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Sample records for antineoplastic agents

  1. Thyroid dysfunction from antineoplastic agents.

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    Hamnvik, Ole-Petter Riksfjord; Larsen, P Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

    2011-11-02

    Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-α, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%-50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient's quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents.

  2. Oral Antineoplastic Agents: Assessing the Delay in Care

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the length of time between when a prescription for an oral antineoplastic agent is written by the provider and when the medication is received by the patient and to identify risk factors that significantly increase time to medication receipt. First-time fill prescriptions for oral antineoplastic agents were identified. The date the prescription was written and received by the patient was determined. A retrospective review was completed to gather additiona...

  3. Oral Antineoplastic Agents: Assessing the Delay in Care

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    Brandi Anders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to determine the length of time between when a prescription for an oral antineoplastic agent is written by the provider and when the medication is received by the patient and to identify risk factors that significantly increase time to medication receipt. First-time fill prescriptions for oral antineoplastic agents were identified. The date the prescription was written and received by the patient was determined. A retrospective review was completed to gather additional information, including prescribed medication, indication, insurance coverage, patient assistance program use, dispensing pharmacy, and prior authorization requirements. The data was analyzed through multivariate statistical analysis and used to identify risk factors that may significantly increase the time to medication receipt. A total of 58 patients were included in the study. A median of 8 days elapsed between when the medication was prescribed and when it was received by the patient. Medication prescribed, absence of a Risk Evaluation Mitigation Strategies (REMS program, and insurance type are factors that increased time to medication receipt. An understanding of the median time involved, as well as factors affecting the time to delivery of prescriptions, will help healthcare providers better plan and prepare for the use of oral antineoplastic agents.

  4. Oral Antineoplastic Agents: Assessing the Delay in Care.

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    Anders, Brandi; Shillingburg, Alexandra; Newton, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the length of time between when a prescription for an oral antineoplastic agent is written by the provider and when the medication is received by the patient and to identify risk factors that significantly increase time to medication receipt. First-time fill prescriptions for oral antineoplastic agents were identified. The date the prescription was written and received by the patient was determined. A retrospective review was completed to gather additional information, including prescribed medication, indication, insurance coverage, patient assistance program use, dispensing pharmacy, and prior authorization requirements. The data was analyzed through multivariate statistical analysis and used to identify risk factors that may significantly increase the time to medication receipt. A total of 58 patients were included in the study. A median of 8 days elapsed between when the medication was prescribed and when it was received by the patient. Medication prescribed, absence of a Risk Evaluation Mitigation Strategies (REMS) program, and insurance type are factors that increased time to medication receipt. An understanding of the median time involved, as well as factors affecting the time to delivery of prescriptions, will help healthcare providers better plan and prepare for the use of oral antineoplastic agents.

  5. Evaluation of new antiemetic agents and definition of antineoplastic agent emetogenicity--state of the art.

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    Grunberg, Steven M; Warr, David; Gralla, Richard J; Rapoport, Bernardo L; Hesketh, Paul J; Jordan, Karin; Espersen, Birgitte T

    2011-03-01

    Antiemetic drug development can follow the same logical path as antineoplastic drug development from appropriate preclinical models through Phase I, Phase II, and Phase III testing. However, due to the marked success of antiemetic therapy over the last 25 years, placebo antiemetic treatment against highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy is not acceptable. Promising antiemetic agents therefore rapidly reach Phase III testing, where they are substituted into or added to effective and accepted regimens. One challenge of antiemetic drug development is determining whether substitution is indeed acceptable or whether prior regimens must be maintained intact as a basis for further antiemetic drug development. An additional challenge is the classification of emetogenic level of new antineoplastic agents. Accurate reporting of emetogenicity of such antineoplastic agents in the absence of preventive antiemetic treatment may not be available. However, at the 2009 Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) Consensus Conference, an expert panel used best available data to establish rankings of emetogenicity. Oral chemotherapeutic agents are ranked separately from intravenous agents, recognizing intrinsic differences in emetogenicity as well as differing schedules of administration. Since oral chemotherapeutic agents are often administered in extended regimens, the distinction between acute and delayed emesis is less clear, and cumulative emesis must be considered. As control of vomiting has improved, attention has shifted to control of nausea, a related but distinct and equally important problem. Additional efforts will be necessary to understand mechanisms of nausea and to identify optimal remedies.

  6. Approval of antineoplastic agents in India: comparison with the US and EU regions

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    Bhaven C. Kataria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antineoplastic drugs are prescribed for the treatment of cancer, which is an important cause of mortality in India; therefore, a drug lag in the availability of antineoplastic drugs is a direct threat to life. The present study was undertaken to assess the drug lag for new antineoplastic agents in India compared with that in the United States (US or European Union (EU. Methods: The new antineoplastic agents approved in the United States, European Union and India between 1999 and 2011 were identified and information was gathered primarily from the websites of regulatory agencies of the three regions. We assessed absolute and relative drug lag for new antineoplastic agents approved in the three regions. Results: Of the 70 new antineoplastic agents, 64 (91.42% were approved in the United States, 54 (77.14% in the European Union and 44 (62.85% in India. The US was the first to approve 59 (84.28% out of the 70 new antineoplastic agents, the EU was the first to approve 9 (12.85% and India was the first to approve 2 (2.85%. The median approval lag for India (26.35 months was higher as compared to the United States (0 month and European Union (7.3 months. Conclusions: This study confirms that India's drug lag in the case of new antineoplastic agents is higher as compared to the US and EU. Further detailed analyses are necessary to find the reasons and impacts of drug lag for antineoplastic agents in India. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 13-21

  7. Anticancer activity of streptochlorin, a novel antineoplastic agent, in cholangiocarcinoma

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    Kwak TW

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tae Won Kwak,1,* Hee Jae Shin,2,* Young-Il Jeong,1 Myoung-Eun Han,3 Sae-Ock Oh,3 Hyun-Jung Kim,4 Do Hyung Kim,5 Dae Hwan Kang1 1Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, 2Marine Natural Products Chemistry Laboratory, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Ansan, 3Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Gyeongnam, 4Genewel Co Ltd. Gyeonggi-do, 5School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the anticancer activity of streptochlorin, a novel antineoplastic agent, in cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: The anticancer activity of streptochlorin was evaluated in vitro in various cholangiocarcinoma cell lines for apoptosis, proliferation, invasiveness, and expression of various protein levels. A liver metastasis model was prepared by splenic injection of HuCC-T1 cholangiocarcinoma cells using a BALB/c nude mouse model to study the systemic antimetastatic efficacy of streptochlorin 5 mg/kg at 8 weeks. The antitumor efficacy of subcutaneously injected streptochlorin was also assessed using a solid tumor xenograft model of SNU478 cells for 22 days in the BALB/c nude mouse. Results: Streptochlorin inhibited growth and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor by cholangiocarcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis in vitro. In addition, streptochlorin effectively inhibited invasion and migration of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in cholangiocarcinoma cells were also suppressed by treatment with streptochlorin. Streptochlorin effectively regulated metastasis of HuCC-T1 cells in a mouse model of liver metastasis. In a tumor xenograft study using SNU478 cells, streptochlorin significantly inhibited tumor growth without changes in body weight

  8. Infiltrative Lung Diseases: Complications of Novel Antineoplastic Agents in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

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    Bobbak Vahid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Infiltrative lung disease is a well-known complication of antineoplastic agents in patients with hematological malignancies. Novel agents are constantly being added to available treatments. The present review discusses different pulmonary syndromes, pathogenesis and management of these novel agents.

  9. Redox-directed cancer therapeutics: Taurolidine and Piperlongumine as broadly effective antineoplastic agents (review).

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    Möhler, Hanns; Pfirrmann, Rolf W; Frei, Karl

    2014-10-01

    Targeting the oxygen stress response pathway is considered a promising strategy to exert antineoplastic activity in a broad spectrum of tumor types. Supporting this view, we summarize the mechanism of action of Taurolidine and Piperlongumine, two antineoplastic agents with strikingly broad tumor selectivity. Taurolidine enhances the oxidative stress (ROS) selectively in tumor cells. Its cytotoxicity for various tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, which includes tumor stem cells, is based on the induction of programmed cell death, largely via apoptosis but also necroptosis and autophagy. The redox-directed mechanism of action of Taurolidine is apparent from the finding that reducing agents e.g., N-acetylcysteine or glutathione impair its cytotoxicity, while its effectiveness is enhanced by agents which inhibit the cellular anti‑oxidant capacity. A similar redox-directed antineoplastic action is shown by Piperlongumine, a recently described experimental drug of plant origin. Taurolidine is particularly advantageous in surgical oncology as this taurine-derivative can be applied perioperatively or systemically with good tolerability as shown in initial clinical applications.

  10. New, expanded, and modified use of approved antineoplastic agents in ovarian cancer.

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    Markman, Maurie

    2007-02-01

    Over the past several years, clinical research efforts in ovarian cancer employing a number of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved antineoplastic agents have permitted the development of approaches that both improve the effectiveness and decrease the toxicities of systemic therapy of ovarian cancer. These initiatives, including prospective trials and retrospective examinations of large clinical experience, have involved agents previously approved by the FDA for use in ovarian cancer (e.g., cisplatin, paclitaxel, topotecan, and liposomal doxorubicin) and the development of new strategies for drugs approved for other malignant conditions (e.g., gemcitabine, docetaxel, etoposide, irinotecan, vinorelbine, and bevacizumab). It can be anticipated that future studies involving novel approved agents will further expand the oncologist's weapons against ovarian cancer.

  11. Taurolidine: a novel anti-neoplastic agent induces apoptosis of osteosarcoma cell lines.

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    Walters, Denise K; Muff, Roman; Langsam, Bettina; Gruber, Philipp; Born, Walter; Fuchs, Bruno

    2007-08-01

    Taurolidine, the active agent of Taurolin, is a broad spectrum anti-biotic that has been used for over 15 years for the treatment of severe surgical infections. Recently, taurolidine has been shown to possess anti-neoplastic properties in vitro and in vivo against a variety of cancers including ovarian, colon and prostate. In this study we assessed the cytotoxic activity of taurolidine against human osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines and normal human bone cells. Treatment with taurolidine inhibited the growth of all ten osteosarcoma cell lines tested and taurolidine was equally potent against cell lines with and without distinct genetic defects (i.e. p53, Rb). Moreover, taurolidine-induced growth inhibition was found to be associated with a dose dependent increase in the number of apoptotic cells and apoptosis was shown to be caspase-dependent. Taurolidine treatment was also found to inhibit adhesion of OS cell lines. Compared to OS cell lines, normal bone cells in primary culture were found to be less sensitive to the cytotoxic and anti-adhesive effects of taurolidine. These data indicate that taurolidine possesses potent anti-neoplastic activity against osteosarcoma cell lines and may have potential as a novel OS chemotherapeutic agent.

  12. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome and anti-neoplastic agents: a review

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    Farheen M. Shah-Khan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS is a well recognized entity with a variety of benign and malignant conditions. Recently it has been found to be associated with the use of anti-neoplastic agents including targeted therapies. RPLS occurs rapidly with the use of some drugs and more slowly with others. Combined therapies are associated with a more frequent and more rapid presentation. This review was based on a literature search for English Language articles concerning RPLS and chemotherapeutic agents published from June 1996 to March 2007. We used the PubMed database with keywords: “RPLS”, “Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome”, “(PRES”, “Chemotherapy” and “MRI”. This syndrome has classical Clinical-Radiologic features that are easy to recognize. Early recognition and withdrawal of the offending agent is all that is needed in most cases. This review highlights the features of the syndrome. It draws our attention to an entity which is being more frequently recognized and whose exact pathologic mechanisms need to be further studied. This syndrome is associated with the use of neurotoxic as well as non-neurotoxic agents and usually runs a benign course if there is an early diagnosis and management.

  13. Drug interactions between antineoplastic and antidepressant agents: analysis of patients seen at an oncology clinic at a general hospital

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    Camila de Araújo Reinert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among oncology patients and identify simultaneous use of antineoplastic and antidepressant agents.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that interviewed 56 oncology patients using two data collection instruments: a questionnaire covering clinical and sociodemographic data and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, for assessment of depressive symptoms. For data analysis, descriptive statistics were used to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the chi-square test was used to evaluate associations between sociodemographic and clinical variables and depressive symptoms.Results: A 26.7% (15 patients prevalence of depression was detected. Just eight of these 15 patients (53.3% were receiving treatment for depression. In the sample as a whole, 13 of the patients interviewed (23.2% were taking antidepressants and 11 of these 13 patients (19.6% were taking antidepressive and antineoplastic agents simultaneously. A total of five (8.9% of the sample contraindicated drug interactions were detected.Conclusions:Depressive symptoms are more prevalent among cancer patients than in the general population, but they are generally under-diagnosed and under-treated. Simultaneous use of antidepressant and antineoplastic agents is common and so, in order to reduce the number of harmful adverse effects, possible drug interactions must be identified before antidepressants are prescribed to cancer patients.

  14. Adherence to oral antineoplastic agents by cancer patients: definition and literature review.

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    Bassan, F; Peter, F; Houbre, B; Brennstuhl, M J; Costantini, M; Speyer, E; Tarquinio, C

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, oral chemotherapy has been gaining ground as cancer treatment. This therapy seems to have few toxic effects and offers patients good quality of life. However, in addition to the fears the therapy might generate in patients, oral treatment raises a new issue, which, until now, has been marginal in this field: therapeutic observance or adherence. We investigated the research into adherence to oral chemotherapy among cancer patients published between 1990 and July 2013. Studies showed considerable diversity in terms of both the definition and measurement of adherence. As well, adherence to antineoplastic therapy is affected by the patient's understanding of the treatment and ability to remember information provided by the physician, treatment length and psychological distress. Our review of the few studies on adherence to anticancer drug treatment raises some questions that could be pursued in future research. In light of our findings, patients should receive 'therapy education' to help them and their support groups better understand the disease and its treatment and to achieve optimal health management and improved treatment effectiveness.

  15. Concanavalin A: A potential anti-neoplastic agent targeting apoptosis, autophagy and anti-angiogenesis for cancer therapeutics

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    Li, Wen-wen; Yu, Jia-ying; Xu, Huai-long [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Bao, Jin-ku, E-mail: jinkubao@yahoo.com [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} ConA induces cancer cell death targeting apoptosis and autophagy. {yields} ConA inhibits cancer cell angiogenesis. {yields} ConA is utilized in pre-clinical and clinical trials. -- Abstract: Concanavalin A (ConA), a Ca{sup 2+}/Mn{sup 2+}-dependent and mannose/glucose-binding legume lectin, has drawn a rising attention for its remarkable anti-proliferative and anti-tumor activities to a variety of cancer cells. ConA induces programmed cell death via mitochondria-mediated, P73-Foxo1a-Bim apoptosis and BNIP3-mediated mitochondrial autophagy. Through IKK-NF-{kappa}B-COX-2, SHP-2-MEK-1-ERK, and SHP-2-Ras-ERK anti-angiogenic pathways, ConA would inhibit cancer cell survival. In addition, ConA stimulates cell immunity and generates an immune memory, resisting to the same genotypic tumor. These biological findings shed light on new perspectives of ConA as a potential anti-neoplastic agent targeting apoptosis, autophagy and anti-angiogenesis in pre-clinical or clinical trials for cancer therapeutics.

  16. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of {sup 14}C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and {sup 14}C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

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    Toyoguchi, Teiko, E-mail: tteiko@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacy, Yamagata University Hospital, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi [Department of Pharmacy, Yamagata University Hospital, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa-machi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the {sup 14}C concentration in {sup 14}C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) – AMS system. The calibration curves of {sup 14}C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a {sup 14}C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. {sup 14}C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean {sup 14}C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of {sup 14}C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, {sup 14}C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. {sup 14}C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; {sup 14}C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  17. Effects of antineoplastic agents and ionizing irradiation on a human testicular cancer xenograft

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    Osieka, R.; Pfeiffer, R.; Glatte, P.; Schmidt, C.G.; Bamberg, M.; Scherer, E.

    1985-01-01

    Chemotherapy has afforded a high percentage of definitive cures in advanced testicular cancer. Nevertheless some patients with large tumor burden still succumb to chemorefractory disease. Therefore preclinical and clinical evaluation of new drugs and agents not primarily used against this type of disease are still mandatory. For preclinical drug screening purposes heterotransplantation of specific human tumors yields a model with high validity for tumor markers and drug response. Heterotransplantation of a human embryonal testicular cancer was used for simultaneous testing of established agents such as cisplatin, melphalan, bleomycin, vinblastine, etoposide and adriamycin and some newer derivatives such as PHM or mafosfamide. Furthermore agents such as procarbazine, dacarbazine and methyl-CCNU that cross the blood-brain-barrier displayed some interesting activity. The results hint at a unique chemosensitivity pattern of the xenograft line, with some accordance between clinical response to vinblastine and bleomycin and good response of the xenografts to bleomycin but not to vinblastine. Radiotherapy was also effective against this tumor line, but there was not much difference in response when the schedule of fractionation was changed. It is concluded that a combined modality approach might salvage patients with residual, chemorefractory disease.

  18. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) as an anti-neoplastic and lipid-lowering agent.

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    Jariwalla, R J

    1999-01-01

    IP6, a major dietary source of inositol phosphates, is a physiological antioxidant with potential to form complexes with cations linked to cell proliferation and hypercholesterolemia. Accordingly, we have examined the action of IP6 on dietary modulation of neoplasia and hyperlipidemia in a Fischer rat model (1, 2). Two studies were conducted on the effects of naturally-derived IP6, administered as purified phytate, a salt form of phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphoric acid). One study examined the effect on the growth of tumors promoted in syngeneic rats transplanted with a viral oncogene-transformed cell line. Increases in tumor incidence and growth rate of fibrosarcomas seen following administration of a special diet (containing 5% saturated fatty acids and 1.2% magnesium oxide) were completely mitigated by supplementation of the same diet with purified potassium-magnesium phytate (8.9% phytic acid by weight). The other study examined the IP6 effect on serum lipid and mineral levels in animals fed a cholesterol-enriched or standard diet. Elevated levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and zinc/copper ratio associated with administration of the cholesterol-enriched diet were significantly lowered by supplementation of this diet with monopotassium phytate. Addition of monopotassium phytate to the standard diet also reduced serum lipid levels but did not significantly affect the zinc/copper ratio. These studies support a role for IP6 as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of cancer and hyperlipidemia.

  19. [Example of safety measures for antineoplastic agents immediately after market launch--a case of TS-1 capsule all example use result investigation that executes safety monitoring--].

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    Ito, Kunio

    2006-01-01

    As a measure to ensure safe use of TS-1 during the early marketing period, a drug use investigation was conducted on an all-case basis. Extra safety monitoring,rarely included in the use investigation,was also planned for patients who began therapy with this agent. Of the 4,177 subjects registered during the year beginning in March 1999, 3,882 started TS-1 therapy. Aside from 74 dropouts, 3,808 cases were evaluable for safety. The overall incidence of adverse reactions, with high frequencies of myelosuppression and gastrointestinal disorders, was 74.3%: a result similar to an incidence of 77.5% (100/129) found in the early phase II trial with gastric cancer patients. Safety monitoring made it possible to check if a given patients was eligible for proper use before treatment is begun. During TS-1 administration,collaboration was formed between physicians and medical representatives to ensure regular laboratory testing and to check the test findings. Measures were considered necessary to secure the safe use of drugs with manifest risk of serious adverse reactions, such as antineoplastic agents, during the initial period of market introduction. Our present approach proved effective as one of such measures.

  20. Determination of MKT-077, a novel antineoplastic agent, in plasma samples by high-performance liquid chromatography and its application to pharmacokinetics in rats.

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    Tatsuta, N; Suzuki, N; Koya, K; Kawakami, M; Shishido, T; Chen, L B

    1999-03-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for determination of a novel antineoplastic agent MKT-077 in plasma. MKT-077 was extracted from 50 microl of plasma with acetonitrile containing 1 ml trifluoroacetic acid per liter. Chromatographic separation was achieved within 13.5 min using a reverse-phase Puresil C18 analytical column. A visible detector operated at 490 nm was used. The linearity of the calibration curve was obtained (r2 = 0.99986) over the analytical range of 10-500 ng/ml(-1). The intra- and inter-assay precision was in the range of 0.9-11.1 and 0.3-4.4%, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay bias ranged from -7.3 to 11.1% and from 0.4 to 11.6%, respectively. The utility of this assay was demonstrated after the administration of a single dose of MKT-077 to rats. The plasma elimination half-life of MKT-077 was 1.8-4 h.

  1. Prevention of disease progression in a patient with a gastric cancer-re-recurrence. Outcome after intravenous treatment with the novel antineoplastic agent taurolidine. Report of a case

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    Menenakos Charalambos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taurolidine (TRD is a novel agent with multimodal antineoplastic effects. We present the case of a tumor remission after intravenous administration of taurolidine in a patient with gastric cancer re-recurrence. Case presentation A 58 years old male patient suffering from a gastric adenocarcinoma was submitted to partial gastrectomy and partial liver resection (pT2, pN1, pM1L (liver segment 2, N0, V0. 24 months later a local recurrence was diagnosed and the patient was reoperated. Postoperatively the patient underwent a palliative chemotherapy with eloxatin, FU, and leucovorin. A subsequent CT-revealed a liver metastasis and a recurrence adjacent to the hepatic artery. After successful radiofrequency ablation of the liver metastasis the patient was intravenously treated with 2% taurolidine. The patient endured the therapy well and no toxicity was observed. CT-scans revealed a stable disease without a tumor progression or metastatic spread. After 39 cycles the patient was submitted to left nephrectomy due to primary urothelial carcinoma and died 2 days later due to myocardial infarction. Postmortem histology of the esophageal-jejunal anastomosis and liver revealed complete remission of the known metastasized gastric adenocarcinoma. Conclusion The intravenous treatment with 2% taurolidine led to a histological remission of the tumor growth without any toxicity for the patient.

  2. Carcinogenicity of the antineoplastic agent, 5-(3,3-dimethyl-1-triazeno)-imidazole-4-carboxamide, and its metabolites in rats.

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    Beal, D D; Skibba, J L; Croft, W A; Cohen, S M; Bryan, G T

    1975-04-01

    Chronic oral administration of the antineoplastic agent, 5-(3,3-dimethyl-1-triazeno)imidazole-4-carboxamide (NSC-45388, DTIC), induced predominantly thymic and mammary tumors as demonstrated previously. Male and female Sprague-Dawley and female Buffalo rats were susceptible to the carcinogenicity of DTIC. A 50% incidence of mammary adenocarcinomas was induced in males within 18 weeks. Type of tumor and tumor incidence were dose dependent. Single and multiple intraperitoneal injections of DTIC did not alter organ specificity. DTIC-induced thymic lymphosarcomas and mammary adenocarcinomas were transplantable. Tissue distribution studies revealed no correlation between uptake of DTIC by a given tissue and its susceptibility to carcinogenicity. Metabolites of DTIC were tested for carcinogenic activity. Animals administered 5-diazoimidazole-4-carboxamide orally, intraperitoneally, or intragastrically developed low incidences of thymic, stomach, bladder, or mammary tumors. A low incidence of mammary tumors developed in rats fed 2-azahypoxanthine. A variety of tumors, including several ependymoblastomas, were induced in rats that received 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide orally. 5-(3-Methyl-1-triazeno)imidazole-4-carboxamide (MTIC), when fed or given in single or multiple intraperitoneal injections, induced a high incidence of mammary adenofibromas and a low incidence of uterine leiomyosarcomas. Control rats had low incidences of mammary adenocarcinomas and adenofibromas after 52 weeks. These data show that the carcinogenic properties of DTIC resemble those of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, hydrazine, azo, and azoxy-alkanes and aryltriazenes and thus suggest similar mechanism(s) of action. These data also indicate that MTIC is involved in the induction of mammary adenofibromas and uterine leiomyosarcomas by DTIC.

  3. Stability of solutions of antineoplastic agents during preparation and storage for in vitro assays. General considerations, the nitrosoureas and alkylating agents.

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    Bosanquet, A G

    1985-01-01

    In vitro drug sensitivity of tumour biopsies is currently being determined using a variety of methods. For these chemosensitivity assays many drugs are required at short notice, and this in turn means that the drugs must generally be stored in solution. There are, however, a number of potential problems associated with dissolving and storing drugs for in vitro use, which include (a) drug adsorption; (b) effects of freezing; (c) drug stability under the normal conditions of dilution and setting up of an in vitro assay; and (d) insolubility of drugs in normal saline (NS) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). These problems are considered in general, and some recommendations for use of solutions of drugs in in vitro assays are suggested. The nitrosoureas and alkylating agents are also investigated in greater detail in this respect. The nitrosoureas are found to be very labile in PBS at pH 7, with 5% degradation (t0.95) occurring in 10-50 min at room temperature. These values are increased about 10-fold on refrigeration and about 5- to 10-fold on reduction of the pH of the medium to pH 4-5. At pH 7 and room temperature, t0.95 is observed in under 1 h with the alkylating agents nitrogen mustard, chlorambucil, melphalan, 2,5-diaziridinyl-3,6-bis(2-hydroxyethylamino)-1,4-benzoquinone (BZQ), dibromodulcitol, dibromomannitol, treosulphan, and procarbazine. Of the other alkylating agents, 4-hydroperoxycylophosphamide (sometimes used in vitro in place of cyclophosphamide), busulphan, dianhydrogalactitol, aziridinylbenzoquinone (AZQ), and dacarbazine have a t0.95 of between 2 and 24 h, while ifosfamide and pentamethylmelamine are both stable in aqueous solution for greater than 7 days. About half the drugs studied in detail have been stored frozen in solution for in vitro use, although very little is known about their stability under these conditions.

  4. Serine deprivation enhances antineoplastic activity of biguanides.

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    Gravel, Simon-Pierre; Hulea, Laura; Toban, Nader; Birman, Elena; Blouin, Marie-José; Zakikhani, Mahvash; Zhao, Yunhua; Topisirovic, Ivan; St-Pierre, Julie; Pollak, Michael

    2014-12-15

    Metformin, a biguanide widely used in the treatment of type II diabetes, clearly exhibits antineoplastic activity in experimental models and has been reported to reduce cancer incidence in diabetics. There are ongoing clinical trials to evaluate its antitumor properties, which may relate to its fundamental activity as an inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation. Here, we show that serine withdrawal increases the antineoplastic effects of phenformin (a potent biguanide structurally related to metformin). Serine synthesis was not inhibited by biguanides. Instead, metabolic studies indicated a requirement for serine to allow cells to compensate for biguanide-induced decrease in oxidative phosphorylation by upregulating glycolysis. Furthermore, serine deprivation modified the impact of metformin on the relative abundance of metabolites within the citric acid cycle. In mice, a serine-deficient diet reduced serine levels in tumors and significantly enhanced the tumor growth-inhibitory actions of biguanide treatment. Our results define a dietary manipulation that can enhance the efficacy of biguanides as antineoplastic agents that target cancer cell energy metabolism.

  5. Antineoplastic compounds in the environment-substances of special concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmerer, Klaus; Haiß, Annette; Schuster, Armin; Hein, Arne; Ebert, Ina

    2016-08-01

    Antineoplastic drugs are important in the treatment of cancer. Some interact directly with the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and are of utmost importance in terms of risk. As highly active compounds, antineoplastics and their metabolites are largely excreted into wastewater and are found in the aquatic environment up to the lower μg/L range. Their predicted environmental concentrations are often below the action limit set in the European Medicines Agency (EMA) guideline. An in-depth risk assessment regarding their presence and effects in the aquatic environment is often not performed, and there is a lack of knowledge. This study considered whether there is an underestimation of possible risks associated with the presence of antineoplastic drugs with regard to trigger value stated in the EMA and FDA guidelines. In a balance, we identified a total of 102 active pharmaceutical ingredients of the ATC-group L01 (antineoplastic agents), which are environmentally relevant. In Germany, 20.7 t of antineoplastic agents was consumed in 2012. The share of drugs with DNA-damaging properties increased within the last 6 years from 24 up to 67 %. Solely, capecitabine and 5-fluorouracil amount together 8 t-which corresponds to 39 % of the total antineoplastic consumption. Around 80 % of the total mass consumed could be attributed to prescriptions issued by office-based practitioners and is mostly excreted at home. Based on the different mode of actions, a case-by-case evaluation of the risk connected to their presence in the environment is recommended. DNA-damaging drugs should be assessed independently as no action limit can be assumed.

  6. The Inhibition by Oxaliplatin, a Platinum-Based Anti-Neoplastic Agent, of the Activity of Intermediate-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels in Human Glioma Cells

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    Mei-Han Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxaliplatin (OXAL is a third-generation organoplatinum which is effective against advanced cancer cells including glioma cells. How this agent and other related compounds interacts with ion channels in glioma cells is poorly understood. OXAL (100 µM suppressed the amplitude of whole-cell K+ currents (IK; and, either DCEBIO or ionomycin significantly reversed OXAL-mediated inhibition of IK in human 13-06-MG glioma cells. In OXAL-treated cells, TRAM-34 did not suppress IK amplitude in these cells. The intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (IKCa channels subject to activation by DCEBIO and to inhibition by TRAM-34 or clotrimazole were functionally expressed in these cells. Unlike cisplatin, OXAL decreased the probability of IKCa-channel openings in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 67 µM. No significant change in single-channel conductance of IKCa channels in the presence of OXAL was demonstrated. Neither large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels nor inwardly rectifying K+ currents in these cells were affected in the presence of OXAL. OXAL also suppressed the proliferation and migration of 13-06-MG cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. OXAL reduced IKCa-channel activity in LoVo colorectal cancer cells. Taken together, the inhibition by OXAL of IKCa channels would conceivably be an important mechanism through which it acts on the functional activities of glioma cells occurring in vivo.

  7. Microbial growth tests in anti-neoplastic injectable solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Isabelle; Paci, Angelo; Rey, Jean-Baptiste; Bourget, Philippe

    2005-03-01

    The Institut Gustave-Roussy (IGR) Department of Clinical Pharmacy (DCP) ensures the annual preparation of about 30 000 therapeutic batches of anti-neoplastic agents. High performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) allows postproduction quality control of these batches. Although the centralized chemotherapy manufacturing unit has been recently ISO 9001:2000 certified, it was considered to improve the quality level of manufactured batches even further. The viability of micro-organisms (bacteria and fungi) in appropriate sterile media containing various anti-neoplastic agents at therapeutic concentration was assessed to demonstrate the lack of contamination during our manufacturing process in the isolator. After 14 days of incubation in these media, the results show the absence of contamination of the manufactured batches. This leads us to conclude that using sterile drugs and sterile medical devices in a sterile isolator allows the manufacture of sterile therapeutic batches with excellent confidence.

  8. Antineoplastic Effects of Honey Bee Venom

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    Mohammad Nabiuni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bee venom (BV, like many other complementary medicines, has been used for thousands of years for the treatment of a range of diseases. More recently, BV is also being considered as an effective composition for the treatment of cancer. Cancer is a major worldwide problem. It is obvious that the identification of compounds that can activate apoptosis could be effective on the treatment of cancer. BV is a very complicated mixture of active peptides, enzymes, and biologically active amines. The two main components of BV are melittin and phospholipase A2 (PLA2. Of these two components, melittin, the major active ingredient of BV, has been identified to induce apoptosis and to possess anti-tumor effects. We tried to review antineoplastic effects of BV in this study. Materials and Methods: The related articles were derived from different data bases such as PubMed, Elsevier Science, and Google Scholar using keywords including bee venom, cancer, and apoptosis.Results: According to the results of this study, BV can induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor cell growth and metastasis. Results of in vivo experiments show that the anti-tumor effect of the BV is highly dependent on the manner of injection as well as the distance between the area of injection and the tumor cells.Conclusion: The results obtained from the reported studies revealed that BV has anti-cancer effects and can be used as an effective chemotherapeutic agent against tumors in the future.

  9. Study on Chromosome Damage Among Nurses Occupationally Exposed to Antineoplastic Drugs in an Oncology Department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Many antineoplastic agents have been shown to be mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic in experimental animals and in vitro test systems. Epidemiological data on the association of secondary neoplasms with a specific chemotherapeutic treatment are available on some 30 agents. Several previous studies concerning hospital personnel have indicated that occupational exposure to cytostatic drugs may be detected by genotoxicological biomonitoring methods, e.g., comet assay, SCEs, chromosomal aberration and micronucleus test.

  10. Adherence to safe handling guidelines by health care workers who administer antineoplastic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L; Sweeney, Marie H

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of antineoplastic drugs is well documented. Many are known or suspected human carcinogens where no safe exposure level exists. Authoritative guidelines developed by professional practice organizations and federal agencies for the safe handling of these hazardous drugs have been available for nearly three decades. As a means of evaluating the extent of use of primary prevention practices such as engineering, administrative and work practice controls, personal protective equipment (PPE), and barriers to using PPE, the National Institute for Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a web survey of health care workers in 2011. The study population primarily included members of professional practice organizations representing health care occupations which routinely use or come in contact with selected chemical agents. All respondents who indicated that they administered antineoplastic drugs in the past week were eligible to complete a hazard module addressing self-reported health and safety practices on this topic. Most (98%) of the 2069 respondents of this module were nurses. Working primarily in hospitals, outpatient care centers, and physician offices, respondents reported that they had collectively administered over 90 specific antineoplastic drugs in the past week, with carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel the most common. Examples of activities which increase exposure risk, expressed as percent of respondents, included: failure to wear nonabsorbent gown with closed front and tight cuffs (42%); intravenous (I.V.) tubing primed with antineoplastic drug by respondent (6%) or by pharmacy (12%); potentially contaminated clothing taken home (12%); spill or leak of antineoplastic drug during administration (12%); failure to wear chemotherapy gloves (12%); and lack of hazard awareness training (4%). The most common reason for not wearing gloves or gowns was "skin exposure was minimal"; 4% of respondents, however, reported skin contact during handling and

  11. Selenium Distribution Pattern, Antineoplastic and Immunostimulatory Activities of a Novel Organoselenium Compound Eb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANJun; DENGSheng-ju; KUANGBin; HEFei; LIUTao; ZENGHui-hui

    2004-01-01

    Aim To study the distribution pattern, antineoplastic activity and immtmocompetence of a novel organeselenium compotmd Eb and investigate its in vivo antineoplastic potential. Methods Eb was administered to Kunming mice (dosage, 0.1 g·kg-1·d-1) intragastrically for 7 successive days. The contents of selenium in heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, stomach, brain, muscle, and bone were determined by fluommetric method on the eighth day. MTT assay was used to study tumor growth inhibition of Eb in vitro, and lymphocyte transformation, hemolysin formation and phagocytosis assay were used to study its immunocompetence. Results After 7 days' administration of Eb, the tissue contents of selenium in liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and bone of mice increased, especially those in liver and spleen increased significantly, compared with controls; but no significant changes of such contents were fotmd in muscle, heart, brain, and stomach. Eb demonstrated inhibitory effects on human Bel-7402, BGC-823, and Calu-3 cancer cell lines in vitro. Eb also showed ability to enhance lymphocyte transformation and serum hemolysin formation in v/tro and increase the phagocytosis of macrophages. Conclusion The validated antitumor and immtmostimulatory activities of Eb suggest a hypothesis that Eb may behave as a biological response modifier when used as an antitumor agent. Eb is worthy of further study in developing a new antineoplastic and immunity enhancing agent in the light of its antitumor activity, immtmocompetenee and specific distribution in liver, lungs, kidneys, bone, and spleen.

  12. Application of electrolysis for detoxification of an antineoplastic in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toyohide; Hirose, Jun; Sano, Kouichi; Kato, Ryuji; Ijiri, Yoshio; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Goto, Emi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakano, Takashi

    2012-04-01

    Antineoplastics in excreta from patients have been considered to be one of the origins of cytotoxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic contaminants in surface water. Recent studies have demonstrated that antineoplastics in clinical wastewater can be detoxified by electrolysis. In this study, to develop a method for the detoxification of antineoplastics in excreta, methotrexate solution in the presence of human urine was electrolyzed and evaluated. We found that urine inhibits detoxification by electrolysis; however, this inhibition decreased by diluting urine. In urine samples, the concentrations of active chlorine generated by anodic oxidation from 0.9% NaCl solution for inactivation of antineoplastics increased in dilution-dependent and time-dependent manner. These results indicate that electrolysis with platinum-based iridium oxide composite electrode is a possible method for the detoxification of a certain antineoplastic in urine.

  13. Interacción de los antineoplásicos orales con los alimentos: revisión sistemática Antineoplastic oral agents and drug-nutrient interactions: a sistematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Jiménez Torres

    2009-06-01

    cumplir estos estudios. Resultados: En la búsqueda inicial se obtuvieron 850 referencias (98,5% Medline + y 1,4% Cochrane. En la primera fase se excluyeron el 87,7% (746 de los artículos, correspondiendo el 100% a la búsqueda en Medline. En la segunda fase, quedaron 40 artículos (5,2% de los iniciales para su lectura crítica a texto completo, a los que se añadieron cuatro más no indexados en Medline. De la lectura crítica de los 44 artículos finales, se excluyeron 25 artículos (20 artículos originales, 4 comunicaciones cortas y 1 metanálisis por no incluir como medida de resultado el dictamen de bioequivalencia. Los 19 (2,2% artículos restantes proporcionaron información sobre 19 fármacos antineoplásicos orales, en 210 pacientes y 146 voluntarios sanos. De estos 19 fármacos, el 63% no presentan iFA o interacciones fármaco-alimento, pudiéndose administrar indistintamente con/sin alimentos; el 21% se deben administrar con alimentos y sólo el 16% presentan interacción fármaco alimento, por lo que se deben administrar sin alimentos. Discusión: Actualmente, la importancia clínica de las interacciones fármaco alimento con antineoplásicos orales se identifica más directamente con la seguridad del paciente que con la efectividad del tratamiento. Ante el desarrollo de estos agentes orales, su irrupción en la terapia oncológica desplazando a la terapia parenteral, con costes mensuales de miles de euros, hay necesidad de realizar estudios farmacocinéticos y farmacodinámicos bien diseñados. Su objetivo debe de ser comparar su biodisponibilidad en presencia o ausencia de alimentos con la respuesta clínica. Mientras tanto, establecer recomendaciones para su administración en relación con los alimentos, es inconsistente para algunos de estos fármacos y su resultado incierto por la falta de estudios fundamentados en el dictamen de bioequivalencia establecido por la FDA.Introduction: studies on bioavailability are part of the clinical development of

  14. Early effects of the antineoplastic agent salinomycin on mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managò, A; Leanza, L; Carraretto, L; Sassi, N; Grancara, S; Quintana-Cabrera, R; Trimarco, V; Toninello, A; Scorrano, L; Trentin, L; Semenzato, G; Gulbins, E; Zoratti, M; Szabò, I

    2015-10-22

    Salinomycin, isolated from Streptomyces albus, displays antimicrobial activity. Recently, a large-scale screening approach identified salinomycin and nigericin as selective apoptosis inducers of cancer stem cells. Growing evidence suggests that salinomycin is able to kill different types of non-stem tumor cells that usually display resistance to common therapeutic approaches, but the mechanism of action of this molecule is still poorly understood. Since salinomycin has been suggested to act as a K(+) ionophore, we explored its impact on mitochondrial bioenergetic performance at an early time point following drug application. In contrast to the K(+) ionophore valinomycin, salinomycin induced a rapid hyperpolarization. In addition, mitochondrial matrix acidification and a significant decrease of respiration were observed in intact mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and in cancer stem cell-like HMLE cells within tens of minutes, while increased production of reactive oxygen species was not detected. By comparing the chemical structures and cellular effects of this drug with those of valinomycin (K(+) ionophore) and nigericin (K(+)/H(+) exchanger), we conclude that salinomycin mediates K(+)/H(+) exchange across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Compatible with its direct modulation of mitochondrial function, salinomycin was able to induce cell death also in Bax/Bak-less double-knockout MEF cells. Since at the concentration range used in most studies (around 10 μM) salinomycin exerts its effect at the level of mitochondria and alters bioenergetic performance, the specificity of its action on pathologic B cells isolated from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) versus B cells from healthy subjects was investigated. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), proposed to mimic the tumor environment, attenuated the apoptotic effect of salinomycin on B-CLL cells. Apoptosis occurred to a significant extent in healthy B cells as well as in MSCs and human primary fibroblasts. The results indicate that salinomycin, when used above μM concentrations, exerts direct, mitochondrial effects, thus compromising cell survival.

  15. Dental anomalies in children submitted to antineoplastic therapy

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    Camila Merida Carrillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the third most frequent cause of death in children in Brazil. Early diagnosis and medical advances have significantly improved treatment outcomes, which has resulted in higher survival rates and the management of late side effects has become increasingly important in caring for these patients. Dental abnormalities are commonly observed as late effects of antineoplastic therapy in the oral cavity. The incidence and severity of the dental abnormalities depend on the child's age at diagnosis and the type of chemotherapeutic agent used, as well as the irradiation dose and area. The treatment duration and aggressivity should also be considered. Disturbances in dental development are characterized by changes in shape, number and root development. Enamel anomalies, such as discoloration, opacities and hypoplasia are also observed in these patients. When severe, these abnormalities can cause functional and esthetic sequelae that have an impact on the children's and adolescents' quality of life. General dentists and pediatric dentists should understand these dental abnormalities and how to identify them aiming for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  16. Antineoplastic mechanisms of Iodine in cancers that take up Iodine

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    Carmen Aceves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In addition to being a component of thyroid hormone (TH, iodine can be an antioxidant as well as an antiproliferative and differentiation agent that helps to maintain the integrity of several organs with the ability to take up iodine.Methods and Results: Studies from our laboratory shown that in preclinical (cell culture, induced animal cancer and xenographs and clinical studies (mammary cancer protocol, molecular iodine (I2 supplementation exerts suppressive effects on implantation, development, and progression of cancer neoplasias. These effects can be mediated by a variety of mechanisms and pathways, including direct actions, in which the oxidized iodine modulates the immune/tumor response and through iodolipid formation and the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors type gamma (PPARγ triggering apoptotic and/or differentiation pathways.Conclusion: The absence of side effects and the easy availability and handling of I2 have allowed the establishment of clinical protocols to utilize I2 supplementation as an adjuvant in therapies against cancers that take up iodine.-----------------------------------------Cite this article as:  Aceves C, Anguiano B. Antineoplastic mechanisms of Iodine in cancers that take up Iodine. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2015; 3(4:3401.[This abstract was presented at the BIT’s 8th Annual World Cancer Congress, which was held from May 15-17, 2015 in Beijing, China.

  17. Surface wipe sampling for antineoplastic (chemotherapy) and other hazardous drug residue in healthcare settings: Methodology and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Thomas H; Zock, Matthew D; Snow, Amy H

    2016-09-01

    Surface wipe sampling for various hazardous agents has been employed in many occupational settings over the years for various reasons such as evaluation of potential dermal exposure and health risk, source determination, quality or cleanliness, compliance, and others. Wipe sampling for surface residue of antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in healthcare settings is currently the method of choice to determine surface contamination of the workplace with these drugs. The purpose of this article is to review published studies of wipe sampling for antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs, to summarize the methods in use by various organizations and researchers, and to provide some basic guidance for conducting surface wipe sampling for these drugs in healthcare settings.  Recommendations on wipe sampling methodology from several government agencies and organizations were reviewed. Published reports on wipe sampling for hazardous drugs in numerous studies were also examined. The critical elements of a wipe sampling program and related limitations were reviewed and summarized.  Recommendations and guidance are presented concerning the purposes of wipe sampling for antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in the healthcare setting, technical factors and variables, sampling strategy, materials required, and limitations. The reporting and interpretation of wipe sample results is also discussed.  It is recommended that all healthcare settings where antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs are handled consider wipe sampling as part of a comprehensive hazardous drug "safe handling" program. Although no standards exist for acceptable or allowable surface concentrations for these drugs in the healthcare setting, wipe sampling may be used as a method to characterize potential occupational dermal exposure risk and to evaluate the effectiveness of implemented controls and the overall safety program. A comprehensive safe-handling program for antineoplastic drugs may

  18. Antineoplastic effects of an Aurora B kinase inhibitor in breast cancer

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    Velazquez-Torres Guermarie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aurora B kinase is an important mitotic kinase involved in chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. It is overexpressed in many cancers and thus may be an important molecular target for chemotherapy. AZD1152 is the prodrug for AZD1152-HQPA, which is a selective inhibitor of Aurora B kinase activity. Preclinical antineoplastic activity of AZD1152 against acute myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma and colorectal cancer has been reported. However, this compound has not been evaluated in breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Results The antineoplastic activity of AZD1152-HQPA in six human breast cancer cell lines, three of which overexpress HER2, is demonstrated. AZD1152-HQPA specifically inhibited Aurora B kinase activity in breast cancer cells, thereby causing mitotic catastrophe, polyploidy and apoptosis, which in turn led to apoptotic death. AZD1152 administration efficiently suppressed the tumor growth in a breast cancer cell xenograft model. In addition, AZD1152 also inhibited pulmonary metastatic nodule formation in a metastatic breast cancer model. Notably, it was also found that the protein level of Aurora B kinase declined after inhibition of Aurora B kinase activity by AZD1152-HQPA in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Investigation of the underlying mechanism suggested that AZD1152-HQPA accelerated protein turnover of Aurora B via enhancing its ubiquitination. Conclusions It was shown that AZD1152 is an effective antineoplastic agent for breast cancer, and our results define a novel mechanism for posttranscriptional regulation of Aurora B after AZD1152 treatment and provide insight into dosing regimen design for this kinase inhibitor in metastatic breast cancer treatment.

  19. Low concentration of quercetin antagonizes the cytotoxic effects of anti-neoplastic drugs in ovarian cancer.

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    Na Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The role of Quercetin in ovarian cancer treatment remains controversial, and the mechanism is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of Quercetin in combination with Cisplatin and other anti-neoplastic drugs in ovarian cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, along with the molecular mechanism of action. METHODS: Quercetin treatment at various concentrations was examined in combination with Cisplatin, taxol, Pirarubicin and 5-Fu in human epithelial ovarian cancer C13* and SKOV3 cells. CCK8 assay and Annexin V assay were for cell viability and apoptosis analysis, immunofluorescence assay, DCFDA staining and realtime PCR were used for reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced injury detection and endogenous antioxidant enzymes expression. Athymic BALB/c-nu nude mice were injected with C13*cells to obtain a xenograft model for in vivo studies. Immunohistochemical analysis was carried out to evaluate the ROS-induced injury and SOD1 activity of xenograft tumors. RESULTS: Contrary to the pro-apoptotic effect of high concentration (40 µM-100 µM of Quercetin, low concentrations (5 µM-30 µM of Quercetin resulted in varying degrees of attenuation of cytotoxicity of Cisplatin treatment when combined with Cisplatin. Similar anti-apoptotic effects were observed when Quercetin was combined with other anti-neoplastic agents: Taxol, Pirarubicin and 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu. Low concentrations of Quercetin were observed to suppress ROS-induced injury, reduce intracellular ROS level and increase the expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, suggesting a ROS-mediated mechanism of attenuating anti-neoplastic drugs. In xenogeneic model, Quercetin led to a substantial reduction of therapeutic efficacy of Cisplatin along with enhancing the endogenous antioxidant enzyme expression and reducing ROS-induced damage in xenograft tumor tissue. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these data suggest that Quercetin at low concentrations

  20. Antineoplastic effects of the DNA methylation inhibitor hydralazine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid in cancer cell lines

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    Candelaria Myrna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the epigenetic alterations occurring in cancer, DNA hypermethylation and histone hypoacetylation are the focus of intense research because their pharmacological inhibition has shown to produce antineoplastic activity in a variety of experimental models. The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined antineoplastic effect of the DNA methylation inhibitor hydralazine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid in a panel of cancer cell lines. Results Hydralazine showed no growth inhibitory effect on cervical, colon, breast, sarcoma, glioma, and head & neck cancer cell lines when used alone. On the contrary, valproic acid showed a strong growth inhibitory effect that is potentiated by hydralazine in some cell lines. Individually, hydralazine and valproic acid displayed distinctive effects upon global gene over-expression but the number of genes over-expressed increased when cells were treated with the combination. Treatment of HeLa cells with hydralazine and valproic acid lead to an increase in the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine, cisplatin and adriamycin. A higher antitumor effect of adriamycin was observed in mice xenografted with human fibrosarcoma cells when the animals were co-treated with hydralazine and valproic acid. Conclusion Hydralazine and valproic acid, two widely used drugs for cardiovascular and neurological conditions respectively have promising antineoplastic effects when used concurrently and may increase the antitumor efficacy of current cytotoxic agents.

  1. Antineoplastic Drugs : Treatment Principles and Toxicity

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    Bibu John Kariyil

    Full Text Available The therapy of cancer has improved dramatically during the past half century. This improvement can be traced to a number of factors: a better understanding of cancer's cause and natural history, better technologies for early detection and diagnosis, improved control of primary tumors through surgery and radiation therapy and more effective drugs. The evolution of drug therapy for cancer has progressed rapidly from alkylating agents and antimetabolites to natural products, and most recently, molecular targeted drugs such as imatinib and gefitinib. As our understanding of the biology of cancer improves, new targets for therapy are being identified daily. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000: 380-382

  2. Integrative review of factors related to the nursing diagnosis nausea during antineoplastic chemotherapy 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysés, Aline Maria Bonini; Durant, Lais Corsino; de Almeida, Ana Maria; Gozzo, Thais de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify factors related to the nursing diagnosis nausea among cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Method: integrative review conducted in four electronic databases (PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL and LILACS) using the key words: neoplasia, antineoplastic agents and nausea. Results: only 30 out of 1,258 papers identified met the inclusion criteria. The most frequent related factors were: being younger than 50 years old, motion sickness, being a woman, emetogenic potential of the chemotherapy, anxiety, conditioned stimulus, and expecting nausea after treatment. Conclusion: this review's findings, coupled with the incidence of nausea among cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, reveal an important difference between evidence found and that used by NANDA International, Inc. Even though it provides an appropriate definition of related factors, it does not mention chemotherapy, despite the various studies addressing the topic using different designs and presenting various objectives and outcomes. PMID:27737380

  3. Recent Advances on Pathophysiology, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Insights in Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Antineoplastic Drugs

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    Marilisa Molinaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the improvement of survival after cancer, cardiotoxicity due to antineoplastic treatments has emerged as a clinically relevant problem. Potential cardiovascular toxicities due to anticancer agents include QT prolongation and arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia and infarction, hypertension and/or thromboembolism, left ventricular (LV dysfunction, and heart failure (HF. The latter is variable in severity, may be reversible or irreversible, and can occur soon after or as a delayed consequence of anticancer treatments. In the last decade recent advances have emerged in clinical and pathophysiological aspects of LV dysfunction induced by the most widely used anticancer drugs. In particular, early, sensitive markers of cardiac dysfunction that can predict this form of cardiomyopathy before ejection fraction (EF is reduced are becoming increasingly important, along with novel therapeutic and cardioprotective strategies, in the attempt of protecting cardiooncologic patients from the development of congestive heart failure.

  4. The Hepatoprotection Provided by Taurine and Glycine against Antineoplastic Drugs Induced Liver Injury in an Ex Vivo Model of Normothermic Recirculating Isolated Perfused Rat Liver

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    Reza Heidari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid is a non-protein amino acid found in high concentration in different tissues. Glycine (Amino acetic acid is the simplest amino acid incorporated in the structure of proteins. Several investigations indicate the hepatoprotective properties of these amino acids. On the other hand, antineoplastic agents-induced serum transaminase elevation and liver injury is a clinical complication. The current investigation was designed to screen the possible hepatoprotective properties of taurine and glycine against antineoplastic drugs-induced hepatic injury in an ex vivo model of isolated perfused rat liver. Rat liver was perfused with different concentration (10 μM, 100 μM and 1000 μM of antineoplastic drugs (Mitoxantrone, Cyclophosphamide, Cisplatin, 5 Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin and Dacarbazine via portal vein. Taurine and glycine were administered to drug-treated livers and liver perfusate samples were collected for biochemical measurements (ALT, LDH, AST, and K+. Markers of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity and glutathione were also assessed in liver tissue. Antineoplastic drugs caused significant pathological changes in perfusate biochemistry. Furthermore, markers of oxidative stress were significantly elevated in drug treated livers. It was found that taurine (5 and 10 mM and glycine (5 and 10 mM administration significantly mitigated the biomarkers of liver injury and attenuated drug induced oxidative stress. Our data indicate that taurine and glycine supplementation might help as potential therapeutic options to encounter anticancer drugs-induced liver injury.

  5. The Effect of Genetic Polymorphism upon Antineoplastic Sensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liang

    2006-01-01

    In clinical practice, patients undergoing chemotherapy display prominent individual differences, adverse reactions and sensitivity to antineoplastic therapy. Those differences are caused by individual genetic polymorphism of related genes. Genetic variation can induce distinct alterations of drug-metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters, drug targets and DNA repair enzymes and thereby influence the ability of the drugs to reach their target sites. This article reviews in detail the potential interactions mentioned above.

  6. The antineoplastic antibiotic taurolidine promotes lung and liver metastasis in two syngeneic osteosarcoma mouse models and exhibits severe liver toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Matthias J E; Walters, Denise K; Banke, Ingo J; Steinmann, Patrick; Puskas, Gabor J; Bertz, Josefine; Rentsch, Katharina M; Ehrensperger, Felix; Born, Walter; Fuchs, Bruno

    2012-09-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent primary bone tumor. Despite multiagent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, patients with metastatic disease have a poor prognosis. Moreover, currently used chemotherapeutics have severe toxic side effects. Thus, novel agents with improved antimetastatic activity and reduced toxicity are needed. Taurolidine, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial, has recently been shown to have antineoplastic properties against a variety of tumors and low systemic toxicity. Consequently, we investigated in our study the antineoplastic potential of taurolidine against OS in two different mouse models. Although both OS cell lines, K7M2 and LM8, were sensitive for the compound in vitro, intraperitoneal application of taurolidine failed to inhibit primary tumor growth. Moreover, it enhanced the metastatic load in both models 1.7- to 20-fold and caused severe liver deformations and up to 40% mortality. Thus, systemic toxicity was further investigated in tumor-free mice histologically, by electron microscopy and by measurements of representative liver enzymes. Taurolidine dose-dependent fibrous thickening of the liver capsule and adhesions and atrophies of the liver lobes were comparable in healthy and tumor-bearing mice. Liver toxicity was further indicated by up to eightfold elevated levels of the liver enzymes alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and GLDH in the circulation. Ultrastructural analysis of affected liver tissue showed swollen mitochondria with cristolysis and numerous lipid vacuoles in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. The findings of our study question the applicability of taurolidine for OS treatment and may suggest the need for caution regarding the widespread clinical use of taurolidine as an antineoplastic agent.

  7. Medicinal electronomics bricolage design of hypoxia-targeting antineoplastic drugs and invention of boron tracedrugs as innovative future-architectural drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hitoshi; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nakata, Eiji

    2010-09-01

    We describe herein for the first time our medicinal electronomics bricolage design of hypoxia-targeting antineoplastic drugs and boron tracedrugs as newly emerging drug classes. A new area of antineoplastic drugs and treatments has recently focused on neoplastic cells of the tumor environment/microenvironment involving accessory cells. This tumor hypoxic environment is now considered as a major factor that influences not only the response to antineoplastic therapies but also the potential for malignant progression and metastasis. We review our medicinal electronomics bricolage design of hypoxia-targeting drugs, antiangiogenic hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, sugar-hybrid hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, and hypoxia-targeting 10B delivery agents, in which we design drug candidates based on their electronic structures obtained by molecular orbital calculations, not based solely on pharmacophore development. These drugs include an antiangiogenic hypoxic cell radiosensitizer TX-2036, a sugar-hybrid hypoxic cell radiosensitizer TX-2244, new hypoxia-targeting indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitors, and a hypoxia-targeting BNCT agent, BSH (sodium borocaptate-10B)-hypoxic cytotoxin tirapazamine (TPZ) hybrid drug TX-2100. We then discuss the concept of boron tracedrugs as a new drug class having broad potential in many areas.

  8. Autophagy process is associated with anti-neoplastic function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong Wang; Yachen Wang; Michael A. McNutt; Wei-Guo Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved process of cellular degradation, which is present in yeast, plants, and mammals.Under normal physiological conditions, autophagy acts to maintain cellular homeostasis and regulate the turnover of organelles.In response to cellular stresses, autophagy prevents the accumulation of impaired proteins and organelles, which serves to inhibit carcinogenesis.On this basis,it is widely accepted that most tumor suppressors, such as beclin 1 associated proteins, forkhead box class O (FoxO)family proteins, multiple mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) inactivators, and nuclear p53 play a role in indu cing autophagy.Here, we focus on how the process of autophagy is associated with anti-neoplastic function.

  9. Molecular biomonitoring of a population of nurses handling antineoplastic drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornetta, Tommaso [Department of Biology, ' Roma Tre' University, Viale Guglielmo Marconi, 446-00146 Rome (Italy); ' Don Carlo Gnocchi' Foundation, Rome (Italy); Padua, Luca [' Don Carlo Gnocchi' Foundation, Rome (Italy); Department of Neuroscience, Neurology Institute, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Testa, Antonella; Ievoli, Elena [Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences Section, ENEA Research Center, Casaccia (Rome) (Italy); Festa, Fabiola [Department of Biology, ' Roma Tre' University, Viale Guglielmo Marconi, 446-00146 Rome (Italy); Tranfo, Giovanna [Department of Occupational Hygiene, Italian Institute for Occupational Prevention and Safety, Monteporzio Catone (Rome) (Italy); Baccelliere, Luigi [S. Martino Hospital, Genova (Italy); Cozzi, Renata [Department of Biology, ' Roma Tre' University, Viale Guglielmo Marconi, 446-00146 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: cozzi@bio.uniroma3.it

    2008-02-01

    Many antineoplastic drugs have been found to have carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic activity and so hospital personnel handling these substances are potentially exposed to health risk. Understanding this risk derived from protracted occupational exposure has great relevance even if the workers normally adopt individual and environmental protective measures. To address this question we have studied the presence of DNA and chromosome damage in a population of nurses employed in Italian oncology units and in matched controls. We used the comet assay to evidence the presence of DNA strand breaks, due to both acute and chronic exposure, and the micronucleus (MN) test, which is a measure of clastogenic and aneugenic events. Furthermore, since the individual response to the exogenous insults may be genetically determined, we studied the possible influence of single nucleotide polymorphism in XRCC1 and XRCC3 DNA repair genes on induced genetic damage. We also considered the effects of confounding factors like smoking, age and gender. The results indicated that the exposed subjects had significantly high levels of genetic damage. Age and gender were associated with increased values in MN, both in control and in exposed groups; the smoking habit affects MN frequency in controls, but not in workers. Furthermore we found that exposed subjects bearing at least one XRCC1 variant allele (399Gln) show higher values of MN. The present data provide the evidence to show that occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs, even if in safety controlled conditions, represents a serious health risk. Furthermore we have shown that the presence of XRCC1 genetic polymorphism could contribute to increase the genetic damage in susceptible individuals who are occupationally exposed to dangerous substances.

  10. The Drug Sensitivity of Cyclosporine A Combined with Antineoplastic Drugs in Retinoblastoma in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanli Liu; Zhongyao Wu

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To study cyclosporine A inhibition on the fresh retinoblastoma cells in vitro and increasing the drug sensitivity after combined with different antineoplastic drugs.Methods: To study the growth curve of cyclosporine A on 27 samples of primary retinoblastoma cells by MTT assay and to study the change of the drug sensitivity by cyclosporine A combined with seven antineoplastic drugs.Results: The average IC50 of cyclosporine A on the 27 retinoblastoma cells is 67.81μg/ml and the average inhibitive rate of these samples is 26.1% when cyclosporine A is in the concentration of 2μg/ml. The inhibitive rates all got improved after the seven antineoplastic drugs combined with cyclosporine A and the increasing average inhibitive rate is more than 5.Conclusion: Cyclosporine A can inhibit retinoblastoma cells in vitro and its inhibitive effect is dose dependent. Moreover it can enhance the inhibition of multiple antineoplastic drugs on retinoblastoma cells.

  11. Effect of solcoseryl on antitumour action and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danysz, A; Sołtysiak-Pawluczuk, D; Czyzewska-Szafran, H; Jedrych, A; Jastrzebski, Z

    1991-01-01

    The in vivo effect of Solcoseryl on the antitumour activity and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs was examined. It was found that Solcoseryl does not inhibit the antineoplastic effectiveness of the drugs against transplantable P 388 leukaemia in mice. Studies of the effect of Solcoseryl on acute toxicity of selected antineoplastic drugs in mice revealed that the biostimulator could exert a modifying influence. The prior administration of Solcoseryl significantly decreases the acute toxicity of methotrexate but has no effect on acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, increases the acute toxicity of bleomycin and vinblastine and has no effect on acute toxicity of methotrexate and mitoxantron. On the other hand, Solcoseryl administered simultaneously with the antineoplastic drugs increases acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin and mitoxantron. The protective effect of the biostimulator noted exclusively against acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil was also observed after multiple administration of this anticancer drug.

  12. Regulatory and logistical issues influencing access to antineoplastic and supportive care medications for children with cancer in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiernikowski, John T; MacLeod, Stuart

    2014-08-01

    Globally there are numerous impediments, both logistical, regulatory and more recently global drug shortages, hindering pediatric access to therapeutic drugs of all types. Efforts to reduce barriers are ongoing and are especially important in low and middle income countries and for children requiring treatment of conditions such as those encountered in pediatric oncology characterized by the risk of life threatening treatment failures. Progress has been made through the efforts of the World Health Organization and regulators in the US and Europe to encourage the development of therapeutic agents for use in pediatrics and measures taken have fostered the availability of stronger pediatric data to guide therapeutic decisions. Nonetheless, pharmaceuticals remain a global commodity, subject to regulation by the World Trade Organization and this has often had detrimental effects in low and middle income countries. This article emphasizes the need for closer international collaboration to address the barriers currently impeding access to antineoplastic and supportive care medicines for children.

  13. Taurolidine cooperates with antineoplastic drugs in neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenburg, Georg; Luckert, Christian; Reinshagen, Konrad; Bergholz, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial tumor in childhood. Outcome of stage 4 disease remains poor and the development of novel therapeutic approaches is thus urgently needed. Taurolidine (TRD), originally invented to avoid catheter infections, has shown to exhibit antineoplastic activity in various cancers. The growth of neuroblastoma cell lines is inhibited by TRD as recently demonstrated. Further analysis disclosed a significant negative growth effect of TRD on the four neuroblastoma cell lines SH-EP TET21N, SK-N-AS, SK-N-BE(2)-M17 and SK-N-SH. Detected IC50 (51-274 μM; 48 h) are promising and correspond to clinically-achievable plasma levels. Apoptosis was induced (76-86%; 48 h) in a time-dependent manner mediated by a simultaneous activation of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. This was confirmed by cleavage of caspases -3, -8 and -9 and abrogation of apoptosis by pan-caspase inhibition. Application of TRD resulted in a significant enhancement of cytotoxic drugs vincristine/doxorubicin (2/3 of 4 cell lines) making TRD a promising candidate to be included in neuroblastoma therapy regimens in the future.

  14. Antineoplastic effect of decoy oligonucleotide derived from MGMT enhancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Canello

    Full Text Available Silencing of O(6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT in tumors, mainly through promoter methylation, correlates with a better therapeutic response and with increased survival. Therefore, it is conceivable to consider MGMT as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cancers. Our previous results demonstrated the pivotal role of NF-kappaB in MGMT expression, mediated mainly through p65/NF-kappaB homodimers. Here we show that the non-canonical NF-KappaB motif (MGMT-kappaB1 within MGMT enhancer is probably the major inducer of MGMT expression following NF-kappaB activation. Thus, in an attempt to attenuate the transcription activity of MGMT in tumors we designed locked nucleic acids (LNA modified decoy oligonucleotides corresponding to the specific sequence of MGMT-kappaB1 (MGMT-kB1-LODN. Following confirmation of the ability of MGMT-kB1-LODN to interfere with the binding of p65/NF-kappaB to the NF-KappaB motif within MGMT enhancer, the efficacy of the decoy was studied in-vitro and in-vivo. The results of these experiments show that the decoy MGMT-kB1-LODN have a substantial antineoplastic effect when used either in combination with temozolomide or as monotherapy. Our results suggest that MGMT-kB1-LODN may provide a novel strategy for cancer therapy.

  15. Antineoplastic effect of decoy oligonucleotide derived from MGMT enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canello, Tamar; Ovadia, Haim; Refael, Miri; Zrihan, Daniel; Siegal, Tali; Lavon, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Silencing of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) in tumors, mainly through promoter methylation, correlates with a better therapeutic response and with increased survival. Therefore, it is conceivable to consider MGMT as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cancers. Our previous results demonstrated the pivotal role of NF-kappaB in MGMT expression, mediated mainly through p65/NF-kappaB homodimers. Here we show that the non-canonical NF-KappaB motif (MGMT-kappaB1) within MGMT enhancer is probably the major inducer of MGMT expression following NF-kappaB activation. Thus, in an attempt to attenuate the transcription activity of MGMT in tumors we designed locked nucleic acids (LNA) modified decoy oligonucleotides corresponding to the specific sequence of MGMT-kappaB1 (MGMT-kB1-LODN). Following confirmation of the ability of MGMT-kB1-LODN to interfere with the binding of p65/NF-kappaB to the NF-KappaB motif within MGMT enhancer, the efficacy of the decoy was studied in-vitro and in-vivo. The results of these experiments show that the decoy MGMT-kB1-LODN have a substantial antineoplastic effect when used either in combination with temozolomide or as monotherapy. Our results suggest that MGMT-kB1-LODN may provide a novel strategy for cancer therapy.

  16. Synergistic antineoplastic action of 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine (decitabine in combination with different inhibitors of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2 on human lung carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento ASF

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with metastatic lung cancer have a very poor prognosis indicating an urgent need to develop more effective chemotherapy. Aberrant promoter DNA methylation can result in the epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs in lung cancer. 5-Aza-2’deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR, decitabine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation, is able to reactivate silent TSGs. Trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 27 (H3K27me3 by enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2 histone methyltransferase can also silence TSGs in lung cancer. 3-Deazaneplanocin-A (DZNep, an inhibitor of EZH2, up-regulates the expression of genes silenced by H3K27me3. In this study we compared the in vitro antineoplastic activity of different inhibitors of EZH2; DZNep, U-4149 and Gsk-126, alone and in combination with 5-Aza-CdR, on the human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. U-4149, an analogue of DZNep, was more potent than either DZNep or Gsk-126. The reduction in colony formation was dose- and time-dependent for each EZH2 inhibitors. Combination treatment of 5-Aza-CdR with the EZH2 inhibitors showed a synergistic antineoplastic activity. 5-Aza-CdR and U-4149 was the most potent combination. The in vitro antineoplastic activity of these agents was evaluated by inhibition of growth, colony formation, induction of senescence and apoptosis. All the drug combinations induced signs of senescence and apoptosis. Analysis by gene expression by qRT-PCR showed that the combinations increased the expression of several TSGs to a greater extent that either agent alone. In conclusion, epigenetic therapy that specifically targets DNA and histone methylation has interesting potential for the treatment of lung cancer and merits further investigation.

  17. [Blending powdered antineoplastic medicine in disposable ointment container].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yasunori; Uchino, Tomonobu; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    On dispensing powdered antineoplastic medicines, it is important to prevent cross-contamination and environmental exposure. Recently, we developed a method for blending powdered medicine in a disposable ointment container using a planetary centrifugal mixer. The disposable container prevents cross-contamination. In addition, environmental exposure associated with washing the apparatus does not arise because no blending blade is used. In this study, we aimed to confirm the uniformity of the mixture and weight loss of medicine in the blending procedure. We blended colored lactose powder with Leukerin(®) or Mablin(®) powders using the new method and the ordinary pestle and mortar method. Then, the blending state was monitored using image analysis. Blending variables, such as the blending ratio (1:9-9:1), container size (35-125 mL), and charging rate (20-50%) in the container were also investigated under the operational conditions of 500 rpm and 50 s. At a 20% charging rate in a 35 mL container, the blending precision of the mixtures was not influenced by the blending ratio, and was less than 6.08%, indicating homogeneity. With an increase in the charging rate, however, the blending precision decreased. The possible amount of both mixtures rose to about 17 g with a 20% charging rate in a 125 mL container. Furthermore, weight loss of medicines with this method was smaller than that with the pestle and mortar method, suggesting that this method is safer for pharmacists. In conclusion, we have established a precise and safe method for blending powdered medicines in pharmacies.

  18. Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Mediates Antineoplastic Effects against Lung Cancer via Modulations of Prostacyclin and 15-HETE Eicosanoid Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jenny T; Smoake, Jane; Park, Heesung K; Lu, Qing-Yi; Xue, Bingye

    2016-12-01

    Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSE) has been reported to exert antineoplastic properties via the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) eicosanoid pathways. In addition, ample data link carcinogenesis to inflammatory events involving other major eicosanoid metabolic pathways, including prostacyclin (PGI2) and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE). We therefore evaluated the effects of GSE on prostacyclin synthase (PTGIS)/PGI2 and 15-lipoxigenase-2 (15-LOX-2)/15-HETE productions by human lung premalignant and malignant cells and correlated the findings with antiproliferative or proapoptotic effects of GSE. The effects of GSE on PGI2 and 15-HETE productions by human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells ex vivo were also determined. We further evaluated the bioactivity of oral administration of leucoselect phytosome (a standardized GSE) in the lungs of subjects participating in a lung cancer chemoprevention trial, by comparing the antiproliferative effects of coculturing matched pre- versus posttreatment BAL fluids with lung premalignant and malignant cells. GSE significantly increased PGI2 (as measured by 6-keto PGF1α) and 15-HETE productions by these cells. Transfections of PTGIS or 15-LOX-2-specific siRNA partially abrogated the antiproliferative or proapoptotic effects of GSE in lung premalignant and malignant cells, respectively. GSE also increased PTGIS and inhibition of caspase-3, and transfection of 15-LOX-2 siRNA abrogated the GSE-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. In addition, culture supernatants from ex vivo GSE-treated baseline BAL cells, as well as BAL fluids from subjects treated with leucoselect phytosome, significantly decreased proliferations of lung premalignant and malignant cells. Our findings support the continued investigation of GSE as an anti-neoplastic and chemopreventive agent against lung cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 9(12); 925-32. ©2016 AACR.

  19. The Location and Size of Pulmonary Embolism in Antineoplastic Chemotherapy Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yun Joo; Kwon, Woo cheol; Lee, Won Yeon; Koh, Sang Baek; Kim, Seong Ah; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Young Ju [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the prevalent location and size of pulmonary embolism (PE) in anti-neoplastic chemotherapy patients by multidetector row CT (MDCT). This study was conducted on 101 patients that were positively diagnosed with PE by CT. Among these patients, 23 had received or were undergoing chemotherapy. The location and the mean size of the largest PE were compared between anti-neoplastic chemotherapy patients and non-cancer patients using the Chisquare test and paired t-test, respectively. We also used a multiple linear regression to assess the risk posed by the other risk factors of PE. The most prevalent location of PE in patients on anti-neoplastic chemotherapy was in the lobar or segmental pulmonary arteries and was not significantly different from non-cancer patients. The size of the PE was smaller in patients on anti-neoplastic chemotherapy (1.14 mL [standard error = 0.29]) compared to non-cancer patients. (2.14 mL [standard error = 0.40]) (p < 0.05). The size of PE is smaller in anti-neoplastic chemotherapy patients than in non-cancer patients

  20. Influence of Berberine on Cisplatin Antineoplastic Effect in A549 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun JIANG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Cisplatin is a standard first-line chemotherapeutic agents for treating advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Unfortunately, the clinical application cisplatin is restricted because it induces serious adverse reaction. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence and probable mechanism of berberine on cisplatin antineoplastic effect on lung cancer A549 cells. Methods The total Cx43 protein amount, localization of Cx43 on cell membrane, and gap junction function were observed after the A549 cells were treated with berberine. The influence of berberine on the antitumor action of cisplatin was detected by standard colony-forming assay. Protein kinase C (PKC protein, which regulates the gap junction, was subsequently determined. Results Berberine did not affect cell survival at concentrations of 0 μM to 10 μM in the A549 cells. The gap junction function between the cells was enhanced through increased Cx43 protein expression and localization of Cx43 on the membrane after berberine treatment. The intercellular dye coupling through gap junction increased when the cells exposed to 0.1 μM, 1 μM, 10 μM berberine [33.3% (P=0.002,3, 67.0% (P<0.001, 160.0% (P<0.001] compared withcontrols. This effect was associated with the PKC activity. The cisplatin-induced inhibition of colony growth was enhanced when berberine was combined with cisplatin. Conclusion Berberine can obviously increase the antitumor effect of cisplatin by enhancing the function of the gap junction possibly in A549 cells.

  1. An evaluation of the anti-neoplastic activity of curcumin in prostate cancer cell lines

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    Camila B. Piantino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to investigate the anti-neoplastic effect of curcumin in prostate cancer cell lines. Specifically, we are using the LNCaP cell line and another prostate cell line developed in our laboratory, PcBra1. The PcBra1 cells were derived from a localized, obstructive prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 9 (4+5. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prostate cancer cell line was isolated from a localized, obstructive prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 9 (4+5, and it was characterized using immunohistochemistry. After six passages, the new cell line was treated with varying doses of curcumin: 10 µM, 25 µM or 50 µM. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry using Annexin V FITC. For comparison, the same experiment was performed using the well-established metastatic prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP. RESULTS: Increasing concentrations of curcumin promoted more apoptosis in the PcBra1 cells. Exposure to 10 and 25 µM curcumin induced apoptosis in 31.9% and 52.2% of cells, respectively. Late apoptosis was induced in 37% of cells after treatment with 10 µM curcumin and 35% of cells with a 25 µM treatment. Necrosis accounted for less than 10% of the death in these cells at those two concentrations. When curcumin was used at 50 µM, apoptosis was observed in 64.3% of the cells. Including late apoptosis and necrosis, 98.6% of the cells died in response to 50 µM curcumin. Results with the LNCaP cells were similar although late apoptosis was the main phenomenon at 25 µM. CONCLUSION: We have shown that curcumin acts on localized prostate cancer to induce apoptosis and may therefore be an option as a future therapeutic agent.

  2. Somatostatin Enhances the Antineoplastic Effects of Tamoxifen on Breast Carcinoma in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENGXizhi; YAOZhenxiang

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To study the antineoplastic effects of tamoxifen(TAM) in combination with a somatostain analogue(octreotide,OCT) on breast cancer.Methods:Estrogen receptor(ER)-positive(MCF-7) and ER-negative(MDA-MB-435S)human breast carcinoma cell lines were treated with TAM or OCT,or combination of both agents in vitro.Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay,distribu-tion of cell cycle and rate of apoptosis were detemined by flow cytometry.Results:The inhibitory effect of OCT or TAM on proliferation of MCF-7 cells was associated with cell arrest in G0/G1 phase and induction of apoptosis.The inhibitory effect on proliferation of MCF-7 cells enhanced when treatment of TAM combined with OCT.The increased rate of apoptosis induced by combination of TAM and OCT was much higher than use of either TAM or OCT alone.TAM or OCT also had weak inhibitory effect on MDA-MB435S cell.The cells were arrested at S phase by TAM and at G0/G1 phase by OCT, but the induction of apoptosis was not identified.However,the rate of apoptosis was 22.7% if combined treatment of TAM and OCT applied.Conclusion:TAM and OCT can synergistically inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancer cells.The synergism of TAM and OCT may be of interest in the clinical treatment of breast carcinoma.

  3. Synthesis of antineoplastic agent linifanib%抗肿瘤药物linifanib的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海龙; 朱五福; 果秋婷; 王建强; 王晓; 宫平

    2012-01-01

    目的 合成抗肿瘤药物linifanib并优化其工艺.方法 以2,6-二氟苯甲腈为原料经取代、重氮化、环合等4步反应制得关键中间体3-氨基-4-碘吲唑(5);以对氟硝基苯为原料经Suzuki偶联、还原、缩合反应得到关键中间体1-(2-氟-5-甲基苯基)-3-[4-(4,4,5,5-四甲基-1,3,2-二氧杂环硼乙烷-2-基)苯基]脲(10);中间体5与10经Suzuki偶联反应制得抗肿瘤药linifanib(1).结果 目标化合物的结构经1 H-NMR谱和质谱确证,总收率为39.4%.结论 与文献报道的工艺比较,新工艺成本低廉,操作简单,反应时间缩短,有利于工业化生产.%Linifanib(ABT-869),a novel potent and selective inhibitor of the VEGF and PDGF platelet-derived growth factor families of RTKs,was designed to inhibit angiogenesis,tumor growth,and metastasis. In order to improve the synthesis of linifanib and to optimize its procedure, a confluent synthetic route was designed. The key intermediate 4-iodo-lff-indazol-3-amine(5) was synthesized from 2,6-difluorobenzonitrile via ammonolysis,diazo-reaction,cyclization with hydrazine hydrate. Another key intermediate l-(2-fluoro-5-methylphenyl)-3-[4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l ,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl]urea(10) was prepared from l-fluoro-4-nitrobenzene via Suzuki cross coupling reaction, reduction and condensation with l-fluoro-2-iso-cyanato-4-methylbenzene. Finally ,5 reacted with 10 via Suzuki cross coupling reaction to afford target compound linifanib. The overall yield of the target compound was 39. 4% , and its structure was confirmed by 'H-NMR and MS. In comparison with the reported procedure, the improved process has the advantage of low cost, simple operation, short reaction time and it is also suitable for industrial production.

  4. Targeted sustained delivery of antineoplastic agent with multicomponent polylactide stereocomplex micelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kexin; Li, Di; Guan, Jingjing; Ding, Jianxun; Wang, Zhongtang; Gu, Jingkai; Liu, Tongjun; Chen, Xuesi

    2017-01-05

    A c(RGDfC)-decorated polylactide stereocomplex micelle (cRGD-SCM) was prepared through the stereocomplex and hydrophobic interactions among 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(D-lactide) (4-arm PEG-b-PDLA), methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lactide) (mPEG-b-PLLA), and c(RGDfC)-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lactide) (cRGD-PEG-b-PLLA) for targeted treatment of αvβ3 integrin-positive C26 colon cancer. Doxorubicin (DOX), a model antitumor drug, was loaded into cRGD-SCM with a diameter of approximately 100nm, and the drug loading efficiency was 45.9wt.%. cRGD-SCM/DOX with a sustained release pattern exhibited prolonged circulation time, upregulated accumulation in tumor, enhanced tumor inhibition, and decreased side effects compared with free DOX and non-targeting SCM/DOX in vivo. More interestingly, the targeting ligand in the terminal of PEG can be easily replaced with other targeting groups according to the different types of malignancies. Therefore, the cRGD-decorated platform might be a promising targeted drug delivery system for personal chemotherapy clinically.

  5. Histologic evaluation of wound healing in experimental intestinal anastomoses: effects of antineoplastic agents.

    OpenAIRE

    de Roy van Zuidewijn, D. B.; Schillings, P. H.; Wobbes, T; De Boer, H. H. (Hans)

    1992-01-01

    Histologic evaluation of intestinal wound healing with and without cytostatics was performed in 36 rats. Variables were the relative position of the wound edges in mucosa and muscularis, necrosis, exudate, granulation tissue, granulocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, restoration of the mucosal epithelium, and repair of the muscularis propria. The relative position of the wound edges in the mucosa and the muscularis in the initial phase of wound healing depended on technique but appeared to impr...

  6. Comet assay as a human biomonitoring tool: application in occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-05-01

    Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs is associated with genotoxic effects, although comet assay analyzed parameters were higher in exposed comparing with controls, were not significant. Also the study of the susceptibility biomarkers did not show statistical significant differences, the small size of our sample hampered the finding of a possible association, let alone a causality relationship.

  7. The antineoplastic effect of Naja Naja atra venom on S180 bearing mice and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM:To observe the antineoplastic effect of Naja Naja atra venom (NNAV) on S180 bearing mice and to study the possible antineoplastic mechanism. METHODS:We observed the effect of NNAV on tumor weight、plasma nitric oxide content、plasma endothelin content and spleen index in S180 bearing mice with different concentration and different period by means of injecting into abdomen. RESULTS:Treatment with NNAV solution of different concentration could markedly inhibit S180 growth (especially in the low concentration group and by long period) and rate of inhibiting ranged from 21 63% to 49.25%; the plasma nitric oxide content, the plasma endothelin content and NO/ET ratio in tumor bearing mice were obviously higher than those of the normal control group, while after treatment with NNAV solution, the plasma nitric oxide level, the plasma endothelin level and NO/ET ratio could be reduced markedly, and it was noticed that NO/ET ratio in the group with highest inhibiting rate was most close to that of the normal control group. The spleen index was obviously increased after treatment with NNAV solution.CONCLUSION:The antineoplastic effect of NNAV on S180 bearing mice is best in long period by means of injecting into abdomen with low concentration. The mechanism of the antineoplastic effect of NNAV may be related to lowering the plasma nitric oxide and endothelin level, regulating the NO/ET ratio and enhancing the immune response.

  8. Efficacy, safety, and lack of interactions with the use of raltegravir in HIV-infected patients undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bañón

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Concomitant use of combination antiretroviral regimen (cART and cancer chemotherapy is difficult due to complex interactions and increased toxicity. Raltegravir could be an adequate option through its favourable drug-drug interaction profile. Methods: Prospective longitudinal study of HIV patients with cancer, AIDS related or not, undergoing chemotherapy. Patients without resistance or previous failure were switched or initiated raltegravir plus two nucleoside analogues. Plasma trough levels of raltegravir were measured. Results: Overall, 28 patients receiving a raltegravir-based regimen (4 naive with tenofovir-emtricitabine (18 cases or abacavir-lamivudine (10 cases were included. Mean age was 46.2 years (IQR, 39–52.7, and 79% were male. Median time of HIV was 201.7 months, CD4+ nadir was 268 cells/mm3, and 75% had previous AIDS. At the diagnosis of neoplasia, 17 were on protease inhibitors and 4 with efavirenz. Ten patients had a non-HIV-related cancer (three breast, two pancreatic, one Ewing sarcoma, one myeloblastic leukemia, one melanoma, one parotid adenocarcinoma, one lung, and 18 had an HIV-related cancer (nine non-Hodgkin lymphoma, seven Hodgkin disease, two anal. Overall, 43% of patients received more than one line of chemotherapy, including antimetabolites in 12 patients (5-FU, capecitabine, methotrexate, gemcitabine, alkylating agents in 12 cases (ciclophosphamide, iphosphamide, vinca alkaloids in 20 patients (vincristine, vinblastine, vindesine, antitumor antibiotics in 16 cases (adriamycin, cisplatin o carboplatin in six and monoclonal antibodies in six patients (rituximab, trastuzumab, cetuximab. Six patients modified the doses of antineoplastic agents due to toxicity (four neutropenia, not related to raltegravir. During a median follow up of 12.7 patients-year in concomitant therapy, there was only 1 case of virological failure and no patient discontinued raltegravir. Plasma concentrations of raltegravir in eight

  9. Reduced Expression of the Retinoblastoma Protein Shows That the Related Signaling Pathway Is Essential for Mediating the Antineoplastic Activity of Erufosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharieva, Maya M.; Kirilov, Milen; Chai, Minquang; Berger, Stefan M.; Konstantinov, Spiro; Berger, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    Erufosine is a new antineoplastic agent of the group of alkylphosphocholines, which interferes with signal transduction and induces apoptosis in various leukemic and tumor cell lines. The present study was designed to examine for the first time the mechanism of resistance to erufosine in malignant cells with permanently reduced expression of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. Bearing in mind the high number of malignancies with reduced level of this tumor-suppressor, this investigation was deemed important for using erufosine, alone or in combination, in patients with compromised RB1 gene expression. For this purpose, clones of the leukemic T-cell line SKW-3 were used, which had been engineered to constantly express differently low Rb levels. The alkylphosphocholine induced apoptosis, stimulated the expression of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 and inhibited the synthesis of cyclin D3, thereby causing a G2 phase cell cycle arrest and death of cells with wild type Rb expression. In contrast, Rb-deficiency impeded the changes induced by eru-fosine in the expression of these proteins and abrogated the induction of G2 arrest, which was correlated with reduced antiproliferative and anticlonogenic activities of the compound. In conclusion, analysis of our results showed for the first time that the Rb signaling pathway is essential for mediating the antineoplastic activity of erufosine and its efficacy in patients with malignant diseases may be predicted by determining the Rb status. PMID:24987858

  10. Adherence to Precautionary Guidelines for Compounding Antineoplastic Drugs: A Survey of Nurses and Pharmacy Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L; Sweeney, Marie H

    2015-01-01

    Precautionary guidelines detailing standards of practice and equipment to eliminate or minimize exposure to antineoplastic drugs during handling activities have been available for nearly three decades. To evaluate practices for compounding antineoplastic drugs, the NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers was conducted among members of professional practice organizations representing primarily oncology nurses, pharmacists, and pharmacy technicians. This national survey is the first in over 20 years to examine self-reported use of engineering, administrative, and work practice controls and PPE by pharmacy practitioners for minimizing exposure to antineoplastic drugs. The survey was completed by 241 nurses and 183 pharmacy practitioners who compounded antineoplastic drugs in the seven days prior to the survey. They reported: not always wearing two pairs of chemotherapy gloves (85%, 47%, respectively) or even a single pair (8%, 10%); not always using closed system drug-transfer devices (75%, 53%); not always wearing recommended gown (38%, 20%); I.V. lines sometimes/always primed with antineoplastic drug (19%, 30%); and not always using either a biological safety cabinet or isolator (9%, 15%). They also reported lack of: hazard awareness training (9%, 13%); safe handling procedures (20%, 11%); and medical surveillance programs (61%, 45%). Both employers and healthcare workers share responsibility for adhering to precautionary guidelines and other best practices. Employers can ensure that: workers are trained regularly; facility safe-handling procedures reflecting national guidelines are in place and support for their implementation is understood; engineering controls and PPE are available and workers know how to use them; and medical surveillance, exposure monitoring, and other administrative controls are in place. Workers can seek out training, understand and follow facility procedures, be role models for junior staff, ask questions, and report

  11. Anti-neoplastic efficacy of Haimiding on gastric carcinoma and its mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Bin Ji; Shi-Yong Gao; Hong-Rui Ji; Qi Kong; Xiu-Juan Zhang; Bao-Feng Yang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the anti-neoplastic effect of Haimiding and its mechanisms of action.METHODS: Experiments using MTT and colony formation were carried out to study thein vitro anti-neoplastic action of Haimiding, its in vivo anti-neoplastic action was studied by observing its effect on the weight of tumors in FC mice and S180, H22 tumor bearing mice, as well as their life spans.The effect of Haimiding on cell apoptosis and different stages of cell cycles in human gastric carcinoma cells were studied by flow cytometry. Its effect on [Ca2+]i of human gastric carcinoma cells and the source of Ca2+ during the change of [Ca2+]i were observed by confocal laser scanning technique.RESULTS: Haimiding showed a definite cytotoxicity to 8 human tumor cell lines, which was most prominent against BGC-823, Eca-109 and HCT-8 tumor cells. It also exhibited an obvious inhibition on colony formation of the above tumor cell lines, which was most prominent in Eca-109 tumor cells. It showed obvious inhibition on the growth of tumor in FC mice and S180 bearing mice as well as prolonged the life span of H22 bearing mice. It was able to induce apoptosis and elevate intracellular [Ca2+]i concentration of tumor cells.The source of Ca2+ came from both extracellular Ca2+ influx and intracellular Ca2+ release.CONCLUSION: Haimiding is composed of a TCM preparation and 5-flurouracil. Its anti-neoplastic potency is highly enhanced by synergism as compared with either one of its components. Its mechanisms of anti-neoplastic action can be attributed to its action to initiate apoptosis of tumor cells by opening the membrane calcium channel and inducing intracellular Ca2+ release to elevate [Ca2+]i of the tumor cells.

  12. Synthesis and in vitro antineoplastic evaluation of silver nanoparticles mediated by Agrimoniae herba extract

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    Qu D

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ding Qu,1,* Wenjie Sun,1,2,* Yan Chen,1,2 Jing Zhou,1 Congyan Liu11Key Laboratory of New Drug Delivery System of Chinese Materia Medica, Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Chinese Medicine, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: A rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Agrimoniae herba extract as reducing agent and stabilizer (A. herba-conjugated AgNPs [AH-AgNPs] were designed, characterized, and evaluated for antitumor therapy feasibility. In this study, critical factors in the preparation of silver nanoparticles, including extraction time, reaction temperature, the concentration of AgNO3, and A. herba extract amount, were investigated using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. AH-AgNPs with well-defined spherical shape, homogeneous distributional small size (30.34 nm, narrow polydispersity index (0.142, and high negative zeta potential (−36.8 mV were observed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Furthermore, the results of X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy further indicated successful preparation of AH-AgNPs. Acceptable long-term storage stability of AH-AgNPs was also confirmed. More importantly, AH-AgNPs displayed significantly higher antiproliferative effect against a human lung carcinoma cell line (A549 cells compared with A. herba extract and bare AgNPs prepared by sodium citrate. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of AH-AgNPs, bare AgNPs, and A. herba extract were 38.13 µg · mL-1, 184.87 µg · mL-1, and 1.147 × 104 µg · mL-1, respectively. It is suggested that AH-AgNPs exhibit a strong antineoplastic effect on A549 cells, pointing to feasibility of antitumor treatment in the future.Keywords: rapid synthesis, Agrimoniae herba extract, silver nanoparticles, A549 cells, antitumor

  13. Dental root agenesis following radiation and antineoplastic therapy: A Case Report

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    Abdul Hafiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The survival rates of patients suffering from various childhood neoplasms have improved dramatically with the advent of chemo-radiation therapy. The harmful effects of chemo-radiation therapy in the oro-facial region such as root agenesis, short roots, impaired amelogenesis, dentinogenesis, radiation caries, and other soft tissue pathologies are well recognized. In spite of these documented risks, the antineoplastic treatment modalities continue to serve the patient for overall improvement in survival and quality of life. However, a thorough understanding of the growth and development process and its relation with the complex antineoplastic treatment is very important for all clinicians. Such awareness could significantly improve the status of patients in the posttreatment period with the implementation of proper preventive and interceptive measures. This article intends to document a case of root agenesis that developed secondary to chemo-radiation therapy in a 12-year-old girl.

  14. Factors that affect cancer patient compliance to oral anti-neoplastic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Marques,Patrícia Andréa Crippa; Pierin, Angela Maria Geraldo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify factors that can affect compliance to treatment with neoplastic oral drugs in a group of cancer patients. METHODS: Interviews were performed on 61 patients diagnosed with cancer and under anti-neoplastic oral therapy in a private hospital. The interviews were carried out using instruments to assess compliance. RESULTS: Most patients (95%) reported the oral treatment was not difficult. The Morisky and Green Test were positive in 28% of the patients. Factors that may aff...

  15. Adherence to Safe Handling Guidelines by Health Care Workers Who Administer Antineoplastic Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Boiano, James M.; Steege, Andrea L.; Sweeney, Marie H.

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of antineoplastic drugs is well documented. Many are known or suspected human carcinogens where no safe exposure level exists. Authoritative guidelines developed by professional practice organizations and federal agencies for the safe handling of these hazardous drugs have been available for nearly three decades. As a means of evaluating the extent of use of primary prevention practices such as engineering, administrative and work practice controls, personal protective equipment ...

  16. The caries experience and dentistry following evaluation of children submitted to antineoplastic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Leila Maués Oliveira; de Araújo, Rodolfo José Gomes; Vilarino, Ewerson Fernando Almeida; Mayhew, Andressa Soraia Barros

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the caries experience and the dentistry following of children submitted to antineoplastic therapy of a reference Hospital to this type of treatment in Para state, Brazil.Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 46 children. It was included children in the ages of 2 to 12 years diagnosed with cancer that would be submitted to chemotherapy treatment. The evaluation was performed before the chemotherapy treatment and consisted of anamnesis and oral clinical examination. In ...

  17. Permeability of nitrile rubber, latex, polyurethane, and neoprene gloves to 18 antineoplastic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, T H

    1999-12-01

    The permeability of four glove materials to various antineoplastic drugs was studied. Eighteen antineoplastic drugs posing potential health hazards to handlers were prepared at the highest concentrations normally encountered by hospital personnel. Four glove materials-nitrile rubber, latex, polyurethane, and neoprene-were exposed to the drugs for 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Glove thickness was measured with an electronic digital caliper. Random samples of material were selected from the glove fingertips, and triplicate samples were tested for each drug at each interval. For a majority of the drugs, a bacterial mutagenicity assay was used to measure the amount of drug (if any) that permeated the material. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for drugs not tested with the bacterial assay. The nitrile gloves were the thinnest (0.12 mm), and the latex gloves were the thickest (0.18 mm). The four materials were generally impermeable to each drug. One sample of the nitrile gloves appeared to have a defect, allowing >5% of the drug solution to pass through at 30 minutes. One sample each of the latex, polyurethane, and neoprene gloves demonstrated minimal permeability (neoprene materials. Nitrile rubber, latex, polyurethane, and neoprene gloves were impermeable to 18 antineoplastic drugs in most, but not all, cases.

  18. Implementation of a robot for the preparation of antineoplastic drugs in the Pharmacy Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Paz Pacheco Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the implementation of a robot for the preparation of antineoplastic drugs in the Pharmacy Service and to be able to analyze the added value to pharmacotherapy. Methods: The implementation was carried out in June 2012 at a tertiary level Hospital, taking place in two periods: 1- test period with the installation of the robot, with technical configuration of the equipment and validation of 29 active ingredients and the integration of electronic prescribing software with the robot application (9 months. 2- Usage period (22 months. On the other hand, training was given to pharmacists and nurses. The robot uses image recognition, barcode identification and gravimetric controls for proper operation. These checks provide information about the error ratio in the preparation, with a margin of ± 10%, which after a pilot study was restricted to a range of ±4%. The robot was programmed to recognize bags, infusion pumps, syringes and vials. The added value was assessed for 31 months by identifying preparation´s errors. Results: 11,865 preparations were made by the robot, which meant approximately 40% of all antineoplastic prepared from 29 different active ingredients. 1.12% (n=133 of the errors were identified by the robot and therefore didn´t reach the patient (negative desviation - 4%. These errors were corrected manually. Conclusion: The implementation of a robot in the preparation of antineoplastic drugs allows to identify errors therefore preventing them to arrive to the patient. This promotes safety and quality of the process, reducing the exposure to cytotoxic drugs from the manipulator

  19. Effect of implementing a cancer chemotherapy order form on prescribing habits for parenteral antineoplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, D A; Fay, P; Lee, D

    1993-12-01

    Effect of implementing a cancer chemotherapy order form on prescribing habits for parenteral antineoplastics. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of a cancer chemotherapy order form improved prescriber inclusion of necessary prescription information to minimize errors for parenteral antineoplastics when compared to orders written on standard treatment-order forms. Standard treatment order forms and the newly developed chemotherapy order forms were examined for differences in completeness of the following 13 prescription components: diagnosis, height, weight, body surface area, start date and time, dosage (e.g., mg/m2), dose (mg), solution diluent (drips only) and volume (drips only), infusion rate (drips only), route (i.e., IV push or IV drip), frequency of administration, and total number of scheduled doses. The results demonstrate a significant improvement in completeness of necessary prescription information when cancer chemotherapy was ordered by physicians using a chemotherapy order form compared to a standard treatment order form. Importantly, the availability of various prescription components such as height, weight, and dosage may be used by the pharmacist to verify physicians' calculations of body surface area and dose and thereby reduce the chance of serious medication dosage errors. An additional benefit of the new form is a reduction in the time pharmacists spend clarifying orders.

  20. In Vivo Antineoplastic Effects of the NSAID Sulindac in an Oral Carcinogenesis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoumas, Konstantinos; Nikitakis, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despina; Dontas, Ismene; Sklavounou, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    The antineoplastic properties of the NSAID sulindac have long been studied. The purpose of this study was to explore sulindac's in vivo effects on oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) oncogenesis using the hamster cheek pouch oral carcinogenesis model (HOCM). Thirty Syrian golden hamsters were divided into three experimental and two control groups (n = 6 each). The animals' right buccal pouches were treated with carcinogen for 9 weeks in one experimental and one control group and for 14 weeks in all other three groups. The animals of two experimental groups received sulindac from the 1st week and those of the third experimental group from the 10th week. After the end of carcinogenesis, treated buccal pouches were removed and examined. In animals treated with carcinogen for 14 weeks, development of oral SCC and tumor volume were significantly lower in animals that received sulindac from the first week of the experiment. Oral SCC developing in animals that received sulindac were more frequently well differentiated compared with the control group. In animals treated with carcinogen for 9 weeks, the animals that received sulindac developed lower grade of epithelial dysplasia. Proliferation index Ki-67 and positivity for the antiapoptotic molecule survivin were lower in the animals that received sulindac. Treatment with sulindac appears to delays the progression of oral premalignant lesions to oral SCC in the HOCM, also resulting in smaller and better differentiated tumors. These in vivo antineoplastic effects may be related to sulindac's ability to decrease cell proliferation and to prevent survivin expression.

  1. Immune-dependent antineoplastic effects of cisplatin plus pyridoxine in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, F; Bloy, N; Pesquet, J; Petit, B; Chaba, K; Sauvat, A; Kepp, O; Khadra, N; Enot, D; Pfirschke, C; Pittet, M; Zitvogel, L; Kroemer, G; Senovilla, L

    2015-06-04

    cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP), which is mostly referred to as cisplatin, is a widely used antineoplastic. The efficacy of cisplatin can be improved by combining it with the vitamin B6 precursor pyridoxine. Here, we evaluated the putative synergistic interaction of CDDP with pyridoxine in the treatment of an orthotopic mouse model of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). CDDP and pyridoxine exhibited hyperadditive therapeutic effects. However, this synergy was only observed in the context of an intact immune system and disappeared when the otherwise successful drug combination was applied to the same NSCLC cancer implanted in the lungs of athymic mice (which lack T lymphocytes). Immunocompetent mice that had been cured from NSCLC by the combined regimen of CDDP plus pyridoxine became resistant against subcutaneous rechallenge with the same (but not with an unrelated) cancer cell line. In vitro, CDDP and pyridoxine did not only cause synergistic killing of NSCLC cells but also elicited signs of immunogenic cell death including an endoplasmic reticulum stress response and exposure of calreticulin at the surface of the NSCLC cells. NSCLC cells treated with CDDP plus pyridoxine in vitro elicited a protective anticancer immune response upon their injection into immunocompetent mice. Altogether, these results suggest that the combined regimen of cisplatin plus pyridoxine mediates immune-dependent antineoplastic effects against NSCLC.

  2. Experimental study on anti-neoplastic activity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate to digestive tract carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Zhi-hua; ZOU Jian; XIAO Shu-dong

    2005-01-01

    Background Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been demonstrated to have anti-neoplastic activity, but the effective concentration of EGCG and its possible mechanisms are uncertain. The study on the killing effects of EGCG on different digestive tract cancer cell lines can find target sites of its anti-neoplastic effect and provide a theoretical basis for its clinical application in the treatment of cancers. Methods Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) analysis was made to detect the differential sensitivities of eight digestive tract cancer cell lines to EGCG. The effect of EGCG on cell cycle distribution of sensitive cancer cell line was measured by flow cytometry. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol, the influence of EGCG on telomerase activity of sensitive cancer cell line was also investigated. RT-PCR method was employed to detect the influence of EGCG on the expressions of hTERT, c-myc, p53 and mad1 genes in sensitive cancer cell line. Results EGCG exhibited dose-dependent killing effects on all eight disgestive tract cancer cell lines. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of SW1116, MKN45, BGC823, SGC7901, AGS, MKN28, HGC27 and LoVo cells were 51.7 μmol/L, 55.9 μmol/L, 68.5 μmol/L, 79.1 μmol/L, 83.8 μmol/L, 119.8 μmol/L, 183.2 μmol/L and 194.6 μmol/L, respectively. There were no apparent changes in cell cycle distribution of sensitive cancer cell line MKN45 48 hours after incubating with three different concentrations of EGCG compared with the controls. It was found that EGCG could suppress the telomerase activity of MKN45 cells, and the effects were dose- and time-dependent. After EGCG administration, the expression of hTERT and c-myc genes in MKN45 cells was decreased, that of the mad1 gene increased, and that of the p53 gene unchanged. Conclusions EGCG has dose-dependent killing effects on different digestive tract cancer cell lines. Administration of EGCG has no obvious effect on cell cycle

  3. Cancer incidence and adverse pregnancy outcome in registered nurses potentially exposed to antineoplastic drugs

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    Le Nhu D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the relationships of potential occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs with cancer incidence and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a historical prospective cohort study of female registered nurses (RNs from British Columbia, Canada (BC. Methods Female RNs registered with a professional regulatory body for at least one year between 1974 and 2000 formed the cohort (n = 56,213. The identifier file was linked to Canadian cancer registries. An RN offspring cohort from 1986 was created by linkages with the BC Birth and Health Status Registries. Exposure was assessed by work history in oncology or cancer agencies (method 1 and by estimating weighted duration of exposure developed from a survey of pharmacists and nursing unit administrators of all provincial hospitals and treatment centers and the work history of the nurses (method 2. Relative risks (RR were calculated using Poisson regression for cancer incidence and odds ratios (OR were calculated for congenital anomaly, stillbirth, low birth weight, and prematurity incidence, with 95% confidence intervals. Results In comparison with other female RNs, method 1 revealed that RNs who ever worked in a cancer center or in an oncology nursing unit had an increased risk of breast cancer (RR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.03 - 3.23, 12 cases and their offspring were at risk for congenital anomalies of the eye (OR = 3.46, 95% CI = 1.08 - 11.14, 3 cases. Method 2 revealed that RNs classified as having the highest weighted durations of exposure to antineoplastic drugs had an excess risk of cancer of the rectum (RR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.07 - 3.29, 14 cases. No statistically significant increased risks of leukemia, other cancers, stillbirth, low birth weight, prematurity, or other congenital anomalies in the RNs' offspring were noted. Conclusions Female RNs having had potential exposure to antineoplastic drugs were not found to have an excess risk of leukemia, stillbirth, or congenital

  4. Relevance of the OCT1 transporter to the antineoplastic effect of biguanides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Eric D; Yasmeen, Amber; Beauchamp, Marie-Claude; Rosenblatt, Joshua; Pollak, Michael; Gotlieb, Walter H

    2011-11-04

    Epidemiologic and laboratory data suggesting that metformin has antineoplastic activity have led to ongoing clinical trials. However, pharmacokinetic issues that may influence metformin activity have not been studied in detail. The organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) is known to play an important role in cellular uptake of metformin in the liver. We show that siRNA knockdown of OCT1 reduced sensitivity of epithelial ovarian cancer cells to metformin, but interestingly not to another biguanide, phenformin, with respect to both activation of AMP kinase and inhibition of proliferation. We observed that there is heterogeneity between primary human tumors with respect to OCT1 expression. These results suggest that there may be settings where drug uptake limits direct action of metformin on neoplastic cells, raising the possibility that metformin may not be the optimal biguanide for clinical investigation.

  5. Evaluation of an electrolysis apparatus for inactivating antineoplastics in clinical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toyohide; Hirose, Jun; Sano, Kouichi; Hiro, Naoki; Ijiri, Yoshio; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Tamai, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Nakano, Takashi

    2008-06-01

    We recently reported a system for inactivating antineoplastics in which sodium hypochlorite is supplied by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution. In this study, we designed an electrolysis apparatus for inactivating the cytotoxicity of antineoplastics in clinical wastewater using the system. The apparatus consists of an electrolysis cell with platinum-iridium electrodes, a pool tank, a circulating system for wastewater, a safety system for explosive gas and overflow, and an exhaust duct. The free chlorine concentration increased linearly up to 6500 mg l(-1), and pH also increased to 9.0-10.0 within 2h, when 0.9% sodium chloride solution was electrolyzed. We examined its efficacy with model and clinical wastewaters. The reciprocal of dilution factor for disappearance of cytotoxicity using Molt-4 cells was compared before and after electrolysis. In the model wastewater, that was 9.10 x 10(4) before electrolysis, and 3.56 x 10(2) after 2h of electrolysis. In the clinical wastewater (n=26), that was 6.90 x 10(3)-1.02 x 10(6) before electrolysis, and 1.08 x 10(2)-1.45 x 10(4) after 2h of electrolysis. Poisonous and explosive gases released by the electrolysis were measured; however, they were found to be negligible in terms of safety. The environmental load was evaluated by carbon dioxide generation as an index and it was found that the carbon dioxide generated by the electrolysis method was 1/70 lower than that by the dilution method with tap water. Moreover, the cost of the electrolysis method was 1/170 lower than that of the dilution method. This method was found to be both effective and economically valuable.

  6. Antineoplastic-related cardiotoxicity, morphofunctional aspects in a murine model: contribution of the new tool 2D-speckle tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppola C

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Carmela Coppola,1 Gennaro Riccio,1 Antonio Barbieri,2 Maria Gaia Monti,3 Giovanna Piscopo,1 Domenica Rea,2 Claudio Arra,2 Carlo Maurea,1 Claudia De Lorenzo,4,5 Nicola Maurea1 1Division of Cardiology, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori “Fondazione G. Pascale”, IRCCS, Naples, Italy; 2Animal Facility Unit, Department of Experimental Oncology, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori “Fondazione G. Pascale”, IRCCS, Naples, Italy; 3Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University Federico II, Naples, Italy; 4Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University Federico II, Naples, Italy; 5CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate, Naples, Italy Objective: Considering that global left ventricular systolic radial strain is a sensitive technique for the early detection of left ventricular dysfunction due to antineoplastics and the analysis of segmental myocardial contractility, we evaluated this technique for early detection of trastuzumab-related cardiotoxicity by comparing it with cardiac structural damage.Methods: Groups of six mice were injected with trastuzumab or doxorubicin, used either as single agents or in combination. Cardiac function was evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography measurements before and after treatment for 2 or 7 days, by using a Vevo 2100 high-resolution imaging system. After echocardiography, mice were euthanized, and hearts were processed for histological evaluations, such as cardiac fibrosis, apoptosis, capillary density, and inflammatory response.Results: Trastuzumab-related cardiotoxicity was detected early by 2D strain imaging. Radial strain was reduced after 2 days in mice treated with trastuzumab alone (21.2%±8.0% vs 40.5%±4.8% sham; P<0.01. Similarly, trastuzumab was found to induce apoptosis, capillary density reduction, and inflammatory response in cardiac tissue after 2 days of treatment, in a fashion similar to doxorubicin. On the contrary, fractional

  7. Marketed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, antihypertensives, and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors: as-yet-unused weapons of the oncologists' arsenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanagnou, Panagiota; Baltopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsironi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that several pharmacological agents that have long been used for the management of various diseases unrelated to cancer exhibit profound in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. This is of major clinical importance, since it would possibly aid in reassessing the therapeutic use of currently used agents for which clinicians already have experience. Further, this would obviate the time-consuming process required for the development and the approval of novel antineoplastic drugs. Herein, both pre-clinical and clinical data concerning the antineoplastic function of distinct commercially available pharmacological agents that are not currently used in the field of oncology, ie, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihypertensive agents, and anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents inhibiting viral protease, are reviewed. The aim is to provide integrated information regarding not only the molecular basis of the antitumor function of these agents but also the applicability of the reevaluation of their therapeutic range in the clinical setting.

  8. Inhibition of DNA and Histone Methylation by 5-Aza-2′-Deoxycytidine (Decitabine) and 3-Deazaneplanocin-A on Antineoplastic Action and Gene Expression in Myeloid Leukemic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momparler, Richard L.; Côté, Sylvie; Momparler, Louise F.; Idaghdour, Youssef

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations play an important role in the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by silencing of genes that suppress leukemogenesis and differentiation. One of the key epigenetic changes in AML is gene silencing by DNA methylation. The importance of this alteration is illustrated by the induction of remissions in AML by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-AZA-CdR, decitabine), a potent inhibitor of DNA methylation. However, most patients induced into remission by 5-AZA-CdR will relapse, suggesting that a second agent should be sought to increase the efficacy of this epigenetic therapy. An interesting candidate for this purpose is 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep). This analog inhibits EZH2, a histone methyltransferase that trimethylates lysine 27 histone H3 (H3K27me3), a marker for gene silencing. This second epigenetic silencing mechanism also plays an important role in leukemogenesis as shown in preclinical studies where DZNep exhibits potent inhibition of colony formation by AML cells. We reported previously that 5-AZA-CdR in combination with DZNep exhibits a synergistic antineoplastic action against human HL-60 AML cells and the synergistic activation of several tumor suppressor genes. In this report, we showed that this combination also induced a synergistic activation of apoptosis in HL-60 cells. The synergistic antineoplastic action of 5-AZA-CdR plus DZNep was also observed on a second human myeloid leukemia cell line, AML-3. In addition, 5-AZA-CdR in combination with the specific inhibitors of EZH2, GSK-126, or GSK-343, also exhibited a synergistic antineoplastic action on both HL-60 and AML-3. The combined action of 5-AZA-CdR and DZNep on global gene expression in HL-60 cells was investigated in greater depth using RNA sequencing analysis. We observed that this combination of epigenetic agents exhibited a synergistic activation of hundreds of genes. The synergistic activation of so many genes that suppress malignancy by 5-AZA-CdR plus DZNep suggests that

  9. Antineoplastic activity of taurolidine and its derivatives on human ex vivo glioblastoma bulk cells and cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kälin, M B

    2010-01-01

    Despite multimodal therapy, patients suffering from glioblastoma (GBM) still have a dismal prognosis. The identification of cancer stem cells (CSC) in brain tumour tissue, yielded hope that the vulnerable target to combat GBM has been found. Several study groups worldwide concentrate nowadays on therapeutic strategies that effectively target CSC. Since in our laboratory has been revealed that taurolidine, a derivate of the amino acid taurin, displays a potent antineoplastic effect in human gl...

  10. Antineoplastic Activities of MT81 and Its Structural Analogue in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma-Bearing Swiss Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sujata Maiti Choudhury; Malaya Gupta; Upal Kanti Majumder

    2010-01-01

    Many fungal toxins exhibit in vitro and in vivo antineoplastic effects on various cancer cell types. Luteoskyrin, a hydroxyanthraquinone has been proved to be a potent inhibitor against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The comparative antitumor activity and antioxidant status of MT81 and its structural analogue [Acetic acid-MT81 (Aa-MT81)] having polyhydroxyanthraquinone structure were assessed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC ) tumor in mice. The in vitro cytotoxicity was measured by the v...

  11. Antineoplastic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs in breast, prostate and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyssens, Carlien; Verlinden, Lieve; Verstuyf, Annemieke

    2013-04-01

    The active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), is mostly known for its importance in the maintenance of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. However, next to its classical effects on bone, kidney and intestine, 1,25(OH)2D3 also exerts antineoplastic effects on various types of cancer. The use of 1,25(OH)2D3 itself as treatment against neoplasia is hampered by its calcemic side effects. Therefore, 1,25(OH)2D3-derived analogs were developed that are characterized by lower calcemic side effects and stronger antineoplastic effects. This review mainly focuses on the role of 1,25(OH)2D3 in breast, prostate and colorectal cancer (CRC) and the underlying signaling pathways. 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs inhibit proliferation, angiogenesis, migration/invasion and induce differentiation and apoptosis in malignant cell lines. Moreover, prostaglandin synthesis and Wnt/b-catenin signaling are also influenced by 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs. Human studies indicate an inverse association between serum 25(OH)D3 values and the incidence of certain cancer types. Given the literature, it appears that the epidemiological link between vitamin D3 and cancer is the strongest for CRC, however more intervention studies and randomized placebo-controlled trials are needed to unravel the beneficial dose of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs to induce antineoplastic effects.

  12. Examination of the kinetics of degradation of the antineoplastic drug 5-fluorouracil by chlorine and bromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Tanumihardja, Jessica; Masuyama, Takaaki; Korshin, Gregory

    2015-01-23

    This study examined the degradation of the widely used antineoplastic drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU) by chlorine and bromine. 5FU was determined to interact readily with free chlorine and bromine but was stable in the presence of chloramine. The removal of 5FU followed a second-order kinetic pattern. Apparent rates (kapp) of 5FU removal by chlorine and bromine were strongly pH dependent and had maximum 14.8M(-1)s(-1) and 1.9×10(3)M(-1)s(-1)kapp values, respectively at pH 7. Modeling of the dependence of the kapp values vs. pH indicated the presence of a relatively acidic (pK 6.4 vs. 8.5 of 5FU per se) 5FU intermediate generated in the presence of halogen species. Spectrophotometric measurements confirmed the increased acidity of 5FU chlorination products and allowed proposing a degradation pathway of 5FU by chlorine. This pathway suggests that 5FU chlorination proceeds via chlorine incorporation at the 6th carbon in the heterocyclic ring of 5FU.

  13. A preliminary analysis of antineoplastic activity of parvovirus MVMp NS—1 proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENXIZHONG; HSIAOCHIENTSUNG; 等

    1997-01-01

    Human gastric cancer MKN-45 cells were transfected with pULB 3238,a plasmid carrying MVMp MS-1 gene with its original P4 promoter replaced by the glucocorticoid inducible promoter MMTV-LTR.After the integration and expression of NS-1 gene,some of the transfectants died,while others remained alive,but the growth features of survived cells were changed.For further study on the antineoplastic function of parvoviral NS-1 protein in vivo,transgenic mice carrying NS-1 genes were established by conventional method.Among 4 founders,one of them was found to be able to transmit the transgene to around 50% of their offsprings.RT-PCR was performed to indicate the expression of NS-1 gene in transgenic mice and its mRNA appeared in a variety of tissues.The expression of integrated NS-1 gene may correlate with the decreased incidence of tumor induced in vivo by chemical carcinogens.

  14. Relevance of the OCT1 transporter to the antineoplastic effect of biguanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, Eric D.; Yasmeen, Amber; Beauchamp, Marie-Claude; Rosenblatt, Joshua [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Segal Cancer Center, Lady Davis Institute of Medical Research, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Pollak, Michael [Segal Cancer Center, Lady Davis Institute of Medical Research, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gotlieb, Walter H., E-mail: walter.gotlieb@mcgill.ca [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Segal Cancer Center, Lady Davis Institute of Medical Research, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer siRNA knockdown of OCT1 reduced sensitivity of EOC cells to metformin, but not to another biguanide, phenformin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppression of OCT1 also affects the activation of AMP kinase in response to metformin, but not to phenformin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct actions of metformin may be limited by low OCT1 expression in EOC tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenformin could be used as an alternative biguanide. -- Abstract: Epidemiologic and laboratory data suggesting that metformin has antineoplastic activity have led to ongoing clinical trials. However, pharmacokinetic issues that may influence metformin activity have not been studied in detail. The organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) is known to play an important role in cellular uptake of metformin in the liver. We show that siRNA knockdown of OCT1 reduced sensitivity of epithelial ovarian cancer cells to metformin, but interestingly not to another biguanide, phenformin, with respect to both activation of AMP kinase and inhibition of proliferation. We observed that there is heterogeneity between primary human tumors with respect to OCT1 expression. These results suggest that there may be settings where drug uptake limits direct action of metformin on neoplastic cells, raising the possibility that metformin may not be the optimal biguanide for clinical investigation.

  15. Significance of targeting polyamine metabolism as an antineoplastic strategy: unique targets for polyamine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casero, Robert A; Frydman, Benjamin; Stewart, Tracy Murray; Woster, Patrick M

    2005-01-01

    The polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are naturally occurring polycationic alkylamines that are absolutely required for eukaryotic cell growth. Importantly, the polyamine metabolic pathway, as well as the requirement of polyamines for cell growth, is frequently dysregulated in cancer cells, thus providing a unique set of targets for therapeutic intervention. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, is frequently up-regulated in preneoplastic cells, and has been implicated as an oncogene in multiple tumor types. Several model systems have demonstrated that inhibition of ODC's enzymatic activity and down-regulation of its expression are rational strategies for both chemotherapy and chemoprevention. Specific inhibitors of ODC, most notably 2-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), have been used experimentally to validate polyamine metabolism as an antineoplastic strategy. However, multiple biochemical and clinical limitations to these ODC-targeting strategies minimize their value as therapeutic tools. Included among these limitations are poor bioavailability of the inhibitor, and the compensatory up-regulation of polyamine metabolism and transport that allow tumor cells to escape the growth inhibitory effects of blockers specifically targeting ODC. As a strategy to overcome the limitations of direct enzyme inhibition, several groups have pursued the design of polyamine analogues that specifically target the dysregulated polyamine metabolism found in tumors. These analogues have been developed specifically to target the specific polyamine transporter, thus competing with circulating natural polyamines. Additionally, most of the analogues examined thus far maintain the regulatory function of the natural polyamines, but are unable to functionally substitute for them in promoting growth. Specifically, individual analogues have demonstrated the ability to down-regulate each of the biosynthetic enzymes without causing

  16. Predictors of adherence to safe handling practices for antineoplastic drugs: A survey of hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Sharon R; Steege, Andrea L; Boiano, James M

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing awareness of the hazards of exposure to antineoplastic drugs (ADs), surveys continue to find incomplete adherence to recommended safe handling guidelines. A 2011 survey of healthcare workers presents an opportunity to examine factors associated with adherence among 1094 hospital nurses who administered ADs. Data for these hypothesis-generating analyses were taken from an anonymous, web-based survey of healthcare workers. Regression modeling was used to examine associations between a number of predictors (engineering controls, work practices, nurse perceptions, and nurse and hospital characteristics) and three outcomes reported by nurses: use of personal protective equipment (PPE); activities performed with gloves previously worn to administer ADs; and spills of ADs. Adherence to safe handling guidelines was not universal, and AD spills were reported by 9.5% of nurses during the week prior to the survey. Familiarity with safe handling guidelines and training in safe handling were associated with more reported PPE use. Nurse-perceived availability of PPE was associated with more reported PPE use and lower odds of reported spills. Use of closed system drug-transfer devices and luer-lock fittings also decreased the odds of self-reported AD spills, while more frequent AD administration increased the risk. AD administration frequency was also associated with performing more activities with gloves previously worn to administer ADs, and nurse perception of having adequate time for taking safety precautions with fewer such activities. The results suggest that training and familiarity with guidelines for safe handling of ADs, adequate time to adhere to guidelines, and availability of PPE and certain engineering controls are key to ensuring adherence to safe handling practices. Further assessment of training components and engineering controls would be useful for tailoring interventions targeting these areas.

  17. Antineoplastic drugs determination by HPLC-HRMS(n) to monitor occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bello, Federica; Santoro, Valentina; Scarpino, Valentina; Martano, Chiara; Aigotti, Riccardo; Chiappa, Alberta; Davoli, Enrico; Medana, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simple, direct, multiresidue highly specific procedure to evaluate the possible surface contamination of selected antineoplastic drugs in several hospital environment sites by using wipe test sampling. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), carboplatin (C-Pt), cyclophosphamide (CYC), cytarabine (CYT), doxorubicin (DOX), gemcitabine (GEM), ifosfamide (IFO), methotrexate (MET), and mitomycin C (MIT) belong to very different chemical classes but show good ionization properties under electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions (negative ion mode for 5-FU and positive ion mode in all other cases). HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) coupled with HRMS (high resolution mass spectrometry) appears to be the best technique for direct analysis of these analytes, because neither derivatization nor complex extraction procedure for polar compounds in samples is requested prior the analysis. Sample preparation was limited to washing wipes with appropriate solvents. Chromatographic separation was achieved on C18 reversed phase columns. The HPLC-HRMS/MS method was validated in order to obtain robustness, sensitivity and selectivity. LLOQ (lower limit of quantitation) values provided a sensitivity good enough to evidence the presence of the drugs in a very low concentration range (<1 pg/cm(2) ). The method was applied for a study of real wipe tests coming from many areas from a hospital showing some positive samples. The low quantitation limits and the high specificity due to the high resolution approach of the developed method allowed an accurate description of the working environment that can be used to define procedural rules to limit working place contamination to a minimum. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Drug: D05387 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available HER ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01XX Other antineoplastic agents L01XX24 Pegaspargase ...D05387 Pegaspargase (USAN/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Miscellaneous agents Other antineoplastic agents

  19. The antineoplastic effect of carnosine is accompanied by induction of PDK4 and can be mimicked by L-histidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letzien, Ulrike; Oppermann, Henry; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Gaunitz, Frank

    2014-04-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is a naturally occurring dipeptide that shows antineoplastic effects in cell culture as well as in animal experiments. Since its mode of action and the targets at the molecular level have not yet been elucidated, we performed qRT-PCR experiments with RNA isolated from glioblastoma cell lines treated with carnosine, β-alanine, L-alanine, L-histidine and the dipeptide L-alanine-L-histidine. The experiments identified a strong induction of expression of the gene encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase 4 (PDK4) under the influence of carnosine and L-histidine, but not by the other substances employed. In addition, inhibition of cell viability was only detected in cells treated with carnosine and L-histidine, with the latter showing a significantly stronger effect than carnosine. Since the tumor cells expressed the tissue form of carnosinase (CN2) but almost no serum carnosinase (CN1), we conclude that cleavage by CN2 is a prerequisite for the antineoplastic effect of carnosine. In addition, enhanced expression of PDK4 under the influence of carnosine/L-histidine opens a new perspective for the interpretation of the ergogenic potential of dietary β-alanine supplementation and adds a new contribution to a growing body of evidence that single amino acids can regulate key metabolic pathways important in health and disease.

  20. The Occupational Exposure which Medical Staff Handling Antineoplastic Agents Make in Antineoplastic Therapeutic Process and Protective Measure%医护人员对抗肿瘤药物的职业暴露及防护措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾建红; 张志娟; 王家彦; 刘俏; 王桂森

    2012-01-01

    Configuration and input chemotherapy drugs are one ofthe main jobs ofthe nurse, so it caused great threat to the health of the nursing staff. Occupational protection has already become our topic of high attention in recent years. Although many hospitals has established Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services, at work there are still a lot of temporary chemotherapy which need clinical nurses to dispose and contact antitumor drugs. This may lead to personal health risk. This paper reviewed common occupational exposure pathways during the anti-tumor therapy process, and put forward corresponding protective measures to provide medical personnel security information.%配置和输入化疗药物是护士的主要工作之一,故对护理人员的健康造成了很大的威胁.职业防护已成我们近年来高度关注的话题.虽很多医院现已改为中心配液,但在工作中仍有很多临时化疗医嘱需要临床护士,接触抗肿瘤药物可能导致个人健康风险.本文综述了抗肿瘤治疗过程中常见的职业暴露途径,并提出了针对性的防护措施,以期为医护人员提供安全保障信息.

  1. Postulating a dermal pathway for exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs among hospital workers. Applying a conceptual model to the results of three workplace surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.; Hoek, F.; Uitterhoeve, R.; Huijbers, R.; Overmars, R.F.; Anzion, R.; Vermeulen, R.

    2000-01-01

    Dermal exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs has been suggested as a potentially important route of exposure of hospital workers. Three small-scale workplace surveys were carried out in several hospitals focusing on contamination by leakage from IV infusion systems; contamination by spilled urine of pat

  2. The antibacterial substance taurolidine exhibits anti-neoplastic action based on a mixed type of programmed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendel, Ruediger; Biefer, Hector Rodriguez Cetina; Dékány, Gabriela Marta; Kubota, Hisashi; Münz, Christian; Wang, Sheng; Mohler, Hanns; Yonekawa, Yasuhiro; Frei, Karl

    2009-02-01

    The antibacterial amino-acid derivative taurolidine (TAU) has been recently shown to exhibit anti-neoplastic activity based on a mechanism, which is still unknown in detail. Cytotoxicity and clonogenic assays were performed and the impact of apoptosis modulators, a radical scavenger, autophagy inhibitors, silencing of apoptosis inducing actor (AIF) and cytochrome-c (Cyt-C) by siRNA, and knockdown of autophagy related genes were evaluated in vitro. The intracellular ATP-content, release of AIF and Cyt-C, and DNA-laddering were investigated. This study could demonstrate cell killing, inhibition of proliferation, and inhibition or prevention of colony formation in human glioma cell lines and ex vivo glioblastoma cells after incubation with TAU. This effect is based on the induction of a mixed type of programmed cell death with the main preference of autophagy, and involvement of senescence, necroptosis and necrosis. This mechanism of action may open a new approach for therapeutic intervention.

  3. Antineoplastic Activities of MT81 and Its Structural Analogue in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma-Bearing Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Maiti Choudhury

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many fungal toxins exhibit in vitro and in vivo antineoplastic effects on various cancer cell types. Luteoskyrin, a hydroxyanthraquinone has been proved to be a potent inhibitor against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The comparative antitumor activity and antioxidant status of MT81 and its structural analogue [Acetic acid-MT81 (Aa-MT81] having polyhydroxyanthraquinone structure were assessed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC tumor in mice. The in vitro cytotoxicity was measured by the viability of EAC cells after direct treatment of the said compounds. In in vivo study, MT81 and its structural analogue were administered (i.p. at the two different doses (5, 7 mg MT81; 8.93, 11.48 mg Aa-MT81/kg body weight for 7 days after 24 hrs. of tumor inoculation. The activities were assessed using mean survival time (MST, increased life span (ILS, tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, peritoneal cell count, protein percentage and hematological parameters. Antioxidant status was determined by malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH content, and by the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CA T. MT81 and its structural analogues increased the mean survival time, normal peritoneal cell count. They decreased the tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, hemoglobin percentage and packed cell volume. Differential counts of WBC, total counts of RBC & WBC that altered by EAC inoculation, were restored in a dose-dependent manner. Increased MDA and decreased GSH content and reduced activity of SOD, and catalase in EAC bearing mice were returned towards normal after the treatment of MT81 and its structural analogue. Being less toxic than parent toxin MT81, the structural analogue showed more prominent antineoplastic activities against EAC cells compared to MT81. At the same time, both compounds exhibit to some extent antioxidant potential for the EAC-bearing mice.

  4. PDGF-A promoter and enhancer elements provide efficient and selective antineoplastic gene therapy in multiple cancer types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A; Ormerod, A K; Cibull, M L; Spear, B T; Kraner, S D; Kaetzel, D M

    2009-04-01

    Development of antineoplastic gene therapies is impaired by a paucity of transcription control elements with efficient, cancer cell-specific activity. We investigated the utility of promoter (AChP) and 5'-distal enhancer (ACE66) elements from the platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A) gene, which are hyperactive in many human cancers. Efficacy of these elements was tested in multiple tumor cell lines, both in cell culture and as tumor explants in athymic nude mice. Plasmid and viral vectors were constructed with the AChP promoter alone or in fusion with three copies of the ACE66 enhancer for expression of the prototype suicide gene, thymidine kinase (TK). ACE/AChP and AChP cassettes elicited ganciclovir (GCV)-induced cytotoxicity in multiple tumor cell lines. The ACE enhancer element also exhibited synergism with placental and liver-specific promoter elements. An adenovirus containing the AChP-TK cassette produced striking increases in GCV sensitivity in cultured tumor cell lines, as well as GCV-induced regression of U87 MG glioblastoma explants in vivo. TK expression was distributed throughout tumors receiving the therapeutic virus, whereas TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis revealed numerous regions undergoing apoptosis. Vascularization and reticulin fiber networks were less pronounced in virus-GCV-treated tumors, suggesting that both primary and stromal cell types may have been targeted. These studies provide proof-of-principle for utility of the PDGF-A promoter and ACE66 enhancer in antineoplastic gene therapy for a diverse group of human cancers.

  5. Drug: D08173 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 612 D08173.gif Antineoplastic, alkylating ATC code: L01AA03 alkylating agent DNA map07040 Antineoplastics - ... drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics Alkylating Agents Melphalan D08173 Melphalan hydrochloride Antineoplastics

  6. Synthesis and Anchoring of Antineoplastic Ferrocene and Phthalocyanine Derivatives on Water-Soluble Polymeric Drug Carriers Derived from Lysine and Aspartic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, M. David; Neuse, Eberhard W.; Erasmus, Elizabeth; Swarts, Jannie C.

    2008-01-01

    The general synthetic strategy towards water-soluble biodegradable drug carriers and the properties that they must have are discussed. The syntheses of water-soluble biodegradable copolymers of lysine and aspartic acid as potential drug-delivering devices, having amine-functionalised side chains are then described. Covalent anchoring of carboxylic acid derivatives of the antineoplastic ferrocene and photodynamically active phthalocyanine moieties to the amine-containing drug carrier copolymers under mild coupling conditions has been achieved utilising the coupling reagent O-benzotriazolyl-N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate to promote formation of the biodegradable amide bond. Even though the parent antineoplastic ferrocene and phthalocyanine derivatives are themselves insoluble in water at pH < 7, the new carrier-drug conjugates that were obtained are well water-soluble. PMID:18288243

  7. Chemosensitivity assay in mice prostate tumor: Preliminary report of flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, ion ratiometric methods of anti-neoplastic drug monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, ion ratiomateric analysis and NMR peaks characterized drug chemosensitivity of antineoplastic drugs. Hypotheses were: 1. The chemosensitive effect of different cancer cell lines is characteristic; 2. DNA fragmentation, ion ratiometric analysis suggest apoptosis status of tumor cells. Methods PC-3 cell lines were compared with DU-145, LNCaP cell lines in culture for the [Na]i and [Ca]i ion sensing dyes, cell death, NMR peaks and apoptosis staining fo...

  8. [Uricosuric agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Iwao

    2008-04-01

    Urate lowering treatment is indicated in patients with recurrent acute attacks, tophi, gouty arthropathy, radiographic changes of gout, multiple joint involvement, or associated uric acid nephrolithiasis. Uricosuric agents like benzbromarone and probenecid are very useful to treat hyperuricemia as well as allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor). Uricosuric agents act the urate lowering effect through blocking the URAT1, an urate transporter, in brush border of renal proximal tubular cells. In order to avoid the nephrotoxicity and urolithiasis due to increasing of urinary urate excretion by using uricosuric agents, the proper urinary tract management (enough urine volume and correction of aciduria) should be performed.

  9. Antineoplastic Effects of PPARγ Agonists, with a Special Focus on Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Materazzi, Gabriele; Baldini, Enke; Ulisse, Salvatore; Miccoli, Paolo; Antonelli, Alessandro; Fallahi, Poupak

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated nuclear hormone receptor that functions as transcription factor and plays an important role in lipid metabolism and insulin sensitization. Recent studies have shown that PPARγ is overexpressed in many tumor types, including cancers of breast, lung, pancreas, colon, glioblastoma, prostate and thyroid differentiated/anaplastic cancers. These data suggest a role of PPARγ in tumor development and/or progression. PPARγ is emerging as a growth-limiting and differentiation-promoting factor, and it exerts a tumor suppressor role. Moreover, naturally-occurring and synthetic PPARγ agonists promote growth inhibition and apoptosis. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are synthetic agonists of PPARγ that were developed to treat type II diabetes. These compounds also display anticancer effects which appear mainly to be independent of their PPARγ agonist activity. Various preclinical and clinical studies strongly suggest a role for TZDs both alone and in combination with existing chemotherapeutic agents, for the treatment of cancer. Differentiation therapy involves the use of agents with the ability to induce differentiation in cells that have lost this ability, i.e. cancer cells, targeting pathways capable of re-activating blocked terminal differentiation programs. PPARγ agonists have been shown to induce differentiation in solid tumors such as thyroid differentiated/ anaplastic cancers and sarcomas. However, emerging data suggest that chronic use of TZDs is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. The exploration of newer PPARγ agonists can help in unveiling the underlying mechanisms of these drugs, providing new molecules that are able to treat cancer, without increasing the cardiovascular risk of neoplastic patients.

  10. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Superbugs and Drugs" Home | Contact Us General Background: Antibiotic Agents What is an antibacterial and how are ... with the growth and reproduction of bacteria. While antibiotics and antibacterials both attack bacteria, these terms have ...

  11. Vasoactive Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Husedzinovic, Ino; Bradic, Nikola; Goranovic, Tanja

    2006-01-01

    This article is a short review of vasoactive drugs which are in use in todays clinical practice. In the past century, development of vasoactive drugs went through several phases. All of these drugs are today divided into several groups, depending on their place of action, pharmacological pathways and/or effects on target organ or organ system. Hence, many different agents are today in clinical practice, we have shown comparison between them. These agents provide new directions in the treatmen...

  12. Oxidative Stress Induced in Nurses by Exposure to Preparation and Handling of Antineoplastic Drugs in Mexican Hospitals: A Multicentric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of involuntary exposure to antineoplastic drugs (AD was studied in a group of nurses in diverse hospitals in Mexico. The results were compared with a group of unexposed nurses. Anthropometric characteristics and the biochemical analysis were analyzed in both groups. Also, lipid peroxidation level (LPX, protein carbonyl content (PCC, and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were evaluated in blood of study participants as oxidative stress (OS biomarkers. The group of occupationally exposed (OE nurses consisted of 30 individuals ranging in age from 25 to 35 years. The control group included 30 nurses who were not occupationally exposed to the preparation and handling of AD and whose anthropometric and biochemical characteristics were similar to those of the OE group. All biomarkers evaluated were significantly increased (P<0.5 in OE nurses compared to the control group. Results show that the assessment of OS biomarkers is advisable in order to evaluate exposure to AD in nurses.

  13. A Comprehensive Spectroscopic and Computational Investigation to Probe the Interaction of Antineoplastic Drug Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid with Serum Albumins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Nusrat

    Full Text Available Exogenous drugs that are used as antidote against chemotheray, inflammation or viral infection, gets absorbed and interacts reversibly to the major serum transport protein i.e. albumins, upon entering the circulatory system. To have a structural guideline in the rational drug designing and in the synthesis of drugs with greater efficacy, the binding mechanism of an antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory drug Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA with human and bovine serum albumins (HSA & BSA were examined by spectroscopic and computational methods. NDGA binds to site II of HSA with binding constant (Kb ~105 M-1 and free energy (ΔG ~ -7.5 kcal.mol-1. It also binds at site II of BSA but with lesser binding affinity (Kb ~105 M-1 and ΔG ~ -6.5 kcal.mol-1. The negative value of ΔG, ΔH and ΔS for both the albumins at three different temperatures confirmed that the complex formation process between albumins and NDGA is spontaneous and exothermic. Furthermore, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions are the main forces involved in complex formation of NDGA with both the albumins as evaluated from fluorescence and molecular docking results. Binding of NDGA to both the albumins alter the conformation and causes minor change in the secondary structure of proteins as indicated by the CD spectra.

  14. Organotypic Culture of Breast Tumor Explants as a Multicellular System for the Screening of Natural Compounds with Antineoplastic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Edith Carranza-Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women worldwide. The search for novel compounds with antitumor activity, with less adverse effects and higher efficacy, and the development of methods to evaluate their toxicity is an area of ​​intense research. In this study we implemented the preparation and culture of breast tumor explants, which were obtained from precision-cut breast tumor slices. In order to validate the model we are proposing to screen antineoplastic effect of natural compounds, we selected caffeic acid, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid. Using the Krumdieck tissue slicer, precision-cut tissue slices were prepared from breast cancer samples; from these slices, 4 mm explants were obtained and incubated with the selected compounds. Viability was assessed by Alamar Blue assay, LDH release, and histopathological criteria. Results showed that the viability of the explants cultured in the presence of paclitaxel (positive control decreased significantly (P<0.05; however, tumor samples responded differently to each compound. When the explants were coincubated with paclitaxel and compounds, a synergic effect was observed. This study shows that ex vivo culture of breast cancer explants offers a suitable alternative model for evaluating natural or synthetic compounds with antitumor properties within the complex microenvironment of the tumor.

  15. Organotypic Culture of Breast Tumor Explants as a Multicellular System for the Screening of Natural Compounds with Antineoplastic Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Torres, Irma Edith; Guzmán-Delgado, Nancy Elena; Coronado-Martínez, Consuelo; Bañuelos-García, José Inocente; Viveros-Valdez, Ezequiel; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women worldwide. The search for novel compounds with antitumor activity, with less adverse effects and higher efficacy, and the development of methods to evaluate their toxicity is an area of intense research. In this study we implemented the preparation and culture of breast tumor explants, which were obtained from precision-cut breast tumor slices. In order to validate the model we are proposing to screen antineoplastic effect of natural compounds, we selected caffeic acid, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid. Using the Krumdieck tissue slicer, precision-cut tissue slices were prepared from breast cancer samples; from these slices, 4 mm explants were obtained and incubated with the selected compounds. Viability was assessed by Alamar Blue assay, LDH release, and histopathological criteria. Results showed that the viability of the explants cultured in the presence of paclitaxel (positive control) decreased significantly (P < 0.05); however, tumor samples responded differently to each compound. When the explants were coincubated with paclitaxel and compounds, a synergic effect was observed. This study shows that ex vivo culture of breast cancer explants offers a suitable alternative model for evaluating natural or synthetic compounds with antitumor properties within the complex microenvironment of the tumor. PMID:26075250

  16. Multicenter study of environmental contamination with antineoplastic drugs in 36 Canadian hospitals: a 2013 follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berruyer, M; Tanguay, C; Caron, N J; Lefebvre, M; Bussières, J F

    2015-01-01

    No occupational exposure limit exists for antineoplastic drugs. The main objective of this study was to describe environmental contamination with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate in pharmacy and patient care areas of Canadian hospitals in 2013. The secondary objective was to compare the 2013 environmental monitoring results with previous studies. Six standardized sites in the pharmacy and six sites on patient care areas were sampled in each participating center. Samples were analyzed for the presence of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate by UPLC-MSMS. The limit of detection (LOD) in pg/cm(2) was 1.8 for cyclophosphamide, 2.2 for ifosfamide, and 7.5 for methotrexate. The 75th percentile of cyclophosphamide concentration was compared between the 2013, 2008-2010, and 2012 studies. Thirty-six hospitals participated in the study and 422 samples were collected. Overall, 47% (198/422) of the samples were positive for cyclophosphamide, 18% (75/422) were positive for ifosfamide, and 3% (11/422) were positive for methotrexate. In 2013, the 75th percentile value of cyclophosphamide surface concentration was reduced to 8.4pg/cm(2) (n = 36), compared with 9.4pg/cm(2) in 2012 (n = 33) and 40pg/cm(2) (n = 25) in 2008-2010. The 75th percentile for ifosfamide and methotrexate concentration remained lower than the LOD. The 2013 study shows an improvement in the surface contamination level, and a plateau effect in the proportion of positive samples.

  17. [Inotropic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Shigetake

    2003-05-01

    Depression of myocardial contractility plays an important role in the development of heart failure and many inotropic agents were developed to improve the contractile function of the failing heart. Agents that increase cyclic AMP, either by increasing its synthesis or reducing its degradation, exerted dramatic short-term hemodynamic benefits, but these acute effects were not extrapolated into long-term improvement of the clinical outcome of heart failure patients. Administration of these agents to an energy starved failing heart would be expected to increase myocardial energy use and could accelerate disease progression. The role of digitalis in the management of heart failure has been controversial, however, the recent large scale clinical trial has ironically proved that digoxin reduced the rate of hospitalization both overall and for worsening heart failure. More recently, attention was paid to other inotropic agents that have a complex and diversified mechanism. These agents have some phosphodiesterase-inhibitory action but also possess additional effects, including cytokine inhibitors, immunomodulators, or calcium sensitizers. In the Western Societies these agents were again shown to increase mortality of patients with severe heart failure in a dose dependent manner with the long-term administration. However, it may not be the case in the Japanese population in whom mortality is relatively low. Chronic treatment with inotropic agent may be justified in Japanese, as it allows optimal care in the context of relief of symptoms and an improved quality of life. Therefore, each racial group should obtain specific evidence aimed at developing its own guidelines for therapy rather than translating major guidelines developed for other populations.

  18. PEGylated DX-1000: Pharmacokinetics and Antineoplastic Activity of a Specific Plasmin Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Devy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel inhibitors of the urokinase-mediated plasminogen (plg activation system are potentially of great clinical benefit as anticancer treatments. Using phage display, we identified DX-1000 a tissue factor pathway inhibitor-derived Kunitz domain protein which is a specific high-affinity inhibitor of plasmin (pin (Ki = 99 pM. When tested in vitro, DX-1000 blocks plasminmediated pro-matrix metal loproteinase-9 (proMMP-9 activation on cells and dose-dependently inhibits tube formation, while not significantly affecting hemostasis and coagulation. However, this low-molecular weight protein inhibitor (~ 7 kDa exhibits rapid plasma clearance in mice and rabbits, limiting its potential clinical use in chronic diseases. After site-specific PEGylation, DX-1000 retains its activity and exhibits a decreased plasma clearance. This PEGylated derivative is effective in vitro, as well as potent in inhibiting tumor growth of green fluorescent protein (GFP-labeled MDA-MB-231 cells. 4PEG-DX-1000 treatment causes a significant reduction of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA and plasminogen expressions, a reduction of tumor proliferation, and vascularization. 4PEG-DX-1000 treatment significantly decreases the level of active mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK in the primary tumors and reduces metastasis incidence. Together, our results demonstrate the potential value of plasmin inhibitors as therapeutic agents for blocking breast cancer growth and metastasis.

  19. Sunscreening Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  20. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of cytotoxic antineoplastic drugs and their metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zounkova, Radka; Kovalova, Lubomira; Blaha, Ludek; Dott, Wolfgang

    2010-09-01

    In spite of growing scientific concern about pharmaceuticals in the environment, there is still a lack of information especially with regard to their metabolites. The present study investigated ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of three widely used cytostatic agents 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cytarabine (CYT) and gemcitabine (GemC) and their major human metabolites, i.e. alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine (FBAL), uracil-1-beta-D-arabinofuranoside (AraU) and 2',2'-difluorodeoxyuridine (dFdU), respectively. Effects were studied in acute immobilization and reproduction assays with crustacean Daphnia magna and growth inhibition tests with alga Desmodesmus subspicatus and bacteria Pseudomonas putida. Genotoxicity was tested with umu-test employing Salmonella choleraesius subsp. chol. Toxicity was relatively high at parent compounds with EC(50) values ranging from 44 microg L(-1) (5-fluorouracil in the P. putida test) to 200 mg L(-1) (cytarabine in D. magna acute test). In general, the most toxic compound was 5-FU. Studied metabolites showed low or no toxicity; only FBAL (metabolite of 5-FU) showed low toxicity to D. subspicatus and P. putida with EC(50) values 80 and 140 mg L(-1), respectively. All parent cytostatics showed genotoxicity with minimum genotoxic concentrations (MGC) ranging from 40 to 330 mg L(-1). From metabolites, only FBAL was genotoxic in high concentrations. To our knowledge, the present study provides some of the first ecotoxicity data for both cytostatics and their metabolites, which might further serve for serious evaluation of ecological risks. The observed EC(50) values within the microg L(-1) range were fairly close to concentrations reported in hospital sewage water, which indicates further research needs, especially studies of chronic toxicity.

  1. Berberis libanotica Ehrenb extract shows anti-neoplastic effects on prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabih El-Merahbi

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs, including those of advanced prostate cancer, are a suggested reason for tumor resistance toward conventional tumor therapy. Therefore, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed for targeting CSCs. Despite the minimal understanding of their modes of action, natural products and herbal therapies have been commonly used in the prevention and treatment of many cancers. Berberis libanotica Ehrenb (BLE is a plant rich in alkaloids which may possess anti-cancer activity and a high potential for eliminating CSCs. We tested the effect of BLE on prostate cancer cells and our data indicated that this extract induced significant reduction in cell viability and inhibited the proliferation of human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, PC3 and 22Rv1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BLE extract induced a perturbation of the cell cycle, leading to a G0-G1 arrest. Furthermore, we noted 50% cell death, characterized by the production of high levels of reactive oxidative species (ROS. Inhibition of cellular migration and invasion was also achieved upon treatment with BLE extract, suggesting a role in inhibiting metastasis. Interestingly, BLE extract had a major effect on CSCs. Cells were grown in a 3D sphere-formation assay to enrich for a population of cancer stem/progenitor cells. Our results showed a significant reduction in sphere formation ability. Three rounds of treatment with BLE extract were sufficient to eradicate the self-renewal ability of highly resistant CSCs. In conclusion, our results suggest a high therapeutic potential of BLE extract in targeting prostate cancer and its CSCs.

  2. Design and synthesis of highly Water-soluble Platinum antineoplastic drugs%高水溶性铂类抗肿瘤药物的设计与合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启飞; 鲁彦会; 刘朋兴; 王松青; 高清志

    2012-01-01

    目的 设计与合成具有高水溶性的铂类抗肿瘤药物.方法 通过在丙二酸铂结构中偶联糖分子设计出目标化合物并合成取得水溶性抗肿瘤药物.结果 得到了迄今水溶性最好的金属铂类抗肿瘤化合物,其动物模型抗肿瘤活性和安全性均优于顺铂和卡铂.结论 通过糖分子偶联设计取得的新型铂类抗肿瘤药物能够解决一般铂类药物的低水溶性问题.经初步动物模型抗肿瘤药效实验证明该类药物具有理想的抗肿瘤效果.%Objective To design and synthesize Platinum antineoplastic drugs with high water solubility. Methods Sugar molecular was coupled to the malonic acid Platinum structure to design and synthesize Platinum antineoplastic drugs with high water solubility. Results Metal Platinum antineoplastic compound with best water-solubility was produced, and its antineoplastic activity and safety were better than those of Cisplatin and Carboplatin on animal model. Conclusion Neotype Platinum antineoplastic drug, which is produced through the sugar molecule coupling design, can solve low water-solubility problem of general Platinum drugs. Preliminary antineoplastic efficacy experiment on animal model demonstrates that this kind of medicine has ideal antineoplastic effect.

  3. Mobile Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Ichiro

    Mobile agents are autonomous programs that can travel from computer to computer in a network, at times and to places of their own choosing. The state of the running program is saved, by being transmitted to the destination. The program is resumed at the destination continuing its processing with the saved state. They can provide a convenient, efficient, and robust framework for implementing distributed applications and smart environments for several reasons, including improvements to the latency and bandwidth of client-server applications and reducing vulnerability to network disconnection. In fact, mobile agents have several advantages in the development of various services in smart environments in addition to distributed applications.

  4. HER Specific TKIs Exert Their Antineoplastic Effects on Breast Cancer Cell Lines through the Involvement of STAT5 and JNK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Gschwantler-Kaulich

    Full Text Available HER-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs have demonstrated pro-apoptotic and antiproliferative effects in vitro and in vivo. The exact pathways through which TKIs exert their antineoplastic effects are, however, still not completely understood.Using Milliplex assays, we have investigated the effects of the three panHER-TKIs lapatinib, canertinib and afatinib on signal transduction cascade activation in SKBR3, T47D and Jurkat neoplastic cell lines. The growth-inhibitory effect of blockade of HER and of JNK and STAT5 signaling was measured by proliferation- and apoptosis-assays using formazan dye labeling of viable cells, Western blotting for cleaved PARP-1 and immunolabeling for active caspase 3, respectively.All three HER-TKIs clearly inhibited proliferation and increased apoptosis in HER2 overexpressing SKBR3 cells, while their effect was less pronounced on HER2 moderately expressing T47D cells where they exerted only a weak antiproliferative and essentially no pro-apoptotic effect. Remarkably, phosphorylation/activation of JNK and STAT5A/B were inhibited by HER-TKIs only in the sensitive, but not in the resistant cells. In contrast, phosphorylation/activation of ERK/MAPK, STAT3, CREB, p70 S6 kinase, IkBa, and p38 were equally affected by HER-TKIs in both cell lines. Moreover, we demonstrated that direct pharmacological blockade of JNK and STAT5 abrogates cell growth in both HER-TKI-sensitive as well as -resistant breast cancer cells, respectively.We have shown that HER-TKIs exert a HER2 expression-dependent anti-cancer effect in breast cancer cell lines. This involves blockade of JNK and STAT5A/B signaling, which have been found to be required for in vitro growth of these cell lines.

  5. Divergent effects of taurolidine as potential anti-neoplastic agent: inhibition of bladder carcinoma cells in vitro and promotion of bladder tumor in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramjuk, Claudia; Bueschges, Michael; Schnorr, Jörg; Jung, Klaus; Staack, Andrea; Lein, Michael

    2009-08-01

    We investigated taurolidine (TRD) against various human bladder cell lines and the AY-27 rat bladder carcinoma cells. In vitro we tested the effect of TRD in ascending concentrations depending on different incubation times on cell proliferation by the XTT-test. Taurolidine had an inhibitory effect on all tested cell lines. Increasing concentrations and longer incubation times decreased the proliferation depending on the primary quantities of cells. For in vivo studies, an orthotopic rat bladder carcinoma was used. The animals were treated intravenously or intravesically and the tumors were harvested and weighted after the study. In contrast to other authors we could not find any anti-proliferative effect, we actually showed that instillation into the rat urinary bladder enhanced tumor growth.

  6. Marketed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, antihypertensives, and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors: as-yet-unused weapons of the oncologists’ arsenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papanagnou P

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Panagiota Papanagnou,1 Panagiotis Baltopoulos,2 Maria Tsironi1 1Department of Nursing, Faculty of Human Movement and Quality of Life Sciences, University of Peloponnese, Sparta, 2Department of Sports Medicine and Biology of Physical Activity, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece Abstract: Experimental data indicate that several pharmacological agents that have long been used for the management of various diseases unrelated to cancer exhibit profound in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. This is of major clinical importance, since it would possibly aid in reassessing the therapeutic use of currently used agents for which clinicians already have experience. Further, this would obviate the time-consuming process required for the development and the approval of novel antineoplastic drugs. Herein, both pre-clinical and clinical data concerning the antineoplastic function of distinct commercially available pharmacological agents that are not currently used in the field of oncology, ie, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihypertensive agents, and anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents inhibiting viral protease, are reviewed. The aim is to provide integrated information regarding not only the molecular basis of the antitumor function of these agents but also the applicability of the reevaluation of their therapeutic range in the clinical setting. Keywords: repositioning, tumorigenesis, pleiotropy, exploitation

  7. Revisiting the structure of the anti-neoplastic glucans of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin. Structural analysis of the extracellular and boiling water extract-derived glucans of the vaccine substrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinadayala, Premkumar; Lemassu, Anne; Granovski, Pierre; Cérantola, Stéphane; Winter, Nathalie; Daffé, Mamadou

    2004-03-26

    The attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), used worldwide to prevent tuberculosis and leprosy, is also clinically used as an immunotherapeutic agent against superficial bladder cancer. An anti-tumor polysaccharide has been isolated from the boiling water extract of the Tice substrain of BCG and tentatively characterized as consisting primarily of repeating units of 6-linked-glucosyl residues. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacterial species produce a glycogen-like alpha-glucan composed of repeating units of 4-linked glucosyl residues substituted at some 6 positions by short oligoglucosyl units that also exhibits an anti-tumor activity. Therefore, the impression prevails that mycobacteria synthesize different types of anti-neoplastic glucans or, alternatively, the BCG substrains are singular in producing a unique type of glucan that may confer to them their immunotherapeutic property. The present study addresses this question through the comparative analysis of alpha-glucans purified from the extracellular materials and boiling water extracts of three vaccine substrains. The polysaccharides were purified, and their structural features were established by mono- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the enzymatic and chemical degradation products of the purified compounds. The glucans isolated by the two methods from the three substrains of BCG were shown to exhibit identical structural features shared with the glycogen-like alpha-glucan of M. tuberculosis and other mycobacteria. Incidentally, we observed an occasional release of dextrans from Sephadex columns that may explain the reported occurrence of 6-substituted alpha-glucans in mycobacteria.

  8. Radioprotective Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    claimed to be effective are gallic acid derivatives, eg, sodium gallate 12053-21-61 (295-297) and propyl gallate 1121-79-91 (298). p...inhibition of a-adrenergic receptors can be achieved through the use of the antiradiation agents 2-(5-aminopentylamino)ethanephos- phorothioic acid ...tissue was ap- preciated immediately as a potential medical set, and they were put to use en- thusiastically. Early workers did notice an erythematous

  9. Drug: D08290 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TS L01 ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01X OTHER ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01XX Other antineoplastic agents... L01XX36 Oblimersen D08290 Oblimersen (INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Miscellaneous agents Other antineoplastic agen...ts Oblimersen [ATC:L01XX36] D08290 Oblimersen (INN) PubChem: 96024977 ...

  10. Drug: D07258 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ENTS L01 ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01X OTHER ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01XX Other antineoplastic agents L01XX16 Mi...toguazone D07258 Mitoguazone (INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Miscellaneous agents... Other antineoplastic agents Mitoguazone [ATC:L01XX16] D07258 Mitoguazone (INN) CAS: 459-86-9 PubChem: 51

  11. Drug: D03259 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LATING AGENTS L01 ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01X OTHER ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01XC Monoclonal antibodies L01XC05...ombination) (JAN); Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (USAN); Gemtuzumab (INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Molecularly targeted agents Monoclonal

  12. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  13. Antineoplastic effect of iodine and iodide in dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumors: association between lactoperoxidase and estrogen-adduct production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Ofelia; Delgado, Guadalupe; Anguiano, Brenda; Petrosyan, Pavel; Molina-Servín, Edith D; Gonsebatt, Maria E; Aceves, Carmen

    2011-08-01

    Several groups, including ours, have reported that iodine exhibited antiproliferative and apoptotic effects in various cancer cells only if this element is supplemented as molecular iodine, or as iodide, to cells that are able to oxidize it with the enzyme thyroperoxidase. In this study, we analyzed the effect of various concentrations of iodine and/or iodide in the dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) mammary cancer model in rats. The results show that 0.1% iodine or iodide increases the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type γ (PPARγ), triggering caspase-mediated apoptosis pathways in damaged mammary tissue (DMBA-treated mammary gland) as well as in frank mammary tumors, but not in normal mammary gland. DMBA treatment induces the expression of lactoperoxidase, which participates in the antineoplastic effect of iodide and could be involved in the pro-neoplastic effect of estrogens, increasing the formation of DNA adducts. In conclusion, our results show that a supplement of 0.1% molecular iodine/potassium iodide (0.05/0.05%) exert antineoplastic effects, preventing estrogen-induced DNA adducts and inducing apoptosis through PPARγ/caspases in pre-cancer and cancerous cells. Since this iodine concentration does not modify the cytology (histology, apoptosis rate) or physiology (triiodothyronine and thyrotropin) of the thyroid gland, we propose that it be considered as an adjuvant treatment for premenopausal mammary cancer.

  14. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 1-Alkyltryptophan Analogs as Potential Antitumor Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chen Wang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To seek novel antitumor agents, we designed and synthesized new 1-tryptophan analogs based on tryptophan catabolism. 1-Alkyltryptophan analogues including 1-ethyltryptophan (1-ET, 1-propyltryptophan (1-PT, 1-isopropyltryptophan (1-isoPT and 1-butyltryptophan (1-BT were synthesized from tryptophan. We examined whether those compounds had the antiproliferative effects on SGC7901 and HeLa cells line by using MTT assay in vitro, respectively. Compared to tryptophan, all targeted compounds efficiently inhibited proliferation of two cancer cell lines at 2 mmol/L for 48 hours. Among these tryptophan analogs, 1-BT showed the most powerful cytotoxicity against SGC7901 and HeLa cells at 1 mmol/L and 2 mmol/L concentration. These data suggest that some specific tryptophan analogs could be developed as potential anti-neoplastic agents.

  15. Drug: D01270 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .gif Antineoplastic ATC code: L01AC03 alkylating agent DNA map07040 Antineoplastics - alkylating agents Anat...boquone D01270 Carboquone (JAN/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Alkylating agents Ethylene imines Carboquon

  16. Chemosensitivity assay in mice prostate tumor: Preliminary report of flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, ion ratiometric methods of anti-neoplastic drug monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kline Richard

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, ion ratiomateric analysis and NMR peaks characterized drug chemosensitivity of antineoplastic drugs. Hypotheses were: 1. The chemosensitive effect of different cancer cell lines is characteristic; 2. DNA fragmentation, ion ratiometric analysis suggest apoptosis status of tumor cells. Methods PC-3 cell lines were compared with DU-145, LNCaP cell lines in culture for the [Na]i and [Ca]i ion sensing dyes, cell death, NMR peaks and apoptosis staining for chemotherapeutic action of different drugs. Results DNA fragmentation, ratiometric ions and fluorescence endlabelling plots were characteristic for cell lines and drug response. 31P-23Na NMR spectra showed characteristic high phospho-choline and sodium peaks. Conclusion Flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, ion ratiometric methods and NMR peaks indicated apoptosis and offered in vivo drug monitoring method.

  17. Studies on Antineoplastic Constituents from Marine Bryozoan Bugula neritina Inhabiting South China Sea (Ⅲ): Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Bryostatins 10, 11 and 18

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林厚文; 易杨华; 姚新生; 吴厚铭

    2001-01-01

    Six active compounds are isolated from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina,inhabiting the Nanwan Bay in the South China Sea, using the bioassay-guided method with a combination of extraction and partitionation with suitable solvents as well as multiple column chromatographies ( Sephadex LH-20, ODS and preparative HPLC).Their structures are identified as known bryostatins-bryostatins 4, 5, 6, 10, 11 and 18 through intensive analysis of the data of high resolution 2D NMR (600 MHz, DQF-COSY,TOCSY, HMQC and ROESY) and ESI-MS. Among them, bryostatins 10, 11 and 18 are for the first time obtained from this bryozoan in the South China Sea and they show significant antineoplastic activities in vitro.

  18. Novel antineoplastic isochalcones inhibit the expression of cyclooxygenase 1,2 and EGF in human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K P; Rowe, G C; Jackson, B A; D'Agustino, J L; Campbell, P E; Guillory, B O; Williams, M V; Matthews, Q L; McKay, J; Charles, G M; Verret, C R; Deleon, M; Johnson, D E; Cooke, D B

    2001-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of novel anti-neoplastic isochalcones (DJ compounds), on cyclooxyegenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2) enzyme expression in androgen receptor dependent human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Results from Western blot analysis and cell flow cytometry showed that DJ52 and DJ53 decreased the steady state levels of COX-1 and COX-2 protein levels in a dose dependent manner. In addition, DJ52 and DJ53 decreased the levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in LNCaP cells. In this study, we report that novel isochalcones decreased COX-1, COX-2 and EGF levels as well as LNCaP cellular growth in a dose responsive manner. Our findings indicate that relative decreases in COX-1, COX-2 and EGF expressions might serve as indicators of tumor growth inhibition in prostate neoplasms.

  19. Curcumol induces apoptosis in SPC-A-1 human lung adenocarcinoma cells and displays anti-neoplastic effects in tumor bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi-Ling; Guo, Ji-Quan; Wang, Qi-You; Lin, Hai-Shu; Yang, Zhou-Ping; Peng, Tong; Pan, Xue-Diao; Liu, Bing; Wang, Su-Jun; Zang, Lin-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Curcumol is a sesquiterpene originally isolated from curcuma rhizomes, a component of herbal remedies commonly used in oriental medicine. Its beneficial pharmacological activities have attract significant interest recently. In this study, anti-cancer activity of curcumol was examined with both in vitro and in vivo models. It was found that curcumol exhibited time- and concentration-dependent anti-proliferative effects in SPC-A-1 human lung adenocarcinoma cells with cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase while apoptosis-induction was also confirmed with flow cytometry and morphological analyses. Interestingly, curcumol did not display growth inhibition in MRC-5 human embryonic lung fibroblasts, suggesting the anti-proliferative effects of curcumol were specific to cancer cells. Anti-neoplastic effects of curcumol were also confirmed in tumor bearing mice. Curcumol (60 mg/kg daily) significantly reduced tumor size without causing notable toxicity. In conclusion, curcumol appears a favorable anti-cancer candidate for further development.

  20. Evaluation of the antineoplastic activity of mitoxantrone-L-carnitine combination therapy on an experimental solid form of ehrlich tumour in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, M; Melka, M; Stoklasová, A; Cerman, J; Tomsík, P

    2006-12-01

    We have commenced a series of experiments to evaluate the effect of carnitine derivatives on the antineoplastic activity of mitoxantrone (MX) on various animal cancers. This report describes the therapeutic effect of MX in combination with l-carnitine (LCAR) on the growth of a solid form of Ehrlich tumour inoculated into mice. LCAR was administered subcutaneously at doses of either 200 or 100mgkg(-1) on day 6 and 13 after tumour inoculation, 1h prior to the treatment with MX. Mitoxantrone was administered intravenously at doses of 3 or 6mgkg(-1). We found that LCAR had no potentiating effect on the efficacy of MX, in terms of either slowing tumour growth or increasing the survival of mice. Nevertheless, therapeutic effects can be assumed at higher doses of both drugs based on values calculated from an index of relative hazards.

  1. MOBILE AGENT: EMERGING TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    RAJGURU P. V. DR. DESHMUKH S. D

    2011-01-01

    Mobile agent technology has been promoted as an emerging technology that makes it much easier to design, implement, and maintain distributed systems, introduction to basic concepts of mobile agents like agent mobility, agent types and places and agent communication. Then benefits of the usage of mobile agents are summarized and illustrated by selected applications. The next section lists requirements and desirable properties for mobile agent languages and systems. We study the main features, ...

  2. Uncaria tomentosa exerts extensive anti-neoplastic effects against the Walker-256 tumour by modulating oxidative stress and not by alkaloid activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreifuss, Arturo Alejandro; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda Leite; Fabossi, Isabella Aviles; Lívero, Francislaine Aparecida Dos Reis; Stolf, Aline Maria; Alves de Souza, Carlos Eduardo; Gomes, Liana de Oliveira; Constantin, Rodrigo Polimeni; Furman, Aline Emmer Ferreira; Strapasson, Regiane Lauriano Batista; Teixeira, Simone; Zampronio, Aleksander Roberto; Muscará, Marcelo Nicolás; Stefanello, Maria Elida Alves; Acco, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the anti-neoplastic effects of an Uncaria tomentosa (UT) brute hydroethanolic (BHE) extract with those of two fractions derived from it. These fractions are choroformic (CHCl3) and n-butanolic (BuOH), rich in pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (POA) and antioxidant substances, respectively. The cancer model was the subcutaneous inoculation of Walker-256 tumour cells in the pelvic limb of male Wistar rat. Subsequently to the inoculation, gavage with BHE extract (50 mg.kg(-1)) or its fractions (as per the yield of the fractioning process) or vehicle (Control) was performed during 14 days. Baseline values, corresponding to individuals without tumour or treatment with UT, were also included. After treatment, tumour volume and mass, plasma biochemistry, oxidative stress in liver and tumour, TNF-α level in liver and tumour homogenates, and survival rates were analysed. Both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction successfully reduced tumour weight and volume, and modulated anti-oxidant systems. The hepatic TNF-α level indicated a greater effect from the BHE extract as compared to its BuOH fraction. Importantly, both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction increased the survival time of the tumour-bearing animals. Inversely, the CHCl3 fraction was ineffective. These data represent an in vivo demonstration of the importance of the modulation of oxidative stress as part of the anti-neoplastic activity of UT, as well as constitute evidence of the lack of activity of isolated POAs in the primary tumour of this tumour lineage. These effects are possibly resulting from a synergic combination of substances, most of them with antioxidant properties.

  3. Uncaria tomentosa exerts extensive anti-neoplastic effects against the Walker-256 tumour by modulating oxidative stress and not by alkaloid activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Alejandro Dreifuss

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the anti-neoplastic effects of an Uncaria tomentosa (UT brute hydroethanolic (BHE extract with those of two fractions derived from it. These fractions are choroformic (CHCl3 and n-butanolic (BuOH, rich in pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (POA and antioxidant substances, respectively. The cancer model was the subcutaneous inoculation of Walker-256 tumour cells in the pelvic limb of male Wistar rat. Subsequently to the inoculation, gavage with BHE extract (50 mg.kg(-1 or its fractions (as per the yield of the fractioning process or vehicle (Control was performed during 14 days. Baseline values, corresponding to individuals without tumour or treatment with UT, were also included. After treatment, tumour volume and mass, plasma biochemistry, oxidative stress in liver and tumour, TNF-α level in liver and tumour homogenates, and survival rates were analysed. Both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction successfully reduced tumour weight and volume, and modulated anti-oxidant systems. The hepatic TNF-α level indicated a greater effect from the BHE extract as compared to its BuOH fraction. Importantly, both the BHE extract and its BuOH fraction increased the survival time of the tumour-bearing animals. Inversely, the CHCl3 fraction was ineffective. These data represent an in vivo demonstration of the importance of the modulation of oxidative stress as part of the anti-neoplastic activity of UT, as well as constitute evidence of the lack of activity of isolated POAs in the primary tumour of this tumour lineage. These effects are possibly resulting from a synergic combination of substances, most of them with antioxidant properties.

  4. An epidemiological study of the effect of occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs on reproductive outcome in nurses%职业接触抗癌药对护士生殖结局影响的流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢金辉; 王建瓴; 李海燕; 周树森; 赵树芬; 鲁琰; 赵荣刚; 薛岚

    2001-01-01

    目的 探讨护士职业接触抗癌药及其接触水平与不良生殖结局的关系。 方法 对北京、天津、包头24所医院873名护士1 021次妊娠情况进行了回顾性群组研究,接触组(350名,433次妊娠)孕前及孕期有明确抗癌药接触史,对照组(523名,588次妊娠)孕期及孕前均不接触抗癌药。应用暴露指数评估护士接触抗癌药的水平。 结果 接触组自然流产率(14.1%)、先天畸形率(2.82%)及妊娠剧吐发生率(18.9%)、妊娠贫血发生率(10.2%)高于对照组(分别为8.3%、0.76%、12.7%、5.6%),差异有显著性(P<0.05)。经Logistic回归分析,调整年龄、吸烟、饮酒等混杂因素后显示,接触抗癌药自然流产(OR=2.29,95%CI=1.46~3.59)、先天畸形(OR=3.63,95%CI=1.07~12.36)及妊娠贫血(OR=1.77,95% CI=1.03~3.05)的危险显著增加(P<0.01,P<0.05)。护士职业接触抗癌药的接触水平-反应关系的趋势χ2检验,自然流产及先天畸形均随抗癌药接触水平的增加有增高的趋势,其χ2值分别为3.86和14.62(P<0.05,P<0.001)。 结论 护士职业接触抗癌药可导致妊娠并发症(妊娠剧吐、妊娠贫血)及不良妊娠结局(自然流产、先天畸形)的危险增加,其不良妊娠结局随抗癌药接触水平的增高而增加。%Objective To examine the relationship between adverse reproductive outcome and occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs or exposure level among nurses. Methods The retrospective cohort study was carried out in 24 Beijing,Tianjin and Baotou hospitals.873 nurses,1 021 pregnancies were investigated,in which 350 nurses(433 pregnancies) who regularly handled antineoplastic agents were as exposed group and 523 nurses(588 pregnancies) who did not expose to such agents were as control group.The antineoplastic drugs exposure index was assessed to evaluate the exposure level. Results The rates of spontaneous abortion(14.1%),congenital malformation(2.82%),anemia during

  5. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response t

  6. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir FACT SHEET What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  7. Biochemical, computer, and spectroscopic techniques applied to the study of prions and of combinations of antineoplastic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Perra, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    This thesis collects the work I have done during the three-year PhD Course. The results obtained are divided according to the research topics addressed: · Drug discovery of anticancer agents and development of synergistic associations (Part I); · Studies on the prion structure and the pathogenesis of prion diseases (Part II). Studies referring to the Part I have been carried out at the University of Cagliari and were focalized on the evaluation and experimental validation of th...

  8. Drug: D01784 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ] L ANTINEOPLASTIC AND IMMUNOMODULATING AGENTS L01 ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01B ANTIMETABOLITES L01BC Pyrimidine analogue...BC04] D01784 Carmofur (JP16/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Antimetabolites Pyrimidine analogues Carmofur

  9. Drug: D00754 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 429 Miscellaneous 4291...drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics Antiangiogenic Agents Thalidomide D00754 Thalidomide (JAN/USP/INN) Antineoplastics

  10. [Gonadal disorder as a result of adverse reaction to antineoplastic drugs--diagnosis, symptoms, prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, A

    The past three decades have shown the increasing success of chemotherapy as the treatment of malignancies. This therapeutic success has focused attention on the associated gonadal toxicity. Cytotoxic agents may induce infertility and endocrine disfunction. Data for analysis were provided by studies on gonadal function after chemotherapy for: Hodgkin's disease, acute lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast cancer; renal disease, bone-marrow transplantation. The likelihood of developing chemotherapy-induced damage depended on the chemotherapeutic regimen and prescribed dose, illness, sex and degree of gonadal activity at the time of treatment. Despite of the high frequency of chemotherapy-induced gonadal damage its prevention has received a little attention. LH-RHA and oral contraceptive therapy and testosterone have been tested to a limited extent of gonadal toxicity. Usually in male endocrine disfunction of testis does not need to be treated because it is moderate and does not cause any clinical symptoms. In female hormonal substitution seems to be necessary to decrease unpleasant feelings connected with menopause induced by chemotherapy. Further investigations should considered use of new cytotoxic agents without gonadal toxicity or use of new drugs which can better protect gonadal function.

  11. Active vitamin D potentiates the anti-neoplastic effects of calcium in the colon: A cross talk through the calcium-sensing receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Abhishek; Höbaus, Julia; Tennakoon, Samawansha; Prinz-Wohlgenannt, Maximilian; Graça, João; Price, Sally A; Heffeter, Petra; Berger, Walter; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina; Kállay, Enikö

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest an inverse correlation between dietary calcium (Ca(2+)) and vitamin D intake and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). It has been shown in vitro that the active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3) can upregulate expression of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). In the colon, CaSR has been suggested to regulate proliferation of colonocytes. However, during tumorigenesis colonic CaSR expression is downregulated and we hypothesized that the loss of CaSR could influence the anti-tumorigenic effects of Ca(2+) and vitamin D. Our aim was to assess the impact of CaSR expression and function on the anti-neoplastic effects of 1,25-D3 in colon cancer cell lines. We demonstrated that in the healthy colon of mice, high vitamin D diet (2500 IU/kg diet) increased expression of differentiation and apoptosis markers, decreased expression of proliferation markers and significantly upregulated CaSR mRNA expression, compared with low vitamin D diet (100 IU/kg diet). To determine the role of CaSR in this process, we transfected Caco2-15 and HT29 CRC cells with wild type CaSR (CaSR-WT) or a dominant negative CaSR mutant (CaSR-DN) and treated them with 1,25-D3 alone, or in combination with CaSR activators (Ca(2+) and NPS R-568). 1,25-D3 enhanced the anti-proliferative effects of Ca(2+) and induced differentiation and apoptosis only in cells with a functional CaSR, which were further enhanced in the presence of NPS R-568, a positive allosteric modulator of CaSR. The mutant CaSR inhibited the anti-tumorigenic effects of 1,25-D3 suggesting that the anti-neoplastic effects of 1,25-D3 are, at least in part, mediated by the CaSR. Taken together, our data provides molecular evidence to support the epidemiological observation that both, vitamin D and calcium are needed for protection against malignant transformation of the colon and that their effect is modulated by the presence of a functional CaSR. This article is part of a Special Issue

  12. Cellular uptake mechanism and comparative evaluation of antineoplastic effects of paclitaxel–cholesterol lipid emulsion on triple-negative and non-triple-negative breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jun Ye,1,2 Xuejun Xia,1,2 Wujun Dong,1,2 Huazhen Hao,1,2 Luhua Meng,1,2 Yanfang Yang,1,2 Renyun Wang,1,2 Yuanfeng Lyu,3 Yuling Liu1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Delivery Technology and Novel Formulation, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 3School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: There is no effective clinical therapy for triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs, which have high low-density lipoprotein (LDL requirements and express relatively high levels of LDL receptors (LDLRs on their membranes. In our previous study, a novel lipid emulsion based on a paclitaxel–cholesterol complex (PTX-CH Emul was developed, which exhibited improved safety and efficacy for the treatment of TNBC. To date, however, the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular trafficking of PTX-CH Emul have not been investigated. In order to offer powerful proof for the therapeutic effects of PTX-CH Emul, we systematically studied the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular trafficking of PTX-CH Emul and made a comparative evaluation of antineoplastic effects on TNBC (MDA-MB-231 and non-TNBC (MCF7 cell lines through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The in vitro antineoplastic effects and in vivo tumor-targeting efficiency of PTX-CH Emul were significantly more enhanced in MDA-MB-231-based models than those in MCF7-based models, which was associated with the more abundant expression profile of LDLR in MDA-MB-231 cells. The results of the cellular uptake mechanism indicated that PTX-CH Emul was internalized into breast cancer cells through the LDLR-mediated internalization pathway via clathrin-coated pits, localized in lysosomes, and then released into the cytoplasm, which was consistent with the internalization pathway and intracellular trafficking of native

  13. Drug: D04066 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available essive Carcinoma of the prostate DNA map07040 Antineoplastics - alkylating agents map07043 Antineoplastics -...er antineoplastic agents L01XX11 Estramustine D04066 Estramustine (USAN/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics... Antiestrogens/Modifiers Estramustine D04066 Estramustine (USAN/INN) Antineoplastics

  14. Drug: D02166 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available , ABCC2 [HSA:1244] map07042 Antineoplastics - agents from natural products map049...76 Bile secretion Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics...g classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics Antineoplastics, Other Mitoxantrone...chloride (JAN/USP) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Natural products Antibiotics Mito

  15. Analysis of the Utilization of Antineoplastic Chinese Patent Medicine in Our Hospital during the Period of 2008-2011%我院2008-2011年抗肿瘤口服中成药使用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉霞; 张磊; 齐伟; 吴志恒

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the status quo of the utilization of antineoplastic Chinese patent medicine in our hospital and to promote rational use of drugs. METHODS: The consumption sum, DDDs.DDC and DUI of antineoplastic Chinese patent medicine in our hospital during the period of 2008—2010 were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: The variety of antineoplastic Chinese patent medicine in our hospital was stable during 2008—2011, the consumption sum of drugs increased year by year, suitable price and effective therapeutic efficacy of Chinese patent medicine took the lead on the list of DDDs and DDC. CONCLUSION: In our hospital, the utilization of antineoplastic Chinese patent medicine is rational on the whole. Comprehensive considerations including good effect and reasonable cost should be taken into account during clinical drug use.%目的:评价我院抗肿瘤口服中成药的使用现状,促进合理用药.方法:对我院2008-2011年抗肿瘤口服中成药的销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)、日用药金额(DDC)、药物利用指数(DUI)进行排序和分析.结果:我院2008-2011年抗肿瘤口服中成药品种基本固定,销售金额呈逐年上升趋势,疗效确切、价格适中的中成药DDDs、DDC、DUI排序靠前.结论:我院抗肿瘤中成药的应用基本合理,在临床用药过程中要综合考虑疗效和经济两方面.

  16. Biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  17. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs: multitargeted anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ververis K

    2013-02-01

    advancement of these drugs, especially to facilitate the rational design of HDAC inhibitors that are effective as antineoplastic agents. This review will discuss the use of HDAC inhibitors as multitargeted therapies for malignancy. Further, we outline the pharmacology and mechanisms of action of HDAC inhibitors while discussing the safety and efficacy of these compounds in clinical studies to date.Keywords: chromatin modifications, histone acetylation, histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, depsipeptide, entinostat

  18. Identification of differential anti-neoplastic activity of copper bis(thiosemicarbazones) that is mediated by intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and lysosomal membrane permeabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Christian; Al-Eisawi, Zaynab; Jansson, Patric J; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Richardson, Des R

    2015-11-01

    Bis(thiosemicarbazones) and their copper (Cu) complexes possess unique anti-neoplastic properties. However, their mechanism of action remains unclear. We examined the structure-activity relationships of twelve bis(thiosemicarbazones) to elucidate factors regarding their anti-cancer efficacy. Importantly, the alkyl substitutions at the diimine position of the ligand backbone resulted in two distinct groups, namely, unsubstituted/monosubstituted and disubstituted bis(thiosemicarbazones). This alkyl substitution pattern governed their: (1) Cu(II/I) redox potentials; (2) ability to induce cellular (64)Cu release; (3) lipophilicity; and (4) anti-proliferative activity. The potent anti-cancer Cu complex of the unsubstituted bis(thiosemicarbazone) analog, glyoxal bis(4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone) (GTSM), generated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was attenuated by Cu sequestration by a non-toxic Cu chelator, tetrathiomolybdate, and the anti-oxidant, N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Fluorescence microscopy suggested that the anti-cancer activity of Cu(GTSM) was due, in part, to lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). For the first time, this investigation highlights the role of ROS and LMP in the anti-cancer activity of bis(thiosemicarbazones).

  19. Animal Capture Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    agents and delivery systems reviewed . Questionnaires were sent to 137 Air Force bases to obtain information about the chemical agents and delivery systems...used by animal control personnel. A literature review included chemical agents, delivery methods, toxicity information and emergency procedures from...34-like agent. Users should familiarize themselves with catatonia in general and particularly that its successful use as an immobilizer doesn’t necessarily

  20. Intelligent Agents: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Edmund; Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Provides an in-depth introduction to the various technologies that are bringing intelligent agents into the forefront of information technology, explaining how such agents work, the standards involved, and how agent-based applications can be developed. (Author/AEF)

  1. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  2. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...

  3. A fresh perspective on comparing the FDA and the CHMP/EMA: approval of antineoplastic tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rashmi R; Roberts, Samantha A; Shah, Devron R

    2013-09-01

    We compared and determined the reasons for any differences in the review and approval times of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European EMA/CHMP. Applications for these novel cancer drugs were submitted to them within a mean of 31.2 days of each other, providing a fair basis for comparison. The FDA had granted priority review to 12 TKIs but the EMA/CHMP did not grant the equivalent accelerated assessment to any. The FDA granted accelerated approvals to six (38%) and CHMP granted (the equivalent) conditional approvals to four (29%) of these agents. On average, the review and approval times were 205.3 days in the US compared with 409.6 days in the European Union (EU). The active review times, however, were comparable (225.4 days in the EU and 205.3 days in the US). Since oncology drug development lasts about 7 years, the 20 days difference in review times between the two agencies is inconsequential. Clock stops during review and the time required to issue an approval had added the extra 184.2 days to review time in the EU. We suggest possible solutions to expedite the EU review and approval processes. However, post-marketing emergence of adverse efficacy and safety data on gefitinib and lapatinib, respectively, indicate potential risks of expedited approvals. We challenge the widely prevalent myth that early approval translates into early access or beneficial impact on public health. Both the agencies collaborate closely but conduct independent assessments and make decisions based on distinct legislation, procedures, precedents and societal expectations.

  4. Drug: D05216 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L01X OTHER ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01XX Other antineoplastic agents L01XX36 Oblimersen D05216 Oblimersen sod...ium (USAN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Miscellaneous agents Other antineoplastic agents Oblimersen [ATC:L01XX36] D05216 Oblimersen sodium (USAN) CAS: 190977-41-4 PubChem: 47206935 ...

  5. Drug: D06066 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available porfin (USAN/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Miscellaneous agents Sensitizers used in photodynamic/radiati...dynamic/radiation therapy L01XD05 Temoporfin D06066 Temo...ANTINEOPLASTIC AND IMMUNOMODULATING AGENTS L01 ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01X OTHER ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01XD Sensitizers used in photo

  6. Dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide-[anti-EGFR]: molecular design, synthetic organic chemistry reactions, and antineoplastic cytotoxic potency against pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyne CP

    2016-08-01

    did not significantly modify the ex vivo antineoplastic cytotoxicity of dexamethasone against pulmonary adenocarcinoma at and between the standardized dexamethasone equivalent concentrations of 10-9 M and 10-5 M. Rapid increases in antineoplastic cytotoxicity were observed at and between the dexamethasone equivalent concentrations of 10-9 M and 10-7 M where cancer cell death increased from 7.7% to a maximum of 64.9% (92.3%–35.1% residual survival, respectively, which closely paralleled values for “free” noncovalently bound dexamethasone. Discussion: Organic chemistry reaction regimens were optimized to develop a multiphase synthesis regimen for dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide-[anti-EGFR]. Attributes of dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide-[anti-EGFR] include a high dexamethasone molar incorporation-index, lack of extraneous chemical group introduction, retained EGFR-binding avidity (“targeted” delivery properties, and potential to enhance long-term pharmaceutical moiety effectiveness. Keywords: dexamethasone, anti-EGFR, organic chemistry reactions, synthesis, selective “targeted” delivery, covalent immunopharmaceuticals, EGFR 

  7. Antineoplastic Activity of Compound Recipe Xingqi Preparation%复方星芪制剂抗肿瘤活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任小巧; 侯凤飞; 高增平; 胡京红

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨民间验方复方星芪制剂的抗肿瘤活性.方法:采用小鼠腋下接种肿瘤细胞法测定复方星芪制剂的抗肿瘤活性,MTT法测定复方星芪制剂提取物对小鼠脾细胞的增殖活性.结果:复方星芪方对移植性肿瘤(肉瘤S180和肝癌H22)具有显著的抑制作用,对小鼠脾细胞的增殖具有促进作用,并有较好的剂量依赖关系.结论:复方星芪制剂有抗肿瘤作用,其抗肿瘤作用可能与促进机体免疫有关.%Objective:To study the antineoplastic activity of compound recipe Xingqi preparation. Methods;Use tumor cells vaccination of mice armpit to determine anti-tumor activity and MTT method to determine proliferation activity for spleen cell. Results:The compound recipe Xingqi preparation has significant inhibitory action on portability tumor (sarcoma SI 80 and liver cancer H22) , but promoting effect for spleen cell proliferation and good dose-response relationship. Conclusion: The compound recipe Xingqi preparation has antitu-mor effect and its anti-tumor effects may be concerned with immunization promotion.

  8. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  9. Mobile agent security using proxy-agents and trusted domains

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrovic, Nikola; Arronategui Arribalzaga, Unai

    2009-01-01

    Commercial or wide-network deployment of Mobile Agent Systems is not possible without satisfying security architecture. In this paper we propose architecture for secure Mobile Agent Systems, using Trusted Domains and Proxy agents. Existing approaches are based on security services at the level of an agent system, library or specific objects. Our concept uses proxy agents to enable transparent security services both to security-aware mobile agents and legacy agents. Per-agent and domain-level...

  10. THE INTEGRATED AGENT IN MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Maleković, Mirko; Čubrilo, Mirko

    2000-01-01

    [n this paper, we characterize the integrated agent in multi-agent systems. The following result is proved: if a multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean) then the integrated agent of the multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean), respectively. We also prove that the analogous result does not hold for multi-agent system's serial ness. A knowledge relationship between the integrated agent and agents in a multiagent system is presented.

  11. Strategies of reducing the carcinogenic risk of cytostatic agents on the basis of bioassay evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M R

    1991-01-01

    This article described strategies that can be used to reduce the carcinogenic risk of cytostatic chemotherapy and summarizes our recent experimental results. Reduction of neoplasms caused by the carcinogenic potency inherent in cytostatic agents can be obtained. (A) by chemical modifications such as: (1) exchanging a chlorine atom in N, N'-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea (BCNU) in the chloroethyl group at N'-position for a hydroxyl group to form the less carcinogenic analog N-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N-nitrosourea (HECNU); (2) linking chlorambucil to the steroid prednisolone to obtain a conjugate (prednimustine) with distinctly lower carcinogenic potential than chlorambucil; (3) progressive ring halogenation of phenyl-triazenes to generate agents with decreased long-term toxic risk; (B) by replacing cyclophosphamide within the carcinogenic drug combination of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) by vincristine to form the combination VMF which has no detectable carcinogenic potential; (C) by coadministration of cyclophosphamide and mesna to achieve a dose-related reduction of cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder carcinomas; (D) by administration of dinaline, a compound which reduces the spontaneous incidence of malignant tumors in rats. These examples demonstrate that the carcinogenic risk of single agents and drug combinations used for antineoplastic chemotherapy has successfully been reduced, as assessed in long-term bioassays. Such strategies should be considered in the treatment of patients with long life expectancy following cytotoxic chemotherapy.

  12. Targeting ferritin receptors for the selective delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents to breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geninatti Crich, S.; Cadenazzi, M.; Lanzardo, S.; Conti, L.; Ruiu, R.; Alberti, D.; Cavallo, F.; Cutrin, J. C.; Aime, S.

    2015-04-01

    In this work the selective uptake of native horse spleen ferritin and apoferritin loaded with MRI contrast agents has been assessed in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). The higher expression of L-ferritin receptors (SCARA5) led to an enhanced uptake in MCF-7 as shown in T2 and T1 weighted MR images, respectively. The high efficiency of ferritin internalization in MCF-7 has been exploited for the simultaneous delivery of curcumin, a natural therapeutic molecule endowed with antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory action, and the MRI contrast agent Gd-HPDO3A. This theranostic system is able to treat selectively breast cancer cells over-expressing ferritin receptors. By entrapping in apoferritin both Gd-HPDO3A and curcumin, it was possible to deliver a therapeutic dose of 167 μg ml-1 (as calculated by MRI) of this natural drug to MCF-7 cells, thus obtaining a significant reduction of cell proliferation.In this work the selective uptake of native horse spleen ferritin and apoferritin loaded with MRI contrast agents has been assessed in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). The higher expression of L-ferritin receptors (SCARA5) led to an enhanced uptake in MCF-7 as shown in T2 and T1 weighted MR images, respectively. The high efficiency of ferritin internalization in MCF-7 has been exploited for the simultaneous delivery of curcumin, a natural therapeutic molecule endowed with antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory action, and the MRI contrast agent Gd-HPDO3A. This theranostic system is able to treat selectively breast cancer cells over-expressing ferritin receptors. By entrapping in apoferritin both Gd-HPDO3A and curcumin, it was possible to deliver a therapeutic dose of 167 μg ml-1 (as calculated by MRI) of this natural drug to MCF-7 cells, thus obtaining a significant reduction of cell proliferation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Competition studies with free apoferritin, Fig. S1; APO-FITC intracellular distribution by

  13. Drug: D02106 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 429 Miscellaneous 4291 Other Antitumors...er antineoplastic agents L01XX27 Arsenic trioxide D02106 Arsenic trioxide (JP16/USAN) Antineoplastics

  14. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  15. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  16. Change Agent Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  17. Agents in domestic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moergestel, Leo van; Langerak, Wouter; Meerstra, Glenn; Nieuwenburg, Niels van; Pape, Franc; Telgen, Daniël; Puik, Erik; Meyer, John-Jules

    2013-01-01

    Athor supplied : "This paper describes an agent-based architecture for domotics. This architecture is based on requirements about expandability and hardware independence. The heart of the system is a multi-agent system. This system is distributed over several platforms to open the possibility to ti

  18. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, D F

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  19. Drug: D00363 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available if Antineoplastic [DS:H00042] Same as: C07079 ATC code: L01AD02 alkylating agent DNA map07040 Antineoplastics...itrosoureas L01AD02 Lomustine D00363 Lomustine (USAN/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics... Alkylating Agents Lomustine D00363 Lomustine (USAN/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Alkylating agents Ni

  20. Somatostatin receptor expression in vivo and response to somatostatin analog therapy with or without other antineoplastic treatments in advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainas, I; Koussis, Ch; Pazaitou-Panayiotou, K; Drimonitis, A; Chrisoulidou, A; Iakovou, I; Boudina, M; Kaprara, A; Maladaki, A

    2004-12-01

    The long-term treatment of metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) with somatostatin (SST) analogs was evaluated in 22 patients with persistant or relapsed disease and with in vivo positive SST receptor (SSTR) tumors. After surgical intervention all patients but one, initially or at a later time, had persistenly (15) or after relapse (7) elevated serum calcitonin (CT, 252-69482 pg/ml) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, 8-1130 ng/ml) concentrations; also, all of them showed positive uptake in 111In-pentetreotide scanning. Daily doses of 0.4-1.0 mg octreotide subcutaneously, or monthly doses of 20-30 mg long-acting octreotide (LAR) intramuscularly for 3-21 months were administered. Systemic chemotherapy (Ch) with or without external radiotherapy (eRT) was given to 13 patients simultaneously. A beneficial effect on pre-existing diarrhea was observed in 8 patients (subjective partial remmission, sPR 36.4%); 10 other patients showed stable disease, while in 4 a worsening of pre-existing diarrhea was observed. CT and CEA concentrations decreased more than 25% in 4 out of 22 patients (18%) and 11 patients showed a decrease of less than 25% (biological SD). No objective response in tumour growth was demonstrated. Patients (10 survivors in group B) treated with Ch+eRT plus Octerotide showed higher sR (92.5%), lower mortality (23.1%), longer mean time to death (130 months) and longer mean total survival (mts) time (145 months) in comparison to group A patients who had 66.7% sR, 33.3% mortality, only 88.5 months mean time to death and 101 months mts-time. Long-term octreotide and octreotide-LAR treatment offers a subjective and biological partial remission in one third and in one fourth of the MTC patients respectively, but it does not improve the natural course of the tumor. It remains to be answered if these drugs, combined with other antineoplastic therapies, have a synergistic effect relating to treatment response and to patient survival and mortality.

  1. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  2. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    available for expressing not only task-relevant but also socially and psychologically relevant information makes it necessary to take influences into account that are not readily implemented like emotions or cultural heuristics. These influences have a huge impact on the success of an interaction......Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...

  3. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  4. [Adherence to oral antineoplastic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera-Fernandez, R; Fernandez-Ribeiro, F; Piñeiro-Corrales, G; Crespo-Diz, C

    2014-11-03

    Introducción: Los tratamientos antineoplasicos orales presentan ventajas en cuanto a coste, comodidad y mejora potencial en la calidad de vida respecto al tratamiento endovenoso, pero es mas dificil controlar la adherencia y monitorizar los efectos adversos. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer la adherencia real en pacientes con antineoplasicos orales en nuestro centro, analizar la influencia de las caracteristicas del paciente y del tratamiento, identificar motivos de no adherencia, oportunidades de mejora en la atencion farmaceutica y evaluar la posible relacion adherencia y respuesta al tratamiento. Método: estudio prospectivo observacional de cuatro meses de duracion, en los pacientes con tratamiento antineoplasico oral dispensado desde la consulta de farmacia oncologica. Para la recogida de datos se utilizaron: orden medica, historia clinica y visita con entrevistas al paciente. Resultados: Se evaluaron un total de 141 pacientes. Un 72% se considero totalmente adherente, mientras que en un 28% se detecto algun tipo de no adherencia. El tiempo desde el diagnostico y la presencia de efectos adversos fueron las variables que afectaron a la adherencia. No se pudo demostrar relacion entre adherencia y respuesta al tratamiento. Conclusiones: La adherencia al tratamiento antineoplasico oral en nuestro centro fue del 72%, identificando oportunidades de mejora en la atencion farmaceutica dirigidas a prevenir los efectos adversos y a potenciar la adherencia de nuestros pacientes.

  5. Steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda, JMKH; Mori, K; Ohmura, A; Toyooka, H; Hatano, Y; Shingu, K; Fukuda, K

    1998-01-01

    Since 1964 approximately 20 steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents have been evaluated clinically. Pancuronium, a bisquaternary compound designed on the drawingboard, was the first steroidal relaxant introduced into clinical practice worldwide in the 1970's. Although a major improvement, pancuroniu

  6. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  7. Treatment of cancer using pulsed electric field in combination with chemotherapeutic agents or genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, T; Dev, S B; Yoshizato, K; Kuratsu, J; Ushio, Y

    1997-03-01

    Electroporation is a standard laboratory technique originally developed for in vitro transfer of molecules into cells. It involves application of electrical pulses ranging from micro- to milliseconds that create transient pores in the cell membrane allowing intracellular access of exogenous molecules. This technique has been successfully applied to regress tumors in animal models by combining electroporation with chemotherapeutic agents--a process known as electrochemotherapy (ECT) which substantially enhance cytotoxicity of some antineoplastic agents. Recently ECT has moved into clinical arena and patients with cutaneous tumors and head and neck cancers have been treated very effectively with ECT. Parallel to ECT, a technique has also been developed which makes it possible to inject plasmid DNA and combine it with in vivo electroporation--electro--genetherapy (EGT)--to deliver in a highly efficient manner both marker and functional genes into target tissue and achieve gene expression. Thus, in vivo electroporation is contributing to the development of a new strategy for cancer treatment with both drugs and genes.

  8. Liquid-liquid extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array-ultra-violet for simultaneous determination of antineoplastic drugs in plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Lima Sanson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A liquid-liquid extraction (LLE combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method for simultaneous analysis of four chemically and structurally different antineoplastic drugs (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and ifosfamide was developed. The assay was performed by isocratic elution, with a C18 column (5 µm, 250 x 4.6 mm and mobile phase constituted by water pH 4.0- acetonitrile-methanol (68:19:13, v/v/v, which allowed satisfactory separation of the compounds of interest. LLE, with ethyl acetate, was used for sample clean-up with recoveries ranging from 60 to 98%. The linear ranges were from 0.5 to 100 µg mL-1, for doxorubicin and 1 to 100 µg mL-1, for the other compounds. The relative standard deviations ranged from 5.5 to 17.7%. This method is a fast and simple alternative that can be used, simultaneously, for the determination of the four drugs in plasma, with a range enabling quantification of the drugs in pharmacokinetics, bioequivalence and therapeutic drug-monitoring studies.Um método de extração líquido-líquido (ELL combinado com cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência-detector de arranjo de diodos foi desenvolvido para análise simultânea de quatro fármacos antineoplásicos quimicamente e estruturalmente diferentes (ciclofosfamida, doxorrubicina, fluoruracila e ifosfamida. O estudo foi realizado sob condições isocráticas, com coluna C18 (5µm, 250 x 4.6 mm e fase móvel constituída por água pH 4.0-acetonitrila-metanol (68:19:13, v/v/v, que permitiu separação satisfatória dos analitos de interesse. A ELL, com acetato de etila, foi utilizada para limpeza da amostra, com recuperação variando de 60 a 98%. As faixas foram lineares de 0,5 a 100 µg mL-1 para doxorrubicina e 1 a 100 µg mL-1 para os outros compostos. O desvio padrão relativo variou de 5,5 a 17,7%. Este método é uma alternativa rápida e simples que pode ser usado, simultaneamente, para a determinação dos

  9. Experimental Study of Pharmacology of Antineoplastic Pemetrexed%抗肿瘤药培美曲塞的药理实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋吉; 姜雨薇; 申莹; 潘本刚

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the pharmacological basis of antineoplastic Pei pemetrexed and clinical efficacy of the drug. Methods:Through access to information and conduct pharmacological studies,analysis of the mechanism of antitumor culture of pemetrexed,pharmacodynamics,pharmacokinetics,adverse reactions,tolerance and resistance mechanisms,by clinical reports on the inspection training clinical study of pemetrexed treatment of malignant tumors,analysis of anti-tumor efficacy of the drug.Results:① Mechanism:Pemetrexed through antagonism has folic acid,can inhibit tumor cell replication;②pharmacodynamics:Pemetrexed has a broad-spectrum anti-tumor activity;③Pharmacokinetics:pemetrexed is drug metabolism in line with the multi-chamber models, limited distribution within the organization,the rapid removal of the urine,the mean half-life of 2 ~ 3h;④ adverse reactions:pemetrexed common adverse reactions,including cases of ZTE cells decreased,diarrhea,mucositis,nausea,and vomiting;⑤ tolerance:pemetrexed low severity of adverse reactions,is well tolerated;⑥resistance mechanisms:resistance mechanisms pemetrexed mainly leaf acid polyglutamate synthase.⑦ drug efficacy analysis found that pemetrexed can improve cancer patients disease treatment efficiency,prolong survival.Conclusion:The unique pharmacological effects of pemetrexed has,can effectively reduce the mortality of cancer patients.%分析了抗肿瘤药培美曲塞的药理作用以及该种药物的临床疗效。通过查阅资料以及开展药理研究,分析抗肿瘤药培美曲塞的作用机制、药效学、药代动力学、不良反应、耐受性以及耐药机制,通过查阅临床上报道的关于培美曲塞治疗恶性肿瘤的临床研究,分析该种药物的抗肿瘤功效。通过药理实验,得出以下结果:①作用机制:培美曲塞通所具有的叶酸拮抗作用,能够抑制肿瘤细胞复制;②药效学:培美曲塞具有广谱抗肿瘤活性;③药代动

  10. Development of a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry assay for the quantification of PM01183 (lurbinectedin), a novel antineoplastic agent, in mouse, rat, dog, Cynomolgus monkey and mini-pig plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernice, Tiziana; Bishop, Alan G; Guillen, Maria Jose; Cuevas, Carmen; Aviles, Pablo

    2016-05-10

    Lurbinectedin (PM01183) is a new synthetic tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid that binds to selected sequences in the minor groove of DNA, inducing PM01183-DNA adducts that stall replication, DNA repair and transcription and gives rise to double-strand breaks and finally, caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death. PM01183 has demonstrated clinical antitumor activity in platinum resistant/refractory ovarian cancer patients. A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry assay was developed and validated to quantify PM01183 in plasma from nonclinical species. The bioanalysis consisted of a supported liquid extraction, followed by a gradient phase chromatography and, detection by positive ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The calibration range for PM01183 was established using PM01183 standards from 0.1 to 100 ng/mL in blank plasma. The multiple reaction monitoring, based on the transition m/z 767.3→273.0, was specific for PM01183, and that based on the transition m/z 771.4→277.0 was specific for the internal standard (deuterated PM01183). No endogenous material interfered with the analysis of PM01183 and the internal standard from blank plasma. The limit of detection (LOD) of the assay was calculated as 0.025 ng/mL. The correlation coefficients for the calibration curves ranged from 0.9937 to 0.9987. The mean inter-day accuracies for all calibration standards ranged from 92 to 108% (≤8% bias), and the mean inter-day precision for calibration standards was always less than 12%. The mean intra and inter-day assay accuracy for all quality control replicates remained between 91 and 109%. The mean intra and inter-day assay precision was less than 10% for all QC levels. The method was validated to demonstrate the specificity, recovery, limit of quantification, accuracy and precision of measurements. The assay has been used to support preclinical pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic studies of PM01183 in nonclinical species. The main PK parameters in dogs (3 male and 3 female, respectively) were calculated as follows: maximum concentration (Cmax, 12.9±0.6 and 10.2±3.0 ng/mL) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC, 24.9±0.7 and 22.6±6.1 ng h/mL). The results showed that plasma samples could be monitored for PM01183 for long enough to accurately estimate pharmacokinetics information.

  11. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  12. Agent Oriented Programming进展%Advances in Agent Oriented Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一川; 石纯一

    2002-01-01

    Agent-oriented programming (AOP) is a framework to develop agents, and it aims to link the gap betweentheory and practical in agent research. The core of an AOP framework is its language and semantics. In this paper,we propose the necessary properties which agents should have, and then give a summary and analysis about differentAOP languages based on these properties.

  13. Drug: D01370 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01370.gif Antineoplastic [DS:H00006] Therapeutic category: 4291 ATC code: L01BB04 map07041 Antineoplastics... - antimetabolic agents Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics...D01370 Cladribine (JAN/USAN/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Antimetabolites Pur

  14. Drug: D02168 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CB1 [HSA:5243], ABCG2 [HSA:9429], ABCC4 [HSA:10257] map07042 Antineoplastics - agents from natural products ...Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics ...loride (JAN); Topotecan hydrochloride (USAN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics Enzyme Inh...7] D02168 Nogitecan hydrochloride (JAN); Topotecan hydrochloride (USAN) Antineoplastics

  15. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  16. Developing Enculturated Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) are complex multimodal systems with rich verbal and nonverbal repertoires. There human-like appearance raises severe expectations regarding natural communicative behaviors on the side of the user. But what is regarded as “natural” is to a large degree dependent...... on our cultural profiles that provide us with heuristics of behavior and interpretation. Thus, integrating cultural aspects of communicative behaviors in virtual agents and thus enculturating such systems seems to be inevitable. But culture is a multi-defined domain and thus a number of pitfalls arise...

  17. 黄连素在A549细胞中对顺铂抗肿瘤作用的影响及其机制%Inlfuence of Berberine on Cisplatin Antineoplastic Effect in A549 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋国君; 李利; 吴小祥; 董淑英; 童旭辉

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectiveCisplatin is a standard ifrst-line chemotherapeutic agents for treating ad-vanced non-small cell lung cancer. Unfortunately, the clinical application cisplatin is restricted because it induces serious adverse reaction. hTe aim of this study is to investigate the inlfuence and probable mechanism of berberine on cisplatin antineoplastic effect on lung cancer A549 cells.MethodshTe total Cx43 protein amount, localization of Cx43 on cell membrane, and gap junction function were observed atfer the A549 cells were treated with berberine. hTe inlfuence of berberine on the antitumor action of cisplatin was detected by standard colony-forming assay. Protein kinase C (PKC) protein, which regulates the gap junction, was subsequently determined.Results Berberine did not affect cell survival at concentrations of 0 μM to 10 μM in the A549 cells. hTe gap junction function between the cells was enhanced through increased Cx43 protein expression and localization of Cx43 on the membrane atfer berberine treatment. hTe intercellular dye coupling through gap junction increased when the cells exposed to 0.1 μM, 1 μM, 10 μM berberine [33.3% (P=0.002,3), 67.0% (P<0.001), 160.0% (P<0.001)] compared withcontrols. hTis effect was associated with the PKC activity. hTe cispla-tin-induced inhibition of colony growth was enhanced when berberine was combined with cisplatin.ConclusionBerberine can obviously increase the antitumor effect of cisplatin by enhancing the function of the gap junction possibly in A549 cells.%背景与目的以顺铂为基础的化疗方案是晚期非小细胞肺癌的一线化疗方案,但是由于顺铂的不良反应严重及耐药性的产生均限制了它的临床应用,本研究采用联合用药的方式观察黄连素对顺铂抗肿瘤作用的影响,并探讨其可能机制。方法分别观察黄连素对肺腺癌细胞A549细胞中总Cx43蛋白、细胞膜Cx43蛋白的表达以及细胞缝隙连接功能的改变,通过标

  18. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  19. Software Agent Techniques in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments.......This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments....

  20. Attempts at the production of more selective antitumourals. Part I. The antineoplastic activity of cyclophosphazenes linked to the polyamines 1,3-diaminopropane and 1,4-diaminobutane (putrescine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarre, Jean-François; Guerch, Guy; Sournies, François; Spreafico, Federico; Filippeschi, Stefania

    1984-06-01

    In an attempt to design antitumour cyclophosphazenes of improved specificity by linking them to some natural tumour finders, we studied the binding of gem-N 3P 3Az 4Cl 2 to 1,3-diaminopropane and 1,4-diaminobutane (putrescine). Synthesis, mass spectrum and NMR as well as X-ray crystal structures of the two spirocyclic N 3P 3Az 4 [HN(CH 2) 3,4NH] derivatives (in which the N 3P 3Az 4 active principle is linked to the diamine in a spiro configuration) are described. Results obtained with these compounds in 3 murine tumour systems (L1210 and P388 leukaemias and P815 mastocytoma), showing their potent antineoplastic activity in vivo obtainable at well-tolerated doses, are also described.

  1. Drug: D06397 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04066] DNA map07040 Antineoplastics - alkylating agents map07043 Antineoplastics... - hormones Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics...nts L01XX11 Estramustine D06397 Estramustine phosphate sodium hydrate (JAN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics...sphate sodium hydrate (JAN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Alkylating agents Nitrogen mustard analogues Estram

  2. Applying ligands profiling using multiple extended electron distribution based field templates and feature trees similarity searching in the discovery of new generation of urea-based antineoplastic kinase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M Dokla

    Full Text Available This study provides a comprehensive computational procedure for the discovery of novel urea-based antineoplastic kinase inhibitors while focusing on diversification of both chemotype and selectivity pattern. It presents a systematic structural analysis of the different binding motifs of urea-based kinase inhibitors and the corresponding configurations of the kinase enzymes. The computational model depends on simultaneous application of two protocols. The first protocol applies multiple consecutive validated virtual screening filters including SMARTS, support vector-machine model (ROC = 0.98, Bayesian model (ROC = 0.86 and structure-based pharmacophore filters based on urea-based kinase inhibitors complexes retrieved from literature. This is followed by hits profiling against different extended electron distribution (XED based field templates representing different kinase targets. The second protocol enables cancericidal activity verification by using the algorithm of feature trees (Ftrees similarity searching against NCI database. Being a proof-of-concept study, this combined procedure was experimentally validated by its utilization in developing a novel series of urea-based derivatives of strong anticancer activity. This new series is based on 3-benzylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H-one scaffold which has interesting chemical feasibility and wide diversification capability. Antineoplastic activity of this series was assayed in vitro against NCI 60 tumor-cell lines showing very strong inhibition of GI(50 as low as 0.9 uM. Additionally, its mechanism was unleashed using KINEX™ protein kinase microarray-based small molecule inhibitor profiling platform and cell cycle analysis showing a peculiar selectivity pattern against Zap70, c-src, Mink1, csk and MeKK2 kinases. Interestingly, it showed activity on syk kinase confirming the recent studies finding of the high activity of diphenyl urea containing compounds against this kinase. Allover, the new series

  3. SECOND BUYING AGENT

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL - SERVICES ACHATS

    2000-01-01

    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  4. The need for agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolfazlian, Ali Reza Kian

    1996-01-01

    I denne artikel arbejder vi med begrebet Intelligent Software Agents (ISAs), som autonomous, social, reactive, proactive og subservient computer systemer. Baseret på socialt psykologiske argumenter viser jeg endvidere, hvordan både den menneskelige natur og det teknologiske stadium, som mennesket...

  5. Programming Agents with Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi; Floor, Chr.; Meyer, John-Jules Charles

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show how a cognitive agent programming language can be endowed with ways to program emotions. In particular we show how the programming language 2APL can be augmented so that it can work together with the computational emotion model ALMA to deal with appraisal, emotion/mood generati

  6. Remote Agent Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

  7. Agent-Based Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Kwang Mong

    2012-01-01

    Agent-based cloud computing is concerned with the design and development of software agents for bolstering cloud service\\ud discovery, service negotiation, and service composition. The significance of this work is introducing an agent-based paradigm for\\ud constructing software tools and testbeds for cloud resource management. The novel contributions of this work include: 1) developing\\ud Cloudle: an agent-based search engine for cloud service discovery, 2) showing that agent-based negotiatio...

  8. Drug: D08276 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ATC code: L01AD06 alkylating agent Nitrosoureas DNA map07040 Antineoplastics - alkylating agents Anatomical...8276 Nimustine (INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Alkylating agents Nitrosoureas Nimustine [ATC:L01AD06] D08

  9. Announcements to Attentive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans; Herzig, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    In public announcement logic it is assumed that all agents pay attention to the announcement. Weaker observational conditions can be modelled in action model logic. In this work, we propose a version of public announcement logic wherein it is encoded in the states of the epistemic model which...... agents pay attention to the announcement. This logic is called attention-based announcement logic. We give an axiomatization of the logic and prove that complexity of satisfiability is the same as that of public announcement logic, and therefore lower than that of action model logic. An attention......-based announcement can also be described as an action model. We extend our logic by integrating attention change. Finally, we add the notion of common belief to the language, we exploit this to formalize the concept of joint attention, that has been widely discussed in the philosophical and cognitive science...

  10. Pharmacology of antiplatelet agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Kiran; Franzese, Christopher J; Gesheff, Martin G; Lev, Eli I; Pandya, Shachi; Bliden, Kevin P; Tantry, Udaya S; Gurbel, Paul A

    2013-12-01

    Pharmacotherapies with agents that inhibit platelet function have proven to be effective in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, and in the prevention of complications during and after percutaneous coronary intervention. Because of multiple synergetic pathways of platelet activation and their close interplay with coagulation, current treatment strategies are based not only on platelet inhibition, but also on the attenuation of procoagulant activity, inhibition of thrombin generation, and enhancement of clot dissolution. Current strategies can be broadly categorized as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and fibrinolytics. This review focuses on the pharmacology of current antiplatelet therapy primarily targeting the inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase 1, the P2Y12 receptor, the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor, and protease-activated receptor 1.

  11. [Pharmacology of inotropic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastelín Hernández, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    High-risk patients, during anesthesia and after surgery present changes in pharmacokinetics (biotransformation reactions, renal clearance, drug interactions, etc.) modifying the usefulness of most drugs, cardiac inotropics included. This group of substances is formed by adrenergic agents, phospodiesterase inhibitors and digitalis compounds. Adrenergic agents are the catecholamines, adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (D), plus dopaminergic agonists as dobutamine and pirbuterol. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors, as amrinone and milrinone, produce their inotropic action by preserving cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMPc) from its intracellular catabolism. Recent studies on the utility of digitalis compounds demonstrated the valuable applicability of digoxin in chronic and acute heart failure. Another group of substances whose mechanism of action differs from that of the inotropics, offers future utility in high risk patients, they include: inhibitors of nitric oxide sintases, natriuretic atrial peptide inhibitors, Q-10 coenzyme, endothelin antagonists, and anti-tumoral necrosis factor.

  12. [The antiretroviral agent Fullevir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosik, D N; Lialina, I K; Kalnina, L B; Lobach, O A; Chataeva, M S; Rasnetsov, L D

    2009-01-01

    The antiretroviral properties of Fullevir (sodium salt of fullerenepolyhydropolyaminocaproic acid) manufactured by IntelFarm Co.) were studied in the human cell culture infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The agent was ascertained to be able to protect the cell from the cytopathic action of HIV. The 90% effective concentration (EF90) was 5 microg/ml. The 50% average toxic concentration was 400 microg/ml. Testing of different (preventive and therapeutic) Fullevir dosage regimens has shown that the drug is effective when used both an hour before and an hour after infection and when administered simultaneously with cell infection. The longer contact time for the agent with the cells increased the degree of antiviral defense. Co-administration of Fullevir and the HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor Retrovir (azidothymidine) showed a synergistic antiretroviral effect. Thus, Fullevir may be regarded as a new promising antiretroviral drug for the treatment of HIV infection.

  13. Response to microtubule-interacting agents in primary epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer constitutes nearly 4% of all cancers among women and is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies in the Western world. Standard first line adjuvant chemotherapy treatments include Paclitaxel (Taxol) and platinum-based agents. Taxol, epothilone B (EpoB) and discodermolide belong to a family of anti-neoplastic agents that specifically interferes with microtubules and arrests cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Despite initial success with chemotherapy treatment, many patients relapse due to chemotherapy resistance. In vitro establishment of primary ovarian cancer cells provides a powerful tool for better understanding the mechanisms of ovarian cancer resistance. We describe the generation and characterization of primary ovarian cancer cells derived from ascites fluids of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods Chemosensitivity of these cell lines to Taxol, EpoB and discodermolide was tested, and cell cycle analysis was compared to that of immortalized ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and Hey. The relationship between drug resistance and αβ-tubulin and p53 status was also investigated. Results All newly generated primary cancer cells were highly sensitive to the drugs. αβ-tubulin mutation was not found in any primary cell lines tested. However, one cell line that harbors p53 mutation at residue 72 (Arg to Pro) exhibits altered cell cycle profile in response to all drug treatments. Immortalized ovarian cancer cells respond differently to EpoB treatment when compared to primary ovarian cancer cells, and p53 polymorphism suggests clinical significance in the anti-tumor response in patients. Conclusions The isolation and characterization of primary ovarian cancer cells from ovarian cancer patients’ specimens contribute to further understanding the nature of drug resistance to microtubule interacting agents (MIAs) currently used in clinical settings. PMID:23574945

  14. Intelligent Agent Integration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The DARPA knowledge sharing effort: Progress report. In B. Nebel , C. Rich, and W. Swartout, editors, Principles of Knowledge Representation and...and Automation, pages 2,785-2,788. IEEE CS Press. [18] Carl Hewitt. Offices are open systems. Communications of the ACM, 4(3):271-287, July 1986...19] Carl Hewitt and Jeff Inman. DAI betwixt and be- tween: From "intelligent agents" to open systems sci- ence. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man

  15. Sunscreening Agents: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Latha, M. S.; Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; B R Naveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food an...

  16. Drug: D00369 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g agent DNA map07040 Antineoplastics - alkylating agents map07046 Immunosuppressive agents Therapeutic categ...ory of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics...phalan (JP16/USP/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics Alkylating Agents Melphalan D0036...9 Melphalan (JP16/USP/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Alkylating agents Nitrogen mustard analogues Melphal

  17. NOVEL ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Vinay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotics are a group of drugs commonly but not exclusively used to treat psychosis. Antipsychotic agents are grouped in two categories: Typical and Atypical antipsychotics. The first antipsychotic was chlorpromazine, which was developed as a surgical anesthetic. The first atypical anti-psychotic medication, clozapine, was discovered in the 1950s, and introduced in clinical practice in the 1970s. Both typical and atypical antipsychotics are effective in reducing positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Blockade of D2 receptor in mesolimbic pathway is responsible for antipsychotic action. Typical antipsychotics are not particularly selective and also block Dopamine receptors in the mesocortical pathway, tuberoinfundibular pathway, and the nigrostriatal pathway. Blocking D2 receptors in these other pathways is thought to produce some of the unwanted side effects. Atypical antipsychotics differ from typical psychotics in their "limbic-specific" dopamine type 2 (D2-receptor binding and high ratio of serotonin type 2 (5-HT2-receptor binding to D2. Atypical antipsychotics are associated with a decreased capacity to cause EPSs, TD, narcoleptic malignant syndrome, and hyperprolactinemia. Atypical antipsychotic agents were developed in response to problems with typical agents, including lack of efficacy in some patients, lack of improvement in negative symptoms, and troublesome adverse effects, especially extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs and tardive dyskinesia (TD.

  18. Synthesis, Molecular docking and Biological evaluation of 4-Cycloalkylidineamino 1, 2-Naphthoquinone Semicarbazones as Anticancer agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shubhanjali Shukla; Radhey Shyam Srivastava; Sushant Kumar Shrivastava; Ajit Sodhi; Pankaj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In an effort to etablish new candidates with improved antineoplastic activity, 4-cycloalkylidineamino 1,2-naphthoquinone semicarbazones were synthesized, characterized and evaluated for anticancer activity. Method: The desired compounds were synthesized by condensation of 4- amino1, 2-naphthoquinone with cyclic ketones and further subsequent reaction of this product with semicarbazide hydrochloride. Compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis and screened for antiproliferative activity against three human cancer cell lines (HepG2, MG-63 and MCF-7) by MTT assay using doxorubicin as standard. Docking was performed by using the Glide 5.7 integrated with Maestro 9.2 (Schrödinger, LLC, 2011) to understand the binding preference of synthesized compounds with target enzyme topoisomerase-II. Results: 4-(cyclohexylideneamino) [1, 2] naphthoquinone 2-semicarbazone was found to be most active cytotoxic agent against all cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 5.58–6.31 µM. Results of molecular docking were also well correlated in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Insilico ADME studies revealed the drug likeliness of compounds. Conclusions: The synthesized compounds were found to have significant anticancer activity and able to enter in higher phases of the drug development process due to favorable pharmacokinetic properties.

  19. Dermal and transdermal delivery of an anti-psoriatic agent via ethanolic liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Vaibhav; Mishra, Dinesh; Dutta, Tathagata; Nahar, Manoj; Saraf, D K; Jain, N K

    2007-11-06

    The aim of the current investigation is to evaluate the transdermal potential of novel vesicular carrier, ethosomes, bearing methotrexate (MTX), an anti-psoriatic, anti-neoplastic, highly hydrosoluble agent having limited transdermal permeation. MTX loaded ethosomes were prepared, optimized and characterized for vesicular shape and surface morphology, vesicular size, entrapment efficiency, stability, in vitro human skin permeation and vesicle-skin interaction. The formulation (EE(9)) having 3% phospholipid content and 45% ethanol showing the greatest entrapment (68.71+/-1.4%) and optimal nanometric size range (143+/-16 nm) was selected for further transdermal permeation studies. Stability profile of prepared system assessed for 120 days revealed very low aggregation and growth in vesicular size (8.8+/-1.2%). MTX loaded ethosomal carriers also provided an enhanced transdermal flux of 57.2+/-4.34 microg/cm(2)/h and decreased lag time of 0.9 h across human cadaver skin. Skin permeation profile of the developed formulation further assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed an enhanced permeation of Rhodamine Red (RR) loaded formulations to the deeper layers of the skin (170 microm). Also, the formulation retained its penetration power after storage. Vesicle skin interaction study also highlighted the penetration enhancing effect of ethosomes with some visual penetration pathways and corneocytes swelling, a measure of retentive nature of formulation. Our results suggests that ethosomes are an efficient carrier for dermal and transdermal delivery of MTX.

  20. The methylating agent streptozotocin induces persistent telomere dysfunction in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paviolo, Natalia S; Santiñaque, Federico F; Castrogiovanni, Daniel C; Folle, Gustavo A; Bolzán, Alejandro D

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed chromosomal aberrations involving telomeres in the progeny of mammalian cells exposed to the methylating agent and antineoplastic/diabetogenic drug streptozotocin (STZ), to test whether it induces long-term telomere instability (by chromosome end loss and/or telomere dysfunction). Rat cells (ADIPO-P2 cell line, derived from Sprague-Dawley rat adipose cells) were treated with a single concentration of STZ (2mM). Chromosomal aberrations were analyzed 18h, 10 days, and 15 days after treatment, using PNA-FISH with a pan-telomeric probe [Cy3-(CCCTAA)3] to detect (TTAGGG)n repeats. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a higher frequency of chromosomal aberrations in STZ-exposed cultures vs. untreated cultures at each time point analyzed. The yield of induced aberrations was very similar at each time point. Induction of aberrations not involving telomere dysfunction was only observed 18h and 15 days after treatment, whereas induction of telomere dysfunction-related aberrations by STZ (mainly in the form of telomere FISH signal loss and duplications, most of them chromatid-type aberrations) was observed at each time point. Our results show that STZ induces persistent telomere instability in mammalian cells, cytogenetically manifested as telomere dysfunction-related chromosomal aberrations. Neither telomere length nor telomerase activity is related to the telomere dysfunction.

  1. Agents Play Mix-game

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, C

    2005-01-01

    In mix-game which is an extension of minority game, there are two groups of agents; group1 plays the majority game, but the group2 plays the minority game. This paper studies the change of the average winnings of agents and volatilities vs. the change of mixture of agents in mix-game model. It finds that the correlations between the average winnings of agents and the mean of local volatilities are different with different combinations of agent memory length when the proportion of agents in group 1 increases. This study result suggests that memory length of agents in group1 be smaller than that of agent in group2 when mix-game model is used to simulate the financial markets.

  2. The search for novel anticancer agents: a differentiation-based assay and analysis of a folklore product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnen, R D; Ebisuzaki, K

    1997-01-01

    One alternative approach to the current use of cytotoxic anticancer drugs involves the use of differentiation-inducing agents. However, a wider application of this strategy would require the development of assays to search for new differentiation-inducing agents. In this report we describe an in vitro assay using the murine erythroleukemia (clone 3-1) cells. Tests for the efficacy of this assay for the analysis of antineoplastic activity in natural products led to studies on pau d'arco, a South American folklore product used in the treatment of cancer. Purification of the activity in aqueous extracts by solvent partition and thin layer chromatography (TLC) indicated the presence of two activities, one of which was identified as lapachol. The activity in the pau d'arco extracts and of lapachol was inhibited by vitamin K1. As a vitamin K antagonist, lapachol might target such vitamin K-dependent reactions as the activation of a ligand for the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase.

  3. Synthesis, evaluation and QSAR studies of 16-(4 & 3,4-substituted) benzylidene androstene derivatives as anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, S; Kaur, P; Jindal, D P; Satyanarayan, Y D; Piplani, P

    2008-05-01

    In a systematic effort aimed at identifying new steroidal cytotoxic agents with potent antipoliferative activity against cancer cells and developing their QSAR models, series of 4-nitro, 4-isopropyl, 4-methoxy and 3,4-dimethoxy substituted benzylidene androst-5-ene derivatives were synthesized. The selected compounds were evaluated for antineoplastic activity against a panel of three human cell lines-breast, CNS and lungs at NCI, Bethesda, USA. The results presented herein reports that compounds 7, 9, 10, 15,16, 18, 20-25, 30, 32-36 and 44 have been found to be active anticancer agents. The QSAR of 20 compounds was performed separately for each cell line and best-fit QSAR models are developed. The QSAR models obtained have shown significant correlations (r(2) range: 0.9163 to 0.8164) and good predictive performance (q(2) range: 0.8499- 0.6320). The validation of models has also been performed using the test set of compounds 5, 15 and 44.

  4. Cultural Differentiation of Negotiating Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2012-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  5. Cultural differentiation of negotiating agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2010-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  6. Product and Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will explore how the “mathematics teacher” becomes a subject and, at the same time, is subjected as part of diverse dispositive of power. We argue that the mathematics teacher becomes both a product and a social agent, which has been set, within current societies, from the ideas...... of globalization, social progress, and competitive logic. For our approximation, we use the concepts societies of control, dispositive, and discourses from a Foucault–Deleuze toolbox. Our purpose is to cast light on the social and cultural constitution of the ways of thinking about the mathematics teacher. Hence...

  7. Secure Mobile Trade Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah M. Aqe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce on the internet has the ability to produce millions of transactions and a great number of merchants whose supply merchandise over the internet. As a result, it is difficult for entities to roam over every site on the internet and choose the best merchandise to trade. So, in this paper we introduced a mobile trade agent that visit the sites to gather and evaluate the information from merchant servers and decide to trade goods on behalf of the user. We observed that the combination of public key cryptosystem with distributed object technology make this proposed scheme more secure and efficient than the already existed schemes.

  8. Agentes selladores en endodoncia

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Recibido: Noviembre 2002 Aceptado: Enero 2003 La gutapercha sigue siendo uno de los materiales predilectos, pero debido a su falta de adhesión a las paredes dentinarias, debe estar siempre combinada con un sellador que actúe como interfase entre la masa de gutapercha y la estructura dentaria. El uso de un agente sellador para obturar los conductos radiculares es esencial para el éxito del proceso de obturación. Un buen sellador debe ser biocompatible y bien tolerado por los tejid...

  9. Agentes de información Information Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso López Yepes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo realiza un repaso sobre las tipologías de agentes de información y describe aspectos como movilidad, racionalidad y adaptatividad, y el ajuste final de estos conceptos a entornos distribuidos como Internet, donde este tipo de agentes tienen un amplio grado de aplicación. Asimismo, se propone una arquitectura de agentes para un sistema multiagente de recuperación de información donde se aplica un paradigma documental basado en el concepto de ciclo documental.This article summarizes the main information agent types reflecting on issues such as mobility, rationality, adaptability and the final adjustment of this concepts to distributed environments such as the Internet, where this kind of agents has wide range application. Likewise, an information agent architecture is proposed to create a multi-agent information retrieval system in which a documentary paradigm based on the documentary cycle is developed.

  10. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  11. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A.M. F.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  12. Agent-oriented Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xu; CHENG Ming; LIU Bao

    2001-01-01

    An increasing number of computer systems are being viewed in terms of autonomous agents.Most people believe that agent-oriented approach is well suited to design and build complex systems. Yet. todate, little effort had been devoted to discuss the advantages of agent-oriented approach as a mainstreamsoftware engineering paradigm. Here both of this issues and the relation between object-oriented and agent-oriented will be argued. we describe an agent-oriented methodology and provide a quote for designing anauction system.

  13. Drug: D00961 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tate cancer Enzyme: CYP3A4 [HSA:1576] map07043 Antineoplastics - hormones map0722...BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 429 Miscellaneous 4291 Other Antitumors ...lassification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics Antiandrogens Bicalutamide D00961 Bica...lutamide (JAN/USP/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Hormones and hormone antagonist Androgen antagonist Bica

  14. Drug: D00161 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available B02 Genomic biomarker: TPMT [HSA:7172] map07041 Antineoplastics - antimetabolic agents map07046 Immunosuppre...ng cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 422 Antimetabolites 4221 Mercaptopurines D00161 Mercaptopurine hydra...P drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics Antimetabolites Mercaptopurine D00161 Mercaptopurine hydr...ptopurine D00161 Mercaptopurine hydrate (JP16); Mercaptopurine (USP) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Antimetabo

  15. Drug: D06320 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 429 Miscellaneous 42...AN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics Antineoplastics, Other Vorinostat D06320 Vorinostat...tone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) [HSA:10013] [KO:K11407] Vorinostat [ATC:L01XX38] D06320 Vorinostat (JAN/USAN) Antineoplastics

  16. Drug: D07966 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available derivative DNA synthesis inhibitor map07041 Antineoplastics - antimetabolic agents Anatomical Therapeutic Ch...abine (INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics Antineoplastics, Other Fludarabine D07966 F...ludarabine (INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Antimetabolites Purine analogues Fl

  17. Drug: D00254 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 254.gif Antineoplastic [DS:H00010 H00042] Same as: C06873 Therapeutic category: 4219 ATC code: L01AD01 map07040 Antineoplastics...ng cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 421 Alkylating agents 4219 Others D00254 ...mustine D00254 Carmustine (JAN/USAN/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Alkylating

  18. Drug: D02908 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ODULATING AGENTS L01 ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01X OTHER ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01XD Sensitizers used in photodynamic/radiation therapy...ydrochloride (JAN/USAN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Miscellaneous agents Sensitizers used in photodynamic/radiation therapy

  19. Drug: D01059 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available de: L01AD06 alkylating agent DNA map07040 Antineoplastics - alkylating agents Therapeutic category of drugs ...in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 421...TING AGENTS L01AD Nitrosoureas L01AD06 Nimustine D01059 Nimustine hydrochloride (JAN) Antineoplastics

  20. Drug: D03958 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03958 Drug Edrecolomab (USAN/INN); Panorex (TN) Monoclonal antibody [antineoplasti...MODULATING AGENTS L01 ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01X OTHER ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01XC Monoclonal...58 Edrecolomab (USAN/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Molecularly targeted agents Monoclonal

  1. Factors that affect cancer patient compliance to oral anti-neoplastic therapy Factores que influyen en la adhesión de pacientes con cáncer a la terapia antineoplásica oral Fatores que influenciam a adesão de pacientes com câncer à terapia antineoplásica oral

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Andréa Crippa Marques; Angela Maria Geraldo Pierin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify factors that can affect compliance to treatment with neoplastic oral drugs in a group of cancer patients. METHODS: Interviews were performed on 61 patients diagnosed with cancer and under anti-neoplastic oral therapy in a private hospital. The interviews were carried out using instruments to assess compliance. RESULTS: Most patients (95%) reported the oral treatment was not difficult. The Morisky and Green Test were positive in 28% of the patients. Factors that may aff...

  2. MORBIDITY AGENTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Neelesh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss on clinical representation of morbid jealousy which often termed delusional jealousy or ‘Othello Syndrome’ is a psychiatric condition where a lover believes against all reason and their beloved is being sexually unfaithful. Patients will be preoccupied with their partner’s perceived lack of sexual fidelity and will often behave in an unacceptable or extreme way as they endeavor to prove their ideas. Misuse of any psychomotor is an important association cause morbidity jealousy agents, like CNS stimulants that release the catecholamine, particularly dopamine, from pre synaptic terminals substance should be treated as a priority. Where higher levels of violence are reported Sildenafil may be useful as a diagnostic as well as therapeutic test in such cases .Many studies have shown an association between high alcohol consumption and developing morbid jealousy. Amphetamine-induced psychosis has been extensively studied because of its close resemblance to schizophrenia.

  3. UTBot: A Virtual Agent Platform for Teaching Agent System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Cheol Kim

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce UTBot, a virtual agent platform for teaching agent system design. UTBot implements a client for the Unreal Tournament game server and Gamebots system. It provides students with the basic functionality required to start developing their own intelligent virtual agents to play autonomously UT games. UTBot includes a generic agent architecture, CAA (Context-sensitive Agent Architecture, a domain-specific world model, a visualization tool, several basic strategies (represented by internal modes and internal behaviors, and skills (represented by external behaviors. The CAA architecture can support complex long-term behaviors as well as reactive short-term behaviors. It also realizes high context-sensitivity of behaviors. We also discuss our experience using UTBot as a pedagogical tool for teaching agent system design in undergraduate Artificial Intelligence course.

  4. A study of Nigella sativa induced growth inhibition of MCF and HepG2 cell lines: An anti-neoplastic study along with its mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Padmanabha Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anticancer potential of seeds of Nigella sativa using MCF and HepG2 cell lines along with its mechanism of action. Materials and Methods: (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide nuclear staining technique were selected to evaluate anticancer potential and mechanism of action of test extract. Results: Aqueous extract of N.sativa at a test dose of 180 mg and 300 mg was identified to be the best as anticancer agent against MCF and HepG2 cell lines among different solvent test extract where doxorubicin and cisplatin were employed as standard references. Discussion: Further study including separation and characterization of active principles in the aqueous extract shall prove beneficial.

  5. Chemical biology drug sensitivity screen identifies sunitinib as synergistic agent with disulfiram in prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Ketola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current treatment options for castration- and treatment-resistant prostate cancer are limited and novel approaches are desperately needed. Our recent results from a systematic chemical biology sensitivity screen covering most known drugs and drug-like molecules indicated that aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor disulfiram is one of the most potent cancer-specific inhibitors of prostate cancer cell growth, including TMPRSS2-ERG fusion positive cancers. However, the results revealed that disulfiram alone does not block tumor growth in vivo nor induce apoptosis in vitro, indicating that combinatorial approaches may be required to enhance the anti-neoplastic effects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, we utilized a chemical biology drug sensitivity screen to explore disulfiram mechanistic details and to identify compounds potentiating the effect of disulfiram in TMPRSS2-ERG fusion positive prostate cancer cells. In total, 3357 compounds including current chemotherapeutic agents as well as drug-like small molecular compounds were screened alone and in combination with disulfiram. Interestingly, the results indicated that androgenic and antioxidative compounds antagonized disulfiram effect whereas inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinase, proteasome, topoisomerase II, glucosylceramide synthase or cell cycle were among compounds sensitizing prostate cancer cells to disulfiram. The combination of disulfiram and an antiangiogenic agent sunitinib was studied in more detail, since both are already in clinical use in humans. Disulfiram-sunitinib combination induced apoptosis and reduced androgen receptor protein expression more than either of the compounds alone. Moreover, combinatorial exposure reduced metastatic characteristics such as cell migration and 3D cell invasion as well as induced epithelial differentiation shown as elevated E-cadherin expression. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results propose novel combinatorial approaches to inhibit

  6. Chemical Biology Drug Sensitivity Screen Identifies Sunitinib as Synergistic Agent with Disulfiram in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketola, Kirsi; Kallioniemi, Olli; Iljin, Kristiina

    2012-01-01

    Background Current treatment options for castration- and treatment-resistant prostate cancer are limited and novel approaches are desperately needed. Our recent results from a systematic chemical biology sensitivity screen covering most known drugs and drug-like molecules indicated that aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor disulfiram is one of the most potent cancer-specific inhibitors of prostate cancer cell growth, including TMPRSS2-ERG fusion positive cancers. However, the results revealed that disulfiram alone does not block tumor growth in vivo nor induce apoptosis in vitro, indicating that combinatorial approaches may be required to enhance the anti-neoplastic effects. Methods and Findings In this study, we utilized a chemical biology drug sensitivity screen to explore disulfiram mechanistic details and to identify compounds potentiating the effect of disulfiram in TMPRSS2-ERG fusion positive prostate cancer cells. In total, 3357 compounds including current chemotherapeutic agents as well as drug-like small molecular compounds were screened alone and in combination with disulfiram. Interestingly, the results indicated that androgenic and antioxidative compounds antagonized disulfiram effect whereas inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinase, proteasome, topoisomerase II, glucosylceramide synthase or cell cycle were among compounds sensitizing prostate cancer cells to disulfiram. The combination of disulfiram and an antiangiogenic agent sunitinib was studied in more detail, since both are already in clinical use in humans. Disulfiram-sunitinib combination induced apoptosis and reduced androgen receptor protein expression more than either of the compounds alone. Moreover, combinatorial exposure reduced metastatic characteristics such as cell migration and 3D cell invasion as well as induced epithelial differentiation shown as elevated E-cadherin expression. Conclusions Taken together, our results propose novel combinatorial approaches to inhibit prostate cancer cell

  7. Melasma treatment: A novel approach using a topical agent that contains an anti-estrogen and a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-04-01

    Melasma is an acquired disorder of pigmentation that presents with asymptomatic symmetric darkening of the face. The pathogenesis of this condition is multifactorial and influenced by several factors including female sex hormones, genetic predisposition and ultraviolet light exposure. The management of melasma is usually directed at more than one of the causative etiologic factors and often incorporates a combination of topical agents, with or without the addition of physical modalities. Estrogen and angiogenesis are significant factors in the etiology of melasma. A useful addition to the therapeutic armentarium for treating melasma would include a topical agent that could effect both of these causative factors. Specifically, a topical preparation consisting of an anti-estrogen and a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor would accomplish this goal. Suitable candidates that target estrogen receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor are currently used in medical oncology as systemic antineoplastic agents. The anti-estrogen could be either a selective estrogen receptor modulator (such as tamoxifen or raloxifene) or an aromatase inhibitor (such as anastrozole or letrozole or exemestane). The vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor would be bevacizumab. In conclusion, a novel-topically administered-therapy for melasma would combine an anti-estrogen and a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor.

  8. Drug: D09755 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NT ALKALOIDS AND OTHER NATURAL PRODUCTS L01CD Taxanes L01CD04 Cabazitaxel D09755 ... classification [BR:br08303] L ANTINEOPLASTIC AND IMMUNOMODULATING AGENTS L01 ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01C PLA

  9. Drug: D06199 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NT ALKALOIDS AND OTHER NATURAL PRODUCTS L01CX Other plant alkaloids and natural p... classification [BR:br08303] L ANTINEOPLASTIC AND IMMUNOMODULATING AGENTS L01 ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01C PLA

  10. Drug: D03046 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available STIC AND IMMUNOMODULATING AGENTS L01 ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01B ANTIMETABOLITES L01BC Pyrimidine analogue...46 Cytarabine ocfosphate hydrate (JAN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Antimetabolites Pyrimidine analogue

  11. Drug: D01416 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Therapeutic category: 4291 map07040 Antineoplastics - alkylating agents Therapeutic category of drugs in Ja...pan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 429 Misc

  12. Drug: D07085 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 421 Alkylating ... hydrochloride (JAN/USAN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Alkylating agents Nitrogen mustard analogues Bendamus

  13. 针灸改善癌症患者抗肿瘤治疗副反应的研究进展%Acupuncture and Moxibustion in the Treatment of Side Reactions Induced by Antineoplastic Therapy among Patients with Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志丹; 曹妮达; 慕晓艳; 裴建

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes a review of related clinical researches published in recent 20 years, lists out the application of acupuncture and moxibustion therapies used for treating the antineoplastic therapy induced side reactions including nausea and vomiting, sickness, pain, fatigue, xerostomia, hot flash, hiccup, etc. The paper Maaes comments on latest impact clinical researches and argues that application of acupuncture and moxibustion should be paid much attention to the multimodali'ty treatment of tumor, and methodologic advancements are required in the future clinical researches.%回顾近20余年国内外针灸治疗肿瘤的临床研究文献,总结针灸疗法在减轻放化疗引起的顽固性呃逆、恶心呕吐、疲劳、口干、潮热等方面的临床疗效;述评此间的主要临床试验;提出针灸在肿瘤临床综合治疗中存在潜力,呼吁继续深入研究和大力临床推广.

  14. Agent-based enterprise integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  15. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  16. Agent 与Multi-Agent System 技术研究%The Research on Agent and Multi-Agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党建武; 韩泉叶; 崔文华

    2002-01-01

    分析了Multi-Agent System 涉及的相关问题,在普通的Multi-Agent System的组织结构的基础上提出了管理服务机构,中介服务机构和主控流动服务机构的Multi-Agent System,并对不同组织结构的Agent之间的协同进行了讨论.

  17. Research on Negotiating Agent Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ding-guo; PENG Hong

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a flexible and effective method of development of negotiating agents.A strategy specification, which is specified by a state chart and defeasible rules, can be dynamically inserted into an agent shell incorporating a state chart interpreter and a defeasible logic inference engine, in order to yield a desirable agent.The set of desirable criteria and rules is required to be justified with different context of the application.

  18. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then propose some basic ideas for developing real-time agent-based software system for business intelligence in supply chain management, using Case Base Reasoning Agents.

  19. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Da eZhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. High throughput screening of molecules, genetic engineering of peptides, and functional screening of agents have identified promising candidates for development of optimal broad-spectrum antiviral agents to intervene in viral infection and control viral epidemics. This review discusses current knowledge, prospective applications, opportunities, and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents.

  20. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  1. Deliberate evolution in multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for an agent capable of deliberation about the creation of new agents, and of actually creating a new agent in the multi-agent system, on the basis of this deliberation. After its creation the new agent participates fully in the running multi-agent system. The age

  2. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  3. Drug: D09217 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09217 Drug Sitimagene ceradenovec (INN) gene-based drug [DS:H00042] ATC code: L01X...GENTS L01X OTHER ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01XX Other antineoplastic agents L01XX37 Sitimagene ceradenovec D09217 Sitimage...ne ceradenovec (INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Miscellaneous agents Other antineoplastic agents Sitimage...ne ceradenovec [ATC:L01XX37] D09217 Sitimagene ceradenovec (INN) CAS: 898830-54-1 PubChem: 96025897 ...

  4. Drug: D00287 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ], CYP2C8 [HSA:1558], CYP2C9 [HSA:1559], CYP3A4 [HSA:1576] map07040 Antineoplastics - alkylating agents map0...nts Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics...sification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics Alkylating Agents Cyclophosphamide D00287 Cyclophosphamide hydrate (...JP16); Cyclophosphamide (USP) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Alkylating agents Nitr

  5. Drug: D00583 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CYP inhibition: CYP2B6 [HSA:1555] map07040 Antineoplastics - alkylating agents Anatomical Therapeutic Chemi...S L01 ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01A ALKYLATING AGENTS L01AC Ethylene imines L01AC01 Thiotepa D00583 Thiotepa (JP16/USP/INN) Antineoplast...ics [BR:br08308] Alkylating agents Ethylene imines Thiotepa [ATC:L01AC01] D00583 Th

  6. Implementing Lego Agents Using Jason

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    Since many of the currently available multi-agent frameworks are generally mostly intended for research, it can be difficult to built multi-agent systems using physical robots. In this report I describe a way to combine the multi-agent framework Jason, an extended version of the agent-oriented programming language AgentSpeak, with Lego robots to address this problem. By extending parts of the Jason reasoning cycle I show how Lego robots are able to complete tasks such as following lines on a floor and communicating to be able to avoid obstacles with minimal amount of coding. The final implementation is a functional extension that is able to built multi-agent systems using Lego agents, however there are some issues that have not been addressed. If the agents are highly dependent on percepts from their sensors, they are required to move quite slowly, because there currently is a high delay in the reasoning cycle, when it is combined with a robot. Overall the system is quite robust and can be used to make simple...

  7. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  8. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reductio...

  9. Activity Recognition for Agent Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    seek to use in the upcoming confrontation. There is not a simple mapping between a character capabilities and this policy; an effective team role must...additional research challenges, specific to the team role assumed by the agent. Agents that support individual human team members face the following chal

  10. Drug: D00288 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C06936 Therapeutic category: 4219 ATC code: L01AX04 map07040 Antineoplastics - alkylating agents Therapeutic... category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics...88 Dacarbazine (JAN/USP/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Alkylating agents Triazene Dacarbazine [ATC:L01AX0

  11. Drug: D01363 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tic category: 4291 ATC code: L01XA02 map07040 Antineoplastics - alkylating agents Therapeutic category of dr...ugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics...Carboplatin (JAN/USP/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Alkylating agents Platinum compounds Carboplatin [ATC

  12. Drug: D06067 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 00042] Therapeutic category: 4219 ATC code: L01AX03 map07040 Antineoplastics - alkylating agents Therapeutic... category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics...06067 Temozolomide (JAN/USAN/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Alkylating agents Triazene Temozolomide [ATC:

  13. Drug: D01760 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available soureas DNA map07040 Antineoplastics - alkylating agents Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301]... 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 421 Alkylating agents 42...s L01AD07 Ranimustine D01760 Ranimustine (JAN/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] A

  14. Drug: D02714 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 [HSA:2064], ESR [HSA:2099 2100] map07042 Antineoplastics - agents from natural products map07045 Antineoplastics...cting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 429 Miscellaneous 4291 Other Antitumors D02714 Everolimus (JAN/US...classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics Molecular Target Inhibitors Everolimu...] Everolimus [ATC:L01XE10 L04AA18] D02714 Everolimus (JAN/USAN/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Molecularly

  15. Drug: D01907 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s inhibitor purine analogue arabinofuranosyl derivative prodrug, active substance: Fludarabine [DR:D07966] map07041 Antineoplastics...tic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 422 Anti.../USP) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics Antineoplastics, Other Fludarabine D01907 Fludara...bine phosphate (JAN/USP) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Antimetabolites Purine anal

  16. Mobile agent driven by aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Hannad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Domain application of mobile agents is quite large. They are used for network management and the monitoring of complex architecture. Mobile agent is also essential into specific software architecture such that adaptable grid architecture. Even if the concept of mobile agent seems to be obvious, the development is always complex because it needs to understand network features but also security features and negotiation algorithms. We present a work about an application of aspects dedicated to mobile agent development over a local network. At this level, the underlying protocol is called jini and allows managing several essential concepts such that short transaction and permission management. Three subsets of aspects are defined in this work. A part is for the description of agent host and its security level, accessible resource, etc. A second part is about mobile agent and their collaboration. This means how they can operate on an agent host with the respect of the execution context. All the results are illustrated through a distributed monitoring application called DMA. Its main objective is the observation of component servers.

  17. Antioxidant agents: a future alternative approach in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced oral mucositis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Cuba, Letícia; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves; Cherubini, Karen; de Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a therapeutic modality frequently employed for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). It destroys tumor cells, but it is not selective, also affecting healthy tissues and producing adverse effects. One that stands out is oral mucositis because of the morbidity that it is capable of causing. This lesion is characterized by the presence of erythema, ulcerations, pain, opportunistic infections, and weight loss. These side effects can lead to serious situations that require the interruption of the antineoplastic treatment and can result in hospitalization and even death. The complex mechanisms linked to the pathogenesis of oral mucositis were recently established, and since then, the control of oxidative stress (OS) has been tied to the prevention and management of this disease. The authors have carried out a review of the literature about the use of antioxidant agents in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced oral mucositis, using the PubMed database. This review has shown that the research on use of antioxidants (AOX) has proved insufficient to justify suggesting the products in treatment protocols. Results are promising, however, and AOX may represent a future alternative in the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis.

  18. Progress in anti-neoplastic effects and mechanisms of dihydroartemisinin%二氢青蒿素抗肿瘤作用及其机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆金健; 黄鸣清; 陈修平; 王一涛

    2012-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinin, an important artemisinin derivative, presents excellent anti-neoplastic potential. This article reviews the latest progress in the anti-cancer activity of dihydroartemisinin and the possible mechanisms including anti-proliferation, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, anti-angiogenesis and anti-metastasis. Iron ( Ⅱ) or heme may be the direct target for dihydroartemisinin. The broad anti-cancer spectrum, the low toxicity to normal cells and the potential of anti-multi-drug resistant cells make it a likely new anti-cancer candidate compound.%二氢青篙素是青蒿素的重要衍生物,具有显著的抗疟作用.对多种肿瘤动物模型具有一定的肿瘤抑制作用,提示其具有抗肿瘤作用.二氢青蒿素的抗肿瘤作用机制可能与抑制肿瘤细胞增殖包括诱导肿瘤细胞周期阻滞和促进肿瘤细胞凋亡、抑制肿瘤新生血管生成以及抗肿瘤细胞侵袭和转移等有关.细胞内亚铁或亚铁血红素可能是二氢青蒿素抗肿瘤作用的直接靶点.由于二氢青蒿素具有广谱抗肿瘤作用、对正常细胞毒性小及对多药耐药细胞有效等优点,因此有可能被开发为新的抗肿瘤药物.

  19. In vitro and in vivo studies of the antineoplastic activity of copper (II) compounds against human leukemia THP-1 and murine melanoma B16-F10 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Layla J H; Bull, Érika S; Fernandes, Christiane; Horn, Adolfo; Azeredo, Nathalia F; Resende, Jackson A L C; Freitas, William R; Carvalho, Eulógio C Q; Lemos, Luciana S; Jerdy, Hassan; Kanashiro, Milton M

    2016-11-10

    We investigated the antineoplastic activities of a previously reported copper (II) coordination compound, [Cu(BMPA)Cl2]CH3OH (1), and a new compound, [Cu(HBPA)Cl2]H2O (2), where BMPA is bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amine and HBPA is (2-hydroxybenzyl)(2-pyridylmethyl)amine, using various cellular models of human leukemia (THP-1, U937, HL60, Molt-4, JURKAT) and human colon cancer (COLO 205), as well as a murine highly metastatic melanoma (B16-F10) cell line. Compound (2) was characterized using several physical and chemical techniques, including X-ray diffraction studies. The IC50 values of the copper coordination complexes in the human leukemia cell lines ranged from 87.63 ± 1.02 to ≥400 μM at high cell concentrations and from 19.17 ± 1.06 to 97.67 ± 1.23 μM at low cell concentrations. Both compounds induced cell death, which was determined by cell cycle analyses and phosphatidylserine exposure studies. THP-1 cells released cytochrome c to the cytoplasm 12 h after treatment with 400 μM of compound (2). To evaluate the apoptosis pathway induced by compound (2), we measured the activities of initiator caspases 8 and 9 and executioner caspases 3 and 6. The results were suggestive of the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. To investigate the activities of the compounds in vivo, we selected two sensitive cell lines from leukemia (THP-1) and solid tumor (B16-F10) lineages. BALB/c nude bearing THP-1 tumors treated with 12 mg·kg(-1) of compound (2) showed a 92.4% inhibition of tumor growth compared with the control group.

  20. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...... evolutionary step for the in-vehicle route planners is the introduction of two-way communication. We presume that the agent is capable of exactly this. Based on this presumption we discuss the possibilities and define a taxonomy and use this to discuss the ABIT system. Based on a set of scenarios we conclude...

  1. Agent Based Multiviews Requirements Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the current researches of viewpoints oriented requirements engineering and intelligent agent, we present the concept of viewpoint agent and its abstract model based on a meta-language for multiviews requirements engineering. It provided a basis for consistency checking and integration of different viewpoint requirements, at the same time, these checking and integration works can automatically realized in virtue of intelligent agent's autonomy, proactiveness and social ability. Finally, we introduce the practical application of the model by the case study of data flow diagram.

  2. Antibacterial agents in the cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Sánchez, J E; García Sánchez, E; Merino Marcos, M L

    2006-12-01

    Numerous procedures used as antibacterial therapy are present in many films and include strategies ranging from different antimicrobial drugs to surgery and supporting measures. Films also explore the correct use and misuse of antimicrobial agents. Side effects and other aspects related to antibacterial therapy have also been reflected in some films. This article refers to the presence of antibacterial agents in different popular movies. There are movies in which antibacterial agents form part of the central plot, while in others it is merely an important part of the plot. In still others, its presence is isolated, and in these it plays an ambient or anecdotal role.

  3. Deliberate Evolution in Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for an agent capable of deliberation about the creation of new agents, and of actually creating a new agent in the multi-agent system, on the basis of this deliberation. The agent architecture is based on an existing

  4. Anti-Clotting Agents Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or may require special dosage adjustments. Anticoagulants While antiplatelets keep clots from forming by inhibiting the production of thromboxane, anticoagulants target clotting factors, which are other agents that are crucial to the blood-clotting process. ...

  5. Computational Environment of Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tomášek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Presented process calculus for software agent communication and mobility canbe used to express distributed computational environment and mobile code applications ingeneral. Agents are abstraction of the functional part of the system architecture and theyare modeled as process terms. Agent actions model interactions within the distributedenvironment: local/remote communication and mobility. Places are abstraction of thesingle computational environment where the agents are evaluated and where interactionstake place. Distributed environment is modeled as a parallel composition of places whereeach place is evolving asynchronously. Operational semantics defines rules to describebehavior within the distributed environment and provides a guideline for implementations.Via a series of examples we show that mobile code applications can be naturally modeled.

  6. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. A current state of the art of research in embodied conversational agents, affective computing and verbal and nonverbal interaction is presented. The report ad...

  7. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future.

  8. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA; Razvan BOLOGA

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then...

  9. Natural products as antimitotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Natural products still play an important role in the medicinal chemistry, especially in some therapeutic areas. As example more than 60% of currently-used anticancer agents are derives from natural sources including plants, marine organisms or micro-organism. Thus natural products (NP) are an high-impact source of new "lead compounds" or new potential therapeutic agents despite the large development of biotechnology and combinatorial chemistry in the drug discovery and development. Many examples of anticancer drugs as paclitaxel, combretastatin, bryostatin and discodermolide have shown the importance of NP in the anticancer chemotherapy through many years. Many organisms have been studied as sources of drugs namely plants, micro-organisms and marine organisms and the obtained NP can be considered a group of "privileged chemical structures" evolved in nature to interact with other organisms. For this reason NP are a good starting points for pharmaceutical research and also for library design. Tubulin and microtubules are one of the most studied targets for the search of anticancer compounds. Microtubule targeting agents (MTA) also named antimitotic agents are compounds that are able to perturb mitosis but are also able to arrest cell growing during interphase. The anticancer drugs, taxanes and vinca alkaloids have established tubulin as important target in cancer therapy. More recently the vascular disrupting agents (VDA) combretastatin analogues were studied for their antimitotics properties. This review will consider the anti mitotic NP and their potential impact in the development of new therapeutic agents.

  10. What makes virtual agents believable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  11. Drug: D00208 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available utic category: 4231 ATC code: L01DC03 Natural product DNA synthesis inhibitor map07040 Antineoplastics... - alkylating agents map07042 Antineoplastics - agents from natural products Therapeuti...c category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 423 Antibi...ation of drugs [BR:br08310] Others Nucleic acid DNA synthesis Mitomycin [ATC:L01DC03] D00208 Mitomycin (USP/INN) Antineoplastics

  12. Bacterial biosynthesis and maturation of the didemnin anti-cancer agents

    KAUST Repository

    Xü, Ying

    2012-05-23

    The anti-neoplastic agent didemnin B from the Caribbean tunicate Trididemnum solidum was the first marine drug to be clinically tested in humans. Because of its limited supply and its complex cyclic depsipeptide structure, considerable challenges were encountered during didemnin B\\'s development that continue to limit aplidine (dehydrodidemnin B), which is currently being evaluated in numerous clinical trials. Herein we show that the didemnins are bacterial products produced by the marine α-proteobacteria Tistrella mobilis and Tistrella bauzanensis via a unique post-assembly line maturation process. Complete genome sequence analysis of the 6,513,401 bp T. mobilis strain KA081020-065 with its five circular replicons revealed the putative didemnin biosynthetic gene cluster (did) on the 1,126,962 bp megaplasmid pTM3. The did locus encodes a 13-module hybrid non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-polyketide synthase enzyme complex organized in a collinear arrangement for the synthesis of the fatty acylglutamine ester derivatives didemnins X and Y rather than didemnin B as first anticipated. Imaging mass spectrometry of T. mobilis bacterial colonies captured the time-dependent extracellular conversion of the didemnin X and Y precursors to didemnin B, in support of an unusual post-synthetase activation mechanism. Significantly, the discovery of the didemnin biosynthetic gene cluster may provide a long-term solution to the supply problem that presently hinders this group of marine natural products and pave the way for the genetic engineering of new didemnin congeners. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. Geo-Agents: Design and Implement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Geo-Agents, a multi-agent system that processes distr ib utedgeospatial information and geospatial service was presented. Firstly, the requirement for distributed geographical information process was discussed, and the architecture of Geo-Agents was introduced. Then in-depth discussions were r aised on agent system implementation, such as the basic agent, agent advertising , message passing, and collaborating. An example was also given to explain the p roblem solving process.

  14. Colitis associated with biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2012-01-01

    In the past,there has been considerable focus on a host of drugs and chemicals that may produce colonic toxicity.Now,a variety of new biological monoclonal antibody agents,usually administered by infusion,have appeared in the clinical realm over the last decade or so to treat different chronic inflammatory or malignant disorders.For some of these agents,adverse effects have been documented,including apparently new forms of immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease.In some,only limited symptoms have been recorded,but in others,severe colitis with serious complications,such as bowel perforation has been recorded.In others,adverse effects may have a direct vascular or ischemic basis,while other intestinal effects may be related to a superimposed infection.Some new onset cases of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease may also be attributed to the same agents used to treat these diseases,or be responsible for disease exacerbation.Dramatic and well documented side effects have been observed with ipilimumab,a humanized monoclonal antibody developed to reduce and overcome cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4,a key negative feedback regulator of the T-cell anti-tumor response.This agent has frequently been used in the treatment of different malignancies,notably,malignant melanoma.Side effects with this agent occur in up to 40% and these are believed to be largely immune-mediated.One of these is a form of enterocolitis that may be severe,and occasionally,fatal.Other agents include rituximab (an antiCD20 monoclonal antibody),bevacizumab (a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor) and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents,including infliximab,adalimumab and etanercept.

  15. A multi-agent architecture for geosimulation of moving agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Mohammad H.; Alesheikh, Ali A.; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a novel architecture is proposed in which an axiomatic derivation system in the form of first-order logic facilitates declarative explanation and spatial reasoning. Simulation of environmental perception and interaction between autonomous agents is designed with a geographic belief-desire-intention and a request-inform-query model. The architecture has a complementary quantitative component that supports collaborative planning based on the concept of equilibrium and game theory. This new architecture presents a departure from current best practices geographic agent-based modelling. Implementation tasks are discussed in some detail, as well as scenarios for fleet management and disaster management.

  16. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may present with extrapyramidal symptoms and changes in basal ganglia. These changes are similar to those seen in patients with Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agents (such as bromocriptine and levodopa, used for patients with Parkinson's disease) have...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...... of the trials followed participants after the end of treatment. Only one trial reported adequate bias control; the remaining four trials were considered to have high risk of bias. Random-effects model meta-analyses showed that dopamine agents had no beneficial or detrimental effect on hepatic encephalopathy...

  17. Dual Rationality and Deliberative Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    Human agents deliberate using models based on reason for only a minute proportion of the decisions that they make. In stark contrast, the deliberation of artificial agents is heavily dominated by formal models based on reason such as game theory, decision theory and logic—despite that fact that formal reasoning will not necessarily lead to superior real-world decisions. Further the Nobel Laureate Friedrich Hayek warns us of the ‘fatal conceit’ in controlling deliberative systems using models based on reason as the particular model chosen will then shape the system’s future and either impede, or eventually destroy, the subtle evolutionary processes that are an integral part of human systems and institutions, and are crucial to their evolution and long-term survival. We describe an architecture for artificial agents that is founded on Hayek’s two rationalities and supports the two forms of deliberation used by mankind.

  18. Relational agents in clinical psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Timothy; Gruber, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Relational agents are computational artifacts, such as animated, screen-based characters or social robots, that are designed to establish a sense of rapport, trust, and even therapeutic alliance with patients, using ideal therapeutic relationships between human counselors and patients as role models. We describe the development and evaluation of several such agents designed for health counseling and behavioral-change interventions, in which a therapeutic alliance is established with patients in order to enhance the efficacy of the intervention. We also discuss the promise of using such agents as adjuncts to clinical psychiatry, a range of possible applications, and some of the challenges and ethical issues in developing and fielding them in psychiatric interventions.

  19. [Anti-influenza virus agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigeki; Kohno, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    The necessity of newly anti-influenza agents is increasing rapidly after the prevalence of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009. In addition to the existing anti-influenza drugs, novel neuraminidase inhibitors such as peramivir (a first intravenous anti-influenza agent) and laninamivir (long acting inhaled anti-influenza agent) can be available. Moreover favipiravir, which shows a novel anti-influenza mechanism acting as RNA polymerase inhibitor, has been developing. These drugs are expected to improve the prognosis of severe cases caused by not only seasonal influenza but pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus and H5N1 avian influenza, and also treat oseltamivir-resistant influenza effectively.

  20. Agent review phase one report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubelewicz, Alex Tadeusz; Davis, Christopher Edward; Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings for phase one of the agent review and discusses the review methods and results. The phase one review identified a short list of agent systems that would prove most useful in the service architecture of an information management, analysis, and retrieval system. Reviewers evaluated open-source and commercial multi-agent systems and scored them based upon viability, uniqueness, ease of development, ease of deployment, and ease of integration with other products. Based on these criteria, reviewers identified the ten most appropriate systems. The report also mentions several systems that reviewers deemed noteworthy for the ideas they implement, even if those systems are not the best choices for information management purposes.

  1. Vitamina D y cáncer: acción antineoplásica de la 1α, 25(OH2 -vitamina D3 Vitamin D and cancer: antineoplastic effects of 1α,25(OH2-vitamin D3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica González Pardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La forma hormonalmente activa de la vitamina D, 1α,25(OH2-vitamina D3 (1α,25(OH2D3, además de desempeñar un rol crucial en el mantenimiento de la homeostasis de calcio en el cuerpo, también regula el crecimiento y la diferenciación de diferentes tipos celulares, incluyendo células cancerosas. Actualmente hay numerosos estudios que investigan los efectos de la hormona en estas células, debido al interés en el uso terapéutico del 1α,25(OH2D3 y de análogos con menor actividad calcémica para el tratamiento o prevención del cáncer. En este trabajo de revisión se describe el sistema endocrino de la vitamina D, su mecanismo de acción, su acción antineoplásica y se provee información sobre los últimos avances en el estudio de nuevos análogos de la hormona con menos actividad calcémica para el tratamiento del cáncer.The hormonal form of vitamin D, 1α,25(OH2-vitamin D3 (1α,25(OH2D3, in addition of playing a central role in the control of calcium homeostasis in the body, regulates the growth and differentiation of different cell types, including cancer cells. At present several epidemiologic and clinical studies investigate the effect of the hormone in these cells due to the interest in the therapeutic use of 1α,25(OH2D3 and analogues with less calcemic activity for prevention or treatment of cancer. This review describes vitamin D endocrine system, its mechanism of action, its antineoplastic activity and provides information about the latest advances in the study of new hormone analogues with less calcemic activity for cancer treatment.

  2. Agent communication and artificial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fornara, Nicoletta; Viganò, Francesco; Colombetti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose an application-independent model for the definition of artificial institutions that can be used to define open multi-agent systems. Such a model of institutional reality makes us able also to define an objective and external semantics of a commitment-based Agent Communication Language (ACL). In particular we propose to regard an ACL as a set of conventions to act on a fragment of institutional reality, defined in the context of an artificial institution. Another c...

  3. Agentes infecciosos y enfermedades autoinmunes

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Riebeling; Vicente Madrid; Beatriz Elena Camarena; Oscar Peralta; Raúl Barrera

    1992-01-01

    En este trabajo se describen los aspectos molecidares de la relación entre agentes infecciosos y enfermedades autoinrnitnes; los mecanismos de respuesta inmune a los agentes infecciosos, y las Iiiyótesis más recientes de la causa de las enfermedades autoinmunes. Los antígenos son procesados y seleccionados por su inmitnogenicidad, ypresentadospor lasmolécitlasde HLA a los receptores de antígeno de los linfocitos T. Aunque existen rnuclias hipótesk sobre el origen de las enfermedades arrtoinmu...

  4. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  5. Drug: D08679 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gif Catharanthus roseus (Vinca rosea) [TAX:4058] Antineoplastic, antimitotic Same as: C07204 ATC code: L01CA02 Vinca alkaloid...aloids and analogues L01CA02 Vincristine D08679 Vincristine (INN) Target-based clas... ANTINEOPLASTIC AND IMMUNOMODULATING AGENTS L01 ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01C PLANT ALKALOIDS AND OTHER NATURAL PRODUCTS L01CA Vinca alk

  6. Drug: D03665 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gif Antineoplastic ATC code: L01BC08 Cytidine [CPD:C00475] analogue DNA methyltransferase inhibitor [HSA:178...INEOPLASTIC AND IMMUNOMODULATING AGENTS L01 ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01B ANTIMETABOLITES L01BC Pyrimidine analogue...itabine [ATC:L01BC08] D03665 Decitabine (USAN/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Antimetabolites Pyrimidine analogue

  7. Drug: D06503 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available N) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Antimetabolites Folic acid analogues Pemetrexed [...cation [BR:br08303] L ANTINEOPLASTIC AND IMMUNOMODULATING AGENTS L01 ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01B ANTIMETABOLITES L01BA Folic acid anal...ogues L01BA04 Pemetrexed D06503 Pemetrexed sodium hydrat

  8. Drug: D00155 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 00) Purine metabolism map07041 Antineoplastics - antimetabolic agents Therapeutic... category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 429 Miscell...nase [HSA:100] [KO:K01488] Pentostatin [ATC:L01XX08] D00155 Pentostatin (JAN/USAN/INN) Antineoplastics

  9. Drug: D04872 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available led Chlormethine in INN. map07040 Antineoplastics - alkylating agents Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) ...rethamine hydrochloride (USP) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics Alkylating Agents Mechlor...ethamine D04872 Mechlorethamine hydrochloride (USP) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308

  10. Drug: D07671 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gif Antineoplastic; Alkylating Same as: C07115 ATC code: L01AA05 nitrogen mustards alkylating agent DNA map07040 Antineoplastics...TING AGENTS L01AA Nitrogen mustard analogues L01AA05 Chlormethine D07671 Chlormethine (INN) Antineoplastics

  11. Drug: D00478 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ode: L01XB01 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics...on [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics Alkylating Agents Procarbazine D00478 Procarbazine hydrochloride (JP16/USP) Antineoplastics...1 Procarbazine D00478 Procarbazine hydrochloride (JP16/USP) USP drug classificati

  12. Drug: D02994 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 429 Miscellaneous 4291 Othe...ab D02994 Rituximab (genetical recombination) (JAN); Rituximab (USAN/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics... Rituximab (USAN/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Molecularly targeted agents Monoclonal antibody Rituximab

  13. Drug: D01244 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pool by folate map07041 Antineoplastics - antimetabolic agents map00983 Drug metabolism - other enzymes The...rapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 422...ate synthase [HSA:7298] [KO:K00560] Tegafur [ATC:L01BC03] D01244 Tegafur (JP16/USAN/INN) Antineoplastics [BR

  14. Drug: D07760 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YP2C8 [HSA:1558], CYP2C9 [HSA:1559], CYP3A4 [HSA:1576] map07040 Antineoplastics - alkylating agents map07046...n mustard analogues L01AA01 Cyclophosphamide D07760 Cyclophosphamide (INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics... Alkylating Agents Cyclophosphamide D07760 Cyclophosphamide (INN) Antineoplastics

  15. Drug: D03455 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hsa05200(1956) Pathways in cancer Genomic biomarker: EGFR [HSA:1956], KRAS [HSA:3845] map07045 Antineoplastics...01] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 429 Miscellaneous 4291 Other Antitumors D03455 C...; Cetuximab (USAN/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Molecularly targeted agents Monoclonal antibody Cetuxima

  16. Drug: D03021 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1786+1788+1789+29947) Cysteine and methionine metabolism map07041 Antineoplastics... - antimetabolic agents Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics...L01BC07] D03021 Azacitidine (JAN/USAN/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Antimetabolites Pyrimidine analogues

  17. 13 CFR 120.952 - Fiscal agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal agent. 120.952 Section 120... Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.952 Fiscal agent. SBA shall appoint a Fiscal Agent to assess the financial markets, minimize the cost of sales, arrange for the production...

  18. Drug: D03637 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tive DNA polymerase inhibitor [EC:2.7.7.7] map07041 Antineoplastics - antimetabolic agents map07046 Immunosu...BC01] D03637 Cytarabine hydrochloride (USAN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Antimetabolites Pyrimidine analogu

  19. Drug: D05446 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available iomarker: HER2 [HSA:2064] map07045 Antineoplastics - protein kinases inhibitors Therapeutic category of drug...s in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 429 Miscellaneous 4291 Other

  20. Drug: D01309 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 00240(7298) Pyrimidine metabolism hsa00670(7298) One carbon pool by folate map07041 Antineoplastics...rugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 422 Antimetabolites 4223

  1. Drug: D08423 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available on [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics Alkylating Agents Procarbazine D08423 Procarbazine (INN) Antineoplastics [BR...ylhydrazines L01XB01 Procarbazine D08423 Procarbazine (INN) USP drug classificati

  2. Drug: D03327 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 429 Miscellaneous 4299 Ot...327 Porfimer sodium (JAN/USAN/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Miscellaneous age

  3. Drug: D02368 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (6240) Glutathione metabolism map07041 Antineoplastics - antimetabolic agents Ana...ductases ribonucleotide reductase M1 [HSA:6240] [KO:K10807] Gemcitabine [ATC:L01BC05] D02368 Gemcitabine (USAN/INN) Antineoplastics

  4. Drug: D05134 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 422 Antimetabolites 4229 Others D05134 Nelarabine (J...S L01BB Purine analogues L01BB07 Nelarabine D05134 Nelarabine (JAN/USAN/INN); Nelzarabine (USAN) Antineoplastics

  5. Drug: D06399 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastic...L01BC53 Tegafur, combinations D06399 Tegafur - gimeracil - oteracil potassium mixt Antineoplastics [BR:br083

  6. Drug: D01264 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 423 Antibiotics 4235 Anthracycline antibiotics ...264 Daunorubicin hydrochloride (JP16/USP) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Natural products Antibiotics Daunorub

  7. Drug: D02214 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 423 Antibiotics 4235 Anthracycli...DB03] D02214 Epirubicin hydrochloride (JP16/USAN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Natural products Antibiotics

  8. Drug: D03229 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 423 Antibiotics 4234 Bleomycins D03229 Bleomyci...1] D03229 Bleomycin hydrochloride (JP16) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Natural products Antibiotics

  9. Biotech drugs : biological therapeutic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Grech, Godfrey; Fenech, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The recent years has seen significant growth in a new therapeutic approach to the management of disease. Biological therapeutic agents, constitute a broad category of drugs, usually generated by recombinant techniques from living organisms. These therapies revolutionise the traditional approaches to drug design and development, and regulatory agencies have been swift in developing the necessary structures to ensure their optimal use.

  10. Identity Management in Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Groot, de D.R.A.

    2006-01-01

    If agent-based applications are to be used in large scale, open environments, security is a main issue; digital identity management (DIDM) an essential element. DIDM is needed to be able to determine the rights and obligations of the four main

  11. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  12. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Reddy, P.; Flath, C.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts,

  13. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  14. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interactio

  15. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  16. An Introduction to Software Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    applicable to modelling red force entities for VMSA. This paper provides an overview of software agents and represents the first step in the...ordinateur, et que la simulation en cours modélise leurs capteurs , leurs armes et leurs caractéristiques matérielles. vi DRDC Atlantic TM...34 9 Sample Applications

  17. Relational agents: A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Robert H.; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Green, Gill

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between people who meet in virtual worlds are common and these relationships can be long term, in some cases lasting a life-time. Although relationships formed in virtual worlds have invited a lot of recent interest, surprisingly little work has been done on developing computer agents...

  18. Kriitikute lemmikfilm on "Agent Sinikael"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Filmiajakirjanike Ühing andis kümnendat korda välja auhinda Aasta film 2002. Parimaks filmiks tunnistati mängufilm "Agent Sinikael" : režissöör Marko Raat. Viimane sai preemiaks Neitsi Maali kuju ja 12 000 krooni

  19. Multi-Agent Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; Witteveen, C.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a distributed transport planning problem with competitive autonomous actors that carry out time-constrained pick-up delivery orders from customers. The agents have to find conflict-free routes to execute a series of orders they have accepted. Hatzack and Nebel [2] were the first to sugges

  20. Persuasive Teachable Agent for Intergenerational Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Su Fang

    2016-01-01

    Teachable agents are computer agents based on the pedagogical concept of learning-by-teaching. During the tutoring process, where students take on the role of the tutor to teach a computer agent tutee, learners have been observed to gain deeper understanding of the subject matter. Teachable agents are commonly used in the areas of science and mathematics learning where learners are able to learn complex concepts and deep reasoning by teaching the teachable agent through graphic representation...

  1. Halide test agent replacement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  2. Antineoplastic unsaturated fatty acids from Fijian macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ren-Wang; Hay, Mark E; Fairchild, Craig R; Prudhomme, Jacques; Roch, Karine Le; Aalbersberg, William; Kubanek, Julia

    2008-10-01

    Phytochemical analysis of Fijian populations of the green alga Tydemania expeditionis led to the isolation of two unsaturated fatty acids, 3(zeta)-hydroxy-octadeca-4(E),6(Z),15(Z)-trienoic acid (1) and 3(zeta)-hydroxy-hexadeca-4(E),6(Z)-dienoic acid (2), along with the known 3(zeta)-hydroxy-octadeca-4(E),6(Z)-dienoic acid (4). Investigations of the red alga Hydrolithon reinboldii led to identification of a glycolipid, lithonoside (3), and five known compounds, 15-tricosenoic acid, hexacosa-5,9-dienoic methyl ester, beta-sitosterol, 10(S)-hydroxypheophytin A, and 10(R)-hydroxypheophytin A. The structures of 1-3 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS). Compounds 1, 2, and 4, containing conjugated double bonds, demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against a panel of tumor cell lines (including breast, colon, lung, prostate and ovarian cells) with IC(50) values ranging from 1.3 to 14.4 microM. The similar cell selectivity patterns of these three compounds suggest that they might act by a common, but unknown, mechanism of action.

  3. Migration Dynamics in Artificial Agent Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjot Kaur

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An Artificial Agent Society can be defined as a collection of agents interacting with each other for some purpose and/or inhabiting a specific locality, possibly in accordance to some common norms/rules. These societies are analogous to human and ecological societies, and are an expanding and emerging field in research about social systems. Social networks, electronic markets and disaster management organizations can be viewed as such artificial (open agent societies and can be best understood as computational societies. Members of such artificial agent societies are heterogeneous intelligent software agents which are operating locally and cooperating and coordinating with each other in order to achieve goals of an agent society. These artificial agent societies have some kind of dynamics existing in them in terms of dynamics of Agent Migration, Role-Assignment, Norm- Emergence, Security and Agent-Interaction. In this paper, we have described the dynamics of agent migration process, starting from the various types of agent migration, causes or reasons for agent migration, consequences of agent migration, and an agent migration framework to model the its behavior for migration of agents between societies.

  4. Drug: D00248 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available he Philadelphia (Ph1) chromosome. DNA Genomic biomarker: BCR-ABL [HSA:613 25] map07040 Antineoplastics...ting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 421 Alkylating agents 4213 Sulfonate esters D00248 Busulfan (JP16/...es L01AB01 Busulfan D00248 Busulfan (JP16/USP/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics Alky...lating Agents Busulfan D00248 Busulfan (JP16/USP/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308

  5. Candidate cancer-targeting agents identified by expression-profiling arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Termglinchan V

    2013-04-01

    -approved nonantineoplastic drugs', or 'Targets of non-FDA-approved chemical agents'. Of the 78 experimental groups studied, 57 (73% represent cancers that are currently treated with FDA-approved targeted treatment agents. However, the target genes for the indicated therapies are upregulated in only 33 of these groups (57%. Nevertheless, the mRNA expression of the genes targeted by FDA-approved treatment agents is increased in every experimental group, including all of the cancers without FDA-approved targeted treatments. Moreover, many targets of protein inhibitors that have been approved by the FDA as therapies for nonneoplastic diseases, such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and cyclooxygenase-2 and the targets of many non-FDA-approved chemical agents, such as cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and DNA-dependent protein kinase, are also overexpressed in many types of cancer. Conclusion: This research demonstrates a clinical correlation between bioinformatics data and currently approved treatments and suggests novel uses for known protein inhibitors in future antineoplastic research and targeted therapies. Keywords: personalized medicine, targeted therapy, protein inhibitor, cancer treatment, upregulated gene expression

  6. CATS-based Agents That Err

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes preliminary research on intelligent agents that make errors. Such agents are crucial to the development of novel agent-based techniques for assessing system safety. The agents extend an agent architecture derived from the Crew Activity Tracking System that has been used as the basis for air traffic controller agents. The report first reviews several error taxonomies. Next, it presents an overview of the air traffic controller agents, then details several mechanisms for causing the agents to err in realistic ways. The report presents a performance assessment of the error-generating agents, and identifies directions for further research. The research was supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention element of the FAA/NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  7. Needs, Pains, and Motivations in Autonomous Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyk, Janusz A; Graham, James; Puzio, Leszek

    2016-08-17

    This paper presents the development of a motivated learning (ML) agent with symbolic I/O. Our earlier work on the ML agent was enhanced, giving it autonomy for interaction with other agents. Specifically, we equipped the agent with drives and pains that establish its motivations to learn how to respond to desired and undesired events and create related abstract goals. The purpose of this paper is to explore the autonomous development of motivations and memory in agents within a simulated environment. The ML agent has been implemented in a virtual environment created within the NeoAxis game engine. Additionally, to illustrate the benefits of an ML-based agent, we compared the performance of our algorithm against various reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms in a dynamic test scenario, and demonstrated that our ML agent learns better than any of the tested RL agents.

  8. Chaotic neurodynamics for autonomous agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Derek; Kozma, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Mesoscopic level neurodynamics study the collective dynamical behavior of neural populations. Such models are becoming increasingly important in understanding large-scale brain processes. Brains exhibit aperiodic oscillations with a much more rich dynamical behavior than fixed-point and limit-cycle approximation allow. Here we present a discretized model inspired by Freeman's K-set mesoscopic level population model. We show that this version is capable of replicating the important principles of aperiodic/chaotic neurodynamics while being fast enough for use in real-time autonomous agent applications. This simplification of the K model provides many advantages not only in terms of efficiency but in simplicity and its ability to be analyzed in terms of its dynamical properties. We study the discrete version using a multilayer, highly recurrent model of the neural architecture of perceptual brain areas. We use this architecture to develop example action selection mechanisms in an autonomous agent.

  9. Subharmonic imaging of contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, F; Shi, W T; Goldberg, B B

    2000-03-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents promise to improve the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic ultrasound imaging. It is of great importance to adapt ultrasound equipment for optimal use with contrast agents e.g., by exploiting the nonlinear properties of the contrast microbubbles. Harmonic imaging is one technique that has been extensively studied and is commercially available. However, harmonic imaging is associated with problems, due to second harmonic generation and accumulation within the tissue itself. Given the lack of subharmonic generation in tissue, one alternative is the creation of subharmonic images by transmitting at the fundamental frequency (fo) and receiving at the subharmonic (fo/2). Subharmonic imaging should have a much better lateral resolution and may be suitable for scanning deep-lying structures owing to the higher transmit frequency and the much smaller attenuation of scattered subharmonic signals. In this paper, we will review different aspects of subharmonic imaging including implementation, in-vitro gray-scale imaging and subharmonic aided pressure estimation.

  10. Extension agents and conflict narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2016-01-01

    conflict. Originality: This work contributes to a growing body of literature interested in the role of extension agents in conflict management. By applying Q methodology, this work has shown that while extension agents are involved in conflict management, their perceptions of these conflicts are subjective......Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...... to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension professionals. A concourse of 221 statements were devised from interviews and group discussions with key informants and a final sample of 49 statements was used for the sorting. Thirteen Q-sorts were undertaken with among rural extension...

  11. Logical Theories for Agent Introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Artificial intelligence systems (agents) generally have models of the environments they inhabit which they use for representing facts, for reasoning about these facts and for planning actions. Much intelligent behaviour seems to involve an ability to model not only one's external environment...... introspective reasoning, the presence of self-reference causes the theory to be prone to inconsistency. The challenge therefore becomes to construct logical theories supporting introspective reasoning while at the same time ensuring that consistency is retained. In the thesis, we meet this challenge by devising...... by developments within semantics for logic programming within computational logic and formal theories of truth within philosophical logic. The thesis provides a number of examples showing how the developed theories can be used as reasoning frameworks for agents with introspective abilities. In Danish...

  12. Bacteriocins as potential anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhraj eKaur

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have nonspecific toxicity towards normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeutic potential of bacteriocins against various types of cancer cell lines. Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized cationic peptides secreted by almost all groups of bacteria. Some bacteriocins have shown selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells as compared to normal cells. This makes them promising candidates for further investigation and clinical trials. In this review article, we present the overview of the various cancer cell-specific cytotoxic bacteriocins, their mode of action and efficacies.

  13. Heterogeneous Agents, Distribution and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Paquin, Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    We modify the Uzawa-Lucas representative agent model of endogenous economic growth to allow for a variety of differences among households: differences in their tastes, in their human capital production technologies, and in their initial endowments. Some differences are incompatible with the existence of a steady- state equilibrium, while others have no effect upon the steady-state growth rate. However, a variety of differences give rise to inequalities in the distribution of income and to var...

  14. Chemotherapy and Dietary Phytochemical Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Sak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy has been used for cancer treatment already for almost 70 years by targeting the proliferation potential and metastasising ability of tumour cells. Despite the progress made in the development of potent chemotherapy drugs, their toxicity to normal tissues and adverse side effects in multiple organ systems as well as drug resistance have remained the major obstacles for the successful clinical use. Cytotoxic agents decrease considerably the quality of life of cancer patients manifesting as acute complaints and impacting the life of survivors also for years after the treatment. Toxicity often limits the usefulness of anticancer agents being also the reason why many patients discontinue the treatment. The nutritional approach may be the means of helping to raise cancer therapy to a new level of success as supplementing or supporting the body with natural phytochemicals cannot only reduce adverse side effects but improve also the effectiveness of chemotherapeutics. Various plant-derived compounds improve the efficiency of cytotoxic agents, decrease their resistance, lower and alleviate toxic side effects, reduce the risk of tumour lysis syndrome, and detoxify the body of chemotherapeutics. The personalised approach using various phytochemicals provides thus a new dimension to the standard cancer therapy for improving its outcome in a complex and complementary way.

  15. Multi-agent autonomous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  16. Preponderant agent, what is that?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Luz Álvarez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Preponderant agent is a new instrument for preventing and reverting adverse impact in competition due to highly concentrated markets. Therefore, this paper's objective is to present and analyze the preponderant agent concept in Mexico with emphasis on the broadcast sector, the telecommunication regulator decisions and the courts' interpretation. Methodology/approach/design – The objectives were achieved by researching and analyzing the main legal documents, the Congress reports and debates, the regulator's decisions and other relevant regulator's documents, as well as final decisions by the courts in connection with broadcast sector. Findings – Among the findings are that certain topics were not duly addressed by the Mexican regulator, or by the Congress, whereas the courts were more willing to hold decisions in favor of public interest based on constitutional intent and deference to the regulator's decision. Originality/value – This paper will be valuable for persons interested in telecommunications, broadcast and antitrust. Although the preponderant agent concept created in Mexico is not necessarily a “best practice”, it does provide an alternative instrument in antitrust. Moreover, the courts decisions also provide criteria regarding regulatory deference for the regulator.

  17. New agents in HSC mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Mélanie J; Nilsson, Susan K; Cao, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Mobilized peripheral blood (PB) is the most common source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for autologous transplantation. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is the most commonly used mobilization agent, yet despite its widespread use, a considerable number of patients still fail to mobilize. Recently, a greater understanding of the interactions that regulate HSC homeostasis in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment has enabled the development of new molecules that mobilize HSC through specific inhibition, modulation or perturbation of these interactions. AMD3100 (plerixafor), a small molecule that selectively inhibits the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is approved for mobilization in combination with G-CSF in patients with Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Nevertheless, identifying mobilization strategies that not only enhance HSC number, but are rapid and generate an optimal "mobilized product" for improved transplant outcomes remains an area of clinical importance. In recent times, new agents based on recombinant proteins, peptides and small molecules have been identified as potential candidates for therapeutic HSC mobilization. In this review, we describe the most recent developments in HSC mobilization agents and their potential impact in HSC transplantation.

  18. An Agent Based Classification Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Feng; Greensmith, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The major function of this model is to access the UCI Wisconsin Breast Can- cer data-set[1] and classify the data items into two categories, which are normal and anomalous. This kind of classifi cation can be referred as anomaly detection, which discriminates anomalous behaviour from normal behaviour in computer systems. One popular solution for anomaly detection is Artifi cial Immune Sys- tems (AIS). AIS are adaptive systems inspired by theoretical immunology and observed immune functions, principles and models which are applied to prob- lem solving. The Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA)[2] is an AIS algorithm that is developed specifi cally for anomaly detection. It has been successfully applied to intrusion detection in computer security. It is believed that agent-based mod- elling is an ideal approach for implementing AIS, as intelligent agents could be the perfect representations of immune entities in AIS. This model evaluates the feasibility of re-implementing the DCA in an agent-based simulation environ- ...

  19. A Framework for Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    This short paper introduces and summarizes the AORTA reasoning framework that can be integrated into BDI-agents to enable organizational decision-making. This work has recently been published in the Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (JAAMAS), as [3].......This short paper introduces and summarizes the AORTA reasoning framework that can be integrated into BDI-agents to enable organizational decision-making. This work has recently been published in the Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (JAAMAS), as [3]....

  20. FUZZY LOGIC MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Atef GHARBI; Ben Ahmed, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with distributed planning in a Multi-Agent System (MAS) constituted by several intelligent agents each one has to interact with the other autonomous agents. The problem faced is how to ensure a distributed planning through the cooperation in our multi-agent system. To do so, we propose the use of fuzzy logic to represent the response of the agent in case of interaction with the other. Finally, we use JADE platform to create agents and ensure the communication be...

  1. On Programming Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Since it is difficult (or even impossible) to assume anything about the agents’ behavior and goals in an open multi-agent system, it is often suggested that an organization is imposed upon the agents, whichhich, by abstracting away from the agents, specifies boundaries and objectives that the age......Since it is difficult (or even impossible) to assume anything about the agents’ behavior and goals in an open multi-agent system, it is often suggested that an organization is imposed upon the agents, whichhich, by abstracting away from the agents, specifies boundaries and objectives...

  2. Antagonistic formation motion of cooperative agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢婉婷; 代明香; 薛方正

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a new formation motion problem of a class of first-order multi-agent systems with antagonis-tic interactions. A distributed formation control algorithm is proposed for each agent to realize the antagonistic formation motion. A sufficient condition is derived to ensure that all agents make an antagonistic formation motion in a distributed manner. It is shown that all agents can be spontaneously divided into several groups, and agents in the same group collab-orate while agents in different groups compete. Finally, a numerical simulation is included to demonstrate our theoretical results.

  3. 14th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems : Special Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Escalona, María; Corchuelo, Rafael; Mathieu, Philippe; Vale, Zita; Campbell, Andrew; Rossi, Silvia; Adam, Emmanuel; Jiménez-López, María; Navarro, Elena; Moreno, María

    2016-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2016 in the special sessions: Agents Behaviours and Artificial Markets (ABAM); Advances on Demand Response and Renewable Energy Sources in Agent Based Smart Grids (ADRESS); Agents and Mobile Devices (AM); Agent Methodologies for Intelligent Robotics Applications (AMIRA); Learning, Agents and Formal Languages (LAFLang); Multi-Agent Systems and Ambient Intelligence (MASMAI); Web Mining and ...

  4. The comet assay as a rapid test in biomonitoring occupational exposure to DNA-damaging agents and effect of confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, P; Knudsen, L E; Loft, S; Wallin, H

    2000-10-01

    Within the last decade, the comet assay has been used with increasing popularity to investigate the level of DNA damage in terms of strand breaks and alkaline labile sites in biomonitoring studies. The assay is easily performed on WBCs and has been included in a wide range of biomonitoring studies of occupational exposures encompassing styrene, vinyl chloride, 1,3-butadiene, pesticides, hair dyes, antineoplastic agents, organic solvents, sewage and waste materials, wood dust, and ionizing radiation. Eleven of the occupational studies were positive, whereas seven were negative. Notably, the negative studies appeared to have less power than the positive studies. Also, there were poor dose-response relationships in many of the biomonitoring studies. Many factors have been reported to produce effects by the comet assay, e.g., age, air pollution exposure, diet, exercise, gender, infection, residential radon exposure, smoking, and season. Until now, the use of the comet assay has been hampered by the uncertainty of the influence of confounding factors. We argue that none of the confounding factors are unequivocally positive in the majority of the studies. We recommend that age, gender, and smoking status be used as criteria for the selection of populations and that data on exercise, diet, and recent infections be registered before blood sampling. Samples from exposed and unexposed populations should be collected at the same time to avoid seasonal variation. In general, the comet assay is considered a suitable and fast test for DNA-damaging potential in biomonitoring studies.

  5. Borrelioses, agentes e vetores Borrelioses, agents and vectors: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber O. Soares

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available As borrelioses são enfermidades infecciosas determinadas por espiroquetas do gênero Borrelia, agentes transmissíveis, principalmente, por carrapatos aos animais e/ou ao homem. Nesta revisão são apresentadas e discutidas as enfermidades determinadas por borrélias, bem como as características gerais das espiroquetas, os aspectos relacionados a transmissão por artrópodes, as enfermidades nos animais domésticos e silvestres, quanto aos aspectos biológicos e patológicos, a doença de Lyme como principal zoonose do grupo, a associação de borrélia com outros agentes hematozoários e os métodos diagnósticos e a epidemiologia comparativa entre dados obtidos no Brasil com os de outros países. Estas borrelioses possuem características patológicas, clínicas e epidemiológicas variadas de acordo à região fisiográfica, devido à existência de distintas espécies, genoespécies e cepas; estes aspectos variam ainda em função dos artrópodes vetores, da interação vetor-patógeno e dos ecossistemas distintos.Borrelioses are infectous diseases caused by spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia. They are born mainly through ticks at animals and/or human beings. In this review are shown and discussed five groups of diseases determined by borrelia, general characteristics of the spirochaetes, aspects related to transmission by arthropods, biological and pathological aspects of the diseases in domestic and wild animals, Lyme disease as an important zoonosis, the association of borrelia with other hematozoa agents, the diagnostic methods and the comparative epidemiology with data obtained from Brazil and other countries. The borrelioses have pathological, clinical and epidemiological characteristics which vary according to physiographic regions due to the existence of different species, genospecies and strains of borrelia, of arthropod vectors, vector-agent relationship and of different ecocystems.

  6. A Framework for Multi-Agent Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Tonino, J.F.M.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2000-01-01

    We introduce a computational framework, consisting of resources, skills, goals and services to represent the plans of individual agents and to develop models and algorithms for cooperation processes between a collection of agents.

  7. Preoperative management of anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Lauren Jan; Friedman, Susan M

    2014-05-01

    This article describes current literature and treatment plans for managing anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents in patients presenting with hip fractures. Indications for anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents are discussed, and management techniques for when patients present with hip fractures are reviewed.

  8. What Are Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by heart Treatments + Tests What Are Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Agents? Anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents are medicines that reduce blood clotting in an artery, a vein or the heart. Blood clots can block the ...

  9. Security Measures to Protect Mobile Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Piyanka; Govil, M. C.; Dutta, Kamlesh

    2010-11-01

    The security issues of mobile agent systems have embarrassed its widespread implementation. Mobile agents that move around the network are not safe because the remote hosts that accommodate the agents initiates all kinds of attacks. These hosts try to analyze the agent's decision logic and their accumulated data. So, mobile agent security is the most challenging unsolved problems. The paper analyzes various security measures deeply. Security especially the attacks performed by hosts to the visiting mobile agent (the malicious hosts problem) is a major obstacle that prevents mobile agent technology from being widely adopted. Being the running environment for mobile agent, the host has full control over them and could easily perform many kinds of attacks against them.

  10. Analysis and Optimization for Mobile Agent Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGBo; LIUDayou

    2005-01-01

    Communication performance is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of mobile agent system. Only traditional optimization techniques for communication performance are not enough, especially in large-scale intelligent mobile agent system, so more intelligent optimization techniques are needed. In the background, the paper studies communication of mobile agent system from the viewpoint of performance. The paper makes qualitative and quantitative analysis of four important factors that will affect the communication performance of mobile agent system and presents the communication performance optimization model. The model hasthree primary functions. First, the model provides a formalism method to describe the communication task and process of mobile agent. Second, the model provides a means to make quantitative analysis of the performance of mobile agent system. Third, the model can plan out an optimal communication scheme for mobile agent to minimize the cost of whole communication. The model could thus be a building block for the optimization of the communication behavior of mobile agent.

  11. Agent Communication Channel Based on BACnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Wen-bin; Zhou Man-li

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the common shortcoming in the existing agent MTPs (message transport protocols). With employing the File object and related service AtomicWriteFile of BACnet (a data communication protocol building automation and control networks), a new method of agent message transport is proposed and implemented. Every agent platform (AP) has one specified File object and agents in another AP can communicate with agents in the AP by using AtomicWriteFile service. Agent messages can be in a variety of formats. In implementation, BACnet/IP and Ethernet are applied as the BACnet data link layers respectively. The experiment results show that the BACnet can provide perfect support for agent communication like other conventional protocols such as hypertext transfer protocol(HTTP), remote method invocation (RMI) etc. and has broken through the restriction of TCP/IP. By this approach, the agent technology is introduced into the building automation control network system.

  12. Exposição ocupacional a medicamentos antineoplásicos em clínicas veterinárias no município do Rio de Janeiro / Occupational risks in the manipulation of antineoplastic in clinical veterinarians in the of Rio de Janeiro city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Faria da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Médicos veterinários estão expostos constantemente a riscos químicos, físicos e biológicos durante a prática de sua profissão. Médicos veterinários, de 78 dos 88estabelecimentos registrados no Conselho Regional de Medicina Veterinária do Rio de Janeiro e com mais de cinco anos de funcionamento, foram entrevistados sobre o uso de medicamentos antineoplásicos, medidas de proteção individual e efeitos tóxicos associados. A vincristina (100% é o antineoplásico mais utilizado, seguido da ciclofosfamida (27,02%. Nenhuma das clínicas visitadas possuía capela de fluxo laminar; 58,10% dos profissionais não utilizavam máscaras, 16,20% não usavam luvas e 14,85% nenhum tipo de Equipamento de Proteção Individual (EPI; 30% relataram não conhecer os efeitos tóxicos decorrentes da exposição aos antineoplásicos. A maioria dos entrevistados relatou que, durante a graduação, não recebeu orientação adequada sobre riscos químicos ocupacionais. Ações de vigilância sanitária devem ser tomadas para diminuir os riscos decorrentes da manipulação de medicamentos antineoplásicos em clínicas veterinárias. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Veterinarians are constantly exposed to chemical physical and biological risks during professional practice. Veterinarians from 78 out of 88 fi ve-year functioning establishments in the city of Rio de Janeiro were interviewed about antineoplastics usage and individual protective measures and the associated toxic effects. As informed, vincristine (100% is the most widely used anticancer, followed by cyclophosphamide (27.02%. None of the clinics visited had any laminar fl ow chamber; 58.10% of professionals weren’t using masks to manipulate anticancers; 16.20% weren’t using gloves and 14.85% weren’t using any type of IEP; 30% reported not to be aware of antineoplastics toxicity. Most veterinarians related that during graduation course no proper

  13. Integration of Agent System with Legacy Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Qi; ZHAO Yan-hong; YIN Zhao-lin

    2003-01-01

    Agent technique is a new method that can analyze, design and realize a distributed open system. It has been used in almost every field. But if act for the real practical words in technique, it must integrate with legacy software, such as database system etc, and control them. This paper introduces the specification of agent software integration, ontology, instances database as implementing agent software integration with CORBA technique and takes XML, ACL as language communicating among agents.

  14. Kansei Evaluation in Agent Rearing Game

    OpenAIRE

    野路, 浩一朗; 西野, 順二; 小高, 知宏; 小倉, 久和; NOJI, Koichiro; NISHINO, Junji; ODAKA, Tomohiro; OGURA, Hisakazu

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, We have studied the Kansei evaluation of the agent rearing game. The agent rearing game is a game by which the characters who are the agents are brouht up. The Kansei evaluation is an evaluation by Kansei engineering like the sensibility and feelings, etc. to treat technological1y. In this research, We produced the agent rearing game. We propose the method of the interesting the game using the technique of Kansei engineering for the evaluation.

  15. Sports Agent Industry Emerges in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeiZiand; YiYou

    2003-01-01

    The agent profession is not new to Chinese. First appearing in the Western Zhou Dynasty, agents were called "Zhi Ren" then and "Ya Ren" from the Tang Dynasty onwards. In the Ming Dynasty, a certain amount of property and a license were required if one wanted to become an agent. In the late Qing Dynasty, Mai Ban (Chinese executives working in foreign firms), also a sort of agents, began to emerge in major cities of China.

  16. Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa, Siti A. Sulaiman, Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic control and metabolic derangements. In healthy subjects or patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, various studies revealed that honey reduced blood glucose or was more tolerable than most common sugars or sweeteners. Pre-clinical studies provided more convincing evidence in support of honey as a potential antidiabetic agent than clinical studies did. The not-too-impressive clinical data could mainly be attributed to poor study designs or due to the fact that the clinical studies were preliminary. Based on the key constituents of honey, the possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic effect of honey are proposed. The paper also highlights the potential impacts and future perspectives on the use of honey as an antidiabetic agent. It makes recommendations for further clinical studies on the potential antidiabetic effect of honey. This review provides insight on the potential use of honey, especially as a complementary agent, in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is very important to have well-designed, randomized controlled clinical trials that investigate the reproducibility (or otherwise of these experimental data in diabetic human subjects.

  17. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  18. Preferences of Agents in Defeasible Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, M.; Governatori, G.; Rotolo, A.; Torre, L.W.N. van der

    2005-01-01

    Defeasible Logic is extended to programming languages for cognitive agents with preferences and actions for planning. We define rule-based agent theories that contain preferences and actions, together with inference procedures. We discuss patterns of agent types in this setting. Finally, we illustra

  19. Stability of Evolving Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    De Wilde, Philippe; 10.1109/TSMCB.2011.2110642

    2011-01-01

    A Multi-Agent System is a distributed system where the agents or nodes perform complex functions that cannot be written down in analytic form. Multi-Agent Systems are highly connected, and the information they contain is mostly stored in the connections. When agents update their state, they take into account the state of the other agents, and they have access to those states via the connections. There is also external, user-generated input into the Multi-Agent System. As so much information is stored in the connections, agents are often memory-less. This memory-less property, together with the randomness of the external input, has allowed us to model Multi-Agent Systems using Markov chains. In this paper, we look at Multi-Agent Systems that evolve, i.e. the number of agents varies according to the fitness of the individual agents. We extend our Markov chain model, and define stability. This is the start of a methodology to control Multi-Agent Systems. We then build upon this to construct an entropy-based defi...

  20. Do pedagogical agents enhance software training?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der Hans

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether a tutorial for software training can be enhanced by adding a pedagogical agent, and whether the type of agent matters (i.e., cognitive, motivational, or mixed). The cognitive agent was designed to stimulate students to process their experiences actively. The motivatio

  1. Properties of Ettringite Type Expansive Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By employing different forms and amounts of materials,many kinds of ettringite type expansive agents had been prepared.The relationship between the compositions and properties of expansive agents was analyzed.The design methods of expansive agent have been put forward according to the property requirement of expansive concrete.

  2. A principal-agent model of corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico

    1997-01-01

    One of the new avenues in the study of political corruption is that of neo-institutional economics, of which the principal-agent theory is a part. In this article a principal-agent model of corruption is presented, in which there are two principals (one of which is corrupting), and one agent (who is

  3. 31 CFR 332.12 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 332.12 Section 332.12 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE....12 Fiscal agents. (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches referred to below, as fiscal agents of...

  4. 31 CFR 339.6 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 339.6 Section 339.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... H § 339.6 Fiscal agents. Federal Reserve Banks and Branches, as fiscal agents of the United...

  5. 31 CFR 352.13 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 352.13 Section 352.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE....13 Fiscal agents. (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches, referred to below, as fiscal agents of...

  6. 31 CFR 316.12 - Fiscal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fiscal agents. 316.12 Section 316.12 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE....12 Fiscal agents. (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches referred to below, as fiscal agents of...

  7. Touching virtual agents: embodiment and mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Gijs; Bruijnes, Merijn; Kolkmeier, Jan; Jung, Merel; Darriba Frederiks, Aduén; Rybarczyk, Yves

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we outline the design and development of an embodied conversational agent setup that incorporates an augmented reality screen and tactile sleeve. With this setup the agent can visually and physically touch the user. We provide a literature overview of embodied conversational agents, as

  8. Agents and Lattice-valued Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Germanno Resconi

    2006-01-01

    In fuzzy set theory, instead of the underlying membership set being a two -valued set it is a multi-valued set that generally has the structure of a lattice L with a minimal element O and the maximal element I. Furthermore if ∧, ∨, → and (「) are defined in the set L, then we can use these operations to define, as in the ordinary set theory, operations on fuzzy subsets. In this paper we give a model of the Lattice-Valued Logic with set of agents.Any agents know the logic value of a sentence p. The logic value is compatible with all of the accessible conceptual models or worlds of p inside the agent. Agent can be rational or irrational in the use of the logic operation.Every agent of n agents can have the same set of conceptual models for p and know the same logic for p in this case the agents form a consistent group of agents.When agents have different conceptual models for p,different subgroup of agents know different logic value for p. In this case the n agents are inconsistent in the expression of the logic value for p. The valuation structure of set of agents can be used as a semantic model for the Lattice-valued Logic and fuzzy logic.

  9. Multi-Agent Planning with Planning Graph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, The Duy; Jamroga, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we consider planning for multi-agents situations in STRIPS-like domains with planning graph. Three possible relationships between agents' goals are considered in order to evaluate plans: the agents may be collaborative, adversarial or indifferent entities. We propose algorithms to dea

  10. Embedded Automation in Human-Agent Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tweedale, Jeffrey W

    2012-01-01

    This research book proposes a general conceptual framework for the development of automation in human-agents environments that will allow human- agent teams to work effectively and efficiently. We examine various schemes to implement artificial intelligence techniques in agents.  The text is directed to the scientists, application engineers, professors and students of all disciplines, interested in the agency methodology and applications.

  11. Deliberative evolution in multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Evolution of automated systems, in particular evolution of automated agents based on agent deliberation, is the topic of this paper. Evolution is not a merely material process, it requires interaction within and between individuals, their environments and societies of agents. An architecture for an

  12. Compositional Design of a Generic Design Agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a generic architecture for a design agent, to be used in an Internet environment. The design agent is based on an existing generic agent model, and includes a refinement of a generic model for design, in which strategic reasoning

  13. A theoretical framework for explaining agent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    To understand emergent processes in multi-agent-based simulations it is important to study the global processes in a simulation as well as the processes on the agent level. The behavior of individual agents is easier to understand when they are able to explain their own behavior. In this paper, a th

  14. Mobile Agents in Networking and Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jiannong

    2012-01-01

    The book focuses on mobile agents, which are computer programs that can autonomously migrate between network sites. This text introduces the concepts and principles of mobile agents, provides an overview of mobile agent technology, and focuses on applications in networking and distributed computing.

  15. Animated BDP agents in virtual environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; Egges, A.; Akker, op den H.J.A.; Zwiers, J.; Krose, B.; de Rijke, M.; Schreiber, G.; van Someren, M.

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a Believes, Desires and Plans (BDP) agent that acts in a virtual environment using multi-modal interaction with the user. The environment is our virtual theatre environment. In this environment different agents have been introduced. In order to obtain a more uniform framework for agent

  16. Multi agent gathering waste system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro LOZANO MURCIEGO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Along this paper, we present a new multi agent-based system to gather waste on cities and villages. We have developed a low cost wireless sensor prototype to measure the volume level of the containers. Furthermore a route system is developed to optimize the routes of the trucks and a mobile application has been developed to help drivers in their working days. In order to evaluate and validate the proposed system a practical case study in a real city environment is modeled using open data available and with the purpose of identifying limitations of the system.

  17. Social communication with virtual agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschner, Linda; Pannasch, Sebastian; Schulz, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In social communication, the gaze direction of other persons provides important information to perceive and interpret their emotional response. Previous research investigated the influence of gaze by manipulating mutual eye contact. Therefore, gaze and body direction has been changed as a whole...... response, and emotional experience to agents of different gender and facial expressions were investigated. Eye movement data revealed longer fixation durations, i.e. a stronger allocation of attention, when gaze and body direction were not congruent with each other or when both were directed towards...

  18. Multi agent gathering waste system

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano Murciego, Álvaro; Gabriel VILLARRUBIA GONZÁLEZ; Alberto LÓPEZ BARRIUSO; Daniel HERNÁNDEZ DE LA IGLESIA; Jorge REVUELTA HERRERO

    2015-01-01

    Along this paper, we present a new multi agent-based system to gather waste on cities and villages. We have developed a low cost wireless sensor prototype to measure the volume level of the containers. Furthermore a route system is developed to optimize the routes of the trucks and a mobile application has been developed to help drivers in their working days. In order to evaluate and validate the proposed system a practical case study in a real city environment is modeled using open data avai...

  19. [Antiangiogenic agents in ARMD treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroi, Mihaela-Cristiana; Demea, Sorina; Todor, Meda; Apopei, Emmanuela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of antiangiogenic agents in the treatment of age related senile macular degeneration is to destroy coroidian neoformation vessels by minimally affecting the central vision. We present a case of important central vision recovery after 3 intravitreal injections of Avastin. The therapeutic decision and patient monitoring have been made using imaging studies, such as OCT and AFG. A modern therapeutic approach of neovascular forms of age related macular degeneration, backed up by AFG and OCT is a modern treatment method of this disabling illness which brings patients optimal functional and structural improvement.

  20. Social Robots as Persuasive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Robots are more and more used in a social context, and in this paper we try to formulate a research agenda concerning ethical issues around social HRI in order to be prepared for future scenarios where robots may be a naturally integrated part of human society. We outline different paradigms...... to describe the role of social robots in communication processes with humans, and connect HRI with the topic of persuasive technology in health care, to critically reflect the potential benefits of using social robots as persuasive agents....

  1. Triazole: A Promising Antitubercular Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keri, Rangappa S; Patil, Siddappa A; Budagumpi, Srinivasa; Nagaraja, Bhari Mallanna

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis is a contagious disease with comparatively high mortality worldwide. The statistics shows that around three million people throughout the world die annually from tuberculosis and there are around eight million new cases each year, of which developing countries showed major share. Therefore, the discovery and development of effective antituberculosis drugs with novel mechanism of action have become an insistent task for infectious diseases research programs. The literature reveals that, heterocyclic moieties have drawn attention of the chemists, pharmacologists, microbiologists, and other researchers owing to its indomitable biological potential as anti-infective agents. Among heterocyclic compounds, triazole (1,2,3-triazole/1,2,4-triazole) nucleus is one of the most important and well-known heterocycles, which is a common and integral feature of a variety of natural products and medicinal agents. Triazole core is considered as a privileged structure in medicinal chemistry and is widely used as 'parental' compounds to synthesize molecules with medical benefits, especially with infection-related activities. In the present review, we have collated published reports on this versatile core to provide an insight so that its complete therapeutic potential can be utilized for the treatment of tuberculosis. This review also explores triazole as a potential targeted core moiety against tuberculosis and various research ongoing worldwide. It is hoped that this review will be helpful for new thoughts in the quest for rational designs of more active and less toxic triazole-based antituberculosis drugs.

  2. A Review of Luting Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis H. Pameijer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the availability of a large number of luting agents (dental cements proper selection can be a daunting task and is usually based on a practitioner’s reliance on experience and preference and less on in depth knowledge of materials that are used for the restoration and luting agent properties. This review aims at presenting an overview of current cements and discusses physical properties, biocompatibility and other properties that make a particular cement the preferred choice depending on the clinical indication. Tables are provided that outline the different properties of the generic classification of cements. It should be noted that no recommendations are made to use a particular commercial cement for a hypothetical clinical situation. The choice is solely the responsibility of the practitioner. The appendix is intended as a guide for the practitioner towards a recommended choice under commonly encountered clinical scenarios. Again, no commercial brands are recommended although the author recognizes that some have better properties than others. Please note that this flowchart strictly presents the author’s opinion and is based on research, clinical experience and the literature.

  3. Surfactants as blackbird stressing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, P.W.; Seubert, J.L.

    1970-01-01

    Applications of wetting-agent solutions produce mortality in birds. The exact cause of death is undetermined but it is believed that destruction of the insulating qualities of the plumage permits ambient cold temperatures and evaporation to lower the body temperature to a lethal level. The original concept of using these materials as bird-control tools was developed in 1958 at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Laurel, Maryland. Early field trials by personnel of the Division of Wildlife Services and the Denver Wildlife Research Center indicated that ground-application techniques had promise but limitations of the equipment precluded successful large-scale roost treatments. In 1966, Patuxent Center personnel began using tanker-type aircraft to evaluate high-volume aerial applications of wetting agents. The success of these tests led to the use of small aircraft to make low-volume, high-concentration aerial applications just prior to expected rainfall. Recent trials of the low-volume method show that, with some limitations, it is effective, inexpensive, and safe to the environment. Current research emphasizes the screening of new candidate materials for efficacy, biodegradability, and toxicity to plants and non-target animals, as well as basic investigations of the avian physiological mechanisms involved. Field trials to develop more effective application techniques will continue.

  4. An Agent-Based Distributed Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Li; J.Y.H.Fuh; Y.F.Zhang; A.Y.C.Nee

    2006-01-01

    Agent theories have shown their promising capability in solving distributed complex system ever since its development. In this paper, one multi-agent based distributed product design and manufacturing planning system is presented. The objective of the research is to develop a distributed collaborative design environment for supporting cooperation among the existing engineering functions. In the system, the functional agents for design, manufacturability evaluation,process planning and scheduling are efficiently integrated with a facilitator agent. This paper firstly gives an introduction to the system structure, and the definitions for each executive agent are then described and a prototype of the proposed is also included at the end part.

  5. A framework for organization-aware agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    ’ behavior space and describe the expected behavior of the agents. Assuming an open environment, where agents are developed independently of the Organizational structures, agents need to be able to reason about the structure, so that they can deliberate about their actions and act within the expected...... boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. In this paper, we present the AORTA reasoning framework and show how it can be integrated into typical BDI-agents. We provide operational semantics that enables agents to make organizational decisions in order to coordinate and cooperate without...

  6. Building Multi-Agent Systems Using Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boss, Niklas Skamriis; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of the Jason-DTU system, including the used methodology, tools as well as team strategy. We also discuss the experience gathered in the contest. In spring 2009 the course “Artificial Intelligence and Multi- Agent Systems” was held for the first time...... on the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). A part of this course was a short introduction to the multi-agent framework Jason, which is an interpreter for AgentSpeak, an agent-oriented programming language. As the final project in this course a solution to the Multi-Agent Programming Contest from 2007, the Gold...

  7. 75 FR 56489 - Separation Distances of Ammonium Nitrate and Blasting Agents From Explosives or Blasting Agents...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... Ammonium Nitrate and Blasting Agents From Explosives or Blasting Agents (2002R-226P) AGENCY: Bureau of... CFR 555.220 set forth a table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents followed by six explanatory notes. Note three (3) states that the...

  8. Introduction to Agent Mining Interaction and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Longbing

    In recent years, more and more researchers have been involved in research on both agent technology and data mining. A clear disciplinary effort has been activated toward removing the boundary between them, that is the interaction and integration between agent technology and data mining. We refer this to agent mining as a new area. The marriage of agents and data mining is driven by challenges faced by both communities, and the need of developing more advanced intelligence, information processing and systems. This chapter presents an overall picture of agent mining from the perspective of positioning it as an emerging area. We summarize the main driving forces, complementary essence, disciplinary framework, applications, case studies, and trends and directions, as well as brief observation on agent-driven data mining, data mining-driven agents, and mutual issues in agent mining. Arguably, we draw the following conclusions: (1) agent mining emerges as a new area in the scientific family, (2) both agent technology and data mining can greatly benefit from agent mining, (3) it is very promising to result in additional advancement in intelligent information processing and systems. However, as a new open area, there are many issues waiting for research and development from theoretical, technological and practical perspectives.

  9. An Agent Framework of Tourism Recommender System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the development of an Agent framework for tourism recommender system. The recommender system can be featured as an online web application which is capable of generating a personalized list of preference attractions for tourists. Traditional technologies of classical recommender system application domains, such as collaborative filtering, content-based filtering and content-based filtering are effectively adopted in the framework. In the framework they are constructed as Agents that can generate recommendations respectively. Recommender Agent can generate recommender information by integrating the recommendations of Content-based Agent, collaborative filtering-based Agent and constraint-based Agent. In order to make the performance more effective, linear combination method of data fusion is applied. User interface is provided by the tourist Agent in form of webpages and mobile app.

  10. Model Based Testing for Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Thangarajah, John; Padgham, Lin

    Although agent technology is gaining world wide popularity, a hindrance to its uptake is the lack of proper testing mechanisms for agent based systems. While many traditional software testing methods can be generalized to agent systems, there are many aspects that are different and which require an understanding of the underlying agent paradigm. In this paper we present certain aspects of a testing framework that we have developed for agent based systems. The testing framework is a model based approach using the design models of the Prometheus agent development methodology. In this paper we focus on model based unit testing and identify the appropriate units, present mechanisms for generating suitable test cases and for determining the order in which the units are to be tested, present a brief overview of the unit testing process and an example. Although we use the design artefacts from Prometheus the approach is suitable for any plan and event based agent system.

  11. Knowledge Management in Role Based Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kır, Hüseyin; Ekinci, Erdem Eser; Dikenelli, Oguz

    In multi-agent system literature, the role concept is getting increasingly researched to provide an abstraction to scope beliefs, norms, goals of agents and to shape relationships of the agents in the organization. In this research, we propose a knowledgebase architecture to increase applicability of roles in MAS domain by drawing inspiration from the self concept in the role theory of sociology. The proposed knowledgebase architecture has granulated structure that is dynamically organized according to the agent's identification in a social environment. Thanks to this dynamic structure, agents are enabled to work on consistent knowledge in spite of inevitable conflicts between roles and the agent. The knowledgebase architecture is also implemented and incorporated into the SEAGENT multi-agent system development framework.

  12. Agent-Oriented Probabilistic Logic Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wang; Shi-Er Ju; Chun-Nian Liu

    2006-01-01

    Currently, agent-based computing is an active research area, and great efforts have been made towards the agent-oriented programming both from a theoretical and practical view. However, most of them assume that there is no uncertainty in agents' mental state and their environment. In other words, under this assumption agent developers are just allowed to specify how his agent acts when the agent is 100% sure about what is true/false. In this paper, this unrealistic assumption is removed and a new agent-oriented probabilistic logic programming language is proposed, which can deal with uncertain information about the world. The programming language is based on a combination of features of probabilistic logic programming and imperative programming.

  13. Multi-agent for manufacturing systems optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortea, E. M.; Tulbure, A.; Huţanu, C.-tin

    2016-08-01

    The paper is meant to be a dynamic approach to optimize manufacturing systems based on multi-agent systems. Multi-agent systems are semiautonomous decision makers and cooperate to optimize the manufacturing process. Increasing production the capacity is achieved by developing, implementing efficient and effective systems from control based on current manufacturing process. The model multi-agent proposed in this paper is based on communication between agents who, based on their mechanisms drive to autonomous decision making. Methods based on multi-agent programming are applied between flexible manufacturing processes and cooperation with agents. Based on multi-agent technology and architecture of intelligent manufacturing can lead to development of strategies for control and optimization of scheduled production resulting from the simulation.

  14. 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Javier; Golinska, Paulina; Giroux, Sylvain; Corchuelo, Rafael; Trends in Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems

    2012-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems.   This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2012 in the workshops: Workshop on Agents for Ambient Assisted Living, Workshop on Agent-Based Solutions for Manufacturing and Supply Chain and Workshop on Agents and Multi-agent systems for Enterprise Integration.

  15. Survey of agent for intelligent information retrieval; Chiteki kensaku no tame no agent no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazawa, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    Development of agent systems has been surveyed, to classify and arrange characteristic functions of the agents, and to grasp the realization situation of these agents in their development. In addition, prospective functions of information retrieval systems using the agents at maximum and functions to be developed among these in the future are clarified. The agents are characterized by the expression function, communication function, planning function, adaptive function, and learning function. The agents are desired to be classified into interface agents whose works are to respond to individual workers, coordinator agents which conduct works with high pervasion, such as assignment of works and their control, and task agents which conduct specialized works for individual examples. Thus, design and configuration of the agent system, and improvement and expansion of system functions can be effectively and easily conducted. 52 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Opinion evolution influenced by informed agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kangqi; Pedrycz, Witold

    2016-11-01

    Guiding public opinions toward a pre-set target by informed agents can be a strategy adopted in some practical applications. The informed agents are common agents who are employed or chosen to spread the pre-set opinion. In this work, we propose a social judgment based opinion (SJBO) dynamics model to explore the opinion evolution under the influence of informed agents. The SJBO model distinguishes between inner opinions and observable choices, and incorporates both the compromise between similar opinions and the repulsion between dissimilar opinions. Three choices (support, opposition, and remaining undecided) are considered in the SJBO model. Using the SJBO model, both the inner opinions and the observable choices can be tracked during the opinion evolution process. The simulation results indicate that if the exchanges of inner opinions among agents are not available, the effect of informed agents is mainly dependent on the characteristics of regular agents, including the assimilation threshold, decay threshold, and initial opinions. Increasing the assimilation threshold and decay threshold can improve the guiding effectiveness of informed agents. Moreover, if the initial opinions of regular agents are close to null, the full and unanimous consensus at the pre-set opinion can be realized, indicating that, to maximize the influence of informed agents, the guidance should be started when regular agents have little knowledge about a subject under consideration. If the regular agents have had clear opinions, the full and unanimous consensus at the pre-set opinion cannot be achieved. However, the introduction of informed agents can make the majority of agents choose the pre-set opinion.

  17. Drug: D02398 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cation: metastatic and/or progressive Carcinoma of the prostate DNA map07040 Antineoplastics - alkylating agents map07043 Antineoplas...odium (USAN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics Antiestrogens/M...odifiers Estramustine D02398 Estramustine phosphate sodium (USAN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Alkylating ag...tics - hormones Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) cl

  18. Drug: D03257 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available er: HER2 [HSA:2064] map07045 Antineoplastics - protein kinases inhibitors Therape...utic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 429 Mis...57 Trastuzumab (genetical recombination) (JAN); Trastuzumab (INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Molecularly t

  19. Drug: D05350 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available er Genomic biomarker: EGFR [HSA:1956], KRAS [HSA:3845] map07045 Antineoplastics - protein kinases inhibitors...ATC:L01XC08] D05350 Panitumumab (genetical recombination) (JAN); Panitumumab (USAN/INN) Antineoplastics... Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplasti...cs 429 Miscellaneous 4291 Other Antitumors D05350 Panitumumab (genetical recombinat

  20. Drug: D02131 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nations D02131 Tegafur - uracil mixt Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Antimetabolites Pyrimidine analogues Tegaf...3 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplast...ics 422 Antimetabolites 4229 Others D02131 Tegafur - uracil mixt Anatomical Therape

  1. Drug: D00584 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A:1806] Genomic biomarker: DPYD [HSA:1806] map07041 Antineoplastics - antimetabolic agents map00983 Drug met...nts affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 422 Antimetabolites 4223 Fluorouracils D00584 Fluorouraci... Fluorouracil (JP16/USP/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Antimetabolites Pyrimid

  2. Drug: D04931 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3], SLC28A3 [HSA:64078], SLC29A1 [HSA:2030], SLC29A2 [HSA:3177] Genomic biomarker: TPMT [HSA:7172] map07041 Antineoplastics... classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics Antimetabolites Mercaptopurine D04931 Mercaptopurine (INN) Immu...nological Agents Immune Suppressants 6-Mercaptopurine D04931 Mercaptopurine (INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br0830

  3. Drug: D09314 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 429 Miscellaneous 4291 Other Antitumors D09314 Ofat...(genetical recombination) (JAN); Ofatumumab (USAN/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastic...A:931] [KO:K06466] Ofatumumab D09314 Ofatumumab (genetical recombination) (JAN); Ofatumumab (USAN/INN) Antineoplastics

  4. Drug: D01223 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pool by folate Enzyme: CYP2C9 [HSA:1559] Genomic biomarker: DPYD [HSA:1806] map07041 Antineoplastics...drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 422 Antimetabolites 4223...hase [HSA:7298] [KO:K00560] Capecitabine [ATC:L01BC06] D01223 Capecitabine (JAN/USAN/INN) Antineoplastics [B

  5. Fault Tolerance Mobile Agent System Using Witness Agent in 2-Dimensional Mesh Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rostami

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile agents are computer programs that act autonomously on behalf of a user or its owner and travel through a network of heterogeneous machines. Fault tolerance is important in their itinerary. In this paper, existent methods of fault tolerance in mobile agents are described which they are considered in linear network topology. In the methods three agents are used to fault tolerance by cooperating to each others for detecting and recovering server and agent failure. Three types of agents are: actual agent which performs programs for its owner, witness agent which monitors the actual agent and the witness agent after itself, probe which is sent for recovery the actual agent or the witness agent on the side of the witness agent. Communication mechanism in the methods is message passing between these agents. The methods are considered in linear network. We introduce our witness agent approach for fault tolerance mobile agent systems in Two Dimensional Mesh (2D-Mesh Network. Indeed Our approach minimizes Witness-Dependency in this network and then represents its algorithm.

  6. Bioprotective agents in safety control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević-Branković Suzana I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Food poisoning is the one of the main health hazards even today. More than 200 known diseases are transmitted through food. The causes of foodborne illness include viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, metals, and prions and the symptoms of foodborne illness range from mild gastroenteritis to life-threatening neurological, hepatic and renal syndromes.The prevention of food poisonings represents very serious task for food manufacturers. Beside food control according to the concept "from the farm to the table" there is increased need for the development of new technology for longer shelf lifes of food. Food fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB and traditionally considered to be safe. There are many substances produced by LAB that affect the shelf life of fermented food, by active suppression of poisoning microorganisms growth. Because of that, the LAB is recently considered as bioprotective agents that have important role in food safety.

  7. Host modulation by therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugumari Elavarasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease susceptible group present advanced periodontal breakdown even though they achieve a high standard of oral hygiene. Various destructive enzymes and inflammatory mediators are involved in destruction. These are elevated in case of periodontal destruction. Host modulation aims at bringing these enzymes and mediators to normal level. Doxycycline, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, bisphosphonates, nitrous oxide (NO synthase inhibitors, recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11, omega-3 fatty acid, mouse anti-human interleukin-6 receptor antibody (MRA, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kb inhibitors, osteoprotegerin, and tumor necrosis factor antagonist (TNF-α are some of the therapeutic agents that have host modulation properties.

  8. [Risk assessment of chemical agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista

    2011-01-01

    The risk assessment of chemical agents is a well known and applied process carried out by Industrial Hygienists and Occupational Physicians based on exposure evaluation. The application of REACH (CE 1907/2006), CLP (CE 1272/2008) and SDS (UE 453/2010) introduces some changes and instruments to carry out the occupational exposure assessment, like new classification of substances, Exposure Scenario, suggested control measures that the Industrial Hygienist and the Occupational Physician must evaluate. If there is not a similar Exposure Scenario to apply a new risk assessment must carried out also by recommended software (ECETOC Targeted Risk Assessment; Easy to use workplace EMKG; Stoffenmanager). Looking at the relevance of the control measures and evaluation of Exposure Scenario we report the flowchart of risk assessment and management by the Method of Organisational Congruencies carried out with the Prevention and Protection Service and Occupational Physician Office of the Health Service of the Azienda Provinciale of Trento.

  9. [Fiber as a carcinogenic agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, F

    1987-04-01

    According to the findings that long, thin, and durable fibres have a high carcinogenic potency after intrapleural and intraperitoneal administration, the elongated shape of a particle represents a carcinogenic agent; this physical phenomenon is a special cause of cancer. It induces a biological process which can lead to cancer by several as yet unknown steps. However, the properties of the material the fibres are made of determine the carcinogenic potency of a fibre in a secondary way although they do not seem to be responsible for the true carcinogenic agent. For example, these properties determine the degree of solubility and flexibility. The persistence of fibres in the tissue is a very important property with regard to their carcinogenic effect because the formation of a tumour takes many years or some decades. It can be assumed that a fibre has to remain by the bronchial or serosa tissue until the induction of tumour cells occurs. If this hypothesis is correct, there could be a "durability threshold value" for fibres whose length and diameter would otherwise indicate a high carcinogenic potency. There are indications that other fibre properties apart from length, diameter and durability are important for tumour induction, however, at present, they cannot be included in a definition of carcinogenic fibres. It is proposed to classify all natural and man-made mineral fibres with an aspect ratio of greater than 5:1 as carcinogenic when they are longer than 3 microns, thinner than 1 micron (or can split into such fine fibres) and when they can persist in the tissue for more than 3 years.

  10. Agent Reward Shaping for Alleviating Traffic Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Traffic congestion problems provide a unique environment to study how multi-agent systems promote desired system level behavior. What is particularly interesting in this class of problems is that no individual action is intrinsically "bad" for the system but that combinations of actions among agents lead to undesirable outcomes, As a consequence, agents need to learn how to coordinate their actions with those of other agents, rather than learn a particular set of "good" actions. This problem is ubiquitous in various traffic problems, including selecting departure times for commuters, routes for airlines, and paths for data routers. In this paper we present a multi-agent approach to two traffic problems, where far each driver, an agent selects the most suitable action using reinforcement learning. The agent rewards are based on concepts from collectives and aim to provide the agents with rewards that are both easy to learn and that if learned, lead to good system level behavior. In the first problem, we study how agents learn the best departure times of drivers in a daily commuting environment and how following those departure times alleviates congestion. In the second problem, we study how agents learn to select desirable routes to improve traffic flow and minimize delays for. all drivers.. In both sets of experiments,. agents using collective-based rewards produced near optimal performance (93-96% of optimal) whereas agents using system rewards (63-68%) barely outperformed random action selection (62-64%) and agents using local rewards (48-72%) performed worse than random in some instances.

  11. Drug: D00266 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0266.gif Antineoplastic [DS:H00005 H00011 H00028] Same as: C06900 ATC code: L01AA02 DNA map07040 Antineoplastics...A Nitrogen mustard analogues L01AA02 Chlorambucil D00266 Chlorambucil (USP/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics... Alkylating Agents Chlorambucil D00266 Chlorambucil (USP/INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br

  12. Drug: D00125 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SA:1576] Transporter: ABCC2 [HSA:1244] map07042 Antineoplastics - agents from nat... cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 424 Plant extract preparations 4240 Plant extract preparations D00125 ... drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics Enzyme Inhibitors Etoposide D00...ase II [HSA:7153 7155] [KO:K03164] Etoposide [ATC:L01CB01] D00125 Etoposide (JP16/USP/INN) Antineoplastics [

  13. Drug: D08224 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available I inhibitor [HSA:7153 7155] [KO:K03164] Transporter: ABCG2 [HSA:9429], ABCC2 [HSA:1244] map07042 Antineoplastics...7 Mitoxantrone D08224 Mitoxantrone (INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics Antineoplast...[ATC:L01DB07] D08224 Mitoxantrone (INN) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Natural products Antibiotics Mitoxantro...ics, Other Mitoxantrone D08224 Mitoxantrone (INN) Central Nervous System Agents Mul

  14. Drug: D00967 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available HSA:1576] map07043 Antineoplastics - hormones map07226 Progesterone, androgen and estrogen receptor agonists.../antagonists Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics...oremifene D00967 Toremifene citrate (JAN/USAN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplastics...2 [HSA:2100] [KO:K08551] Toremifene [ATC:L02BA02] D00967 Toremifene citrate (JAN/USAN) Antineoplastics

  15. Drug: D04988 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l 181.0506 181.6174 D04988.gif Antineoplastic agent used in photodynamic therapy ATC code: L01XD03 Anatomica...N) Antineoplastics [BR:br08308] Miscellaneous agents Sensitizers used in photodynamic/radiation therapy Meth...TINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01X OTHER ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01XD Sensitizers used in photodynamic/radiation ther...apy L01XD03 Methyl aminolevulinate D04988 Methyl aminolevulinate hydrochloride (USA

  16. Agent Grid技术研究初探%Initial Research on Agent Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英朝; 张维明; 肖卫东; 沙基昌

    2003-01-01

    The term "Grid" is increasingly appearing in computer literature, generally referring to some form of system framework into which hardware, software, or information resources can be plugged, and which permits easy configuration and creation of new functionality from existing resources. In this article, first, we introduce the concepts of Grid and Agent Grid based on our own understanding. Then we compare Agent Grid with the traditional Multi-Agent System to make the concept and characters of Agent Grid much clearer. Next, the key techniques of Agent Grid, such as Agent Grid System Architecture, System Models, Intelligent Agents and Agent-Based System Resource Management, are thoroughly illustrated. Finally, we briefly discusse the future applications of Agent Grid.

  17. MATRIX-AGENT FRAMEWORK:A VIRTUAL PLATFORM FOR MULTI-AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Lan ZHANG; Clement H.C. LEUNG; Gitesh K. RAIKUNDALIA

    2006-01-01

    Multi-agent technology has been applied extensively to many areas, including Decision Support Systems (DSS). However, the applications of multi-agent technology in DSS are still very preliminary.Most of the current agent frameworks, such as middle-agent-based or agent-facilitator-based frameworks, are basically agent-to-agent model. These agent-based frameworks often neglect the living environment for agents and they suffer from: (i) inability to adapt to the environment, (ii)inability to self-upgrade, and (iii) inefficiency in information acquisition. Here, we introduce a recently proposed multi-agent framework, namely Agent-based Open Connectivity for Decision Support Systems (AOCD). In this new framework, the communication and cooperation between agents are through a key component, the Matrix, which provides a virtual platform for agents. We use a unified Matrices framework to solve the bottleneck problem in the AOCD framework. Our experimental results based on different agent network topologies indicate that the hybrid topology presents superior performance compared with the centralised and decentralised topologies.

  18. Persuasive Conversational Agent with Persuasion Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Tatsuya; Kitamura, Yasuhiko

    Persuasive conversational agents persuade people to change their attitudes or behaviors through conversation, and are expected to be applied as virtual sales clerks in e-shopping sites. As an approach to create such an agent, we have developed a learning agent with the Wizard of Oz method in which a person called Wizard talks to the user pretending to be the agent. The agent observes the conversations between the Wizard and the user, and learns how to persuade people. In this method, the Wizard has to reply to most of the user's inputs at the beginning, but the burden gradually falls because the agent learns how to reply as the conversation model grows.

  19. Diuretic Agents in Treatment of Sudden Deafness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Chang-you; LI Hong-tao; ZHOU Ding-rong; CHEN Ji-chuan; WANG Yi-nan; GUAN Li-qian; ZHANG Min

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the role of diuretic agents in treating sudden deafness (SD) and explore the possibility of endolymphatic hydrops as a potential cause of SD. Methods Twenty-eight SD cases were reviewed. In 23 cases, treatment was initiated with routine agents. Diuretic agents were later added in 8 of these cases that failed to respond to routine treatment agents. Diuretic agents were included in the initial treatment in the rest 5 cases. In total, 13 cases received diuretics in addition to routine treatment agents and 15 cases received conventional treatment only. Results In the 8 cases who received diuretics after failed conventional treatments, 4 showed hearing improvement, whereas all 5 cases in which diuretics were included in the initial treatment demonstrated hearing improvement. Conclusion These results suggest a possible role of endolymphatic hydrops in the pathophysiologic course of SD. Diuretics should be considered when clear indications exist with no conflicts to other medical conditions.

  20. Multi-Agent Information Classification Using Dynamic Acquaintance Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis; Peng, Shengquan; Raje, Rajeev; Palakal, Mathew; Mostafa, Javed

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of automated information services focuses on information classification and collaborative agents, i.e. intelligent computer programs. Highlights include multi-agent systems; distributed artificial intelligence; thesauri; document representation and classification; agent modeling; acquaintances, or remote agents discovered through…

  1. Massive Multi-Agent Systems Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagne, Jean-Charles; Gardon, Alain; Collomb, Etienne; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2004-01-01

    In order to build massive multi-agent systems, considered as complex and dynamic systems, one needs a method to analyze and control the system. We suggest an approach using morphology to represent and control the state of large organizations composed of a great number of light software agents. Morphology is understood as representing the state of the multi-agent system as shapes in an abstract geometrical space, this notion is close to the notion of phase space in physics.

  2. Web-Based Computing Resource Agent Publishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Web-based Computing Resource Publishing is a efficient way to provide additional computing capacity for users who need more computing resources than that they themselves could afford by making use of idle computing resources in the Web.Extensibility and reliability are crucial for agent publishing. The parent-child agent framework and primary-slave agent framework were proposed respectively and discussed in detail.

  3. Intelligent Agents in E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin LITOIU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the importance of intelligent agents in e-commerce, with a particular focus on the B2C and B2B context. From the consumer buying behaviour perspective, agents can be used to assist the following stages: need identification, product brokering, buyer coalition formation, merchant brokering and negotiation. Related to B2B commerce, intelligent agents are involved in partnership formation, brokering and negotiation.

  4. Deaths due to Unknown Foodborne Agents

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This study reviews the available evidence on unknown pathogenic agents transmitted in food and examines the methods that have been used to estimate that such agents cause 3,400 deaths per year in the United States. The estimate of deaths was derived from hospital discharge and death certificate data on deaths attributed to gastroenteritis of unknown cause. Fatal illnesses due to unknown foodborne agents do not always involve gastroenteritis, and gastroenteritis may not be accurately diagnosed...

  5. Resource Adaptive Agents in Interactive Theorem Proving

    CERN Document Server

    Benzmueller, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a resource adaptive agent mechanism which supports the user in interactive theorem proving. The mechanism uses a two layered architecture of agent societies to suggest appropriate commands together with possible command argument instantiations. Experiments with this approach show that its effectiveness can be further improved by introducing a resource concept. In this paper we provide an abstract view on the overall mechanism, motivate the necessity of an appropriate resource concept and discuss its realization within the agent architecture.

  6. Affective Embodied Conversational Agents for Natural Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezo, Eva; Baldassarri, Sandra; Hupont, Isabelle; Seron, Francisco J.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents a completely automated real-time character-based interface, where a scriptable affective humanoid 3D agent interacts with the user. Special care has been taken in making it possible multimodal natural user-agent interaction: communication is accomplished via text, image and voice (natural language). Our embodied agents are equipped with an emotional state which can be modified throughout the conversation with the user, and depends on the emotional state detected from the...

  7. Decentralized network management based on mobile agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋; 冯珊

    2004-01-01

    The mobile agent technology can be employed effectively for the decentralized management of complex networks. We show how the integration of mobile agent with legacy management protocol, such as simple network management protocol (SNMP), leads to decentralized management architecture. HostWatcher is a framework that allows mobile agents to roam network, collect and process data, and perform certain adaptive actions. A prototype system is built and a quantitative analysis underlines the benefits in respect to reducing network load.

  8. Glaucoma: role of neuroprotective agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut N. Pandey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy, considered as the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Glaucoma is characterized by selective death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC and a progressive loss of vision. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is one of the most important risk factors for developing glaucoma and hence we mainly focus on lowering IOP to arrest the progression of glaucoma. However, many patients continue to demonstrate a clinically downhill course despite the control of initially raised IOP. In fact, some patients develop what is called normal tension glaucoma, not associated to an increased IOP. This emphasizes that several pressure-independent mechanisms are responsible for the development and progression of glaucomatous neuropathy and that high IOP and vascular insufficiency in the optic nerve head are only risk factors for the development of glaucoma, and are not the only target for the treatment of glaucoma. The reason is that the process of RGC death is thought to be biphasic, and the primary injury is followed by a slower secondary degeneration related to a noxious environment surrounding the apoptotic cells. This environment is characterized by changes in the extra-cellular ionic concentrations, increased amounts of free radicals, neurotrophins (NT depletion and increased glutamate-induced excitotoxicity due to high extra-cellular glutamate levels, which binds to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors leading to an abnormally high intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Neuroprotection is a process that attempts to preserve the remaining cells that are still vulnerable to damage, and the main aim of neuroprotective therapy is to employ pharmacologic or other means to attenuate the hostility of the environment surrounding the degenerating cells, or to supply the cells with the tools to deal with this aggression, providing resilience to the insult. Several agents have been reported neuroprotective in glaucoma, both in clinical assays

  9. Multi-agent systems simulation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmacher, Adelinde M

    2009-01-01

    Methodological Guidelines for Modeling and Developing MAS-Based SimulationsThe intersection of agents, modeling, simulation, and application domains has been the subject of active research for over two decades. Although agents and simulation have been used effectively in a variety of application domains, much of the supporting research remains scattered in the literature, too often leaving scientists to develop multi-agent system (MAS) models and simulations from scratch. Multi-Agent Systems: Simulation and Applications provides an overdue review of the wide ranging facets of MAS simulation, i

  10. Agent-Based Health Monitoring System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose combination of software intelligent agents to achieve decentralized reasoning, with fault detection and diagnosis using PCA, neural nets, and maximum...

  11. Active evacuation guidance using sensor agent robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ise, Daiki; Mita, Akira

    2012-04-01

    Evacuation systems for buildings are designed based on event scenarios, so they are not prepared for unexpected events that are not included in the scenarios. In this paper, we propose a new active evacuation guidance system using sensor agent robots. We first introduce a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system to be used in conjunction with sensor agent robots for active evacuation guidance. Then the role of sensor agent robots is explained. An algorithm to immediately access the safety of the building after a large earthquake is also proposed using only the information taken by a sensor agent robot.

  12. Multi-agent and complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Fenghui; Fujita, Katsuhide; Zhang, Minjie; Ito, Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a description of advanced multi-agent and artificial intelligence technologies for the modeling and simulation of complex systems, as well as an overview of the latest scientific efforts in this field. A complex system features a large number of interacting components, whose aggregate activities are nonlinear and self-organized. A multi-agent system is a group or society of agents which interact with others cooperatively and/or competitively in order to reach their individual or common goals. Multi-agent systems are suitable for modeling and simulation of complex systems, which is difficult to accomplish using traditional computational approaches.

  13. The Research on Mobile-agent Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mobile agent technology offers a new computing paradigm in which a program, in the form of a software agent, can suspend its execution in a host computer, transfer itself to another agent-enabled host in the network, and resume execution of the new host. As the sophistication of mobile software has increased with the time, so have the associated threats to security. This paper provides an overview of the range of threats facing the designers of mobile agent. The paper also identifies generic security objectives, and a range of measures for countering the identified threats.

  14. Integrating Interaction Framework for Agent Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖正光; 王振杰; 徐良贤

    2003-01-01

    Agent negotiation has become increasingly important since the advent of electronic commerce.There are two kinds of interactions in the process of agent negotiation.One is the interaction between different agents,and the other is the interaction between the agent and the human user.In this paper,firstly,we introduce Q language,a scenario description language for designing interactions between agents and human users.Then we propose an integrating interaction framework for agent negotiation,in which both kinds of interactions are described by Q scenario.Our framework can make the interaction process open and easy to be understood by the users.Users can understand how the negotiation process goes and what is happening in the system including some erroneous or inappropriate actions caused by the negotiation agent.This gives the users a chance to terminate or change the behavior of negotiation agent in time to avoid unfavorable negotiation outcome.In addition,users can customize the agent's behaviors through visible interactions with it.

  15. Direct anti-HCV agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingquan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a curable disease. Current direct antiviral agent (DAA targets are focused on HCV NS3/4A protein (protease, NS5B protein (polymerase and NS5A protein. The first generation of DAAs includes boceprevir and telaprevir, which are protease inhibitors and were approved for clinical use in 2011. The cure rate for genotype 1 patients increased from 45% to 70% when boceprevir or telaprevir was added to standard PEG-IFN/ribavirin. More effective and less toxic second generation DAAs supplanted these drugs by 2013. The second generation of DAAs includes sofosbuvir (Sovaldi, simeprevir (Olysio, and fixed combination medicines Harvoni and Viekira Pak. These drugs increase cure rates to over 90% without the need for interferon and effectively treat all HCV genotypes. With these drugs the “cure HCV” goal has become a reality. Concerns remain about drug resistance mutations and the high cost of these drugs. The investigation of new HCV drugs is progressing rapidly; fixed dose combination medicines in phase III clinical trials include Viekirax, asunaprevir+daclatasvir+beclabuvir, grazoprevir+elbasvir and others.

  16. Dronedarone: a new antiarrhythmic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetayo, Ola O; Rogers, Carrie E; Hofmann, Prudence O

    2010-09-01

    Dronedarone is an antiarrhythmic agent recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the reduction of cardiovascular-related hospitalizations in patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. The drug is a derivative of amiodarone and has been modified to reduce the organ toxicities frequently encountered with amiodarone. Dronedarone exerts its antiarrhythmic effects through multichannel blockade of the sodium, potassium, and calcium channels and also possesses antiadrenergic activity, thereby exhibiting pharmacologic effects of all four Vaughan Williams classes of antiarrhythmics. The efficacy of dronedarone for the maintenance of sinus rhythm, ventricular rate control, and reduction in cardiovascular-related hospitalizations has been demonstrated in several randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Although a high rate of gastrointestinal events (e.g., nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea) has been associated with dronedarone, more serious adverse events such as thyroid, liver, or pulmonary toxicities have not been observed. Because of a possible increase in mortality, dronedarone should be avoided in patients with New York Heart Association class IV or II-III heart failure with a recent decompensation. Given the efficacy and safety data currently available, dronedarone represents a reasonable alternative for maintenance of sinus rhythm in appropriately selected patients.

  17. Departments as Agents of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1996-07-01

    Higher education is changing because it has no choice. And, for the most part, outside influences are dictating the processes of change. The more fortunate institutions have had a flat budget during this period, but most have been forced to deal with a declining revenue stream as well. Legislators seem bent on micromanaging state-supported institutions, even as they cut their support. Regulators demand greater institutional accountability. Students and their parents expect more service at lower prices and increased flexibility. Technological advances have dramatically affected the availability and accessibility of extant knowledge. It is no longer a question of whether institutions will change, but rather, who will control the change. Most institutions possess long-standing academic traditions, but these are placed at risk in an increasingly competitive market that holds little sympathy for such traditions and may even see them as obstacles or barriers. As a result, the change agents will undoubtedly have a profound effect on the very nature of academic institutions. From the academic point of view, it would seem prudent to attempt to manage the changes that will inevitably occur. A number of concerned observers, notably the Pew Higher Education Roundtable and the American Association for Higher Education, argue persuasively that the academic department is the logical focus for responding to the current winds of change. Using a marketing metaphor, the academic department has been likened to a "producers' cooperative" of services that consumers seek. Thus, the department should be held accountable for the quality of teaching delivered by its members, for the coherence of its major, for its contributions to the general education curriculum, and for supervising and rewarding its individual faculty members. If departments are to be held accountable, it is surely in their best interest to act in such a way that they are accountable. Expecting academic departments to be

  18. Copper complexes as therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Clare; White, Anthony R

    2012-02-01

    The importance of transition metals in biological processes has been well established. Copper (Cu) is a transition metal that can exist in oxidised and reduced states. This allows it to participate in redox and catalytic chemistry, making it a suitable cofactor for a diverse range of enzymes and molecules. Cu deficiency or toxicity is implicated in a variety of pathological conditions; therefore inorganic complexes of Cu have been investigated for their therapeutic and diagnostic potential. These Cu complexes have been shown to be effective in cancer treatment due to their cytotoxic action on tumour cells. Alternatively, Cu complexes can also modulate Cu homeostasis in the brain, resulting in protective effects in several models of neurodegeneration. In other diseases such as coronary heart disease and skin disease, the success of Cu complexes as potential therapeutics will most likely be due to their ability to increase SOD activity, leading to relief of oxidative stress. This review seeks to provide a broad insight into some of the diverse actions of Cu complexes and demonstrate the strong future for these compounds as potential therapeutic agents.

  19. Application Framework with Abstractions for Protocol and Agent Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    2016-01-01

    In multi-agent systems, agents interact by sending and receiving messages and the actual sequences of message form interaction structures between agents. Protocols and agents organized internally by agent roles support these interaction structures. Description and use of protocols based on agent...

  20. Drug: D00960 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4 [HSA:1576] map07043 Antineoplastics - hormones Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agent...s affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 429 Miscellaneous 4291 Other Antitumors D00960 Anastrozole ...matase [HSA:1588] [KO:K07434] Anastrozole [ATC:L02BG03] D00960 Anastrozole (JAN/USAN/INN) Antineoplastics [B...TS L02BG Aromatase inhibitors L02BG03 Anastrozole D00960 Anastrozole (JAN/USAN/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplast...ics Aromatase Inhibitors, 3rd Generation Anastrozole D00

  1. Drug: D00341 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etabolism hsa04115(6241) p53 signaling pathway map07041 Antineoplastics - antimetabolic agents Therapeutic c...ategory of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 42 Antineoplastics 422 Antimetab...:6241] [KO:K10808] Hydroxycarbamide [ATC:L01XX05] D00341 Hydroxycarbamide (JAN/INN); Hydroxyurea (USP) Antineoplastics...ide D00341 Hydroxycarbamide (JAN/INN); Hydroxyurea (USP) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antineoplast...ics Antimetabolites Hydroxyurea D00341 Hydroxycarbamide (JAN/INN); Hydroxyurea (USP

  2. Drug: D07252 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L ANTINEOPLASTIC AND IMMUNOMODULATING AGENTS L01 ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01A ALKYLATING AGENTS L01AA Nitrogen mustard analogue... [BR:br08308] Alkylating agents Nitrogen mustard analogues Trofosfamide [ATC:L01AA07] D07252 Trofosfamide (I

  3. Drug: D05807 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NTINEOPLASTIC AND IMMUNOMODULATING AGENTS L01 ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01X OTHER ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS L01XA Platinum...cs [BR:br08308] Alkylating agents Platinum compounds Satraplatin [ATC:L01XA04] D05807 Satraplatin (USAN/INN)

  4. Drug: D05822 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lastic Same as: C07640 ATC code: L01AD03 map07040 Antineoplastics - alkylating agents Anatomical Therapeutic...AGENTS L01A ALKYLATING AGENTS L01AD Nitrosoureas L01AD03 Semustine D05822 Semustine (USAN/INN) Antineoplas...tics [BR:br08308] Alkylating agents Nitrosoureas Semustine [ATC:L01AD03] D05822 Sem

  5. Cleaning Efficiencies of Three Cleaning Agents on Four Different Surfaces after Contamination by Gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlandt, Antje; Groeneveld, Svenja; Fischer, Elke; Schierl, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs has been documented for decades showing widespread contamination in preparation and administration areas. Apart from preventive measures, efficient cleaning of surfaces is indispensable to minimize the exposure risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of three cleaning agents after intentional contamination by gemcitabine (GEM) and 5-fluorouracile (5-FU) on four different surface types usually installed in healthcare settings. Glass, stainless steel, polyvinylchloride (PVC), and laminated wood plates were contaminated with 20 ng/μl GEM and 2 ng/μl 5-FU solutions. Wipe samples were analyzed for drug residues after cleaning with a) distilled water, b) aqueous solution containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (10 mM) and 2-propanol (SDS-2P), and c) Incides N (pre-soaked) alcoholic wipes. Quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for GEM and gas chromato-graphy-tandem mass spectrometry (GCMS/MS) for 5-FU. Recovery was determined and cleaning efficiency was calculated for each scenario. Mean recoveries were 77-89% for GEM and 24-77% for 5-FU and calculated cleaning efficiencies ranged between 95 and 100% and 89 and 100%, respectively. Residual drug amounts were detected in the range nd (not detected) - 84 ng GEM/sample and nd - 6.6 ng 5-FU/sample depending on surface type and cleaning agent. Distilled water and SDS-2P had better decontamination outcomes than Incides N wipes on nearly all surface types, especially for GEM. Regarding 5-FU, the overall cleaning efficiency was lower with highest residues on laminated wood surfaces. The tested cleaning procedures are shown to clean glass, stainless steel, PVC, and laminated wood with an efficiency of 89-100% after contamination with GEM and 5-FU. Nevertheless, drug residues could be verified by wipe samples. Pure distilled water and SDS in an alcoholic-aqueous solution expressed an efficient cleaning performance, especially with

  6. Safe motion planning for mobile agents: A model of reactive planning for multiple mobile agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Kikuo.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of motion planning for multiple mobile agents is studied. Each planning agent independently plans its own action based on its map which contains a limited information about the environment. In an environment where more than one mobile agent interacts, the motions of the robots are uncertain and dynamic. A model for reactive agents is described and simulation results are presented to show their behavior patterns. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Group Behavior Learning in Multi-Agent Systems Based on Social Interaction Among Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kun; Maeda, Yoichiro; Takahashi, Yasutake

    2011-01-01

    Research on multi-agent systems, in which autonomous agents are able to learn cooperative behavior, has been the subject of rising expectations in recent years. We have aimed at the group behavior generation of the multi-agents who have high levelsof autonomous learning ability, like that of human beings, through social interaction between agents to acquire cooperative behavior. The sharing of environmentstates can improve cooperative ability, andthe changing state of the environment in the i...

  8. Practice among Novice Change Agents in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossing, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to understand practice as negotiation of meaning among novice and internal change agents in school organisations. The research question is as follows: What themes of participation and reification/management occur among the change agents? The study was qualitative in design using the social learning theory of community of…

  9. Security of Mobile Agents on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Antonio; Montanari, Rebecca; Stefanelli, Cesare

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet focuses on new programming paradigms based on mobile agents. Considers the security issues associated with mobile agents and proposes a security architecture composed of a wide set of services and components capable of adapting to a variety of applications, particularly electronic commerce. (Author/LRW)

  10. Agent Based Reasoning in Multilevel Flow Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2012-01-01

    to launch the MFM Workbench into an agent based environment, which can complement disadvantages of the original software. The agent-based MFM Workbench is centered on a concept called “Blackboard System” and use an event based mechanism to arrange the reasoning tasks. This design will support the new...

  11. Modelling cooperative agents in infrastructure networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtvoet, A.; Chappin, E.J.L.; Stikkelman, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the translation of concepts of cooperation into an agent-based model of an industrial network. It first addresses the concept of cooperation and how this could be captured as heuristical rules within agents. Then it describes tests using these heuristics in an abstract model of

  12. Freeze conditioning agents ease winter railcar unloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.E.

    1982-02-01

    A US midwest utility's freeze control programme is described. All coal is treated with a glycol-based freeze control agent. Some rail wagons were treated with a side release agent which stops coal sticking to the metal wagon. The use of calcium chloride or heat to thaw frozen coal is also discussed.

  13. Cognitive agent programming : A semantic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, M.B. van

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we are concerned with the design and investigation of dedicated programming languages for programming agents. We focus in particular on programming languages for rational agents, i.e., flexibly behaving computing entities that are able to make "good" decisions about what to do. An imp

  14. Tennessee Extension Agents' Perceptions of Performance Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Joseph L.; French, Russell L.

    2013-01-01

    Performance appraisal is necessary for summative decisions about employees, such as merit pay and promotion. The research reported here describes Extension agent perceptions of their performance appraisal system. The population studied consisted of all Tennessee Extension agents (N = 312). Surveys were completed by 218 respondents, for a completed…

  15. On conversational agents with mental states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Provoost, S.

    2015-01-01

    Embodied conversational agents (ECAs) have been put forward as a promising means for the training of social skills. The traditional approach to drive the behaviour of ECAs during human-agent dialogues is to use conversation trees. Although this approach is easy to use and very transparent, an import

  16. Towards Emergent Energy Synchronization using Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pournaras, E.; Warnier, M.E.; Brazier, F.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Synchronization of energy consumption is a key determinant for the stabilization of smart energy grids. This paper proposes software agents that locally synchronize the energy usage of appliances to minimize the oscillations in global energy consumption. Agents can manage demand-side devices with pe

  17. Modeling of Agent Behavior Using Behavioral Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Treur, J.

    2006-01-01

    The behavioral dynamics of a cognitive agent can be considered both from an external and an internal perspective. From the external perspective, behavior is described by specifying (temporal) correlations between input and output states of the agent. From the internal perspective the agent’s dynamic

  18. Marine natural products as prototype agrochemical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiangnan; Shen, Xiaoyu; El Sayed, Khalid A; Dunbar, D Charles; Perry, Tony L; Wilkins, Scott P; Hamann, Mark T; Bobzin, Steve; Huesing, Joseph; Camp, Robin; Prinsen, Mike; Krupa, Dan; Wideman, Margaret A

    2003-04-09

    In the interest of identifying new leads that could serve as prototype agrochemical agents, 18 structurally diverse marine-derived compounds were examined for insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal activities. Several new classes of compounds have been shown to be insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal, which suggests that marine natural products represent an intriguing source for the discovery of new agrochemical agents.

  19. Marine Natural Products as Prototype Agrochemical Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Jiangnan; Shen, Xiaoyu; Khalid A. El Sayed; Dunbar, D. C Harles; Perry, Tony L.; Wilkins, Scott P.; Hamann, Mark T.; Bobzin, Steve; Huesing, Joseph; Camp, Robin; Prinsen, Mike; Krupa, Dan; Wideman, Margaret A.

    2003-01-01

    In the interest of identifying new leads that could serve as prototype agrochemical agents, 18 structurally diverse marine-derived compounds were examined for insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal activities. Several new classes of compounds have been shown to be insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal, which suggests that marine natural products represent an intriguing source for the discovery of new agrochemical agents.

  20. Biological agents in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarilyo, Gil; Tarp, Simon; Foeldvari, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although various biological agents are in use for polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA), head-to-head trials comparing the efficacy and safety among them are lacking. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of biological agents in pJIA using all currentl...

  1. Modelling social agents: Communication as actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, F.P.M.; Linder, B. van; M. Wooldridge J. Muller and N. Jennings

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we present a formal framework for social agents. The social agents consist of four components: the information component (containing knowledge and belief), the action component, the motivational component (where goals, intentions, etc. play arole) and the social component (containing a

  2. 12 CFR 725.4 - Agent membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agent membership. 725.4 Section 725.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.4 Agent membership. (a) A central credit union or a group...

  3. Agent programming languages: programming with mental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    Intelligent Agents are personal assistants which can provide proactive support to users by executing routine activities like searching on the Internet, the scheduling of meetings, etc. The concept of an Intelligent Agent has its roots in Artificial Intelligence and provides a basis for the con

  4. Agent based computational model of trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gorobets (Alexander); B. Nooteboom (Bart)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper employs the methodology of Agent-Based Computational Economics (ACE) to investigate under what conditions trust can be viable in markets. The emergence and breakdown of trust is modeled in a context of multiple buyers and suppliers. Agents adapt their trust in a partner, the w

  5. PU Sizing Agent Sector Starts Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei

    2007-01-01

    @@ Polyurethane (PU) sizing agent is a thermoplastic PU elastomer extensively used in synthetic leather, artificial deerskin and electrostatic flocking sectors. The drastic production and demand increase of synthetic leather in China in recent years has promoted rapid consumption growth of PU sizing agent.

  6. Designing Negotiating Agent for Automated Negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Traditional research in automated negotiation is focused on negotiation protocol and strategy.This paper studies automated negotiation from a new point of view, proposes a novel concept, namely negotiating agent, and discusses its significance in construction of automated negotiation system, with an abstract model formally described and the architecture designed, which supports both goal-directed reasoning and reactive response. A communication model was proposed to construct interaction mechanism used by negotiating agents, in which the negotiation language used by agents is defined.The communication model and the language are defined in a way general enough to support a wide variety of market mechanisms, thus being particularly suitable for flexible applications such as electronic business. The design and expression of the negotiation ontology is also discussed. On the base of the theoretical model of negotiating agent, negotiating agent architecture and negotiating agent communication model (NACM) are explicit and formal specifications for the agents negotiating in an E-business environment; especially, NACM defines the negotiation language template shared among all agents formally and explicitly. The novelty of the communication model is twofold.

  7. Advances on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Jörg; Rodríguez, Juan; Pérez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Research on Agents and Multi-Agent Systems has matured during the last decade and many effective applications of this technology are now deployed. PAAMS provides an international forum to present and discuss the latest scientific developments and their effective applications, to assess the impact of the approach, and to facilitate technology transfer. PAAMS started as a local initiative, but has since grown to become THE international yearly platform to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development and deployment of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS intends to bring together researchers and developers from industry and the academic world to report on the latest scientific and technical advances on the application of multi-agent systems, to discuss and debate the major ...

  8. Econophysics of agent-based models

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, Hideaki; Chakrabarti, Bikas; Chakraborti, Anirban; Ghosh, Asim

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this book is to present the research findings and conclusions of physicists, economists, mathematicians and financial engineers working in the field of "Econophysics" who have undertaken agent-based modelling, comparison with empirical studies and related investigations. Most standard economic models assume the existence of the representative agent, who is “perfectly rational” and applies the utility maximization principle when taking action. One reason for this is the desire to keep models mathematically tractable: no tools are available to economists for solving non-linear models of heterogeneous adaptive agents without explicit optimization. In contrast, multi-agent models, which originated from statistical physics considerations, allow us to go beyond the prototype theories of traditional economics involving the representative agent. This book is based on the Econophys-Kolkata VII Workshop, at which many such modelling efforts were presented. In the book, leading researchers in the...

  9. Fault Reconnaissance Agent for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadi M. Shakshuki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key prerequisite for a scalable, effective and efficient sensor network is the utilization of low-cost, low-overhead and high-resilient fault-inference techniques. To this end, we propose an intelligent agent system with a problem solving capability to address the issue of fault inference in sensor network environments. The intelligent agent system is designed and implemented at base-station side. The core of the agent system – problem solver – implements a fault-detection inference engine which harnesses Expectation Maximization (EM algorithm to estimate fault probabilities of sensor nodes. To validate the correctness and effectiveness of the intelligent agent system, a set of experiments in a wireless sensor testbed are conducted. The experimental results show that our intelligent agent system is able to precisely estimate the fault probability of sensor nodes.

  10. Development of Soda Residue Concrete Expansion Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-min; WANG Li-jiu; M F Mohd Zain; F C Lai

    2003-01-01

    A new type of concrete expansion agent has been successfully developed for the first time in the world by utilizing an industrial waste residue-soda residue and an industrial wasteliquor.Adding 3%-6% of the agent into Portland cement enables a shrinkage-compensating concrete to be prepared.Mortar and concrete containing this expansion agent have better shrinkage-compensating and mechanical properties.The raw materials component,production process,technical properties,micro-analysis of mortar made with this expansion agent,mechanism of expansion and research results are described in this article.The experimental results show that the new type of concrete expansion agent accords with the standard and its main mineral component is xCaO-ySO3-zAl2O3.

  11. Highlights on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, Miguel; Mathieu, Philippe; Rodríguez, Juan; Adam, Emmanuel; Ortega, Alfonso; Moreno, María; Navarro, Elena; Hirsch, Benjamin; Lopes-Cardoso, Henrique; Julián, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Research on Agents and Multi-Agent Systems has matured during the last decade and many effective applications of this technology are now deployed. PAAMS provides an international forum to present and discuss the latest scientific developments and their effective applications, to assess the impact of the approach, and to facilitate technology transfer. PAAMS started as a local initiative, but has since grown to become THE international yearly platform to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development and deployment of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS intends to bring together researchers and developers from industry and the academic world to report on the latest scientific and technical advances on the application of multi-agent systems, to discuss and debate the major ...

  12. Automated Agent Ontology Creation for Distributed Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Query Agent ..……………………………………………………47 3.3 Database Agent Implementation…………………………………………………..48 3.3.1 Leader Election Procedure...algorithm. Section 3.3.1 details the leader election process, Section 3.3.2 discusses the Jaro method, and Section 3.3.3 details the ontology creation...Receives new number Receives new number from Agent2 from Agent2 Figure 3-2. Agent leader communication 49 3.3.1 Leader Election Procedure Figure

  13. Agent-oriented modeling of the dynamics of complex biological processes I: single agent models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the pair of papers of which this is Part I, the agent-oriented modeling perspective to cope with biological complexity is discussed. Three levels of dynamics are distinguished and related to each other: dynamics of externally observable agent behavior, dynamics of internal agent processes, and dy

  14. 9th KES Conference on Agent and Multi-Agent Systems : Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2015-01-01

    Agents and multi-agent systems are related to a modern software paradigm which has long been recognized as a promising technology for constructing autonomous, complex and intelligent systems. The topics covered in this volume include agent-oriented software engineering, agent co-operation, co-ordination, negotiation, organization and communication, distributed problem solving, specification of agent communication languages, agent privacy, safety and security, formalization of ontologies and conversational agents. The volume highlights new trends and challenges in agent and multi-agent research and includes 38 papers classified in the following specific topics: learning paradigms, agent-based modeling and simulation, business model innovation and disruptive technologies, anthropic-oriented computing, serious games and business intelligence, design and implementation of intelligent agents and multi-agent systems, digital economy, and advances in networked virtual enterprises. Published p...

  15. For whom will the Bayesian agents vote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caticha, Nestor; Cesar, Jonatas; Vicente, Renato

    2015-04-01

    Within an agent-based model where moral classifications are socially learned, we ask if a population of agents behaves in a way that may be compared with conservative or liberal positions in the real political spectrum. We assume that agents first experience a formative period, in which they adjust their learning style acting as supervised Bayesian adaptive learners. The formative phase is followed by a period of social influence by reinforcement learning. By comparing data generated by the agents with data from a sample of 15000 Moral Foundation questionnaires we found the following. 1. The number of information exchanges in the formative phase correlates positively with statistics identifying liberals in the social influence phase. This is consistent with recent evidence that connects the dopamine receptor D4-7R gene, political orientation and early age social clique size. 2. The learning algorithms that result from the formative phase vary in the way they treat novelty and corroborative information with more conservative-like agents treating it more equally than liberal-like agents. This is consistent with the correlation between political affiliation and the Openness personality trait reported in the literature. 3. Under the increase of a model parameter interpreted as an external pressure, the statistics of liberal agents resemble more those of conservative agents, consistent with reports on the consequences of external threats on measures of conservatism. We also show that in the social influence phase liberal-like agents readapt much faster than conservative-like agents when subjected to changes on the relevant set of moral issues. This suggests a verifiable dynamical criterium for attaching liberal or conservative labels to groups.

  16. Polyphenols as cancer chemopreventive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, G D; Mukhtar, H

    1995-01-01

    This article summarizes available data on the chemopreventive efficacies of tea polyphenols, curcumin and ellagic acid in various model systems. Emphasis is placed upon the anticarcinogenic activity of these polyphenols and their proposed mechanism(s) of action. Tea is grown in about 30 countries and, next to water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Tea is manufactured as either green, black, or oolong; black tea represents approximately 80% of tea products. Epidemiological studies, though inconclusive, suggest a protective effect of tea consumption on human cancer. Experimental studies of the antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of tea have been conducted principally with green tea polyphenols (GTPs). GTPs exhibit antimutagenic activity in vitro, and they inhibit carcinogen-induced skin, lung, forestomach, esophagus, duodenum and colon tumors in rodents. In addition, GTPs inhibit TPA-induced skin tumor promotion in mice. Although several GTPs possess anticarcinogenic activity, the most active is (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major constituent in the GTP fraction. Several mechanisms appear to be responsible for the tumor-inhibitory properties of GTPs, including enhancement of antioxidant (glutathione peroxidase, catalase and quinone reductase) and phase II (glutathione-S-transferase) enzyme activities; inhibition of chemically induced lipid peroxidation; inhibition of irradiation- and TPA-induced epidermal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and cyclooxygenase activities; inhibition of protein kinase C and cellular proliferation; antiinflammatory activity; and enhancement of gap junction intercellular communication. Curcumin is the yellow coloring agent in the spice tumeric. It exhibits antimutagenic activity in the Ames Salmonella test and has anticarcinogenic activity, inhibiting chemically induced preneoplastic lesions in the breast and colon and neoplastic lesions in the skin, forestomach, duodenum and colon of rodents. In addition

  17. An Application of Mobile Agent System in Network Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGChen-xiang; DUJun-ping; YINYi-xin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an application of a reusable mobile agent system in network management. A mobile agent reusable system is constructed to realize a new method in forming mobile agent systems. By using this method, an agent can change its route dynamically without making any change to its specific behavior. By classifying mobile agents into two categories, the task agent can be reusable in different networks. In this way, a mobile agent system can easily carry out network management tasks.

  18. Dynamic Channel Allocation Management Using Agents Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion BOGDAN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Channel allocation schemes are management techniques meant to solve the radio access problem in the telecommunications area. There are several known schemes namely: static, dynamic, hybrid and flexible channel allocation schemes. In our work we developed the channel allocation scheme using a decentralized structure, based on software agents. In order to create such a structure, some functions must be carried out by some specialized functional entities. Each functional entity is implemented with an agent, having a specific role. Using this manner of implementation, different functions of the system can be implemented at different sites, located apart and also the structure can be modularized. In our work we have created the agents structure and the communications between agents, on the use of Multiagent Systems Engineering Technology. We also involved the AgentTool platform to automate the creation of the agents structure and the code resulted was in Java. In order to realize the test of our system we considered a shape of 21 radio areas, each including a number of users. Each wireless user can initiate a number of calls per hour and each call last a holding time. The communications between agents were realized for the TCP/IP protocol, based on socket connections.

  19. Agent-Supported Mission Operations Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of software agents to support of mission operations teamwork. The goals of the work was to make automation by agents easy to use, supervise and direct, manage information and communication to decrease distraction, interruptions, workload and errors, reduce mission impact of off-nominal situations and increase morale and decrease turnover. The accomplishments or the project are: 1. Collaborative agents - mixed initiative and creation of instructions for mediating agent 2. Methods for prototyping, evaluating and evolving socio-technical systems 3. Technology infusion: teamwork tools in mISSIons 4. Demonstrations in simulation testbed An example of the use of agent is given, the use of an agent to monitor a N2 tank leak. An incomplete instruction to the agent is handled with mediating assistants, or Intelligent Briefing and Response Assistant (IBRA). The IBRA Engine also watches data stream for triggers and executes Act-Whenever actions. There is also a Briefing and Response Instruction (BRI) which is easy for a discipline specialist to create through a BRI editor.

  20. Continuum deformation of multi-agent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rastgoftar, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents new algorithms for formation control of multi-agent systems (MAS) based on principles of continuum mechanics. Beginning with an overview of traditional methods, the author then introduces an innovative new approach whereby agents of an MAS are considered as particles in a continuum evolving in ℝn whose desired configuration is required to satisfy an admissible deformation function. The necessary theory and its validation on a mobile-agent-based swarm test bed are considered for two primary tasks: homogeneous transformation of the MAS and deployment of a random distribution of agents on a desired configuration. The framework for this model is based on homogeneous transformations for the evolution of an MAS under no inter-agent communication, local inter-agent communication, and intelligent perception by agents. Different communication protocols for MAS evolution, the robustness of tracking of a desired motion by an MAS evolving in ℝn, and the effect of communication delays in an MAS...