysed the data using qualitative content analysis. Main findings: Viewing risk management from a systems-psychodynamic perspective allowed the researchers to identify the influence of risk management on the behaviour of people. The emerging hypothesis was that, if businesses do not address the anxiety underlying risk management, managing risk becomes a social defence against the anxiety. Practical/managerial implications: Awareness of the anxiety involved in risk management may assist businesses to manage risk in a more realistic way, making provision for, and even capitalising on, the human element. Contributions/value-add: The article provides a systems-psychodynamic, and hence a more complete, perspective of operational risk management when doing business in an African country.

  8. Boundary management and integration framework for a joint cyber defence capability for military forces: analysis and synthesis from a through-life capability management perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roodt, JHS

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available defence and the second is aimed at establishing a capability at the strategic and operational levels, to aid in decision making at the level of force design. The paper reports on the development of a framework for the JCD system. The motivation... establishing an effective and sustainable JCD capability, supported by a national decision making and analysis competence. Keywords: Information Warfare, Joint Cyber Defence, Capability Life Cycle, Capability Management, Capability Readiness Levels, Joint...

  9. Drought stress induced changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Harish C; Baig, M J; Chandra, A; Bhatt, R K

    2010-07-01

    Seven species of genus Avena viz., Avena sativa, Avena strigosa, Avena brevis, Avena vaviloviana, Avena abyssinica, Avena marocana and Avena sterilis were used to study the impact of drought stress on lipid peroxidation and other antioxidant enzymes. Maximum increase in the catalase activity was recorded in A. vaviloviana (129.97%) followed by A. sativa (122.82%) and A. brevis (83.38%) at vegetative stage; however at flowering stage the maximum increase was reported in A. sativa (25.62%) followed by A. sterilis (20.46%) and A. brevis (18.53%). At vegetative stage drought, maximum increase in peroxidase activity was recorded in A. sativa (122.82%) followed by A. brevis (83.38%) and A. sterilis (49.78%). Flowering stage drought, showed maximum increase in A. Sativa (27.09%) followed by A. marocana (23.50%) and A. sterilis (20.46%). A. sativa and A. sterilis showed stress tolerance at both the stages by accumulating higher percentage of peroxidase followed by A. brevis at vegetative and A. marocana at flowering stage. Level of lipid peroxidation in terms of Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was increased in the leaves when plants were subjected to moisture stress. The rate of increase in lipid peroxidation occurs irrespective of stage however; maximum increase was recorded in A. strigosa at both the stages. Avena species which showed high level of MDA content, indicates more lipid peroxidation and more membrane permeability and are comparatively more susceptible for water stress than those which produce less Malondialdehyde (MDA) content at higher magnitude of water stress such species have better capability for moisture stress tolerance.

  10. Zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles influence the antioxidative status in a higher aquatic plant, Spirodela punctata

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thwala, Melusi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors present evidence of free radical activity and resultant anti-oxidative defence in Spirodela plants after exposure to 0.01-1000 mg/L of ZnO and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) over 96-h and 14-d. The quantification of reactive nitrogen...

  11. Investigation of total phenolic, total flavonoid, antioxidant and allyl isothiocyanate content in the different organs of Wasabi japonica grown in an organic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seong Woo; Ghimeray, Amal Kumar; Park, Cheol Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the total polyphenol (TP), total flavonoid (TF), antioxidative effect and allyl isothyocyanate (ITC) content in different organs of wasabi plant grown in an organic system. Invitro study of methanol and boiled water extracts of wasabi were conducted by analyzing the 1-1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrozyl (DPPH) radial scavenging activity, metal chelating activity and total antioxidant capacity in a comparative manner. The result revealed that methanol extract showed higher TP in flower (3644 mg TAE/100 g dw), leaf (3201 mg TAE/100 g dw) and fruit (3025 mg TAE/100 g dw) as compared to the boiled water extract. Similarly, TF content was also higher in methanol extracts of flower (1152 mg QE/100 g dw) and leaf (325 mg QE/100 g dw), however, the other parts showed ignorable value. Results of antioxidant activity were found at different magnitude of potency. The methanol extract of different parts of wasabi exhibited higher activity in total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging assay as compared to water extract. In metal chelating assay, the boiled water extracts of leaf showed higher (76.9%) activity, followed by fruit (68.8%) and flower (62.8%). Ally ITC detected by gas chromatography was present in all of the tissues of wasabi plant but the content was found to be varied in different tissues. Overall, this study will allow consumers and processors to understand the possibility for medical application of wasabi plant by knowing the level of total polyphenol distribution, Ally ITC content and antioxidant property distributed in different parts and tissues.Key words: Allyl ITC, antioxidant, flavonoid, polyphenol, Wasabi japonica.

  12. Shifting from priming of salicylic acid- to jasmonic acid-regulated defences by Trichoderma protects tomato against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Fernandez, Ivan; Lok, Gerrit B; Pozo, María J; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2017-02-01

    Beneficial root endophytes such as Trichoderma spp. can reduce infections by parasitic nematodes through triggering host defences. Little is currently known about the complex hormone signalling underlying the induction of resistance. In this study, we investigated whether Trichoderma modulates the hormone signalling network in the host to induce resistance to nematodes. We investigated the role and the timing of the jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-regulated defensive pathways in Trichoderma-induced resistance to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. A split-root system of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) was used to study local and systemic induced defences by analysing nematode performance, defence gene expression, responsiveness to exogenous hormone application, and dependence on SA and JA signalling of Trichoderma-induced resistance. Root colonization by Trichoderma impeded nematode performance both locally and systemically at multiple stages of the parasitism, that is, invasion, galling and reproduction. First, Trichoderma primed SA-regulated defences, which limited nematode root invasion. Then, Trichoderma enhanced JA-regulated defences, thereby antagonizing the deregulation of JA-dependent immunity by the nematodes, which compromised galling and fecundity. Our results show that Trichoderma primes SA- and JA-dependent defences in roots, and that the priming of responsiveness to these hormones upon nematode attack is plastic and adaptive to the parasitism stage. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Bench-to-bedside review: Bacterial virulence and subversion of host defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Steven A R; Kahler, Charlene M

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens possess an array of specific mechanisms that confer virulence and the capacity to avoid host defence mechanisms. Mechanisms of virulence are often mediated by the subversion of normal aspects of host biology. In this way the pathogen modifies host function so as to promote the pathogen's survival or proliferation. Such subversion is often mediated by the specific interaction of bacterial effector molecules with host encoded proteins and other molecules. The importance of these mechanisms for bacterial pathogens that cause infections leading to severe community-acquired infections is well established. In contrast, the importance of specialised mechanisms of virulence in the genesis of nosocomial bacterial infections, which occur in the context of local or systemic defects in host immune defences, is less well established. Specific mechanisms of bacterial resistance to host immunity might represent targets for therapeutic intervention. The clinical utility of such an approach for either prevention or treatment of bacterial infection, however, has not been determined.

  14. Caffeic acid and ferulic acid inhibit UVA-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 through regulation of antioxidant defense system in keratinocyte HaCaT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluemsamran, Thanyawan; Onkoksoong, Tasanee; Panich, Uraiwan

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet A (UVA) plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of premature skin aging through keratinocyte cytotoxicity and degradation of collagen, a main component of the extracellular matrix providing structural support. Oxidative stress caused by UVA irradiation can mediate induction of matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1), a major enzyme responsible for collagen damage. Protection against UV-mediated disturbance of antioxidant defense system has been proposed as a possible mechanism by which botanical compounds slow down skin aging process. This study therefore aimed to assess inhibitory effects of caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA), powerful plant-based phenolic antioxidants, on UVA-induced cytotoxicity and MMP-1 activity and mRNA level through modulation of antioxidant defense mechanism in immortalized human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Pretreatment of the cells with CA or FA prior to UVA irradiation inhibited cytotoxicity, induction of MMP-1 activity and mRNA and oxidant formation. Moreover, CA and FA were able to up-regulate glutathione (GSH) content, γ-glutamate cysteine ligase (γ-GCL) mRNA as well as activities and mRNA expression of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in irradiated cells. In conclusion, CA and FA provided protective effects on UVA-mediated MMP-1 induction in HaCaT cells possibly through restoration of antioxidant defense system at the cellular and molecular level. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  15. The regulation of host defences to infection by the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca L; Clarke, Thomas B

    2017-01-01

    The skin and mucosal epithelia of humans and other mammals are permanently colonized by large microbial communities (the microbiota). Due to this life-long association with the microbiota, these microbes have an extensive influence over the physiology of their host organism. It is now becoming apparent that nearly all tissues and organ systems, whether in direct contact with the microbiota or in deeper host sites, are under microbial influence. The immune system is perhaps the most profoundly affected, with the microbiota programming both its innate and adaptive arms. The regulation of immunity by the microbiota helps to protect the host against intestinal and extra-intestinal infection by many classes of pathogen. In this review, we will discuss the experimental evidence supporting a role for the microbiota in regulating host defences to extra-intestinal infection, draw together common mechanistic themes, including the central role of pattern recognition receptors, and outline outstanding questions that need to be answered. © 2016 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Effect of population density on enzymatic activity of antioxidative and phenol oxidase systems of imagoes and nymphs of the marble cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murzagulov, G S; Saltykova, E S; Gaĭfullina, L R; Nikolenko, A G

    2013-01-01

    The work deals with effect of density of population on functional activity of components pf protective system of adult individuals and nymphs of the marble cockroach. The resistance of individuals has been noted to decrease both at individual maintenance and under conditions of overpopulation. Changes in activities of enzymes of antioxidative and phenoloxidase systems are studied ion the insect hemolymph and intestine. Possible consequences of isolation and overpopulation are discussed both for stability and for individual development.

  17. Amla Enhances Mitochondrial Spare Respiratory Capacity by Increasing Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Antioxidant Systems in a Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Yamamoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amla is one of the most important plants in Indian traditional medicine and has been shown to improve various age-related disorders while decreasing oxidative stress. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a proposed cause of aging through elevated oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of Amla on mitochondrial function in C2C12 myotubes, a murine skeletal muscle cell model with abundant mitochondria. Based on cell flux analysis, treatment with an extract of Amla fruit enhanced mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity, which enables cells to overcome various stresses. To further explore the mechanisms underlying these effects on mitochondrial function, we analyzed mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant systems, both proposed regulators of mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. We found that Amla treatment stimulated both systems accompanied by AMPK and Nrf2 activation. Furthermore, we found that Amla treatment exhibited cytoprotective effects and lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in cells subjected to t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. These effects were accompanied by increased oxygen consumption, suggesting that Amla protected cells against oxidative stress by using enhanced spare respiratory capacity to produce more energy. Thus we identified protective effects of Amla, involving activation of mitochondrial function, which potentially explain its various effects on age-related disorders.

  18. Combined cadmium and elevated ozone affect concentrations of cadmium and antioxidant systems in wheat under fully open-air conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hongyan; Tian, Ran; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Hui; Pei, Daping; Wang, Xiaorong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Combined effect of elevated O 3 and Cd levels on wheat was studied using the free-air concentration enrichment system. ► Elevated O 3 levels result in an increased concentration of Cd in wheat plants grown on Cd-contaminated soils. ► Combined cadmium and elevated O 3 have a significantly synergic effect on oxidative stress in wheat shoots. - Abstract: Pollution of the environment with both ozone (O 3 ) and heavy metals has been steadily increasing. An understanding of their combined effects on plants, especially crops, is limited. Here we studied the effects of elevated O 3 on oxidative stress and bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd) in wheat under Cd stress using a free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) system. In this field experiment in Jiangdu (Jiangsu Province, China), wheat plants were grown in pots containing soil with various concentrations of cadmium (0, 2, and 10 mg kg −1 Cd was added to the soil) under ambient conditions and under elevated O 3 levels (50% higher than the ambient O 3 ). Present results showed that elevated O 3 led to higher concentrations of Cd in wheat tissues (shoots, husk and grains) with respect to contaminated soil. Combined exposure to Cd and elevated O 3 levels strongly affected the antioxidant isoenzymes POD, APX and CAT and accelerated oxidative stress in wheat leaves. Our results suggest that elevated O 3 levels cause a reduction in food quality and safety.

  19. Effects of different rearing and feeding systems on lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity of freeze-dried egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignoli, Giovanni; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Mandrioli, Mara; Barbanti, Lorenzo; Rizzi, Laura; Lercker, Giovanni

    2009-12-23

    Lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity of freeze-dried egg yolks produced with two rearing systems (battery cages and free-range) and two types of feedings (conventional and organic) were studied. Nine fresh egg yolks of each crossed treatment were pooled, frozen for a month, freeze-dried, vacuum-packed, and kept at -18 degrees C until analysis. No significant differences were observed in the lipid (58.0-62.1%) and total sterol contents (33.0-35.5 g/kg of lipids) of the freeze-dried egg yolks. Free rearing and conventional feeding systems resulted in significantly higher total tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, and lutein contents, as compared to the battery cage and the organic feed, respectively. However, no significant differences were found in lipid oxidation (peroxide value = 0.7-0.9 mequiv of O(2)/kg of fat; thiobarbituric reactive substances = 1.0-1.3 mg of malonylaldehyde/kg of sample) and cholesterol oxidation (28.8-43.5 mg of cholesterol oxidation products/kg of lipids; 0.08-0.12% oxidized cholesterol) of freeze-dried egg yolks except for 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol, which was significantly lower in samples obtained with organic feed.

  20. Hypothyroidism modulates renal antioxidant gene expression during postnatal development and maturation in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Srikanta; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda; Dandapat, Jagneshwar

    2012-08-01

    In the present study effects of 6-n-propyl thiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism on renal antioxidant defence system during postnatal development (from birth to 7, 15 and 30days old) and on adult rats were reported. Hypothyroidism in rats was induced by feeding the lactating mothers (from the day of parturition till weaning, 25days old) or directly to the pups with 0.05% PTU in drinking water. The activities of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were increased in 30days old hypothyroid rats with respect to their respective controls, on the other hand, levels of translated products and activities of Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and catalase (CAT) were decreased in hypothyroid rats of all age groups as compared to their respective control rats. SOD1 activity remained unchanged in persistent (PTU-treatment from birth to 90days old) hypothyroid rats as compared to euthyroid. However, a decreased activity of SOD1 was recorded in transient (PTU-treatment from birth to 30days then withdrawal till 90days old) hypothyroid rats with respect to control rats. The mRNA level, protein expression and activity of SOD2 and CAT were significantly decreased in persistent hypothyroid rats as compared to euthyroid rats. The activity of GPx was significantly increased in both persistent and transient hypothyroid rats with respect to euthyroid rats. The present study indicates modulation of antioxidant defence status of rat kidney during postnatal development and maturation by hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of the Gamma Radiation and Temperature on Histamine Production, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Parameters in Sardine (Sardina Pilchardus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltar-Strmecki, N.; Aladrovic, J.; Dzaja, P.; Ljubic-Beer, B.; Laskaj, R.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation processing of fish is recognized as a safe and effective method for reducing microorganisms and viruses as well for inactivating pathogens among the existing technologies for preservation. Safety and hygienic quality is directly related to the duration between when the fish is caught and when it reaches the end consumer and depends upon conditions how the sardine is handled and upon which conditions. As sardine (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792) is pelagric fish widely distributed in the Adriatic Sea and one of the most commercially important fish species in the fisheries of all countries located along the coast of the Adriatic Sea in the present study, the effects of gamma irradiation on the histamine production, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant parameters in sardine during the storage at two different temperatures (4 and 30 degrees of Celsius) were investigated. The results indicate that histamine concentration was reduced by gamma irradiation and that the safe consumption can be prolonged for both temperatures of storage. However, irradiation treatment induced oxidative damage, as evidenced by changes in levels of lipid peroxidation and radical kinetic rate detected by EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) spectroscopy. These results suggest that gamma radiation undoubtedly induces antioxidant defence system in sardine fish. However, further research is necessary to elucidate the precise role that the antioxidant system plays under the influence of gamma radiation and temperature.(author)

  2. Influence of the PDE5 inhibitor tadalafil on redox status and antioxidant defense system in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duranti, Guglielmo; Ceci, Roberta; Sgrò, Paolo; Sabatini, Stefania; Di Luigi, Luigi

    2017-05-01

    Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is), widely known for their beneficial effects onto male erectile dysfunction, seem to exert favorable effects onto metabolism as well. Tadalafil exposure increases oxidative metabolism of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. A rise in fatty acid (FA) metabolism, requiring more oxygen, could induce a larger reactive oxygen species (ROS) release as a byproduct thus leading to a redox imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine how PDE5I tadalafil influences redox status in skeletal muscle cells to match the increasing oxidative metabolism. To this purpose, differentiated C2C12 skeletal muscle cells were treated with tadalafil and analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione levels as marker of redox status; enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) engaged in antioxidant defense; and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein carbonyls (PrCar) as markers of oxidative damage. Tadalafil increased total intracellular glutathione (tGSH), CAT, SOD, and GPx enzymatic activities while no changes were found in TAC. A perturbation of redox status, as showed by the decrease in the ratio between reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), was observed. Nevertheless, it did not cause any change in TBARS and PrCar levels probably due to the enhancement in the antioxidant enzymatic network. Taken together, these data indicate that tadalafil, besides improving oxidative metabolism, may be beneficial to skeletal muscle cells by enhancing the enzymatic antioxidant system capacity.

  3. The effects of increased freshwater salinity in the biodisponibility of metals (Cr, Pb) and effects on antioxidant systems of Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysoy, E; Atli, G; Gürler, C Ö; Dogan, Z; Eroglu, A; Kocalar, K; Canli, M

    2012-10-01

    Anthropogenic activities can increase the salinity of freshwaters and this may cause stress for fish and affect metal bioavailability. Oxidative stress biomarkers are of great interest due to their responses to environmental stressors which provide valuable data for biological monitoring of aquatic pollution. Thus, the individual and combined effects of salinity and metals (Cr, Pb) were investigated in the liver of freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus in the present study. Fish were exposed to salinity (2 and 8 ppt) alone and salinity+metal (1 μg/mL Pb and Cr) combination exposures for 0, 1, 7 and 14 days and subsequently antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidase, GPX; glutathione reductase, GR and glutathione S-transferase, GST) activities and glutathione (GSH) levels in the liver were measured. Data showed that all the parameters varied in relation to metal species, exposure durations and salinity levels. Profound alterations on the measured parameters were detected at the lower salinity compared to the higher one. Salinity increase effectively stimulated the antioxidant parameters. The effects of salinity and metals on the measured parameters increased as the exposure duration prolonged. SOD was the most affected antioxidant parameter from both salinity and metals. Because metal and salinity stresses affect fish antioxidant system, this work suggests that the chemistry of freshwaters should be taken into account in natural monitoring for metal contamination in the field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Metallothionein-mediated antioxidant defense system and its response to exercise training are impaired in human type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan

    2005-01-01

    the MT-I+II-mediated antioxidant capacity and its response to exercise training in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes, biopsies and blood samples were taken from 13 matched subjects (type 2 diabetes n = 8, control subjects n = 5) both before and after 8 weeks of exercise training......-I+II in muscle and plasma, as well as the deficient MT-I+II response to exercise, indicate that this antioxidant defense is impaired. This study presents a novel candidate in the pathogenesis of complications related to oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes.......Oxidative stress is implicated in diabetes complications, during which endogenous antioxidant defenses have important pathophysiological consequences. To date, the significance of endogenous antioxidants such as metallothioneins I and II (MT-I+II) in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. To examine...

  5. Trained immunity: A smart way to enhance innate immune defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Jos W M; Joosten, Leo A B; Riksen, Niels; Netea, Mihai G

    2015-11-01

    The innate arm of the immune system is generally viewed as primitive and non-specific and - in contrast to the adaptive immune arm - not to possess memory. However in plants and invertebrate animals that lack adaptive immunity, innate immunity will exhibit a prolonged enhanced functional state after adequate priming. A similar enhancement of function of the innate immunity has occasionally been described in vertebrates, including humans. Over the past few years we have studied this phenomenon in greater detail and we have coined the term 'Trained (innate) immunity' (TI). TI can be induced by a variety of stimuli, of which we have studied BCG and β-glucan in greater detail. The non-specific protective effects of BCG that have been observed in vaccination studies in the literature are probably due to TI. Monocytes and macrophages are among the main cells of the innate immune arm that can be trained. We have discovered that both BCG (via NOD2 signalling) and β-glucan (via dectin-1) induce epigenetic reprogramming, in particular stable changes in histone trimethylation at H3K4. These epigenetic changes lead to cellular activation, enhanced cytokine production and a change in the metabolic state of the cell with a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. TI is not only important for host defence and vaccine responses, but most probably also for diseases like atherosclerosis. Modulation of TI is a promising area for new treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Status of services, overexposure and QAC in TLD PMS to defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, A.S.; Gupta, D.K.; Samaria, H.C.; Chouhan, R.L.; Mishra, M.; Goyal, J.K.; Gautam, M.; Kalla, R.

    2008-01-01

    Individual monitoring has always played an important role in radiological protection. There is continuous development in the field of dosimetry systems and many changes have taken place in last many years. The use of radiation for peaceful purposes is increasing with advancement of technological growth in the country. Thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLDs) have emerged as one of the best alternatives for personal monitoring. Defence sector has nearly 2100 persons, who are working in various Military Hospitals, Military Colleges, DRDO Labs, Defence Ordinance factories and many others CPMFs like CISF, BSF, who are likely to receive radiation doses. Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur is providing the TLD personal monitoring service since Jan 1999 as per the guideline by B.A.R.C. to all the institutions mentioned above. This paper brings out salient features of this service in terms of facility available, procedures fulfilling the requirement of accreditation, over exposure reported, quality measures adopted and quality assurance results conducted by BARC, utility and suggestions for such type of services. (author)

  7. A new cyanogenic metabolite in Arabidopsis required for inducible pathogen defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajniak, Jakub; Barco, Brenden; Clay, Nicole K; Sattely, Elizabeth S

    2015-09-17

    Thousands of putative biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis thaliana have no known function, which suggests that there are numerous molecules contributing to plant fitness that have not yet been discovered. Prime among these uncharacterized genes are cytochromes P450 upregulated in response to pathogens. Here we start with a single pathogen-induced P450 (ref. 5), CYP82C2, and use a combination of untargeted metabolomics and coexpression analysis to uncover the complete biosynthetic pathway to 4-hydroxyindole-3-carbonyl nitrile (4-OH-ICN), a previously unknown Arabidopsis metabolite. This metabolite harbours cyanogenic functionality that is unprecedented in plants and exceedingly rare in nature; furthermore, the aryl cyanohydrin intermediate in the 4-OH-ICN pathway reveals a latent capacity for cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. By expressing 4-OH-ICN biosynthetic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Nicotiana benthamiana, we reconstitute the complete pathway in vitro and in vivo and validate the functions of its enzymes. Arabidopsis 4-OH-ICN pathway mutants show increased susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, consistent with a role in inducible pathogen defence. Arabidopsis has been the pre-eminent model system for studying the role of small molecules in plant innate immunity; our results uncover a new branch of indole metabolism distinct from the canonical camalexin pathway, and support a role for this pathway in the Arabidopsis defence response. These results establish a more complete framework for understanding how the model plant Arabidopsis uses small molecules in pathogen defence.

  8. Environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector: the case of the defence sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Tomás B; Alves, Inês; Subtil, Rui; Joanaz de Melo, João

    2007-03-01

    The development of environmental performance policy indicators for public services, and in particular for the defence sector, is an emerging issue. Despite a number of recent initiatives there has been little work done in this area, since the other sectors usually focused on are agriculture, transport, industry, tourism and energy. This type of tool can be an important component for environmental performance evaluation at policy level, when integrated in the general performance assessment system of public missions and activities. The main objective of this research was to develop environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector, specifically applied to the defence sector. Previous research included an assessment of the environmental profile, through the evaluation of how environmental management practices have been adopted in this sector and an assessment of environmental aspects and impacts. This paper builds upon that previous research, developing an indicator framework--SEPI--supported by the selection and construction of environmental performance indicators. Another aim is to discuss how the current environmental indicator framework can be integrated into overall performance management. The Portuguese defence sector is presented and the usefulness of this methodology demonstrated. Feasibility and relevancy criteria are applied to evaluate the set of indicators proposed, allowing indicators to be scored and indicators for the policy level to be obtained.

  9. The state of lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant system in victims of the Chernobyl accident that suffer from duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucherenko, M.Je.; Drobyins'ka, O.V.; Ostapchenko, L.Yi.

    2002-01-01

    In the bioptates of mucous membranes of stomach in peptic ulcer patients residing in the regions with a high level of contamination by radionuclides, a high level of products of lipid peroxidation is found. It is experimentally proved that the violations are accompanied by a significant fall of the level of antioxidant enzymes and warrant a wide use of direct antioxidant medicine to normalize all the above-mentioned processes

  10. Evaluating arguments during instigations of defence motivation and accuracy motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Hong

    2017-05-01

    When people evaluate the strength of an argument, their motivations are likely to influence the evaluation. However, few studies have specifically investigated the influences of motivational factors on argument evaluation. This study examined the effects of defence and accuracy motivations on argument evaluation. According to the compatibility between the advocated positions of arguments and participants' prior beliefs and the objective strength of arguments, participants evaluated four types of arguments: compatible-strong, compatible-weak, incompatible-strong, and incompatible-weak arguments. Experiment 1 revealed that participants possessing a high defence motivation rated compatible-weak arguments as stronger and incompatible-strong ones as weaker than participants possessing a low defence motivation. However, the strength ratings between the high and low defence groups regarding both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar. Experiment 2 revealed that when participants possessed a high accuracy motivation, they rated compatible-weak arguments as weaker and incompatible-strong ones as stronger than when they possessed a low accuracy motivation. However, participants' ratings on both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar when comparing high and low accuracy conditions. The results suggest that defence and accuracy motivations are two major motives influencing argument evaluation. However, they primarily influence the evaluation results for compatible-weak and incompatible-strong arguments, but not for compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Radiation protection and safety in the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.J.; O'Donovan, E.J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Very few organisations have to address such a diverse and complex range of radiation safety matters as the Australian Defence Organisation. The Australian Defence Force and the Department of Defence (its military and civilian branches) have to comply with strict regulations in normal peace time activities. The Surgeon-General, to whom responsibility for policy in radiation protection and safety falls, has established a Defence Radiation Safety Committee, which in turn oversees four specialist subcommittees. Their tasks include recommending policy and doctrine in relation to radiation safety, overseeing the implementation of appropriate regulations, monitoring their compliance. generating the relevant documentation (particularly on procedures to be followed), developing and improving any necessary training courses, and providing sound technical advice whenever and to whomever required. The internal Defence regulations do not permit radiation doses to exceed those limits recommended by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and precautions are taken to ensure during normal peace time duties that these levels are not exceeded. At times of national emergency, the Surgeon-General provides guidance and advice to military commanders on the consequences of receiving dose levels that would not be permitted during normal peace time activities. The paper describes the methods adopted to implement such arrangements

  12. Characterization and response of antioxidant systems in the tissues of the freshwater pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) during acute copper exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atli, Gülüzar; Grosell, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The response of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GPX and glutathione reductase, GR) and non-enzymatic responses (glutathione, GSH, oxidized glutathione, GSSG and GSH/GSSG) against acute Cu toxicity (2-90μg/mL for 48h) in different tissues of Lymnaea stagnalis were measured. Incubation conditions for enzymatic activity measurements were optimized for L. stagnalis tissues. Three examined tissues, the hepatopancreas, the foot muscle and the mantle, exhibited variable responses in antioxidant parameters as a function of Cu concentrations. The most responsive antioxidant enzymes were GPX and CAT while GR appeared less sensitive. In general antioxidant enzymes at higher Cu concentrations though GSH levels at lower Cu concentrations exhibited the greatest changes in hepatopancreas and foot muscle, respectively. All antioxidant enzymes except GR increased after exposure to the highest Cu concentration in mantle. Total and reduced GSH increased in hepatopancreas but decreased with GSH/GSSG ratios at all Cu concentrations in foot muscle. The present results show that antioxidants respond to acute Cu exposure at concentrations as low as 2μg Cu/L in adult L. stagnalis with variable responses in different tissues. Antioxidants both including enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters may account, in part, for the high tolerance to acute metal exposure observed in adult L. stagnalis and could form suited biomarkers to evaluate the metal exposure and toxicity in aquatic environment even at relatively low level short term exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Augments Arsenic Tolerance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Strengthening Antioxidant Defense System and Thiol Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surbhi; Anand, Garima; Singh, Neeraja; Kapoor, Rupam

    2017-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) can help plants to tolerate arsenic (As) toxicity. However, plant responses are found to vary with the host plant and the AM fungal species. The present study compares the efficacy of two AM fungi Rhizoglomus intraradices (M1) and Glomus etunicatum (M2) in amelioration of As stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD-2967). Mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) wheat plants were subjected to four levels of As (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg As kg-1 soil). Although As additions had variable effects on the percentage of root colonized by the two fungal inoculants, each mycobiont conferred benefits to the host plant. Mycorrhizal plants continued to display better growth than NM plants. Formation of AM helped the host plant to overcome As-induced P deficiency and maintained favorable P:As ratio. Inoculation of AMF had variable effects on the distribution of As in plant tissues. While As translocation factor decreased in low As (25 mg kg-1 soil), it increased under high As (50 and 100 mg As kg-1 soil). Further As translocation to grain was reduced (As grain:shoot ratio) in M plants compared with NM plants. Arsenic-induced oxidative stress (generation of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation) in plants reduced significantly by AMF inoculation. The alleviation potential of AM was more evident with increase in severity of As stress. Colonization of AMF resulted in higher activities of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase). It increased the concentrations of the antioxidant molecules (carotenoids, proline, and α-tocopherol) than their NM counterparts at high As addition level. Comparatively higher activities of enzymes of glutathione-ascorbate cycle in M plants led to higher ascorbate:dehydroascorbate (AsA:DHA) and glutathione:glutathione disulphide (GSH:GSSG) ratios. Inoculation by AMF also augmented the glyoxalase system by increasing the activities of both glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II enzymes. Mycorrhizal

  14. Effects of florfenicol on the antioxidant status, detoxification system and biomolecule damage in the swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xianyun; Wang, Zhuqing; Gao, Baoquan; Liu, Ping; Li, Jian

    2017-09-01

    Florfenicol (FLR) is the most commonly used antibacterial agent in aquaculture because of its wide spectrum of activity and few side-effects. We characterized the toxicokinetics of FLR in the swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) after intravenous (IV) dosing (20, 40 and 80mg/kg). The results showed that FLR significantly suppressed the antioxidant system of the hepatopancreas. FLR induced transcriptional expression of phase I and phase II detoxification genes (CYP3 and GST, respectively) in a dose- and clearance time-dependent manner and altered the expression of their corresponding enzymes (erythromycin N-demethylase and glutathione S-transferase, respectively). Moreover, FLR induced the transcription of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter subfamily B (ABCB) and subfamily G (ABCG), although ABCG transcription was not induced by FLR at 20mg/kg. Additionally, higher FLR doses caused significant biomolecule damage during the first 48h after delivery. This study will provide an improved understanding of the exact mechanism underlying toxicity in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nitric oxide induced by polyamines involves antioxidant systems against chilling stress in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedling*#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Qian-Nan; Song, Yong-Jun; Shi, Dong-Mei; Qi, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) and nitric oxide (NO) are vital signals in modulating plant response to abiotic stress. However, to our knowledge, studies on the relationship between NO and PAs in response to cold stress in tomato are limited. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the effects of putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) on NO generation and the function of Spd-induced NO in the tolerance of tomato seedling under chilling stress. Spd increased NO release via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like and nitrate reductase (NR) enzymatic pathways in the seedlings, whereas Put had no such effect. Moreover, H2O2 might act as an upstream signal to stimulate NO production. Both exogenous NO donor (sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) and Spd enhanced chilling tolerance in tomato, thereby protecting the photosynthetic system from damage. Compared to chilling treatment alone, Spd enhanced the gene expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and their enzyme activities in tomato leaves. However, a scavenger or inhibitor of NO abolished Spd-induced chilling tolerance and blocked the increased expression and activity due to Spd of these antioxidant enzymes in tomato leaves under chilling stress. The results showed that NO induced by Spd plays a crucial role in tomato’s response to chilling stress. PMID:27921397

  16. Nitric oxide induced by polyamines involves antioxidant systems against chilling stress in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Qian-Nan; Song, Yong-Jun; Shi, Dong-Mei; Qi, Hong-Yan

    Polyamines (PAs) and nitric oxide (NO) are vital signals in modulating plant response to abiotic stress. However, to our knowledge, studies on the relationship between NO and PAs in response to cold stress in tomato are limited. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the effects of putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) on NO generation and the function of Spd-induced NO in the tolerance of tomato seedling under chilling stress. Spd increased NO release via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like and nitrate reductase (NR) enzymatic pathways in the seedlings, whereas Put had no such effect. Moreover, H 2 O 2 might act as an upstream signal to stimulate NO production. Both exogenous NO donor (sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) and Spd enhanced chilling tolerance in tomato, thereby protecting the photosynthetic system from damage. Compared to chilling treatment alone, Spd enhanced the gene expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and their enzyme activities in tomato leaves. However, a scavenger or inhibitor of NO abolished Spd-induced chilling tolerance and blocked the increased expression and activity due to Spd of these antioxidant enzymes in tomato leaves under chilling stress. The results showed that NO induced by Spd plays a crucial role in tomato's response to chilling stress.

  17. Condition peroxidations and antioxidative systems with children at the influenza a h1n1 pdm09

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Miromanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective: to study a role peroxidation of lipids and antioxidative system at children at influenza А H1N1pdm09.Materials and methods: research prooxidatic and antioxidatic activity of blood at 114 children with an uncomplicated current of influenza A H1N1pdm09 and at 87 children with a pneumonia associated with a virus of influenza A H1N1pdm09 is carried out.Results of research: it is established, that uncomplicated forms of influenza A H1N1pdm09 at children’s age are accompanied by depression of antioxidatic protection and appreciable intensifying of processes peroxidations of lipids, depending on gravity of a clinical current of an infection. At the complicated current of influenza A H1N1pdm09 a pneumonia processes peroxidations of lipids proceed more intensively, especially at a serious current of pathological process.Conclusion: development of oxidising stress with prevalence of oxidizers is one of key pathogenetic links of formation of the serious and complicated forms of influenza A H1N1pdm09 at children.

  18. Influence of Different Doses of Levofloxacin on Antioxidant Defense Systems and Markers of Renal and Hepatic Dysfunctions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Tunde Olayinka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Levofloxacin (LFX is a broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic used in the treatment of infections such as pneumonia, chronic bronchitis, and sinusitis. The present study assessed the likely toxic effect of LFX on hepatic and renal tissues in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: A: control, B: 5 mg/kg bw LFX (half therapeutic dose, C: 10 mg/kg bw LFX (therapeutic dose, and D: 20 mg/kg bw LFX (double therapeutic dose. After seven days of administration, result indicated significant (P<0.05 increase in plasma ALT, AST, and ALP activities in the treated groups compared to control. Also, there was a significant increase in plasma creatinine, urea, and total bilirubin in the treated groups relative to control. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides also increased significantly in the treated groups relative to control. Also, hepatic MDA level increased significantly in all the treated groups. However, hepatic SOD, catalase, and GST activities were significantly reduced in the LFX-treated animals. Moreover, GSH and ascorbic acid levels were significantly decreased in the LFX-treated groups relative to control. In conclusion, three doses of levofloxacin depleted antioxidant defense system and induced oxidative stress and hepatic and renal dysfunctions in rats.

  19. Ultraviolet irradiation induced oxidative stress and response of antioxidant system in an intertidal macroalgae Corallina officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixia; Zhao, Jiqiang; Tang, Xuexi

    2010-01-01

    The response of the antioxidant defense system of an intertidal macroalgae Corallina officinalis L. to different dosages of UV-B irradiation was investigated. Results showed that superoxide dimutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POX) increased and then maintained at a relatively stable level when subjected to UV-B irradiation. Catalase (CAT) activity under medium dosage of UV-B irradiation (Muv) and high dosage of UV-B irradiation (Huv) treatments were significantly decreased. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity first remained unaltered and then increased in Huv treatment. In addition, the assay on isozymes was carried out using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The activities of some SOD isoforms were altered by UV-B. Two new bands (POX V and POX VII) appeared upon exposure to all three UV-B dosages. CAT III activity was increased by low dosage of UV-B irradiation (Luv), whereas CAT III and CAT IV disappeared when the alga was exposed to Muv and Huv. Two bands of APX (APX VI and APX VII) were increased and a new band (APX X) was observed under Huv exposure. H2O2 and thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS) increased under Muv and Huv treatments. Overall, UV-B protection mechanisms are partly inducible and to a certain extent sufficient to prevent the accumulation of damage in C. officinalis.

  20. Antioxidative defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.