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Sample records for antimony 129

  1. Antimony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea; Nielsen, Elsa

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has requested an evaluation of health hazards by exposure to antimony. This resulted in the present report which includes estimation of a quality criterion in soil for antimony....

  2. Antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Sutphin, David M.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Carlin, James F.; Berger, Byron R.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Antimony is an important mineral commodity used widely in modern industrialized societies. The element imparts strength, hardness, and corrosion resistance to alloys that are used in many areas of industry, including in lead-acid storage batteries. Antimony’s leading use is as a fire retardant in safety equipment and in household goods, such as mattresses. The U.S. Government has considered antimony to be a critical mineral mainly because of its use in military applications. The great majority of the world’s antimony comes from China, and much of the remainder is shipped to China for smelting. Antimony resources are unevenly distributed around the world. China has the bulk of the world’s identified resources; other countries that have identified antimony resources include Bolivia, Canada, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, Tajikistan, and Turkey. Resources in the United States are located mainly in Alaska, Idaho, Montana, and Nevada. The most significant antimony mineral deposits occur in geologic environments with a thick sequence of siliciclastic sedimentary rocks in areas with significant fault and fracture systems. The most common antimony ore mineral is stibnite (Sb2 S3 ), but more than 100 other minerals also contain antimony. The presence of antimony in surface waters and groundwaters results primarily from rock weathering, soil runoff, and anthropogenic sources. Global emissions of antimony to the atmosphere average 6,100 metric tons per year. Empirical data suggest that the acid-generating potential of antimony mine waste is low.

  3. Antimony Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The...

  4. Antimony Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically.

  5. Antimony in aquatic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Filella, Montserrat; Belzile, Nelson; Chen, Yuwei; Elleouet, C.; May, P. M.; Mavrocordatos, D.; Nirel, P.; Porquet, A.; Quentel, F.; Silver, S.

    2003-01-01

    Antimony is ubiquitous in the environment. In spite of its proven toxicity, it has received scant attention so far. This communication presents an overview of current knowledge as well as the early results of a concerted, multidisciplinary effort to unveil antimony behaviour and fate in natural aquatic systems.

  6. Antimony: a flame fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintzer, Niki E.; Guberman, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony is a brittle, silvery-white semimetal that conducts heat poorly. The chemical compound antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) is widely used in plastics, rubbers, paints, and textiles, including industrial safety suits and some children’s clothing, to make them resistant to the spread of flames. Also, sodium antimonate (NaSbO3) is used during manufacturing of high-quality glass, which is found in cellular phones.

  7. THE ATOMIC WEIGHT OF ANTIMONY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青莲; 钱秋宇; 赵墨田

    1989-01-01

    With enriched antimony isotopes of 99.224 atom% 121Sb and 99.528 atom% 123Sb, twotracer solutions were prepared, whose antimony content was ascertained by the isotopicdilution analysis utilizing an accurately assayed laboratory standard. Mass spectrometricmeasurements were made on a Finnigan MAT- 261 instrument to find the ratio of masses121 and 123. Five synthetic mixtures formed from the tracers served to determine thecorrection factor of mass discrimination. The isotopic abundances thus found for the anti-mony in the mineral stibnite together with the known nuclidic masses yield an accurateatomic weight of antimony as 121 .7575± 0 .0009.

  8. Oligosilanylated Antimony Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Zitz, Rainer; Gatterer, Karl; Reinhold, Crispin R. W.; M?ller, Thomas; Baumgartner, Judith; Marschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    By reactions of magnesium oligosilanides with SbCl3, a number of oligosilanylated antimony compounds were obtained. When oligosilanyl dianions were used, either the expected cyclic disilylated halostibine was obtained or alternatively the formation of a distibine was observed. Deliberate formation of the distibine from the disilylated halostibine was achieved by reductive coupling with C8K. Computational studies of Sb?Sb bond energies, barriers of pyramidal inversion at Sb, and the conformati...

  9. Determination of antimony in antimony oxide by EDXRF and NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, M.; Swain, K.K.; Wagh, D.N.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed to use 124 Sb - 9 Be neutron source for starting Proto Type Fast Breeder Reactor, IGCAR, Kalpakkam. 124 Sb (γ-ray energy = 1.69 MeV; t 1/2 = 60 d) is obtained by irradiating antimony oxide and as per specification, antimony content in the oxide should be ≥ 83.0 % i.e antimony should be in the form of trioxide. Although gravimetry is the most precise and accurate method for % level analysis, it is tedious and time consuming. In this work, the study reported the determination of antimony by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry and validation of the result by neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. Antimony oxide encapsulated in stainless steel tube (internal diameter = 0.5 mm) was received from BHAVINI, Kalpakkam. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement indicated that the sample was antimony trioxide. For EDXRF analysis, calibration standards were prepared by mixing spectroscopic grade antimony trioxide with microcrystalline cellulose (2.5 to 20 mg g -1 of antimony) and pellets were made by using hydraulic press. Sample pellets were also prepared by mixing with microcrystalline cellulose. EDXRF measurement was carried out using Jordan Valley, EX-3600 M spectrometer with a Rhodium X-ray source. Characteristic K α X-ray of Sb (26.35 keV) was used for quantification. A typical XRF spectrum of the sample is shown after XRF analysis, sample and standard pellets were sealed in clean polyethylene bags and were irradiated in AHWR critical facility reactor, BARC for 4 h. Gamma ray measurement of irradiated samples were carried out using HPGe detector and 564.2 keV gamma ray of 122 Sb was used for quantification

  10. Mineral Resource of the Month: Antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guberman, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony is a lustrous silvery-white semimetal or metalloid. Archaeological and historical studies indicate that antimony and its mineral sulfides have been used by humans for at least six millennia. The alchemist Basil Valentine is sometimes credited with “discovering” the element; he described the extraction of metallic antimony from stibnite in his treatise “The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony,” published sometime between 1350 and 1600. In the early 18th century, Jöns Jakob Berzelius chose the periodic symbol for antimony (Sb) based on stibium, which is the Latin name for stibnite.

  11. Tin-antimony oxide oxidation catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Frank J. [Open University, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-15

    Tin-antimony oxide catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrocarbons have been made by precipitation techniques. The dehydration of the amorphous dried precipitate by calcination at increasingly higher temperatures induces the crystallisation of a rutile-related tin dioxide-type phase and the segregation of antimony oxides which volatilise at elevated temperatures. The rutile-related tin dioxide-type phase contains antimony(V) in the bulk and antimony(III) in the surface. Specific catalytic activity for the oxidative dehydrogenation of butene to butadiene is associated with materials with large concentrations of antimony(III) in the surface.

  12. First principles calculation of two dimensional antimony and antimony arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, Sharad Babu, E-mail: sbpillai001@gmail.com; Narayan, Som; Jha, Prafulla K. [Department. of Physics, Faculty of Science, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390002 (India); Dabhi, Shweta D. [Department of Physics, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    This work focuses on the strain dependence of the electronic properties of two dimensional antimony (Sb) material and its alloy with As (SbAs) using density functional theory based first principles calculations. Both systems show indirect bandgap semiconducting character which can be transformed into a direct bandgap material with the application of relatively small strain.

  13. Geomicrobial interactions with arsenic and antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Although arsenic and antimony are generally toxic to life, some microorganisms exist that can metabolize certain forms of these elements. Some can use arsenite or stibnite as potential or sole energy sources, whereas others can use aresenate and antimonite (as was discovered only recently) as terminal electron acceptors. Still other microbes can metabolize arsenic and antimony compounds to detoxify them. These reactions are important from a geomicrobial standpoint because they indicate that a number of microbes contribute to arsenic and antimony mobilization or immobilization in the environment and play a role in arsenic and antimony cycles. Recent reviews include five on prokaryotes and arsenic metabolism, a review with an arsenic perspective on biomining, and a series on environmental antimony, including one about antimony and its interaction with microbiota.

  14. Mineral resource of the month: antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The article describes the characteristics and industrial uses of antimony. Antimony, which is produced as a byproduct of mining other metals such as gold, lead or silver, is used in everything from flame retardants, batteries, ceramics and glass. It is also used in glass for television picture tubes, computer monitors, pigments and catalysts.

  15. FIRST REPORT ON OTOTOXICITY OF MEGLUMINE ANTIMONIATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Valete-Rosalino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pentavalent antimonials are the first drug of choice in the treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis. Data on ototoxicity related with such drugs is scarcely available in literature, leading us to develop a study on cochleovestibular functions. Case Report: A case of a tegumentary leishmaniasis patient, a 78-year-old man who presented a substantial increase in auditory threshold with tinnitus and severe rotatory dizziness during the treatment with meglumine antimoniate, is reported. These symptoms worsened in two weeks after treatment was interrupted. Conclusion: Dizziness and tinnitus had already been related to meglumine antimoniate. However, this is the first well documented case of cochlear-vestibular toxicity related to meglumine antimoniate.

  16. A comparative study of ion exchange properties of antimony (III) tungstoselenite with those of antimony (III) tungstate and antimony (III) selenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janardanan, C.; Nair, S.M.K.

    1996-01-01

    A new inorganic ion exchanger, antimony (III) tungstoselenite, has been prepared and characterised. Its exchange capacity and distribution coefficients for various metal ions and the effects of temperature and electrolyte concentrations on ion exchange capacity have been compared with antimony (III) tungstate and antimony (III) selenite. Six binary separations using the exchanger have been carried out. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab

  17. Speciation of antimony in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.R.; Ablett, J.; Shotyk, W.S.; Naftel, S.; Northrup, P.

    2010-01-01

    Antimony contamination has been reported in drinking water from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has been used to identify the distribution and chemical form of residual antimony used as a catalyst in the manufacture of PET bottles. The results are consistent with clusters of Sb(III) having dimensions of the order of tens of micrometers, clearly showing the ability of synchrotron radiation analyses to both map elemental distribution and determine oxidation state.

  18. Preparation and properties of antimony thin film anode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shufa; CAO Gaoshao; ZHAO Xinbing

    2004-01-01

    Metallic antimony thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition. Electrochemical properties of the thin film as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared with those of antimony powder. It was found that both magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition are easily controllable processes to deposit antimony films with fiat charge/discharge potential plateaus. The electrochemical performances of antimony thin films, especially those prepared with magnetron sputtering, are better than those of antimony powder. The reversible capacities of the magnetron sputtered antimony thin film are above 400 mA h g-1 in the first 15 cycles.

  19. Sorption of antimony on human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nofal, M.; Amin, H.; Alian, G.

    1997-01-01

    The study of the uptake of toxic elements on human teeth represents an interesting research area, as the fate of these elements when present in the human food is of health significance. Since antimony is one of the common toxic elements and since, the chemical behaviour of antimony is similar to that of arsenic, one of the most important toxic elements commonly encountered in cases of food poisoning, it has been decided to investigate its uptake on human teeth and on other restoration materials. The radioactive tracer technique was used to evaluate the concentration of antimony sorbed on teeth. This tracer was obtained by irradiation of antimony metal in the reactor, subsequent dissolution in concentrated sulphuric acid, evaporation to dryness and making the solution 6 M in Hydrochloric acid (1). Antimony prepared in this way is in the trivalent state (Sb III). Sorption was studied in water, tea, coffee, red tea and chicken soup. The highest sorption was achieved from water and chicken soup and least sorption was noticed in case of coffee. The results are presented in the form of the depletion of the radioactivity (A) of antimony with time in presence of a tooth in water and other drinks

  20. Antimony measurement in high pressure reactor water loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svarc, V.; Dudjakova, K.; Martykan, M.; Sus, F.; Kysela, J.

    2005-01-01

    RVS 3 loop is highly contaminated due to antimony main circulating pump bearings. Antimony is one of the major contaminant in PWR units. Different technologies to remove Sb from the systems have been tried. (N.T.)

  1. Disposal of Iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.T.; Moore, J.G.; Devaney, H.E.; Rogers, G.C.; Williams, C.; Newman, E.

    1978-01-01

    One of the problems to be solved in the nuclear waste management field is the disposal of radioactive iodine-129, which is one of the more volatile and long-lived fission products. Studies have shown that fission products can be fixed in concrete for permanent disposal. Current studies have demonstrated that practical cementitious grouts may contain up to 18% iodine as barium iodate. The waste disposal criterion is based on the fact that harmful effects to present or future generations can be avoided by isolation and/or dilution. Long-term isolation is effective in deep, dry repositories; however, since penetration by water is possible, although unlikely, release was calculated based on leach rates into water. Further considerations have indicated that sea disposal on or in the ocean floor may be a more acceptable alternative

  2. Potential of rice husks for antimony removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, Nasir; Ahmad, Shujaat; Toheed, Aqidat; Ahmed, Jamil

    2000-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of rice husks for antimony ions from aqueous solutions has been investigated as a function of appropriate electrolyte, equilibration time, hydrogen ions, amount of adsorbent, concentration of adsorbate, effect of diverse ions and temperature. The best conditions in which this material can be used as adsorbent have been explored. The radiotracer technique was employed to determine the distribution of antimony ( 122 Sb) using a batch method. Maximum adsorption was observed at 0.01 mol L -1 acid solutions (HNO 3 , HCl, H 2 SO 4 and HClO 4 ) using 1.0 g of adsorbent for 1.92x10 -5 mol L -1 antimony concentration in 10 min equilibration time. Studies show that the adsorption decreases with the increase in the concentrations of all the acids. The adsorption data follow the Freundlich isotherm over the range of 1.92x10 -5 to 2.05x10 -4 mol L -1 antimony concentration. The characteristic Freundlich constants i.e., 1/n=0.82±0.05 and K=4.61±0.07 m mol g -1 have been computed for the sorption system. The uptake of antimony increases with the rise in temperature (299-323 K). Thermodynamic quantities i.e., ΔG 0 , ΔS 0 and ΔH 0 have also been calculated for the system. The sorption process was found to be endothermic

  3. Perspectives of antimony compounds in oncology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pankaj SHARMA; Diego PEREZ; Armando CABRERA; Nee ROSAS; Jose Luis ARIAS

    2008-01-01

    Antimony, a natural element that has been used as a drug for over more than 100 years, has remarkable therapeutic efficacy in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. This review focuses on recent advances in developing antimony anti- cancer agents with an emphasis on antimony coordination complexes, Sb (Ⅲ) and Sb (V). These complexes, which include many organometallic complexes, may provide a broader spectrum of antitumoral activity. They were compared with classical platinum anticancer drugs. The review covers the literature data pub- lished up to 2007. A number of antimonials with different antitumoral activities are known and have diverse applications, even though little research has been done on their possibilities. It might be feasible to develop more specific and effective inhibitors for phosphatase-targeted, anticancer therapeutics through the screen- ing of sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and potassium antimonyltartrate-related compounds, which are comprised of antimony conjugated to different organic moieties. For example, SSG appears to be a better inhibitor than suramin which is a compound known for its antineoplastic activity against several types of cancers.

  4. Antimony bioavailability in mine soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, Helen C.; Meharg, Andy A.; Bowyer, Phillipa K.; Paton, Graeme I.

    2003-01-01

    Antimony has low bioavailability in mining and smelting contaminated soils and bacterial biosensors are not suitable for its detection. - Five British former mining and smelting sites were investigated and found to have levels of total Sb of up to 700 mg kg -1 , indicating high levels of contamination which could be potentially harmful. However, this level of Sb was found to be biologically unavailable over a wide range of pH values, indicating that Sb is relatively unreactive and immobile in the surface layers of the soil, remaining where it is deposited rather than leaching into lower horizons and contaminating ground water. Sb, sparingly soluble in water, was unavailable to the bacterial biosensors tested. The bioluminescence responses were correlated to levels of co-contaminants such as arsenic and copper, rather than to Sb concentrations. This suggests that soil contamination by Sb due to mining and smelting operations is not a severe risk to the environment or human health provided that it is present as immobile species and contaminated sites are not used for purposes which increase the threat of exposure to identified receptors. Co-contaminants such as arsenic and copper are more bioavailable and may therefore be seen as a more significant risk

  5. Extraction of antimony from nitric acid solutions using tributyl phosphate. II. Tributyl phosphate-antimony(V)-nitric acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakaev, V.S.; Smelov, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    The extraction of pentavalent antimony from nitric acid solutions using tributyl phosphate has been investigated. A possible mechanism for the extraction of antimony(V) has been determined and the (pre)concentration constant for the process has been calculated. The composition of the extracted antimony(V) complex has been deduced. A negative effect of temperature on the distribution coefficient for antimony(V) has also been demonstrated

  6. ANTIMONY INDUCED CRYSTALLIZATION OF AMORPHOUS SILICON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Wang; H.Z. Li; C.N. Yu; G.M. Wu; I. Gordon; P. Schattschneider; O. Van Der Biest

    2007-01-01

    Antimony induced crystallization of PVD (physics vapor deposition) amorphous silicon can be observed on sapphire substrates. Very large crystalline regions up to several tens of micrometers can be formed. The Si diffraction patterns of the area of crystallization can be observed with TEM (transmission electron microscopy). Only a few and much smaller crystals of the order of 1μm were formed when the antimony layer was deposited by MBE(molecular beam epitaxy) compared with a layer formed by thermal evaporation. The use of high vacuum is essential in order to observe any Sb induced crystallization at all. In addition it is necessary to take measures to limit the evaporation of the antimony.

  7. Neutrons and antimony physical measurements and interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    New experimental information for the elastic and inelastic scattering of ∼ 4--10 MeV neutrons from elemental antimony is presented. The differential measurements are made at ∼ 40 or more scattering angles and at incident neutron-energy intervals of ∼ 0.5 MeV. The present experimental results, those previously reported from this laboratory and as found in the literature are comprehensively interpreted using spherical optical-statistical and dispersive-optical models. Direct vibrational processes via core-excitation, isospin and shell effects are discussed. Antimony models for applications are proposed and compared with global, regional, and specific models reported in the literature

  8. J129 in the biocycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handl, J.; Kuehn, W.

    1980-01-01

    A brief survey on the few known data on the radioecological behaviour of 129 J is given. Numerous investigations as to the 129 J-uptake in the thyroid of cattle were carried out in the USA. In Western Europe, practically only in the near surroundings of nuclear-technical plants measurements of 129 J were carried out. In the author's opinion, to clarify the ecological behaviour of 129 J, human thyroids should be examined as well, in special regions the share of 129 J in milk, grass, food, and ground-near air should be determined and tests with especially important iodine compounds from various soils and plants should be carried out concerning this re-emissions. (MG) [de

  9. Synthesis and application of antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU You-nian; LI Hong-bing; SHU Wan-gen; CHEN Qi-yuan

    2005-01-01

    A new type of thermal stabilizer, antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate)(Sb(SCH2COOC8H17)5), was synthesized by using antimony trioxide, isooctanol and thioglycolic acid in 2 steps. Firstly, antimony trioxide was oxidized into colloidal antimony peroxide. Then antimony peroxide and isooctyl thioglycollate reacted stoichiometrically for 2 h with the yield of 87%. This compound was used as thermal stabilizer for polyvinyl chloride(PVC). The results show that the thermal stability time is 52 min at 200 ℃ by heat-ageing oven test when adding 2.5% thermal stabilizer to PVC resin. Compared with antimony tris(isooctyl thiolycollate), the initial thermal stability of antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate) is better than that of antimony tris(isooctyl thioglycollate), while the long-term thermal stability time is shorter than that of antimony tris(isooctyl thioglycollate). Meanwhile, the synergism of antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate) with calcium stearate was studied, indicating that when the mass ratio of antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate) to calcium stearate is 2:1, the thermal stability time of PVC is 58 min.

  10. Effect of precipitation route on the properties of antimony trioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Noor, Nor Hayati Mohd; Ramli, Irmawati; Hashim, Mansor

    2008-01-01

    Antimony trioxide was prepared, using antimony potassium tartarate as starting material, via forward and reverse precipitation technique. The characteristics of the resulting antimony oxides were determined by BET surface area method, differential thermogravimetry analysis (DTG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and SEM. The DTG curves for all uncalcined samples showed only a single endothermic peak which indicated that the sample is antimony trioxide. Unlike forward precipitation technique which resulted in a single antimony trioxide phase which is senarmontite, reverse precipitation technique produced antimony trioxide with both senarmontite and valentinite phase. Upon calcinations at 723 K, a small amount of Sb 2 O 4 with cervantite phase was formed at the expense of Sb 2 O 3 senarmontite phase as detected from the XRD pattern and infrared spectrum of RSb. The effect of preparation route on the properties of the antimony trioxide produced was clearly demonstrated

  11. Microbial antimony biogeochemistry: Enzymes, regulation, and related metabolic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxin; Qian Wang,; Oremland, Ronald S.; Kulp, Thomas R.; Rensing, Christopher; Wang, Gejiao

    2016-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a toxic metalloid that occurs widely at trace concentrations in soil, aquatic systems, and the atmosphere. Nowadays, with the development of its new industrial applications and the corresponding expansion of antimony mining activities, the phenomenon of antimony pollution has become an increasingly serious concern. In recent years, research interest in Sb has been growing and reflects a fundamental scientific concern regarding Sb in the environment. In this review, we summarize the recent research on bacterial antimony transformations, especially those regarding antimony uptake, efflux, antimonite oxidation, and antimonate reduction. We conclude that our current understanding of antimony biochemistry and biogeochemistry is roughly equivalent to where that of arsenic was some 20 years ago. This portends the possibility of future discoveries with regard to the ability of microorganisms to conserve energy for their growth from antimony redox reactions and the isolation of new species of “antimonotrophs.”

  12. Chlorination of antimony and its volatilization treatment of waste antimony-uranium composite oxide catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, K.; Enokida, Y.

    2011-01-01

    For the waste antimony-uranium composite oxide catalyst, the chlorination of antimony and its volatilization treatment were proposed, and evaluated using hydrogen chloride gas at 873-1173 K. During the treatment, the weight loss of the composite oxide sample, which resulted from the volatilization of antimony, was confirmed. An X-ray diffraction analysis showed that uranium oxide, U 3 O 8 , was formed during the reaction. After the treatment at 1173 K for 1 h, almost all the uranium contained in the waste catalyst was dissolved by a 3 M nitric acid solution at 353 K within 10 min, although that of the non-treated catalyst was less than 0.1%. It was found that the chlorination and volatilization treatment was effective to separate antimony from the composite oxide catalyst and change uranium into its removable form. (orig.)

  13. Iodine-129 in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhomirov, F.A.; Moiseev, I.T.

    1987-01-01

    The quantitative ratio of aerial and soil entries of 129 I into plants, parameters of its migration in the system of atmosphere-soil-plants-river water, dynamics of transformation and biological availability of 129 I in soil for plants were studied on the basis of field observations and experiments using the radioactive tracers. The doses of human thyroid gland irradiation by 129 I under atmospheric and soil pathways of its transport into diet are estimated. 129 I content in soil due to its systematic, for 50 years, releases into atmosphere is shown to be negligible, agricultural production contamination by 129 I resulting mainly from its fallout onto overground phytomass. The period, needed to achieve 129 I concentration equilibrium in the atmosphere-soil system under constant average 129 I content in the air, varies depending on the soil type from several hundred years (for podzolic soils) up to several thousand years (for chernozem). The 129 I half-accumulation period is equal to 150 years for soddy-podzolic soil and to 700 years for chernozem. In case of 129 I fallout lasting for 100 years the annual increase of its content in overground phytomass due to the transport from soil will account for 0,3% of its atmospheric entry way for soddy-podzolic soil and for 0,1% for chernozem, respectively. For a number of sierozem, yellow soil and calcareous chernozem types this addition is higher (up to 1%). Under constant iodine-129 concentration in air (1 Bq/m3) the absorbed dose for one-year child's thyroid gland in continental area is approximately equal to 2 (Gy/y)/(Bq/m3). The absorbed dose from globally dissipated 129 I under 99% efficiency of gas purification will not exceed 2·10 -7 Gy/y. The input of globally dissipated 129 I, originating from deep underground disposal of nuclear wastes can account for not more than 10 -9 Gy/y. In total, 129 I releases for the coming century is not going to produce limitations for nuclear energetics development. (author)

  14. Arsenic and Antimony Transporters in Eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids, naturally present in the environment and all organisms have developed pathways for their detoxification. The most effective metalloid tolerance systems in eukaryotes include downregulation of metalloid uptake, efflux out of the cell, and complexation with phytochelatin or glutathione followed by sequestration into the vacuole. Understanding of arsenic and antimony transport system is of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio- and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid polluted areas. However, in contrast to prokaryotes, the knowledge about specific transporters of arsenic and antimony and the mechanisms of metalloid transport in eukaryotes has been very limited for a long time. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding of arsenic and antimony transport pathways in eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in uptake and efflux of metalloids, elucidation of arsenic transport mechanism by the yeast Acr3 transporter and its role in arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns, identification of vacuolar transporters of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in plants and forms of arsenic substrates recognized by mammalian ABC transporters.

  15. Arsenic and Antimony Transporters in Eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, Ewa; Wawrzycka, Donata; Wysocki, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids, naturally present in the environment and all organisms have developed pathways for their detoxification. The most effective metalloid tolerance systems in eukaryotes include downregulation of metalloid uptake, efflux out of the cell, and complexation with phytochelatin or glutathione followed by sequestration into the vacuole. Understanding of arsenic and antimony transport system is of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio- and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid polluted areas. However, in contrast to prokaryotes, the knowledge about specific transporters of arsenic and antimony and the mechanisms of metalloid transport in eukaryotes has been very limited for a long time. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding of arsenic and antimony transport pathways in eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in uptake and efflux of metalloids, elucidation of arsenic transport mechanism by the yeast Acr3 transporter and its role in arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns, identification of vacuolar transporters of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in plants and forms of arsenic substrates recognized by mammalian ABC transporters. PMID:22489166

  16. Potent heme-degrading action of antimony and antimony-containing parasiticidal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, G S; Kappas, A

    1981-02-01

    The ability of antimony and antimony-containing parasiticidal agents to enhance the rate of heme degradation in liver and kidney was investigated. Trivalent antimony was shown to be an extremely potent inducer of heme oxygenase, the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, in both organs, whereas the pentavalent form was a weak inducer of this enzyme. The ability of antimony to induce heme oxygenase was dose-dependent, independent of the salt used, and not a result of a direct activation of the enzyme in vitro. Concomitant with heme oxygenase induction by antimony, microsomal heme and cytochrome P-450 contents decreased, the cyto-chrome P-450-dependent mixed function oxidase system was impaired, and delta-ami-nolevulinate synthase (ALAS), the rate-limiting enzyme of heme synthesis, underwent the sequential changes-initial inhibition followed by rebound induction-usually associated with the administration of transition elements such as cobalt. Antimony induction of heme oxygenase however, unlike the enzyme induction elicited by cobalt, was not prevented either by cysteine administered orally or as a cysteine metal complex, or by simultaneous zinc administration. Desferoxamine also did not block heme oxygenase induction by antimony, but this chelator did prevent the rebound increase in ALAS activity associated with antimony or cobalt treatment. Antimony-containing parasiticidal drugs were also potent inducers of heme oxygenase in liver and kidney. The heme degradative action of these drugs may be related in part to the jaundice commonly associated with the prolonged therapeutic use of these agents. The heme-oxygenase-inducing action of antimony-containing parasiticidal drugs is a newly defined biological property of these compounds. The relation between the parasiticidal and the heme-oxygenase-inducing actions of such drugs is unknown. However, certain parasites contain hemoproteins or require heme compounds during their life cycle. It may therefore be

  17. Preparation of antimony-doped nanoparticles by hydrothermal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ming-xi; YANG Tian-zu; GU Ying-ying; DU Zuo-juan; LIU Jian-ling

    2005-01-01

    Antimony-doped tin oxide(ATO) nanoparticles were prepared by the mild hydrothermal method at 200 ℃ using sodium stannate, antimony oxide, sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid as the starting materials. The doped powders were examined by differential thermal analysis(DTA), X-ray diffractometry(XRD) and transmission electron microscopy(TEM). The doping levels of antimony were determined by volumetric method and iodimetry.The results show that antimony is incorporated into the crystal lattice of tin oxide and the doping levels of antimony in the resulting powders are 2.4%, 4.3 % and 5.1 % (molar fraction). The mean particle size of ATO nanoparticles is in the range of 25 - 30 nm. The effects of antimony doping level on the crystalline size and crystallinity were also discussed.

  18. In vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mail: samanta@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de [Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo (IMT-SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia]. E-mail:hfandrad@usp.br

    2005-10-15

    Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam), is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony, with suitable physical and biological properties. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes {sup 122} Sb and {sup 124} Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology. (author)

  19. Electrical properties of cadmium telluride films doped with antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atdaev, B.S.; Garyagdyev, G.; Grin', V.F.; Noskov, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of cadmium telluride doping with antimony on electric and photoelectric properties is investigated. Temperature dependence of dark (σ d ) and photoconductivity (σ p ) during excitation from the range of proper absorption in the temperature range 77-300 K and spectral distribution of photoconductivity at 300 K are investigated. It is shown that in the process of doping antimony diffusses intensively over CdTe grain boundaries, decreasing potential barriers between them and due to diffusion into CdTe grains it changes their electrical properties. The acceptor character of antimony impurity can be caused by antimony diffusion into tellurium sublattice owing to proximity of their ionic and covalent radii

  20. The exposure to and health effects of antimony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    . Antimony toxicity is dependent on the exposure dose, duration, route (breathing, eating, drinking, or skin contact), other chemical exposures, age, sex, nutritional status, family traits, life style, and state of health. Chronic exposure to antimony in the air at levels of 9 mg/m3 may exacerbate irritation...... of the eyes, skin, and lungs. Long-term inhalation of antimony can potentiate pneumoconiosis, altered electrocardiograms, stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach ulcers, results which were confirmed in laboratory animals. Although there were investigations of the effect of antimony in sudden infant...

  1. Protection of cesium-antimony photocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzulutskov, A.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.; Prager, M.; Shefer, E.

    1996-06-01

    In order to operate gaseous photomultipliers in the visible range it was suggested to protect sensitive photocathodes against contact to air and counting gases by their coating with a thin solid dielectric film. We present data on coating of cesium- antimony photocathodes with alkali-halide (NaI, CsI, CsF, NaF), oxide (SiO) and organic (hexatriacontane, calcium stearate) films. The photoelectron transmission through these films and their protection capability have been studied in detail. Cesium-antimony photocathodes are shown to withstand exposure to considerable doses of oxygen and dry air when coated with Nal films. This opens ways to their operation in gas media. (authors), 11 refs., 6 figs

  2. EVALUAION OF NEUTRON DATA FOR NATURAL ANTIMONY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1991-01-01

    <正> The complete neutron nuclear data of natural antimony have been per-formed for CENDL-2 in neutron energy range from 10-5eV to 20 MeV.Someof the data have been calculated by means of theoretical model.A good agree-ment was obtained with measured values.The recommended data were com-pared with the evaluations of JENDL-3 and ENDF/B-6.

  3. Identification of Potential Biomarkers for Antimony Susceptibility ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Identification of Potential Biomarkers for Antimony Susceptibility/Resistance in L. donovani Rentala Madhubala School of Life Sciences Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi, India · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16.

  4. Synthesis of Antimony Doped Amorphous Carbon Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, H.; Takashima, M.; Akasaka, H.; Ohtake, N.

    2013-06-01

    We report the effects of antimony (Sb) doping on the electrical and optical properties of amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films grown on silicon and copper substrates by magnetron sputtering deposition. For film deposition, the mixture targets fabricated from carbon and antimony powders was used. The atomic concentration of carbon, hydrogen, and antimony, in the film deposited from the 1.0 mol% Sb containing target were 81, 17, 2 at.%, respectively. These elements were homogeneously distributed in the film. On the structural effect, the average continuous sp2 carbon bonding networks decreased with Sb concentration increasing, and defects in the films were increased with the Sb incorporation because atomic radius of Sb atoms is twice larger size than that of carbon. The optical gap and the electrical resistivity were carried out before and after the Sb doping. The results show that optical gap dropped from 3.15 to 3.04 eV corresponding to non-doping to Sb-doping conditions, respectively. The electrical resistivity reduced from 10.5 to 1.0 MΩm by the Sb doping. These results suggest the doping level was newly formed in the forbidden band.

  5. Synthesis of Antimony Doped Amorphous Carbon Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, H; Takashima, M; Akasaka, H; Ohtake, N

    2013-01-01

    We report the effects of antimony (Sb) doping on the electrical and optical properties of amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films grown on silicon and copper substrates by magnetron sputtering deposition. For film deposition, the mixture targets fabricated from carbon and antimony powders was used. The atomic concentration of carbon, hydrogen, and antimony, in the film deposited from the 1.0 mol% Sb containing target were 81, 17, 2 at.%, respectively. These elements were homogeneously distributed in the film. On the structural effect, the average continuous sp 2 carbon bonding networks decreased with Sb concentration increasing, and defects in the films were increased with the Sb incorporation because atomic radius of Sb atoms is twice larger size than that of carbon. The optical gap and the electrical resistivity were carried out before and after the Sb doping. The results show that optical gap dropped from 3.15 to 3.04 eV corresponding to non-doping to Sb-doping conditions, respectively. The electrical resistivity reduced from 10.5 to 1.0 MΩm by the Sb doping. These results suggest the doping level was newly formed in the forbidden band.

  6. Management modes for iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, I.F.; Smith, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    This study completes a two-stage programme, supported by the Commission of the European Communities, on management modes for iodine-129. The models for the radiological assessment of iodine-129 management modes have been reviewed and, where necessary, revised, and a generic radiological assessment has been carried out using these models. Cost benefit analysis has been demonstrated for a variety of iodine-129 management modes; for a wide range of assumptions, the costs of abatement of atmospheric discharges would be outweighed by the radiological benefits. The cost benefit analysis thus complements and confirms the preliminary conclusion of the previous study: iodine-129 should be trapped to a large extent from the off-gases of a large reprocessing plant and disposed of by other suitable means, in order to ensure that all exposures from this radionuclide are as low as reasonably achievable. Once the major fraction of the iodine-129 throughput of a reprocessing plant has been trapped from the dissolver off-gases, there are unlikely to be strong radiation protection incentives either for further trapping from the dissolver off-gases or for trapping from the vessel off-gases. In a generic study it is not possible to state an optimum choice of process(es) for abatement of atmospheric discharges of iodine-129. This choice must be determined by assessments in the specific context of a particular reprocessing plant, its site, the waste disposal routes that are actually available, and also in the wider context of the management plans for all radioactive wastes at the plant in question

  7. 21 CFR 862.3110 - Antimony test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antimony test system. 862.3110 Section 862.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3110 Antimony test system. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5547 - Antimony double oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Antimony double oxide. 721.5547 Section 721.5547 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5547 Antimony double oxide. (a)...

  9. Determination of antimony trioxide in fire-retardant conveyor belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rytych-Witwicka, B.; Szmyd, E.

    1976-12-01

    Two methods for the determination of antimony trioxide in rubber and pvc are described. One is a colorimetric method based on the reaction of antimony with rhodamine B; the other is a polarographic method. The results of the two methods show a satisfactory consistency and the methods themselves appear rapid and effective.

  10. The presence of antimony in various dental filling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molokhia, Anat; Combe, E.C.; Lilley, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Antimony was determined in a number of non-metallic dental materials currently used for tooth restoration. The method applied was instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentration of antimony in some of the brands tested was found to be as high as 900 fold that in the normal hard dental tissues. (author)

  11. Pharmacokinetic of antimony in mice with cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borborema, Samanta E.T.; Nascimento, Nanci do; Osso Junior, Joao A.

    2007-01-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) remains a major world health problem, with about 1.5 million new cases each year. Caused by protozoa Leishmania, in South America, this infection can vary from a chronic skin ulcer, to an erosive mucosal disease and severe facial disfigurement. Pentavalent antimony (Sb +5 ) as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) or meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) are main drugs for treating most forms of human leishmaniasis. For six decades, despite the recent developments, the effective therapy to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been based on long parenteral courses of such drugs, even though these are fairly costly, toxic and inconvenient to use, without adequate knowledge on their pharmacokinetics or mechanism of action. Pharmacokinetics studies could be based on bioactive traceable drugs, usually with radioactive isotopes, but antimony radioisotopes are unavailable commercially. Neutron irradiation is a powerful tool in the analysis of mineral content of samples, for antimony, there are at least two main isotopes that could be formed after neutron irradiation in nuclear reactor. The aim of the present study was to construct antimony salts with those radioisotopes to obtain tracers to compare the pharmacokinetic and the tissue distribution of neutron irradiated meglumine antimoniate in healthy and cutaneous leishmaniasis experimentally infected mice. Meglumine antimoniate, (Glucantime, Aventis, S.P, Brazil), was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (IPEN/CNEN-SP), producing two radioisotopes 122 Sb and 124 Sb. Its biodistribution was verified in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) Amazonensis, which received a single intraperitoneal dose of the drug. At different times after injection, the tissues and blood were excised and activity measured in a NaI (Tl) scintillation counter. Compared with the healthy mice, experimentally infected mice had significantly lower maximum concentration of antimony and high

  12. Pharmacokinetic of antimony in mice with cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borborema, Samanta E.T.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mails: samanta@usp.br; nnascime@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular; Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: hfandrad@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) remains a major world health problem, with about 1.5 million new cases each year. Caused by protozoa Leishmania, in South America, this infection can vary from a chronic skin ulcer, to an erosive mucosal disease and severe facial disfigurement. Pentavalent antimony (Sb{sup +5}) as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) or meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) are main drugs for treating most forms of human leishmaniasis. For six decades, despite the recent developments, the effective therapy to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been based on long parenteral courses of such drugs, even though these are fairly costly, toxic and inconvenient to use, without adequate knowledge on their pharmacokinetics or mechanism of action. Pharmacokinetics studies could be based on bioactive traceable drugs, usually with radioactive isotopes, but antimony radioisotopes are unavailable commercially. Neutron irradiation is a powerful tool in the analysis of mineral content of samples, for antimony, there are at least two main isotopes that could be formed after neutron irradiation in nuclear reactor. The aim of the present study was to construct antimony salts with those radioisotopes to obtain tracers to compare the pharmacokinetic and the tissue distribution of neutron irradiated meglumine antimoniate in healthy and cutaneous leishmaniasis experimentally infected mice. Meglumine antimoniate, (Glucantime, Aventis, S.P, Brazil), was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (IPEN/CNEN-SP), producing two radioisotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb. Its biodistribution was verified in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) Amazonensis, which received a single intraperitoneal dose of the drug. At different times after injection, the tissues and blood were excised and activity measured in a NaI (Tl) scintillation counter. Compared with the healthy mice, experimentally infected mice had significantly lower maximum concentration of antimony

  13. Antimony-121 Moessbauer spectra of antimony(III) compounds with a stereochemically active lone pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Masuo; Takahashi, Masashi; Ohyama, Ryuhichi

    1986-01-01

    The Sb-121 Moessbauer parameters at 20 K for 23 antimony(III) compounds were obtained and the data are discussed in terms of known crystal structures. The isomer shifts and quadrupole coupling constants depend strongly on the type of configuration around the Sb(III) atoms with stereochemically active lone pair electrons. (Auth.)

  14. Effect of antimony on lead-acid battery negative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahato, B.K.; Bullock, K.R.; Strebe, J.L.; Wilkinson, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    The role of antimony on the lead-acid battery negative in terms of its effect on charge efficiency, its effect on gassing overpotential, its interactive influence with lignin expander in controlling the charge efficiency, and its retentive behavior or purging characteristics as SbH 3 in the overcharge gas stream was investigated. Linear potential sweep (LPS) cycling of Plante-type lead electrodes were used to determine the effect of antimony on gassing overpotential and to monitor its concentration either in the active material or the exit gas stream. Results showed a significant contribution of antimony in decreasing charge efficiency and an overwhelming role of lignin expander in suppressing the effect of antimony on charge efficiency. The critical lead-electrode potential for purging antimony from the electrode is close to -1275 mV (vs. Hg/Hg 2 SO 4 )

  15. Antimony removal from aqueous solutions using Zirconium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, D.; Velciu, L.; Bucur, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper it is presented an experimental test for non-radioactive antimony removal from aqueous solutions using zirconium hydroxide powder. Also, it was studied how the temperature and pH influences antimony adsorption onto zirconium hydroxide surface. After the adsorption, solutions were filtered on Cellulose Mixed Ester Membrane with 0.2 μm pore size to remove the zirconium powder and then the aqueous solutions were sent to Inductively Coupled Plasma Optic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) for quantitative analysis of Sb. Zirconium hydroxide powders were examined by optical microscopy. For the solutions that were tested at pH 4.5 and 10.2 the antimony concentration dropped below the detection limit of ICP-OES device, proof of antimony adsorption on zirconium hydroxide. Also, for the other tested solutions which had pH=12 the antimony concentration reduced with 77% and 80%. The temperature had no influence upon adsorption mechanism. (authors)

  16. 46 CFR 129.220 - Basic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic safety. 129.220 Section 129.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS General Requirements § 129.220 Basic safety. (a) Electrical equipment and installations must be suitable...

  17. 7 CFR 400.129 - Salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salary offset. 400.129 Section 400.129 Agriculture... Years § 400.129 Salary offset. (a) Debt collection by salary offset is feasible if: the cost to the Government of collection by salary offset does not exceed the amount of the debt; there are no legal...

  18. 47 CFR 101.129 - Transmitter location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter location. 101.129 Section 101.129... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.129 Transmitter location. (a) The applicant must determine, prior to... adequate to render the service proposed. In cases of questionable antenna locations, it is desirable to...

  19. 46 CFR 129.390 - Shore power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shore power. 129.390 Section 129.390 Shipping COAST... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.390 Shore power. Each vessel that has an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts and has provisions for receiving shore power must meet the requirements of...

  20. 7 CFR 1955.129 - Business brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Business brokers. 1955.129 Section 1955.129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... Dispose of Inventory Property § 1955.129 Business brokers. The services of business brokers or business...

  1. 7 CFR 1260.129 - Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs Service. 1260.129 Section 1260.129... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.129 Customs Service. Customs Service means the United States Customs Service of the United States Department of the Treasury. ...

  2. 14 CFR 129.25 - Airplane security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane security. 129.25 Section 129.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND FOREIGN OPERATORS OF U.S.-REGISTERED AIRCRAFT ENGAGED IN COMMON CARRIAGE General § 129.25 Airplane...

  3. Structural and electrical characterization of zinc oxide doped with antimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Juárez Díaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the results of structural and electrical characterization realized on zinc oxide single crystal samples with (001 orientation, which were doped with antimony. Doping was carried out by antimony thermal diffusion at 1000 °C for periods of 1 and 2 hours under nitrogen environment from a solid source formed by antimony oxide. Electrical characterization by I-V curves and Hall effect shown an increase in acceptor concentration which demonstrates that doping is effective and create holes in zinc oxide samples.

  4. Antimony distribution and environmental mobility at an historic antimony smelter site, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, N.J.; Craw, D.; Hunter, K.

    2004-01-01

    A historic antimony smelter site at Endeavour Inlet, New Zealand has smelter residues with up to 17 wt.% antimony. Residues include coarse tailings (cm scale particles, poorly sorted), sand tailings (well sorted) and smelter slag (blocks up to 30 cm across). All of this material has oxidised to some degree over the ca. 100 years since the site was abandoned. Oxidation has resulted in acidification of the residues down to pH 2-5. Smelter slag contains pyrrhotite (FeS) and metallic antimony, and oxidation is restricted to surfaces only. The coarse tailings are the most oxidised, and few sulfide grains persist. Unoxidised sand tailings contain 10-20 vol.% stibnite (Sb 2 S 3 ) containing up to 5% As, with subordinate arsenopyrite (FeAsS), and minor pyrite (FeS 2 ). The sand tailings are variably oxidised on a scale of 2-10 cm, but original depositional layering is preserved during oxidation and formation of senarmontite (Sb 2 O 3 ). Oxidation of sand tailings has resulted in localised mobility of both Sb and As on the cm scale, resulting in redistribution of these metalloids with iron oxyhydroxide around sand grain boundaries. Experiments demonstrate that Sb mobility decreases with time on a scale of days. Attenuation of both As and Sb occurs due to adsorption on to iron oxyhydroxides which are formed during oxidation of the smelter residues. There is no detectable loss of Sb or As from the smelter site into the adjacent river, <50 m away, which has elevated Sb (ca. 20 μg/l) and As (ca. 7 μg /l) from mineralised rocks upstream. Despite the high concentrations of Sb and As in the smelter residues, these metalloids are not being released into the environment. - High levels of antimony in primitive smelter soils remain largely immobile on the metre scale

  5. How can we adapt to geological scarcity of antimony? Investigation of antimony's substitutability and of other measures to achieve a sustainable use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.

    Abstract Antimony is an element that is applied in many useful applications for mankind. However, antimony resources are very scarce, when comparing the current extraction rates with the availability of antimony containing ores. From an inter-temporal sustainability perspective, current generations

  6. Tissue distribution of residual antimony in rats treated with multiple doses of meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Riba Coelho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Meglumine antimoniate (MA and sodium stibogluconate are pentavalent antimony (SbV drugs used since the mid-1940s. Notwithstanding the fact that they are first-choice drugs for the treatment of leishmaniases, there are gaps in our knowledge of their toxicological profile, mode of action and kinetics. Little is known about the distribution of antimony in tissues after SbV administration. In this study, we evaluated the Sb content of tissues from male rats 24 h and three weeks after a 21-day course of treatment with MA (300 mg SbV/kg body wt/d, subcutaneous. Sb concentrations in the blood and organs were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In rats, as with in humans, the Sb blood levels after MA dosing can be described by a two-compartment model with a fast (t1/2 = 0.6 h and a slow (t1/2 >> 24 h elimination phase. The spleen was the organ that accumulated the highest amount of Sb, while bone and thyroid ranked second in descending order of tissues according to Sb levels (spleen >> bone, thyroid, kidneys > liver, epididymis, lungs, adrenals > prostate > thymus, pancreas, heart, small intestines > skeletal muscle, testes, stomach > brain. The pathophysiological consequences of Sb accumulation in the thyroid and Sb speciation in the liver, thyroid, spleen and bone warrant further studies.

  7. Zhao Tiancong——A MONUMENT TO ANTIMONY IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Professor Zhao Tiancong is a famous specialist of our country in nonferrous merallurgy field and a doctoral teacher of Central South University of Technology. He has been devoting diligently his life to the development of the antimony metallurgy.

  8. Determining arsenic in elemental antimony containing selenium and tellurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogileva, M.G.; Kozlova, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a method of determining arsenic in metallic antimony containing selenium, tellurium, and mercury, in which they isolated it in elementary form for separation from the antimony and the associated elements (silicon and phosphorus), followed by colorimetric determination of the arsenic from arsenic-molbdenum blue. The reducing agents to reduce the arsenic were sodium hypophosphite and tin(II) chloride, which do not reduce antimony and which do not interfere with the determination. This method of determining arsenic in metallic antimony without preliminary separation of the selenium and tellurium is in no way inferior in accuracy to the method given in All-Union State Standard (GOST) 1367.4-83

  9. Thermodynamic Behavior of Lead-Antimony Alloy in Vacuum Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of metals in Pb-Sb ailoy during vacuum distillation was calculated.The composition curve of vapor-liquid phases determined by this work is different from those of. other researchers.The curve intersects the diagonal at C.The compositions of vapor and liquid at C are identical.The antimony content of vapor on the left of C is less than that of liquid,and the vapor on the right-side of C contains more antimony.These characteristics can be applied to the elimination of antimony from crude lead or the elimination of lead from crude antimony.The position of C moves rightwards with temperature increment.The discrepency among the compositions of C suggested by diffrent authors was explained.

  10. Interplay of single particle and collective excitations in antimony nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stan-Sion, C.

    1987-01-01

    The antimony nuclei are considered classical examples for coexisting spherical and well-deformed structures. The electromagnetic moment measurements presented in this paper provide direct evidence for shape coexistence. 8 refs., 3 figs. (M.F.W.)

  11. Antimony and sleep-related disorders: NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C; Feroe, Aliya G; Attanasio, Roberta

    2017-07-01

    Antimony is used as a flame-retardant in textiles and plastics, in semiconductors, pewter, and as pigments in paints, lacquers, glass and pottery. Subacute or chronic antimony poisoning has been reported to cause sleeplessness. The prevalence of short sleep duration (sleep apnea (OSA) affects 12-28 million US adults. Insufficient sleep and OSA have been linked to the development of several chronic conditions including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity and depression, conditions that pose serious public health threats. To investigate whether there is an association between antimony exposure and sleep-related disorders in the US adult population using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association of urinary antimony with several sleep disorders, including insufficient sleep and OSA, in adult (ages 20 years and older) participants of NHANES 2005-2008 (n=2654). We found that participants with higher urinary antimony levels had higher odds to experience insufficient sleep (≤6h/night) (OR 1.73; 95%CI; 1.04, 2.91) as well as higher odds to have increased sleep onset latency (>30min/night). Furthermore, we found that higher urinary antimony levels in participants were associated with OSA (OR 1.57; 95%CI; 1.05, 2.34), sleep problems, and day-time sleepiness. In this study, we found that urinary antimony was associated with higher odds to have insufficient sleep and OSA. Because of the public health implications of sleep disorders, further studies, especially a prospective cohort study, are warranted to evaluate the association between antimony exposure and sleep-related disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Effect of antimony substitution in iron pnictide compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, D.; Braun, H. F.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we have examined the effect of negative chemical pressure in iron pnictides. We have synthesized substitution series replacing arsenic by antimony in a number of 1111- and 122-iron arsenides and present their crystallographic and physical properties. The SDW transition temperature in LaFeAs$_{\\mathrm{1-x}}$Sb$_{\\mathrm{x}}$O decreases with increasing antimony content, while the superconducting transition temperature in LaFeAs$_{\\mathrm{1-x}}$Sb$_{\\mathrm{x}}$O$_{\\mathrm{0...

  13. Electron irradiation effects in amorphous antimony thin films obtained by cluster-beam deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, G.; Treilleux, M.; Santos Aires, F.; Cabaud, B.; Melinon, P.; Hoareau, A. (Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France))

    1991-03-01

    In order to understand the differences existing between films obtained with a classical molecular beam deposition (MBD) and the new low-energy cluster beam deposition (LECBD), transmission electron microscopy has been used to characterize the first stages of antimony LECBD. Antimony deposits are discontinuous and amorphous up to 2 nm in thickness. They are formed with isolated amorphous antimony particles surrounded by an amorphous antimony oxide shell. Moreover, under electron beam exposure in the microscope, an amorphous-crystal transformation has been observed in the oxide shell. Electron irradiation induces the formation of a crystallized antimony oxide (Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}) around the amorphous antimony core. (author).

  14. Environmental concentration and migration of 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, F.P.; Strebin, R.S. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Local sources of 129 I suitable for study of migration in the environment are uranium ore bodies for long periods and nuclear fuel reprocessing operations for recent periods. Uranium ores produce 129 I from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. Nuclear fuel reprocessing has resulted in releases of 129 I to both the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. The long-term fate of surface-deposited and groundwater 129 I was studied. Neutron activation analysis was used to measure the low levels of 129 I and natural 127 I in samples near and remote from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. Measurements were made on air samples, vegetation, soil, surface water, groundwater and uranium ore samples. Samples were collected both during reprocessing operations and after reprocessing activities had been discontinued for several years. The 129 I was found to accumulate in the top soil and litter layer. The surface concentrations of 129 I in forest communities were found to be several times higher than for nearby grass communities. The 129 I levels were found to persist in the environment after reprocessing activities had been discontinued. Measurable 129 I was found to be contained in uranium ore samples from a variety of locations and with a range of uranium concentrations. Thus ore bodies constitute a source of 129 I suitable for study of migration over long periods. Iodine-129 has entered surface and groundwater as the result of liquid and atmospheric discharges from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. The iodine in water samples was found to be anionic and travel with the water flow. Thus 129 I was found to provide high sensitivity for hydrology tracer studies and radioactivity migration surveillance. Once 129 I enters the hydrosphere it migrates with the water with little or no hold-up by exchange with cationic exchangers such as soil or silt

  15. Cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in food packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xiuming; Wen Shengping; Xiang Guoqiang

    2010-01-01

    A simple, sensitive method for the speciation of inorganic antimony by cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is presented and evaluated. The method based on the fact that formation of a hydrophobic complex of antimony(III) with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) at pH 5.0 and subsequently the hydrophobic complex enter into surfactant-rich phase, whereas antimony(V) remained in aqueous solutions. Antimony(III) in surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by ETAAS after dilution by 0.2 mL nitric acid in methanol (0.1 M), and antimony(V) was calculated by subtracting antimony(III) from the total antimony after reducing antimony(V) to antimony(III) by L-cysteine. The main factors affecting the cloud point extraction, such as pH, concentration of APDC and Triton X-114, equilibrium temperature and incubation time, sample volume were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limit (3σ) of the proposed method was 0.02 ng mL -1 for antimony(III), and the relative standard deviation was 7.8% (c = 1.0 ng mL -1 , n = 7). The proposed method was successfully applied to speciation of inorganic antimony in the leaching solutions of different food packaging materials with satisfactory results.

  16. Iodine-129 in thyroids of grazing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballad, R.V.; Holman, D.W.; Hennecke, E.W.; Johnson, J.E.; Manuel, O.K.; Nicholson, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    A combination of neutron activation and mass spectrometry has been used to determine the concentrations of fissiogenic 129 I and stable 127 I in thyroids of grazing animals and in mineral iodine. The 129 I/ 127 I ratios are lowest in mineral iodine and in a given area lower in cow thyroids than in deer thyroids. Near saturation levels of mineral iodine in commercial feeds and salt licks may account for differences in the 129 I levels of cows and deer. Values of the 129 I/ 127 I ratio in deer appear to vary inversely with the iodine concentration of the thyroid. (author)

  17. Determination of 129I in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathova, B.; Dulanska, S.; Matel, L.; Remenec, B.; Gardonova, V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop and optimize the conditions for the distillation of iodine and its use for determination of 129 I on liquid scintillation spectrometer (LSC). An appropriate distillation apparatus for distillation of iodine was proposed by testing distillation apparatus. A method of cleaning of 129 I from present interferents , e.g. 14 C, 137 Cs, was tested on proposed simple distillation apparatus. High-purity fraction needed for the determination of 129 I was achieved by distillation on liquid scintillation spectrometer TRI CARB 2900TR from Perkin Elmer Company. Optimal energy window (0 - 80) keV was chosen to measure 129 I on liquid scintillation spectrometer. Ultima Gold TM AB was chosen as more appropriate scintillator by testing of two scintillation solutions. Optimized method for determining the 129 I was applied to real samples coming from Bohunice NPP. The combination of precipitation method and method of 129 I purification by distillation is easy and less time consuming separation method for the determination of 129 I compared to conventional methods of separation of 129 I, e.g. by liquid extraction. Measuring method on the LSC spectrometer represents a measurement with a higher detection efficiency (95%) as compared to measurement of low-energy X-ray radiation 129 I (29.6 keV) with X-ray detector Si (Li) 12155 SL with detection efficiency only (1-2)%.

  18. Sorbents for effective removal of radioactive antimony during chemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishad, Padala Abdul; Bhaskarapillai, Anupkumar; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam

    2014-01-01

    Removal of radioactive antimony is a challenging problem. Often, during decontamination, they get mobilized around the system and redeposit in different areas thus offsetting the reduction in the radiation field obtained by removing other activities such as 60 Co. Thus, there is a clear need for better antimony removing materials/strategies for effective reactor decontamination. In this regard, six commercially available sorbents namely, Tulsion A33 (strong base anion (-OH) resin), Amberlite IRC-718 (chelating resin), Radex ® Sb-1000, nano TiO 2 -special grade (Inorganic type IX), Chitosan (biosorbent) and Aeroxide p25 (nano TiO 2 , Inorganic type IX) were evaluated for their antimony sorption properties. Radex ® and TiO 2 based materials were found to be more effective in removing both Sb(V) and Sb(III). Solution pH was seen to significantly influence the antimony sorption and the effect was more prominent in anion resin, when tested under column conditions. Apart from the commercial sorbents, we have synthesised a robust high performing sorbent (TA-Chitosan beads) in the form of stable beads, using nano-TiO 2 and chitosan. The beads were found to retain the antimony sorption properties of the nano-TiO 2 , while adapting a physical format suitable for large scale operations. The sorbent exhibited almost complete sorption of antimony both in low (ppb level) as well as high concentrations of antimony. The suitability of the beads for use in column mode has been established and its radiation stability was probed in detail. The beads were found to be stable to irradiations as ascertained from the TOC values and unchanged sorption properties. The sorption properties of the CHITA beads in typical decontamination formulation containing mixture of complexing agents have been investigated in detail. (author)

  19. Complex processing of antimony-mercury gold concentrates of Dzhizhikrut Deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdusalyamova, M.N.; Gadoev, S.A.; Dreisinger, D.; Solozhenkin, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Present article is devoted to complex processing of antimony-mercury gold concentrates of Dzhizhikrut Deposit. The purpose of research was obtaining the metallic mercury and antimony with further gold and thallium extraction.

  20. Solubility behaviour of antimony(III) and antimony(V) solids in basic aqueous solutions at 300oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemire, R.J.; Tosello, N.B.; Halliday, J.D.

    1999-12-01

    The major contributions of the isotopes 122 Sb and 124 Sb to activity transport in a CANDU reactor primary heat transport system (HTS), have been associated with oxygen ingress during reactor shutdown. As part of a program to minimize the release and redeposition of these isotopes, the solubilities of antimony(III) and (V) oxides and salts have been measured in basic solutions at temperatures from 25 to 300 o C. The results provide information on the charge and the stability as a function of temperature of antimony solution species and, hence, a guide to the trends in the temperature dependence of the solubilities of antimony solids. In solutions in which oxidation of antimony(III) to antimony(V) is minimized, the solubility of Sb 2 O 3 increases by about two orders of magnitude between 25 and 200 o C, and then levels out or decreases slightly. At 250 o C, in oxidizing solutions, Sb 2 O 5 ·xH 2 O and simple sodium antimonate(V) were found to be unstable in sodium hydroxide solutions with respect to the solid, Na 2α [H(H 2 O)] 2-2α Sb 2 O 6 , which has a pyrochlore structure. The solubility of this partially protonated sodium antimonate increases from 25 to 200 o C and decreases at temperatures above 250 o C. These solubility changes for the antimony (V) solids reflect changes in the stability of the anionic antimony solution species (SbO 3 - or Sb(OH) 6 - ), even though the compositions of antimony-containing solids in basic oxidizing solutions are strongly dependent on the cations and their aqueous phase concentrations. All solids used in the present experiments would be expected to generate total solution antimony concentrations ≥ 0.00005 mol·dm -3 in any neutral or basic aqueous solutions (assuming no added sodium salts). Therefore, under HTS conditions, precipitation of any antimony oxides or mixed oxides is unlikely. It cannot be ruled out that hydrated Sb 2 O 5 (especially the pyrochlore form) might be less soluble in near-neutral, low

  1. Simple and effective method for nuclear tellurium isomers separation from antimony cyclotron targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarevskij, S.I.; Eremin, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Simple and effective method of generation of tellurium nuclear isomers from irradiated on cyclotron metallic antimony is suggested. Basically this method consists in consideration of the big difference in volatilities of metallic forms of antimony, tin and tellurium. Heating of the tin-antimony alloy at 1200 K permits to separate about 90 % of produced quantity of 121m Te and 123m Te (in this case impurity of antimony radionuclides is not more than 1 % on activity) [ru

  2. Blocking of indium incorporation by antimony in III-V-Sb nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, A M; Beltran, A M; Ben, T; Molina, S I; Beanland, R; Gass, M H; De la Pena, F; Walls, M; Taboada, A G; Ripalda, J M

    2010-01-01

    The addition of antimony to III-V nanostructures is expected to give greater freedom in bandgap engineering for device applications. One of the main challenges to overcome is the effect of indium and antimony surface segregation. Using several very high resolution analysis techniques we clearly demonstrate blocking of indium incorporation by antimony. Furthermore, indium incorporation resumes when the antimony concentration drops below a critical level. This leads to major differences between nominal and actual structures.

  3. The investigation of antimony extraction with tributyl phosphate from nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakaev, V.S.; Smelov, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental data on trivalent antimony extraction with tributyl phosphate from nitric acid solutions containing (3.2-4.3)x10 -6 mol/l of antimony-125 isotope are presented. Possible mechanism of antimony (3) extraction is determined and the concentration constant for this process is calculated. Effect of temperature on the extraction of trivalent antimony is estimated. The values of enthalpy, free enthalpy and entropy are determined

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of separating lead and antimony in chloride system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-zhong; CAO Hua-zhen; LI Bo; YUAN Hai-jun; ZHENG Guo-qu; YANG Tian-zu

    2009-01-01

    In chloride system, thermodynamic analysis is a useful guide to separate lead and antimony as well as to understand the separation mechanism. An efficient and feasible way for separating lead and antimony was discussed. The relationships of [Pb2+][Cl-]2-lg[Cl]T and E-lg[Cl]T in Pb-Sb-Cl-H2O system were studied, and the solubilities of lead chloride at different antimony concentrations were calculated based on principle of simultaneous equilibrium. The results show that insoluble salt PbCl2 will only exist stably in a certain concentration range of chlorine ion. This concentration range of chlorine ion expands a little with increasing the concentration of antimony in the system while narrows as the system acidity increases. The solubility of Pb2+ in solution decreases with increasing the concentration of antimony in the system, whereas increases with increasing the concentration of total chlorine. The concentration range of total chlorine causing lead solubility less than 0.005 mol/L increases monotonically.

  5. Behavior of arsenic impurity at antimony electric precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G.N.; Rakhmanov, A.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper the arsenic impurity electrochemical behavior and it purification from antimony by electric precipitation out of fluoride solutions was studied. For this the arsenic sample with mass 0.003-0.006 g has been irradiated at the WWR-SM nuclear reactor during 3-5 hour in the thermal neutron flux 10 13 n/cm 2 s, after 24 h keeping the sample has being dissolved in the concentrated nitric acid, and then it has been evaporated several times with distillation water addition up to wet precipitation state. It is shown, that arsenic impurity behavior character in the antimony electric precipitation out to fluoride electrolyte depends on the electrolyte content, electrolysis conditions, arsenic valency state in arsenic impurity existence in the five-valency state its joint electric reduction with antimony is practically not observing. In the case the arsenic being in three-valency state, it joint electric reduction with antimony is taking place. In this time the electrolytic antimony contents arsenic impurities less in dozen time than initial material

  6. 9 CFR 3.129 - Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.129 Section 3.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  7. 14 CFR 129.28 - Flightdeck security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flightdeck security. 129.28 Section 129.28... Flightdeck security. (a) After August 20, 2002, except for a newly manufactured airplane on a non-revenue...; or the operator must implement a security program approved by the Transportation Security...

  8. 31 CFR 129.5 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality. 129.5 Section 129.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance PORTFOLIO INVESTMENT SURVEY... contain data aggregated in such a way that neither the person supplying the information nor the investor...

  9. 22 CFR 129.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... arranging contracts, purchases, sales or transfers of defense articles or defense services in return for a... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 129.2 Section 129.2 Foreign... action that facilitates the manufacture, export, or import or a defense article or defense service...

  10. Martensite transformation in antimony implanted stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Littmark, U.; Johansen, A.; Christodoulides, C.

    1981-01-01

    The authors have used Rutherford backscattering analysis (RBS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and diffraction to investigate austenitic stainless steel crystals implanted at room temperature with 80 keV Sb + ions to a fluence of 5 x 10 20 ions/m 2 , thus providing implantation with a heavy group V element. RBS channeling spectra from implanted crystals show a damage peak which approaches the height of the random level and therefore indicates a very high degree of disorder in the implanted layers. The distribution of the disorder extends to a depth 3-5 times the depth of the primary radiation damage. The Sb peaks under channeling as well as random conditions are indistinguishable, confirming that substitutionality during implantation is negligible. To establish the nature of the disorder which cannot be assessed from the RBS analysis alone, and in particular to assess whether an amorphous alloy is formed in the implanted layer as indicated from the RBS spectra, samples implanted under similar conditions were investigated in the TEM. Significant extra spots in the patterns can be ascribed to the presence of a radiation induced b.c.c. phase of martensitic origin. The result that a significant amount of martensite can be induced by antimony implantation seems to indicate that the main driving force for the transition is due to damage induced stress concentrations. (Auth.)

  11. [Pollution characteristics of antimony, arsenic and mercury in human hair at Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bi-Jun; Wu, Feng-Chang; Deng, Qiu-Jing; Mo, Chang-Li; Zhu, Jing; Zeng, Li; Fu, Zhi-You; Li, Wen

    2009-03-15

    The concentration levels of antimony, arsenic and mercury in human hair collected from Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City were determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry after having been digested by nitric acid and perchloric acid. The contents of Sb, As and Hg are 15.9, 4.21, 1.79 microg/g in the samples from Xikuangshan antimony mining area and 0.532, 0.280, 0.338 microg/g in the samples from Guiyang City respectively. The contents of Sb, As and Hg in human hair of Xikuangshan antimony area are much higher than those of Guiyang City. The independent-samples t-test shows that there are no marked differences in the contents of Sb and As between male and female hair samples from both Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City (p > 0.05), while Hg contents in male hair are apparently higher than those in female hair from Guiyang City (p mining area may significantly affect human health than in the un-mining areas.

  12. REACTION PRODUCTS AND CORROSION OF MOLYBDENUM ELECTRODE IN GLASS MELT CONTAINING ANTIMONY OXIDES AND SODIUM SULFATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIŘÍ MATĚJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The products on the interface of a molybdenum electrode and glass melt were investigated primarily at 1400°C in three model glass melts without ingredients, with 1 % Sb2O3 and with 1 % Sb2O3 and 0.5 % SO3 (wt. %, both under and without load by alternating current. Corrosion of the molybdenum electrode in glass melt without AC load is higher by one order of magnitude if antimony oxides are present. The corrosion continues to increase if sulfate is present in addition to antimony oxides. Isolated antimony droplets largely occur on the electrode-glass melt interface, and numerous droplets are also dissipated in the surrounding glass if only antimony oxides are present in the glass melt. A comparatively continuous layer of antimony occurs on the interface if SO3 is also present, antimony being always in contact with molybdenum sulfide. Almost no antimony droplets are dissipated in the glass melt. The total amount of precipitated antimony also increases. The presence of sulfide on the interface likely facilitates antimony precipitation. The reaction of molybdenum with antimony oxides is inhibited in sites covered by an antimony layer. The composition of sulfide layers formed at 1400°C approximates that of Mo2S3. At 1100°C, the sulfide composition approximates that of MoS4. Corrosion multiplies in the glass melt without additions through the effect of AC current, most molybdenum being separated in the form of metallic particles. Corrosion also increases in the glass melt containing antimony oxides. This is due to increased corrosion in the neighborhood of the separated antimony droplets. This mechanism also results in the loosening of molybdenum particles. The amount of precipitated antimony also increases through the effect of the AC current. AC exerts no appreciable effect on either corrosion, the character of the electrode-glass interface, or antimony precipitation in the glass melt containing SO3.

  13. Antimony Resistance in Leishmania, Focusing on Experimental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Jeddi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that spread in many countries with a prevalence of 12 million cases. There are few available treatments and antimonials are still of major importance in the therapeutic strategies used in most endemic regions. However, resistance toward these compounds has recently emerged in areas where the replacement of these drugs is mainly limited by the cost of alternative molecules. In this paper, we reviewed the studies carried out on antimonial resistance in Leishmania. Several common limitations of these works are presented before prevalent approaches to evidence antimonial resistance are related. Afterwards, phenotypic determination of resistance is described, then confronted to clinical outcome. Finally, we detail molecular mechanisms and targets involved in resistance and already identified in vitro within selected mutant strains or in clinical isolates.

  14. Antimony recycling in the United States in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, James F.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of recycling has become more obvious as concerns about the environment and import dependence have grown in recent years. When materials are recycled, fewer natural resources are consumed, and less waste products go to landfills or pollute the water and air. This study, one of a series of reports on metals recycling in 2000, discusses the flow of antimony from mining through its uses and disposal with emphasis on recycling. In 2000, the recycling efficiency for antimony was estimated to be 89 percent, and the recycling rate was about 20 percent.

  15. Standardization of intralesional meglumine antimoniate treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Vasconcellos, Érica de Camargo Ferreira E; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Pacheco, Sandro Javier Bedoya; Marzochi, Mauro Celio de Almeida; Rosalino, Cláudia Maria Valete; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Intralesional treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis has been applied for over 30 years at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, with good therapeutic results and without relevant systemic toxicity. Meglumine antimoniate was injected subcutaneously, using a long medium-caliber needle (for example, 30mm × 0.8mm); patients received 1-3 injections, with 15-day intervals. The technique is described in detail sufficient to enable replication. The treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with intralesional meglumine antimoniate is a simple, effective, and safe technique, which may be used in basic healthcare settings.

  16. Lattice dynamics of femtosecond laser-excited antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, Mahmoud Hanafy [Applied Research Center, Old Dominion University, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Bugayev, Aleksey [Applied Research Center, Old Dominion University, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Elsayed-Ali, Hani E., E-mail: helsayed@odu.edu [Applied Research Center, Old Dominion University, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Ultrafast electron diffraction is used to probe the lattice dynamics of femtosecond laser-excited antimony thin film. The temporal hierarchies of the intensity and position of diffraction orders are monitored. The femtosecond laser excitation of antimony film was found to lead to initial compression after the laser pulse, which gives way to tension vibrating at new equilibrium displacement. A damped harmonic oscillator model, in which the hot electron-blast force contributes to the driving force of oscillations in lattice spacing, is used to interpret the data. The electron–phonon energy-exchange rate and the electronic Grüneisen parameter were obtained.

  17. Preparation and characterization of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X. P.; Yao, B. H.; Pan, Q. H.; Pen, C.; Zhang, C. L.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, two kinds of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts have been prepared by two methods and characterized by XRD and SEM. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by a photocatalytic reactor and an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The results showed that-BaSb2O5•4H2O, BaSb2O6 two kinds of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts were successfully prepared in this experiment and they showed good photocatalytic properties. In addition, BaSb2O6 morphology showed more regular, microstructure and better catalytic performance.

  18. Inhibition of DNA-double strand break repair by antimony compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Sentaro; Sato, Hiroshi; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Utsumi, Hiroshi; Bedford, Joel S.; Okayasu, Ryuichi

    2002-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), induced by γ-irradiation in Chinese hamster ovary cells, were used to examine whether antimony compounds affect the repair of DNA damage. The cells were first incubated with antimony trichloride or antimony potassium tartrate (both Sb(III)) for 2 h, and then irradiated with γ-rays at a dose of 40 Gy. The DNA DSB was quantified with pulsed field gel electrophoresis immediately after irradiation (non-repair group) as well as at 30 min post-irradiation (repair group). The degree of repair inhibition was determined by the differences in the amount of DNA DSB between non-repair and repair groups. Both antimony compounds inhibited repair of DNA DSB in a dose dependent manner. In trichloride, 0.2 mM antimony significantly inhibited the rejoining of DSB, while 0.4 mM was necessary in potassium antimony tartrate. The mean lethal doses, D 0 , for the treatment with antimony trichloride and antimony potassium tartrate, were approximately 0.21 and 0.12 mM, respectively. This indicates that the repair inhibition by antimony trichloride occurred in the dose range near D 0 , but the antimony potassium tartrate inhibited the repair at doses where most cells lost their proliferating ability. This is the first report to indicate that antimony compounds may inhibit the repair of radiation-induced DNA DSB

  19. Self-standing nanoribbons of antimony selenide and antimony sulfide with well-defined size and band gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadapoo, Rajasekarakumar; Krishnan, Sridevi; Yilmaz, Hulusi; Marin, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Sub-10 nm semiconducting nanostructures are crucial for the realization of nanoscale devices. Fabrication of nanostructures at this scale with homogeneous properties is challenging. Using ab initio calculations, we show that self-standing ribbons of antimony selenide and antimony sulfide of width 1.1 nm exhibit well-defined bandgaps of 1.66 and 2.16 eV, respectively. Molecular dynamics studies show that these ribbons are stable at 500 K. The one-dimensional (1D) heterostructure of these nanoribbons (Sb 2 Se 3 /Sb 2 S 3 ) along the [001] direction shows a straddling type behavior.

  20. Selective oxidation of propene on bismuth molybdate and mixed oxides of tin and antimony and of uranium and antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, P.; Taylor, D.

    1976-01-01

    Propene + 18 0 2 reactions have been studied in a static reaction system on bismuth molybdate and mixed oxides of tin and antimony and of uranium and antimony. The [ 16 0] acrolein content of the total acrolein formed and the proportion of 16 0 in the oxygen of the carbon dioxide by-product have been determined. The results indicate that for each catalyst the lattice is the only direct source of the oxygen in the aldehyde, and that lattice and/or gas phase oxygen is used in carbon dioxide formation. Oxygen anion mobility appears to be greater in the molybdate catalyst than in the other two. (author)

  1. Is it necessary to transmute 129I?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Brissot, R.

    2001-01-01

    129 I is the unstable fission product with the record half life of 15.7 million years. It is produced with a yield of 0.7% in the thermal neutron induced fission of 235 U. Typically, a 1 GWe PWR reactor produces about 4 kg of 129 I annually. Iodine is highly soluble in water, and that property compounded with its very long half life makes 129 I the isotope most likely to leak through the biosphere from a deep underground storage site. In fact it is highly probable that it will be incorporated in the biosphere before it decays. Therefore, at least for the far future, sequestration in deep underground sites is no more justified than direct and immediate dispersion into the environment. It is, thus, important to know at which level of deployment of nuclear power the diffusion of 129 I in the biosphere might be a hazard for living beings at any time in the future. (authors)

  2. Investigation of the radioecology of iodine 129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.

    1979-01-01

    Very sensitive analytical methods for I-129 were developed for different sample materials. - The behaviour of I-129 in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant and its release was completely investigated. - A longterm risk for the population caused by I-129 is not excpected. An existing environmental contamination with I-129 is reduced by a half-life of 0,3 y. The exposure of the population via the pasture-cow-milk path until now was overstimated at least by a factor 45. - In the environmental air of Kiel, Stade, Karlsruhe, Gundremmingen and Munich elemental iodine and iodine aerosols were measured. In the environmental air of Karlsruhe CH 3 127 I was determined. (orig./RW) [de

  3. Tracing the Iodine-129 fallout in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Niello, Jorge; Negri, Agustin; Arazi, Andres [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. TANDAR; Wallner, Anton [The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; Niello, Jorge Fernandez [Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Campus Miguelete, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Long-lived {sup 129}I (half-life=15.6 Ma) is produced naturally by irradiation of atmospheric xenon by cosmic neutrons and in the sub-surface by spontaneous fission of {sup 238}U, from which the natural inventory of {sup 129}I has been estimated to be around 50,000 kg, only 140 kg of them corresponds to the hydrospheric inventory. Nuclear tests and accidents have added between 45-130 kg. Apart from a global atmospheric fallout component, {sup 129}I has been released from several nuclear fuel reprocessing plants located in the Northern Hemisphere (ca. 6000 kg) which serve as localized sources in oceanographic-tracer experiments. In this presentation, we report results from a study exploring the presence of {sup 129}I in the Southern Hemisphere by determining {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I isotopic ratios in water samples (rivers, lakes and shallow sea-water) taken at different latitudes in Argentina including Antarctica. The iodine-127 and iodine-129 concentrations were measured via ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), respectively. Distribution of both isotopes can be understood considering tropospheric circulation patterns, possible sources and regional precipitation patterns. Natural and anthropogenic sources for the Southern Hemisphere and their inventories are discussed. Similar contribution came from natural sources and nuclear tests. Contribution from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants placed in the Northern hemisphere can be neglected. (author)

  4. Ultrafast photoinduced structure phase transition in antimony single crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fausti, Daniele; Misochko, Oleg V.; van Loosdrecht, Paul H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Picosecond Raman scattering is used to study the photoinduced ultrafast dynamics in Peierls distorted antimony. We find evidence for an ultrafast nonthermal reversible structural phase transition. Most surprisingly, we find evidence that this transition evolves toward a lower symmetry in contrast to

  5. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Morizot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure.

  6. Vapor pressures of dimethylcadmium, trimethylbismuth, and tris(dimethylamino)antimony

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morávek, Pavel; Fulem, Michal; Pangrác, Jiří; Hulicius, Eduard; Růžička, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 360, Dec (2013), s. 106-110 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15286S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : vapor pressure * dimethylcadmium * trimethylbismuth * tris(dimethylamino)antimony * sublimation and vaporization enthalpy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.241, year: 2013

  7. Application of KWU antimony removal process at Gentilly-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dundar, Y.; Odar, S.; Streit, K.; Allsop, H.; Guzonas, D.

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes the work performed to adapt the KWU PWR antimony removal process to CANDU plant conditions, and the application of the process at the Hydro Quebec unit, Gentilly-2. The results of the application will be presented and the 'lessons learned' will be discussed in detail. (author)

  8. The acidic properties of mixed tin and antimony oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, E.A.; Taylor, D.

    1978-01-01

    The acidic properties of mixed tin + antimony oxide catalysts were studied in the isomerization of 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene, cyclopropane, 1-butene, and cis-2-butene and the dehydration of isopropanol over the mixed oxides outgassed at room temperature and 698/sup 0/K. Only the zero-order portions of the reaction were used for calculations. With catalysts outgassed at room temperature, weakly acidic sites were present, and all the reactions probably occurred by a carbonium ion mechanism with Broensted acid sites as a source of protons. The rates increased with increasing antimony content to a maximum at approx. 50 at. % and then decreased with further increase in the antimony content. Outgassing of the catalysts at 698/sup 0/K increased the isomerization rate of 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene, but decreased those for cyclopropane and isopropanol due to poisoning by the propylene produced. For 1-butene and cis-2-butene and catalysts outgassed at 698/sup 0/K, only catalysts with less than 50Vertical Bar3< antimony were active. The catalysts were poisoned by treatment with bases or with sodium acetate. A proposed correlation between rates and acidity led to the conclusion that the catalyst composition corresponding to maximum acidity differs from that for maximum selective oxidation activity. Graphs and 10 references.

  9. Neutron activation analysis of arsenic and antimony in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Yukio; Isono, Hideo; Kozuka, Hiroshi.

    1975-01-01

    A radiochemical neutron activation method for the determination of trace amounts of arsenic and antimony in human hair samples is studied. The sample of hair (100 mg) irradiated for 5 hours with a neutron flux of 2.1x10 12 n/cm 2 s was decomposed with a sulfuric-nitric acid mixture after addition of each 5 mg of arsenic and antimony as carrier. Arsine and stibine were evolved from the solution of decomposed hair by reduction with 3 g of granular zinc and were absorbed in 0.1N iodine solution for half an hour. Metal arsenic was separated from iodine solution by precipitation with sodium hypophosphite, followed by precipitation of antimony as sulfide with thioacetamide. These precipitates were dissolved and their gamma-ray spectra were measured with a well type 3''x3'' NaI(TI) detector equipped with a 200 channel pulse-height analyzer. After the measurement of gamma-ray spectra, the chemical yields were determined by colorimetric methods. The relative standard deviations were 7% and 4% for 0.01 μg As and 0.024 μg Sb, respectively. The sensitivity of this method was estimated to be 1x10 -3 μg for arsenic and 2x10 -3 μg for antimony. (auth.)

  10. Antimony content of macrofungi from clean and polluted areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovička, J.; Řanda, Zdeněk; Jelínek, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 11 (2006), s. 1837-1844 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : mushrooms * antimony pollution * bioaccumulation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.442, year: 2006

  11. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721.1930 Section 721.1930 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid,...

  12. Studies on the dissolution of antimony doped ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keny, S.J.; Kumbhar, A.G.; Sanjukta, A.; Pandey, S.; Venkateswaran, G.; Ramanathan, S.

    2008-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) present in the PHT (primary heat transport) pump seals and bearings of PHWRs (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) is released during operation of the reactor and gets deposited on the in-core zircaloy surfaces. Neutron flux in the reactor core activates this Sb to 122 Sb (t 1/2 2.6 days) and 124 Sb (t 1/2 60 days). Release of this Sb (radioactive antimony) and its deposition on out of core surfaces occurs due to oxygen ingress in the system during shutdown periods and off normal conditions. Sb deposition on the magnetite bearing carbon steel surface of the PHT system results in increase of radiation fields. The consequence of this is low apparent decontamination factors observed after system decontamination. Once Sb is deposited on bare carbon steel (CS) surface or magnetite bearing carbon steel surface it is not amenable for removal by normal reductive decontamination process. It has to decay by its own half-life or has to be removed by oxidative dissolution. To understand the role of antimony and its removal on the ion exchange column, antimony doped ferrites were prepared and their dissolution in CNA (citric acid, NTA, Ascorbic acid; 1.4+1.4+1.7 mM) formulation was studied. The time taken for the dissolution of antimony-doped ferrites was found to increase with increasing Sb content in the ferrite. The point of zero charge (pzc) value of Sb substituted magnetite was determined to understand its adsorption on carbon steel surfaces of the PHT system. The pzc values for Fe 3 O 4 and Sb 2 O 3 , with H + / OH - as only potential determining ions in the aqueous medium, were 6.5 and 1.7 respectively. While, pzc of magnetite in typical decontamination formulations was below 3. The pzc for aqueous suspension of antimony-substituted magnetite (sintered at 1173 K) was 4.4. On the other hand, in CEA (citric acid, EDTA, Ascorbic acid) formulation up to a pH of 1.5, surface charge on the antimony-substituted magnetite was negative. Hence, even at this low pH, pzc

  13. I-129 migration and retrospective dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daraoui, Abdelouahed

    2010-01-01

    The naturally occurring of the long-lived radionuclide 129 I (T 1/2 = 15.7 Ma) have been substantially increased by the fallout from atmospheric nuclear explosions, by releases from nuclear accidents and by emissions from reprocessing plants. The aim of this study was to determine the 127 I, 129 I, 40 K and 137 Cs in Soils from Northern Ukraine, Chile, Bavaria and the Retrospective Dosimetry of the 131 I exposure after the Chernobyl Accident. In addition, water samples from North Germany (precipitation, surface and ground waters, Aerosol, soils, Humus and milk), North Sea, North Atlantic, Spitzbergen, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean, Hawaii, Tahiti, Egypt and prenuclear sediment samples of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea were analysed. 129 I/ 127 I was analysed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and 127 I was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The geometric mean deposition density of 129 I in these soils was 109 x 1.5 ±1 mBq m -2 , that the dominant sources of 129 I in the region are the reprocessing plants (La Hague and Sellafield) and not the Chernobyl fallout. The 129 I/ 127 I isotopic ratios of the Bavarian soils are measured between 10 -7 and 10 -10 what is 100- to 1000-time higher than as the ratios obtained for the Chilean samples. The 129 I integral deposition densities in Chile, Easter Island and Antarctica were between 0.3 and 2 mBq m -2 . In these soils the observed 129 I/ 127 I ratios are about 10 -12 low measured Value in the pedosphere. This value is consistent with the results from the marine sediments assumed to represent the pre-nuclear equilibrium ratios. The soils from Chile also allow the determination of the 129 I fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions undisturbed from contaminations due to the releases from reprocessing plants. The results from the soil profiles show that more than 90 % of the 129 I-concentration in the soil profiles are still in the top 40 cm of the profiles is located

  14. Investigations on iodine-129 in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handl, J.; Oliver, E.; Jakob, D.

    1992-01-01

    In order to detect characteristic regional differences or temporal changes of iodine-129 concentrations in the biosphere, thyroids from humans, grazing livestock and roedeer (Capreolus capreolus L.) are collected in various parts of the world, which are differing in the exposure to I-129 immissions from nuclear sources. For reasons of comparison all samples are analysed for their I-129/I-127 atom ratios. Human thyroids taken from Lower Saxony (Federal Republic of Germany), which is a region not directly affected by reprocessing plants showed I-129/I-127 values between 8x10 -9 and 6x10 -8 for a period from February 1988 to September 1990. Those atom ratios correspond to the level of biospheric I-129 in background areas of Europe exposed to fallout atmospheric nuclear weapons tests during the 1950s and 1960s. Thyroid glands of roedeer taken from the Heby commune in Middle Sweden during spring 1990 showed I-129/I-127 ratios between 2x10 -7 and 4x10 -7 . Two soil samples taken from Krasnaya Gora and Mirny locations in Russia (about 200 km northwest of Chernobyl) exhibited ratios of about 1x10 -6 . According to the Cs-137 levels, the Swedish Heby area as well as both Russian locations were found to be seriously Chernobyl contaminated. Ratios found in human and bovine thyroids collected in the 10th Region in southern Chile (40deg-42degS) indicated values between 1x10 -10 and 9x10 -9 . On the basis of the prenuclear range of I-129/I-127 ratios between 4x10 -11 and 3x10 -9 , which were found in human thyroids analysed in the USA before 1945 the Chilean values can be considered only slightly elevated as compared to those determined in samples of Northern Hemisphere today. (orig.) [de

  15. Increased thiol levels in antimony-resistant Leishmania infantum isolated from treatment-refractory visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Lucas S; Bomfim, Lays Gs; Mota, Sthefanne G; Cruz, Geydson S; Corrêa, Cristiane B; Tanajura, Diego M; Lipscomb, Michael W; Borges, Valéria M; Jesus, Amélia R de; Almeida, Roque P de; Moura, Tatiana R de

    2018-02-01

    BACKGROUND Treatment-refractory visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has become an important problem in many countries. OBJECTIVES We evaluated the antimony-resistance mechanisms of Leishmania infantum isolated from VL patients refractory or responsive to treatment with pentavalent antimony. METHODS Strains isolated from antimony-refractory patients (in vitro antimony-resistant isolates) and antimony-responsive patients (in vitro antimony-sensitive isolates) were examined. Morphological changes were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy after trivalent antimony exposure. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump activity was evaluated using the pump-specific inhibitor verapamil hydrochloride, and the role of thiol in trivalent antimony resistance was investigated using the enzymatic inhibitor L-buthionine sulfoximine. FINDINGS Antimony treatment induced fewer alterations in the cellular structure of L. infantum resistant isolates than in that of sensitive isolates. P-gp efflux activity was not involved in antimony resistance in these isolates. Importantly, the resistant isolates contained higher levels of thiol compared to the sensitive isolates, and inhibition of thiol synthesis in the resistant isolates recovered their sensitivity to trivalent antimony treatment, and enhanced the production of reactive oxygen species in promastigotes exposed to the drug. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our results demonstrate that isolates from patients with antimony-refractory VL exhibited higher thiol levels than antimony-sensitive isolates. This indicates that redox metabolism plays an important role in the antimony-resistance of New World VL isolates.

  16. Iodine-129 in the European Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, R.; Daraoui, A.; Gorny, M.; Jakob, D.; Sachse, R.; Tosch, L. [Institut fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz, Leibniz Universitaet, Hannover (Germany); Alfimov, V.; Synal, H. -A. [Labor fuer Ionenstrahlphysik, ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nies, H.; Herrmann, J.; Goroncy, I. [Bundesamt fuer Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Due to former atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, accidents in nuclear facilities and releases from nuclear reprocessing plants, the natural occurrence of the radionuclide {sup 129}I has been affected on a long term scale by human activities. Particularly in Western Europe, these changes are continuing due to discharges from the nuclear reprocessing plants La Hague and Sellafield. A survey is given on the environmental abundances of {sup 129}I and {sup 127}I in the North Sea, the Northeast Atlantic, as well as on the atmospheric transport of iodine isotopes from the sea to the continent and their pathways to animals and man. Today, the environmental {sup 129}I /{sup 127}I isotope ratios range from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -6} and are far above the pre-nuclear ratio of {approx}10{sup -12}. The iodine isotopes are in severe disequilibrium in the different environmental compartments and serve as tracers of the complex environmental chemistry of iodine. (author)

  17. Investigations on the 129I radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.

    1977-01-01

    The measurement of 129 I concentrations in milk and soil samples was continued. In process solutions of the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant the 129 I concentrations were determined. 127 I was measured in air. Apparatus for the collection of 127 I in air were installed in Kiel, Stade and Gundremmingen. The concentrations of 129 I in goats milk were between 0.03 and 1.1 pCi/g. The soil sample concentrations were between 0.3 and 5.6 fCi/g. The concentrations of 127 I in air from the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center averages about 10 ng I 2 /m 3 and about 2 ng aerosol bound I/m 3 . (orig./RW) [de

  18. Effects of antimony additions on the fracture of nickel at 600 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.L.; Padgett, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Antimony additions (about 1 wt pct) are found to drastically lower tensile ductility and induce extensive intergranular cracking in nickel at 600 C. This effect is most pronounced at lower strain rates. These results are contrasted to results for pure nickel where ductility is high and failure occurs via plastic instability. Scanning electron microscopy revealed faceting of crack and cavity surfaces in the antimony doped nickel. Auger electron spectroscopy revealed segregation of antimony and (residual) sulfur to both grain boundaries and to the internal free surfaces of cracks and cavities. Inert ion sputter profiling showed that most of the antimony and sulfur enrichment on these surfaces is confined within a few atom layers of the interface. The embrittling influence of antimony is discussed in terms of the observed antimony and sulfur segregation to internal interfaces. Possible connections between the segregation and the observed embrittlement involve segregation effects on grain boundary sliding, grain boundary and surface diffusivities, and interfacial energetics

  19. In Vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Etel Treiger Borborema

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime® or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam® , is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony, with suitable physical and biological properties. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes 122Sb and 124Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology.Os antimoniais pentavalentes, como o antimoniato de meglumina (Glucantime® ou estibogluconato de sódio (Pentostam® , são o principal tratamento para a leishmaniose, um complexo de doenças causadas pelo protozoário parasita Leishmania, uma doença endêmica e negligenciada no Brasil. Apesar do seu uso clínico por mais de meio século, seu mecanismo de ação, toxicidade e dados de farmacocinética permanecem desconhecidos. Os métodos analíticos para determinação de antimônio em sistemas biológicos são complexos e apresentam baixa sensibilidade. Estudos utilizando radiotraçadores têm papel potencial no desenvolvimento farmacológico. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um radiotraçador de antimônio, com propriedades físicas e biológicas adequadas. O antimoniato de meglumina foi irradiado por nêutrons no reator nuclear IEA-R1, produzindo dois radioisótopos: 122

  20. Controls on the Mobility of Antimony in Mine Waste from Three Deposit Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, H.; Radková, A. B.; Fawcett, S.

    2017-12-01

    Antimony can be considered both a critical metal and an environmental hazard, with a toxicity similar to arsenic. It is concentrated in stibnite deposits, but also present in polymetallic and precious metal ores, frequently accompanied by arsenic. We have studied the mineralogical controls on the mobility of antimony in three types of mine waste: stibnite tailings from an antimony mine, tetrahedrite-bearing waste rock from copper mining, and gold mine tailings and ore roaster waste. Our results demonstrate that the tendency of antimony to leach into the aqueous environment or remain sequestered in solid phases depends on the primary host minerals and conditions governing the precipitation of secondary antimony-hosting phases. In tailings at the Beaver Brook antimony mine in Newfoundland, Canada, stibnite oxidizes rapidly, and secondary minerals such as the relatively insoluble Sb-Fe tripuhyite-like phase and Sb-bearing goethite. However, under dry conditions, the most important secondary Sb host is the Mg-Sb hydroxide brandholzite, but this easily soluble mineral disappears when it rains. Antimony that was originally hosted in tetrahedrite, a complex multi-element sulfosalt, in the historic waste rock piles at Špania Dolina-Piesky, Slovakia, is not as mobile as Cu and As during weathering but reprecipiates to a mixture of tripuhyite and romeite. Finally, the original antimony-hosting minerals, both stibnite and sulphosalts, in the gold ore at Giant Mine, Yellowknife, Canada were completely destroyed during ore roasting. In tailings-contaminated sediments, antimony persists in roaster-generated iron oxide phases, except under reducing conditions where some of the antimony forms a Sb-S phase. The combined presence of antimony and arsenic in mine waste complicates risk assessment but in general, our findings suggest that antimony is less mobile than arsenic in the environment.

  1. Identification of Antimony- and Arsenic-Oxidizing Bacteria Associated with Antimony Mine Tailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, Natsuko; Fukushima, Koh; Itai, Takaaki

    2013-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a naturally occurring toxic element commonly associated with arsenic (As) in the environment and both elements have similar chemistry and toxicity. Increasing numbers of studies have focused on microbial As transformations, while microbial Sb interactions are still not well understood. To gain insight into microbial roles in the geochemical cycling of Sb and As, soils from Sb mine tailing were examined for the presence of Sb- and As-oxidizing bacteria. After aerobic enrichment culturing with AsIII (10 mM) or SbIII (100 μM), pure cultures of Pseudomonas- and Stenotrophomonas-related isolates with SbIII oxidation activities and a Sinorhizobium-related isolate capable of AsIII oxidation were obtained. The AsIII-oxidizing Sinorhizobium isolate possessed the aerobic arsenite oxidase gene (aioA), the expression of which was induced in the presence of AsIII or SbIII. However, no SbIII oxidation activity was detected from the Sinorhizobium-related isolate, suggesting the involvement of different mechanisms for Sb and As oxidation. These results demonstrate that indigenous microorganisms associated with Sb mine soils are capable of Sb and As oxidation, and potentially contribute to the speciation and mobility of Sb and As in situ. PMID:23666539

  2. Determination of phosphorus contamination during antimony implantation by measurement and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, M.; Hulenyi, L.; Kinder, R.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental determination of phosphorus cross-contamination during antimony implantation is presented. As a suitable structure for this experiment, a buried layer was employed which is created by implanting antimony followed by a long diffusion process. The samples implanted in different implanters were analysed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), four-point probe and spreading resistance methods. The obtained results were compared with those calculated by program SUPREM-IV. Methods that can and cannot be used to determine phosphorus contamination during antimony implantation and to estimate the fluence of phosphorus being co-implanted with antimony are described in detail

  3. Correlation of CsK2Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, M. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529, USA; The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Hernandez-Garcia, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Elmustafa, A. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529, USA; The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA

    2015-06-01

    CsK2Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  4. Investigation of antimony extraction from nitric acid solutions by tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakaev, V.S.; Smelov, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of iodide, hydrogen and pertechnetate ions on antimony extraction by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) from aqueous nitric acid solutions under irradiated nuclear fuel processing is investigated at room temperature. The coefficients of antimony distribution are shown to increase at the presence of technetium ions 2-3 times and iodine ions - 100 and more times. Variation of hydrogen ion concentration does not affect antimony extraction. The schemes of the mechanism of antimony extraction at the pressence of iodide and pertechnetate ions are presented. Compositions of the formed compounds are given

  5. Correlation of CsK2Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mamun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available CsK2Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  6. Correlation of CsK{sub 2}Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, M. A., E-mail: mmamu001@odu.edu; Elmustafa, A. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States); The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    CsK{sub 2}Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  7. Antimony contamination, consequences and removal techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiayu; Zheng, BoHong; He, Yangzhuo; Zhou, Yaoyu; Chen, Xiao; Ruan, Shan; Yang, Yuan; Dai, Chunhao; Tang, Lin

    2018-07-30

    A significant amount of antimony (Sb) enters into the environment every year because of the wide use of Sb compounds in industry and agriculture. The exposure to Sb, either direct consumption of Sb or indirectly, may be fatal to the human health because both antimony and antimonide are toxic. Firstly, the introduction of Sb chemistry, distribution and health threats are presented in this review, which is essential to the removal techniques. Then, we provide the recent and common techniques to remove Sb, including adsorption, coagulation/flocculation, membrane separation, electrochemical methods, ion exchange and extraction. Removal techniques concentrate on the advantages, drawbacks, economical efficiency and the recent achievements of each technique. We also take an overall consideration of experimental conditions, comparison criteria, and economic aspects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Proton-activation technique for the determination of antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivan, V.; Barth, P.

    1979-01-01

    Photon-activation analysis has been applied to the determination of antimony. Thick-target yields and analytical sensitivities are given for the indicator-radionuclides sup(119m)Te, sup(119g)Te, sup(121m)Te, sup(121g)Te, sup(123m)Te, sup(120m)Sb and sup(122g)Sb for proton energies between 9 and 25 MeV. In irradiations with a 5-μA beam for 5 hr, followed by a specific separation of the indicator-radionuclides, limits of detection at the ppm level can be achieved. Data are given for the most significant interfering reactions. Antimony was determined instrumentally in bismuth of very pure grade and the results are compared with those obtained from two independent techniques. (author)

  9. Preparation and properties of organo(acetylacetonato)antimony(V) compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinema, H.A.; Noltes, J.G.

    Organo(acetylacetonato)antimony(V) compounds of the types R2SbCl2Acac, R4SbAcac, PhSbCl3Acac and Cl4SbAcac have been synthesized. The compounds are monomeric in solution. IR and PMR data of these compounds, which contain a chelated Acac ligand have been discussed. Ph2SbCl2Acac shows abnormal

  10. Uptake and Transformation of Methylated and Inorganic Antimony in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ying; Mestrot, Adrien; Schulin, Rainer; Tandy, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Used as a hardening agent in lead bullets, antimony (Sb) has become a major contaminant in shooting range soils of some countries including Switzerland. Soil contamination by Sb is also an environmental problem in countries with Sb-mining activities such as China and Bolivia. Because of its toxicity and relatively high mobility, there is concern over the risk of Sb transfer from contaminated soils into plants, and thus into the food chain. In particular there is very little information on the environmental behavior of methylated antimony, which can be produced by microbial biomethylation of inorganic Sb in contaminated soils. Using a new extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) method, we investigated antimony speciation in roots and shoots of wheat, fescue, rye, and ryegrass plants exposed to trimethyl antimony(V) (TMSb), antimonite (Sb(III)), and antimonate (Sb(V)) in hydroponics. The total root Sb concentrations followed the order Sb(III) treatment > Sb(V) treatment > TMSb treatment, except for fescue. Shoot Sb concentrations, however, did not differ among the three treatments. In the Sb(V) treatment small quantities of TMSb were found in the roots, whereas no TMSb was detected in the roots of Sb(III)-treated plants. In contrast, similar concentrations of TMSb were found in the shoots in both inorganic Sb treatments. The results indicate that biomethylation of Sb may occur in plants. In the TMSb treatment TMSb was the major Sb species, but the two inorganic Sb species were also found both in shoots and roots along with some unknown Sb species, suggesting that also TMSb demethylation may occur within plant tissues. The results furthermore indicate that methylated Sb is more mobile in plants than inorganic Sb species. Knowledge about this is important in risk assessments of Sb-contaminated sites, as methylation may render Sb more toxic than inorganic Sb, as it is known for arsenic (As).

  11. Theoretical Analysis of Rydberg and Autoionizing State Spectra of Antimony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang-Fei Lv; Ruohong Li; Feng-Dong Jia; Xiao-Kang Li; Jens Lassen; Zhi-Ping Zhong

    2017-01-01

    We calculate the Rydberg and autoionization Rydberg spectra of antimony (Sb) from first principles by relativistic multichannel theory within the framework of multichannel quantum defect theory.Our calculation can be used to classify and assign the atomic states described in recently reported three Rydberg series and four autoionizing states.The perturbation effects on line intensity,variation and line profile are discussed.Assignments of the perturber states and autoionizing states are presented.

  12. Distribution of liposome-encapsulated antimony in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Schettini

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The achievement of complete cure in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis is currently a great challenge, since dogs are the main reservoir for the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis to humans and they respond poorly to conventional treatment with pentavalent antimonials. In order to improve the efficacy of treatment, we developed a novel formulation for meglumine antimoniate based on the encapsulation of this drug in freeze-dried liposomes (LMA. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biodistribution of antimony (Sb in dogs following a single intravenous bolus injection of LMA. Four healthy male mongrel dogs received LMA at 3.8 mg Sb/kg body weight and were sacrificed 3, 48 and 96 h and 7 days later. Antimony was determined in the blood, liver, spleen and bone marrow. In the bone marrow, the highest Sb concentration was observed at 3 h (2.8 µg/g wet weight whereas in the liver and spleen it was demonstrated at 48 h (43.6 and 102.4 µg/g, respectively. In these organs, Sb concentrations decreased gradually and reached levels of 19.1 µg/g (liver, 28.1 µg/g (spleen and 0.2 µg/g (bone marrow after 7 days. Our data suggest that the critical organ for the treatment with LMA could be the bone marrow, since it has low Sb levels and, presumably, high rates of Sb elimination. A multiple dose treatment with LMA seems to be necessary for complete elimination of parasites from bone marrow in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

  13. Redox substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis of metallic arsenic for antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambara, Tomihisa; Yoshioka, Hiroe; Suzuki, Junsuke; Shibata, Yasue.

    1979-01-01

    In 1 M HCl solution Sb(III) reacts with N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (BPHA) to form a complex extractable into chloroform while the extraction of Sb(V) is negligible. The redox substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis based on this reaction was applied to the determination of antimony in metallic arsenic. After the dissolution of metallic arsenic, Sb(V) was separated from As(V) by a tribenzylamine extraction from 8 M HCl solution and the extracted Sb(V) was stripped into 0.5 M NaOH solution. Thereafter, all the Sb(V) were completely reduced to Sb(III) by bubbling SO 2 gas through 3 M HCl solution. As the substoichiometric reaction, the oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) by a substoichiometric amount of potassium dichromate was used, followed by separation of these species by the BPHA extraction of Sb(III). The substoichiometric oxidation of Sb(III) was found to be quantitative over HCl concentration range from 0.8 to 1.2 M. The amount of antimony was determined by isotope dilution analysis using the method of carrier amount variation. By the present method the determination of as small as 0.36 μg antimony was accomplished with a good accuracy (relative error; 5.6%) and also the method was successfully applied to the determination of antimony in arsenic samples containing known amounts of Sb(III) and in metallic arsenic. The present method gives reliable results with the good accuracy and precision. (author)

  14. 46 CFR 129.120 - Alternative standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or less may meet the following requirements of the American Yacht and Boat Council Projects, where applicable, instead of § 129.340 of this part: (1) E-1, Bonding of Direct Current Systems. (2) E-8, AC Electrical Systems on Boats. (3) E-9, DC Electrical Systems on Boats. (b) An OSV with an electrical...

  15. 21 CFR 129.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION PROCESSING AND BOTTLING OF BOTTLED DRINKING WATER General Provisions § 129.3 Definitions. For the... inspected and the water sampled, analyzed, and found to be of a safe and sanitary quality according to... means all water which is sealed in bottles, packages, or other containers and offered for sale for human...

  16. 21 CFR 129.35 - Sanitary facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION PROCESSING AND BOTTLING OF BOTTLED DRINKING WATER Buildings and Facilities § 129.35... is not considered water of a safe, sanitary quality as required for use in bottled water by paragraph... comply with bottled water quality standards (§ 165.110(b) of this chapter) and section 402(a)(1) and (a...

  17. 46 CFR 129.440 - Emergency lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.440 Emergency lighting. (a) A vessel of less than 100 gross tons must have... working (machinery) spaces below the main deck. (b) The emergency lighting required by paragraph (a) of... to an automatic battery-charger; and (4) Of enough capacity for 6 hours of continuous operation. ...

  18. High dose implantations of antimony for buried layer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gailliard, J.P.; Dupuy, M.; Garcia, M.; Roussin, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Electrical and physical properties of high dose implantations of antimony in silicon have been studied for use in buried layer applications. The results have been obtained both on and oriented silicon wafers. Following implantations which lead to amorphization we perform an annealing at 600 0 C for 10 mn in order to recrystallize the layer. The observed electrical properties (μ, R) show that the concentration of electrically active antimony ions is greater than that predicted from the solubility of antimony in silicon. Further annealing (in the range 1050 0 - 1200 0 ) induces: firstly a precipitation of the Sb and secondly a diffusion and dissolution of the precipitates. There is a different evolution of the defects in the and silicon slices. T.E.M. reveals no defects in the wafers after one hour annealing at 1200 0 C, whereas defects and twins remain in wafers. Having obtained the evolution of R with time and temperature it is then determined the implantation and annealing conditions which lead to the low resistivity (R = 10) needed for buried layer applications. Results with very many industrially made devices are discussed

  19. Synthesis and tribological properties of antimony N, N-diethanoldithiocarbamate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 黄可龙; 瞿龙; 舒万艮

    2001-01-01

    Antimony N, N-diethanoldithiocarbamate was synthesized with diethanolamine, antimony trioxide and carbon disulfide. The influences of temperature, reaction time, solvents and their dosages were investigated, and the optimum synthesis conditions were: reaction temperature 15~20 ℃, reaction time 2.5 h, 250 mL CH3OH as solvent and the hot CH3OH as recrystallization solvent. Element analysis, IR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR spectra were used to study its chemical composition and molecular structure. Antimony N, N-diethanol-dithiocarbamate was added in the base oil, and its properties of wear resistance and extreme pressure were studied by FB, FD and WSD. The synthesis product behaves per fectly as wear resistance and extreme pressure additive and its extreme pressure property is superior to its wear resistance property. The mechanism of tribological action was discussed by using XPS and AES spectra, and the reason of good wear resistance and extreme pressure properties is that the synthesis product decompose element C, S and N.

  20. Study on antimony oxide self-assembled inside HZSM-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bin; Li Shijie; Wang Yingxia; Li Neng; Liu Xiyao; Lin Bingxiong

    2005-01-01

    Sb/ZSM-5 was obtained by solid-state reaction with the mixture of Sb 2 O 3 and zeolite HZSM-5 under a dry nitrogen flow at 773K. Characterization of the treated zeolite was undertaken with XRD, 27 Al MAS NMR, BET, TGA and FT-IR. The results revealed that part of the antimony oxides migrated into the channels of zeolite, and decreased the Bronsted acid sites in Sb/ZSM-5 remarkably. The other part of antimony oxides together with the amorphous alumino-silicate in the products distributed on the external surface of zeolite ZSM-5 and modified it, while the framework of ZSM-5 in crystal phase was retained. The structure of occluded antimony oxide inside the channels of ZSM-5 was studied by XRD Rietveld method. The result showed that their structure can be described as a chain of non-perfect [Sb 5 O 5 (H 2 O) 2 ] n 5n+ , which is parallel to the straight channel of ZSM-5. There is about 0.6 [Sb 5 O 5 (H 2 O) 2 ] 5+ unit in every cell of the ZSM-5 on an average

  1. Research on the Characteristics and Mechanism of the Cumulative Release of Antimony from an Antimony Smelting Slag Stacking Area under Rainfall Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Deng, Renjian

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to study the characteristics and the mechanism of the cumulative release of antimony at an antimony smelting slag stacking area in southern China. A series of dynamic and static leaching experiments to simulate the effects of rainfall were carried out. The results showed that the release of antimony from smelting slag increased with a decrease in the solid-liquid ratio, and the maximum accumulated release was found to be 42.13 mg Sb/kg waste and 34.26 mg Sb/kg waste with a solid/liquid ratio of 1 : 20; the maximum amount of antimony was released within 149–420 μm size fraction with 7.09 mg/L of the cumulative leaching. Also, the antimony release was the greatest and most rapid at pH 7.0 with the minimum release found at pH 4.0. With an increase in rainfall duration, the antimony release increased. The influence of variation in rainfall intensity on the release of antimony from smelting slag was small. PMID:28804669

  2. Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, Paul; Prapaipong, Panjai; Shock, Everett; Hillaireau, Alice

    2008-02-01

    Antimony is a regulated contaminant that poses both acute and chronic health effects in drinking water. Previous reports suggest that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics used for water bottles in Europe and Canada leach antimony, but no studies on bottled water in the United States have previously been conducted. Nine commercially available bottled waters in the southwestern US (Arizona) were purchased and tested for antimony concentrations as well as for potential antimony release by the plastics that compose the bottles. The southwestern US was chosen for the study because of its high consumption of bottled water and elevated temperatures, which could increase antimony leaching from PET plastics. Antimony concentrations in the bottled waters ranged from 0.095 to 0.521 ppb, well below the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 6 ppb. The average concentration was 0.195+/-0.116 ppb at the beginning of the study and 0.226+/-0.160 ppb 3 months later, with no statistical differences; samples were stored at 22 degrees C. However, storage at higher temperatures had a significant effect on the time-dependent release of antimony. The rate of antimony (Sb) release could be fit by a power function model (Sb(t)=Sb 0 x[Time, h]k; k=8.7 x 10(-6)x[Temperature ( degrees C)](2.55); Sb 0 is the initial antimony concentration). For exposure temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85 degrees C, the exposure durations necessary to exceed the 6 ppb MCL are 176, 38, 12, 4.7, 2.3, and 1.3 days, respectively. Summertime temperatures inside of cars, garages, and enclosed storage areas can exceed 65 degrees C in Arizona, and thus could promote antimony leaching from PET bottled waters. Microwave digestion revealed that the PET plastic used by one brand contained 213+/-35 mgSb/kg plastic; leaching of all the antimony from this plastic into 0.5L of water in a bottle could result in an antimony concentration of 376 ppb. Clearly, only a small

  3. Heavy weight vehicle traffic and its relationship with antimony content in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Waldo; De Gregori, Ida; Basilio, Paola; Bravo, Manuel; Pinto, Marcela; Lobos, Maria Gabriela

    2009-05-01

    Brake pads systems are nowadays considered as one of the most important sources of antimony in airborne particulate matter. One way that antimony can enter the body is through the lungs and specially by the interaction of antimony with -SH groups present in erythrocyte membrane cells. In spite of that, there are no studies about antimony enrichment in blood of workers exposed to high vehicle traffic. Port workers are generally exposed to heavy weight vehicle traffic. In Chile the biggest marine port is found in Valparaíso City. In this study antimony in whole blood and its fractions (erythrocytes-plasma and erythrocytes membranes-cytoplasm) of 45 volunteers were determined. The volunteers were port workers from Valparaíso city, and two control groups, one from Valparaíso and another from Quebrada Alvarado, the latter being a rural area located about 100 Km away from Valparaíso. The results demonstrate that port workers are highly impacted by antimony emissions from heavy weight vehicle traffic showing an average concentration of 27 +/- 9 ng Sb kg(-1), 5-10 times higher than the concentration of antimony in the blood of control groups. These are the highest antimony levels in blood ever reported in the literature. The highest antimony percentages (>60%) were always found in the erythrocyte fractions. However, the exposure degree to vehicle traffic is significant over antimony distribution in plasma, erythrocytes and cytoplasm. This results shows that the antimony mass in the erythrocyte membranes, was approximately constant at 1.0 +/- 0.1 ng Sb g(-1) of whole blood in all blood samples analyzed.

  4. Complexation of HSA with different forms of antimony (Sb): An application of fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Wenjuan; Zhang, Daoyong; Pan, Xiangliang; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) pollution has been of a great environmental concern in some areas in China. Sb enters human body via drinking water, inhalation and food chain, unavoidably interacts with human serum albumin (HSA) in blood plasma, and consequently does harm to human health. The harmful effects of Sb on human health depend on the Sb species and their binding ability to HSA. In the present study, binding of three forms of Sb with HSA was investigated by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. All of antimony potassium tartrate, antimony trichloride and potassium pyroantimonate quenched fluorescence of HSA. Values of conditional stability constant K a (×10 5 /M) for Sb and HSA systems were 8.13–9.12 for antimony potassium tartrate, 2.51–4.27 for antimony trichloride and 3.63–9.77 for potassium pyroantimonate. The binding constant K b (×10 4 /M) values of HSA with antimony potassium tartrate, antimony trichloride and potassium pyroantimonate were 0.02–0.07, 3.55–5.01, and 0.07–1.08, respectively. There was one independent class of binding site for antimony trichloride towards HSA. There was more than one Sb binding site and negative cooperativity between multiple binding sites for potassium pyroantimonate and antimony potassium tartrate towards HSA. The binding ability of HSA to complex Sb followed the order: antimony trichloride>potassium pyroantimonate>antimony potassium tartrate. -- Highlights: ► The first study reporting interaction of Sb with HSA. ► Sb can effectively quench the fluorescence of HSA. ► The binding ability of HSA to Sb was dependent on the form of Sb. ► Binding differences indicate differences in toxicity of various forms Sb to human. ► HAS-Sb binding parameters are important for understanding toxicity of Sb

  5. Complexation of HSA with different forms of antimony (Sb): An application of fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Wenjuan [State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Zhang, Daoyong [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Pan, Xiangliang, E-mail: xlpan@ms.xjb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Lee, Duu-Jong [State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2013-04-15

    Antimony (Sb) pollution has been of a great environmental concern in some areas in China. Sb enters human body via drinking water, inhalation and food chain, unavoidably interacts with human serum albumin (HSA) in blood plasma, and consequently does harm to human health. The harmful effects of Sb on human health depend on the Sb species and their binding ability to HSA. In the present study, binding of three forms of Sb with HSA was investigated by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. All of antimony potassium tartrate, antimony trichloride and potassium pyroantimonate quenched fluorescence of HSA. Values of conditional stability constant K{sub a} (×10{sup 5}/M) for Sb and HSA systems were 8.13–9.12 for antimony potassium tartrate, 2.51–4.27 for antimony trichloride and 3.63–9.77 for potassium pyroantimonate. The binding constant K{sub b} (×10{sup 4}/M) values of HSA with antimony potassium tartrate, antimony trichloride and potassium pyroantimonate were 0.02–0.07, 3.55–5.01, and 0.07–1.08, respectively. There was one independent class of binding site for antimony trichloride towards HSA. There was more than one Sb binding site and negative cooperativity between multiple binding sites for potassium pyroantimonate and antimony potassium tartrate towards HSA. The binding ability of HSA to complex Sb followed the order: antimony trichloride>potassium pyroantimonate>antimony potassium tartrate. -- Highlights: ► The first study reporting interaction of Sb with HSA. ► Sb can effectively quench the fluorescence of HSA. ► The binding ability of HSA to Sb was dependent on the form of Sb. ► Binding differences indicate differences in toxicity of various forms Sb to human. ► HAS-Sb binding parameters are important for understanding toxicity of Sb.

  6. LUMINESCENT PROPERTIES OF SILICATE GLASSES WITH CERIUM IONS AND ANTIMONY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Klykova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the results of an experimental study of luminescence excitation spectra and luminescence of silicate glasses containing cerium ions and antimony. The aim of this work was to study the features of the luminescence and the effect of UV irradiation and heat treatment on luminescence and the state of cerium ions and antimony in glass. We investigated glass system Na2O-ZnO-Al2O3-SiO2-NaF-NaBr with additives CeO2 and Sb2O3. Synthesis was carried out in platinum crucibles in the air at 14500C. The samples were polished glass plates with a thickness of 0.5-1 mm. UV irradiation was carried out with a mercury lamp having a wide range of radiation in the spectral range 240-390 nm. It was conducted in a Nabertherm muffle furnaces. Luminescence spectra and excitation spectra were measured using a spectrofluorimeter MPF-44A (PerkinElmer at the room temperature. Measured luminescence spectra were corrected in view of the spectral sensitivity of the photodetector for spectrofluorimeter. Adjustment of the excitation spectra for the spectral dependence of the intensity of the excitation source was not carried out. During the experiments it was found that in silicate glasses Sb3+ ions can exist in two energy states, which corresponds to a different environment with oxygen ions. Heat treatment of these glasses in an oxidizing atmosphere leads to an increase in ion concentration of Sb3+ ions with a greater amount of oxygen in the environment. In glasses containing antimony and cerium ions, ultraviolet irradiation causes a change in the valence of cerium ions and antimony, which is accompanied by luminescence quenching. Subsequent heat treatment of glass leads to the inverse processes and restore luminescence excitation spectra. The study of fluorescent properties of silicate glasses with cerium and antimony ions led to the conclusion of the practical significance of this work. Promising multifunctional materials can be created on the basis of

  7. Effect of temperature during ion sputtering on the surface segregation rate of antimony in an iron-antimony alloy at higher temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, M.; Hirokawa, K.; Kimura, H.; Suzuki, S.

    1986-01-01

    The surface segregation of antimony in an iron-0.23 at% antimony alloy was studied by XPS. The segregation rate in the temperature range between 800 and 900 K depends on the temperature during sputtering with argon ion of kinetic energy of 1 keV. The sputtering at room temperature or 473 K gives higher values of the segregation rate than those at 673 K. Both cases give the activation energy of 170 kJmol -1 for the surface segregation rate. The segregation of antimony is not observed after the sample is heated at 1000 K. (author)

  8. Leishmania donovani isolates with antimony-resistant but not -sensitive phenotype inhibit sodium antimony gluconate-induced dendritic cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Haldar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The inability of sodium antimony gluconate (SAG-unresponsive kala-azar patients to clear Leishmania donovani (LD infection despite SAG therapy is partly due to an ill-defined immune-dysfunction. Since dendritic cells (DCs typically initiate anti-leishmanial immunity, a role for DCs in aberrant LD clearance was investigated. Accordingly, regulation of SAG-induced activation of murine DCs following infection with LD isolates exhibiting two distinct phenotypes such as antimony-resistant (Sb(RLD and antimony-sensitive (Sb(SLD was compared in vitro. Unlike Sb(SLD, infection of DCs with Sb(RLD induced more IL-10 production and inhibited SAG-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and leishmanicidal effects. Sb(RLD inhibited these effects of SAG by blocking activation of PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB pathways. In contrast, Sb(SLD failed to block activation of SAG (20 microg/ml-induced PI3K/AKT pathway; which continued to stimulate NF-kappaB signaling, induce leishmanicidal effects and promote DC activation. Notably, prolonged incubation of DCs with Sb(SLD also inhibited SAG (20 microg/ml-induced activation of PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB pathways and leishmanicidal effects, which was restored by increasing the dose of SAG to 40 microg/ml. In contrast, Sb(RLD inhibited these SAG-induced events regardless of duration of DC exposure to Sb(RLD or dose of SAG. Interestingly, the inhibitory effects of isogenic Sb(SLD expressing ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter MRPA on SAG-induced leishmanicidal effects mimicked that of Sb(RLD to some extent, although antimony resistance in clinical LD isolates is known to be multifactorial. Furthermore, NF-kappaB was found to transcriptionally regulate expression of murine gammaglutamylcysteine synthetase heavy-chain (mgammaGCS(hc gene, presumably an important regulator of antimony resistance. Importantly, Sb(RLD but not Sb(SLD blocked SAG-induced mgammaGCS expression in DCs by

  9. 40 CFR 421.140 - Applicability: Description of the primary antimony subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability: Description of the primary antimony subcategory. 421.140 Section 421.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary Antimony Subcategory § 421.140...

  10. 40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section 440.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability;...

  11. Investigation of the effect of some parameters on the degree of leaching antimony from stibnite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remeteiová Dagmar

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experiments of agitation leaching of antimony from stibnite in alkaline solutions of Na2S +NaOH. The influence of different solution solutions ratio of the reacting phases and of different rate of stirring on the degree of leaching of antimony was investigated.

  12. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived films doped with platinum and antimony deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savaniu, C.; Arnautu, A.; Cobianu, C.; Craciun, G.; Flueraru, C.; Zaharescu, M.; Parlog, C.; Paszti, F.; van den Berg, Albert

    1999-01-01

    SnO2 sol-gel derived thin films doped simultaneously with Pt and Sb are obtained and reported for the first time. The Sn sources were tin(IV) ethoxide or tin(II) ethylhexanoate, while hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) and antimony chloride (SbCl3) were used as platinum and antimony sources,

  13. Removing antimony from waste lead storage batteries alloy by vacuum displacement reaction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiantian; Qiu, Keqiang

    2018-04-05

    With the wide application of lead acid battery, spent lead acid battery has become a serious problem to environmental protection and human health. Though spent battery can be a contaminant if not handled properly, it is also an important resource to obtain refined lead. Nowadays, the Sb-content in lead storage batteries is about 0.5-3 wt%, which is higher than the Sb-content in the crude lead. However, there are few reports about the process of removing antimony from high-antimony lead bullion. In this study, vacuum displacement reaction technology, a new process for removing antimony from high-antimony lead melts, was investigated. During this process, lead oxide was added to the system and antimony from lead melts was converted into antimony trioxide, which easily was evaporated under vacuum so that antimony was removed from lead melts. The experimental results demonstrated that Sb-content in lead melts decreased from 2.5% to 23 ppm under following conditions: mass ratio of PbO/lead bullion of 0.33, residual gas pressure of 30 Pa, melt temperature of 840 °C, reaction time of 60 min. The distillate gotten can be used as by-product to produce antimony white. Moreover, this study is of importance to recycling of waste lead storage batteries alloy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrodeposition of antimony, tellurium and their alloys from molten acetamide mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.P.; Peng, X.; Murugan, G.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Vereecken, P.M.; Fransaer, J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the electrodeposition of antimony (Sb), tellurium (Te) and their alloys from molten mixtures of acetamide - antimony chloride and tellurium chloride. The binary mixtures of acetamide with SbCl3 and TeCl 4 exhibit eutectic formation with large depressions of freezing points to below room

  15. Leishmania donovani: an in vitro study of antimony-resistant amphotericin B-sensitive isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharief, Abdalla Hassan; Gasim Khalil, Eltahir Awad; Theander, Thor G

    2006-01-01

    Drug sensitivity of clinically antimony-unresponsive Leishmania donovani isolates from Eastern Sudan was evaluated in an in vitro culture system against sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and Amphotericin B. Eight isolates, six from antimony-resistant and two from clinically responsive patients were...

  16. Comparison of modification with strontium and the refining with antimony in A 356 aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuoco, Ricardo; Correa, Edison Roberto; Correa, Alzira V.O.; Bocalini Junior, Mario

    1992-01-01

    Strontium and Antimony treated A356 aluminium alloy samples were metallographically characterized in the as cast and solution and aged conditions. Antimony treated alloy has shown slower spheroidizing kinetics of the Silicon particles during solution treatment, lower porosity level and higher tensile strength and elongation than Strontium treated one. (author)

  17. Assessment of Industrial Antimony Exposure and Immunologic Function for Workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2017-06-26

    This study investigated antimony exposure among employees in industries in Taiwan and evaluated whether their immunologic markers were associated with antimony exposure. We recruited 91 male workers and 42 male office administrators from 2 glass manufacturing plants, 1 antimony trioxide manufacturing plants, and 2 engineering plastic manufacturing plants. Air samples were collected at worksites and administrative offices, and each participant provided specimens of urine, blood, and hair to assay antimony levels. We also determined white blood cells, lymphocyte, and monocyte, IgA, IgE, and IgG in blood specimens. The mean antimony concentration in the air measured at worksites was much higher in the antimony trioxide plant (2.51 ± 0.57 mg/m³) than in plastic plants (0.21 ± 0.06 mg/m³) and glass plants (0.14 ± 0.01 mg/m³). Antimony levels in blood, urine, and hair measured for participants were correlated with worksites and were higher in workers than in administrators. The mean serum IgG, IgA, and IgE levels were lower in workers than in administrators ( p industrial plants than for administrators. This study suggests serum IgG, IgA, and IgE levels are negatively associated with antimony exposure.

  18. Surface area of antimony oxide by isotope exchange and other methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Y.K.; Acharya, B.V.; Rangamannar, B.

    1985-06-17

    Specific surface areas of antimony oxide samples, one commercial, the other prepared from antimony trichloride were measured by heterogeneous isotope exchange, gas adsorption, air permeability and microscopic methods. Specific surface areas obtained by these four methods for the two samples were compared and the observed differences are explained.

  19. The determination of iodine 129 in thyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, Roger; Cappellini, Liliane; Goujon de Beauvivier, Michel; Jeanmaire, Lucien; Patti, Francois.

    1975-08-01

    Activation analysis was used for the determination of 129 I in thyroids. Iodine is first extracted from the thyroid and irradiated as lead iodate, thus giving enough sensitivity and making it possible to use common laboratory material. The results showed that the present activity levels in France are between 1 and 50 pCi per gram of iodine; the values found in Argentina are clearly lower [fr

  20. Pilot plant studies on the extraction of antimony metal from lower grade krinj stibnite ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, W.; Riaz, M.; Ishaq, M.

    2013-01-01

    Antimony is a silvery white, brittle and crystalline solid which is extensively consumed in lead acid batteries, antimonial lead alloys, flame retardants and a variety of metallic products. The antimony content of commercial ores range from 5-60% and determines the method of extraction, either pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical. The present study focuses on pilot plant scale extraction of antimony metal from lower grade stibnite ore of Krinj (Chitral) without the use of iron scrap, thus eliminating the second step of iron removal in conventional direct reduction method. A tilting gas fired furnace with digital temperature control system and a heat recuperator was designed to optimize the operating parameters for extraction of antimony metal. Weight ratios of flux and reductant, operating time and operating temperature were optimized. Highest percentage recovery and purity were achieved using soda ash as a flux, at a temperature of 900 degree C for 2 hours. (author)

  1. Vapor transport deposition of antimony selenide thin film solar cells with 7.6% efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xixing; Chen, Chao; Lu, Shuaicheng; Li, Kanghua; Kondrotas, Rokas; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Wenhao; Gao, Liang; Wang, Chong; Zhang, Jun; Niu, Guangda; Tang, Jiang

    2018-06-05

    Antimony selenide is an emerging promising thin film photovoltaic material thanks to its binary composition, suitable bandgap, high absorption coefficient, inert grain boundaries and earth-abundant constituents. However, current devices produced from rapid thermal evaporation strategy suffer from low-quality film and unsatisfactory performance. Herein, we develop a vapor transport deposition technique to fabricate antimony selenide films, a technique that enables continuous and low-cost manufacturing of cadmium telluride solar cells. We improve the crystallinity of antimony selenide films and then successfully produce superstrate cadmium sulfide/antimony selenide solar cells with a certified power conversion efficiency of 7.6%, a net 2% improvement over previous 5.6% record of the same device configuration. We analyze the deep defects in antimony selenide solar cells, and find that the density of the dominant deep defects is reduced by one order of magnitude using vapor transport deposition process.

  2. Alkaline sulfide pretreatment of an antimonial refractory Au-Ag ore for improved cyanidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Ibrahim; Celep, Oktay; Deveci, Haci

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents the alkaline sulfide pretreatment of an antimonial refractory gold and silver ore. In the ore, gold occurs mainly as gold-silver alloys and as associated with quartz and framboidal pyrite grains, and, to a small extent, as the inclusions within antimonial sulfides. Silver is present extensively as antimonial sulfides such as andorite. Alkaline sulfide pretreatment was shown to allow the decomposition of the antimonial sulfide minerals (up to 98% Sb removal) and to remarkably improve the amenability of gold (e.g., from leaching. An increase in reagent concentration (1-4 mol/L Na2S or NaOH) and temperature (20-80°C), and a decrease in particle size seem to produce an enhancing effect on metal extraction. These findings suggest that alkaline sulfide leaching can be suitably used as a chemical pretreatment method prior to the conventional cyanidation for antimonial refractory gold and silver ores.

  3. Organic ligand-induced dissolution kinetics of antimony trioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingyun Hu; Mengchang He

    2017-01-01

    The influence of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (LMWDOM) on the dissolution rate of Sb2O3 was investigated.Some representative LMWDOMs with carboxyl,hydroxyl,hydrosulfuryl and amidogen groups occurring naturally in the solution were chosen,namely oxalic acid,citric acid,tartaric acid,EDTA,salicylic acid,phthalandione,glycine,thiolactic acid,xylitol,glucose and catechol.These LMWDOMs were dissolved in inert buffers at pH =3.7,6.6 and 8.6 and added to powdered Sb2O3 in a stirred,thermostatted reactor (25℃).The addition of EDTA,tartaric acid,thiolactic acid,citric acid and oxalic acid solutions at pH 3.7 and catechol at pH 8.6 increased the rate of release of antimony.In the 10 mmol/L thiolactic acid solution,up to 97% by mass of the antimony was released after 120 min reaction.There was no effect on the dissolution of Sb2O3 for the other ligands.A weak correlation between dissolution rate with the dissociation constant of ligands and the stability of the dissolved complex was also found.All the results showed that the extent of the promoting effect of ligands on the dissolution of Sb2O3 was not determined by the stability of the dissolved complex,but by the dissociation constant of ligands and detachment rate of surface chelates from the mineral surface.This study can not only help in further understanding the effect of individual low-molecular-weight organic ligands,but also provides a reference to deduce the effect of natural organic matters with oxygen-bearing functional groups on the dissolution of antimony oxide minerals.

  4. Organic ligand-induced dissolution kinetics of antimony trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingyun; He, Mengchang

    2017-06-01

    The influence of low-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (LMWDOM) on the dissolution rate of Sb 2 O 3 was investigated. Some representative LMWDOMs with carboxyl, hydroxyl, hydrosulfuryl and amidogen groups occurring naturally in the solution were chosen, namely oxalic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, EDTA, salicylic acid, phthalandione, glycine, thiolactic acid, xylitol, glucose and catechol. These LMWDOMs were dissolved in inert buffers at pH=3.7, 6.6 and 8.6 and added to powdered Sb 2 O 3 in a stirred, thermostatted reactor (25°C). The addition of EDTA, tartaric acid, thiolactic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid solutions at pH3.7 and catechol at pH8.6 increased the rate of release of antimony. In the 10mmol/L thiolactic acid solution, up to 97% by mass of the antimony was released after 120min reaction. There was no effect on the dissolution of Sb 2 O 3 for the other ligands. A weak correlation between dissolution rate with the dissociation constant of ligands and the stability of the dissolved complex was also found. All the results showed that the extent of the promoting effect of ligands on the dissolution of Sb 2 O 3 was not determined by the stability of the dissolved complex, but by the dissociation constant of ligands and detachment rate of surface chelates from the mineral surface. This study can not only help in further understanding the effect of individual low-molecular-weight organic ligands, but also provides a reference to deduce the effect of natural organic matters with oxygen-bearing functional groups on the dissolution of antimony oxide minerals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Comprehensive thermal and structural characterization of antimony-phosphate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, S. Y.; Sahar, M. R.; Ghoshal, S. K.

    For the first time, we prepare new ternary glass systems of composition (95-x)Sb2O3-xP2O5-5MgO, where x = 45, 40, 35 mol%; (85-x)Sb2O3-xP2O5-15MgO, where x = 55, 35, 25 mol%; (75-x)Sb2O3-xP2O5-25MgO, where x = 45, 35, 25 mol%; and 60Sb2O3-(40-x)P2O5-xMgO, where x = 10, 20 mol% via melt-quenching method. Synthesized glasses are characterized using XRD, FESEM, EDX, and TG/DTA measurements. The influence of varying modifier concentrations on their thermal properties is evaluated. The XRD patterns confirmed the amorphous nature of samples. SEM images demonstrated interesting phase formation with ribbons-like texture. Five crystalline phases are evidenced in the ternary diagram which are antimony phosphate and antimony orthophosphate as major phases as well as magnesium phosphate, magnesium cyclo-tetraphosphate and cervantite as minor phases. EDX spectra detected the right elemental traces. Detailed thermal analysis of these glasses revealed their high-molecular polymer character for Sb2O3 content greater than 50 mol%. Three different glass transition temperatures are achieved around 276, 380-381 and 422-470 °C depending on the composition. Furthermore, the solidus and liquidus temperature are found to decrease with increasing Sb2O3 and increases for MgO contents till 15 mol% and then decrease, where the lowest recorded solidus temperature is 426 °C. This observation may open up new research avenues for antimony based ternary glasses and an exploitation of the derived results for optoelectronics applications, photonic devices and non-linear optical devices.

  6. Behavior of ruthenium, cesium and antimony during simulated HLLW vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Weyers, C.; Goossens, W.R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of ruthenium, cesium, and antimony during the vitrification of simulated high-level radioactive liquid wastes (HLLW) in a liquid fed melter was studied on a laboratory scale and on a semi-pilot scale. In the laboratory melter of a 2.5 kg capacity, a series of tests with the simulate traced with 103 Ru, 134 Cs and 124 Sb, has shown that the Ru and Cs losses to the melter effluent are generally higher than 10% whereas the antimony losses remain lower than 0.4%. A wet purification system comprising in series, a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column retains most of the activity present in the off-gas so that the release fractions for Ru at the absolute filter inlet ranges between 5.10 -3 to 5.10 -5 % of the Ru fed, for Cs the corresponding release fraction ranges between 3.10 -3 to 10 -4 % and for Sb the release fraction ranges between 1.7 10 -4 to 1.7 10 -5 %. The same experiments were performed at a throughput of 1 to 2 1 h -1 of simulated solution in the semi-pilot scale unit RUFUS. The RUFUS unit comprises a glass melter with a 50 kg molten glass capacity and the wet purification train comprises in series a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column. The tracer tests were restricted to 103 Ru and 134 Cs since the laboratory tests had shown that the antimony losses were very low. The results of the tests are presented

  7. Antimony(3) ethylenediaminetetraacetate complexes with single- and doubly charged cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovich, R.L.; Logvinova, V.B.; Kajdalova, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The antimony(3) ethylenediaminetetraacetate complexes with alkaline and bivalent metals cations of the M + Sb(Edta) · H 2 O (M + = K, Rb, Cs, NH 4 ), M 2+ [Sb(Edta)] 2 · 8H 2 O (M 2+ = Mg, Ca, Sr, Co, Cd) composition are synthesized. Roentgenographic and IR-spectroscopic characteristics of the synthesized substances are determined. Two groups of the isostructural compounds: M + Sb(Edta) · H 2 O (M + = K, Rb, NH 4 ) and M 2+ [Sb(Edta)] 2 · 8H 2 O (M 2+ = Mg, Ca, Sr, Mn, Co, Cd) are established [ru

  8. Metabolism of antimony-124 in lactating dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruwaene, R. van; Gerber, G.B.; Kirchmann, R.; Colard, J.

    1982-01-01

    Lactating cows received oral and intravenous administrations of radioactive antimony (III) chloride to study its intestinal and urinary excretion, secretion into milk and organ distribution. Milk samples were taken twice a day and the milk, feces and urine assayed using gamma spectroscopy. Cows administered orally were sacrificed at 102 days and those injected intravenously at 70 days. Distribution of 124 Sb in the organs was determined at the time of sacrifice. Excretion of 124 Sb occurs mainly via urine, little is secreted into milk. Highest organ concentrations are in the spleen, liver and bone. (U.K.)

  9. Evaluation of Neutron Nuclear Data for Natural Titanium and Antimony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1989-01-01

    <正> The evaluations of neutron data of natural titanium and antimony are performedin the energy range from 10-5 eV to 20 MeV.The following data are included:resonance parameters,cross sections of total,elastic seattering,nonelastic sea-ttering,inelastic seattering,(n,2n),(n,3n),and(n,X)(X=p,d,t,3He,α)reactions etc.The angular distributions and energy distributions of secondaryneutrons are also given.The reproduced cross sections from resolved and unresolved

  10. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M., E-mail: msingh@sandia.gov; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  11. Extraction of antimony and arsenic from sulphidic concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BalហPeter

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of both mineral processing and extractive metallurgy of minerals depends on the separation of individual mineral components and on the exposure of their surface. The production of flotation concentrates, with particle sizes of tens of microns, is not sufficient for many hydrometallurgical processes to operate at their optimum. As a consequence, metallurgical plants require for the effective processing high temperatures and pressures and some sort of concentrate pretreatment. Mechanical activation is an innovative procedure where an improvement in hydrometallurgical processes can be attained via a combination of new surface area and formation of crystalline defects in minerals. The lowering of reaction temperatures, the increase of rate and amount of solubility, preparation of water soluble compounds, the necessity for simpler and less expensive reactors and shorter reaction times are some of the advantages of mechanical activation. The environmental aspects of these processes are particularly attractive.This paper is devoted to the examples of application of mechanochemical treatment in the processing of sulfidic concentrates. The sulphide concentrates of various origin (Peru, Chile, Slovakia were succesfully tested for antimony and arsenic extraction. The mechanochemical treatment improve the degree of recovery and the rate of leaching of both metals. Two modes of mechanochemical treatment were tested: the mechanical activation before leaching and the mechanochemical leaching which integrates mechanical activation and leaching into a common step. The flowsheet consisted of mechanochemical leaching in an attritor and further operations as filtration, cementation, antimony precipitation, crystallization and arsenic precipitation. The pilot plant unit was designed for 500 kg per day feed of tetrahedrite concentrate. For the antimony extraction, electrowinning has also been considered. The residue which is a CuAgAu concentrate was

  12. 9 CFR 2.129 - Confiscation and destruction of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confiscation and destruction of animals. 2.129 Section 2.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.129 Confiscation and destruction of...

  13. 36 CFR 406.112-406.129 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 406.112-406.129 Section 406.112-406.129 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION... BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION §§ 406.112-406.129 [Reserved] ...

  14. 46 CFR 45.129 - Hull fittings: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull fittings: General. 45.129 Section 45.129 Shipping... Assignment § 45.129 Hull fittings: General. Hull fittings must be securely mounted in the hull so as to avoid increases in hull stresses and must be protected from local damage caused by movement of equipment or cargo. ...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220.129... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District...

  16. 28 CFR 39.112-39.129 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 39.112-39.129 Section 39.112-39.129 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE §§ 39.112-39.129 [Reserved] ...

  17. 40 CFR 129.101 - DDT, DDD and DDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DDT, DDD and DDE. 129.101 Section 129... POLLUTANT EFFLUENT STANDARDS Toxic Pollutant Effluent Standards and Prohibitions § 129.101 DDT, DDD and DDE. (a) Specialized definitions. (1) DDT Manufacturer means a manufacturer, excluding any source which is...

  18. 29 CFR 452.129 - Non-discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-discrimination. 452.129 Section 452.129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.129 Non-discrimination. Further...

  19. Speciation and migration of 129I in soil profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Maoyi; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian; He, Chaohui; Chen, Ning; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Luoyuan

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for speciation analysis of ultra low level 129 I in soil using sequential extraction combined with coprecipitation for separation of carrier free iodine and AMS measurement of 129 I. Two loess profiles collected from northwest China were analyzed for species of 129 I and 127 I. Similar partitioning of 129 I and 127 I was observed in the loess profiles, the distribution of iodine isotopes followed an order of organic > leachable > reducible > residue. The 129 I concentrations and 129 I/ 127 I ratios decreased exponentially with the depth, and 2 orders of magnitude lower in the deepest layer (60 and 90 cm) compared with the top layer, indicating a significant contribution of anthropogenic input in the upper layer, and high retention of 129 I in soil. The mobility of 129 I in different fractions decreased in an order of leachable > organic > oxides > residue. The results suggest that migration of iodine downwards in the soil profile is a slow process; the oxides and residue are the less mobile fractions of iodine. Highlights: ► 129 I concentration decreases exponentially with the depth of soil profile. ► The mobility of 129 I in fractions decreases: leachable > organic > oxides > residue. ► Iodine shows less mobility in oxides and residue fractions. ► High organic soil content can effectively reduce the migration of 129 I in the environment. ► Carrier free iodine AMS is an effective method for natural 129 I speciation analysis in the environment

  20. 46 CFR 129.350 - Batteries-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries-general. 129.350 Section 129.350 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.350 Batteries—general. (a) Wherever a battery is charged, there must be natural or induced ventilation to dissipate the gases generated. (b) Each battery...

  1. 46 CFR 129.360 - Semiconductor-rectifier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Semiconductor-rectifier systems. 129.360 Section 129.360... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.360 Semiconductor-rectifier systems. (a) Each semiconductor-rectifier system must have an adequate heat-removal system to prevent overheating. (b) If a...

  2. 45 CFR 2490.112-2490.129 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 2490.112-2490.129 Section 2490.112-2490.129 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL... CONDUCTED BY THE JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION §§ 2490.112-2490.129 [Reserved] ...

  3. 31 CFR 129.6 - Penalties specified by law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalties specified by law. 129.6 Section 129.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance PORTFOLIO INVESTMENT SURVEY REPORTING § 129.6 Penalties specified by law. Reporters are advised that the Act provides the...

  4. 49 CFR 28.112-28.129 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 28.112-28.129 Section 28.112-28.129 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION §§ 28.112-28.129 [Reserved] ...

  5. 10 CFR 1.29 - Office of International Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maintains working relationships with individual countries and international nuclear organizations, as well... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of International Programs. 1.29 Section 1.29 Energy... Staff § 1.29 Office of International Programs. The Office of International Programs— (a) Advises the...

  6. Speciation and migration of 129I in soil profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Maoyi; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for speciation analysis of ultra low level 129I in soil using sequential extraction combined with coprecipitation for separation of carrier free iodine and AMS measurement of 129I. Two loess profiles collected from northwest China were analyzed for species of 129I...

  7. Roof renovation of buildings 128 and 129

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The roof renovation of buildings 128 and 129 is scheduled to take place from 17 August to 15 October 2015.   During this period, access to the "raw material" workshop will be limited and controlled due to asbestos removal. Collecting your orders directly from the building will be difficult, or even impossible, and urgent requests will be difficult to carry out. We therefore ask you to create your requests via EDH, so that delivery may be carried out as soon as possible. Thank you for your understanding. GS Department

  8. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  9. Solubility behaviour of antimony(III) and antimony(V) solids in basic aqueous solutions at 300{sup o}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemire, R.J.; Tosello, N.B.; Halliday, J.D

    1999-12-01

    The major contributions of the isotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb to activity transport in a CANDU reactor primary heat transport system (HTS), have been associated with oxygen ingress during reactor shutdown. As part of a program to minimize the release and redeposition of these isotopes, the solubilities of antimony(III) and (V) oxides and salts have been measured in basic solutions at temperatures from 25 to 300{sup o}C. The results provide information on the charge and the stability as a function of temperature of antimony solution species and, hence, a guide to the trends in the temperature dependence of the solubilities of antimony solids. In solutions in which oxidation of antimony(III) to antimony(V) is minimized, the solubility of Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} increases by about two orders of magnitude between 25 and 200{sup o}C, and then levels out or decreases slightly. At 250{sup o}C, in oxidizing solutions, Sb{sub 2}O{sub 5}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O and simple sodium antimonate(V) were found to be unstable in sodium hydroxide solutions with respect to the solid, Na{sub 2{alpha}}[H(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2-2{alpha}}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 6}, which has a pyrochlore structure. The solubility of this partially protonated sodium antimonate increases from 25 to 200{sup o}C and decreases at temperatures above 250{sup o}C. These solubility changes for the antimony (V) solids reflect changes in the stability of the anionic antimony solution species (SbO{sub 3}{sup -} or Sb(OH){sub 6}{sup -}), even though the compositions of antimony-containing solids in basic oxidizing solutions are strongly dependent on the cations and their aqueous phase concentrations. All solids used in the present experiments would be expected to generate total solution antimony concentrations {>=} 0.00005 mol{center_dot}dm{sup -3} in any neutral or basic aqueous solutions (assuming no added sodium salts). Therefore, under HTS conditions, precipitation of any antimony oxides or mixed oxides is unlikely. It cannot be

  10. The Evaluation of the Corrosion Resistance of the Al-Si Alloys Antimony Alloyed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodova J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of the corrosion resistance of the Al-Si alloys alloyed with the different amount of antimony. Specifically it goes about the alloy AlSi7Mg0,3 which is antimony alloyed in the concentrations 0; 0,001; 0,005; 0,01 a 0,05 wt. % of antimony. The introduction of the paper is dedicated to the theory of the aluminium alloys corrosion resistance, testing and evaluation of the corrosion resistance. The influence of the antimony to the Al-Si alloys properties is described further in the introduction. The experimental part describes the experimental samples which were prepared for the experiment and further they were exposed to the loading in the atmospheric conditions for a period of the 3 months. The experimental samples were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The results of the experiment were documented and the conclusions in terms of the antimony impact to the corrosion resistance of the Al-Si alloy were concluded. There was compared the corrosion resistance of the Al-Si alloy antimony alloyed (with the different antimony content with the results of the Al-Si alloy without the alloying after the corrosion load in the atmospheric conditions in the experiment.

  11. The potential DNA toxic changes among workers exposed to antimony trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shanawany, Safaa; Foda, Nermine; Hashad, Doaa I; Salama, Naglaa; Sobh, Zahraa

    2017-05-01

    Occupational exposure to antimony has gained much interest when specific toxic effects were noticed among workers processing antimony. Thus, the aim of the present work was to investigate the potential DNA oxidative damage occurring among Egyptian workers occupationally exposed to antimony trioxide. The study was conducted on 25 subjects exposed to antimony trioxide while working in the polymerization process of polyester in Misrayon and Polyester Fiber Company, KafrEldawwar, Beheira, Egypt. Urinary antimony levels were assessed using inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and considered as a biological exposure index. DNA damage and total oxidant capacity (TOC) were assessed using ELISA. DNA damage was detected in the form of increased apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites among antimony trioxide-exposed workers compared to control subjects, but it could not be explained by oxidative mechanisms due to lack of significant correlation between DNA damage and measured TOC. Antimony trioxide might have a genotoxic impact on occupationally exposed workers which could not be attributed to oxidative stress in the studied cases.

  12. Investigation of Antimony Leaching from Bottles (PET into the Bottled Waters in Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Noshadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most common material used in manufacturing mineral water bottles. Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 used to form the PET containers may pollute water with their ingredients. In this research, graphite furnance atomic absorption spectrometry was used to investigate the effects of storage time (1 to 8 weeks, storage temperature (-20 to 80 °C, pH (6.3 to 8.3, exposure to sunlight, and UV radiation on leaching antimony from PET bottles into the mineral water of 15 bottled water brands available in Fars Province. Concentrations of antimony in the first and second weeks were lower than the maximum standard limit (5 ppb recommended by Iranian regulations. Antimony concentration in one sample (brand A rose above the standard limit after four weeks and in 3 samples (brands A, F, and J with antimony concentrations of 5.48, 5.08, and 5.06 µg/L, respectively exceeded the standard limit after 8 weeks. Sunlight, UV radiation, changes in pH, and storage at temperatures of -20 ℃, 60 ℃, and 80℃ were also found to increase antimony concentrations to levels above the maximum standard limit. Clearly, storing bottled mineral water in ambient conditions may lead to the release of antimony into bottled water, which is a serious threat to public health.

  13. In Vitro Antiparasitic and Apoptotic Effects of Antimony Sulfide Nanoparticles on Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Soflaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is one of the most important sever diseases in tropical and subtropical countries. In the present study the effects of antimony sulfide nanoparticles on Leishmania infantum in vitro were evaluated. Antimony sulfide NPs (Sb2S5 were synthesized by biological method from Serratia marcescens bacteria. Then the cytotoxicity effects of different concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL of this nanoparticle were assessed on promastigote and amastigote stages of L. infantum. MTT method was used for verification results of promastigote assay. Finally, the percentages of apoptotic, necrotic, and viable cells were determined by flow cytometry. The results indicated the positive effectiveness of antimony sulfide NPs on proliferation of promastigote form. The IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration of antimony sulfide NPs on promastigotes was calculated 50 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity effect was dose-dependent means by increasing the concentration of antimony sulfide NPs, the cytotoxicity curve was raised and the viability curve of the parasite dropped simultaneously. Moreover, the IC50 of antimony sulfide NPs on amastigote stage was calculated 25 μg/mL. On the other hand, however, antimony sulfide NPs have a low cytotoxicity effect on uninfected macrophages but it can induce apoptosis in promastigote stage at 3 of 4 concentrations.

  14. Electrical conductivity of uranium-antimony oxide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golunski, S.E.; Nevell, T.G.; Hucknall, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The relative ionic and electronic contributions to the electrical conductivity of a uranium-antimony oxide catalyst and of USbO 5 have been determined from measurements of a.c. and d.c. conductance. Under inert atmospheres (390 to 775 K) conduction in the catalyst (predominantly USb 3 O 10 together with small proportions of Sb 2 O 4 and USbO 5 ) is associated with both electronic and effectively charged atomic point defects. Only electronic conduction occurs in USbO 5 . Under oxygen (10 to 70 kPa, 493 to 682 K) both materials are n-type semiconductors at higher temperatures, but at lower temperatures semiconducting behaviour varies with the pressure of oxygen. Heating USbO 5 in oxygen induces an ionic contribution to conductivity. Ionic conduction in the catalyst is eliminated by heating in hydrogen or propene at 470 K but is restored by heating in oxygen. It is suggested that both charged oxygen vacancies and interstitial oxide ions are involved in interactions of gaseous components with uranium-antimony oxides. With alkenes, interstitial oxide ions give rise to the products of selective partial oxidation. (author)

  15. Thermal decomposition kinetics of antimony oxychloride in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳卫军; 唐谟堂; 金胜明

    2002-01-01

    The DTA and XRD techniques were employed to study thermal decomposition mechanism of antimony oxychloride SbOCl in the air. The thermal decomposition reaction occurs in four steps, and the former three steps as: SbOCl(s)→Sb4O5Cl2(s)+SbCl3(g)→Sb8O11Cl2(s)+SbCl3(g)→Sb2O3(s)+SbCl3(g). The forth step is the oxidation of Sb2O3 by air, Sb2O3(s)+O2→Sb2O4(s). The activation energy and the order of the thermal decomposition reaction of antimony oxychloride in three steps presented in DTA curves were calculated according to Kinssinger methods from DTA curves. The values of activation energy and the order are respectively 91.97kJ/mol, 0.73 in the first step, 131.14kJ/mol, 0.63 in the second step and 146.94kJ/mol, 1.58 in the third step.

  16. Bacterial Communities in the Groundwater of Xikuangshan Antimony Mine, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M.; Wang, H.; Wang, N.; Wang, M.

    2017-12-01

    Xikuangshan (XKS) is the biggest antimony (Sb) mine around the word, which causes serious environmental contamination due to the mining actives. To fully understand the bacterial compositions in the groundwater around the mining area in XKS and their correlation with environmental factors, groundwater samples were collected and subject to 16S rDNA high throughput sequencing. Results indicated that Proteobacteria (especially Gamma-Proteobacteria) dominated bacterial communities in high-Sb groundwater samples, whereas Bacteroidetes predominated in low-Sb groundwater. Furthermore, antimony concentration was found to be the most significant factor shaping bacterial communities (P=0.002) with an explanation of 9.16% of the variation. Other factors such as pH, contents of Mg, Ca and orthophosphate were also observed to significantly correlate with bacterial communities. This was the first report to show the important impact of Sb concentration on bacterial community structure in the groundwater in the mining area. Our results will enhance the understanding of subsurface biogeochemical processes mediated by microbes.

  17. Electrical conductivity of uranium-antimony oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golunski, S.E.; Nevell, T.G. (Portsmouth Polytechnic (UK)); Hucknall, D.J. (Southampton Univ. (UK). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1985-05-01

    The relative ionic and electronic contributions to the electrical conductivity of a uranium-antimony oxide catalyst and of USbO/sub 5/ have been determined from measurements of a.c. and d.c. conductance. Under inert atmospheres (390 to 775 K) conduction in the catalyst (predominantly USb/sub 3/O/sub 10/ together with small proportions of Sb/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and USbO/sub 5/) is associated with both electronic and effectively charged atomic point defects. Only electronic conduction occurs in USbO/sub 5/. Under oxygen (10 to 70 kPa, 493 to 682 K) both materials are n-type semiconductors at higher temperatures, but at lower temperatures semiconducting behaviour varies with the pressure of oxygen. Heating USbO/sub 5/ in oxygen induces an ionic contribution to conductivity. Ionic conduction in the catalyst is eliminated by heating in hydrogen or propene at 470 K but is restored by heating in oxygen. It is suggested that both charged oxygen vacancies and interstitial oxide ions are involved in interactions of gaseous components with uranium-antimony oxides. With alkenes, interstitial oxide ions give rise to the products of selective partial oxidation.

  18. Behaviour of antimony during thermal treatment of Sb-rich halogenated waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J. [Laboratoire Gestion des Risques et Environnement, 25 rue de Chemnitz, 68200 Mulhouse (France); Dorge, S., E-mail: sophie.dorge@uha.fr [Laboratoire Gestion des Risques et Environnement, 25 rue de Chemnitz, 68200 Mulhouse (France); Trouve, G. [Laboratoire Gestion des Risques et Environnement, 25 rue de Chemnitz, 68200 Mulhouse (France); Venditti, D.; Durecu, S. [TREDI Departement de Recherche, Technopole de Nancy-Brabois, 9 avenue de la Foret de Haye, BP 184, 54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2009-07-30

    Antimony compounds have a wide range of industrial applications, particularly as additives in flame retardants. To ensure environmentally friendly waste incineration of Sb-rich wastes, it is essential to strengthen the knowledge about the fate of antimony and the potential formation of harmful species. Investigations should be conducted particularly in relation with the main operational parameters controlling the process, chiefly temperature, residence time and air supply in the oven and in the post-combustion zone, prior final adapted cleaning of the flue-gas stream. Experimental studies focusing on antimony behaviour were undertaken through laboratory-scale thermal treatment at 850 deg. C and 1100 deg. C of a Sb-rich halogenated waste, originating from the sector of flame retardants formulation. The configuration of our laboratory experimental device allowed to achieve only low oxidative conditions in the waste bed, but high oxidative strength coupled with high temperature and sufficient gas residence time in the post-combustion zone, as prescribed during the incineration of hazardous wastes. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to assess the partition of antimony in the different compartments of the process. The oxidation degree of antimony in the gas-phase was determined by the use of electrochemical techniques, namely polarography coupled with anodic stripping voltamperometry. The partition of antimony between the residual ash and the gas-phase under moderate oxidative conditions in the waste bed was constant, whatever the temperature: the volatilization rate for antimony was {approx}64%, while a {approx}36% fraction remained in the residual bottom ashes. But interestingly, while at 850 {sup o}C, antimony was mainly present in the gas-phase at a +III oxidation degree, an increase in temperature of 250 {sup o}C favoured the presence of antimony to its highest oxidation degree +V in the flue-gas stream, a valence known to be involved in less toxic species.

  19. Behaviour of antimony during thermal treatment of Sb-rich halogenated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.; Dorge, S.; Trouve, G.; Venditti, D.; Durecu, S.

    2009-01-01

    Antimony compounds have a wide range of industrial applications, particularly as additives in flame retardants. To ensure environmentally friendly waste incineration of Sb-rich wastes, it is essential to strengthen the knowledge about the fate of antimony and the potential formation of harmful species. Investigations should be conducted particularly in relation with the main operational parameters controlling the process, chiefly temperature, residence time and air supply in the oven and in the post-combustion zone, prior final adapted cleaning of the flue-gas stream. Experimental studies focusing on antimony behaviour were undertaken through laboratory-scale thermal treatment at 850 deg. C and 1100 deg. C of a Sb-rich halogenated waste, originating from the sector of flame retardants formulation. The configuration of our laboratory experimental device allowed to achieve only low oxidative conditions in the waste bed, but high oxidative strength coupled with high temperature and sufficient gas residence time in the post-combustion zone, as prescribed during the incineration of hazardous wastes. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to assess the partition of antimony in the different compartments of the process. The oxidation degree of antimony in the gas-phase was determined by the use of electrochemical techniques, namely polarography coupled with anodic stripping voltamperometry. The partition of antimony between the residual ash and the gas-phase under moderate oxidative conditions in the waste bed was constant, whatever the temperature: the volatilization rate for antimony was ∼64%, while a ∼36% fraction remained in the residual bottom ashes. But interestingly, while at 850 o C, antimony was mainly present in the gas-phase at a +III oxidation degree, an increase in temperature of 250 o C favoured the presence of antimony to its highest oxidation degree +V in the flue-gas stream, a valence known to be involved in less toxic species.

  20. Antimony and arsenic exhibit contrasting spatial distributions in the sediment and vegetation of a contaminated wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnken, Jan; Ohlsson, Rohana; Welsh, David T; Teasdale, Peter R; Chelsky, Ariella; Bennett, William W

    2017-08-01

    Antimony is a priority environmental contaminant that is relatively poorly studied compared to other trace metal(loid)s. In particular, the behaviour of antimony in wetland sediments, where anaerobic conditions often dominate, has received considerably less attention compared to well-drained terrestrial soil environments. Here we report the results of a spatial assessment of antimony in the sediments and vegetation of a freshwater wetland exposed to stibnite tailings for the past forty years. The concentration of antimony in the sediment decreased rapidly with distance from the tailings deposit, from a maximum of ∼22,000 mg kg -1 to ∼1000 mg kg -1 at a distance of ∼150 m. In contrast, arsenic was distributed more evenly across the wetland, indicating that it was more mobile under the prevailing hypoxic/anoxic conditions. Less clear trends were observed in the tissues of wetland plants, with the concentrations of antimony in waterlilies (2.5-195 mg kg -1 ) showing no clear trends with distance from the tailings deposit, and no correlation with sediment concentrations. Sedges and Melaleuca sp. trees had lower antimony concentrations (<25 mg kg -1 and 5 mg kg -1 , respectively) compared to waterlilies, but showed a non-significant trend of higher concentrations closer to the tailings. For all vegetation types sampled, antimony concentrations were consistently lower than arsenic concentrations (Sb:As = 0.27-0.31), despite higher concentrations of antimony in the sediment. Overall, the results of this study highlight clear differences in the behaviour of antimony and arsenic in freshwater wetlands, which should be considered during the management and remediation of such sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis, characterisation and electrochemical evaluation of reduced graphene oxide modified antimony nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silwana, Bongiwe; Horst, Charlton van der [Natural Resources and the Environment (NRE), Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa); SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Iwuoha, Emmanuel [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Somerset, Vernon, E-mail: vsomerset@csir.co.za [Natural Resources and the Environment (NRE), Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa)

    2015-10-01

    This paper demonstrates some aspects on the synthesis and characterisation of nanoparticles of metallic alloys using polyvinyl alcohol as a stabiliser, which combines high surface area and superior hybrid properties. The present experimental design was to synthesise a nanocomposite of reduced graphene oxide and antimony nanoparticles to be used as thin films for macro- and micro-carbon electrodes for enhancing sensing of different toxic metal pollutants in the environment. The synthetic process of reduced graphene oxide was done using the modified Hummers method while antimony pentachloride was reduced with sodium borohydride into nanoparticles of antimony using polyvinyl-alcohol as a stabiliser. The systematic investigation of morphology was done by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution-transmission electron microscope, which revealed the synthesis of a product, consists of reduced graphene oxide antimony nanoparticles. The electrochemical behaviour of the reduced graphene oxide antimony nanoparticles coated on a glassy carbon electrode was performed using voltammetric and impedance techniques. Electrochemical impedance measurements showed that the overall resistance, including the charge–transfer resistance, was smaller with reduced graphene oxide antimony nanoparticles than reduced graphene oxide and antimony nanoparticles, on their own. Evaluation of the reduced graphene oxide antimony nanoparticle sensor in the stripping voltammetry has shown a linear working range for concentration of platinum (II) between 6.0 × 10{sup −6}–5.4 × 10{sup −5} μg L{sup −1} with limit of detection of 6 × 10{sup −6} μg L{sup −1} (signal-to-noise ratio = 3), which is below the World Health Organisation guidelines for freshwater. - Highlights: • Reduced graphene oxide modified antimony nanoparticles were chemically synthesised. • TEM results show rGO-Sb nanoparticles with a diameter range of between 2 and 20 nm. • Impedance results confirm

  2. Segregation of antimony in InP in MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeke, Stefan

    2008-07-01

    In this work the segregation of antimony in indium phosphide in metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE)was systematically investigated. Therefore phosphine stabilized InP surfaces were treated with tri-methyl-antimony (TMSb) in MOVPE. An antimony rich Sb/InP surface was established, showing a typical spectra for the antimonides observed in reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS).Adsorption and desorption of antimony are investigated, as well as the incorporation of Sb during overgrowth of the Sb/InP surface with InP. Therefore the growth parameters temperature, TMSb partial pressure and treatment time are varied and their influence investigated. The experiments are monitored in-situ with RAS, the achieved data is correlated with ex-situ characterisation such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). It is shown that under treatment with TMSb a stable Sb/InP surface is formed within seconds, which does not change under further TMSb treatment. This process is rarely influenced by the TMSb partial pressure. On the contrary, the desorption of Sb is a very slow process. Two main processes can be distinguished: The desorption of excess Sb from the surface and the formation of the MOVPE prepared InP (2 x 1) surface. The reaction velocity of adsorption and desorption increases with temperature. Above a critical value the increase of TMSb partial pressure has no influence on the time for desorption. During overgrowth of the Sb/InP surface the opposite temperature dependence is observed: with increasing growth temperature the typical spectra for antimonides is observed longer. An analysis of the grown samples with XRD and SIMS showed the formation of an InPSb double quantum well. One layer is formed at the interface, the second one 50 nm-120 nm deep in the InP. The location of the 2nd InPSb layer can be correlated with the vanishing of the Sb signature in RAS. The distance between the quantum wells increases with growth temperature, until it

  3. Segregation of antimony in InP in MOVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeke, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    In this work the segregation of antimony in indium phosphide in metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE)was systematically investigated. Therefore phosphine stabilized InP surfaces were treated with tri-methyl-antimony (TMSb) in MOVPE. An antimony rich Sb/InP surface was established, showing a typical spectra for the antimonides observed in reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS).Adsorption and desorption of antimony are investigated, as well as the incorporation of Sb during overgrowth of the Sb/InP surface with InP. Therefore the growth parameters temperature, TMSb partial pressure and treatment time are varied and their influence investigated. The experiments are monitored in-situ with RAS, the achieved data is correlated with ex-situ characterisation such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). It is shown that under treatment with TMSb a stable Sb/InP surface is formed within seconds, which does not change under further TMSb treatment. This process is rarely influenced by the TMSb partial pressure. On the contrary, the desorption of Sb is a very slow process. Two main processes can be distinguished: The desorption of excess Sb from the surface and the formation of the MOVPE prepared InP (2 x 1) surface. The reaction velocity of adsorption and desorption increases with temperature. Above a critical value the increase of TMSb partial pressure has no influence on the time for desorption. During overgrowth of the Sb/InP surface the opposite temperature dependence is observed: with increasing growth temperature the typical spectra for antimonides is observed longer. An analysis of the grown samples with XRD and SIMS showed the formation of an InPSb double quantum well. One layer is formed at the interface, the second one 50 nm-120 nm deep in the InP. The location of the 2nd InPSb layer can be correlated with the vanishing of the Sb signature in RAS. The distance between the quantum wells increases with growth temperature, until it

  4. Simultaneous analysis of arsenic, antimony, selenium and tellurium in environmental samples using hydride generation ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, L.M.; Breidenbach, R.; Bakker, I.J.I.; Epema, O.J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A quantitative method for simultaneous analysis of arsenic, antimony, selenium and tellurium in environmental samples is being developed using hydride generation ICPMS. These elements must be first transformed into hydride-forming oxidation states. This is particularly challenging for selenium and antimony because selenium is susceptible to reduction to the non-hydride-forming elemental state and antimony requires strong reducing conditions. The effectiveness of three reducing agents (KI, thiourea, cysteine) is studied. A comparison is made between addition of reducing agent to the sample and addition of KI to the NaBH 4 solution. Best results were obtained with the latter approach. (author)

  5. Antimony susceptibility of Leishmania isolates collected over a 30-year period in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddaikra, Naouel; Ait-Oudhia, Khatima; Kherrachi, Ihcen; Oury, Bruno; Moulti-Mati, Farida; Benikhlef, Razika; Harrat, Zoubir; Sereno, Denis

    2018-03-01

    In Algeria, the treatment of visceral and cutaneous leishmanioses (VL and CL) has been and continues to be based on antimony-containing drugs. It is suspected that high drug selective pressure might favor the emergence of chemoresistant parasites. Although treatment failure is frequently reported during antimonial therapy of both CL and VL, antimonial resistance has never been thoroughly investigated in Algeria. Determining the level of antimonial susceptibility, amongst Leishmania transmitted in Algeria, is of great importance for the development of public health policies. Within the framework of the knowledge about the epidemiology of VL and CL amassed during the last 30 years, we sampled Leishmania isolates to determine their susceptibility to antimony. We analyzed a total of 106 isolates including 88 isolates collected between 1976 and 2013 in Algeria from humans, dogs, rodents, and phlebotomines and 18 collected from dogs in France. All the Algerian isolates were collected in 14 localities where leishmaniasis is endemic. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of potassium antimony tartrate (the trivalent form of antimony, Sb(III)) and sodium stibogluconate (the pentavalent form of antimony, Sb(V)) were determined in promastigotes and intramacrophage amastigotes, respectively. The epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF) that allowed us to differentiate between Leishmania species causing cutaneous or visceral leishmaniases that were susceptible (S+) or insusceptible (S-) to the trivalent form of antimony was determined. The computed IC50 cutoff values were 23.83 μg/mL and 15.91 μg/mL for VL and CL, respectively. We report a trend of increasing antimony susceptibility in VL isolates during the 30-year period. In contrast, an increase in the frequency of S- phenotypes in isolates causing CL was observed during the same period. In our study, the emergence of S- phenotypes correlates with the inclusion of L. killicki (syn: L. tropica) isolates that cause cutaneous

  6. Characteristic electron energy losses in monoatomic antimony films on (110) and (112) tungsten faces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetskij, D.A.; Gorchinskij, A.D.; Shevlyakov, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    Complex investigations of antimony condensation on a monoatomical clean surface of tungsten monocrystals are carried out. The completion of a physical antimony monolayer has been controlled by the methods of Auger-electron spectroscopy and slow electron diffraction. It is shown that at submonolayer coatings a collectivization of valent electrons occurs leading to appearance of peaks of surface and volumetric plasmons in the energy losses spectrum. The anomalous cencentrational dependence of antimony ionization peak intensity has been found. The origin of previously unexplored peaks in the energy losses spectrum is discussed [ru

  7. Varicella zoster virus reactivation during or immediately following treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis with antimony compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barbieri Barros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimony compounds are the cornerstone treatments for tegumentary leishmaniasis. The reactivation of herpes virus is a side effect described in few reports. We conducted an observational study to describe the incidence of herpes zoster reactivation during treatment with antimony compounds. The global incidence of herpes zoster is approximately 2.5 cases per 1,000 persons per month (or 30 cases per 1,000 persons per year. The estimated incidence of herpes zoster in patients undergoing antimony therapy is higher than previously reported.

  8. An investigation of inorganic antimony species and antimony associated with soil humic acid molar mass fractions in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steely, Sarah; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri; Xing Baoshan

    2007-01-01

    The presence of antimony compounds is often suspected in the soil of apple orchards contaminated with lead arsenate pesticide and in the soil of shooting ranges. Nitric acid (1 M) extractable Sb from the shooting range (8300 μg kg -1 ) and the apple orchard (69 μg kg -1 ) had considerably higher surface Sb levels than the control site ( -1 ), and Sb was confined to the top ∼30 cm soil layer. Sb(V) was the principal species in the shooting range and the apple orchard surface soils. Size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) analysis of humic acids isolated from the two contaminated soils demonstrated that Sb has complexed to humic acid molar mass fractions. The results also indicate that humic acids have the ability to arrest the mobility of Sb through soils and would be beneficial in converting Sb(III) to a less toxic species, Sb(V), in contaminated areas. - The soil surface and depth distribution Sb(V) and Sb(III) species in a contaminated apple orchard and a shooting range, and the effect soil humic acids on inorganic antimony species is reported

  9. The promotion on cell growth of androgen-dependent prostate cancer by antimony via mimicking androgen activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changwen; Li, Penghao; Wen, Yingwu; Feng, Guowei; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yangyi; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Zhihong

    2018-05-15

    Antimony is a widely used heavier pnictogens in industry, and its toxicity has been a matter of concern. Although previous studies have suggested that antimony may have the function as either a tumor suppressor or an oncogene in several cancers, the molecular basis underlying antimony-mediated transformation is still unclear. In the current study, we attempt to elucidate the potential role of antimony in the development of prostate cancer. Our results showed that the concentration of antimony was much higher in serum of prostate cancer patients, and was closely associated with poor outcome of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. Additionally, low dose of antimony could promote proliferation and invasion of androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line LNCaP cells in vitro and in vivo. The mechanistic studies demonstrated that exposure to antimony triggered the phosphorylation of androgen receptor (AR), which transcriptionally regulates the expression of androgen-related targets, including PSA and NKX3.1. Overall, our results unearthed that antimony could promote tumor growth by mimicking androgen activity in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells. Therefore, these findings expanded our understanding on the molecular mechanism of antimony in tumorigenesis and tumor progression of prostate cancer, and it appears to be an inspiring strategy to restrain prostate cancer by inhibiting antimony-induced androgen-like effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ceramic phases for immobilization of 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, E.R.; Agrawal, D.K.; Scheetz, B.E.; Pepin, J.G.; Atkinson, S.D.; White, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    Materials for ultimate disposal of 129 I have been studied. At present, iodide-sodalite, though not ideal, appears to be the best material for 129 I immobilization from the aspects of ease of preparation, thermal stability, cost of materials, and leach resistance. Good consolidation of the material was achieved by sintering in air at 1000 to 1200 0 C, but the iodine content was significantly below stoichiometric expectations. Hot aqueous media preferentially removed iodine, apparently by OH - substitution in near-neutral solutions, and I reversible reaction Cl - exchange occurred in brine. Alternation of the sodalite also took place. Soxhlet leach rates were about 5 x 10 -4 g/cm 2 -day by total weight loss, but physical weathering contributed significantly to this value. Moderate doses of radiation had no observable deleterious structural effects. Iodoboracites seemingly cannot be prepared by ceramic or nonhydrothermal wet chemical techniques. Fe-iodoboracite has inferior thermal stability to iodide-sodalite and was completely altered to hematite after treatment at 200 0 C in deionized water. Silver zeolites retained some iodine in the form of crystalline α-AgI at temperatures up to 1300 0 C even though heating above approx. 700 0 C altered the alumino-silicate framework. However, some of the iodine appeared to be present as soluble iodine, even in heated materials. Treatment at 200 0 C in deionized water or 2M NaCl significantly decreased the crystallinity of the aluminosilicate framework and the α-AgI reflections in the x-ray patterns were enhanced. Mild γ irradiations (approx. 50 MR) affected the x-ray diffraction patterns of some of the zeolites. Various lead oxyhalides had very poor thermal stability

  11. Liquid-liquid extraction of arsenic, antimony, selenium and tellurium by zinc diethyldithiocarbamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, S.; Wyttenbach, A.

    1978-03-01

    The authors report the solvent extraction, oxidation, reduction, extraction in the presence of iron, and reextraction of arsenic, antimony, selenium and tellurium. These processes were studied using radioactive tracers. (G.T.H.)

  12. Possibilities of using neutron activation analysis to discovery antimony aureoles at near-surface deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voin, M.I.; Kuligin, V.M.; Rakovskij, Eh.E.

    1978-01-01

    Described is the technique for determining antimony in rock and ore samples by instrumental neutron activation method with the sensitivity of 0.5 g/t from the 0.3-0.5 g weighed amount. Antimony was determined using the photopeak of antimony-124 isotope with the energy of 1692 keV. For analysis, 0.1 g samples were packed in aluminium foil and irradiated for 22 hours by reactor neutron fluence of 1.2x10 13 neutron/cm 2 xs. After cooling for 7 days induced activity of samples was measured using multichannel analizer with semiconductor detector with sensitive zone volume of 40 cm 3 . Real sensitivity while determining antimony was 1g/t, mean square error in the content range of 1-10 g/t is 14%

  13. Antimony Trioxide (ATO) - Summary of External Peer Review and Public Comments and Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the public and external peer review comments that the EPA’s Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) received for the draft work plan risk assessment for Antimony Trioxide (ATO).

  14. NEW THIO S2- ADDUCTS WITH ANTIMONY (III AND V HALIDE: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN ALLOUCH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new S2- adducts with SbIII and SbV halides have been synthesized and studied by infrared. Discrete structures have been suggested, the environment around the antimony being tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal or octahedral.

  15. Distribution of antimony in the oxide layer formed by potentiostatic oxidation of Pb-Sb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arifuku, F.; Yoneyama, H.; Tamura, H.

    1979-09-01

    The distribution of antimony within the oxide films on Pb-Sb alloy prepared by potentiostatic oxidation in H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solutions was examined by SIMS. The study of oxide films prepared by applying different potentials for three hours showed that two types of film were obtained depending on whether the potential was more negative or more positive than 1.5 V. Antimony profiles were obtained for films at several stages in the initial growth. It was found that antimony was retained in the oxide film at 1.5 V during both nucleation and two- or three-dimensional growth of PbO/sub 2/ and at 1.6 V during the lateral overlaps of three-dimensional centers of PbO/sub 2/. Relationships between the antimony distribution profiles and the oxide film growth are discussed. 8 figures, 1 table.

  16. Co-doping with antimony to control phosphorous diffusion in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.; Chroneos, Alexander; Grimes, R. W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    donor co-doping on the migration activation energies of vacancy-mediated diffusion processes. The migration energy barriers for phosphorous and antimony were found to be increased significantly when larger clusters involving two donor atoms and a vacancy

  17. Study on Radioecology and Tracer of Iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaolin, Hou

    2004-01-01

    Iodine-129 (15.7 Ma) is a naturally occurring radioisotope of iodine. The ratio of 129 I/ 127 I was estimated to be ∼ 10 -12 in the ocean and 10 -11 in the territorial environment in pre-nuclear era, releases from nuclear weapon tests have increased this ratio to ∼ 10 -10 . However, a large amount of iodine-129 was released from various nuclear facilities, and the greatest releases of 129 I are from two European reprocessing plants, especially in recent years. By 1998, 2600 Kg and 220 Kg 129 I have been discharged to the marine environment and atmosphere from La Hague (France) and Sellafield reprocessing plants, respectively. This amount is tens times larger than the total 129 I inventory in the pre-nuclear ocean and weapon test releases. Although there is no significant radiation risk for the human health at present level of 129 I, the continuously increasing production and release of 129 I make the accumulation of 129 I in the environment, immigration, cycle and long term radioecological risk should be give more attention due to its long half-life, high accumulation in human thyroid and high mobility. Iodine is a conservative element in the ocean, the large amount of iodine-129 discharged to the marine system can therefore be used as a oceanographic tracer to study the physical dispersion, mixing and circulative processes of water mass in the ocean. In Riso national laboratory, a radiochemical neutron activation analysis method was developed, using this method the radioecology and tracer of iodine-129 was studied. Some representative works are presented below. (1) Evaluation of radiation exposure of humans to iodine-129. The human and animal thyroids collected from different places, such as Tianjin in China, Gemol in Belarus, Ribe in Denmark, human urine in Denmark, seafood in China were analysed for iodine-129 concentration and 129 I/ 127 I ratio, the exposure level were compared with other places. (2) Reconstruction of radiation dose from I-131 in the

  18. Distribution of {sup 129}I in terrestrial surface water environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xuegao [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Gong, Meng [College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Yi, Peng, E-mail: pengyi1915@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Aldahan, Ala [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Geology, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Yu, Zhongbo [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Possnert, Göran [Tandem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Chen, Li [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China)

    2015-10-15

    The global distribution of the radioactive isotope iodine-129 in surface waters (lakes and rivers) is presented here and compared with the atmospheric deposition and distribution in surface marine waters. The results indicate relatively high concentrations in surface water systems in close vicinity of the anthropogenic release sources as well as in parts of Western Europe, North America and Central Asia. {sup 129}I level is generally higher in the terrestrial surface water of the Northern hemisphere compared to the southern hemisphere. The highest values of {sup 129}I appear around 50°N and 40°S in the northern and southern hemisphere, separately. Direct gaseous and marine atmospheric emissions are the most likely avenues for the transport of {sup 129}I from the sources to the terrestrial surface waters. To apply iodine-129 as process tracer in terrestrial surface water environment, more data are needed on {sup 129}I distribution patterns both locally and globally.

  19. Removal of lead from crude antimony by using NaPo3 as lead elimination reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the shortcomings when removing lead from crude antimony in the traditional antimony smelting, a new process was provided using NaPO3 as lead elimination reagent to yield phosphate slag, and it was removed by floating on the surface of the liquid antimony. Reaction mechanism was clarified by using the TG-DTA and XRD techniques and single factor experiments of removal lead from crude antimony were engaged. The results show that PbO and NaPO3 begin endothermic reaction at 863K (590°C, and the reaction mainly form NaPb4(PO43 and NaPbPO4 below 1123K (850°C and above 1123K (850°C, respectively. Sb2O3 and NaPO3 start the reaction at 773K (500°C and generate an antimonic salt compound. The reaction product of the mixture of PbO, Sb2O3 and NaPO3 show that NaPO3 reacted with PbO prior when NaPO3 was insufficient, amorphous antimony glass will be generated only when NaPO3 was adequate. Single factor experiments were taken with NaNO3 as oxidizing agent under argon, effect of reaction time, reaction temperature and dosage of NaPO3 and NaNO3 on smelting results. The average content of lead in refined antimony was 0.05340% and 98.85% of lead were removed under optimal conditions; the content of lead in antimony have meet the requirements of commercial antimony.

  20. Atomistic mechanisms governing structural stability change of zinc antimony thermoelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaolong [Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710054 (China); Lin, Jianping, E-mail: jaredlin@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China); Qiao, Guanjun [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Zhao, E-mail: zwangzhao@gmail.com [Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710054 (China); State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-01-05

    The structural stability of thermoelectric materials is a subject of growing importance for their energy harvesting applications. Here, we study the microscopic mechanisms governing the structural stability change of zinc antimony at its working temperature, using molecular dynamics combined with experimental measurements of the electrical and thermal conductivity. Our results show that the temperature-dependence of the thermal and electrical transport coefficients is strongly correlated with a structural transition. This is found to be associated with a relaxation process, in which a group of Zn atoms migrates between interstitial sites. This atom migration gradually leads to a stabilizing structural transition of the entire crystal framework, and then results in a more stable crystal structure of β–Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} at high temperature.

  1. Antimony Accumulation Risk in Lettuce Grown in Brazilian Urban Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mancarella

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available More than 80% of the Brazilian population inhabits urban areas. Diffused poverty and the lack of fresh vegetables have generated malnutrition and unbalanced diets. Thus, the interest in growing food locally, in urban allotments and community gardens, has increased. However, urban agriculture may present some risks caused by the urban pollution. Road traffic is considered the biggest source of heavy metals in urban areas. Hence, the objective of the study was the assessment of the accumulation of heavy metals in an urban garden in the city of Recife, at different distances from a road with high traffic burden. The results showed that the distance from the street decreased the accumulation of many potentially toxic elements. Furthermore, the human health risk was estimated, revealing that greater danger was associated with the accumulation of antimony. Concentration of other elements in the leaf tissues were within previously reported thresholds.

  2. Pump pulse duration dependence of coherent phonon amplitudes in antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misochko, O. V., E-mail: misochko@issp.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    Coherent optical phonons of A{sub 1k} and E{sub k} symmetry in antimony have been studied using the femtosecond pump–probe technique. By varying the pump-pulse duration and keeping the probe duration constant, it was shown that the amplitude of coherent phonons of both symmetries exponentially decreases with increasing pulse width. It was found that the amplitude decay rate for the fully symmetric phonons with larger frequency is greater than that of the doubly degenerate phonons, whereas the frequency and lifetime for coherent phonons of both symmetries do not depend on the pump-pulse duration. Based on this data, the possibility of separation between dynamic and kinematic contributions to the generation mechanism of coherent phonons is discussed.

  3. Silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Perry, Daniel; Wendt, Joel; Manginell, Ronald; Dominguez, Jason; Pluym, Tammy; Luhman, Dwight; Bielejec, Edward; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm

    Antimony donor implants next to silicon quantum dots have been detected with integrated solid-state diode detectors with single ion precision. Devices with counted number of donors have been fabricated and low temperature transport measurements have been performed. Charge offsets, indicative of donor ionization and coupling to the quantum dot, have been detected in these devices. The number of offsets corresponds to 10-50% of the number of donors counted. We will report on tunneling time measurements and spin readout measurements on the donor offsets. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. High-pressure Raman investigation of the semiconductor antimony oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Aihui; Cao, Lihua [State Key Lab on High Power Semiconductor Laser, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 130022 Changchun (China); Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 130012 Changchun (China); Wan, Chunming [State Key Lab on High Power Semiconductor Laser, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 130022 Changchun (China); Ma, Yanmei [Department of Agronomy, Jilin University, 130062 Changchun (China)

    2011-05-15

    The in situ high-pressure behavior of the semiconductor antimony trioxide (Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has been investigated by Raman spectroscopy techniques in a diamond anvil cell up to 20 GPa at room temperature. New peaks in the external lattice mode range emerged at a pressure above 8.6-15 GPa, suggesting that the structural phase transition occurred. The pressure dependence of Raman frequencies was obtained. The band at 139 cm{sup -1} (assigned to group mode) has a pressure dependence of -0.475 cm{sup -1}/GPa and reveals significant softening at high pressure. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Antimony-Induced Neurobehavioral and Biochemical Perturbations in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanu, Tanzina; Anjum, Adiba; Jahan, Momotaj; Nikkon, Farjana; Hoque, Mominul; Roy, Apurba Kumar; Haque, Azizul; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled; Saud, Zahangir Alam

    2018-03-08

    Groundwater used for drinking has been contaminated with naturally occurring inorganic arsenic and other metals, and metal-contaminated drinking water is the biggest threat to public health in Bangladesh. Toxic metals present in the drinking water have a strong relationship with chronic diseases in humans. Antimony (Sb), a naturally occurring metal, has been reported to be present in the drinking water along with other heavy metals in Bangladesh. Although Sb is present in the environment, very little attention has been given to the toxic effects of Sb. The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of Sb on neurobehavioral changes like anxiety, learning and memory impairment, and blood indices related to organ dysfunction. Mice exposed to antimony potassium-tartrate hydrate (Sb) (10 mg/kg body weight) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the time spent in open arms while increased the time spent in closed arms compared to the control mice in elevated plus maze. The mean latency time of control group to find the platform decreased (p < 0.05) significantly during 7 days learning as compared to Sb-treated group in Morris water maze test, and Sb-exposed group spent significantly (p < 0.05) less time in the desired quadrant as compared to the control group in probe trial. Sb treatment also significantly altered blood indices related to liver and kidney dysfunction. Additionally, Sb-induced biochemical alterations were associated with significant perturbations in histological architecture of liver and kidney of Sb-exposed mice. These data suggest that Sb has a toxic effect on neurobehavioral and biochemical changes in mice.

  6. Enrichment of Gold in Antimony Matte by Direct Smelting of Refractory Gold Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianzu; Xie, Boyi; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Duchao; Chen, Lin

    2018-04-01

    Conventional cyanidation technology achieves low gold recovery when used to process refractory gold concentrate. Based on the geochemical characteristics of gold deposit mineralization, a new method is proposed herein for gold enrichment in antimony matte by smelting of refractory gold concentrate. The effects of the FeO/SiO2 and CaO/SiO2 ratios, smelting temperature, and smelting time on the gold recovery were investigated in detail. The optimum conditions were determined to be FeO/SiO2 ratio of 1.2, CaO/SiO2 ratio of 0.4, smelting temperature of 1200°C, and smelting time of 45 min. The gold content in antimony matte and smelting slag was 96.68 and 1.13 g/t, respectively. The gold, antimony, and arsenic recovery was 97.72%, 26.89%, and 6.56%, respectively, with most of the antimony and arsenic volatilized into dust. Mineral liberation analyzer results showed that the antimony matte mainly consisted of FeS and FeO, with three phases, viz. FeAs, SbAs, and AuSb, embedded between them, indicating that gold was easily enriched with antimony and arsenic during smelting of refractory gold concentrate.

  7. Radiochemical studies of the separation of some chloro-complexes of tin, antimony, cadmium and indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.; Mani, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Radioisotopes of tin, antimony, cadmium and indium such as tin-113, antimony-124, antimony-125, cadmium-109, cadmium-115, indium-113m and indium-111 find extensive applications as tracers in various fields. These isotopes are produced by irradiation of targets in a reactor or a cyclotron. It is usually observed that in addition to the nuclear reactions giving rise to the desired isotopes, side reactions also take place giving rise to radionuclidic contaminants. Thus, antimony-125, indium-114m and indium-114 will be present in the cyclotron produced indium-111. The authors have studied column chromatography over hydrous zirconia for the separation of antimony from tin and indium, and cadmium from indium. These studies have thrown light on the role and behaviour of antimony-125 present as an impurity in tin-113 during the preparation of tin-113-indium-113m generators and have indicated methods for the preparation of 115 Cd-sup(115m)In generators and for separation of 111 In from proton irradiated cadmium targets. (Authors)

  8. Efficiency of manganese dioxide for the removal of antimony from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasany, S.M.; Najamuddin; Ikram, M.

    1993-01-01

    The sorption of antimony onto manganese dioxide from aqueous solution has been investigated as a function of shaking time, composition of electrolyte, concentration of sorbent and sorbate, Maximum sorption of antimony has been achieved from deionized water after 15 minutes shaking at 45 cm/sup 3/g/sup -1/ V/W ratio. The influence of different anions and cations on the sorption has also been examined. EDTA, tartrate, citrate and Fe(II) decreased the sorption significantly. Among the metal ions tested only Se (IV) has shown strong sorption than antimony whereas Co(II), Hf (IV) and Te(IV) indicated low sorption affinity under similar experimental conditions. The sorption of antimony was also tested by different isotherms. The data fitted only to Freyndlich and D-R models. The sorption capacity of 7.71 m mole g/sup -1/, mean energy of sorption of 8.9 kJ mole/sup -1/ and of B = 0.00632 mole/sup 2/kJ/sup -2/ have been system. It is concluded that manganese dioxide can be used for the removal of antimony from industrial effluents and for its recovery from very dilute solutions. The oxide can also be applied for the separation of antimony, selenium and arsenic from Te(IV). (author)

  9. Exposure to antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) trays used in ready-to-eat meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldimann, M; Blanc, A; Dudler, V

    2007-08-01

    Antimony residues, a result of the use of a polycondensation catalyst in the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) oven-proof trays, were analysed in ready-to-eat meals. The toxicity of antimony has raised concerns about consumer safety; therefore, the migration of small fractions of these residues into ready meals and foods as a result of cooking directly in the PET trays was studied. A straightforward approach of measuring real samples was selected to obtain accurate exposure data. Background antimony concentration was determined separately from a series of lunch meals, which ranged from not detectable to 3.4 microg kg(-1). Microwave and conventional oven-cooking caused a distinct increase in the concentration of antimony in food and ready meals of 0-17 and 8-38 microg kg(-1), respectively, depending, to a certain extent, on the industrial preparations. The migrated quantities of antimony corresponded to 3-13 microg. For comparison, PET roasting bags and ready-made dough products in PET baking dishes were also evaluated. About half of the products prepared at a temperature of 180 degrees C exceeded the specific migration limit set for food contact material by the European Commission. However, the migrated amounts of antimony relative to the accepted tolerable daily intake (TDI) show that exposure from this type of food is currently not of toxicological concern.

  10. Enrichment of Gold in Antimony Matte by Direct Smelting of Refractory Gold Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianzu; Xie, Boyi; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Duchao; Chen, Lin

    2018-06-01

    Conventional cyanidation technology achieves low gold recovery when used to process refractory gold concentrate. Based on the geochemical characteristics of gold deposit mineralization, a new method is proposed herein for gold enrichment in antimony matte by smelting of refractory gold concentrate. The effects of the FeO/SiO2 and CaO/SiO2 ratios, smelting temperature, and smelting time on the gold recovery were investigated in detail. The optimum conditions were determined to be FeO/SiO2 ratio of 1.2, CaO/SiO2 ratio of 0.4, smelting temperature of 1200°C, and smelting time of 45 min. The gold content in antimony matte and smelting slag was 96.68 and 1.13 g/t, respectively. The gold, antimony, and arsenic recovery was 97.72%, 26.89%, and 6.56%, respectively, with most of the antimony and arsenic volatilized into dust. Mineral liberation analyzer results showed that the antimony matte mainly consisted of FeS and FeO, with three phases, viz. FeAs, SbAs, and AuSb, embedded between them, indicating that gold was easily enriched with antimony and arsenic during smelting of refractory gold concentrate.

  11. Brain Imaging Using Hyperpolarized 129Xe Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Simrun; Prete, Braedan R J; Wade, Alanna; Hane, Francis T; Albert, Mitchell S

    2018-01-01

    Hyperpolarized (HP) 129 Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a novel iteration of traditional MRI that relies on detecting the spins of 1 H. Since 129 Xe is a gaseous signal source, it can be used for lung imaging. Additionally, 129 Xe dissolves in the blood stream and can therefore be detectable in the brain parenchyma and vasculature. In this work, we provide detailed information on the protocols that we have developed to image 129 Xe within the brains of both rodents and human subjects. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Iodine-129 Dose in LLW Disposal Facility Performance Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    Iodine-129 has the lowest Performance Assessment derived inventory limit in SRS disposal facilities. Because iodine is concentrated in the body to one organ, the thyroid, it has been thought that dilution with stable iodine would reduce the dose effects of 129I.Examination of the dose model used to establish the Dose conversion factor for 129I shows that, at the levels considered in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities, the calculated 129I dose already accounts for ingestion of stable iodine. At higher than normal iodine ingestion rates, the uptake of iodine by the thyroid itself decrease, which effectively cancels out the isotopic dilution effect

  13. Estimation of 129I inventory in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuegao Chen; Xue Liu; Peng Yi; Zhongbo Yu; Hohai University, Nanjing; Ala Aldahan; Uppsala University, Uppsala; Li Chen; Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, NV; Goran Possnert

    2016-01-01

    Spatial distribution of oceanic 129 I inventory presented here is based on collection of data from published literatures coupled with model calculation using ArcGIS software tools. A total of 363 thiessen polygons were created for the oceans in order to cover the tremendous variability in distribution of 129 I data range. The results indicate that total 129 I oceanic inventory is approximately 7310 kg, which is mainly stored in the region of the North Atlantic and the Arctic Oceans. The concentrations of 129 I in the oceans are 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than the pre-anthropogenic level reflecting effects of post 1945 anthropogenic activities. (author)

  14. 32 CFR 536.129 - Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Personnel Claims Act and chapter 11 of AR 27-20, which provides compensation only for tangible personal... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. 536.129 Section 536.129 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS...

  15. 129I Interlaboratory comparison: phase I and phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffee, M. W.; Roberts, M. L.

    1999-01-01

    An interlaboratory comparison exercise for 129 I was organized and conducted. Nine laboratories participated in the exercise to either a full or limited extent. In Phase I of the comparison, 11 samples were measured. The suite of samples contained both synthetic ''standard type'' materials (i.e., AgI) and environmental materials. The isotopic 129 I/ 127 I ratios of the samples varied from 10 -8 to 10 -14 . In this phase, each laboratory was responsible for its own chemical preparation of the samples. In Phase I, the 129 I AMS measurements for prepared AgI were in good agreement. However, large discrepancies were seen in 129 I AMS measurements of environmental samples. Because of the large discrepancies seen in the Phase I 129 I intercomparison, a subsequent study was conducted. In Phase II of the 129 I intercomparison, three separate laboratories prepared AgI from two environmental samples (IAEA 375 soil and maples leaves). Each laboratory used its own chemical preparation method with each of the methods being distinctly different. The resulting six samples (two sets of three) were then re-distributed to the participating 129 I AMS facilities and 129 I/ 127 I ratios measured. Results and discussion of both the Phase I and Phase II interlaboratory comparison are presented

  16. 14 CFR 129.113 - Fuel tank system maintenance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank system maintenance program. 129... Continued Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 129.113 Fuel tank system maintenance program. (a) Except... on which an auxiliary fuel tank is installed under a field approval, before June 16, 2008, the...

  17. Depth profiles of 129I species in the Bothnian Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.

    2013-01-01

    , SiO3–Si, but rather poor with NH4–N. The correlations suggest comparable source pathway of 129I− and nutrient parameters, while the source of NH4–N may be different. The small amounts and negligible change of 129IO3 − indicate prevailing extensive reduction of iodate in the Baltic Sea....

  18. 12 CFR 410.112-410.129 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 410.112-410.129 Section 410.112-410.129 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES §§ 410...

  19. 14 CFR 129.19 - Air traffic rules and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air traffic rules and procedures. 129.19 Section 129.19 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATIONS: FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS AND FOREIGN OPERATORS OF ...

  20. 40 CFR 1.29 - Office of Inspector General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Inspector General. 1.29 Section 1.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION... operations. The Office provides leadership and coordination and recommends policies for other Agency...

  1. Dicty_cDB: SSK129 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSK129 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16021-1 SSK129Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSK129Z 372 - - - - Show SSK129 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSK129 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16021-1 Original site URL http://dict...Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N AC116957 |AC116957.2 Dict...419632 |CK419632.1 AUF_IpOva_21_i24 Ovary cDNA library Ictalurus punctatus cDNA 5', mRNA sequence. 36 0.54 2

  2. Copper-promoted cementation of antimony in hydrochloric acid system: A green protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Lian-Kui; Li, Ying-Ying; Cao, Hua-Zhen; Zheng, Guo-Qu, E-mail: zhenggq@zjut.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Antimony can be efficiently removed by cementation with copper powder. • Cemented antimony is in the form of Cu{sub 2}Sb. • Consumed copper powder is transformed to CuCl. • The cementation is a chemically controlled step. • No toxic stibine generates during the cementation process. - Abstract: A new method of recovering antimony in hydrochloric acid system by cementation with copper powder was proposed and carried out at laboratory scale. Thermodynamic analysis and cyclic voltammetry test were conducted to study the cementation process. This is a novel antimony removal technology and quite meets the requirements of green chemistry. The main cement product Cu{sub 2}Sb is a promising anodic material for lithium and sodium ion battery. And nearly all consumed copper powder are transformed into CuCl which is an important industrial material. The effect of reaction temperature, stoichiometric ratio of Cu to Sb(III), stirring rate and concentration of HCl on the cementation efficiency of antimony were investigated in detail. Optimized cementation condition is obtained at 60 °C for 120 min and stirring rate of 600 rpm with Cu/Sb(III) stoichiometric ratio of 6 in 3 mol L{sup −1} HCl. At this time, nearly all antimony can be removed by copper powder and the cementation efficiency is over 99%. The structure and morphologies of the cement products were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Results show that the reaction temperature has little influence on the morphology of the cement products which consist of particles with various sizes. The activation energy of the cementation antimony on copper is 37.75 kJ mol{sup −1}, indicating a chemically controlled step. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry results show that no stibine generates during the cementation process.

  3. Antimony distribution and mobility in topsoils and plants (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa) from polluted Sb-mining areas in Extremadura (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murciego, A. Murciego; Sanchez, A. Garcia; Gonzalez, M.A. Rodriguez; Gil, E. Pinilla; Gordillo, C. Toro; Fernandez, J. Cabezas; Triguero, T. Buyolo

    2007-01-01

    A study about topsoil antimony distribution and mobility from the soils to the biomass has been afforded in three abandoned Sb mining areas located at Extremadura. Physico-chemical characteristics of the soils and total antimony levels were measured in soils and autochthonous plant species (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa). Comparison with corresponding values in reference areas isolated from the mining activities is discussed. Antimony mobility in the soils was estimated by measuring the water extractable fraction; low results were obtained for the three soil areas, with no statistical differences. Plant ability to accumulate antimony was estimated by use of plant accumulation coefficients (PAC). Seasonal (spring vs. autumn) effects on the antimony content in the plant species. Cytisus striatus from Mari Rosa mine presented antimony excluder characteristics, whereas Dittrichia viscosa specimens growing in San Antonio mine showed a significant antimony bioaccumulation. - Bioaccumulation of antimony in vegetal species growing in mining areas

  4. Antimony distribution and mobility in topsoils and plants (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa) from polluted Sb-mining areas in Extremadura (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murciego, A. Murciego [Area de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Sanchez, A. Garcia [IRNA-CSIC, Departamento de Geoquimica Ambiental, Aptdo. 257, Salamanca (Spain); Gonzalez, M.A. Rodriguez [Area de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Gil, E. Pinilla [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail: epinilla@unex.es; Gordillo, C. Toro [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Fernandez, J. Cabezas [Area de Ecologia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Triguero, T. Buyolo [Area de Ecologia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    A study about topsoil antimony distribution and mobility from the soils to the biomass has been afforded in three abandoned Sb mining areas located at Extremadura. Physico-chemical characteristics of the soils and total antimony levels were measured in soils and autochthonous plant species (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa). Comparison with corresponding values in reference areas isolated from the mining activities is discussed. Antimony mobility in the soils was estimated by measuring the water extractable fraction; low results were obtained for the three soil areas, with no statistical differences. Plant ability to accumulate antimony was estimated by use of plant accumulation coefficients (PAC). Seasonal (spring vs. autumn) effects on the antimony content in the plant species. Cytisus striatus from Mari Rosa mine presented antimony excluder characteristics, whereas Dittrichia viscosa specimens growing in San Antonio mine showed a significant antimony bioaccumulation. - Bioaccumulation of antimony in vegetal species growing in mining areas.

  5. Variability in prescription opioid intake and reinforcement amongst 129 substrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, S M; Healy, A F; Coelho, M A; Brown, C N; Kippin, T E; Szumlinski, K K

    2017-09-01

    Opioid abuse in the United States has reached epidemic proportions, with treatment admissions and deaths associated with prescription opioid abuse quadrupling over the past 10 years. Although genetics are theorized to contribute substantially to inter-individual variability in the development, severity and treatment outcomes of opioid abuse/addiction, little direct preclinical study has focused on the behavioral genetics of prescription opioid reinforcement and drug-taking. Herein, we employed different 129 substrains of mice currently available from The Jackson Laboratory (129S1/SvlmJ, 129X1/SvJ, 129S4/SvJaeJ and 129P3/J) as a model system of genetic variation and assayed mice for oral opioid intake and reinforcement, as well as behavioral and somatic signs of dependence. All substrains exhibited a dose-dependent increase in oral oxycodone and heroin preference and intake under limited-access procedures and all, but 129S1/SvlmJ mice, exhibited oxycodone reinforcement. Relative to the other substrains, 129P3/J mice exhibited higher heroin and oxycodone intake. While 129X1/SvJ exhibited the highest anxiety-like behavior during natural opioid withdrawal, somatic and behavior signs of precipitated withdrawal were most robust in 129P3/J mice. These results demonstrate the feasibility and relative sensitivity of our oral opioid self-administration procedures for detecting substrain differences in drug reinforcement/intake among 129 mice, of relevance to the identification of genetic variants contributing to high vs. low oxycodone reinforcement and intake. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  6. Predictors of an unsatisfactory response to pentavalent antimony in the treatment of American visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Mácia A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with pentavalent antimony is usually successful, some patients require second-line drug therapy, most commonly with amphotericin B. To identify the clinical characteristics that predict an inadequate response to pentavalent antimony, a case-control study was undertaken in Teresina, Piaui, Brazil. Over a two-year period, there were 19 cases of VL in which the staff physicians of a hospital prescribed second-line therapy with amphotericin B after determining that treatment with pentavalent antimony had failed. The control group consisted of 97 patients that were successfully treated with pentavalent antimony. A chart review using univariate and multivariate analysis was performed. The cure rate was 90% with amphotericin B. The odds ratio for the prescription of amphotericin B was 10.2 for children less than one year old, compared with individuals aged over 10 years. Patients who presented coinfection had an OR of 7.1 while those on antibiotics had an OR of 2.8. These data support either undertaking a longer course of therapy with pentavalent antimony for children or using amphotericin B as a first-line agent for children and individuals with coinfections. It also suggests that chemoprophylaxis directed toward bacterial coinfection in small children with VL may be indicated.

  7. Influence of sulfur, phosphorus, and antimony segregation on the intergranular hydrogen embrittlement of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, S.M.; Baer, D.R.; Jones, R.H.; Thomas, M.T.

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of sulfur, phosphorus, and antimony in promoting the intergranular embrittlement of nickel was investigated using straining electrode tests in 1N H 2 SO 4 at cathodic potentials. Sulfur was found to be the critical grain boundary segregant due to its large enrichment at grain boundaries (10 4 to 10 5 times the bulk content) and the direct relationship between sulfur coverage and hydrogeninduced intergranular failure. Phosphorus was shown to be significantly less effective than sulfur or antimony in inducing the intergranular hydrogen embrittlement of nickel. The addition of phosphoru to nickel reduced the tendency for intergranular fracture and improved ductility because phosphoru segregated strongly to grain interfaces and limited sulfur enrichment. The hydrogen embrittling potency of antimony was also less than that of sulfur while its segregation propensity was considerably less. It was found that the effectiveness of segregated phosphorus and antimony in prompting inter granular embrittlement vs that of sulfur could be expressed in terms of an equivalent grain boundary sulfur coverage. The relative hydrogen embrittling potencies of sulfur, phosphorus, and antimony are discussed in reference to general mechanisms for the effect of impurity segregation on hydrogeninduced intergranular fracture

  8. Arsenic and antimony removal from drinking water by adsorption on granular ferric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazakli, Eleni; Zouvelou, Stavroula V; Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis; Leotsinidis, Michalis

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic and antimony occur in drinking water due to natural weathering or anthropogenic activities. There has been growing concern about their impact on health. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of a granular ferric oxide adsorbent medium to remove arsenic and antimony from drinking water via rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs). Three different water matrices - deionized, raw water treated with a reverse osmosis domestic device and raw water - were spiked with arsenic and/or antimony to a concentration of 100 μg L⁻¹. Both elements were successfully adsorbed onto the medium. The loadings until the guideline value was exceeded in the effluent were found to be 0.35-1.63 mg g⁻¹ for arsenic and 0.12-2.11 mg g⁻¹ for antimony, depending on the water matrix. Adsorption of one element was not substantially affected by the presence of the other. Aeration did not affect significantly the adsorption capacity. Granular ferric oxide could be employed for the simultaneous removal of arsenic and antimony from drinking water, whereas full-scale systems should be assessed via laboratory tests before their implementation.

  9. New fluorescent polymeric nanocomposites synthesized by antimony dodecyl-mercaptide thermolysis in polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the formation of semiconductive Sb2S3 nanoparticles inside amorphous polystyrene has been achieved by thermal degradation of the corresponding antimony dodecyl-mercaptide, Sb(SC12H253. The thermolysis of the dodecyl-mercaptide precursor was studied as both pure phase and mercaptide solution in polystyrene. The thermal decomposition of the antimony mercaptide precursor at 350°C, under vacuum, showed the formation of a mixture of antimony trisulfide (stibnite, Sb2S3 and zero-valent antimony (Sb phase. X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD and Rietveld analysis carried out on the obtained nanostructured powder confirmed the presence of Sb and Sb2S3 phases in 10.4 wt% and 89.6 wt% amount, respectively. The same pyrolysis reaction was carried out in the polymer and the resulting nanocomposite material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV-VIS spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The nanocomposite structural characterization indicated the presence of well-dispersed nanoclusters of antimony and stibnite (15–30 nm in size inside the amorphous polymeric phase. Optical measurements on the obtained nanocomposite films showed a strong emission at 432 nm upon excitation at 371 nm, probably related to the presence of Sb2S3 nanoclusters.

  10. Extended solubility and martensitic hcp nickel formation in antimony implanted nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Johansen, A.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation damage microstructure and associated disorder have been investigated in antimony implanted nickel crystals using combined RBS and TEM analyses. In crystals implanted at and below room temperature with 80 keV Sb + ions to a fluence of 5x10 20 m -2 , the retained antimony concentration in the implantation zone is approaching 15 at.%, with nearly all the antimony located substitutionally. The associated disorder as seen in the RBS analysis is insignificant. Annealing up to 600 0 C has little influence on the antimony distribution, whilst the dechanneling level is reduced. TEM and diffraction analysis of room temperature implanted samples show that the radiation damage consists of dense distributions of dislocation clusters and tangles, superimposed on a rather homogeneous background of new phase particles, identified as hcp nickel. The particles have a size 0.1-0.2 μm. The high substitutional antimony concentration at and below room temperature, which exceeds the solubility limit, indicates that its formation is thermally diffusionless and rather an effect of radiation enhanced solubility. The diffusionless nature of the microstructure is also indicated from the presence of martensitic hcp nickel, believed to form due to relief of radiation induced internal stress. (Auth.)

  11. Biological Studies with Laser-Polarized ^129Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C. H.; Oteiza, E. R.; Wong, G. A.; Walsworth, R. L.; Albert, M. S.; Nascimben, L.; Peled, S.; Sakai, K.; Jolesz, F. A.

    1996-05-01

    We have studied several biological systems using laser-polarized ^129Xe. In certain tissues magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using inhaled laser-polarized noble gases may provide images superior to those from conventional proton MRI. High resolution laser-polarized ^3He images of air spaces in the human lung were recently obtained by the Princeton/Duke group. However, ^3He is not very soluble in tissue. Therefore, we are using laser polarized ^129Xe (tissue-soluble), with the long term goal of biomedical functional imaging. We have investigated multi-echo and multi-excitation magnetic resonance detection schemes to exploit the highly non-thermal ^129Xe magnetization produced by the laser polarization technique. We have inhalated live rats with laser-polarized ^129Xe gas and measured three distinct ^129Xe tissue resonances that last 20 to 40 sec. As a demonstration, we obtained a laser polarized ^129Xe image of the human oral cavity. Currently we are measuring the polarization lifetime of ^129Xe dissolved in human blood, the biological transporting medium. These studies and other recent developments will be reported.

  12. Calcium-Antimony Alloys as Electrodes for Liquid Metal Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, T; Kim, H; Ning, XH; Sadoway, DR

    2014-08-08

    The performance of a calcium-antimony (Ca-Sb) alloy serving as the positive electrode in a Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb liquid metal battery was investigated in an electrochemical cell, Ca(in Bi) vertical bar LiCl-NaCl-CaCl2 vertical bar Ca(in Sb). The equilibrium potential of the Ca-Sb electrode was found to lie on the interval, 1.2-0.95 V versus Ca, in good agreement with electromotive force (emf) measurements in the literature. During both alloying and dealloying of Ca at the Sb electrode, the charge transfer and mass transport at the interface are facile enough that the electrode potential varies linearly from 0.95 to 0.75 V vs Ca(s) as current density varies from 50 to 500 mA cm(-2). The discharge capacity of the Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb cells increases as the operating temperature increases due to the higher solubility and diffusivity of Ca in Sb. The cell was successfully cycled with high coulombic efficiency (similar to 100%) and small fade rate (<0.01% cycle(-1)). These data combined with the favorable costs of these metals and salts make the Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb liquid metal battery attractive for grid-scale energy storage. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanisms of antimony interstitial penetration into cadmium telluride crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Nikonyuk, E S; Zakharuk, Z I; Fochuk, P M; Rarenko, A I

    2001-01-01

    The results of electrophysical investigations of CdTe crystals, grown by Bridgman method and doped with Sb impurity in concentrations for 10 sup 1 sup 7 -3 x 10 sup 1 sup 9 cm sup - sup 3 are presented. The analysis of the temperature dependence of Hall coefficient, current carrier mobility and photoconductivity at intrinsic excitation for samples taken from different parts of ingots allows to conclude, that Sb sub T sub e , Sb sub C sub d centers and (Sb sub T sub e Sb sub C sub d) associated appear in CdTe crystal during its doping by antimony impurity. The hole conductivity in doped crystals is controlled by A sub 3 (Sb sub T sub e) acceptors, their density not exceeding 5 x 10 sup 1 sup 6 cm sup - sup 3 , and is essentially less than the real impurity content. The ionization energy of A sub 3 acceptors is (0.28 +- 0.01) eV. In non-equilibrium conditions these acceptors play the role of adhesion centers for holes (at high temperatures) and the slow recombination centers for electrons (at low temperatures)

  14. NEW ERBIUM DOPED ANTIMONY GLASSES FOR LASER AND GLASS AMPLIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tioua

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of the special spectroscopic properties of the rare earth ions, rare earth doped glasses are widely used in bulk and fiber lasers or amplifiers. The modelling of lasers and searching for new laser transitions require a precise knowledge of the spectroscopic properties of rare earth ions in different host glasses. In this poster will offer new doped erbium glasses synthesized in silicate crucibles were obtained in the combination Sb2O3-WO3-Na2O. Several properties are measured and correlated with glass compositions. The absorption spectral studies have been performed for erbium doped glasses. The intensities of various absorption bands of the doped glasses are measured and the Judd-Ofelt parameters have been computed. From the theory of Judd-Ofelt, various radiative properties, such as transition probability, branching ratio and radiative life time for various emission levels of these doped glasses have been determined and reported. These results confirm the ability of antimony glasses for glass amplification.

  15. Mitochondrial Proteomics of Antimony and Miltefosine Resistant Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antimony (SbIII and miltefosine (MIL are important drugs for the treatment of Leishmania parasite infections. The mitochondrion is likely to play a central role in SbIII and MIL induced cell death in this parasite. Enriched mitochondrial samples from Leishmania promastigotes selected step by step for in vitro resistance to SbIII and MIL were subjected to differential proteomic analysis. A shared decrease in both mutants in the levels of pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase was observed, as well as a differential abundance in two calcium-binding proteins and the unique dynamin-1-like protein of the parasite. Both mutants presented a shared increase in the succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase and the abundance of numerous hypothetical proteins was also altered in both mutants. In general, the proteomic changes observed in the MIL mutant were less pronounced than in the SbIII mutant, probably due to the early appearance of a mutation in the miltefosine transporter abrogating the need for a strong mitochondrial adaptation. This study is the first analysis of the Leishmania mitochondrial proteome and offers powerful insights into the adaptations to this organelle during SbIII and MIL drug resistance.

  16. Samarium Polystibides Derived from Highly Activated Nanoscale Antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoo, Christoph; Bestgen, Sebastian; Egeberg, Alexander; Klementyeva, Svetlana; Feldmann, Claus; Konchenko, Sergey N; Roesky, Peter W

    2018-05-14

    Zintl ions in molecular compounds are of fundamental interest for basic research and application. Two reactive antimony sources are presented that allow direct access to molecular polystibide compounds. These are Sb amalgam (Sb/Hg) and ultrasmall Sb 0 nanoparticles (d=6.6±0.8 nm), which were used independently as precursors for the synthesis of the largest f-element polystibide, [(Cp* 2 Sm) 4 Sb 8 ]. Whereas the reaction of the nanoparticles with [Cp* 2 Sm] directly led to [(Cp* 2 Sm) 4 Sb 8 ], Sm/Sb/Hg intermediates were isolated when using Sb/Hg as the precursor. These Sm/Sb/Hg intermediates [{(Cp* 2 Sm) 2 Sb} 2 (μ-Hg)] and [{(Cp* 2 Sm) 3 (μ 4 ,η 1:2:2:2 -Sb 4 )} 2 Hg] were synthetically trapped and structurally characterized, giving insight in the formation mechanism of polystibide compounds. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Natural attenuation of antimony in mine drainage water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaka, Mitsuo; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Sato, Tsutomu; Fukushi, Keisuke

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the natural attenuation of antimony (Sb) in the drainage water of an abandoned mine. Drainage water, waste rocks, and ocherous precipitates collected from the mine were investigated in terms of their mineralogy and chemistry. The chemistry of the drainage water was analyzed by measuring pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and electric conductivity on site as well as by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography. As the drainage flowed downstream, the pH decreased rapidly from 7.05 to 3.26 and then increased slowly to 3.50. In a section where the pH increased, ocherous precipitates occur on a drainage water channel. We determined Sb levels in the drainage water, and the distribution of Sb in the mineral phases of waste rocks and precipitates was estimated by means of a sequential extraction procedure. The results of these investigations indicated that Sb, which is generated by the dissolution of stibnite (Sb 2 S 3 ) and secondary formed Sb minerals in waste rocks, was attenuated by iron-bearing ocherous precipitates, especially schwertmannite, that form over time in the drainage water. The Sb concentrations in the ocherous precipitates were up to 370 mg/kg, whereas the Sb concentrations in the drainage water downstream were below background levels (0.6 μg/L). Bulk distribution coefficients (K d ) for this Sb adsorption to the precipitates ranges up to at least 10 5 L/kg. (author)

  18. Determination of antimony by using tungsten trap atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titretir, Serap [Department of Chemistry, Inoenue University, 44065 Malatya (Turkey); Kenduezler, Erdal [Department of Primary Education, Faculty of Education, Ahi Evran University, 40100 Kirsehir (Turkey); Arslan, Yasin [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kula, Ibrahim [Department of Chemistry, Mugla University, 48000 Mugla (Turkey); Bakirdere, Sezgin [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey); Ataman, O. Yavuz. [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ataman@metu.edu.tr

    2008-08-15

    An electrically heated tungsten coil was used as a trap in the determination of antimony. The technique consists of three steps. Initially, SbH{sub 3} is formed by hydride generation procedure; then the analyte species in vapor form are transported to W-coil trap heated at 370 deg. C. Following the preconcentration step, the trap is heated to 895 deg. C; analyte species are revolatilized and transported to the flame-heated quartz atom cell where atomization and the formation of signal take place. The experimental parameters were optimized both for trap and no-trap studies. The most important experimental parameters are concentrations of HCl and NaBH{sub 4} solutions, H{sub 2} and Ar gas flow rates, and collection and revolatilization temperatures of W-coil. Accuracy was tested using a certified reference material, waste water EU-L-1. Limit of detection for the system is 16 ng l{sup -1} using a sample of 36 ml collected in 4.0 min. Enhancement factor in sensitivity was 17.

  19. Highly active and stable Pt electrocatalysts promoted by antimony-doped SnO2 supports for oxygen reduction reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Min; Xu, Junyuan; Li, Qingfeng

    2014-01-01

    Alternative composite supports for platinum catalysts were synthesized from antimony doped tin dioxide (ATO) nanoparticles. In the range of the antimony content from 0 to 11mol%, the highest electrical conductivity of 1.1Scm-1 at 130°C was obtained for the 5mol% Sb ATO, from which composite...

  20. New Resin for the Selective Extraction of {sup 129}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombard, A.; Happel, S. [TrisKem International, Bruz (France); Zulauf, A. [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany); Streng, R. [Radiochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    {sup 129}I is an ideal tracer of the marine environment. It has been used for some years particularly in the northeast Atlantic, Nordic seas and Arctic to determine its distribution after its discharges from La Hague and Sellafield reprocessing plants. Various methods for {sup 129}I determination exist. A new resin selective for iodine has been developed, characterized and tested on environmental samples. In order to allow {sup 129}I determination and to obtain accurate and precise results, the samples have to pass a number of sample preparation steps; among these steps are chemical separation and purification. The results of the analysis of seawater samples are presented. (author)

  1. Specific activity of 129I in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi, P.M.; Iyer, M.R.; Bhat, I.S.; Somasundaram, S.; Subramanian, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    129 I finds its way into the environment as a result of man-made nuclear operations. It is also formed by the interaction of cosmic rays with xenon isotopes and spontaneous fission of naturally occurring uranium. 129 I and stable 127 I contents of thyroid, milk, seaweed and aplysia cell samples collected from around a fuel reprocessing plant were estimated by neutron activation analysis method. The annual 129 I intake of an individual works out to be about 0.3 Bq as compared to the natural radioactivity content in human body of about 5000 Bq. (author). 3 tabs

  2. Hyperpolarized 129Xe as an NMR probe for functional studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolber, J.

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear spin polarization of 129 Xe can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude using optical pumping techniques, resulting in a dramatic enhancement of the 129 Xe Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) signal. The 'hyperpolarized' gas can be used for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the void spaces of the lungs after introduction of the gas into the respiratory system. Furthermore, the high solubility of xenon in blood and lipids suggests the use of 129 Xe NMR for studying blood flow, permeability, perfusion and blood volume. Hyperpolarized 129 Xe MRI has the potential of combining the high sensitivity and functional information of radioactive tracer studies with the high spatial and temporal resolution of MRI. The spin-lattice relaxation time T 1 of 129 Xe in blood determines the loss of polarization during transit from the lungs to the tissue of interest. A difference in the relaxation times of xenon in oxygenated and deoxygenated blood could be used as a contrast mechanism in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). In this thesis, the hyperpolarized 129 Xe T 1 in human blood is measured in vitro as a function of blood oxygenation, and the relevant relaxation mechanisms are discussed. A new and unexpected finding is that the hyperpolarized 129 Xe NMR spectrum in blood is highly sensitive to blood oxygenation. Therefore, hyperpolarized 129 Xe NMR provides a powerful means of measuring blood oxygenation quantitatively and non-invasively. The interaction of xenon with hemoglobin is responsible for an oxygen-dependent shift of the 129 Xe NMR resonance of xenon in red blood cells. Injection delivery of hyperpolarized 129 Xe in solution could be a more efficient method of administrating the gas for functional NMR studies. For this purpose, suitable biocompatible carrier media have been studied. In particular, the use of perfluorocarbon emulsions, which are already in use as blood substitutes, as delivery media for hyperpolarized 129 Xe has been investigates

  3. Effect of antimony nano-scale surface-structures on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.; Shima, D.; Ahirwar, P.; Rotter, T. J.; Hains, C. P.; Dang, T.; Bedford, R. G.; Balakrishnan, G.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of antimony crystallization on the surface of GaSb during low temperature molecular beam epitaxy growth are investigated. The geometry of these structures is studied via transmission electron and atomic force microscopies, which show the surface metal forms triangular-shaped, elongated nano-wires with a structured orientation composed entirely of crystalline antimony. By depositing antimony on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector, the field is localized within the antimony layer. Polarization dependent transmission measurements are carried out on these nano-structures deposited on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector. It is shown that the antimony-based structures at the surface favor transmission of light polarized perpendicular to the wires.

  4. Spectrophotometric procedure using rhodamine B for determination of submicrogram quantities of antimony in rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepfe, M.M.

    1973-01-01

    A spectrophotometric procedure using Rhodamine B is given for the determination of antimony in mineralized rocks after its separation as stibine. A study of the Rhodamine B reaction points to the importance of the order of addition of reagents in enhancing sensitivity and increasing the stability of the system. The tolerance of some 26 elements is established for the overall procedure. Although the limit of determination is approximately 0??5 ppm Sb in a 0??2-g sample, the procedure is intended primarily for screening samples containing more than 1 ppm Sb. In pure solutions 0??1 ??g of antimony can be determined with a relative standard deviation of 25%. For >0??2 ??g of antimony a relative standard deviation of 15% or less can be expected. ?? 1973.

  5. Assessment of alternate ion exchange resins for improved antimony removal from the primary heat transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burany, R.; Suryanarayan, S.; Husain, A. [Kinectrics, Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Radiation fields around the CANDU heat transport system are a major contributor to worker dose during inspection, maintenance and refurbishment activities. While Co-60 is typically the dominant contributor to radiation fields in CANDU reactors, Sb-124, an activation product of antimony, is also a significant contributor, accounting for 5-20% of the radiation fields. The goal of this research project was to investigate resins for improved removal of antimony under both oxidizing and reducing conditions.Several candidate resins were tested and short-listed through a sequence of iterative testing. The results of the laboratory testing have identified potential candidates for improved antimony removal. Further testing is required to ensure compatibility with existing station resin specifications. (author)

  6. Synthesis of barium mercaptides and application of antimony/barium mercaptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿龙; 张露露; 舒万艮

    2001-01-01

    Mercaptoacetic acid, isooctyl thioglycolate and barium hydroxide used as start materials, barium bis (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Ba(2EHTG)2), barium thioglycolate (Ba(TG)) and barium bisthioglycolate (Ba(TG)2) were synthesized. Their optimum synthetic techniques were discussed, and some physicochemical data were reported. Infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis methods were used to identify the structures. They were put into PVC plastic products together with antimony tris (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Sb(2EHTG)3) under the suitable compounding, and their heat stability to PVC was studied. It is shown that these barium mercaptides have remarkable synergisms with antimony mercaptides and the long-term stabilizing effect of organoantimony stabilizer can be effectively improved, reducing the amount of antimony compounds so as to avoid the decrease of its stabilizing effect.

  7. Specific features of doping with antimony during the ion-beam crystallization of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashchenko, A. S., E-mail: as.pashchenko@gmail.com; Chebotarev, S. N.; Lunin, L. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Southern Scientific Center (Russian Federation); Irkha, V. A. [Special Engineering and Technology Department “Inversiya” Ltd. (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    A method of doping during the growth of thin films by ion-beam crystallization is proposed. By the example of Si and Sb, the possibility of controllably doping semiconductors during the ion-beam crystallization process is shown. A calibrated temperature dependence of the antimony vapor flow rate in the range from 150 to 400°C is obtained. It is established that, an increase in the evaporator temperature above 200°C brings about the accumulation of impurities in the layer growth direction. Silicon layers doped with antimony to a concentration of 10{sup 18} cm{sup –3} are grown. It is shown that, as the evaporator temperature is increased, the efficiency of the activation of antimony in silicon nonlinearly decreases from ~10{sup 0} to ~10{sup –3}.

  8. Anodic stripping voltammetry of antimony using gold nanoparticle-modified carbon screen-printed electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Renedo, Olga; Arcos Martinez, M. Julia

    2007-01-01

    Carbon screen-printed electrodes (CSPE) modified with gold nanoparticles present an interesting alternative in the determination of antimony using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Metallic gold nanoparticles deposits have been obtained by direct electrochemical deposition. Scanning electron microscopy measurements show that the electrochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles are deposited in aggregated form. Any undue effects caused by the presence of foreign ions in the solution were also analyzed to ensure that common interferents in the determination of antimony by ASV. The detection limit for Sb(III) obtained was 9.44 x 10 -10 M. In terms of reproducibility, the precision of the above mentioned method in %R.S.D. values was calculated at 2.69% (n = 10). The method was applied to determine levels of antimony in seawater samples and pharmaceutical preparations

  9. Conceptual design for treatment of mining and metallurgical wastewaters which contains arsenic and antimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kamberović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary design for treatment of mining and metallurgical wastewaters (MMW from the basin of antimony “Zajača“, which contains high concentrations of arsenic and antimony. MMW have been investigated in laboratory, due to large difference in concentrations of pollutants. Metallurgical wastewaters were treated using iron (II-sulfate and lime milk used to adjust the pH value at 7. After chemical treatment of metallurgical wastewater and its joining with mining wastewater, residual amount of arsenic in water was below maximum allowed concentrations, while the concentration of antimony, remained above the maximum allowed value. The final phase of purification process was performed using ion exchange resin. After treatment of MMW, they can be used as technical water in the smelting process of secondary raw lead materials.

  10. Study of upscaling possibilities for antimony sulfide solid state sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulou, Archontoula; Raptis, Dimitrios; Dracopoulos, Vasilios; Sygellou, Lamprini; Andrikopoulos, Konstantinos S.; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2015-03-01

    Solid state solar cells of inverted structure were constructed by successive deposition of nanoparticulate titania, antimony sulfide sensitizer and P3HT on FTO electrodes with PEDOT:PSS:Ag as counter electrode. Sensitized photoanode electrodes were characterized by XRD, Raman, XPS, FESEM and UV-vis. Small laboratory scale cells were first constructed and optimized. Functional cells were obtained by annealing the antimony sulfide film either in air or in inert atmosphere. High short-circuit currents were recorded in both cases with air-annealed sample producing more current but lower voltage. Small unit cells were combined to form cell modules. Connection of unit cells in parallel increased current but not proportionally to that of the unit cell. Connection in series preserved current and generated voltage multiplication. Cells were constructed and studied under ambient conditions, without encapsulation. The results encourage upscaling of antimony sulfide solar cells.

  11. Uranium accumulation in valentinite within the oxidation zone of an antimony occurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeev, I.P.; Kurilo, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    As a result of mineralogic-radiogeochemical study of real composition of oxidation zone of antimony occurrence represented by quartz - antimonite vien in silicificated sandstones the previousy undescribed phenomenon of uranium concentration in valentinite Sb/sub 2/O/sub 3/ one of antimonite oxidation products has been found. According to the data of fission radiography the enrichment of valentinite with uranium is clearly seen, particularly of its concentrically zonal aggregates. The valentinite is the basic uranium mineral-concentrator in the oxidation zone, whereas in the initial mineral - antimonite as well as in the product of its more complete oxidation - stibiconite - uranium is lacking. Probably the crystallochemical properties of anhydrous antimony oxide (valentinite) by analogy with those for iron (goethite hematite) and titanium (leucoxene) are the most favourable for uranium adsorption as compared with high-water antimony oxides (stibiconite) or iron (limonite), which do not usually sorb uranium.

  12. Uranium accumulation in valentinite within the oxidation zone of an antimony occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, I.P.; Kurilo, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    As a result of mineralogic-radiogeochemical study of real composition of oxidation zone of antimony occurrence represented by quartz - antimonite vien in silicificated sandstones the previousy undescribed phenomenon of uranium concentration in valentinite Sb 2 O 3 one of antimonite oxidation products has been found. According to the data of fission radiography the enrichment of valentinite with uranium is clearly seen, particularly of its concentrically zonal aggregates. The valentinite is the basic uranium mineral-concentrator in the oxidation zone, whereas in the initial mineral - antimonite as well as in the product of its more complete oxidation - stibiconite - uranium is lacking. Probably the crystallochemical properties of anhydrous antimony oxide (valentinite) by analogy with those for iron (goethite hematite) and titanium (leucoxene) are the most favourable for uranium adsorption as compared with high-water antimony oxides (stibiconite) or iron (limonite), which do not usually sorb uranium

  13. Mixed Antimony(V Complexes with Different Sugars to Modulate the Oral Bioavailability of Pentavalent Antimonial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weverson A. Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the association of the drug meglumine antimoniate (MA with β-cyclodextrin can improve its bioavailability by the oral route. In this work, ribose and maltose were investigated for their ability to form mixed or association complexes with MA, release MA and modulate the serum levels of Sb after oral administration in mice. Analysis of the MA/ribose composition by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LCMS-IT-TOF revealed the presence of mixed meglumine-Sb-ribose and Sb-ribose complexes. Analysis of the MA/maltose composition suggested the formation of MA-maltose association compounds. Circular dichroism characterization of these compositions following dilution in water at 37 °C suggested a partial and slow dissociation of the association compounds. When the MA/ribose composition was administered orally and compared to MA, the serum concentration of Sb was significantly lower after 1 h and greater after 3 h. On the other hand, the MA/maltose composition showed similar serum Sb concentration after 1 h and higher level of Sb after 3 h, when compared to MA. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated the formation of mixed or association complexes of MA with sugars, such as maltose and ribose, which promoted sustained serum level of Sb after oral administration.

  14. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  15. Iodine-129 in aquatic organisms near nuclear fuels processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, D.G.

    1975-04-01

    Concentrations of 129 I in two aquatic habitats near nuclear fuel processing plants were highest in algae and crustaceans. These two forms may be useful in future monitoring of 129 I. There is some indication of an increase in atom ratios and specific activity in aquatic organisms over that in water and sediments. Additional measurements should be made to verify this conclusion. Efforts should continue to measure the possible long term build-up of 129 I in aquatic environments receiving effluents from fuels reprocessing plants. Even at very low rates of release to the environment, the long physical half-life of 129 I creates the potential for build-up of this nuclide to significant levels. (U.S.)

  16. 32 CFR 842.129 - Settlement of claims against NAFIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Nonappropriated Fund Claims § 842.129 Settlement of claims against NAFIs. (a) This subpart does not establish legal theories for adjudication of claims. Refer to the appropriate...

  17. 22 CFR 129.6 - Requirement for license/approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LICENSING OF BROKERS § 129.6 Requirement for license/approval. (a) No person may engage in the business of... member country of that Organization, Australia, Japan, New Zealand, or South Korea, except in the case of...

  18. DPAC measurements on 129sup(m)TeSi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemerink, G.J.; Pleiter, F.; Arendes, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    Using results of DPAC measurements on 129 sup(m)TeSi it is shown that the absorption lines in the Moessbauer spectra obtained with unannealed implanted sources must be ascribed mainly as belonging to a quadrupole split multiplet. (orig.)

  19. Methods of I-129 analysis for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kitahara, Y.; Fukuda, S.

    1980-01-01

    Among the radioiodine isotopes discharged from nuclear facilities, I-129 has the longest half-life (1.7 x 10 7 years) and thus environmental monitoring of this nuclide is important. Methods of analysis of low level I-129 in environmental samples such as milk, crops, seaweeds and soils are described. The iodine is separated from the dried or pulverized samples by ignition at 1000 0 C in a quartz combustion apparatus with a stream of oxygen. Stable I-127 is simultaneously determined and the atom ratio of 129 I/ 127 I calculated in order to evaluate the thyroid dose by the specific activity method. Results of an analysis of typical food samples collected near the fuel reprocessing plant of Tokai Works showed no I-129 concentrations higher than the detection limit of the method (10 -2 pCi for 10 g. dry sample). (UK)

  20. Iodine-129 in human thyroids and seaweed in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Dahlgaard, H.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of I-129 and the ratios of I-129/I-127 in normal human thyroids collected in Tianjin, China, and some seaweed samples from the Chinese coast were determined by neutron activation analysis. The mean I-129/I-127 ratio in these thyroids was found to be 1.13 x 10(-9), which is two...... orders of magnitude higher than the level of the pre-nuclear era, but one order of magnitude lower than the level in Europe in the post-nuclear era. There is no significant difference between the ratio of I-129/I-127 in the thyroids for the post-nuclear era from China and other areas, which...

  1. 129I in the environment around a nuclear reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, S.N.; Doshi, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    129 I and 131 I activities are measured in leaf samples collected within Trombay region, covering a radius of 4500 m from the reprocessing plant. The concentration of 129 I and 131 I in dried leaf samples ranged from 0.04 to 1.28 pCi/gm and 4 to 5 pCi/gm respectively. A radiochemical procedure involving distillation and solvent extractions of 129 I and then counting in a Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer is used for its final determination. The concentration of 129 I observed in leaf samples collected at the south site gate is used to calculate the dose commitment to an adult via grass-cow-milk pathway. On the basis of conservative assumption that the activity present in the grass would be equal to that in the leaf, the dose commitment to an adult through milk ingestion route will not exceed 5.5 μSv/y. (author). 2 tabs., 13 refs

  2. On-line lab-in-syringe cloud point extraction for the spectrophotometric determination of antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzarin, Rejane M; Portugal, Lindomar A; Estela, José M; Rocha, Fábio R P; Cerdà, Victor

    2016-02-01

    Most of the procedures for antimony determination require time-consuming sample preparation (e.g. liquid-liquid extraction with organic solvents), which are harmful to the environment. Because of the high antimony toxicity, a rapid, sensitive and greener procedure for its determination becomes necessary. The goal of this work was to develop an analytical procedure exploiting for the first time the cloud point extraction on a lab-in-syringe flow system aiming at the spectrophotometric determination of antimony. The procedure was based on formation of an ion-pair between the antimony-iodide complex and H(+) followed by extraction with Triton X-114. The factorial design showed that the concentrations of ascorbic acid, H2SO4 and Triton X-114, as well as second and third order interactions were significant at the 95% confidence level. A Box-Behnken design was applied to obtain the response surfaces and to identify the critical values. System is robust at the 95% confidence level. A linear response was observed from 5 to 50 µg L(-1), described by the equation A=0.137+0.050C(Sb) (r=0.998). The detection limit (99.7% confidence level), the coefficient of variation (n=5; 15 µg L(-1)) and the sampling rate was estimated at 1.8 µg L(-1), 1.6% and 16 h(-1), respectively. The procedure allows quantification of antimony in the concentrations established by environmental legislation (6 µg L(-1)) and it was successfully applied to the determination of antimony in freshwater samples and antileishmanial drugs, yielding results in agreement with those obtained by HGFAAS at the 95% confidence level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimony sorption properties of chitosan - nano TiO2 composite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishad, Padala Abdul; Bhaskarapillai, Anupkumar; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam

    2015-01-01

    Routine decontamination campaigns of nuclear reactors are generally effective in removing various radionuclides such as cobalt, caesium, etc., and bring down the radiation field. However, during some of the decontamination campaigns, the radiation field at some surfaces was seen to have actually gone up. This was found to be due to lack of removal of antimony isotopes by the regular ion exchange resins used, which subsequently deposited over out of core surfaces leading to increased radiation field on those surfaces. Thus there exists a need for efficient antimony removal system. We have synthesised nano titania impregnated - epichlorohydrin crosslinked chitosan beads, which were found to have high sorption capacity for antimony. The beads, which were synthesised in formats suitable for large scale (column mode) applications, were shown to be effective sorbent of antimony in both +3 and +5 oxidation states. The sorbent exhibited complete removal of antimony from its aqueous solutions of concentration ranging from 150 ppb to 120 ppm. In order to understand the sorption mechanism and to fine tune the bead composition, the effect of crosslinker concentration used during the synthesis on the swelling and sorption properties of the beads was investigated in detail. The variation effected significant changes in physical parameters such as bead diameter, swelling ratio, equilibrium water content and true wet density. Sorption capacity, unlike with regular resins, was found to increase with increase in crosslinker amount. The antimony sorption capacity of the crosslinked beads prepared by crosslinking 0.3 g uncrosslinked beads with 6.4 mmol epichlorohydrin (crosslinker) was 493 μmol/g. Non-crosslinked beads showed a capacity of 75 μmol/g, while the crosslinked beads made with the least amount of crosslinker (0.64 mmol per 0.3 g beads) showed a capacity of 133 μmol/g. These results indicate the possible involvement of the crosslinker in the sorption. (author)

  4. Determining criteria for the disposal of iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, L.L.

    1980-10-01

    The basic consideration in the disposal of the 129 I produced by the nuclear power industry is that humans must be protected from unacceptable radiation risks. Existing standards prescribe maximum concentrations in air and water and, more recently, a maximum release per unit of electrical power production. The global quantity, distribution, and rate of movement of 127 I (natural iodine), naturally produced 129 I, and anthropogenic 129 I are examined. The 129 I released earlier as a result of nuclear activities over the past few decades is not uniformly dispersed. But the possibility of much greater dispersion exists and, therefore, of much greater dilution than was previously attempted. The potential for dilution with respect to either the 129 I concentration or the 129 I/ 127 I ratio far exceeds the minimum required for acceptable exposure to mankind. For utilizing the dilution principle, it is preferable to package and dispose of 129 I separately from other fission products. The deep ocean is seen to be the logical location for ultimate disposal. A set of 14 basic items is described that can be used to set criteria for storage and disposal of 129 I. It is suggested that preliminary standards be developed on these and perhaps other items to apply to (1) temporary storage and transportation, (2) disposal to a dry environment with a time limitation on calculated behavior, and (3) disposal to the deep ocean with complete release permitted in 10 3 yr. Early quantification of some of these items will permit better decisions on further research and development needed for iodine removal or control, fixation, and disposal

  5. Neutron activation and mass spectrometric measurement of /sup 129/I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebin, R.S. Jr.; Brauer, F.P.; Kaye, J.H.; Rapids, M.S.; Stoffels, J.J.

    1987-11-01

    An integrated procedure has been developed for measurement of /sup 129/I by neutron activation analysis and mass spectrometry. An iodine isolation procedure previously used for neutron activation has been modified to provide separated iodine suitable for mass spectrometric measurement as well. Agreement between both methods has been achieved within error limits. The measurement limit by each method is about 10/sup 7/ atoms (2 fg) of /sup 129/I. 13 refs,. 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Redox speciation analysis of antimony in soil extracts by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, Edwar; Pinochet, Hugo; Gregori, Ida de; Potin-Gautier, Martine

    2003-01-01

    A sensitive atomic spectrometric method for the redox speciation analysis of antimony in soils is described. The method is based on the selective generation of stibine from Sb(III) in a continuous flow system using atomic fluorescence spectrometry for detection. Sb(V) is masked by citric or oxalic acid in HCl medium. The procedure was optimized with synthetic solutions of Sb(III) and Sb(V). The effect of carboxylic acid and HCl concentration on the recovery of Sb(III) and Sb(V) species from standard solutions, and on the fluorescence signal were studied. Both species were extracted from soil with H 2 O, 0.05 mol l -1 EDTA and 0.25 mol l -1 H 2 SO 4 . Since the soil samples were collected from sites impacted by copper mining activities, the effect of Cu 2+ on the determination of antimony in synthetic solutions and soil extracts was studied. Cu 2+ decreased the Sb(III) signal, but had no effect on the total antimony determination. Therefore, the selective determination of Sb(III) was carried out in citric acid-HCl medium, using the analyte addition technique. Total antimony in soil extracts was determined using the standard calibration technique after reducing Sb(V) to Sb(III) at room temperature with KI-ascorbic acid. The Sb(V) concentration was calculated from the difference between total antimony and Sb(III). The limits of detection (PS Analytical, Excalibur Millennium model) were 17 and 10 ng l -1 for Sb(III) and total antimony, respectively, and the R.S.D. at the 0.5-μg l -1 level were 2.5 and 2.4%, respectively. The total antimony concentration of soils is in the mg kg -1 range; the Sb recovery from the different soils by the extracting solutions was between less than 0.02% and approximately 10%. Similar recoveries were obtained using EDTA and sulfuric acid solutions. Sb(V) was found to be the main antimony species extracted from soils

  7. Co-doping with antimony to control phosphorous diffusion in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2013-02-15

    In germanium, phosphorous and antimony diffuse quickly and as such their transport must be controlled in order to design efficient n-typed doped regions. Here, density functional theory based calculations are used to predict the influence of double donor co-doping on the migration activation energies of vacancy-mediated diffusion processes. The migration energy barriers for phosphorous and antimony were found to be increased significantly when larger clusters involving two donor atoms and a vacancy were formed. These clusters are energetically stable and can lead to the formation of even larger clusters involving a number of donor atoms around a vacancy, thereby affecting the properties of devices.

  8. Development of Na/sup 123/I pharmaceutical from antimony target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongjian, L.; Qixun, S.; Dequn, S. (Shanghai Inst. of Nuclear Research, Academia Sinica, Shanghai (China))

    A new method for the production of Na/sup 123/I is described. It is produced by the /sup 121/Sb(..cap alpha..,2n)/sup 123/I nuclear reaction and using a natural antimony target prepared by electroplating in a bath of antimony oxide and hydrofluoric acid. The target is irradiated with 32MeV ..cap alpha..-beams then transferred to a dry distillation apparatus and the iodide evolved and absorbed in NaOH. Quality control is by paper chromatography.

  9. Reaction of Antimony-Uranium Composite Oxide in the Chlorination Treatment of Waste Catalyst - 13521

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Kayo; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oxygen gas concentration on the chlorination treatment of antimony-uranium composite oxide catalyst waste was investigated by adding different concentrations of oxygen at 0-6 vol% to its chlorination agent of 0.6 or 6 vol% hydrogen chloride gas at 1173 K. The addition of oxygen tended to prevent the chlorination of antimony in the oxide. When 6 vol% hydrogen chloride gas was used, the addition of oxygen up to 0.1 vol% could convert the uranium contained in the catalyst to U 3 O 8 without any significant decrease in the reaction rate compared to that of the treatment without oxygen. (authors)

  10. A summary of global {sup 129}I in marine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Peng, E-mail: peng.he@geo.uu.se [Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villav. 16, 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Aldahan, A. [Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villav. 16, 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Dept. of Geology, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17551, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Possnert, G. [Tandem Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 529, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Hou, X.L. [Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, NUK-202, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-01-15

    Despite the many investigations concerning the occurrence of anthropogenic iodine-129 in the atmosphere, terrestrial and marine environments, there is a lack of a comprehensive collection of data on the distribution of the isotope in marine waters. The temporal and spatial variability of anthropogenic {sup 129}I is strongly linked to the major point sources in the Irish Sea and the English Channel and the global marine spreading pathways are partly outlined from these sources. The temporal evolution is still, however, not well defined when transport and dissipation are considered in the different oceans and ocean compartments. We here summarize available published literature data on {sup 129}I temporal and spatial distribution in the global marine water. The results show presence of numerous data sets for the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans where strong variability in terms of water depth, time and location also occur. Scarcity of data on {sup 129}I from the Pacific, Indian and South Atlantic Oceans demonstrates gaps in the coverage of the isotope spatial extent. These shortcomings in the spatial coverage may relate to the understanding that the anthropogenic {sup 129}I signal will take a long time to be transported, if at all, from the North Atlantic into other oceans. Data from recent expeditions in the Southern oceans and the Geotraces ocean profiling will reveal additional information about {sup 129}I distribution in the marine waters.

  11. A summary of global 129I in marine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Peng; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.; Hou, X.L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the many investigations concerning the occurrence of anthropogenic iodine-129 in the atmosphere, terrestrial and marine environments, there is a lack of a comprehensive collection of data on the distribution of the isotope in marine waters. The temporal and spatial variability of anthropogenic 129 I is strongly linked to the major point sources in the Irish Sea and the English Channel and the global marine spreading pathways are partly outlined from these sources. The temporal evolution is still, however, not well defined when transport and dissipation are considered in the different oceans and ocean compartments. We here summarize available published literature data on 129 I temporal and spatial distribution in the global marine water. The results show presence of numerous data sets for the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans where strong variability in terms of water depth, time and location also occur. Scarcity of data on 129 I from the Pacific, Indian and South Atlantic Oceans demonstrates gaps in the coverage of the isotope spatial extent. These shortcomings in the spatial coverage may relate to the understanding that the anthropogenic 129 I signal will take a long time to be transported, if at all, from the North Atlantic into other oceans. Data from recent expeditions in the Southern oceans and the Geotraces ocean profiling will reveal additional information about 129 I distribution in the marine waters.

  12. Experience with antimony activity removal process in Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velmurugan, S.; Mittal, Vinit K.; Kumbhar, A.G.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Bhat, H.R.; Krishna Rao, K.S.; Upadhyay, S.K.; Jain, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of antimony (Sb) activity during decontamination was first encountered in NAPS-1 and Sb activity deposition took place during the decontamination resulting in poor decontamination factors (DF). Sb problem has been observed in PWRs and PHWRs elsewhere also. These utilities use an oxidative process involving the addition of H 2 O 2 to remove these Sb activities from the core and remove it on ion exchange resins. Experience in CANDU PHWRs indicated disappearance of H 2 O 2 in quantities higher than that observed in PWRs. This is attributed to the higher pick-up of H 2 O 2 by the magnetite/ferrites over large carbon steel surface present in the primary coolant system of PHWRs. Systematic work was carried out to understand the deposition of Sb on PHT system surfaces and a new method was evolved to remove the Sb activities from the system. This alternative reductive chemical process involve the addition of Nitrilo Tri Acetic Acid, Citric Acid and Rodine-92B and circulating the chemicals for a short period and then the Sb and other activities released from the core are removed by the mixed bed. Subsequent to the Sb removal process, the normal chemical decontamination of the system is carried out to remove 60 Co and other activities. This non-oxidizing Sb removal process was applied to NAPS-2 primary system prior to EMCCR. During this Sb removal process of NAPS-2, around 450 μCi/L activity of 124 Sb was released from the system surfaces to the formulation. Activity measurement in the samples collected and the on-line radiation field data indicated that deposition of Sb activities on system surfaces has been prevented by Rodine-92B and subsequently these activities have been removed by mixed bed IX columns. Antimony removal process worked successfully, but in the second normal decontamination process around 150 μCi/L activities came in the formulation which was not anticipated. As a result DF observed immediately after the decontamination campaign was not good

  13. Traffic-related distribution of antimony in roadside soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földi, Corinna; Sauermann, Simon; Dohrmann, Reiner; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2018-06-01

    Vehicular emissions have become one of the main source of pollution of urban soils; this highlights the need for more detailed research on various traffic-related emissions and related distribution patterns. Since the banning of asbestos in the European Union, its substitution with antimony (Sb) in brake linings has led to increased inputs of this toxic metalloid to environmental compartments. The objective of this study was to provide detailed information about the spatial distribution patterns of Sb and to assess its mobility and bioavailability. Roadside soils along an arterial road (approx. 9000 vehicles per day) in Cologne (Germany) were studied along five transects, at four soil depths and at seven sampling points set at varying distances from the road (n = 140). For all samples, comprehensive soil characterization was performed and inverse aqua regia-extractable trace metal content was determined being pseudo-total contents. Furthermore, for one transect, also total Sb and a chemical sequential extraction procedure was applied (n = 28). Pseudo-total Sb for all transects decreased significantly with soil depth and distance from the road, reflecting a distribution pattern similar to that of other trace metals associated with brake lining emissions. Conversely, metals associated with exhaust emissions showed a convex distribution. The geochemical fractionation of Sb revealed the following trends: i) non-specifically sorbed Sb was <5%; ii) specifically sorbed Sb was only detected within 1 m distance from the road and decreased with depth; iii) Sb associated with poorly-crystalline Fe oxides decreased with distance from the road; and iv) content of Sb bounded to well-crystalline Fe oxides, and Sb present in the residual fraction remained relatively constant at each depth. Consequently, roadside soils appear to inhibit brake lining-related Sb contamination, with significant but rather low ecotoxicological potential for input into surface and groundwater

  14. Purity and crystallinity of microwave synthesized antimony sulfide microrods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Alonso, Claudia, E-mail: claudiamartinezalonso30@gmail.com [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Querétaro, 76010 (Mexico); Olivos-Peralta, Eliot U. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos, 62580 (Mexico); Sotelo-Lerma, Mérida [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83000 (Mexico); Sato-Berrú, Roberto Y. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, MéxicoD.F., 04510 (Mexico); Mayén-Hernández, S.A. [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Querétaro, 76010 (Mexico); Hu, Hailin, E-mail: hzh@ier.unam.mx [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos, 62580 (Mexico)

    2017-01-15

    Antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) is a promising semiconductor material for solar cell applications. In this work, microrods of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} were synthesized by microwave heating with different sulfur sources, solvents, temperature, heating rate, power, and solution concentration. It was found that 90% of stoichiometric Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} can be obtained with thiourea (TU) or thioacetamide (TA) as sulfur sources and that their optical band gap values were within the range of 1.59–1.60 eV. The most crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} were obtained by using TU. The morphology of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} with TU the individual rods were exhibited, whereas rods bundles appeared in TA-based products. The solvents were ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethylformamide (DMF). EG generates more heat than DMF during the microwave synthesis. As a result, the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} obtained with EG contained a larger percentage of oxygen and smaller crystal sizes compared to those from DMF. On the other hand, the length and diameter of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} microrods can be increased by applying higher heating power although the crystal size did not change at all. In summary, pure and highly crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} microrods of 6–10 μm long and 330–850 nm in diameter can be obtained by the microwave method with a careful selection of chemical and thermodynamic parameters of the synthesis. - Highlights: • Purity up to 90% of crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods can be obtained by microwave heating. • The combination of solvent and sulfide type affects crystallinity & purity of Sb2S3. • The high pressure generated in microwave heating helps to form Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods.

  15. Purity and crystallinity of microwave synthesized antimony sulfide microrods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Alonso, Claudia; Olivos-Peralta, Eliot U.; Sotelo-Lerma, Mérida; Sato-Berrú, Roberto Y.; Mayén-Hernández, S.A.; Hu, Hailin

    2017-01-01

    Antimony sulfide (Sb_2S_3) is a promising semiconductor material for solar cell applications. In this work, microrods of Sb_2S_3 were synthesized by microwave heating with different sulfur sources, solvents, temperature, heating rate, power, and solution concentration. It was found that 90% of stoichiometric Sb_2S_3 can be obtained with thiourea (TU) or thioacetamide (TA) as sulfur sources and that their optical band gap values were within the range of 1.59–1.60 eV. The most crystalline Sb_2S_3 were obtained by using TU. The morphology of the Sb_2S_3 with TU the individual rods were exhibited, whereas rods bundles appeared in TA-based products. The solvents were ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethylformamide (DMF). EG generates more heat than DMF during the microwave synthesis. As a result, the Sb_2S_3 obtained with EG contained a larger percentage of oxygen and smaller crystal sizes compared to those from DMF. On the other hand, the length and diameter of Sb_2S_3 microrods can be increased by applying higher heating power although the crystal size did not change at all. In summary, pure and highly crystalline Sb_2S_3 microrods of 6–10 μm long and 330–850 nm in diameter can be obtained by the microwave method with a careful selection of chemical and thermodynamic parameters of the synthesis. - Highlights: • Purity up to 90% of crystalline Sb_2S_3 nanorods can be obtained by microwave heating. • The combination of solvent and sulfide type affects crystallinity & purity of Sb2S3. • The high pressure generated in microwave heating helps to form Sb_2S_3 nanorods.

  16. The 129-iodine content of subtropical Pacific waters. Impact of Fukushima and other anthropogenic 129-iodine sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilderson, T.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry; California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Ocean Sciences and Inst. of Marine Sciences; Tumey, S.J.; Brown, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry; Buesseler, K.O. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States). Dept. of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry

    2014-07-01

    Results obtained from a dedicated radiochemistry cruise approximately 100 days after the 11 March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and subsequent disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant show that Fukushima derived radionuclides in the nearby ocean environment had penetrated, on average, to ≤250 m depth (1026.5 kg m{sup 3} potential density surface). The excess inventory of Fukushima-derived {sup 129}I in the region (∝150 000 km{sup 2}) sampled during the cruise is estimated to have been between 0.89 and 1.173 billion Bq (∝136 to ∝179 grams) of {sup 129}I. Based on a tight tracer-tracer relation with {sup 134}Cs (or {sup 137}Cs) and estimates that most of the excess cesium is due to direct discharge, we infer that much of the excess {sup 129}I is from direct (non-atmospheric deposition) discharge. After taking into account oceanic transport, we estimate the direct discharge, i.e., that directly released into the ocean, off Fukushima to have been ∝1 kg {sup 129}I. Although this small pulse is dwarfed by the ∝90 kg of weapons-testing-derived {sup 129}I that was released into the environment in the late 1950s and early 1960s, it should be possible to use Fukushima-derived {sup 129}I and other radionuclides (e.g., {sup 134,} {sup 137}Cs) to study transport and entrainment processes along and across the Kuroshio Current.

  17. Accurate determination of 129I concentrations and 129I/137Cs ratios in spent nuclear resins by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Bourlès, Didier; Arnold, Maurice; Bertaux, Maité

    2014-01-01

    Determining long-lived radionuclide concentrations in radioactive waste has fundamental implications for the long-term management of storage sites. This paper focuses on the measurement of low 129 I contents in ion exchange resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR). Iodine-129 concentrations were successfully determined using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) following a chemical procedure which included (1) acid digestion of resin samples in HNO 3 /HClO 4 , (2) radioactive decontamination by selective iodine extraction using a new chromatographic resin (CL Resin), and (3) AgI precipitation. Measured 129 I concentrations ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g, i.e. from 0.03 to 0.08 Bq/g. The calculation of 129 I/ 137 Cs activity ratios used for routine waste management produced values in agreement with the few available data for PWR resin samples. - Highlights: • In the context of radioactive waste management, this study aimed at measuring 129 I in spent resins using accelerator mass spectrometry. • The treatment procedure included microwave acid digestion of samples, iodine extraction by CL resins and AgI precipitation. • Developed first on synthetic matrices, the chemical treatment procedure was then successfully applied to real resin samples. • 129 I concentrations ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g of dry resin. • Results are in agreement with previous measurements and support reference values currently used for nuclear resin management

  18. Determination of total antimony and inorganic antimony species by hydride generation in situ trapping flame atomic absorption spectrometry: a new way to (ultra)trace speciation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henryk Matusiewicz; Magdalena Krawczyk

    2008-07-01

    The analytical performance of non-chromatographic coupled hydride generation, integrated atom trap (HG-IAT) atomizer flame absorption spectrometry (FAAS) systems were evaluated for the speciation analysis of antimony in environmental samples. Antimony, using formation of stibine (SbH{sub 3}) vapors were atomized in an air-acetylene flame-heated IAT. A new design of HG-IAT-FAAS hyphenated technique that would exceed the operational capabilities of existing arrangements was investigated. For the estimation of Sb(III) and Sb(V) concentrations in samples, the difference between the analytical sensitivities of the absorbance signals obtained for antimony hydride without and with previous treatment of samples with L-cysteine can be used. The concentration of Sb(V) was calculated by the difference between total Sb and Sb(III). A dramatic improvement in detection limit was achieved compared with that obtained using either of the atom trapping techniques, presented above, separately. This novel approach decreases the detection limit down to low pg mL{sup -1} levels. The concentration detection limit, defined as 3 times the blank standard deviation was 0.2 ng mL{sup -1}. For a 120 s in situ pre-concentration time , sensitivity enhancement compared to flame AAS, was 550 fold for Sb, using hydride generation-atom trapping technique. The accuracy of the method was verified by the use of certified reference materials (NIST SRM 2704 Buffalo River Sediment, SRM 2710 Montana Soil, SRM 1633a Coal Fly Ash, SRM 1575 Pine Needles, SRM 1643e Trace Elements in Water) and by aqueous standard calibration technique. The measured Sb content, in reference materials, were in satisfactory agreement with the certified values. The hyphenated technique was applied for antimony determinations in soil, sediment, coal fly ash, sewage and river water.

  19. The effects of antimony doping on the surface structure of rutile TiO2(110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechstein, Ralf; Schuette, Jens; Kuehnle, Angelika; Kitta, Mitsunori; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Titanium dioxide represents a very important wide bandgap photocatalyst that is known to be sensitized to visible light by transition metal doping. Antimony doping has been demonstrated to provide photocatalytic activity when codoped with chromium at an optimum dopant ratio [Sb]/[Cr] of about 1.5. Here, the role of antimony doping on the surface structure of rutile TiO 2 (110) is studied using non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) under ultra-high vacuum conditions. At first glance, the surface structure of antimony-doped TiO 2 (110) resembles the structure of pristine TiO 2 (110). However, in contrast to what is found in pristine TiO 2 (110), a dense layer of protruding features is observed upon antimony doping, which is tentatively ascribed to antimony-rich clusters. Moreover, homogeneously distributed holes are found on the surface, which differ in depth and shape depending on the preparation conditions. Holes with depths ranging from a few up to more than a hundred monatomic steps are observed. These holes are explained by surface segregation of antimony during annealing, as the ionic radius of Sb 3+ is considerably larger than the ionic radius of Ti 4+ . Our finding provides an indication of why an antimony concentration larger than the optimum ratio results in decreased photocatalytic activity. Moreover, controlling annealing temperature seems to constitute a promising strategy for creating nanosized holes on TiO 2 surfaces.

  20. Influence of cooling rate and antimony addition content on graphite morphology and mechanical properties of a ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooling rate and inoculation practice can greatly affect the graphite morphology of ductile irons. In the present research, the effects of the cooling rate and antimony addition on the graphite morphology and mechanical properties of ductile irons have been studied. Three ductile iron castings were prepared through solidification under cooling conditions S (slow, M (medium and F (fast. The cooling rates around the equilibrium eutectic temperature (1,150 ℃ for these cooling conditions (S, M and F were set at 0.21 ℃·min-1, 0.32 ℃·min-1 and 0.37 ℃·min-1, respectively. In addition, four ductile iron castings were prepared by adding 0.01%, 0.02%, 0.03% and 0.04% (by weight antimony, respectively under the slow cooling condition. The results show that the nodularity index, tensile strength and hardness of the ductile iron castings without antimony addition are all improved with the increase of cooling rate, while the ductile iron casting solidified under the medium cooling rate possesses the largest number of graphite nodules. Furthermore, for the four antimony containing castings, the graphite morphology and tensile strength are also improved by the antimony additions, and the effect of antimony addition is intensified when the addition increases from 0.01% to 0.03%. Moreover, the rare earth elements (REE/antimony ratio of 2 appears to be the most effective for fine nodular graphite formation in ductile iron.

  1. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis: model-based analyses on the spread of antimony-resistant L. donovani in Bihar, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Stauch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pentavalent antimonials have been the mainstay of antileishmanial therapy for decades, but increasing failure rates under antimonial treatment have challenged further use of these drugs in the Indian subcontinent. Experimental evidence has suggested that parasites which are resistant against antimonials have superior survival skills than sensitive ones even in the absence of antimonial treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use simulation studies based on a mathematical L. donovani transmission model to identify parameters which can explain why treatment failure rates under antimonial treatment increased up to 65% in Bihar between 1980 and 1997. Model analyses suggest that resistance to treatment alone cannot explain the observed treatment failure rates. We explore two hypotheses referring to an increased fitness of antimony-resistant parasites: the additional fitness is (i disease-related, by causing more clinical cases (higher pathogenicity or more severe disease (higher virulence, or (ii is transmission-related, by increasing the transmissibility from sand flies to humans or vice versa. CONCLUSIONS: Both hypotheses can potentially explain the Bihar observations. However, increased transmissibility as an explanation appears more plausible because it can occur in the background of asymptomatically transmitted infection whereas disease-related factors would most probably be observable. Irrespective of the cause of fitness, parasites with a higher fitness will finally replace sensitive parasites, even if antimonials are replaced by another drug.

  2. A facile and fast route to prepare antimony (Sb) nanostructures without additives

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    is based on a reaction of antimony powder and pure water at ∼210 °C without using any harmful additives and amines. The XRD pattern confirmed the composition and crystallinity of the grown nanostructures. The reported method besides being organics free

  3. Anion sensing with a Lewis acidic BODIPY-antimony(v) derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Anna M; Gabbaï, François P

    2017-02-21

    We describe the synthesis of a BODIPY dye substituted with a Lewis acidic antimony(v) moiety. This compound, which has been fully characterized, shows a high affinity for small anions including fluoride and cyanide, the complexation of which elicits a fluorescence turn-on response.

  4. Chemical consequences of the neutron irradiation of ionic antimony oxides and Fe Sb2O4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facetti, J F [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1970-01-01

    The chemical consequences fo the neutron irradiation of ionic antimony oxides and Fe Sb2O4 are studied. The nature of the Sb-O2 bond effects the yield of SbV the higher the yield the more covalent the bond. In addition, the Fe Sb2O4 obeys the Maddock's rule.

  5. On the segregation behavior of tin and antimony at grain boundaries of polycrystalline bcc iron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Pavel; Šandera, P.; Horníková, J.; Pokluda, J.; Godec, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 363, Feb (2016), 140-144 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0144 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : grain boundary segregation * tin * antimony * Fe based alloy * AES quantification Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  6. Morphology and photoresponse of crystalline antimony film grown on mica by physical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafa Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimony is a promising material for the fabrication of photodetectors. This study deals with the growth of a photosensitive thin film by the physical vapor deposition (PVD of antimony onto mica surface in a furnace tube. The geometry of the grown structures was studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and elemental diffraction analysis. XRD peaks of the antimony film grown on mica mostly matched with JCPDF Card. The formation of rhombohedral crystal structures in the film was further confirmed by SEM micrographs and chemical composition analysis. The Hall measurements revealed good electrical conductivity of the film with bulk carrier concentration of the order of 1022 Ω·cm-3 and mobility of 9.034 cm2/Vs. The grown film was successfully tested for radiation detection. The photoresponse of the film was evaluated using its current-voltage characteristics. These investigations revealed that the photosensitivity of the antimony film was 20 times higher than that of crystalline germanium.

  7. Transparent Conducting Films of Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide with Uniform Mesostructure Assembled from Preformed Nanocrystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, V.; Rasp, M.; Rathouský, Jiří; Schütz, B.; Niederberger, M.; Fattakhova-Rohlfing, D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 5 (2010), s. 633-637 ISSN 1613-6810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/08/0435 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : antimony -doped tin oxide * msoporous materials * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 7.333, year: 2010

  8. Mechanisms of antimony adsorption onto soybean stover-derived biochar in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited mechanistic knowledge is available to understand how biochar interacts with trace elements that exist predominantly as oxoanions, such as antimony (Sb). Soybean stover biochars were produced at 300 degrees C (SBC300) and 700 degrees C (SBC700), and were characterized by BET, Boehm titration,...

  9. Reaction products and corrosion of molybdenum electrode in glass melt containing antimony oxides and sodium sulfate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěj, J.; Langrová, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2012), s. 280-285 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : antimony oxides * corrosion * glass melt * Molybdenum electrode * sulfate Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2012/pdf/2012_03_280.pdf

  10. Sorption-desorption of antimony species onto calcined hydrotalcite: Surface structure and control of competitive anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Leonel Vinicius; Quirino, Juliana Nunes; Abrão, Taufik; Parreira, Paulo Sérgio; Urbano, Alexandre; Santos, Maria Josefa

    2018-02-15

    Calcined hydrotalcite can be applied to remove anionic contaminants from aqueous systems such as antimony species due to its great anion exchange capacity and high surface area. Hence, this study evaluated antimonite and antimonate sorption-desorption processes onto calcined hydrotalcite in the presence of nitrate, sulfate and phosphate. Sorption and desorption experiments of antimonite and antimonate were carried out in batch equilibrium and the post-sorption solids were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). Sorption data were better fitted by dual-mode Langmuir-Freundlich model (R 2 >0.99) and desorption data by Langmuir model. High maximum sorption capacities were found for the calcined hydrotalcite, ranging from 617 to 790meqkg -1 . The competing anions strongly affected the antimony sorption. EDXRF analysis and mathematical modelling showed that sulfate and phosphate presented higher effect on antimonite and antimonate sorption, respectively. High values for sorption efficiency (SE=99%) and sorption capacity were attributed to the sorbent small particles and the large surface area. Positive hysteresis indexes and low mobilization factors (MF>3%) suggest very low desorption capacity to antimony species from LDH. These calcined hydrotalcite characteristics are desirable for sorption of antimony species from aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Field-based scanning tunneling microscope manipulation of antimony dimers on Si(001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogge, S.; Timmerman, R.H.; Scholte, P.M.L.O.; Geerligs, L.J.; Salemink, H.W.M.

    2001-01-01

    The manipulation of antimony dimers, Sb2, on the silicon (001) surface by means of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has been experimentally investigated. Directed hopping of the Sb2 dimers due the STM tip can dominate over the thermal motion at temperatures between 300 and 500 K. Statistics on

  12. Enhancing the antimony sorption properties of nano titania-chitosan beads using epichlorohydrin as the crosslinker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishad, Padala Abdul; Bhaskarapillai, Anupkumar; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam

    2017-07-15

    Antimony is classified as a pollutant of priority importance by USEPA. We have earlier reported the synthesis of nano-titania impregnated epichlorohydrin crosslinked chitosan (TA-Cts-Epi) beads, in a format suitable for large scale applications with high sorption capacity for antimony. To understand the sorption mechanism, and to fine tune the bead composition, the effect of crosslinking density on the swelling and sorption properties of the beads was investigated in detail. Epichlorohydrin effected significant changes in physical and sorption properties of the beads. The antimony sorption capacity of the TA-Cts-Epi beads prepared by crosslinking 0.3g non-crosslinked titania-chitosan beads (TA-Cts-NCL) with 6.4mmol epichlorohydrin was 493μmol/g, while those crosslinked with 0.64mmol showed a capacity of 133μmol/g. Whereas, TA-Cts-NCL beads showed a capacity of 75μmol/g. The increase in uptake capacity with increase in crosslinking demonstrated the active involvement of the epichlorohydrin moieties in antimony binding leading to enhanced sorption. Apart from altering the stability, swelling behaviour and sorption kinetics of the beads, crosslinking significantly increased the uptake of the anionic species via electrostatic interactions. Epichlorohydrin crosslinked chitosan beads prepared without TiO 2 also showed similar behaviour. The results demonstrated the involvement of chitosan, TiO 2 and epichlorohydrin in sorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mixing of phosphorus and antimony ions in silicon by recoil implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, H.L.; Lam, Y.W.; Wong, S.P.; Poon, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of mixing phosphorus and antimony ions in silicon by recoil implantation were examined. The electrical properties after ion mixing were investigated, and the results were compared with those obtained using other techniques. Different degrees of activation were also studied, by investigating the annealing behaviour. (U.K.)

  14. Dismantling and chemical characterization of spent Peltier thermoelectric devices for antimony, bismuth and tellurium recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balva, Maxime; Legeai, Sophie; Garoux, Laetitia; Leclerc, Nathalie; Meux, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Major uses of thermoelectricity concern refrigeration purposes, using Peltier devices, mainly composed of antimony, bismuth and tellurium. Antimony was identified as a critical raw material by EU and resources of bismuth and tellurium are not inexhaustible, so it is necessary to imagine the recycling of thermoelectric devices. That for, a complete characterization is needed, which is the aim of this work. Peltier devices were manually dismantled in three parts: the thermoelectric legs, the alumina plates on which remain the electrical contacts and the silicone paste used to connect the plates. The characterization was performed using five Peltier devices. It includes mass balances of the components, X-ray diffraction analysis of the thermoelectric legs and elemental analysis of each part of the device. It appears that alumina represents 45% of a Peltier device in weight. The electrical contacts are mainly composed of copper and tin, and the thermoelectric legs of bismuth, tellurium and antimony. Thermoelectric legs appear to be Se-doped Bi 2 Te 3 and (Bi 0,5 Sb 1,5 )Te 3 for n type and p type semiconductors, respectively. This work shows that Peltier devices can be considered as a copper ore and that thermoelectric legs contain high amounts of bismuth, tellurium and antimony compared to their traditional resources.

  15. Determination of barium and antimony in gun shot residues by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charuchinda, A.

    1975-01-01

    The antimony contents on both hands of 7 persons before and after firing an automatic pistol were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The gun shot residues were removed from hands by a 4% solution of cellulose acetate in acetone. The average content of antimony on both hands before firing obtained from 70 measurements (35 from each hand) was 0.040 ± 0.010 micro gram, whereas the average contents on the right and the left hands after 1 firing were 0.385 ± 0.036 and 0.144 ± 0.029 micro gram respectively. The ration of the antimony contents after 1 firing to the normal level (before firing) was 9.9 for the right and 3.6 for the left. No significant difference was observed between male and female, smoker and non-smoker. The antimony content after several firings was not much different from that of 1 firing and it reduced to the normal level within 2 days after firing. The barium contents before and after firing were studied from one person. Barium was precipitated as Ba SO 4 before counting. An average contents of 0.936 ± 0.551 micro gram for both hands before firing, 4.092 ± 2.687 micro gram for the right hand and 1.363 ± 0.879 micro gram for the left hand after 1 firing were found

  16. Differences in antimony and arsenic releases from lead smelter fly ash in soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettler, V.; Mihaljevič, M.; Šebek, O.; Valigurova, R.; Klementová, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 72, Supp. 4 (2012), s. 15-22 ISSN 0009-2819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Antimony * Arsenic * Lead smelting * Fly ash * Soil * Mobility Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.351, year: 2012

  17. ANTIMONY HALIDES AND HgX2 (X = Cl, Br AMINE ADDUCTS: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NDONGO GUEYE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight new SbF3, SbCl5 and HgX2 (X = Cl, Br amine adducts have been synthesized and their infrared study carried out. Discrete structures have been suggested on the basis of elemental analysis and infrared data, the coordination number of antimony varying from five to nine, while the environment around Hg is tetrahedral.

  18. Diel variation of arsenic, molybdenum and antimony in a stream draining natural As geochemical anomaly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drahota, P.; Nováková, B.; Matoušek, Tomáš; Mihaljevič, M.; Rohovec, Jan; Filippi, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, APR (2013), s. 84-93 ISSN 0883-2927 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : arsenic * molybdenum * antimony * trace elements * diel cycle Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; DD - Geochemistry (GLU-S) Impact factor: 2.021, year: 2013

  19. Antimony production by carbothermic reduction of stibnite in the presence of lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padilla R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental work on the carbothermic reduction of Sb2S3 in the presence of lime was carried out in the temperature range of 973 to 1123 K to produce antimony in an environmentally friendly manner. The results demonstrated the technical feasibility of producing antimony by this method without producing SO2 gas. Complete conversion of Sb2S3 was obtained at 1023 K in about 1000 seconds and at 1123 K in less than 250 seconds using stibnite-carbon-lime mixtures with molar ratios Sb2S3:CaO:C = 1:3:3. It was found that the reduction proceeds through the formation of an intermediate oxide SbO2, which is subsequently reduced by CO(g to yield antimony metal and CaS. The kinetics of the Sb2S3 reduction was analyzed by using the equation ln(1-X = -kt. The activation energy was 233 kJ mol-1 in the temperature range of 973 to 1123 K. This value would correspond to an antimony catalyzed carbon oxidation by CO2.

  20. Dehydrogenation and concurrent isomerization of n-butenes on mixed tin and antimony oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, E.A.; Taylor, D.

    1978-01-01

    The dehydrogenation and concurrent isomerization of n-butenes on mixed tin and antimony oxide catalysts which had been outgassed at 698/sup 0/K were carried out in the presence of oxygen at 474/sup 0/K, and the initial approximately zero-order rates of 1,3-butadiene formation and rates of isomerization were used as a measure of catalytic activity to construct activity patterns as a function of catalyst composition. A comparison of the patterns with those for the isomerization of 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene and for the selective oxidation of propane on the same catalysts indicated that the dehydrogenation of 1-butene involves a m-allyl intermediate, but isomerization occurs through carbonium ion formation. For the cis- and trans-isomers, both reactions apparently occurred via a common allyl (but not m-allyl) intermediate. Dehydrogenation to butadiene decreased in the order 1-butene > cis-2-butene trans-2-butene and was maximum at 10% antimony for 1-butene and 21% antimony for 2-butene. Isomerization was always slower than dehydrogenation and showed two maEima, at 21 (or 27%) and at 75% antimony.

  1. Improvement of hydrogen storage kinetics in ball-milled magnesium doped with antimony

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Král, Lubomír; Roupcová, Pavla

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 9 (2017), s. 6144-6151 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Hydrogen * Hydrogen storage * Storage capacity * Magnesium alloys * Antimony Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 3.582, year: 2016

  2. Validating excised rodent lungs for functional hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M L Lilburn

    Full Text Available Ex vivo rodent lung models are explored for physiological measurements of respiratory function with hyperpolarized (hp (129Xe MRI. It is shown that excised lung models allow for simplification of the technical challenges involved and provide valuable physiological insights that are not feasible using in vivo MRI protocols. A custom designed breathing apparatus enables MR images of gas distribution on increasing ventilation volumes of actively inhaled hp (129Xe. Straightforward hp (129Xe MRI protocols provide residual lung volume (RV data and permit for spatially resolved tracking of small hp (129Xe probe volumes during the inhalation cycle. Hp (129Xe MRI of lung function in the excised organ demonstrates the persistence of post mortem airway responsiveness to intravenous methacholine challenges. The presented methodology enables physiology of lung function in health and disease without additional regulatory approval requirements and reduces the technical and logistical challenges with hp gas MRI experiments. The post mortem lung functional data can augment histological measurements and should be of interest for drug development studies.

  3. Iodine-129 separation and determination by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bate, L.C.; Stokely, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a method for analysis of iodine-129 in fission product mixtures originating from fuel reprocessing studies and low-level wastes. The method utilizes conventional iodine valence adjustment and solvent extraction techniques to chemically separate iodine-129 from most fission products. The iodine-129 is determined by neutron irradiation and measurement of the 12.4 hour iodine-130 produced by the neutron capture reaction. Special techniques were devised for neutron irradiation of iodine-129 samples in the pneumatic tube irradiation facilities at the High Flux Isotope (HFIR) and Oak Ridge Research (ORR) Reactors. Chemically separated iodine-129 is adsorbed on an anion exchange resin column made from an irradiation container. The loaded resin is then irradiated in either of the pneumatic facilities to produce iodine-130. Sensitivity of the analysis with the HFIR facility (flux: 5x10 14 n/cm 2 /s) and a 100 second irradiation time is approximately 0.03 nanograms. Samples up to 250 ml in volume can be easily processed. (author)

  4. Comparative study of the influence of antimony oxide additives (III) and nickel hydroxide (II) on electrochemical behavior of cadmium electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadnikova, N.V.; Lvova, L.A.; Ryabskaya, I.A.

    1983-01-01

    Comparative study of the influence of additives indicated that with partial or complete replacement in the active mass of the cadmium electrode of nickel hydroxide (II) by antimony oxide (III), the electrochemical characteristics do not significantly change. During prolonged storage of charged cadmium electrodes the presence of nickel hydroxide (II) and intermetal compound (IMC) of cadmium with nickel is formed and the specific surface increases. In the case of adding antimony (III) formation of noticeable quantities of IMC of cadmium with antimony is not observed. The specific surface is reduced during storage.

  5. Montmorillonite Supported Titanium/Antimony Catalyst:Preparation, Characterization and Immobilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guiyong; WANG Xiaoqun; ZHAO Chuan; DU Shanyi

    2014-01-01

    Montmorillonite supported titanium (Ti-MMT) or antimony catalyst (Sb-MMT) has been a hot area of research on preparing polyethylene terephthalate/montmorillonite (PET/MMT) nanocomposites by in situ polymerization. So removal of Ti or Sb from Ti-MMT or Sb-MMT is not expected during in situ polymerization. Studies on immobilization of Ti or Sb on Ti-MMT or Sb-MMT are seldom reported. In this work, a series of montmorillonite supported catalysts of titanium (Ti-MMT) or antimony (Sb-MMT) and co-intercalated montmorillonite of titanium and antimony (Ti/Sb-MMT) were prepared by (1) the reaction of sodium bentonite suspension with intercalating solution containing titanium tetrachloride and/or antimony chloride, and (2) drying or calcinating the products at different temperature (100, 150, 240, 350 and 450℃). The physicochemical properties of these MMT supported catalysts were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICPOES), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy(UV-vis) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The immobile character of Ti or Sb on MMT supported catalysts was evaluated by a two-step method in deionized water or ethylene glycol. Several results were obtained, i e, (a) during the preparation, with an increase in drying or calcinating temperature, the amount of titanium and/or antimony species remained on these MMT supported catalysts decreased, (b) the experiments about immobile character of Ti or/and Sb showed that with an increase in drying or calcinating temperature, the immobilization of Ti and/or Sb species remained on these MMT supported catalysts increased gradually, (c) Ti-MMT calcinated at 450℃had the biggest pore volume, which means Ti-MMT had the best adsorption application prospect.

  6. 129 Xe-NMR of carbon black filled elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperling-Ischinsky, K.; Veeman, W.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that 129 Xe-NMR is a powerful tool to investigate carbon black and carbon black filled elastomers. For the carbon black material itself the 129 Xe chemical shift of xenon adsorbed at the surface of carbon black aggregates yields information about the relative average pore size of the carbon black aggregates. The experimental 129 Xe-NMR results of carbon black filled ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) can be explained when it is assumed that the xenon atoms in the bound EPDM fraction exchange rapidly on the NMR time scale between a state where they are adsorbed on the carbon black surface and a state in which they are absorbed in the EPDM layer. This would imply that the carbon black aggregates are not completely covered with EPDM chains. (author)

  7. Estimating permissible /sup 129/I-emission rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebschmann, W G

    1976-06-01

    A mathematical method of iodine release limitation is presented which, in assessing the radiological effectiveness of /sup 129/I, takes advantage of the fact that the chemical behaviour of /sup 129/I resembles that of /sup 131/I and relies on the already extensive knowledge of the chemical and biological behaviour of /sup 131/I. If this method is used for calculating permissible /sup 129/I emission rates it is stated that no unnecessary restrictions need be imposed on a fuel reprocessing plant and that the grazing season for the pasture-cow-milk pathway can be taken into account. The concept is currently in use at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and seems to be appropriate for licensing of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.

  8. A high volume, batch mode {sup 129}Xe polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojna-Pelczar, Anna, E-mail: anna.wojna.pelczar@mail.muni.cz [Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Brno (Czech Republic); Formerly: Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Kraków (Poland); Pałasz, Tadeusz [Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Kraków (Poland)

    2017-06-01

    Numerous designs of optical gas polarizers have been proposed, broadening possible applications of the hyperpolarized gases as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. We present a home–made {sup 129}Xe polarizer based on the spin exchange optical pumping method. The polarizer operates under 1 bar of the gas mixture (at the maximum temperature of 160 °C) in a high volume optical cell (5025 cm{sup 3}). Approximately 100 cm{sup 3} of {sup 129}Xe polarized at 1.50±0.37% is produced in a single cycle of polarization. Operation under standard pressure imposes polarization transfer mainly via van der Waals molecules, resulting in the efficient spin exchange between rubidium and {sup 129}Xe atoms. The design, construction and operation of the polarizer are described in details.

  9. Detection of iodine-129 in some environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Nagao

    1981-01-01

    The recent accumulation of the long-lived isotope of iodine, 129 I, which is released in environment by the peaceful use of nuclear energy or nuclear test explosion is becoming important in the view point of the internal exposure by the low level radiation. The studies on the detection of determination of 129 I in environmental samples so far published are still very few. The authors tried to detect 129 I in some Japanese seaweeds and soil samples with the aid of the activation method by using the nuclear reaction of 129 I(n, #betta#) 130 I. The samples analysed in this work are tangle (Laminaria japonica) for daily food grown in Hidaka, Hokkaido and uncultivated soil collected in Tokai, Ibaraki Pref. As the #betta#-ray peak indicator for 130 I, cesium oxide and the aged radioisotope product of 131 I are also subjected to the neutron irradiation. From cesium oxide, 130 I is formed by the reaction of 133 Cs(n, α) 130 I. An aged vial of the 131 I product is expected to contain very minute amounts of 129 I which is also produced both by the fission of uranium and neutron capture reaction of tellurium followed by #betta# - -decay. The #betta#-ray spectra for the soil sample, cesium oxide and the aged 131 I vial are shown in Fig. 1. No appreciable peak was found for the seaweeds sample. In the #betta#-ray spectra for irradiated cesium oxide and the aged 131 I vial, several typical peaks for 130 I were observed. By comparing with these peaks, several small peaks which appear at around 418, 536 and 739 keV in the soil sample can be attributed to those of 130 I. The 129 I content in the soil sample is roughly estimated to be 2 x 10 - 10 Bq/g. (author)

  10. Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI: A viable functional lung imaging modality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patz, Samuel; Hersman, F. William; Muradian, Iga; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Ruset, Iulian C.; Ketel, Stephen; Jacobson, Francine; Topulos, George P.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Butler, James P.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of researchers investigating hyperpolarized gas MRI as a candidate functional lung imaging modality have used 3 He as their imaging agent of choice rather than 129 Xe. This preference has been predominantly due to, 3 He providing stronger signals due to higher levels of polarization and higher gyromagnetic ratio, as well as its being easily available to more researchers due to availability of polarizers (USA) or ease of gas transport (Europe). Most researchers agree, however, that hyperpolarized 129 Xe will ultimately emerge as the imaging agent of choice due to its unlimited supply in nature and its falling cost. Our recent polarizer technology delivers vast improvements in hyperpolarized 129 Xe output. Using this polarizer, we have demonstrated the unique property of xenon to measure alveolar surface area noninvasively. In this article, we describe our human protocols and their safety, and our results for the measurement of the partial pressure of pulmonary oxygen (pO 2 ) by observation of 129 Xe signal decay. We note that the measurement of pO 2 by observation of 129 Xe signal decay is more complex than that for 3 He because of an additional signal loss mechanism due to interphase diffusion of 129 Xe from alveolar gas spaces to septal tissue. This results in measurements of an equivalent pO 2 that accounts for both traditional T 1 decay from pO 2 and that from interphase diffusion. We also provide an update on new technological advancements that form the foundation for an improved compact design polarizer as well as improvements that provide another order-of-magnitude scale-up in xenon polarizer output

  11. Environmental behavior and effects of technetium-99 and iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, T.R.; Schreckhise, R.G.; Wildung, R.E.; Cadwell, L.L.; McFadden, K.M.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this program is to define the environmental behavior of 99 Tc and 129 I, two long-lived radioactive by-products of the nuclear fuel cycle that have received little study. The specific objectives are to (1) determine the soil physicochemical and microbiological factors and physiological parameters that govern the mobility and bioavailability of different chemical forms of 99 Tc and 129 I in terrestrial and aquatic environments and (2) validate and measure food web transport in selected field locations

  12. RLE (Research Laboratory of Electronics) Progress Report Number 129.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    27709 ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. NO. 1. TITLE finciade SeciantV Ciiiiiiificationt Progress Report.No. 129 12. PERSONAL AUTHORI(S) Jonathan Allen, Daniel...TMIS PAGE *~ ~ d 1 ". d4 ’V. ~a PI al . 1 AN *,.i **N %** RLE Progress Report No. 129 January 1987 Submitted by: Prof. Jonathan Allen Prof. Daniel...Clevenger, J. Floro, S.M. Garrison, J. Im, K. Ismail, H. Kahn, H.J. Kim, Y.C. Ku, J.C. Licini, U. Meirav, J.E. Palmer, S.L. Park, H.M. Quek , J. Scott

  13. Low-lying levels of 129Xe and 131Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, D.C.; Irving, A.D.; Forsyth, P.D.; Hall, I.; Martin, D.G.E.; Maynard, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclei 129 Xe and 131 Xe have been studied by Coulomb excitation and by (α, n) reactions on 126 Te and 128 Te. Eleven new levels for 129 Xe and six for 131 Xe and B(E2) transition values for some of the low-lying states are reported. The present Coulomb excitation experiments together with published β-decay work enable some spin-parity assignments and restrictions to be made. The data are broadly consistent with the predictions of the particle-vibrator coupling model, although a thorough comparison requires further spectroscopic measurements and more detailed theoretical calculation. (author)

  14. Analysis of 129I and its Application as Environmental Tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Hou, Yingkun

    2012-01-01

    , and highlights the progress of these analytical methods for chemical separation and sensitive measurement of 129I. The naturally occurred 129I has been used for age dating of samples/events in a range of 2-80 Ma. For the purpose of this study, an initial value of 129I has to be measured. Some progress......Iodine-129, the long-lived radioisotope of iodine, occurs naturally, but anthropogenic generated 129I has dominated the environment in the past 60 years. Due to active chemical and environmental properties of iodine and the enhanced analytical capacity for 129I measurement, the application of 129I...

  15. Extraction-radiochemical study of the ion-association complex of antimony (V) with tetrazolium violet and its thermal behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostova, S.G.; Boyanov, B.S.

    1995-01-01

    The optimum conditions for extraction of ion-associated complexes (IAS) formed from the tetrazolium salt - tetrazolium violet and Sb(V) in hydrochloric acid medium have been studied. An isotope of antimony ( 125 Sb) was used for determination of the recovery factor (R%) and distribution ratio (D S b). The thermal behavior of the antimony complex with tetrazole violet was studied using differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis. (author) 12 refs.; 3 figs

  16. Localization of the antimony impurity atoms in the PbTe lattice determined by the Moessbauer emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masterov, V.F.; Nasredinov, F.S.; Nemov, S.A.; Seregin, P.P.; Troitskaya, N.N.; Bondarevskij, S.I.

    1997-01-01

    The 119 Sb ( 119m Sn) emission Moessbauer spectroscopy has shown that a localization of the antimony impurity atoms in the PbTe lattice is affected by the conductivity type of the host material, the antimony atoms occupied mainly anion and cation sites in n-type and p-type samples, respectively. The 119 Sn impurity in the anion sublattice of PbTe formed an decay. Its charge state was shown to be independent of the Fermi level position

  17. Excess 129Xe in terrestrial samples: A non-primordial hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffee, M.W.; Hudson, G.B.

    1987-03-01

    Excesses of 129 Xe relative to the isotopic composition in air are observed in some terrestrial samples. Traditionally these 129 Xe excesses have been thought to be related to 129 I that was present in abundance in the early solar system. We propose an alternative hypothesis to explain terrestrial 129 Xe excesses based on the production of 129 I from the spontaneous fission of 238 U

  18. Biogeochemical Considerations Related To The Remediation Of I-129 Plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D. I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Yeager, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory , Los Alamos, NM (United States); Denham, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Zhang, S. [Texas A& amp; M University, Galveston, TX (United States); Xu, C. [Texas A& amp; M University, Galveston, TX (United States); Schwehr, K. A. [Texas A& amp; M University, Galveston, TX (United States); Li, H. P. [Texas A& amp; M University, Galveston, TX (United States); Brinkmeyer, R. [Texas A& amp; M University, Galveston, TX (United States); Santschi, P. H. [Texas A& amp; M University, Galveston, TX (United States)

    2012-09-24

    The objectives of this report were to: provide a current state of the science of radioiodine biogeochemistry relevant to its fate and transport at the Hanford Site; conduct a review of Hanford Site data dealing with groundwater {sup 129}I; and identify critical knowledge gaps necessary for successful selection, implementation, and technical defensibility in support of remediation decisions.

  19. 21 CFR 129.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 129.1 Section... Current good manufacturing practice. The applicable criteria in part 110 of this chapter, as well as the..., methods, practices, and controls used in the processing, bottling, holding, and shipping of bottled...

  20. Level and origin of Iodine-129 in the Baltic Sea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hou, XL.; Dahlgaard, H.; Nielsen, SP.; Kučera, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2002), s. 331-343 ISSN 0265-931X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Keywords : lodine-129 * Baltic sea * neutron activation analysis * seawater Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.674, year: 2002

  1. Image collection: 129 [Togo Picture Gallery[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 129 Capricornis_crispus_NL.png ニホンカモシカ Capricornis crispus Capricornis crispus 9966 生物アイコン,脊索動物門,脊椎動物亜門,哺乳綱,獣亜綱,真獣下綱,ウシ目

  2. 46 CFR 129.550 - Power for cooking and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSTALLATIONS Miscellaneous Electrical Systems § 129.550 Power for cooking and heating. (a) Equipment for... with a thermal cut-out to prevent overheating. (e) Each element of an electric space-heater must be enclosed, and the case or jacket of the element made of a corrosion-resistant material. (f) Each electrical...

  3. Intrachromosomal amplification, locus deletion and point mutation in the aquaglyceroporin AQP1 gene in antimony resistant Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Monte-Neto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Antimony resistance complicates the treatment of infections caused by the parasite Leishmania.Using next generation sequencing, we sequenced the genome of four independent Leishmania guyanensis antimony-resistant (SbR mutants and found different chromosomal alterations including aneuploidy, intrachromosomal gene amplification and gene deletion. A segment covering 30 genes on chromosome 19 was amplified intrachromosomally in three of the four mutants. The gene coding for the multidrug resistance associated protein A involved in antimony resistance was also amplified in the four mutants, most likely through chromosomal translocation. All mutants also displayed a reduced accumulation of antimony mainly due to genomic alterations at the level of the subtelomeric region of chromosome 31 harboring the gene coding for the aquaglyceroporin 1 (LgAQP1. Resistance involved the loss of LgAQP1 through subtelomeric deletions in three mutants. Interestingly, the fourth mutant harbored a single G133D point mutation in LgAQP1 whose role in resistance was functionality confirmed through drug sensitivity and antimony accumulation assays. In contrast to the Leishmania subspecies that resort to extrachromosomal amplification, the Viannia strains studied here used intrachromosomal amplification and locus deletion.This is the first report of a naturally occurred point mutation in AQP1 in antimony resistant parasites.

  4. Antimony leaching in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) with various acids and gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostar, Sandra; Stenvall, Erik; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R St J

    2013-06-01

    There has been a recent interest in antimony since the availability in readily mined areas is decreasing compared to the amounts used. It is important in many applications such as flame retardants and in the production of polyester, which can trigger an investigation of the leachability of antimony from plastics using different acids. In this paper, different types of acids are tested for their ability to leach antimony from a discarded computer housing, made of poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), which is a common plastic type used in electrical and electronic equipment. The acid solutions included sodium hydrogen tartrate (0.5M) dissolved in either dimethyl sulfoxide or water (at ca. 23°C and heated to ca. 105°C). The metal content after leaching was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The most efficient leaching medium was the heated solution of sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide, which leached almost half of the antimony from the poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Gamma irradiation, which is proposed to improve the mechanical properties in plastics, was used here to investigate the influence of antimony leaching ability. No significant change in the amount of leached antimony could be observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment of antimony mine drainage: challenges and opportunities with special emphasis on mineral adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchao; Hu, Xiaoxian; Ren, Bozhi

    2016-01-01

    The present article summarizes antimony mine distribution, antimony mine drainage generation and environmental impacts, and critically analyses the remediation approach with special emphasis on iron oxidizing bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria. Most recent research focuses on readily available low-cost adsorbents, such as minerals, wastes, and biosorbents. It is found that iron oxides prepared by chemical methods present superior adsorption ability for Sb(III) and Sb(V). However, this process is more costly and iron oxide activity can be inhibited by plenty of sulfate in antimony mine drainage. In the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria, sulfate can be reduced to sulfide and form Sb(2)S(3) precipitates. However, dissolved oxygen and lack of nutrient source in antimony mine drainage inhibit sulfate reducing bacteria activity. Biogenetic iron oxide minerals from iron corrosion by iron-oxidizing bacteria may prove promising for antimony adsorption, while the micro-environment generated from iron corrosion by iron oxidizing bacteria may provide better growth conditions for symbiotic sulfate reducing bacteria. Finally, based on biogenetic iron oxide adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria followed by precipitation, the paper suggests an alternative treatment for antimony mine drainage that deserves exploration.

  6. Review of the prevalence and causes of antimony compounds resistance in different societies review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Jaffary

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is an endemic parasitic disease of major health impact in many parts of the world and is caused by several species of the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Antimonial compounds (i.e glucantime and pentostam are the first-line treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis with emerging drug resistance as a problem. The control of Leishmania is further complicated by the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. In the clinical settings, resistance to SbV containing drugs is now well established and it was found to occur in South America, Europe, the Middle East and most notably in India. Clinical resistance to organic pentavalent antimonials, in the form of sodium stibogluconate (pentostam or N-methylglucamine antimoniate (glucantime, has long been recognized. However, it is unknown whether the clinical failure of chemotherapy is attributable to the development of drug resistance mechanisms in the parasite or to a variety of host factors that might also contribute to low drug response. Reported rate of drug-resistance to antimonial compounds in Iran varies from 9.4% to 94.2% and there is not any comprehensive study on this issue. Indeed, in the endemic region treatment with SbV fails in more cases; thus, in general patients infected with resistant parasites are unresponsive although exceptions have been reported. This article aims to review the mechanisms of drug resistance to these compounds. The main resistance factors include genetical, enzymatic, intracellular (such as apoptosis and cytoskeleton changes and resistance proteins. Also, mechanisms related to drug transport and intracellular activation are discussed. Various methods of drug resistance detection such as culture and molecular methods (i.e polymerase chain reaction are reviewed. Although the exact mechanism of action glucantime is not clear, it seems that protein and gene factors involved in cellular drug entry are the main causes of drug resistance. Cross

  7. Adsorption of antimony onto iron oxyhydroxides: Adsorption behavior and surface structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xuejun; Wu, Zhijun [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing 100875 (China); He, Mengchang, E-mail: hemc@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing 100875 (China); Meng, Xiaoguang [Center for Environmental Systems, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Jin, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing 100875 (China); Qiu, Nan; Zhang, Jing [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF), Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Antimony adsorption depended on the Sb species, pH, and the type of iron oxides. • Sb(V) adsorption favored at acidic pH, Sb(III) adsorption optimized in wider pH. • Antimony was adsorbed onto the iron oxides by the inner-sphere surface complex. • Bidentate mononuclear ({sup 2}E) was the dominant form of Sb incorporated into HFO. • XAFS and XPS indicated Sb(III) adsorbed was slowly oxidized to Sb(V). - Abstract: Antimony is detected in soil and water with elevated concentration due to a variety of industrial applications and mining activities. Though antimony is classified as a pollutant of priority interest by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Europe Union (EU), very little is known about its environmental behavior and adsorption mechanism. In this study, the adsorption behaviors and surface structure of antimony (III/V) on iron oxides were investigated using batch adsorption techniques, surface complexation modeling (SCM), X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). The adsorption isotherms and edges indicated that the affinity of Sb(V) and Sb(III) toward the iron oxides depended on the Sb species, solution pH, and the characteristics of iron oxides. Sb(V) adsorption was favored at acidic pH and decreased dramatically with increasing pH, while Sb(III) adsorption was constant over a broad pH range. When pH is higher than 7, Sb(III) adsorption by goethite and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) was greater than Sb(V). EXAFS analysis indicated that the majority of Sb(III), either adsorbed onto HFO or co-precipitated by FeCl{sub 3}, was oxidized into Sb(V) probably due to the involvement of O{sub 2} in the long duration of sample preservation. Only one Sb–Fe subshell was filtered in the EXAFS spectra of antimony adsorption onto HFO, with the coordination number of 1.0–1.9 attributed to bidentate mononuclear edge-sharing ({sup 2}E) between Sb and

  8. Molecular Preadaptation to Antimony Resistance in Leishmania donovani on the Indian Subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumetz, F; Cuypers, B; Imamura, H; Zander, D; D'Haenens, E; Maes, I; Domagalska, M A; Clos, J; Dujardin, J-C; De Muylder, G

    2018-04-25

    Antimonials (Sb) were used for decades for chemotherapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Now abandoned in the Indian subcontinent (ISC) because of Leishmania donovani resistance, this drug offers a unique model for understanding drug resistance dynamics. In a previous phylogenomic study, we found two distinct populations of L. donovani : the core group (CG) in the Gangetic plains and ISC1 in the Nepalese highlands. Sb resistance was only encountered within the CG, and a series of potential markers were identified. Here, we analyzed the development of resistance to trivalent antimonials (Sb III ) upon experimental selection in ISC1 and CG strains. We observed that (i) baseline Sb III susceptibility of parasites was higher in ISC1 than in the CG, (ii) time to Sb III resistance was higher for ISC1 parasites than for CG strains, and (iii) untargeted genomic and metabolomic analyses revealed molecular changes along the selection process: these were more numerous in ISC1 than in the CG. Altogether these observations led to the hypothesis that CG parasites are preadapted to Sb III resistance. This hypothesis was experimentally confirmed by showing that only wild-type CG strains could survive a direct exposure to the maximal concentration of Sb III The main driver of this preadaptation was shown to be MRPA , a gene involved in Sb III sequestration and amplified in an intrachromosomal amplicon in all CG strains characterized so far. This amplicon emerged around 1850 in the CG, well before the implementation of antimonials for VL chemotherapy, and we discuss here several hypotheses of selective pressure that could have accompanied its emergence. IMPORTANCE The "antibiotic resistance crisis" is a major challenge for scientists and medical professionals. This steady rise in drug-resistant pathogens also extends to parasitic diseases, with antimony being the first anti- Leishmania drug that fell in the Indian subcontinent (ISC). Leishmaniasis is a major but neglected infectious

  9. Experimental determination of the energy levels of the antimony atom (Sb II), ions of the antimony (Sb II, Sb III), mercury (Hg IV) and cesium (Cs X)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcimowicz, B.

    1993-01-01

    The thesis concerns establishing the energy scheme of the electronic levels, obtained from the analysis of the investigated spectra of antimony atom and ions (Sb I, Sb II, Sb III) and higher ionized mercury (Hg IV) and cesium (Cs X) atoms. The experimental studies were performed with optical spectroscopy methods. The spectra of the elements under study obtained in the spectral range from visible (680 nm) to vacuum UV (40 nm) were analysed. The classification and spectroscopic designation of the experimentally established 169 energy levels were obtained on the basis of the performed calculations and the fine structure analysis. The following configurations were considered: 5s 2 5p 2 ns, 5s 2 5p 2 n'd, 5s5p 4 of the antimony atom, 5s 2 5pns, 5s 2 5pn'd, 5s5p 3 of the ion Sb II, 5s 2 ns, 5s 2 n'd, 5s5p 2 of the on Sb III, 5d 8 6p of the ion Hg IV 4d 9 5s and 4d 9 5p Cs X. A reclassification was performed and some changes were introduced to the existing energy level scheme of the antimony atom, with the use of the information obtained from the absorption spectrum taken in the VUV region by the ''flash pyrolysis'' technique. The measurements of the hyperfine splittings in 19 spectral lines belonging to the antimony atom and ions additionally confirmed the assumed classification of the levels involved in these lines. The energy level scheme, obtained for Sb III, was compared to the other ones in the isoelectronic sequence starting with In I. On the basis of the analysis of the Hg IV spectrum it was proved that ground configuration of the three times ionized mercury atom is 5d 9 not 5d 8 6s as assumed until now. The fine structure, established from the analysis of the spectra of the elements under study was examined in multiconfiguration approximation. As a result of the performed calculations the fine structure parameters and wavefunctions were determined for the levels whose energy values were experimentally established in the thesis. (author). 140 refs, 22 figs, 17

  10. A facile and fast route to prepare antimony (Sb) nanostructures without additives

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, M.A.

    2011-12-01

    Herein, we report a safe, low cost and reproducible approach for the synthesis of antimony (Sb) nanostructures with most of them having prism like morphology and having well defined faces in the range of ∼70210 nm. The organics free approach is based on a reaction of antimony powder and pure water at ∼210 °C without using any harmful additives and amines. The XRD pattern confirmed the composition and crystallinity of the grown nanostructures. The reported method besides being organics free is economical, fast and free of pollution, which will make it suitable for large scale production. Furthermore, it is well expected that such a technique could be extended to prepare many other important metal and metal oxide nanostructures. The prospects of the process are bright and promising. © 2012 Sharif University of Technology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Deciphering lead and cadmium stripping peaks for porous antimony deposited electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimoor Aqeel Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium and lead are generally taken as model heavy metal ions in water to scale the detection limit of various electrode sensors, using electrochemical sensing techniques. These ions interact with the electrochemically deposited antimony electrodes depending on the diffusion limitations. The phenomenon acts differently for the in-situ and ex-situ deposition as well as for porous and non-porous electrodes. A method has been adopted in this study to discourage the stripping and deposition of the working ions (antimony to understand the principle of heavy metal ion detection. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS technique was used to establish the interaction between the working and dissolved ions. In addition to the distinct peaks for each analyte, researchers also observed a shoulder peak. A possible reason for the presence of this peak was provided. Different electrochemical tests were performed to ascertain the theory on the basis of the experimental observations.

  12. Antimony Influence on Shape of Eutectic Silicium in Al-Si Based Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolibruchová D.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquid AI-Si alloys are usually given special treatments before they are cast to obtain finer or modified matrix and eutectic structures, leading to improved properties. For many years, sodium additions to hypoeutectic and eutectic AI-Si melts have been recognized as the most effective method of modifying the eutectic morphology, although most of the group IA or IIA elements have significant effects on the eutectic structure. Unfortunately, many of these approaches also have associated several founding difficulties, such as fading, forming dross in presence of certain alloying elements, reduced fluidity, etc. ln recent years, antimony additions to AI-Si castings have attracted considerable attention as an alternative method of refining the eutectic structure. Such additions eliminate many of the difficulties listed above and provide permanent (i.e. non-fading refining ability. In this paper, the authors summarize work on antimony treatment of Al-Si based alloys.

  13. Dielectric Losses and Charge Transfer in Antimony-Doped TlGaS2 Single Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadov, S. M.; Mustafaeva, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    Effect of semimetallic antimony (0.5 mol % Sb) on the dielectric properties and ac-conductivity of TlGaS2-based single crystals grown by the Bridgman-Stockbarger method has been studied. The experimental results on the frequency dispersion of dielectric coefficients and the conductivity of TlGa0.995Sb0.005S2 single crystals allowed the revealing of the dielectric loss nature, the charge transfer mechanism, and the estimation of the parameters of the states localized in the energy gap. The antimony-doping of the TlGaS2 single crystal leads to an increase in the density of states near the Fermi level and a decrease in the average time and average distance of hopes.

  14. An additive approach to low temperature zero pressure sintering of bismuth antimony telluride thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, Glenn C.; Tripathi, Rajesh; Nunes, Geoffrey; Lynch, Philip B.; Jones, Howard D.; Schmitt, Devin C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an additive-based approach to the formulation of thermoelectric materials suitable for screen printing. Such printing processes are a likely route to such thermoelectric applications as micro-generators for wireless sensor networks and medical devices, but require the development of materials that can be sintered at ambient pressure and low temperatures. Using a rapid screening process, we identify the eutectic combination of antimony and tellurium as an additive for bismuth-antimony-telluride that enables good thermoelectric performance without a high pressure step. An optimized composite of 15 weight percent Sb7.5Te92.5 in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 is scaled up and formulated into a screen-printable paste. Samples fabricated from this paste achieve a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 0.74 using a maximum processing temperature of 748 K and a total thermal processing budget of 12 K-hours.

  15. Determination by neutron activation analysis of loss of arsenic, antimony, bromine and mercury during lyophilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, M.; Litman, R.

    1978-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been used to monitor the loss of arsenic, as dimethylarsinic acid, (CH 3 ) 2 AsOOH, or as sodium arsenate (Na 2 HAsO 4 .7H 2 O), antimony (as potassium antimony, tartrate, KSbC 4 O 7 .1/2H 2 O) and bromine (as bromide ion) during lyophilization of acidified and neutral aqueous synthetic and environmental samples. Losses of Sb and As ranged from zero to 60%, while losses of bromine were constant (at 91%) in acidic solutions. The variable losses of As and Sb were due solely to the presence of and partial decomposition of the (CH 3 ) 2 AsOOH. Electrochemical oxidation of Br - to Br 2 is responsible for the high losses of bromine. In addition losses of mercury (as methylmercuric chloride) were 1O0% in both acidic and neutral aqueous synthetic samples during lyophilization. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the efficiency of the processes of purification of antimony to semiconductor grade purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walis, L.; Rowinska, L.; Panczyk, E.

    1992-01-01

    A complex of techniques for purification of antimony from arsenic has been examined with the aid of radiotracer 76 As. The investigated processes comprised vacuum distillation, zone melting and remelting of the metal under artificial slags. The purification efficiencies for the above processes were high and amounted to 94% (for 30% of the charge), 50% (for 50% of the charge) and 99.5% (for 60% of the charge), respectively. Attempts were made to determine the kinetics of the separation of arsenic from antimony by distillation. The application of the radioactive tracer made it possible to determine rapidly the distribution of impurities after each stage of the process within a wide concentration range (10 -2 -10 -7 g/g). (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  17. Reaction of Antimony-Uranium Composite Oxide in the Chlorination Treatment of Waste Catalyst - 13521

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Kayo [EcoTopia Science Institute (Japan); Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The effect of oxygen gas concentration on the chlorination treatment of antimony-uranium composite oxide catalyst waste was investigated by adding different concentrations of oxygen at 0-6 vol% to its chlorination agent of 0.6 or 6 vol% hydrogen chloride gas at 1173 K. The addition of oxygen tended to prevent the chlorination of antimony in the oxide. When 6 vol% hydrogen chloride gas was used, the addition of oxygen up to 0.1 vol% could convert the uranium contained in the catalyst to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} without any significant decrease in the reaction rate compared to that of the treatment without oxygen. (authors)

  18. Studies on optical properties of antimony doped SnO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gürakar, Sibel, E-mail: sgurakar@eng.ankara.edu.tr; Serin, Tülay, E-mail: serin@eng.ankara.edu.tr; Serin, Necmi, E-mail: nserin@eng.ankara.edu.tr

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Antimony doped tin oxide thin films were grown by spray method on glass substrates. • The antimony doping was varied from 0 to 4 at%. • The structural properties of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction method. • A simple analysis according to Swanepoel's method was applied to derive the real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction plus film thickness. • The dispersion of refractive index was investigated in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple and DiDomenico model to determine the optical parameters. - Abstract: Antimony doped tin oxide thin films were grown by spray method on microscope glass substrates. The antimony doping was varied from 0 to 4 at%. The structural properties of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction method. The optical transmittances of thin films were measured with UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer in the 300–2000 nm wavelength range. A simple analysis according to Swanepoel's method was applied to derive the real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction plus film thickness. The dispersion of refractive index was investigated in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple and DiDomenico model and the important oscillating parameters such as the dispersion energy E{sub d}, the oscillation energy E{sub o}, the high frequency dielectric constant ε{sub ∞} were determined. The analysis of the refractive index has been carried out to calculate the lattice dielectric constant ε{sub L} and the ratio of carrier concentration to the effective mass N/m*. The real and imaginary parts of the electronic dielectric constant and optical conductivity were analyzed. The optical band gap, E{sub g} values of the films were obtained from the spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient, using the Tauc relation.

  19. Electronic band structure and optical properties of antimony selenide under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhijit, B.K.; Jayaraman, Aditya; Molli, Muralikrishna, E-mail: muralikrishnamolli@sssihl.edu.in [Department of Physics, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthinilayam, 515 134 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In this work we present the optical properties of Antimony Selenide (Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}) under ambient conditions and under pressure of 9.2 GPa obtained using first principles calculations. We investigated the electronic band structure using the FP-LAPW method within the sphere of the density functional theory. Optical properties like refractive index, absorption coefficient and optical conductivity are calculated using the WIEN2k code.

  20. Preconcentration and Determination of Antimony in Drinking Water Bottled by Modified Nano-Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammad Zakizade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 has been utilized as a catalyst in polyethylene terephtalate (PET production, and the studies conducted on the bottled water has demonstrated that antimony can be leached from PET bottles into drinking water. Methods: In this study, a simple method was applied in order to determine the trace amount of antimony in bottled drinking water based on preconcentration /solid phase extraction. The nano alumina modified with Schiff base ligand was used in regard with Sb preconcentration. The experiments were performed in a continuous system and HCI was used as eluent of Sb ion. Several chemical and flow variables were optimized for a quantitative preconcentration and determination of Sb ion. The atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine Sb ion concentration. In order to study the keeping conditions on the leaching of Sb ion from PET plastic, drinking water bottles were kept in different conditions(room temperature, sunny light and -18˚C. Results: The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.5 to 15.0 ppm Sb with detection limit of 0.055 ppm. The flow rate of sample was optimized in range of 1.0-9.0 mLmin-1 and Sb ion can be quantitatively eluted at 90 Vsample: Veluent retio. Conclusion: The study results revealed that the modified nano alumina is an effective sorbent in regard with absorbing Sb ion from water and HCI 1M can be used as an appropriate eluent. Maximum leaching of Sb ion is observed when the bottled drinking water was exposed to the sun light. Keywords: Antimony; Bottled drinking water; Modified alumina; Preconcentration

  1. Synthesis and vibrational spectrum of antimony phosphate, SbPO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockner, Wolfgang; Hoyer, Lars P

    2002-07-01

    SbPO4 was synthesized via a new route by reacting antimony metal with meta-phosphoric acid, (HPO3)n at high temperatures. The Raman and IR spectra of the title compound were recorded and the vibrational modes assigned on the basis of a factor group analysis. The internal vibrations are derived from tetrahedral PO4 units (approaching Sb[PO4]) by the correlation method, although the structure is polymeric and not ionic.

  2. Chronic Arsenic Toxicity: Statistical Study of the Relationships Between Urinary Arsenic, Selenium and Antimony

    OpenAIRE

    Analía Boemo, BS; Irene María Lomniczi, PhD; Elsa Mónica Farfán Torres, PhD

    2012-01-01

    Background. The groundwater of Argentina’s Chaco plain presents arsenic levels above those suitable for human consumption. Studies suggest skin disorders among local populations caused by arsenic intake. The relationship between urinary arsenic and arsenic in drinking water is well known, but urinary arsenic alone is not enough for risk assessment due to modulating factors such as the intake of selenium and antimony. Objectives. Determining the relationship between urinary arsenic, seleniu...

  3. Neutron activation analysis of antimony in chromatin and nucleoids of HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, H.A.; Topaloglou, A.; Altmann, H.

    1988-02-01

    Antimony seems to be cancerogenic in men. In the present investigations we tried to find out if Sb +++ are also bound to the cell nucleus. HeLa cells were incubated with SbCl 3 and after a 18 h incubation time cells were lysed and crude chromatin isolated. In this preparation Sb was determined by neutron activation analysis. From the same cell culture nucleoids were prepared by ultracentrifugation and also Sb detected in these structures. 12 refs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  4. The Potential for the Treatment of Antimony-Containing Wastewater by Iron-Based Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Jian Deng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Antimony (Sb and its compounds are considered as global priority pollutants. Elevated concentrations of antimony in natural and industrial process wastewater are of global concern, particularly given interest in the potential toxicity and harm to the environment from aquatic exposure. Iron-based materials for treatment by adsorption are widely regarded to have potential merit for the removal of trace contaminants from water and especially in the search for efficient and low-cost techniques. In this paper, we review the application of iron-based materials in the sorption treatment of antimony contaminated water. The interaction of Sb is discussed in relation to adsorption performance, influencing factors, mechanism, modelling of adsorption (isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic models, advantages, drawbacks and the recent achievements in the field. Although iron-based adsorbents show promise, the following three aspects are in need of further study. Firstly, a select number of iron based binary metal oxide adsorbents should be further explored as they show superior performance compared to other systems. Secondly, the possibility of redox reactions and conversion between Sb(III and Sb(V during the adsorption process is unclear and requires further investigation. Thirdly, in order to achieve optimized control of preferential adsorption sites and functional groups, the mechanism of antimony removal has to be qualitatively and quantitatively resolved by combining the advantages of advanced characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Atomic force microscope(AFM, X-ray absorption near edge structure(XANES, and other spectroscopic methods. We provide details on the achievements and limitations of each of these stages and point to the need for further research.

  5. Mannosylated thiolated polyethylenimine nanoparticles for the enhanced efficacy of antimonial drug against Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Hafiz S; Ashraf, Sehreen; Akhtar, Sohail; Sohail, Muhammad F; Hussain, Syed Z; Rafay, Muhammad; Yasinzai, Masoom; Hussain, Irshad; Shahnaz, Gul

    2018-01-01

    Our aim was to inhibit trypanothione reductase (TR) and P-gp efflux pump of Leishmania by the use of thiolated polymers. Thus, increasing the intracellular accumulation and therapeutic effectiveness of antimonial compounds. Mannosylated thiolated chitosan and mannosylated thiolated chitosan-polyethyleneimine graft were synthesized and characterized. Meglumine antimoniate-loaded nanoparticles were prepared and evaluated for TR and P-gp efflux pump inhibition, biocompatibility, macrophage uptake and antileishmanial potential. Thiomers inhibited TR with Ki 2.021. The macrophage uptake was 33.7- and 18.9-fold higher with mannosylated thiolated chitosan-polyethyleneimine graft and mannosylated thiolated chitosan nanoparticles, respectively, as compared with the glucantime. Moreover, the in vitro antileishmanial activity showed 14.41- and 7.4-fold improved IC 50 for M-TCS-g-PEI and M-TCS, respectively as compared with glucantime. These results encouraged the concept that TR and P-gp inhibition by the use of thiomers improves the therapeutic efficacy of antimonial drugs.

  6. Antimony in the Contaminated Site of El Triunfo, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmolejo-Rodríguez A. J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimony has properties similar to arsenic with some of its compounds toxic to humans. Therefore it is necessary to control the wastes accumulated by anthropogenic activities, such as mining, where it is in tailings to be released to the environment. According to the Environment Protection Agency, the maximum value in sediments is 11.2 mg Sb kg–1 and the Earth’s crust average is 0.2 mg Sb kg–1. In this semiarid area, the drainage basin El Carrizal is impacted with wastes of an abandoned gold mine at the Mining District El Triunfo (MD – ET which have tailings with 17,600 mg kg–1 of antimony. In the main dry river (arroyo, the Sb content is between 0.6 and 122 mg kg–1. This element is transported from the source throughout the fluvial basin to discharge into the Pacific Ocean. In the arroyo mouth we collected one sedimentary core and the sediment from dunes (28.6 – 45.7 and 6.43 – 7.74 mg Sb kg–1. This research concluded the antimony is enriched in this semiarid system, with Normalized Enrichment Factors severely enriched mainly in arroyo sediments close to the MD-ET

  7. A NOVEL METHOD OF THE HYDRIDE SEPARATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC AND ANTIMONY BY AAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganden Supriyanto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel method is proposed for the hydride separation when determinining of arsenic and antimony by AAS. A chromatomembrane cell was used as preconcentration-, extraction- and separation-manifold instead of the U-tube phase separator, which is normally fitted in continuous flow vapour systems generating conventionaly the hydrides. The absorbances of the hydrides produced were measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer at 193.7 nm and 217.6 nm. Under optimized analytical conditions, the calibration plot for arsenic was linear from 50 to 500 ng.mL-1 (r2 = 0.9982. The precision for three subsequent measurements of 500 ng.mL-1 arsenic gave rise to a relative standard deviation of 0.4%. The detection limit was 15 ng.mL-1, which is much lower compared with that of the conventional hydride system (2000 ng.mL-1. A similar result was observed in case of antimony: the detection limit was 8 ng.mL-1 when the proposed method was applied. Consequently, the sensitivity of the novel method surpasses systems with conventional hydride generation, i.e. the precision and the acuracy increase whereas the standard deviation and the detection limit decrease. The proposed method was applied in pharmacheutial analysis and the certified As-content of a commercial product was very sufficiently confirmed.   Keywords: Chromatomembrane Cell, Hydride separation, Arsenic detection, Antimony detection, AAS

  8. Sequestration of Antimony on Calcite Observed by Time-Resolved Nanoscale Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, François; Putnis, Christine V; Montes-Hernandez, German; King, Helen E; Breedveld, Gijs D; Okkenhaug, Gudny

    2018-01-02

    Antimony, which has damaging effects on the human body and the ecosystem, can be released into soils, ground-, and surface waters either from ore minerals that weather in near surface environments, or due to anthropogenic releases from waste rich in antimony, a component used in batteries, electronics, ammunitions, plastics, and many other industrial applications. Here, we show that dissolved Sb can interact with calcite, a widespread carbonate mineral, through a coupled dissolution-precipitation mechanism. The process is imaged in situ, at room temperature, at the nanometer scale by using an atomic force microscope equipped with a flow-through cell. Time-resolved imaging allowed following the coupled process of calcite dissolution, nucleation of precipitates at the calcite surface and growth of these precipitates. Sb(V) forms a precipitate, whereas Sb(III) needs to be oxidized to Sb(V) before being incorporated in the new phase. Scanning-electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy allowed identification of the precipitates as two different calcium-antimony phases (Ca 2 Sb 2 O 7 ). This coupled dissolution-precipitation process that occurs in a boundary layer at the calcite surface can sequester Sb as a solid phase on calcite, which has environmental implications as it may reduce the mobility of this hazardous compound in soils and groundwaters.

  9. Structural, magnetic and dielectric investigations in antimony doped nano-phased nickel-zinc ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmi, Ch.S. [Department of Physics, Regency Institute of Technology, Adivipolam Yanam 533464, Pondicherry (India); Sridhar, Ch.S.L.N. [Department of Physics, Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology, Aushapur(v) Ghatkesar (M), Hyderabad 501301, Telangana (India); Govindraj, G. [Department of Physics, School of Physical, Chemical and Applied Sciences, Pondicherry University, R.V.Nagar, Kalapet, Pondicherry 605014 (India); Bangarraju, S. [Department of Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003, Andhrapradesh (India); Potukuchi, D.M., E-mail: potukuchidm@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University College of Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University:Kakinada, Kakinada 533003 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Nanocrystalline Ni–Zn–Sb ferrites synthesized by hydrothermal method are reported. Influence of Sb{sup 5+} ions on structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of ferrites is studied. Phase identification, lattice parameter and crystallite size studies are carried out using by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Addition of dopant resulted for decrease in lattice parameter. Crystallite size gets reduced from 62 nm to 38 nm with doping of Antimony. Crystallite size and porosity exhibit similar trends with doping. Morphological study is carried out by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Strong FTIR absorption bands at 400–600 cm{sup −1} confirm the formation of ferrite structure. Increase of porosity is attributed to the grain size. Doping with Antimony results for decrease in saturation magnetization and increase in coercivity. An initial increase of saturation magnetization for x=0.1 is attributed to the unusually high density. Reversed trend of coercivity with crystallite size are observed. Higher value of dielectric constant ε′(ω) is attributed to the formation of excess of Fe{sup 2+} ions caused by aliovalent doping of Sb{sup 5+} ions. Variation of dielectric constant infers hopping type of conductivity mechanism. The dielectric loss factor tanδ attains lower values of ∼10{sup −2}. High ac resistivity ρ(ω) of 10{sup 8} Ω cm is witnessed for antimony doped ferrites. Higher saturation magnetization and enhanced dielectric response directs for a possible utility as microwave oscillators and switches.

  10. pH-regulated antimony oxychloride nanoparticle formation on titanium oxide nanostructures: a photocatalytically active heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Buchholcz, Balázs

    2017-02-06

    Improving the catalytic activity of heterogeneous photocatalysts has become a hot topic recently. To this end, considerable progress has been made in the efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers by e.g. the realization of heterojunction photocatalysts. V-VI-VII compound semiconductors, namely, bismuth oxyhalides, are popular photocatalysts. However, results on antimony oxyhalides [SbOX (X = Br, Cl, I)], the very promising alternatives to the well-known BiOX photomodifiers, are scarce. Here, we report the successful decoration of titanium oxide nanostructures with 8-11 nm diameter SbOX nanoparticles for the first time ever. The product size and stoichiometry could be controlled by the pH of the reactant mixture, while subsequent calcination could transform the structure of the titanate nanotube (TiONT) support and the prepared antimony oxychloride particles. In contrast to the ease of composite formation in the SbOX/TiONT case, anatase TiO could not facilitate the formation of antimony oxychloride nanoparticles on its surface. The titanate nanotube-based composites showed activity in a generally accepted quasi-standard photocatalytic test reaction (methyl orange dye decolorization). We found that the SbOCl/TiONT synthesized at pH = 1 is the most active sample in a broad temperature range.

  11. Polycrystalline thin films of antimony selenide via chemical bath deposition and post deposition treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Lazcano, Y.; Pena, Yolanda; Nair, M.T.S.; Nair, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    We report a method for obtaining thin films of polycrystalline antimony selenide via chemical bath deposition followed by heating the thin films at 573 K in selenium vapor. The thin films deposited from chemical baths containing one or more soluble complexes of antimony, and selenosulfate initially did not show X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns corresponding to crystalline antimony selenide. Composition of the films, studied by energy dispersive X-ray analyses indicated selenium deficiency. Heating these films in presence of selenium vapor at 573 K under nitrogen (2000 mTorr) resulted in an enrichment of Se in the films. XRD peaks of such films matched Sb 2 Se 3 . Evaluation of band gap from optical spectra of such films shows absorption due to indirect transition occurring in the range of 1-1.2 eV. The films are photosensitive, with dark conductivity of about 2 x 10 -8 (Ω cm) -1 and photoconductivity, about 10 -6 (Ω cm) -1 under tungsten halogen lamp illumination with intensity of 700 W m -2 . An estimate for the mobility life time product for the film is 4 x 10 -9 cm 2 V -1

  12. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaji, S.; Garcia, L.V.; Loredo, S.L.; Krishnan, B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Antimony sulfide thin films were prepared by normal CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • These films were photoconductive. - Abstract: Antimony sulfide (Sb_2S_3) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb_2S_3 thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb_2S_3 thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  13. Morphology and antimony segregation of spangles on batch hot-dip galvanized coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shu; Lu, Jintang; Che, Chunshan; Kong, Gang; Xu, Qiaoyu

    2010-06-01

    Spangles produced by batch hot-dip galvanizing process have a rougher surface and a greater surface segregation of alloying element compared with those in continuous hot-dip galvanizing line (CGL), owing to the cooling rate of the former is much smaller than that of the later. Therefore, typical spangles on a batch hot-dipped Zn-0.05Al-0.2Sb alloy coating were investigated. The chemical, morphological characterization and identification of the phases on the spangles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered electron imaging (BSE), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results showed that the coating surface usually exhibited three kinds of spangles: shiny, feathery and dull spangle, of which extensively antimony surface segregation was detected. The nature of precipitate on the coating surface was identified as β-Sb 3Zn 4, The precipitated β-Sb 3Zn 4 particles distributed randomly on the shiny spangle surface, both β-Sb 3Zn 4 particles and dentritic segregation of antimony dispersed in the dendritic secondary arm spacings of the feathery spangle and on the whole dull spangle surface. The dentritic segregation of antimony and precipitation of Sb 3Zn 4 compound are discussed by a proposed model.

  14. Morphology and antimony segregation of spangles on batch hot-dip galvanized coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Shu, E-mail: shu.peng@mail.scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, No. 371 Wushan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Lu Jintang; Che Chunshan; Kong Gang; Xu Qiaoyu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, No. 371 Wushan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-06-01

    Spangles produced by batch hot-dip galvanizing process have a rougher surface and a greater surface segregation of alloying element compared with those in continuous hot-dip galvanizing line (CGL), owing to the cooling rate of the former is much smaller than that of the later. Therefore, typical spangles on a batch hot-dipped Zn-0.05Al-0.2Sb alloy coating were investigated. The chemical, morphological characterization and identification of the phases on the spangles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered electron imaging (BSE), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results showed that the coating surface usually exhibited three kinds of spangles: shiny, feathery and dull spangle, of which extensively antimony surface segregation was detected. The nature of precipitate on the coating surface was identified as {beta}-Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 4}, The precipitated {beta}-Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 4} particles distributed randomly on the shiny spangle surface, both {beta}-Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 4} particles and dentritic segregation of antimony dispersed in the dendritic secondary arm spacings of the feathery spangle and on the whole dull spangle surface. The dentritic segregation of antimony and precipitation of Sb{sub 3}Zn{sub 4} compound are discussed by a proposed model.

  15. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Garcia, L.V. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); Loredo, S.L. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Unidad Monterrey, PIIT, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); and others

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Antimony sulfide thin films were prepared by normal CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • These films were photoconductive. - Abstract: Antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  16. Dissimilatory antimonate reduction and production of antimony trioxide microcrystals by a novel microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abin, Christopher A; Hollibaugh, James T

    2014-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a metalloid that has been exploited by humans since the beginning of modern civilization. The importance of Sb to such diverse industries as nanotechnology and health is underscored by the fact that it is currently the ninth-most mined metal worldwide. Although its toxicity mirrors that of its Group 15 neighbor arsenic, its environmental chemistry is very different, and, unlike arsenic, relatively little is known about the fate and transport of Sb, especially with regard to biologically mediated redox reactions. To further our understanding of the interactions between microorganisms and Sb, we have isolated a bacterium that is capable of using antimonate [Sb(V)] as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration, resulting in the precipitation of antimonite [Sb(III)] as microcrystals of antimony trioxide. The bacterium, designated strain MLFW-2, is a sporulating member of a deeply branching lineage within the order Bacillales (phylum Firmicutes). This report provides the first unequivocal evidence that a bacterium is capable of conserving energy for growth and reproduction from the reduction of antimonate. Moreover, microbiological antimonate reduction may serve as a novel route for the production of antimony trioxide microcrystals of commercial significance to the nanotechnology industry.

  17. Effect of antimony oxide on magnesium vanadates for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.T.; Chi, Z.H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tunghai University, ROC Taichung (Taiwan)

    2001-05-17

    The effect of antimony oxide addition to MgV{sub 2}O{sub 6} and Mg{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} was studied in the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur. Significant improvements in sulfur selectivity and yield were observed for the uncalcined mechanical mixtures of magnesium vanadates with {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Calcination of the mechanical mixtures resulted in the much stronger synergy in catalytic activity and sulfur selectivity. For the uncalcined samples, XRD, TPR and XPS studies indicated that antimony reduction behaviors in the mechanical mixtures differed very much from those in {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} alone, suggested that their selectivity improvements might be due to the interactions (probably oxygen transfer) between {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} and magnesium vanadates. For the calcined samples, XRD results indicated that their better catalytic performances in H{sub 2}S oxidation were primarily attributed to the formation of VSbO{sub 4} compound from antimony oxide and magnesium vanadates.

  18. 129Xe on the outgassing of the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, L.

    1980-01-01

    Because of the short half-life of its parent ( 129 I, 17 m.y.) and its own chemical inertness, 129 Xe offers unique insight into the problem of the outgassing history of the earth's atmosphere. Because the current atmosphere is different in Xe isotopic patterns than is the interior, the present atmosphere must have been largely outgassed before these patterns finished changing, that is, very early in earth history. Furthermore, there can have been no significant delay in the onset of outgassing; that is, the earth must have been initially hot. Because ancient sedimentary rocks indicate that the atmospheric Xe patterns have not changed substantially for over 3 b.y., models presuming a separate, lower mantle reservoir do not alter these conclusions. Similar conclusions have been reached before but have always carried a heavier burden of debatable assumptions

  19. Applications of 129I and 36Cl in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabryka-Martin, J.; Davis, S.N.; Elmore, D.

    1987-01-01

    Since the first AMS measurements of 36 Cl in 1978, this cosmogenic radionuclide has proved to be a versatile tracer of hydrologic processes in over 20 field studies. Natural 129 I also appears to be useful for studying hydrologic processes although incomplete understanding of its production in nature and geochemical behavior largely limits interpretation to qualitative discussions. The range of hydrologic applications demonstrated for these radionuclides covers: estimation of residence time of water in the subsurface and net infiltration in arid soils; evaluation of ion filtration, leaching of connate water, and salt dissolution as sources of ground-water salinity; estimation of lithospheric thermal-neutron fluxes; and emanation and migration characteristics of fission-product 129 I in different geochemical environments. (orig.)

  20. Search for the permanent electric dipole moment of 129Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Natasha; Chupp, Timothy; Gong, Fei; Babcock, Earl; Salhi, Zahir; Burghoff, Martin; Fan, Isaac; Killian, Wolfgang; Knappe-Grüneberg, Silvia; Schabel, Allard; Seifert, Frank; Trahms, Lutz; Voigt, Jens; Degenkolb, Skyler; Fierlinger, Peter; Krägeloh, Eva; Lins, Tobias; Marino, Michael; Meinel, Jonas; Niessen, Benjamin; Stuiber, Stefan; Terrano, William; Kuchler, Florian; Singh, Jaideep

    2017-09-01

    CP-violation in Beyond-the-Standard-Model physics, necessary to explain the baryon asymmetry, gives rise to permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs). EDM measurements of the neutron, electron, paramagnetic and diamagnetic atoms constrain CP-violating parameters. The current limit for the 129Xe EDM is 6 ×10-27 e . cm (95 % CL). The HeXeEDM experiment at FRM-II (Munich Research Reactor) and BMSR-2 (Berlin Magnetically Shielded Room) uses a stable magnetic field in a magnetically shielded room and 3He comagnetometer with potential to improve the limit by two orders of magnitude. Polarized 3He and 129Xe free precession is detected with SQUID magnetometers in the presence of applied electric and magnetic fields. Conclusions from recent measurements will be presented.

  1. The effects of antimony doping on the surface structure of rutile TiO{sub 2}(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechstein, Ralf; Schuette, Jens; Kuehnle, Angelika [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Osnabrueck, Barbarastrasse 7, D-49076 Osnabrueck (Germany); Kitta, Mitsunori; Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Kobe University, Rokko-dai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: kuehnle@uos.de

    2009-07-01

    Titanium dioxide represents a very important wide bandgap photocatalyst that is known to be sensitized to visible light by transition metal doping. Antimony doping has been demonstrated to provide photocatalytic activity when codoped with chromium at an optimum dopant ratio [Sb]/[Cr] of about 1.5. Here, the role of antimony doping on the surface structure of rutile TiO{sub 2}(110) is studied using non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) under ultra-high vacuum conditions. At first glance, the surface structure of antimony-doped TiO{sub 2}(110) resembles the structure of pristine TiO{sub 2}(110). However, in contrast to what is found in pristine TiO{sub 2}(110), a dense layer of protruding features is observed upon antimony doping, which is tentatively ascribed to antimony-rich clusters. Moreover, homogeneously distributed holes are found on the surface, which differ in depth and shape depending on the preparation conditions. Holes with depths ranging from a few up to more than a hundred monatomic steps are observed. These holes are explained by surface segregation of antimony during annealing, as the ionic radius of Sb{sup 3+} is considerably larger than the ionic radius of Ti{sup 4+}. Our finding provides an indication of why an antimony concentration larger than the optimum ratio results in decreased photocatalytic activity. Moreover, controlling annealing temperature seems to constitute a promising strategy for creating nanosized holes on TiO{sub 2} surfaces.

  2. Determination of iodine 129 in vegetables using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, Eduardo E.; Thyssen, Sandra M.; Bruno, Hector A.

    1999-01-01

    The developed methodology allows the determination of iodine 129 in vegetables, using neutron activation analysis. The chemical treatment removes the interferences present in these matrixes, as well as the bromine 82 originated in the activation process. The experimental method for the determination of iodine 129 by neutron activation analysis involves five steps: 1- digestion by alkaline fusion; 2- pre-irradiation purification of iodine 129 by distillation followed by solvent extraction, and adsorption on activated charcoal by distillation; 3- neutron irradiation; 4- post-irradiation purification of iodine 130 by distillation followed by solvent extraction; 5- gamma spectrometry. A chemical recovery of 95 % is obtained in the distillations, measured using iodine 131 as tracer. The whole process recovery is within 70 % and 85 %. The detection limit is 2 mBq/kg of sample, but several factors affect this value, such as type of vegetable, natural iodine concentration, irradiation time and neutron flux. The methodology developed is applied at environmental surveillance with safeguards proposes, in the detection of undeclared reprocessing of irradiated fuel. (authors)

  3. 129I in the oceans. Origins and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisbeck, G.M.; Yiou, F.

    1999-01-01

    The quantity of the long lived (half-life 15.7 million years) radioactive isotope 129I in the pre-nuclear age ocean was =100 kg. Various nuclear related activities, including weapons testing, nuclear fuel reprocessing, Chernobyl and other authorized or non-authorized dumping of radioactive waste have increased the ocean inventory of 129I by more than one order of magnitude. The most important of these sources are the direct marine discharges from the commercial reprocessing facilities at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) which have discharged -1640 kg in the English Channel, and =720 kg in the Irish Sea, respectively. We discuss how this 129I can be used as both a 'pathway' and 'transit time' tracer in the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans, as well as a parameter for distinguishing between reprocessed and non-reprocessed nuclear waste in the ocean, and as a proxy for the transport and dilution of other soluble pollutants input to the North Sea

  4. Microdosimetry of 129I in the human thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feige, Y.

    1977-01-01

    A microdosimetric evaluation of the dose distribution from I-129 in the human thyroid gland, taking into account the various physical, geometrical and physiological parameters suggested by the ICRP Pub. 23 (1975) will be presented, and compared to the dose distribution of other radioisotopes of iodine. Using Dillman's decay scheme data, (NM/MIRD No. 10, p. 73, 1975), and the methods applied by Feige et al. for the microdosimetry of I-125, it is found that the dose to the cell nucleus is about 60% of the 'average' calculated dose for the whole thyroid gland. This follows from the assumptions that typical thyroid follicles are 150 to 300μm in diameter, and that all the iodine is contained in the colloid fraction of the gland. Thus a significant part of the decay energy of I-129, which is due mainly to the beta particles whose average range in tissue is only about 30 μm, is deposited within the colloid itself, and fails to reach the cell nucleus, 3 μm away from the colloid/cell interface. Uncertainties and variations in the parameters of the thyroid model will also be discussed. When thyroid doses due to I-129 releases are assessed, by either the specific activity or the critical pathway models, the conservative environmental and biological assumptions usually made lead to a large margin of safety. If 'average' doses are used instead of the microdosimetric dose distribution an additional safety factor of about 2 is obtained

  5. A sensitive zinc-activated 129Xe MRI probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotera, N.; Delacour, L.; Traore, T.; Buisson, D.A.; Taran, F.; Coudert, S.; Rousseau, B.; Tassali, N.; Leonce, E.; Boutin, C.; Berthault, P.; Brotin, T.; Dutasta, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Herein we propose the use of hyper-polarized 129 Xe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for the sensitive detection of Zn 2+ ions. To achieve this goal, the noble gas is encapsulated in dedicated host systems bearing a ligand that chelates the Zn 2+ ions. Cryptophanes, aromatic cage molecules made of cyclotriveratrylene groups, are perfectly suited to this purpose as 1) they can easily be rendered water-soluble, 2) the noble gas has a high affinity for their cavity, 3) when xenon is encapsulated, it takes a specific NMR frequency, and 4) xenon exchange in and out of the cavity insures a continuous refreshment of the Xe-cryptophane environment in hyper-polarization. We constructed a powerful 129 Xe NMR-based sensor of Zn 2+ ions, which enables for the first time measurement of Zn 2+ concentrations as low as 100 nm. This high sensitivity was achieved thanks to a smart 129 Xe MRI sensor, where the binding of the ion to the target is accompanied by a change in NMR parameters. We have also demonstrated the importance of working with enantiopure cryptophane derivatives. (O.M.)

  6. 129I in the oceans: origins and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisbeck, G M; Yiou, F

    1999-09-30

    The quantity of the long lived (half-life 15.7 million years) radioactive isotope 129I in the pre-nuclear age ocean was approximately 100 kg. Various nuclear related activities, including weapons testing, nuclear fuel reprocessing, Chernobyl and other authorized or non-authorized dumping of radioactive waste have increased the ocean inventory of 129I by more than one order of magnitude. The most important of these sources are the direct marine discharges from the commercial reprocessing facilities at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) which have discharged approximately 1640 kg in the English Channel, and approximately 720 kg in the Irish Sea, respectively. We discuss how this 129I can be used as both a 'pathway' and 'transit time' tracer in the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans, as well as a parameter for distinguishing between reprocessed and non-reprocessed nuclear waste in the ocean, and as a proxy for the transport and dilution of other soluble pollutants input to the North Sea.

  7. Comparison of oral itraconazole and intramuscular meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, K.; Rahman, A.

    2007-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of oral itraconazole against intramuscular meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). Two hundred eligible and consenting patients of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) were divided in two groups with 100 patients in each. The number and location of the lesions were documented and clinical types of cutaneous leishmaniasis were noted. The diagnosis was confirmed by skin slit smear and histopathology of the lesional skin. Culture on Nicolle Novy MacNeal (NNN) medium and Leishmanin test was done in all patients. All the patients in both groups were subjected to complete blood picture, urine examination, serum urea and creatinine levels and ECG examination. One group was given itraconazole 100 mg twice daily orally for a duration of 6-8 weeks. The other group was given meglumine antimoniate 10 cc in the form of deep intramuscular injections for 15-30 days. The efficacy of the treatment was judged by clinical and parasitological response. Side effects of the agents were also noted during treatment. Out of 200 patients studied, 185 were males and 15 were females. The mean age of presentation was 30 + 6.6 years. Single lesion was seen in 132 (66%) subjects whereas 68 (34%) subjects had multiple lesions. Slit skin smears were positive in 50 (25%) of the patients. Skin biopsy yielded the presence of LT bodies in 150 (75%) subjects. The culture was positive in 102 (51%) cases. Leishmanin test was positive in 94% subjects. Seventy-five (75%) patients on itraconazole therapy showed complete clinical and parasitological cure in 4-8 weeks duration. A rise in ALT was seen in 12% subjects. Five (5%) subjects did not show any improvement till the end of therapy. Sixty-five (65%) subjects on meglumine antimoniate showed complete healing in 15-30 days. In 35 (35%) of the patients, the treatment had to be stopped due to intolerable side-effects. Four cases of lupoid leishmaniasis and 4 cases of sporotrichoid leishmaniasis

  8. Translocation of iodine-129 in soil and transfer to vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handl, J.

    1989-01-01

    The translocation of I-129 in the soil and its long-term transfer from soil to plant have been investigated using an undisturbed soil column and a pasture on a river bank. The I-129 profiles in the soils of the monolith and the pasture exhibit clear differences in the distribution of radioiodine after 52 and 47 months, respectively. At those times after surface contamination of both soil types 88% (monolith) and 66% (pasture) of the total I-129 activity were found in the top soil layer of 10 cm, indicating that translocation in the pasture soil is faster than in the monolith. Apart from soil-specific parameters this behaviour may be explained by anaerobic conditions created in the soil due to high water levels in the nearby river attecting the chemical form of iodine. The distribution of stable iodine was found rather homogeneous in both soils with mean contents of 3 mg I-127 kg -1 d.w. in the upper 15 cm and 4 mg I-127 kg -1 d.w. in deeper layers in case of the monolith. For the pasture soil the corresponding values are about 4 and 5 mg I-127 kg -1 d.w. Transfer factors plant/soil (dry weight basis) of I-129 obtained from the monolith 39 g and 52 months after contamination are 1.5x10 -3 and 2.1x10 -3 , respectively. Data from the pasture 35 and 47 months after contamination show values of 9.0x10 -3 and 8.4x10 -3 , respectively. Transfer factors of stable iodine are significantly higher in both soils yielding an average value of 1.0 for the monolith and 0.3 for the pasture. Delay constants (related to a top soil layer of 10 cm) calculated for I-129 using data obtained from the long-term translocation processes to deeper soil layers in the monolith and in the pasture show values of 1x10 -9 s -1 and 4x10 -9 s -1 , respectively. (orig.) [de

  9. Molecular epidemiology and in vitro evidence suggest that Leishmania braziliensis strain helps determine antimony response among American tegumenary leishmaniasis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Silvana C; Guimarães, Luiz Henrique; Silva, Juliana A; Magalhães, Viviane; Medina, Lilian; Queiroz, Adriano; Machado, Paulo Roberto L; Schriefer, Albert

    2018-02-01

    Antimony is the first line drug for treating American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil. In this country, Leishmania braziliensis causes at least three distinct forms of disease: localized cutaneous (CL), mucosal (ML) and disseminated leishmaniasis (DL). All forms can be found in Corte de Pedra, Northeast Brazil. ML and DL respond poorly to antimony, in contrast to CL. The L. braziliensis population causing ATL in Corte de Pedra is genetically very diverse, with strains of the parasite associating with the clinical form of leishmaniasis. We tested the hypotheses that antimony refractoriness is associated with L. braziliensis genotypes, and that parasites from ML and DL present greater in vitro resistance to antimony than L. braziliensis from CL. Comparison of geographic coordinates of living sites between antimony responders and non-responders by Cusick and Edward́s test showed that refractoriness and responsiveness to the drug were similarly wide spread in the region (p>0.05). Parasites were then genotyped by sequencing a locus starting at position 425,451 on chromosome 28, which is polymorphic among L. braziliensis of Corte de Pedra. Haplotype CC- in CHR28/425,451 was associated with risk of treatment failure among CL patients (Fisheŕs exact test, p=0.03, odds ratio=4.65). This haplotype could not be found among parasites from ML or DL. Finally, sensitivity to antimony was evaluated exposing L. braziliensis promastigotes to increasing concentrations of meglumine antimoniate in vitro. Parasites from ML and DL were more resistant to antimony at doses of 2mg/100μL and beyond than those isolated from CL (Fisher's exact test, p=0.02 and p=0.004, respectively). The intrinsically lower susceptibility of L. brazliensis from ML and DL to antimony parallels what is observed for patients' responsiveness in the field. This finding reinforces that ML and DL patients would benefit from initiating treatment with drugs currently considered as second line, like

  10. Increased biliary excretion of glutathione is generated by the glutathione-dependent hepatobiliary transport of antimony and bismuth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurasics, A; Koszorús, L; Varga, F; Gregus, Z

    1992-10-06

    We have recently demonstrated that the hepatobiliary transport of arsenic is glutathione-dependent and is associated with a profound increase in biliary excretion of glutathione (GSH), hepatic GSH depletion and diminished GSH conjugation (Gyurasics A, Varga F and Gregus Z, Biochem Pharmacol 41: 937-944 and Gyurasics A, Varga F and Gregus Z, Biochem Pharmacol 42: 465-468, 1991). The present studies in rats aimed to determine whether antimony and bismuth, other metalloids in group Va of the periodic table, also possess similar properties. Antimony potassium tartrate (25-100 mumol/kg, i.v.) and bismuth ammonium citrate (50-200 mumol/kg, i.v.) increased up to 50- and 4-fold, respectively, the biliary excretion of non-protein thiols (NPSH). This resulted mainly from increased hepatobiliary transport of GSH as suggested by a close parallelism in the biliary excretion of NPSH and GSH after antimony or bismuth administration. Within 2 hr, rats excreted into bile 55 and 3% of the dose of antimony (50 mumol/kg, i.v.) and bismuth (150 mumol/kg, i.v.), respectively. The time courses of the biliary excretion of these metalloids and NPSH or GSH were strikingly similar suggesting co-ordinate hepatobiliary transport of the metalloids and GSH. However, at the peak of their excretion, each molecule of antimony or bismuth resulted in a co-transport of approximately three molecules of GSH. Diethyl maleate, indocyanine green and sulfobromophthalein (BSP), which decreased biliary excretion of GSH, significantly diminished excretion of antimony and bismuth into bile indicating that hepatobiliary transport of these metalloids is GSH-dependent. Administration of antimony, but not bismuth, decreased hepatic GSH level by 30% and reduced the GSH conjugation and biliary excretion of BSP. These studies demonstrate that the hepatobiliary transport of trivalent antimony and bismuth is GSH-dependent similarly to the hepatobiliary transport of trivalent arsenic. Proportionally to their biliary

  11. Antimony doped barium strontium ferrite perovskites as novel cathodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Yihan, E-mail: lyhyy@mail.ustc.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, 221116 (China); Lu, Xiaoyong [China Anhui Key Laboratory of Low Temperature Co-fired Materials, Department of Chemistry, Huainan Normal University, Huainan, Anhui, 232001 (China); Niu, Jinan; Chen, Hui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, 221116 (China); Ding, Yanzhi [China Anhui Key Laboratory of Low Temperature Co-fired Materials, Department of Chemistry, Huainan Normal University, Huainan, Anhui, 232001 (China); Ou, Xuemei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, 221116 (China); Zhao, Ling [Department of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Antimony was doped to barium strontium ferrite to produce ferrite-based perovskites with a composition of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}O{sub 3−δ} (x = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1) as novel cathode materials for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). The perovskite properties including oxygen nonstoichiometry (δ), mean valence of B-site, tolerance factors, thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) and electrical conductivity (σ) are explored as a function of antimony content. By defect chemistry analysis, the TECs decrease since the variable oxygen vacancy concentration is decreased by Sb doping, and σ decreases with x due to the reduced charge concentration of Fe{sup 4+} content. Consequently, the electrochemical performance was substantially improved and the interfacial polarization resistance was reduced from 0.213 to 0.120 Ωcm{sup 2} at 700 °C with Sb doping. The perovskite with x = 1.0 is suggested as the most promising composition as SOFC cathode material. - Highlights: • Antimony is doped to barium strontium ferrite to produce novel cathodes. • δ, TECs and σ are evaluated as a function of antimony content. • The electrochemical performance is substantially improved with antimony doping.

  12. Species-Specific Antimonial Sensitivity in Leishmania Is Driven by Post-Transcriptional Regulation of AQP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Goutam; Mandal, Srotoswati; Sharma, Mansi; Charret, Karen Santos; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Mukhopadhyay, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania is a digenetic protozoan parasite causing leishmaniasis in humans. The different clinical forms of leishmaniasis are caused by more than twenty species of Leishmania that are transmitted by nearly thirty species of phlebotomine sand flies. Pentavalent antimonials (such as Pentostam or Glucantime) are the first line drugs for treating leishmaniasis. Recent studies suggest that pentavalent antimony (Sb(V)) acts as a pro-drug, which is converted to the more active trivalent form (Sb(III)). However, sensitivity to trivalent antimony varies among different Leishmania species. In general, Leishmania species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are more sensitive to Sb(III) than the species responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Leishmania aquaglyceroporin (AQP1) facilitates the adventitious passage of antimonite down a concentration gradient. In this study, we show that Leishmania species causing CL accumulate more antimonite, and therefore exhibit higher sensitivity to antimonials, than the species responsible for VL. This species-specific differential sensitivity to antimonite is directly proportional to the expression levels of AQP1 mRNA. We show that the stability of AQP1 mRNA in different Leishmania species is regulated by their respective 3’-untranslated regions. The differential regulation of AQP1 mRNA explains the distinct antimonial sensitivity of each species. PMID:25714343

  13. Theoretical and experimental studies for selective removal of antimony from zircaloy using thiourea grafted polystyrene adsorbent. Contributed Paper MS-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Jyotsna S.; Gaikar, Vilas G.

    2014-01-01

    During the dissolution step in nuclear fuel reprocessing, hulls consisting of essentially zircaloy clad are produced as high active solid waste. For recovery and reuse of zircaloy from this solid waste, 58 Co and 125 Sb which are present as the activation products of cobalt and tin in zircaloy tubes need to be separated. The present work involves selective sorption of antimony on thiourea grafted polymeric adsorbent in the presence of cobalt and zirconium. The effect of pH for the optimum uptake of antimony ions was studied. Since the variation in pH influences the antimony species formed in the solution, density functional theoretical (DFT) studies were performed in order to understand the complexation of the metal species with the grafted adsorbent at the molecular level. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the adsorbent which is located on S atom of loaded thiourea interacts with lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of Sb(V). The grafted adsorbent exhibits higher interaction with antimony species as compared to cobalt and zirconium. The metal-S bond distances are in good agreement with the XRD values for similar systems. Including the effect of solvation model helps in validation of simulation results with experimental adsorption data suggesting the application of thiourea grafted adsorbent for antimony separation. (author)

  14. A global-scale dispersion analysis of iodine-129 from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Masato; Suzuki, Takashi; Nagai, Haruyasu; Togawa, Orihiko

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional global chemical transport model, MOZART-2, is applied to investigate the global-sale dispersion of Iodine-129 from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The concentration and deposition of 129 I obtained by MOZART-2 are dispersed all over the Northern Hemisphere. The emission of 129 I to the atmosphere is thus important in considering the transport of 129 I to remote sites. (author)

  15. Optimisation of the measurement protocols of 129I and 129I/127I. Methodology establishment for the measurement in environmental matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frechou, C.

    2000-01-01

    129 I, is a natural long-lived isotope, with a half-life of 15,7 million years, also artificially produced in nuclear power plant. It is then released in the liquid and gaseous effluents of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. 129 I is integrated in all biological compartments at different activity levels, depending on their distance from the emission source and their ability to metabolize iodine. Performances of the different 129 I and 129 I/ 127 I measurement techniques available: Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, direct γ-X spectrometry and liquid scintillation were evaluated. Associated radiochemical preparation steps of the two first techniques were optimized and adapted to the characteristics of the major environmental matrices. In a first step, the radiochemical protocols were developed and validated. In a second step, intercomparison exercises have been lead on various environmental samples presenting different 129 I activity levels. They showed the good agreement between the results given by the three techniques on different environmental matrices with activities between 0,2 and 200 Bq.kg -1 dry weight. As a conclusion, a methodology for the measurement of 129 I and 129 I/ 127 I ratio in environmental samples is proposed. It includes a decisional diagram taking into account the characteristics of the matrices, the detection limits and the answer delay. A study on the losses of 129 I during the calcination of an algae was lead by direct γ-X spectrometry and application studies were made to measure 129 I levels in different biological compartments issued from various locations: 129 I activity interspecific variation in different species of seaweeds from the French channel coast under the relative influence of La Hague, 129 I levels in bovine thyroids from the Cotentin area and 129 I in vegetal samples collected around the nuclear reprocessing plant of Marcoule. (author)

  16. Influence of antimony on the elctrochemical behaviour and the structure of the lead dioxide active mass of lead/acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, D. (Central Lab. of Electrochemical Power Sources, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)); Dakhouche, A. (Central Lab. of Electrochemical Power Sources, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)); Rogachev, T. (Central Lab. of Electrochemical Power Sources, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1993-01-29

    The effect of antimony on the formation of the skeleton structure of tubular electrodes filled with lead dioxide active mass (PAM) is investigated. Antimony is added as ions to the solution, as Sb[sub 2]O[sub 3] or Sb[sub 2]O[sub 5] to PAM, or as an additive to the electrode spine alloy. The effect of antimony on the crystallinity of PAM particles and agglomerates is examined. It is established that antimony increases the capacity of tubular powder electrodes when added either to the alloy or as antimony oxide to the PAM. It accelerates the processes of formation of the PAM skeleton structure and decreases the crystallinity of PAM particles and agglomerates. These effects of antimony are explained based on the concept of a gel-crystal structure for the PAM. Antimony improves the electron conductivity of gel zones. Its effect depends on the type and valency of the antimony ions, and on the density of the PAM. (orig.)

  17. 33 CFR 110.129a - Apra Harbor, Guam. (Datum: WGS 84)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, Guam. (Datum: WGS 84) 110.129a Section 110.129a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.129a Apra Harbor, Guam. (Datum: WGS 84) (a...

  18. 34 CFR 75.129 - Legal responsibilities of each member of the group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal responsibilities of each member of the group. 75.129 Section 75.129 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How To Apply for a Grant Group Applications § 75.129 Legal responsibilities of each member of the...

  19. 77 FR 27021 - Foreign-Trade Zone 129-Bellingham, WA; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... FTZ 131 zone projects under FTZ 129. FTZ 130 was approved by the Board on September 4, 1986 (51 FR... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [(B-32-2012)] Foreign-Trade Zone 129--Bellingham... to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board (the Board) by the Port of Bellingham, grantee of FTZ 129...

  20. 40 CFR 86.129-00 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inertia weight class determination. 86.129-00 Section 86.129-00 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination. Applicability. Section 86.129-94 (a) applies... testing using paragraphs (e)(1) and (e)(2) of this section. (f)(1) Required test dynamometer inertia...

  1. 34 CFR 300.129 - State responsibility regarding children in private schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... schools. 300.129 Section 300.129 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Children in Private Schools § 300.129 State responsibility regarding children in private schools. The State must have in effect...

  2. 16 CFR 1500.129 - Substances named in the Federal Caustic Poison Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Poison Act. 1500.129 Section 1500.129 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL... REGULATIONS § 1500.129 Substances named in the Federal Caustic Poison Act. The Commission finds that for those substances covered by the Federal Caustic Poison Act (44 Stat. 1406), the requirements of section 2(p)(1) of...

  3. Leachability of antimony from energy ashes. Total contents, leachability and remedial suggestions; Lakning av antimon fraan energiaskor. Totalhalter, lakbarhet samt foerslag till aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    In the current project total concentrations for antimony in 31 energy ashes have been compiled. The average concentration of antimony in boiler fly ash and grate boiler fly ash is 192 and 1,140 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding antimony concentrations for boiler ashes and grate bottom ashes are 86,5 and 61,8 mg/kg, respectively. Multivariate calculations clearly pointed out waste as the major source for antimony in ashes. The difference between total antimony concentration in fly ash and bottom ash is greatest for grate boilers, in average 18 times higher in the fly ash. The difference for CFB/BFB-boilers is only slightly more than 2. However, based on amount, 75% of the total antimony inventory is recovered in the fly ashes for both CFB/BFB and grate boilers. Eleven (eight of which were bottom ashes) out of the 31 samples exceeded the guidelines for inert waste. It is clear that the higher ionic strength in the solutions from the fly ashes contribute to decrease the solubility for critical minerals retaining antimony. In addition, the fly ashes have considerably larger effective surface able to sorb trace elements. A clear and positive covariance was discovered between aluminium and antimony. Furthermore, it was noted that antimony showed no typical anionic behaviour despite the fact that it according to the geochemical calculations should be present as SbO{sub 3}{sup -}. At L/S 10, a maximum of 1% of the total antimony concentration is leached. This should be compared to chloride that had 94% of the total concentration leached at L/S 10. There was no correlation between the leached antimony concentrations and the total antimony concentrations. The sequential extractions also suggest a low leachability for antimony from the ashes. In average only 9,6% is released at pH 7, 7,3% at pH 5, 3,6% during reducing conditions and 3,2% during oxidising conditions. In total, only 24% of the total antimony concentrations is released during the four extraction steps. The

  4. Excitation of high spin levels in 129Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.

    1976-01-01

    The level structure of 129 Ba has been studied by the 120 Sn( 12 C,3nγ) reaction. A set of negative-parity levels based upon a 9/2 - state is interpreted in terms of the rotation-alignment coupling of hsub(11/2) neutron holes to the triaxial core. A new band structure built upon a 7/2 + state is also observed. It could be due to the coupling of a gsub(7/2) neutron hole to the triaxial core [fr

  5. A social-scientific reading of Psalm 129

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Botha

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Psalm 129 is analysed as a poetic composition, as well as an ideological document. It was found that the social codes of honour and shame play an important role in what and how the psalm was supposed to communicate. It is described as an attempt to strengthen the cohesion and loyalty of an in-group of people living near or in Jerusalem. This group considers itself to be part of the people of Israel. Its members expect Yahweh to intervene on their behalf and to restore their (and his own honour by shaming their enemies.

  6. Cryptophane-Folate Biosensor for 129Xe NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    normal adult tissue, but as the name implies, this low affinity folate carrier is specific for the physiological form of reduced folic acid, 5- methyl ...yield. Finally, 3 was treated with 1.5 equiv of 6 and N- methyl -1,5,9-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]-decene (MTBD) in dry DMSO to give the folate recognition moiety...Cryptophane- Folate Biosensor for 129Xe NMR Najat S. Khan, Brittany A. Riggle, Garry K. Seward, Yubin Bai, and Ivan J. Dmochowski* Department of

  7. DETERMINATION OF THE 129I IN PRIMARY COOLANT OF PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KE CHON CHOI

    2013-02-01

    In this report, the effect of the boron content in a pressurized-water reactor primary coolant on the separation process of 129I was examined, as was the effect of 3H on the measurement of the activity of iodine. As a result, no influence of the boron content and of the simultaneous 3H presence was found with activity concentrations of 3H lower than 50 Bq/mL, and with a boron concentration of less than 2,000 μg/mL.

  8. Spins, Electromagnetic Moments, and Isomers of 107-129Cd

    CERN Document Server

    Yordanov, D T; Bieron, J; Bissell, M L; Blaum, K; Budincevic, I; Fritzsche, S; Frommgen, N; Georgiev, G; Geppert, Ch; Hammen, M; Kowalska, M; Kreim, K; Krieger, A; Neugart, R; Nortershauser, W; Papuga, J; Schmidt, S

    2013-01-01

    The neutron-rich isotopes of cadmium up to the N=82 shell closure have been investigated by high-resolution laser spectroscopy. Deep-UV excitation at 214.5 nm and radioactive-beam bunching provided the required experimental sensitivity. Long-lived isomers are observed in 127Cd and 129Cd for the first time. One essential feature of the spherical shell model is unambiguously confirmed by a linear increase of the 11/2- quadrupole moments. Remarkably, this mechanism is found to act well beyond the h11/2 shell.

  9. Electric dipole moment searches using the isotope 129-xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchler, Florian

    2014-11-13

    Two new complementary experiments searching for a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of 129-xenon are presented. Besides demonstration of a sensitivity improvement by employing established methods and a highly sensitive SQUID detection system the progress towards a novel measurement approach is discussed. The new method introduces time-varying electric fields and a liquid hyper-polarized xenon sample with a potential improvement in sensitivity of three orders of magnitude. The search for EDMs is motivated by their symmetry-breaking nature. A non-zero EDM provides a new source of CP violation to solve the mystery of the huge excess of matter over anti-matter in our Universe.

  10. Environmental behavior of technetium-99 and iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, T.R.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental behavior of technetium-99 and iodine-129 was once thought to be similar, particularly with respect to their soil solubility and biological interactions. Over the past several years, the comparative behavior of these two anions has been studied with respect to their fate in natural environments (both aquatic and terrestrial). The mechanisms studied include physical, chemical and biological parameters that account for differences in soil behavior, cycling between soil and/or air to vegetation, adsorption and metabolism in plants, and their availability and fate following ingestion by animals

  11. Transmutation of 129I Using an Accelerator-Driven System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Kenji; Takano, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    A conceptual blanket design for 129 I transmutation is proposed for an accelerator-driven system (ADS) that is designed to transmute minor actinides (MAs). In this ADS, 250 kg/yr of MA and 56 kg/yr of iodine are simultaneously transmuted, and they correspond to the quantities generated from ∼10 units of existing light water reactors. Furthermore, an introduction scenario and the benefit of iodine transmutation are studied for future introduction of fast breeder reactors. It is shown that the transmutation of iodine benefits the concept of underground disposal

  12. Synthesis, characterization and single crystal X-ray analysis of chlorobis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S′antimony(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.S. Chauhan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound chlorobis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S′antimony(III has been prepared in distilled acetonitrile and characterized by physicochemical [melting point and molecular weight determination, elemental analysis (C, H, N, S & Sb], spectral [FT–IR, far IR, NMR (1H & 13C] studies. The crystal and molecular structure was further confirmed using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis which features a five-coordinate geometry for antimony(III within a ClS4 donor set. The distortion in the co-planarity of ClSbS3 evidences the stereochemical influence exerts by the lone pair of electrons on antimony(III. Two centrosymmetrically related molecule held together via C–H···Cl secondary interaction result in molecular aggregation of the compound.

  13. Selective liquid-liquid extraction of antimony(III from hydrochloric acid media by N-n-octylaniline in xylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ANUSE

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available N-n-Octylaniline in xylene was used for the extraction separation of antimony(III from hydrochloric acid media. Antimony(III was extracted quantitatively with 10 mL 4 % N-n-octylaniline in xylene. It was stripped from the organic phase with 0.5 M ammonia and estimated photometrically by the iodide method. The effect of metal ion, acid, reagent concentration and various foreign ions was investigated. The method affords binary and ternary separation of antimony(III from tellurium(IV, selenium(IV, lead(II, bismuth(III, tin(IV, germanium(IV, copper(II, gold(III, iron(III and zinc(II. The method is applicable for the analysis of synthetic mixtures, alloys and semiconductor thin films. It is fast, accurate and precise.

  14. Iodine-129 in Snow and Seawater in the Antarctic: Level and Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Shan; Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic 129I has been released to the environment in different ways and chemical species by human nuclear activities since the 1940s. These sources provide ideal tools to trace the dispersion of volatile pollutants in the atmosphere. Snow and seawater samples collected in Bellingshausen...... sites in the Southern Hemisphere. This feature indicates that 129I in Antarctic snow mainly originates from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing from 1945 to 1980; resuspension and re-emission of the fallout 129I in the Southern Hemisphere maintains the 129I level in the Antarctic atmosphere. 129I...

  15. Antimony Adsorption from Zarshouran Gold Mineral Processing Plant Wastewater by Nano Zero Valent Iron Coated on Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nader nosrati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effluent from Zarshouran gold mineral processing plant contains high quantities of arsenic, antimony, mercury, and bismuth. These metals and metalloids are soluble in water and very toxic when they enter the environment. Their solubility in water causes the polluted area to extend beyond their point of origin. In this article, different methods of antimony removal from water and wastewater were reviewed and the zero-valent iron nanoparticles coated on Bentonite were selected as an effective and low cost material for removing antimony from wastewater. For the purposes of this study, zero-valent iron nanoparticles of 40-100 nanometers in size were synthesized by dropwise addition of sodium borohydride solution to an Iron (III aqueous solution at  ambient temperature and mixed with nitrogen gas. To avoid particle agglomeration and to enhance the product’s environmentally safe application, the  nanoparticles were coated on Bentonite and characterized by SEM/EDAX and BET. The experiments were carried out by intense mixing of the adsorbent with 10ml of real/synthtic wastewater samples in 20ml bottles.  The effects of pH, contact time, temperature, and adsorbent dosage on antimony removal efficiency were investigated under intense mixing using a magnetic mixer. Finally, the effluents were filtered upon completion of the experiments and used for atomic adsorption analysis. The results of the experiments showed that the adsorption isotherms of the synthesized nanoparticles obeyed the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The experiments carried out on real samples showed that antimony adsorption capacity for B-nZVI was 2.6 mg/g of the adsorbent and that the highest antimony removal efficiency was 99.56%.

  16. One-Step Extraction of Antimony in Low Temperature from Stibnite Concentrate Using Iron Oxide as Sulfur-Fixing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new process for one-step extraction of antimony in low temperature from stibnite concentrate by reductive sulfur-fixation smelting in sodium molten salt, using iron oxide as sulfur-fixing agent, was presented. The influences of molten salt addition and composition, ferric oxide dosage, smelting temperature and duration on extraction efficiency of antimony were investigated in details, respectively. The optimum conditions were determined as follows: 1.0 time stoichiometric requirement (α of mixed sodium salt (αsalt = 1.0, WNaCl:Wsalt = 40%, αFe2O3 = 1.0, Wcoke:Wstibnite = 40%, where W represents weight, smelting at 850 °C (1123 K for 60 min. Under the optimum conditions, the direct recovery rate of antimony can reach 91.48%, and crude antimony with a purity of 96.00% has been achieved. 95.31% of sulfur is fixed in form of FeS in the presence of iron oxide. Meanwhile, precious metals contained in stibnite concentrate are enriched and recovered comprehensively in crude antimony. In comparison to traditional antimony pyrometallurgical process, the smelting temperature of present process is reduced from 1150–1200 °C (1423–1473 K to 850–900 °C (1123–1173 K. Sulfur obtained in stibnite is fixed in FeS which avoids SO2 emission owing to the sulfur-fixing agent. Sodium salt can be regenerated and recycled in smelting system when the molten slag is operated to filter solid residue. The solid residue is subjected to mineral dressing operation to obtain iron sulfide concentrate which can be sold directly or roasted to regenerate into iron oxide.

  17. Nanoscaled hydrated antimony (V oxide as a new approach to first-line antileishmanial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco AMR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antonia MR Franco,1 Iryna Grafova,2 Fabiane V Soares,1,3 Gennaro Gentile,4 Claudia DC Wyrepkowski,1,3 Marcos A Bolson,5 Ézio Sargentini Jr,5 Cosimo Carfagna,4 Markku Leskelä,2 Andriy Grafov2 1Laboratory of Leishmaniasis and Chagas Disease, National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; 2Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 3Multi-Institutional Post-Graduate Program in Biotechnology, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; 4Institute for Polymers, Composites, and Biomaterials, National Research Council, Pozzuoli, Naples Province, Italy; 5Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil Background: Coordination compounds of pentavalent antimony have been, and remain, the first-line drugs in leishmaniasis treatment for >70 years. Molecular forms of Sb (V complexes are commercialized as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam® and meglumine antimoniate (MA (Glucantime®. Ever-increasing drug resistance in the parasites limits the use of antimonials, due to the low drug concentrations being administered against high parasitic counts. Sb5+ toxicity provokes severe side effects during treatment. To enhance therapeutic potency and to increase Sb (V concentration within the target cells, we decided to try a new active substance form, a hydrosol of Sb2O5⋅nH2O nanoparticles (NPs, instead of molecular drugs. Methodology/principal findings: Sb2O5⋅nH2O NPs were synthesized by controlled SbCl5 hydrolysis in a great excess of water. Sb2O5⋅nH2O phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The surface of Sb (V NPs was treated with ligands with a high affinity for target cell membrane receptors. The mean particle size determined by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy was ~35–45 nm. In vitro tests demonstrated a 2.5–3 times higher antiparasitic activity of Sb (V nanohybrid hydrosols

  18. Role of efflux pumps and intracellular thiols in natural antimony resistant isolates of Leishmania donovani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Rai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In view of the recent upsurge in the phenomenon of therapeutic failure, drug resistance in Leishmania, developed under natural field conditions, has become a great concern yet little understood. Accordingly, the study of determinants of antimony resistance is urgently warranted. Efflux transporters have been reported in Leishmania but their role in clinical resistance is still unknown. The present study was designed to elucidate the mechanism of natural antimony resistance in L. donovani field isolates by analyzing the functionality of efflux pump(s and expression profiles of known genes involved in transport and thiol based redox metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected 7 clinical isolates (2 sensitive and 5 resistant in addition to laboratory sensitive reference and SbIII resistant mutant strains for the present study. Functional characterization using flow cytometry identified efflux pumps that transported substrates of both P-gp and MRPA and were inhibited by the calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine. For the first time, verapamil sensitive efflux pumps for rhodamine 123 were observed in L. donovani that were differentially active in resistant isolates. RT-PCR confirmed the over-expression of MRPA in isolates with high resistance index only. Resistant isolates also exhibited consistent down regulation of AQP1 and elevated intracellular thiol levels which were accompanied with increased expression of ODC and TR genes. Interestingly, γ-GCS is not implicated in clinical resistance in L. donovani isolates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we demonstrate for the first time, the role of P-gp type plasma membrane efflux transporter(s in antimony resistance in L. donovani field isolates. Further, decreased levels of AQP1 and elevated thiols levels have emerged as biomarkers for clinical resistance.

  19. Development and pharmacokinetic of antimony encapsulated in liposomes of phosphatidylserine using radioisotopes in experimental leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis are a complex of parasitic diseases caused by intra macrophage protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and is fatal if left untreated. Pentavalent antimonials, though toxic and their mechanism of action being unclear, remain the first-line drugs for treatment. Effective therapy could be achieved by delivering antileishmanial drugs to these sites of infection. Liposomes are phospholipid vesicles that promote improvement in the efficacy and action of drugs in target cell. Liposomes are taken up by the cells of mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS). The purpose of this study was to develop a preparation of meglumine antimonate encapsulated in liposomes of phosphatidylserine and to study its pharmacokinetic in healthy mice to establish its metabolism and distribution. Quantitative analysis of antimony from liposomes demonstrated that Neutron Activation Analysis was the most sensitive technique with almost 100 % of accuracy. All liposome formulations presented a mean diameter size of 150 nm. The determination of IC 50 in infected macrophage showed that liposome formulations were between 10 - 63 fold more effective than the free drug, indicating higher selectivity index. By fluorescence microscopy, an increased uptake of fluorescent-liposomes was seen in infected macrophages during short times of incubation compared with non-infected macrophages. Biodistribution studies showed that meglumine antimonate irradiated encapsulated in liposomes of phosphatidylserine promoted a targeting of antimony for MPS tissues and maintained high doses in organs for a prolonged period. In conclusion, these data suggest that meglumine antimonate encapsulated in liposomes showed higher effectiveness than the non-liposomal drug against Leishmania infection. The development of liposome formulations should be a new alternative for the chemotherapy of infection diseases, especially Leishmaniasis, as they are used to sustain and target pharmaceuticals to the local of infection. (author)

  20. Silver and Nitrate Oppositely Modulate Antimony Susceptibility through Aquaglyceroporin 1 in Leishmania (Viannia) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Juvana M; Baba, Elio H; Machado-de-Avila, Ricardo A; Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos; Demicheli, Cynthia P; Frézard, Frédéric; Monte-Neto, Rubens L; Murta, Silvane M F

    2016-08-01

    Antimony (Sb) resistance in leishmaniasis chemotherapy has become one of the major challenges to the control of this spreading worldwide public health problem. Since the plasma membrane pore-forming protein aquaglyceroporin 1 (AQP1) is the major route of Sb uptake in Leishmania, functional studies are relevant to characterize drug transport pathways in the parasite. We generated AQP1-overexpressing Leishmania guyanensis and L. braziliensis mutants and investigated their susceptibility to the trivalent form of Sb (Sb(III)) in the presence of silver and nitrate salts. Both AQP1-overexpressing lines presented 3- to 4-fold increased AQP1 expression levels compared with those of their untransfected counterparts, leading to an increased Sb(III) susceptibility of about 2-fold. Competition assays using silver nitrate, silver sulfadiazine, or silver acetate prior to Sb(III) exposure increased parasite growth, especially in AQP1-overexpressing mutants. Surprisingly, Sb(III)-sodium nitrate or Sb(III)-potassium nitrate combinations showed significantly enhanced antileishmanial activities compared to those of Sb(III) alone, especially against AQP1-overexpressing mutants, suggesting a putative nitrate-dependent modulation of AQP1 activity. The intracellular level of antimony quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry showed that the concomitant exposure to Sb(III) and nitrate favors antimony accumulation in the parasite, increasing the toxicity of the drug and culminating with parasite death. This is the first report showing evidence of AQP1-mediated Sb(III) susceptibility modulation by silver in Leishmania and suggests the potential antileishmanial activity of the combination of nitrate salts and Sb(III). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Field-portable-XRF reveals the ubiquity of antimony in plastic consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Filella, Montserrat

    2017-04-15

    Very little systematic information exists on the occurrence and concentrations of antimony (Sb) in consumer products. In this study, a Niton XL3t field-portable-X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometer was deployed in situ and in the laboratory to provide quantitative information on Sb dissipated in plastic items and fixtures (including rubber, textile and foamed materials) from the domestic, school, vehicular and office settings. The metalloid was detected in 18% of over 800 measurements performed, with concentrations ranging from about 60 to 60,000μgg -1 . The highest concentrations were encountered in white, electronic casings and in association with similar concentrations of Br, consistent with the use of antimony oxides (e.g. Sb 2 O 3 ) as synergistic flame retardants. Concentrations above 1000μgg -1 , and with or without Br, were also encountered in paints, piping and hosing, adhesives, whiteboards, Christmas decorations, Lego blocks, document carriers, garden furniture, upholstered products and interior panels of private motor vehicles. Lower concentrations of Sb were encountered in a wide variety of items but its presence (without Br) in food tray packaging, single-use drinks bottles, straws and small toys were of greatest concern from a human health perspective. While the latter observations are consistent with the use of antimony compounds as catalysts in the production of polyethylene terephthalate, co-association of Sb and Br in many products not requiring flame retardancy suggests that electronic casings are widely recycled. Further research is required into the mobility of Sb when dissipated in new, recycled and aged polymeric materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dual mode antimony electrode for simultaneous measurements of PO2 and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, F; Nilsson, G

    2000-01-01

    In biomedical research and clinical medicine there is a demand for potent sensors to measure the components that make up blood gas analyses. Today, as when the electrochemical PO2, PCO2 and pH electrodes were first introduced, these measurements are usually made with the same type of sensor technology. The aims of the present study were, firstly, to find out whether the platinum cathode in the Clark electrode can be replaced by antimony for oxygen measurements (amperometry (A)); secondly, whether, during oxygen measurements, the inherent corrosion potential of the antimony metal can be used for measurement of pH in the same measurement area (potentiometry (P)). An electrode of purified, crystallographically orientated monocrystalline antimony (COMA) connected to a reference electrode (silver-silver chloride) was used for the P measurements. Measurements of A (at -900 mV) and P were made in an aqueous environment regulated for oxygen, pH, and temperature. Reproducible oxygen sensitivities of 0.925 nA/% oxygen (2% CV (coefficient of variation)) (A), 10.7 mV/% (P), and 0.7 mV/% (P) were found in the oxygen range: 0-21%, <5%, and above 5%, respectively. The pH sensitivity was 57 mV/pH unit (P). Oxygen and pH measurements were less accurate at oxygen concentrations close to 0%. Both the oxygen and pH part of the composite electrode signal can be identified by this dual mode technique (A and P). The sensor seems to be promising as it provides measurements of two separate variables (oxygen and pH) and also has the desirable characteristics of a solid state sensor.

  3. Influence of nanosized inclusions on the room temperature thermoelectrical properties of a p-type bismuth–tellurium–antimony alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard-Granger, Guillaume; Addad, Ahmed; Navone, Christelle; Soulier, Mathieu; Simon, Julia; Szkutnik, Pierre-David

    2012-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy observations and thermoelectrical property measurements (electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity) at room temperature have been completed on two fully dense polycrystalline p-type bismuth–tellurium–antimony alloy samples. It is shown that the presence of antimony oxide-based nanosized inclusions (controlled as to volume fraction and size distribution), homogeneously dispersed in the surrounding matrix leads to a dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) of ∼1.3 at room temperature. For comparison, when such inclusions are missing the ZT value is only 0.6.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical performances of new antimony-containing graphite compounds used as anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dailly, A.; Willmann, P.; Billaud, D.

    2002-01-01

    Graphite intercalation intercalated with metal alloys able to alloy reversibly lithium constitute a large set of new anodic materials for lithium-ion batteries of significantly improved reversible capacities. Especially, graphite intercalated with cesium-antimony alloys can be used as materials for anodes in lithium-ion batteries. Electrochemical insertion of lithium in such chemically modified precursors shows that lithium both intercalates in the empty van der Waals spaces of graphite and alloys reversibly with antimony. The total electrochemical reversible capacities, measured between 0 and 2 V vs Li + /Li, close to 700 mAh g -1 have been currently obtained

  5. Origin of I in soil and the 129I problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    It is widely believed that the I in soil is derived from the I in oceans by evaporating-atmospheric transport-washout by rain over land, rather than from the I in rock when the latter is weathered into soil. Since human I burdens are derived largely from soil by plant root uptake into food, this implies that the specific activity of 129 I in the I of human thyroids will be the same as that in the oceans, whereas it would be similar to that in rock (much lower) if the I in soil were derived from weathering of rock as is the case for other heavy trace elements. The bases for the oceanic origin theory are analyzed and found not to be in accord with modern data. Recent data shows no correlation between concentration of I in soil and proximity to oceans, which argues strongly against the oceanic origin theory. Some problems with long-distance atmospheric transport are pointed out. It is concluded that only a small fraction of the I in soils is of oceanic origin. Most estimates of very long-term effects of 129 I on human health are therefore several times too high

  6. Methods of iodine-129 analysis for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Aiji; Miyagawa, Naoto; Nomura, Tamotsu; Kinoshita, Mutsumi

    1976-01-01

    Some methods for the analysis of I-129 in the environment are described. Iodide ion in seawater is coprecipitated with chloride ion by silver citrate powder, and that in seaweeds and in sediment is sublimated by heating at about 900 0 C in O 2 atmosphere, and then the iodine is trapped in cooled NaOH and NaHSO 3 mixed solution. The trapped iodine is precipitated with AgNO 3 solution for γ-/X-ray spectrometry (detection limit asymptotically equals 30 pCi), or extracted into toluene scintillater solution for liquid scintillation counting. The decomposition of AgI is necessary for low level I-129 measurement; The AgI was transfered in a flask, added with 2N H 2 SO 4 and Zn sand, and decomposed by stirring for 2 hr. Filtered the solution, added 0.5 g of NaNO 2 and toluene scintillater to extract the iodine then added 1 ml of 2-methyl 1-butene to decolorize, the solution is measured by a liquid scintillation counter (detection limit asymptotically equals 1 pCi). This method can be applied for monitoring of low level radioactive water waste. (auth.)

  7. The measurement of I-129 in the Canadian Arctic basin and other Arctic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilius, L.R.; Zhao, X.L.

    1995-01-01

    Since the first demonstration by accelerator mass spectrometry for the measurement of 129 I in oceanic systems, the use of 129 I as a long range tracer has become widespread because the constraint of large sample volumes has been removed. Following extensive measurements of 129 I in both the Barents and Kara Seas, seawater samples were collected within the Canadian Arctic Basin, and at a cruise from the Chuchi Sea, across the pole, to the Norwegian Sea. Only 450 ml samples were required for all AMS measurements of Arctic seawater. Enhanced concentrations of 129 I were observed. Based on 137 Cs measurements for the same samples, the 129 I/ 137 Cs ratios showed the signature of Sellafield reprocessing effluents as the primary source of this 129 I. Based on average estimates, 13% of the total Sellafield/La Hague 129 I emissions now resides within the Atlantic layer of the Arctic Ocean. 7 refs., 3 figs

  8. Determination of arsenic, selenium and antimony by neutron activation analysis. Application to hair samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.; Hoede, D.; Nieuwendijk, B.J.T.; Sloot, H.A. van der; Teunissen, G.J.A.; Woittiez, J.R.W.

    1983-04-01

    A fast rabbit system for instrumental activation analysis with reactor neutrons is described. Its use in the determination of selenium in hair is discussed. A survey is given of the correction factors which are inherent to the use of short-lived radionuclides. An alternative to INAA is NAA based on the separation of arsenic, selenium and antimony by hydride evaporation and adsorption to active carbon. Data for some Standard Reference Materials are given. This work was done under research contract 2440/RI/RB with the IAEA

  9. Some organoperoxo complexes of antimony, niobium and tantalum and their oxidation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarafder, M.T.H.

    1999-05-01

    Several novel organoperoxo complexes of Nb(V), Ta(V) and Sb(V) have been synthesized and characterized. The complexes have the compositions [M(O 2 ) 2 L Cl] and [M(O 2 ) 2 L'] [L = monodentate and bidentate, neutral ligand; L' = bidentate, uninegative ligand]. These complexes are very reactive to both organic and inorganic substrates. Niobium and tantalum complexes were found to oxidize phosphines and arsines to their oxides. These also oxidize olefins to epoxides under stoichiometric conditions while under catalytic conditions, ring opening of the epoxides occur producing α-hydroxyketone when the substrate is trans-stilbene. The antimony complexes are decidedly inert towards oxidation. (author)

  10. 78 FR 59679 - Antimony Trioxide TSCA Chemical Risk Assessment; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunity To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ...EPA's contractor, The Scientific Consulting Group (SCG), Inc., has identified a panel of scientific experts to conduct a peer review of EPA's draft Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) chemical risk assessment, ``TSCA Workplan Chemical Risk Assessment for Antimony Trioxide.'' EPA will hold three peer review meetings by web connect and teleconference. EPA invites the public to register to attend the meetings as observers and/or speakers providing oral comments during any or all of the peer review meetings as discussed in this notice. The public may also provide comment on whether they believe the appearance of conflict of interest exists for any proposed peer review panel expert.

  11. Polymorphism and properties of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} doped with pentavalent antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharitonova, E.P.; Belov, D.A. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gagor, A.B.; Pietraszko, A.P. [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okólna 2, 50-950 Wrocław (Poland); Alekseeva, O.A. [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 59, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation); Voronkova, V.I., E-mail: voronk@polly.phys.msu.ru [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-05

    Highlights: • The limit of Bi{sub 2}W{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}O{sub 6−y} solid solutions is at x = 0.05. • Bi{sub 2}W{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}O{sub 6−y} does not fully transform into high-temperature monoclinic phase. • Sb{sup 5+} has a weak effect on the temperatures of the ferroelectric transitions. • γ→γ{sup ‴} transition near 650 °C was observed as strong permittivity peak at 0.01–8 Hz. • The conductivity of Bi{sub 2}W{sub 0.96}Sb{sub 0.04}O{sub 6−y} at 800 °C reaches 0.02 S/cm. -- Abstract: Antimony-containing solid solutions isostructural with bismuth tungstate, Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}, have been prepared in air as polycrystalline samples by solid-state reactions and as single crystals by unseeded flux growth. The antimony in the solid solutions is in a pentavalent state and substitutes for tungsten in the structure of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. The Bi{sub 2}W{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}O{sub 6−y} solid solutions have been shown to exist in the composition range 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.05. We have examined the effect of Sb{sup 5+} doping on the polymorphism and properties of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. In contrast to undoped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}, antimony-substituted bismuth tungstate does not completely transform into its high-temperature, monoclinic phase at 960 °C and remains two-phase up to temperatures approaching its melting point. Antimony substitution for tungsten has a weak effect on the temperatures of the ferroelectric phase transitions. Heterovalent substitution of Sb{sup 5+} for W{sup 6+} is accompanied by the formation of extra oxygen vacancies and an increase in the electrical conductivity of the solid solutions by one to two orders of magnitude relative to undoped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}.

  12. Separation of antimony from synthetic cloth. Application in forensic science using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadkambekar, C.A.; Swain, K.K.; Kayasth, S.R.; Mukherjee, T.

    2005-01-01

    A simple ion-exchange separation procedure was developed for selective removal of antimony from synthetic cloth to facilitate determination of several trace elements frequently used to identify gunshot residues by neutron activation analysis. Radiotracers of Sb, Ba, Cu, Co, As, Zn, Hg and Ag were employed to optimize the developed procedure. The method involves the quantitative retention of the above elements, except of Sb, from 0.2M ammonium carbonate solution using Chelex 100 resin and subsequent quantitative elution of the elements of interest with 2M nitric acid for gamma-ray spectrometry. The procedure was tested by simulated gunshot residues. (author)

  13. Dehydrogenation of Ethylbenzene with Carbon Dioxide as Soft Oxidant over Supported Vanadium-Antimony Oxide Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Do Young; Vislovskiy, Vladislav P.; Yoo, Jin S.; Chang, Jong San [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Eon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Min Seok [Mongolia International University, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    2005-11-15

    This work presents that carbon dioxide, which is a main contributor to the global warming effect, could be utilized as a selective oxidant in the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. The dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene over alumina-supported vanadium-antimony oxide catalyst has been studied under different atmospheres such as inert nitrogen, steam, oxygen or carbon dioxide as diluent or oxidant. Among them, the addition of carbon dioxide gave the highest styrene yield (up to 82%) and styrene selectivity (up to 97%) along with stable activity. Carbon dioxide could play a beneficial role of a selective oxidant in the improvement of the catalytic behavior through the oxidative pathway.

  14. An improved analytical method for iodine-129 determination in low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Kong; Wang, TsingHai; Jian, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Han; Wang, Chu-Fang [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences; Tsai, Tsuey-Lin [Atomic Energy Council, Taiwan (China). Chemical Analysis Div.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, an alkaline-digestion pretreatment and a subsequent ICP-MS measurement were conducted for iodine-129 (I-129) determination in low-level radioactive waste. A TMAH + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} + Triton X-100 mixed alkaline digestion was the most effective mixture for I-129 determination. Using this alkaline reagent, a high level of I-129 recovery (101 ± 6%) was achieved for the analysis of the I-129-spiked standard reference materials NIST 2709 and 2711. Importantly, the I-129 concentrations determined for ten real samples provided by the Lan-Yu radioactive waste temporary storage site were found to be below the detection limit (0.011 mg/kg). This value was only approximately 30-70% of the values determined using the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor. This means that using the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor severely overestimates the I-129 concentration in these low-level radioactive wastes. We therefore suggest that a detailed re-inspection of the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor should be performed to appropriately categorize these low-level radioactive wastes.

  15. Reconstructing surface ocean circulation with 129I time series records from corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Chih; Burr, George S; Jull, A J Timothy; Russell, Joellen L; Biddulph, Dana; White, Lara; Prouty, Nancy G; Chen, Yue-Gau; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Zhou, Weijian; Lam, Doan Dinh

    2016-12-01

    The long-lived radionuclide 129 I (half-life: 15.7 × 10 6  yr) is well-known as a useful environmental tracer. At present, the global 129 I in surface water is about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than pre-1960 levels. Since the 1990s, anthropogenic 129 I produced from industrial nuclear fuels reprocessing plants has been the primary source of 129 I in marine surface waters of the Atlantic and around the globe. Here we present four coral 129 I time series records from: 1) Con Dao and 2) Xisha Islands, the South China Sea, 3) Rabaul, Papua New Guinea and 4) Guam. The Con Dao coral 129 I record features a sudden increase in 129 I in 1959. The Xisha coral shows similar peak values for 129 I as the Con Dao coral, punctuated by distinct low values, likely due to the upwelling in the central South China Sea. The Rabaul coral features much more gradual 129 I increases in the 1970s, similar to a published record from the Solomon Islands. The Guam coral 129 I record contains the largest measured values for any site, with two large peaks, in 1955 and 1959. Nuclear weapons testing was the primary 129 I source in the Western Pacific in the latter part of the 20th Century, notably from testing in the Marshall Islands. The Guam 1955 peak and Con Dao 1959 increases are likely from the 1954 Castle Bravo test, and the Operation Hardtack I test is the most likely source of the 1959 peak observed at Guam. Radiogenic iodine found in coral was carried primarily through surface ocean currents. The coral 129 I time series data provide a broad picture of the surface distribution and depth penetration of 129 I in the Pacific Ocean over the past 60 years. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Iodine-129 as a long-lived tracer in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, R.; Ernst, T.; Szidat; Schnabel, C.; Synal, H.-A.

    2002-01-01

    129 I is an important tracer of human activities as well of environmental processes. However, its potential can only be exploited if the 129 I abundances in and the pathways between the different environmental compartments are known. Until today, our knowledge of the radioecology of 129 I is still insufficient. Results are presented from a long-term project which shall improve this situation. 129 I and 127 I abundances were investigated in precipitation, surface and ground waters from Lower Saxony, Germany, and in soil samples from various European locations. From the analysis of 129 I in rain, 129 I annual deposition densities were determined for the time period from 1997- 1999. We conclude that 129 I deposition rates in Switzerland and Germany increased by three orders of magnitude since 1950 and changed just little after 1987. The different 129 I/ 127 I ratios in precipitation, surface and ground waters allow to estimate mean residence times of iodine in surface soil zones. From the analysis of soils, 129 I deposition densities at various places of Europe were determined. Thereby, the 129 I natural equilibrium deposition density as well as that of the fall-out from atmospheric weapon tests was estimated. Elevated 129 I abundances in Ukrainian soils contaminated by Chernobyl fall-out provide a basis for retrospective dosimetry of the radiation exposure due to 131 I. Soil profiles from Germany exhibit the influence of ongoing emissions from European reprocessing plants and demonstrate the complexity of iodine migration. Biospheric 129 I/ 127 I ratios in Germany are an order of magnitude lower than in precipitation. Because of the disequilibrium of iodine isotopes in the different compartments further detailed investigations of the pathways of 129 I through the environment to man are considered necessary. (author)

  17. Structural and optical study on antimony-silicate glasses doped with thulium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorosz, D; Zmojda, J; Kochanowicz, M; Miluski, P; Jelen, P; Sitarz, M

    2015-01-05

    Structural, spectroscopic and thermal properties of SiO₂-Al₂O₃-Sb₂O₃-Na₂O glass system doped with 0.2 mol% Tm₂O₃ have been presented. Synthesis of antimony-silicate glasses with relatively low phonon energy (600 cm(-1), which implicates a small non-radiative decay rate) was performed by conventional high-temperature melt-quenching methods. The effect of SiO₂/Sb₂O₃ ratio in fabricated Tm(3+) doped glass on thermal, structural and luminescence properties was investigated. On the basis of structural investigations decomposition of absorption bands in the infrared FTIR region was performed, thus determining that antimony ions are the only glass-forming ions, setting up the lattice of fabricated glasses. Luminescence band at the wavelength of 1.8 μm corresponding to (3)F₄→(3)H₆ transition in thulium ions was obtained under 795 nm laser pumping. It was observed that combination of relatively low phonon energy and greater separation of optically active centers in the fabricated glasses influenced in decreasing the luminescence intensity at 1800 nm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of Hyphenated Techniques in Speciation Analysis of Arsenic, Antimony, and Thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmund Michalski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that metals and metalloids have a strong impact on the environment, the methods of their determination and speciation have received special attention in recent years. Arsenic, antimony, and thallium are important examples of such toxic elements. Their speciation is especially important in the environmental and biomedical fields because of their toxicity, bioavailability, and reactivity. Recently, speciation analytics has been playing a unique role in the studies of biogeochemical cycles of chemical compounds, determination of toxicity and ecotoxicity of selected elements, quality control of food products, control of medicines and pharmaceutical products, technological process control, research on the impact of technological installation on the environment, examination of occupational exposure, and clinical analysis. Conventional methods are usually labor intensive, time consuming, and susceptible to interferences. The hyphenated techniques, in which separation method is coupled with multidimensional detectors, have become useful alternatives. The main advantages of those techniques consist in extremely low detection and quantification limits, insignificant interference, influence as well as high precision and repeatability of the determinations. In view of their importance, the present work overviews and discusses different hyphenated techniques used for arsenic, antimony, and thallium species analysis, in different clinical, environmental and food matrices.

  19. Effect of indium and antimony doping in SnS single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaki, Sunil H., E-mail: sunilchaki@yahoo.co.in; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M.P.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Single crystals growth of pure SnS, indium doped SnS and antimony doped SnS by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. • Doping of In and Sb occurred in SnS single crystals by cation replacement. • The replacement mechanism ascertained by EDAX, XRD and substantiated by Raman spectra analysis. • Dopants concentration affects the optical energy bandgap. • Doping influences electrical transport properties. - Abstract: Single crystals of pure SnS, indium (In) doped SnS and antimony (Sb) doped SnS were grown by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. Two doping concentrations of 5% and 15% each were employed for both In and Sb dopants. Thus in total five samples were studied viz., pure SnS (S1), 5% In doped SnS (S2), 15% In doped SnS (S3), 5% Sb doped SnS (S4) and 15% Sb doped SnS (S5). The grown single crystal samples were characterized by evaluating their surface microstructure, stoichiometric composition, crystal structure, Raman spectroscopy, optical and electrical transport properties using appropriate techniques. The d.c. electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power variations with temperature showed semiconducting and p-type nature of the as-grown single crystal samples. The room temperature Hall Effect measurements further substantiated the semiconducting and p-type nature of the as-grown single crystal samples. The obtained results are deliberated in detail.

  20. Effect of electronic contribution on temperature-dependent thermal transport of antimony telluride thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won-Yong; Park, No-Won [Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Ji-Eun [Department of Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Soon-Gil, E-mail: sgyoon@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Jung-Hyuk [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Kwon, E-mail: sangkwonlee@cau.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • We investigated thermal transport of the antimony telluride thin films. • The contribution of the electronic thermal conductivity increased up to ∼77% at 300 K. • We theoretically analyze and explain the high contribution of electronic component. - Abstract: We study the theoretical and experimental characteristics of thermal transport of 100 nm and 500 nm-thick antimony telluride (Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The thermal conductivity was measured at temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 K, using four-point-probe 3-ω method. Out-of-plane thermal conductivity of the Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin film was much lesser in comparison to the bulk material in the entire temperature range, confirming that the phonon- and electron-boundary scattering are enhanced in thin films. Moreover, we found that the contribution of the electronic thermal conductivity (κ{sub e}) in total thermal conductivity (κ) linearly increased up to ∼77% at 300 K with increasing temperature. We theoretically analyze and explain the high contribution of electronic component of thermal conductivity towards the total thermal conductivity of the film by a modified Callaway model. Further, we find the theoretical model predictions to correspond well with the experimental results.

  1. Growth of antimony doped P-type zinc oxide nanowires for optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Pradel, Ken

    2016-09-27

    In a method of growing p-type nanowires, a nanowire growth solution of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO.sub.3).sub.2), hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and polyethylenemine (800 M.sub.w PEI) is prepared. A dopant solution to the growth solution, the dopant solution including an equal molar ration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), glycolic acid (C.sub.2H.sub.4O.sub.3) and antimony acetate (Sb(CH.sub.3COO).sub.3) in water is prepared. The dopant solution and the growth solution combine to generate a resulting solution that includes antimony to zinc in a ratio of between 0.2% molar to 2.0% molar, the resulting solution having a top surface. An ammonia solution is added to the resulting solution. A ZnO seed layer is applied to a substrate and the substrate is placed into the top surface of the resulting solution with the ZnO seed layer facing downwardly for a predetermined time until Sb-doped ZnO nanowires having a length of at least 5 .mu.m have grown from the ZnO seed layer.

  2. Towards a standard protocol for antimony intralesional infiltration technique for cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiana Estéfane da Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Despite its recognised toxicity, antimonial therapy continues to be the first-line drug for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL treatment. Intralesional administration of meglumine antimoniate (MA represents an alternative that could reduce the systemic absorption of the drug and its side effects. OBJECTIVES This study aims to validate the standard operational procedure (SOP for the intralesional infiltration of MA for CL therapy as the first step before the assessment of efficacy and safety related to the procedure. METHODS The SOP was created based on 21 trials retrieved from the literature, direct monitoring of the procedure and consultation with experts. This script was submitted to a formal computer-aided inspection to identify readability, clarity, omission, redundancy and unnecessary information (content validation. For criterion and construct validations, the influence of critical condition changes (compliance with the instructions and professional experience on outcome conformity (saturation status achievement, tolerability (pain referred and safety (bleeding were assessed. FINDINGS The median procedure length was 12 minutes and in 72% of them, patients classified the pain as mild. The bleeding was also classified as mild in 96.6% of the procedures. Full compliance with the SOP was observed in 66% of infiltrations. Despite this, in 100% of the inspected procedures, lesion saturation was observed at the end of infiltration, which means that it tolerates some degree of modification in its execution (robustness without prejudice to the result. CONCLUSIONS The procedure is reproducible and can be used by professionals without previous training with high success and safety rates.

  3. Towards a standard protocol for antimony intralesional infiltration technique for cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rosiana Estéfane da; Carvalho, Janaína de Pina; Ramalho, Dario Brock; Senna, Maria Camilo Ribeiro De; Moreira, Hugo Silva Assis; Rabello, Ana; Cota, Erika; Cota, Gláucia

    2018-02-01

    BACKGROUND Despite its recognised toxicity, antimonial therapy continues to be the first-line drug for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) treatment. Intralesional administration of meglumine antimoniate (MA) represents an alternative that could reduce the systemic absorption of the drug and its side effects. OBJECTIVES This study aims to validate the standard operational procedure (SOP) for the intralesional infiltration of MA for CL therapy as the first step before the assessment of efficacy and safety related to the procedure. METHODS The SOP was created based on 21 trials retrieved from the literature, direct monitoring of the procedure and consultation with experts. This script was submitted to a formal computer-aided inspection to identify readability, clarity, omission, redundancy and unnecessary information (content validation). For criterion and construct validations, the influence of critical condition changes (compliance with the instructions and professional experience) on outcome conformity (saturation status achievement), tolerability (pain referred) and safety (bleeding) were assessed. FINDINGS The median procedure length was 12 minutes and in 72% of them, patients classified the pain as mild. The bleeding was also classified as mild in 96.6% of the procedures. Full compliance with the SOP was observed in 66% of infiltrations. Despite this, in 100% of the inspected procedures, lesion saturation was observed at the end of infiltration, which means that it tolerates some degree of modification in its execution (robustness) without prejudice to the result. CONCLUSIONS The procedure is reproducible and can be used by professionals without previous training with high success and safety rates.

  4. Early Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients Infected With Leishmania braziliensis Express Increased Inflammatory Responses After Antimony Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rúbia S; Carvalho, Lucas P; Campos, Taís M; Magalhães, Andréa S; Passos, Sara T; Schriefer, Albert; Silva, Juliana A; Lago, Ednaldo; Paixão, Camilla S; Machado, Paulo; Scott, Phillip; Carvalho, Edgar M

    2018-02-14

    Early cutaneous leishmaniasis (ECL) is characterized by a nonulcerated papular lesion and illness duration less than 30 days. Approximately 4 weeks later, the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) ulcers appear. We were surprised to find that failure after antimony therapy (Sb5) is higher in ECL than CL. We hypothesize that the inflammatory response in ECL patients may increase during Sb5 therapy, which leads to treatment failure. A cohort of 44 ECL patients infected by Leishmania braziliensis was established to evaluate the response to Sb5 and to compare immunologic responses in ECL patients with CL and healthy subjects. A hierarchical clustering based on cytokine levels showed a weak positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokine levels and those patients that failed Sb5 treatment. Although Sb5 therapy decreased interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor levels in CL patients, we were surprised to find that an increase in these cytokines was observed in ECL patients. Moreover, interleukin (IL)-10 was less able to down-modulate immune responses in ECL. The enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines, due in part to the decreased ability of IL-10 to down-modulate immune response during therapy in ECL, promotes the development and persistence of leishmania ulcer despite antimony therapy. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Determination of Trace Antimony (III by Adsorption Voltammetry at Carbon Paste Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongyue He

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a sensitive method for the determination of trace antimonybased on the antimony-pyrogallol red (PGR adsorption at a carbon paste electrode (CPE.The optimal conditions were to use an electrode containing 25% paraffin oil and 75%high purity graphite powder as working electrode, a 0.10 mol/L HCl solution containing3.0×10-5 mol/L PGR as accumulation medium and a 0.20 mol/L HCl solution aselectrolyte with an accumulation time of 150 s and a reduction time of 60 s at -0.50 Vfollowed with a sweep from -0.50 V to 0.20 V. The mechanism of the electrode reactionwas discussed. Interferences of other metal ions were studied as well. The detection limitwas 1×10-9 mol/L. The linear range was from 2.0×10-9 mol/L to 5.0×10-7 mol/L.Application of the proposed method to the determination of antimony in water andhuman hair samples gave good results.

  6. Leaching of the antimony and accompanying of elements Sb2S3 in the alkaline medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Remeteiová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of the laboratory investigation of alkaline leaching of stibnite that is an important mineral occuring in the antimony-bearing raw materials. The following components were present in stibnite: Sb2S3, SiO2, ZnS, FeS2. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of composition of the aqueous alkaline leaching medium (1 % NaOH, 1 % NaOH + 1 % Na2S2O3, 1 % NaOH + 1 % Na2S on the recoveries of Sb, Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Hg. The antimony recoveries in the leaching solutions NaOH and NaOH + Na2S2O3 solutions were lower in comparison with the leaching in NaOH + Na2S. The Fe, Pb, Zn recoveries in alkaline solutions were found to decrease in the following order: Fe, Pb, Zn. The mercury recovery in the leaching test with the solution containing 1 % NaOH+1 % Na2S was 3,7 %.

  7. Antimony smelting process generating solid wastes and dust: characterization and leaching behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuejun; Wang, Kunpeng; He, Mengchang; Liu, Ziwei; Yang, Hailin; Li, Sisi

    2014-07-01

    A large amount of solid waste has been produced by the antimony smelting process in the "World Capital of Antimony", Xikuangshan area in China. This study comprehensively investigated the physical and chemical characteristics of the various solid wastes, as well as the leaching behavior of the solid wastes, which included water-quenched slag, arsenic-alkali residue, desulfurized slag and blast furnace dust. These four types of waste were enriched in a variety of heavy metals and metalloids and more specifically with As and Sb levels up to 8.6 × 10⁴ and 3.16×10⁵ mg/kg, respectively, in arsenic-alkali residue. For desulfurized slag and water-quenched slag, the leaching concentration of Sb significantly exceeded the acceptable limits during the leaching tests using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure. In addition, As leaching in arsenic-alkali residue was extraordinarily hazardous, being three orders of magnitude higher than the regulatory level of As. According to the results of the extraction tests, all the tested wastes were classified as hazardous waste. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. High levels of antimony in dust from e-waste recycling in southeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Xiangyang; Li, Zhonggen; Zhuang, Xiaochun; Han, Zhixuan; Yang, Wenlin

    2011-01-01

    Environmental contamination due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling is an emerging global issue. Antimony (Sb) is a toxic element used in semiconductor components and flame retardants for circuit board within electronic equipment. When e-waste is recycled, Sb is released and contaminates the surrounding environment; however, few studies have characterized the extent of this problem. In this study, we investigated Sb and arsenic (As) distributions in indoor dust from 13 e-waste recycling villages in Guiyu, Guangdong Province, southeastern China. Results revealed significantly elevated concentrations of Sb (6.1-232 mg/kg) in dust within all villages, which were 3.9-147 times higher than those from the non e-waste sites, indicating e-waste recycling was an important source of Sb pollution. On the contrary, As concentrations (5.4-17.7 mg/kg) in e-waste dusts were similar to reference values from the control sites. Therefore, dusts emitted from e-waste recycling may be characterized by high Sb/As ratios, which may help identify the contamination due to the e-waste recycling activities. - Highlights: → Antimony and arsenic concentrations in dust from e-waste recycling were investigated. → E-waste recycling is an important emerging source of Sb pollution. → Sb/As ratios may help identify the e-waste contamination.

  9. High levels of antimony in dust from e-waste recycling in southeastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Xiangyang, E-mail: bixy@cug.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Zhonggen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Zhuang, Xiaochun [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Han, Zhixuan [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yang, Wenlin [Faculty of Earth Science, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-11-01

    Environmental contamination due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling is an emerging global issue. Antimony (Sb) is a toxic element used in semiconductor components and flame retardants for circuit board within electronic equipment. When e-waste is recycled, Sb is released and contaminates the surrounding environment; however, few studies have characterized the extent of this problem. In this study, we investigated Sb and arsenic (As) distributions in indoor dust from 13 e-waste recycling villages in Guiyu, Guangdong Province, southeastern China. Results revealed significantly elevated concentrations of Sb (6.1-232 mg/kg) in dust within all villages, which were 3.9-147 times higher than those from the non e-waste sites, indicating e-waste recycling was an important source of Sb pollution. On the contrary, As concentrations (5.4-17.7 mg/kg) in e-waste dusts were similar to reference values from the control sites. Therefore, dusts emitted from e-waste recycling may be characterized by high Sb/As ratios, which may help identify the contamination due to the e-waste recycling activities. - Highlights: {yields} Antimony and arsenic concentrations in dust from e-waste recycling were investigated. {yields} E-waste recycling is an important emerging source of Sb pollution. {yields} Sb/As ratios may help identify the e-waste contamination.

  10. A Black Phosphate Conversion Coating on Steel Surface Using Antimony(III)-Tartrate as an Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Wang, Guiping

    2016-05-01

    A novel black phosphate conversion coating was formed on steel surface through a Zn-Mn phosphating bath containing mainly ZnO, H3PO4, Mn(H2PO4)2, and Ca(NO3)2, where antimony(III)-tartrate was used as the blackening agent of phosphatization. The surface morphology and composition of the coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Corrosion resistance of the coating was studied by potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The pH value of the solution had significant influence on the formation and corrosion resistance of the coating. The experimental results indicated that the Sb plays a vital role in the blackening of phosphate conversion coating. The optimal concentration of antimony(III)-tartrate in the phosphating bath used in this experiment was 1.0 g L-1, as higher values reduced the corrosion resistance of the coating. In addition, by saponification and oil seals, the corrosion duration of the black phosphate coating in a copper sulfate spot test can be as long as 20 min.

  11. Effect of antimony incorporation on structural properties of CuInS{sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Rabeh, M., E-mail: mohamedbenrabeh@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Chaglabou, N., E-mail: nadia_chaglabou@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Kanzari, M., E-mail: Mounir.Kanzari@ipeit.rnu.t [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2010-02-15

    CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) single crystals doped with 1, 2, 3 and 4 atomic percent (at.%) of antimony (Sb) were grown by the horizontal Bridgman method. The effect of Sb doping on the structural properties of CIS crystal was studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and PL measurements. X-ray diffraction data suggests that the doping of Sb in the CIS single crystals does not affect the tetragonal (chalcopyrite) crystal structure and exhibited a (1 1 2) preferred orientation. In addition, with increasing Sb concentration, the X-ray diffraction analysis show that Sb doped CIS crystals are more crystallized and the diffraction peaks of the CuInS{sub 2} phase were more pronounced in particular the (1 1 2) plane. EDAX study revealed that Sb atoms can occupy the indium site and/or occupying the sulfur site to make an acceptor. PL spectra of undoped and Sb doped CIS crystals show two emission peaks at 1.52 and 1.62 eV, respectively which decreased with increasing atomic percent antimony. Sb doped CIS crystals show p-type conductivity.

  12. Effect of antimony incorporation on structural properties of CuInS2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Rabeh, M.; Chaglabou, N.; Kanzari, M.

    2010-01-01

    CuInS 2 (CIS) single crystals doped with 1, 2, 3 and 4 atomic percent (at.%) of antimony (Sb) were grown by the horizontal Bridgman method. The effect of Sb doping on the structural properties of CIS crystal was studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and PL measurements. X-ray diffraction data suggests that the doping of Sb in the CIS single crystals does not affect the tetragonal (chalcopyrite) crystal structure and exhibited a (1 1 2) preferred orientation. In addition, with increasing Sb concentration, the X-ray diffraction analysis show that Sb doped CIS crystals are more crystallized and the diffraction peaks of the CuInS 2 phase were more pronounced in particular the (1 1 2) plane. EDAX study revealed that Sb atoms can occupy the indium site and/or occupying the sulfur site to make an acceptor. PL spectra of undoped and Sb doped CIS crystals show two emission peaks at 1.52 and 1.62 eV, respectively which decreased with increasing atomic percent antimony. Sb doped CIS crystals show p-type conductivity.

  13. Major activated corrosion products cobalt, silver and antimony in the primary coolant of PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mingxia

    2012-01-01

    The production of the major activated corrosion products such as cobalt, silver and antimony in the primary coolant of PWR power plants and the impacts on the increase of the dose rates caused by these corrosion products during the shutdown are described in the paper. Investigating the corrosion product behavior during the operation and shutdown periods aims at detecting the appearance of these radiological pollutants in the early time and searching relevant solutions that may enable eventually to decrease the dose rate. The solutions may include: Replacing critical material in the primary system's equipment and components, which contact with primary coolant circuit to possibly limit the source term, Elaborating strictly the specific chemical and shutdown procedure to optimize the purification capacity and to minimize the over-contaminations; Improving purification techniques according to the real operation circumstance, and limiting the impacts of these pollutants. It is obvious in the real practices that implementing appropriate solution will be benefit to decrease or limit the pollutants species like cobalt, silver and antimony. (author)

  14. Thermodynamic properties of liquid silver-antimony alloys determined from emf measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzyzak, Agnieszka; Fitzner, Krzysztof

    2004-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the liquid Ag-Sb alloys were determined using solid oxide galvanic cells with zirconia electrolyte. The emfs of the cells:Ag x Sb (1-x), Sb 2 O 3 /O 2- /airwere measured in the temperatures range 950-1100K in the whole range of the alloy compositions.First, the Gibbs free energy of formation of liquid Sb 2 O 3 from pure elements was derived:ΔG o f(Sb2O3) (J/mol)=-687100+243.23T.Next, the activities of antimony were measured as a function of the alloy compositions, x. Redlich-Kister polynomial expansion was used to describe the thermodynamic properties of the liquid phase. From the model equations the limiting value of the logarithm of activity coefficient of antimony in silver was obtained as a function of temperature:lnγ Sb 0 =-3812.5/T+0.4112.The obtained results were compared with the experimental values reported in the literature

  15. Application of Hyphenated Techniques in Speciation Analysis of Arsenic, Antimony, and Thallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Rajmund; Szopa, Sebastian; Jabłońska, Magdalena; Łyko, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Due to the fact that metals and metalloids have a strong impact on the environment, the methods of their determination and speciation have received special attention in recent years. Arsenic, antimony, and thallium are important examples of such toxic elements. Their speciation is especially important in the environmental and biomedical fields because of their toxicity, bioavailability, and reactivity. Recently, speciation analytics has been playing a unique role in the studies of biogeochemical cycles of chemical compounds, determination of toxicity and ecotoxicity of selected elements, quality control of food products, control of medicines and pharmaceutical products, technological process control, research on the impact of technological installation on the environment, examination of occupational exposure, and clinical analysis. Conventional methods are usually labor intensive, time consuming, and susceptible to interferences. The hyphenated techniques, in which separation method is coupled with multidimensional detectors, have become useful alternatives. The main advantages of those techniques consist in extremely low detection and quantification limits, insignificant interference, influence as well as high precision and repeatability of the determinations. In view of their importance, the present work overviews and discusses different hyphenated techniques used for arsenic, antimony, and thallium species analysis, in different clinical, environmental and food matrices. PMID:22654649

  16. Determination of antimony in nail and hair by thermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Yukio; Ishida, Norio

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of antimony in nail and hair was determined by thermal neutron activation analysis. Samples were collected from the workers of an antimony refinery, inhabitants near the refinery, and residents in control area. They were irradiated by Kyoto University 5000 kW Reactor for 1 h, and cooled for 30 to 100 days. After cooling, the concentration of Sb in nail and hair was estimated by measuring the intensity of γ-ray from 124 Sb of the samples, then the samples were washed by 0.1 % aqueous solution of nonionic surface active agent in an ultrasonic cleaner. The γ-ray spectrometry was done again (after washing). The concentration of Sb in nail before washing was 730 ppm for the workers, 2.46 ppm for habitants near the refinery, and 0.19 ppm for the control; after washing, it became 230 ppm for the workers, 0.63 ppm for habitants, and 0.09 ppm for the control. The concentration of Sb in hair before and after washing was 222 ppm and 196 ppm for the workers, and 0.21 ppm and 0.15 ppm for the control, respectively. (author)

  17. Synthesis of Antimony Doped Tin Oxide and its Use as Electrical Humidity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Yadav

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the humidity sensitive electrical properties of antimony doped tin oxide. Antimony has been doped within SnO2 in the ratio 1:1. The pellet has been made by hydraulic pressing machine at pressure 30 MPa and room temperature 24°C. This pellet, has been annealed at 200ºC, 300ºC, 400ºC, 500ºC and 600ºC successively for 3 hrs and after each step annealing, observations were taken. It has been observed, as Relative Humidity (%RH increases, there is decrease in the resistivity of pellet for the entire range of RH i.e. from 10% to 95%. Linear decrease is observed for the range of RH from 10% to 85% for annealing temperature 200ºC and 300ºC, from 10% to 60% for annealing temperature 400ºC and from 10% to 30% for annealing temperature 500ºC and 600ºC respectively. Scanning electron micrographs show the surface morphology and X-ray diffraction reveals the nanostructure of sensing element. Results have been found reproducible with hysterisis of ± 2% after 3 months.

  18. Antimony trioxide-induced apoptosis is dependent on SEK1/JNK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Koren K; Davison, Kelly; Colombo, Myrian; Colosimo, April L; Diaz, Zuanel; Padovani, Alessandra M S; Guo, Qi; Scrivens, P James; Gao, Wenli; Mader, Sylvie; Miller, Wilson H

    2006-01-05

    Very little is known concerning the toxicity of antimony, despite its commercial use as a flame retardant and medical use as a treatment for parasitic infections. Our previous studies show that antimony trioxide (Sb(2)O(3)) induces growth inhibition in patient-derived acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell lines, a disease in which a related metal, arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)), is used clinically. However, signaling pathways initiated by Sb(2)O(3) treatment remain undefined. Here, we show that Sb(2)O(3) treatment of APL cells is associated with increased apoptosis as well as differentiation markers. Sb(2)O(3)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) correlated with increased apoptosis. In addition, when we decreased the buffering capacity of the cell by depleting glutathione, ROS production and apoptosis was enhanced. Arsenic-resistant APL cells with increased glutathione levels exhibited increased cross-resistance to Sb(2)O(3). Based on studies implicating c-jun kinase (JNK) in the mediation of the response to As(2)O(3), we investigated the role for JNK in Sb(2)O(3)-induced apoptosis. Sb(2)O(3) activates JNK and its downstream target, AP-1. In fibroblasts with a genetic deletion in SEK1, an upstream regulator of JNK, Sb(2)O(3)-induced growth inhibition as well as JNK activation was decreased. These data suggest roles for ROS and the SEK1/JNK pathway in the cytotoxicity associated with Sb(2)O(3) exposure.

  19. Sulfur redox chemistry governs diurnal antimony and arsenic cycles at Champagne Pool, Waiotapu, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Maria K.; Pope, James G.; Seward, Terry M.; Wilson, Nathaniel; Planer-Friedrich, Britta

    2013-07-01

    Champagne Pool, a sulfidic hot spring in New Zealand, exhibits distinct diurnal variations in antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) concentrations, with daytime high and night-time low concentrations. To identify the underlying mobilization mechanisms, five sites along the drainage channel of Champagne Pool were sampled every 2 h during a 24 h period. Temporal variations in elemental concentrations and Sb, As, and sulfur (S) speciation were monitored in the discharging fluid. Total trace element concentrations in filtered and unfiltered samples were analyzed using ICP-MS, and Sb, As and S species were determined by IC-ICP-MS. Sulfur speciation in the drainage channel was dominated by thiosulfate and sulfide at night, while sulfate dominated during the day. The distinct diurnal changes suggest that the transformations are caused by phototrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. These bacteria metabolize thiosulfate and sulfide in daylight to form sulfate and, as suggested by modeling with PhreeqC, elemental sulfur. Sulfide consumption during the day results in undersaturation of antimony sulfides, which triggers the additional release of dissolved Sb. For As, diurnal cycles were much more pronounced in speciation than in total concentrations, with di- and trithioarsenate forming at night due to excess sulfide, and monothioarsenate forming from arsenite and elemental sulfur during the day. Sulfur speciation was thus found to control Sb and As in terms of both solubility and speciation.

  20. 129 Xe NMR Relaxation-Based Macromolecular Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Muller D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Dao, Phuong [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Jeong, Keunhong [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Slack, Clancy C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Vassiliou, Christophoros C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Finbloom, Joel A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Francis, Matthew B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Wemmer, David E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Physical Biosciences Division; Pines, Alexander [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-07-29

    A 129Xe NMR relaxation-based sensing approach is reported on that exploits changes in the bulk xenon relaxation rate induced by slowed tumbling of a cryptophane-based sensor upon target binding. The amplification afforded by detection of the bulk dissolved xenon allows sensitive detection of targets. The sensor comprises a xenon-binding cryptophane cage, a target interaction element, and a metal chelating agent. Xenon associated with the target-bound cryptophane cage is rapidly relaxed and then detected after exchange with the bulk. Here we show that large macromolecular targets increase the rotational correlation time of xenon, increasing its relaxation rate. Upon binding of a biotin-containing sensor to avidin at 1.5 μM concentration, the free xenon T2 is reduced by a factor of 4.

  1. Characterization of Lethal Zika Virus Infection in AG129 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV typically causes a mild and self-limiting illness known as Zika fever, which often is accompanied by maculopapular rash, headache, and myalgia. During the current outbreak in South America, ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been hypothesized to cause microcephaly and other diseases. The detection of ZIKV in fetal brain tissue supports this hypothesis. Because human infections with ZIKV historically have remained sporadic and, until recently, have been limited to small-scale epidemics, neither the disease caused by ZIKV nor the molecular determinants of virulence and/or pathogenicity have been well characterized. Here, we describe a small animal model for wild-type ZIKV of the Asian lineage.Using mice deficient in interferon α/β and Ɣ receptors (AG129 mice, we report that these animals were highly susceptible to ZIKV infection and disease, succumbing within seven to eight days. Rapid viremic dissemination was observed in visceral organs and brain; but only was associated with severe pathologies in the brain and muscle. Finally, these results were consistent across challenge routes, age of mice, and inoculum doses. These data represent a mouse model for ZIKV that is not dependent on adapting ZIKV to intracerebral passage in mice.Foot pad injection of AG129 mice with ZIKV represents a biologically relevant model for studying ZIKV infection and disease development following wild-type virus inoculation without the requirement for adaptation of the virus or intracerebral delivery of the virus. This newly developed Zika disease model can be exploited to identify determinants of ZIKV virulence and reveal molecular mechanisms that control the virus-host interaction, providing a framework for rational design of acute phase therapeutics and for vaccine efficacy testing.

  2. Speciation analysis of antimony in extracts of size-classified volcanic ash by HPLC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravet, R; López-Sánchez, J F; Rubio, R; Smichowski, P; Polla, G

    2007-03-01

    Although there is concern about the presence of toxic elements and their species in environmental matrices, for example water, sediment, and soil, speciation analysis of volcanic ash has received little attention. Antimony, in particular, an emerging element of environmental concern, has been less studied than other potentially toxic trace elements. In this context, a study was undertaken to assess the presence of inorganic Sb species in ash emitted from the Copahue volcano (Argentina). Antimony species were extracted from size-classified volcanic ash (<36 microm, 35-45 microm, 45-150 microm, and 150-300 microm) by use of 1 mol L(-1) citrate buffer at pH 5. Antimony(III) and (V) in the extracts were separated and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography combined on-line with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Antimony species concentrations (microg g(-1)) in the four fractions varied from 0.14 to 0.67 for Sb(III) and from 0.02 to 0.03 for Sb(V). The results reveal, for the first time, the occurrence of both inorganic Sb species in the extractable portion of volcanic ash. Sb(III) was always the predominant species.

  3. Glass and antimony electrodes for long-term pH monitoring: a dynamic in vitro comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, W. P.; Smout, A. J.; Kooiman, J. C.; Lamers, C. B.; Gues, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of combined glass microelectrodes with monocrystalline and polycrystalline antimony electrodes with external reference in a 24-h dynamic in vitro study. DESIGN AND METHODS: In an artificial stomach, the pH of the contents titrated from pH1-7 and back by NaOH and

  4. Ambulatory oesophageal pH monitoring: a comparison between antimony, ISFET, and glass pH electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmink, Gerrit J. M.; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; Oors, Jac; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Timmer, Robin; Smout, André J. P. M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ambulatory oesophageal pH-impedance monitoring is a widely used test to evaluate patients with reflux symptoms. Several types of pH electrodes are available: antimony, ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET), and glass electrodes. These pH electrodes have not been compared

  5. Zinc depletion promotes apoptosis-like death in drug-sensitive and antimony-resistance Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Shalini; Bharati, Kavita; Shaha, Chandrima; Mukhopadhyay, Chinmay K

    2017-09-05

    Micronutrients are essential for survival and growth for all the organisms including pathogens. In this manuscript, we report that zinc (Zn) chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridinylmethyl)-1,2-ethylenediamine (TPEN) affects growth and viability of intracellular pathogen Leishmania donovani (LD) by a concentration and time dependent manner. Simultaneous addition of zinc salt reverses the effect of TPEN. Further experiments provide evidence of apoptosis-like death of the parasite due to Zn-depletion. TPEN treatment enhances caspase-like activity suggesting increase in apoptosis-like events in LD. Specific inhibitors of cathepsin B and Endoclease G block TPEN-induced leishmanial death. Evidences show involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) potentially of extra-mitochondrial origin in TPEN-induced LD death. Pentavalent antimonials remained the prime source of treatment against leishmaniasis for several decades; however, antimony-resistant Leishmania is now common source of the disease. We also reveal that Zn-depletion can promote apoptosis-like death in antimony-resistant parasites. In summary, we present a new finding about the role of zinc in the survival of drug sensitive and antimony-resistant LD.

  6. Direct separation of arsenic and antimony oxides by high-temperature filtration with porous FeAl intermetallic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huibin; Liu, Xinli; Jiang, Yao; Gao, Lin; Yu, Linping; Lin, Nan; He, Yuehui; Liu, C T

    2017-09-15

    A temperature-controlled selective filtration technology for synchronous removal of arsenic and recovery of antimony from the fume produced from reduction smelting process of lead anode slimes was proposed. The chromium (Cr) alloyed FeAl intermetallic with an asymmetric pore structure was developed as the high-temperature filter material after evaluating its corrosive resistance, structural stability and mechanical properties. The results showed that porous FeAl alloyed with 20wt.% Cr had a long term stability in a high-temperature sulfide-bearing environment. The separation of arsenic and antimony trioxides was realized principally based on their disparate saturated vapor pressures at specific temperature ranges and the asymmetric membrane of FeAl filter elements with a mean pore size of 1.8μm. Pilot-scale filtration tests showed that the direct separation of arsenic and antimony can be achieved by a one-step or two-step filtration process. A higher removal percentage of arsenic can reach 92.24% at the expense of 6∼7% loss of antimony in the two-step filtration process at 500∼550°C and 300∼400°C. The FeAl filters had still good permeable and mechanical properties with 1041h of uninterrupted service, which indicates the feasibility of this high-temperature filtration technology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Effect of Annealing on the Properties of Antimony Telluride Thin Films and Their Applications in CdTe Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouling Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimony telluride alloy thin films were deposited at room temperature by using the vacuum coevaporation method. The films were annealed at different temperatures in N2 ambient, and then the compositional, structural, and electrical properties of antimony telluride thin films were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and Hall measurements. The results indicate that single phase antimony telluride existed when the annealing temperature was higher than 488 K. All thin films exhibited p-type conductivity with high carrier concentrations. Cell performance was greatly improved when the antimony telluride thin films were used as the back contact layer for CdTe thin film solar cells. The dark current voltage and capacitance voltage measurements were performed to investigate the formation of the back contacts for the cells with or without Sb2Te3 buffer layers. CdTe solar cells with the buffer layers can reduce the series resistance and eliminate the reverse junction between CdTe and metal electrodes.

  8. Enhanced electrochemical stability of carbon-coated antimony nanoparticles with sodium alginate binder for sodium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Feng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The poor cycling stability of antimony during a repeated sodium ion insertion and desertion process is the key issue, which leads to an unsatisfactory application as an anode material in a sodium-ion battery. Addressed at this, we report a facile two-step method to coat antimony nanoparticles with an ultrathin carbon layer of few nanometers (denoted Sb@C NPs for sodium-ion battery anode application. This carbon layer could buffer the volume change of antimony in the charge-discharge process and improve the battery cycle performance. Meanwhile, this carbon coating could also enhance the interfacial stability by firmly connecting the sodium alginate binders through its oxygen-rich surface. Benefitted from these advantages, an improved initial discharge capacity (788.5 mA h g−1 and cycling stability capacity (553 mA h g−1 after 50 times cycle have been obtained in a battery using Sb@C NPs as anode materials at 50 mA g−1. Keywords: Sodium-ion battery, Antimony, Sodium alginate, Liquid-phase reduction, Carbon coating

  9. Comparative phytotoxicity of methylated and inorganic arsenic- and antimony species to Lemna minor, Wolffia arrhiza and Selenastrum capricornutum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duester, L.; van der Geest, H.G.; Moelleken, S.; Hirner, A.V.; Kueppers, K.

    2011-01-01

    The alkylation of metalloids through the transfer of methyl groups is an important factor in the biogeochemical cycling of elements like arsenic and antimony. In the environment, many different organic and inorganic forms of these elements can therefore be found in soils, sediments or organisms.

  10. Diffuse x-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy study of defects in antimony-implanted silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Y.; Marshall, A. F.; Mehta, A.; Arthur, J.; Griffin, P. B.; Plummer, J. D.; Patel, J. R.

    2004-04-01

    Ion implantation followed by laser annealing has been used to create supersaturated and electrically active concentrations of antimony in silicon. Upon subsequent thermal annealing, however, these metastable dopants deactivate towards the equilibrium solubility limit. In this work, the formation of inactive antimony structures has been studied with grazing incidence diffuse x-ray scattering, and transmission electron microscopy, and the results are correlated to previous high-resolution x-ray diffraction data. We find that at a concentration of 6.0×1020 cm-3, small, incoherent clusters of radius 3-4 Å form during annealing at 900 °C. At a higher concentration of 2.2×1021 cm-3, deactivation at 600 °C occurs through the formation of small, antimony aggregates and antimony precipitates. The size of these precipitates from diffuse x-ray scattering is roughly 15 Å in radius for anneal times from 15 to 180 seconds. This value is consistent with the features observed in high-resolution and mass contrast transmission electron microscopy images. The coherent nature of the aggregates and precipitates causes the expansion of the surrounding silicon matrix as the deactivation progresses. In addition, the sensitivity of the diffuse x-ray scattering technique has allowed us to detect the presence of small clusters of radius ˜2 Å in unprocessed Czochralski silicon wafers. These defects are not observed in floating zone silicon wafers, and are tentatively attributed to thermal donors.

  11. Health and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals pollution in an antimony mining region: a case study from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Jiang-Chi; Min, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Zhen-Xing; Pang, Zhi-Hua; Liang, Yan-Jie; Ke, Yong

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, international research on the toxicity of the heavy metal, antimony, has gradually changed focus from early medical and pharmacological toxicology to environmental toxicology and ecotoxicology. However, little research has been conducted for sources identification and risk management of heavy metals pollution by long-term antimony mining activities. In this study, a large number of investigations were conducted on the temporal and spatial distribution of antimony and related heavy metal contaminants (lead, zinc, and arsenic), as well as on the exposure risks for the population for the Yuxi river basin in the Hunan province, China. The scope of the investigations included mine water, waste rock, tailings, agricultural soil, surface water, river sediments, and groundwater sources of drinking water. Health and ecological risks from exposure to heavy metal pollution were evaluated. The main pollution sources of heavy metals in the Yuxi River basin were analyzed. Remediation programs and risk management strategies for heavy metal pollution were consequently proposed. This article provides a scientific basis for the risk assessment and management of heavy metal pollution caused by antimony basin ore mining.

  12. Migration and inventories of iodine-129 and iodine-127 in soils; Migration und Inventare von Iod-129 und Iod-127 in Boeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daraoui, A.; Michel, R.; Gorny, M.; Jakob, D.; Sachse, R. [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Zentrum fuer Strahlenschutz und Radiooekologie; Alfimov, V.; Synal, H.A. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    Soil profiles from Bavaria in southern Germany and from Chile were analysed for {sup 129}I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and for {sup 127}I by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The deposition density of {sup 129}I in the soils from Bavaria was (109 x 1.5{sup {+-}}{sup 1}) mBq m{sup -2} (geometric mean and geometric standard deviation). The dominant sources of {sup 129}I in Bavaria are the reprocessing plants La Hague and Sellafield and not the Chernobyl fallout. The {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I isotopic ratios of the Bavarian soils were measured between 10{sup -7} and 10{sup -10}, 100- to 1000-time higher than the ratios observed for the samples from Chile. The {sup 129}I integral deposition densities in Chile, Easter Island and Antarctica were between 0.3 and 2 mBq m{sup -2}. In these soils, the observed {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios were about 10{sup -12}. This value is consistent with the results from the marine sediments representing the pre-nuclear equilibrium ratios. The soils from Chile allow the determination of the {sup 129}I fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions undisturbed from contaminations due to releases from reprocessing plants. (orig.)

  13. Iodine Isotopes in Precipitation: Temporal Responses to 129I Emissions from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Sheng; Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Hou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    and the behavior of harmful radioiodine in the atmosphere, long-term precipitation samples have been collected over 2010–2012 at Fukushima, Japan for determination of long-lived 129I. It was observed that 129I concentrations of 1.2 × 108 atom/L in 2010 before the accident dramatically increased by ∼4 orders......The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011 has released a large amount of radionuclides to the atmosphere, and the radioactive plume has been dispersed to a large area in Europe and returned to Asia. To explore long-term trend of the Fukushima-derived radioactive plume...... environment. A 129I/131I atomic ratio of 16 ± 1 obtained from rainwater samples is comparable with a value estimated for surface soil samples. 129I results from Denmark suggest an insignificant effect of 129I released from Fukushima to the 129I levels in Europe....

  14. A numerical simulation of 129I in the atmosphere emitted from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Masato; Suzuki, Takashi; Nagai, Haruyasu; Togawa, Orihiko

    2010-01-01

    A global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, is applied to investigate the behavior of 129 I emitted from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in Europe (Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France). The result of numerical simulation for more than fifty-year period from the 1950s is validated by comparison with measurements of 129 I around the world and analyzed to clarify the characteristic of the distributions of concentration and deposition of 129 I. The modeled concentrations of 129 I in precipitation in Europe and the United States and inventories in the seawater around Japan and the Gulf of Mexico are in the same order as measurements. the emitted 129 I to the atmosphere is distributed all over the Northern Hemisphere due mainly to the prevailing westerlies and can be an important source of supply of artificial 129 I for the seawater remote from the point source such as a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. (author)

  15. Iodine-129 in rabbit thyroids near a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, L. Jr.; Bowman, G.C.; Markham, O.D.

    1982-01-01

    The 129 I/ 127 I atom ratios in rabbits collected on the INEL site were larger than ratios in rabbits from a control area. Maximum 129 I/ 127 I atom ratios (9.1 x 10 -4 ) occurred near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Based on rabbit thyroid concentrations, the 129 I appeared to be deposited primarily in the direction of the predominant winds from the ICPP, northeast and southwest. Dose rates from the 129 I to thyroids of INEL rabbits varied from 0.1 to 260 μGy/y (0.01 to 26 mrad/y). Iodine-129 atmospheric releases from the ICPP appeared to have increased the 129 I/ 127 I atom ratios on and near the INEL site. (author)

  16. Optimisation of the measurement protocols of {sup 129}I and {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I. Methodology establishment for the measurement in environmental matrices; Optimisation des protocoles de mesurage de {sup 129}I et {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I. Etablissement d'une methodologie adaptee aux echantillons de l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frechou, C

    2000-07-01

    {sup 129}I, is a natural long-lived isotope, with a half-life of 15,7 million years, also artificially produced in nuclear power plant. It is then released in the liquid and gaseous effluents of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. {sup 129}I is integrated in all biological compartments at different activity levels, depending on their distance from the emission source and their ability to metabolize iodine. Performances of the different {sup 129}I and {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I measurement techniques available: Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, direct {gamma}-X spectrometry and liquid scintillation were evaluated. Associated radiochemical preparation steps of the two first techniques were optimized and adapted to the characteristics of the major environmental matrices. In a first step, the radiochemical protocols were developed and validated. In a second step, intercomparison exercises have been lead on various environmental samples presenting different {sup 129}I activity levels. They showed the good agreement between the results given by the three techniques on different environmental matrices with activities between 0,2 and 200 Bq.kg{sup -1} dry weight. As a conclusion, a methodology for the measurement of {sup 129}I and {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio in environmental samples is proposed. It includes a decisional diagram taking into account the characteristics of the matrices, the detection limits and the answer delay. A study on the losses of {sup 129}I during the calcination of an algae was lead by direct {gamma}-X spectrometry and application studies were made to measure {sup 129}I levels in different biological compartments issued from various locations: {sup 129}I activity interspecific variation in different species of seaweeds from the French channel coast under the relative influence of La Hague, {sup 129}I levels in bovine thyroids from the Cotentin area and {sup 129}I in vegetal samples collected around the nuclear

  17. Iodine-129 dose to the world population from the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Till, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Because of the 15.7 million-year half life for 129 I and the mobility of iodine in the environment, releases of 129 I result in potential radiological impacts on the entire world population essentially in perpetuity. This paper presents estimates of dose to the world population from releases of 129 I by the world nuclear power industry during the years 1975 to 2020

  18. Comments on the paper 'Radiation doses from iodine-129 in the environment' by J. K. Soldat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Jr, J C [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. (USA)

    1976-09-01

    Reference is made to a recent article by Soldat entitled 'Radiation Doses from /sup 129/I in the Environment' (Health Phys. Jan 1976) in which it is claimed that human and bovine consumption estimates were used in arriving at /sup 129/I thyroid doses which do not conform to observed consumption data. It is claimed that the disparity between the consumption data for milk, leafy vegetable and beef and the feed intake estimates for beef cattle is sufficient to produce /sup 129/I thyroid dose estimates that are considerably elevated. Using consumption data here advocated a modified table of thyroid dose estimates from unit concentrations of /sup 129/I in air is presented.

  19. Targeted Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using MS2-Based 129 Xe NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Keunhong [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Netirojjanakul, Chawita [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Munch, Henrik K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Sun, Jinny [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Finbloom, Joel A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Wemmer, David E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Physical Biosciences Division; Pines, Alexander [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Francis, Matthew B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division

    2016-07-25

    Targeted, selective, and highly sensitive 129Xe NMR nanoscale biosensors have been synthesized using a spherical MS2 viral capsid, Cryptophane A molecules, and DNA aptamers. The biosensors showed strong binding specificity toward targeted lymphoma cells (Ramos line). Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR signal contrast and hyper-CEST 129Xe MRI image contrast indicated its promise as highly sensitive hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR nanoscale biosensor for future applications in cancer detection in vivo.

  20. Solid and liquid 129Xe NMR signals enhanced by spin-exchange optical pumping under flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xin; Luo Jun; Sun Xianping; Zeng Xizhi; Liu Maili; Liu Wuyang

    2002-01-01

    Laser-polarized 129 Xe gas was produced by spin-exchange with Cs atom optically pumped with diode laser array in a low field under flow. The nuclear spin polarizations of the solid and liquid 129 Xe frozen from the laser-polarized 129 Xe gas were 2.16% and 1.45% respectively in the SY-80M NMR spectrometer, which corresponded to the enhancements of 6000 and 5000 compared to those without optical pumping under the same conditions. It could provide the base and possibility for quantum computers using laser-enhanced solid and liquid 129 Xe. Polarization loss of transport and state change was also discussed

  1. [Infecting glial cells with antimony resistant Leishmania tropica: A new ex-vivo model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbozan, Orçun; Harman, Mehmet; Evren, Vedat; Erdoğan, Mümin Alper; Kılavuz, Aslı; Tunalı, Varol; Çavuş, İbrahim; Yılmaz, Özlem; Özbilgin, Ahmet; Turgay, Nevin

    2018-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that shows different clinical features like cutaneous, mucocutaneous, visceral and viscerotropic forms. The protocols used in the treatment of leishmaniasis are toxic and have many limitations during administration. One of the limitations of treatment is the resistance against the protocols in practice. There is also a need to define new treatment options especially for resistant patients. Ex-vivo models using primary cell cultures may be a good source for evaluating new drug options in patients with antimony resistance, in addition to in-vitro and in-vivo studies. In this study, it was aimed to define a new ex-vivo culture model to evaluate treatment options in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis who did not respond to treatment. In our experimental model of ex-vivo infection, Leishmania tropica promastigotes isolated from a case previously diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis were used. The primary astroglial cell culture used for the ex-vivo model was prepared from 2-3 days old neonatal Sprague Dawley rat brains under sterile conditions by the modification McCarthy's method. The astroglia cells, which reached sufficient density, were infected with antimony resistant L.tropica promastigotes. After 24 hours of incubation, the supernatant on the cells were collected, the cell culture plate was dried at room temperature, then fixed with methyl alcohol and stained with Giemsa to search for L.tropica amastigotes. Amastigotes were intensely observed in glia cells in primary cell cultures infected with L.tropica promastigotes. No promastigotes were seen on Giemsa stained preparations of the precipitates prepared from the bottom sediment after the centrifugation of the liquid medium removed from the infected plates. In this study, promastigotes from a cutaneous leishmaniasis patient unable to respond to pentavalent antimony therapy were shown to infect rat glia cells and converted to amastigote form. This amastigote

  2. Uptake, translocation and transformation of antimony in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Fei; Ren, Jinghua; Tao, Shu; Wang, Xilong

    2016-01-01

    Antimony (Sb), as a toxic metalloid, has been gaining increasing research concerns due mainly to its severe pollution in many places. Rice has been identified to be the dominant intake route of Sb by residents close to the Sb mining areas. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the difference in uptake, translocation and transformation of Sb in rice seedlings of four cultivars exposed to 0.2 or 1.0 mg/L of Sb(V). The results showed that mass concentration of iron plaque (mg/kg FW) formed at the root surfaces of cultivar N was the highest among all tested cultivars at both low and high exposure levels of Sb(V). The accumulated Sb concentration in iron plaque significantly increased with an increase in mass concentration of iron plaque formed at the rice root. The total amount of iron plaque (mg/pot) at rice root generally increased with increasing exposed Sb(V) concentration, which was closely associated with the increasing lipid peroxidation in roots. Concentration percentage of Sb in rice root significantly reduced as the corresponding value in the iron plaque increased, suggesting that iron plaque formation strongly suppressed uptake of Sb by rice root. Sb concentration in rice tissues followed an order: root > stem, leaf. The japonica rice (cultivars N and Z) exhibited a stronger translocation tendency of Sb from root to stem than indica hybrid rice (cultivars F and G). Translocation of Sb from root of cultivar F to its stem and leaf was sharply enhanced with increasing Sb exposure concentration. Sb(V) could be reduced to Sb(III) in rice tissues, especially in stems (10–26% of the total Sb). For the sake of food safety, the difference in uptake, translocation and transformation of Sb in rice species planted in Sb-contaminated soils should be taken into consideration. - Highlights: • Sb(V) caused lipid peroxidation and increased iron plaque formation at root surface. • The iron plaque may suppress uptake of Sb by rice. • Cultivars

  3. The Effect of Adding Antimony Trioxide (Sb2O3 ‎On A.C Electrical Properties of (PVA-PEG Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeel Shakir Alkelaby

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, many samples have been prepared by adding Antimony Trioxide (Sb2O3 to the polyvinyl alcohol-poly ethylene glycol (PVA-PEG. The effect of the Sb2O3 added as a filler with different weight percentages on the A.C electrical properties have been investigated. The samples were prepared as films by solution cast technique. The experimental results of the A.C electrical properties show that the dielectric constant increase with the increasing frequency of applied electrical field and concentration of the Antimony Trioxide. Dielectric loss decrease with the increasing the frequency, while it increases with the increase of the concentration of the Antimony Trioxide. The A.C electrical conductivity increase with increasing the Antimony Trioxide contain and frequency for the composition.

  4. Toxicity Assessments of Antimony, Barium, Beryllium, and Manganese for Development of Ecological Soil Screening Levels (ECO-SSL) Using Earthworm (Eisenia Fetida) Benchmark Values

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simini, Michael

    2002-01-01

    ... soil that supports relatively high bioavailability of barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), manganese (Mn), and antimony (Sb). For the metals tested, cocoon production was a more sensitive endpoint than was survival...

  5. Improved Long-Term Stability of Transparent Conducting Electrodes Based on Double-Laminated Electrosprayed Antimony Tin Oxides and Ag Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koo B.-R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated double-laminated antimony tin oxide/Ag nanowire electrodes by spin-coating and electrospraying. Compared to pure Ag nanowire electrodes and single-laminated antimony tin oxide/Ag nanowire electrodes, the double-laminated antimony tin oxide/Ag nanowire electrodes had superior transparent conducting electrode performances with sheet resistance ~19.8 Ω/□ and optical transmittance ~81.9%; this was due to uniform distribution of the connected Ag nanowires because of double lamination of the metallic Ag nanowires without Ag aggregation despite subsequent microwave heating at 250°C. They also exhibited excellent and superior long-term chemical and thermal stabilities and adhesion to substrate because double-laminated antimony tin oxide thin films act as the protective layers between Ag nanowires, blocking Ag atoms penetration.

  6. The system analysis of temperature and melting enthalpy of intermetallic compounds of antimony-lanthanoids system of Sb Ln, Sb2Ln composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalova, M.A.; Chamanova, M.; Dodkhoev, E.S.; Badalov, A.; Abdusalyamova, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to system analysis of temperature and melting enthalpy of intermetallic compounds of antimony-lanthanoids system of Sb Ln, Sb 2 Ln composition. The melting enthalpy was estimated. The temperature value was determined.

  7. First-principles study of antimony doping effects on the iron-based superconductor CaFe(SbxAs1−x)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yuki; Nakamura, Hiroki; Machida, Masahiko; Kuroki, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    We study antimony doping effects on the iron-based superconductor CaFe(Sb x As 1−x ) 2 by using the first-principles calculation. The calculations reveal that the substitution of a doped antimony atom into As of the chainlike As layers is more stable than that into FeAs layers. This prediction can be checked by experiments. Our results suggest that doping homologous elements into the chainlike As layers, which only exist in the novel 112 system, is responsible for rising up the critical temperature. We discuss antimony doping effects on the electronic structure. It is found that the calculated band structures with and without the antimony doping are similar to each other within our framework. (author)

  8. First-Principles Study of Antimony Doping Effects on the Iron-Based Superconductor CaFe(SbxAs1-x)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yuki; Nakamura, Hiroki; Machida, Masahiko; Kuroki, Kazuhiko

    2015-09-01

    We study antimony doping effects on the iron-based superconductor CaFe(SbxAs1-x)2 by using the first-principles calculation. The calculations reveal that the substitution of a doped antimony atom into As of the chainlike As layers is more stable than that into FeAs layers. This prediction can be checked by experiments. Our results suggest that doping homologous elements into the chainlike As layers, which only exist in the novel 112 system, is responsible for rising up the critical temperature. We discuss antimony doping effects on the electronic structure. It is found that the calculated band structures with and without the antimony doping are similar to each other within our framework.

  9. Iodine-129, Iodine-127 and Caesium-137 in the environment: soils from Germany and Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daraoui, A.; Michel, R.; Gorny, M.; Jakob, D.; Sachse, R.; Synal, H.-A.; Alfimov, V.

    2012-01-01

    Soil profiles from Bavaria in southern Germany and from Chile were analysed for 129 I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), for 127 I by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and for 137 Cs by gamma-spectrometry. The mean deposition density of 137 Cs in soils from Bavaria was (41 × 1.5 ±1 ) kBq m −2 (geometric mean and geometric standard deviation), originating mostly from the Chernobyl fall-out. The deposition density of 129 I in these soils was (109 × 1.5 ±1 ) mBq m −2 . The dominant sources of 129 I in Bavaria are, however, the reprocessing plants La Hague and Sellafield and not the Chernobyl fall-out. The 129 I/ 127 I isotopic ratios of the Bavarian soils were between 10 −7 and 10 −10 , i.e. 10 2 –10 5 times higher than the ratios observed for the samples from Chile. The 129 I integral deposition densities in Chile, Easter Island and Antarctica were between 0.3 mBq m −2 and 2 mBq m −2 . In these soils, the observed 129 I/ 127 I ratios were about 10 −12 . The soils from Chile allow the determination of the 129 I fall-out from the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions undisturbed from contaminations due to releases from reprocessing plants. An upper limit of the integral 129 I deposition density of the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions on the Southern Hemisphere (27°S) is about 1 mBq m −2 . Finally, the dependence of the migration behaviour of 137 Cs, 127 I and of 129 I on the soil properties is discussed. It turns out that there is a distinctly different behaviour of 127 I, 129 I, and 137 Cs in the soils exhibiting different sorption mechanisms for old and recent iodine as well as for 137 Cs. - Highlights: ► I-129 from European reprocessing plants drastically changed its natural abundances. ► We report here inventories of the Cs-137 and I-129 in Bavaria and Chile. ► The dominant sources of I-129 in Bavaria are the European reprocessing plants. ► The dominant sources of I-129 in Chile are the atmospheric

  10. Combined therapy for 129 patients with second primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jun; Feng Qinfu; Wang Luhua; Zhang Yaohong; Zhao Hongfa; Weng Xinran

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of the second primary lung cancer. Methods: The interval between the second primary lung cancer and the previous primary cancer ranged from 10 days to 317 months (median 49 months). Of the 129 patients treated from 1971 to 1997 by surgery only, radiotherapy only and chemotherapy only or combined therapy, 11 (8.5%) patients had stage I, 29 (22.5%) stage II, 75 (58.1%) stage III and 14 (10.9%) stage IV; 30 patients received surgery alone, 54 radiotherapy alone, 8 chemotherapy alone, 12 surgery plus radiotherapy, 20 radiotherapy plus chemotherapy, 4 surgery plus chemotherapy and 1 surgery plus radiotherapy plus chemotherapy. Results: The overall 2-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 40.2%, 27.2% and 15.3%. The stage I, II, III and IV 2-year survival rates were 71.6%, 60.7%, 32.9% and 0%, respectively (P 49 and ≤49 months of the interval between the second primary lung cancer and the previous primary cancer (P>0.05). Conclusions: Second primary lung cancer are similar to the first primary lung cancer in clinical characteristics and prognosis. The main cause of failure is lung cancer perse. Stage and being able to operation are prognostic factors

  11. Study on Stereochemical Activity of Lone Pair Electrons in Sulfur and Halogen Coordinated Antimony(III) Complexes by 121Sb Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Ryuhichi; Takahashi, Masashi; Takeda, Masuo

    2005-01-01

    We have measured 121 Sb Moessbauer spectra at 20 K for 52 compounds of antimony(III). An Sb(III) atom with the electron configuration [Kr] 4d 10 5s 2 has a lone pair electrons. The stereochemical property of the lone pair has been found to depend very much on the kinds of atoms surrounding the antimony atom and the configurations of the coordinating atoms.

  12. Efficacy of pentavalent antimoniate intralesional infiltration therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Castelano Brito

    Full Text Available The mainstays of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL treatment, in several world regions, are pentavalent antimony (Sbv compounds administered parenterally, despite their recognized toxicity, which requires frequent laboratory monitoring and complicates their use in areas with scarce infrastructure. As result of these drawbacks, the WHO Expert Committee on leishmaniasis has expanded the recommendations for the use of local therapies, including Sbv intralesional infiltration (IL-Sbv, as CL therapy alternatives even in the New World. However, the efficacy of these approaches has never been compiled. The aim of this study was to critically and systematically assess the efficacy of IL-Sbv for CL treatment.The PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews and the Cochrane manual were followed. The sources used were the MEDLINE and LILACS databases and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform of the World Health Organization. The outcome of interest was a clinical cure, defined as complete re-epithelialization of all lesions. The IL-Sbv pooled cure rate was estimated for several subgroups and direct comparisons were performed when possible.Thirty nine articles (40 studies involving 5679 patients treated with IL-Sbv infiltration were included. In direct comparison, only three studies involving 229 patients compared IL-Sbv infiltration versus placebo and no difference was observed (OR: 1,9; 95%IC 0,93 to 3,82 based on cure rate 69.6% (95%CI 17.6-96.1% and 83,2% (95%CI 66-92.7% for placebo and IL-Sbv, respectively. In an alternative and non-comparative analysis, gathering all study arms using the intervention, the pooled IL-Sbv efficacy rate was 75% (95%CI 68-81%. In the Old World, the observed overall IL-Sbv efficacy rate was 75% (95%CI 66-82%, and the cure rates were significantly higher with sodium stibogluconate (SSG than with meglumine antimoniate (MA: 83% (95%CI 75-90% versus 68% (95%CI 54-79%, p = 0.03. Studies directly comparing IL-Sbv with topical

  13. Mid-infrared optical properties of chalcogenide glasses within tin-antimony-selenium ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruiqiang; Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Huang, Yicong; Song, Baoan; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Xianghua; Ji, Wei

    2017-10-16

    In this work, we investigated the mid-infrared (MIR) optical properties of selenide (Se-based) chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) within an As- and Ge-free system, namely the environment-friendly and low-cost tin-antimony-selenium (Sn-Sb-Se, SSS) ternary system, which has not been systematically studied to the best of our knowledge. As compared to ChGs within those conventional Se-based systems, SSS ChGs were found to exhibit extended infrared transmittance range as well as larger linear refractive index (n 0 ). Femtosecond Z-scan measurements show the presence of evident three-photon absorption from Urbach absorption of the SSS ChGs at MIR wavelength, which resonantly enhanced the nonlinear refractive behavior and resulted in large nonlinear refractive index (n 2 ).

  14. Concerted Electrodeposition and Alloying of Antimony on Indium Electrodes for Selective Formation of Crystalline Indium Antimonide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenkrug, Eli; Rafson, Jessica; Lancaster, Mitchell; Maldonado, Stephen

    2017-09-19

    The direct preparation of crystalline indium antimonide (InSb) by the electrodeposition of antimony (Sb) onto indium (In) working electrodes has been demonstrated. When Sb is electrodeposited from dilute aqueous electrolytes containing dissolved Sb 2 O 3 , an alloying reaction is possible between Sb and In if any surface oxide films are first thoroughly removed from the electrode. The presented Raman spectra detail the interplay between the formation of crystalline InSb and the accumulation of Sb as either amorphous or crystalline aggregates on the electrode surface as a function of time, temperature, potential, and electrolyte composition. Electron and optical microscopies confirm that under a range of conditions, the preparation of a uniform and phase-pure InSb film is possible. The cumulative results highlight this methodology as a simple yet potent strategy for the synthesis of intermetallic compounds of interest.

  15. REDOX BEHAVIOR AND DIFFUSIVITY OF ANTIMONY AND CERIUM ION IN ALKALI ALKALINE EARTH SILICATE GLASS MELTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Redox behavior and diffusivity of antimony and cerium ion in alkali alkaline earth silicate CRT (Cathode Ray Tube model glass melts were studied by means of square wave voltammetry under the frequency range of 5-1000 Hz and in the temperature range of 800-1400°C. According to voltammogram, peaks due to Sb³⁺/Sb⁰ were positioned in the negative potential region while peaks due to Sb⁵⁺/Sb³⁺ and Ce⁴⁺/Ce³⁺ were found in the positive potential region. By using some equations, correlation for peak potential versus temperature and peak current versus reciprocal frequency was examined, respectively. Their correlation showed a linear relation in the applied temperature and frequency range. Based on the linear relationship, thermodynamic and kinetic properties for each redox reaction were suggested.

  16. Synthesis and antileishmanial activity of antimony (V) complexes of hydroxypyranone and hydroxypyridinone ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhmoradi, Vafa; Saberi, Sedigheh; Saghaei, Lotfollah; Pestehchian, Nader; Fassihi, Afshin

    2018-04-01

    A novel series of antimony (V) complexes with the hydroxypyranone and hydroxypyridinone ligands were synthesized and characterized by 1 HNMR, FT-IR and electron spin ionization mass spectroscopic (ESI-MS) techniques. The synthesis process involved protection of hydroxyl group followed by the reaction of the intermediate with primary amines and finally deprotection. All compounds were evaluated for in vitro activities against the amastigote and promastigote forms of Leishmania major . Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited good antileishmanial activity against both forms of L. major . IC 50 values of the most active compounds; 9d , 9d and 9e , after 24, 48 and 72 h against amastigote model were 15, 12.5 and 5.5 μg/mL, respectively. 9e , 11 and 9e inhibited the promastigote form of parasite after 24, 48 and 72 h with IC 50 values of 10, 2 and 1 μg/mL, respectively.

  17. Properties of antimony doped ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadananda Kumar, N., E-mail: sadanthara@gmail.com; Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K. [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Thin Films Laboratory, Department of Physics (India)

    2015-07-15

    Antimony (Sb) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on the glass substrate at 450°C using spray pyrolysis technique. Effect of Sb doping on surface morphology structural, optical and electrical properties were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that both the undoped and doped ZnO thin films are polycrystalline in nature with (101) preferred orientation. SEM analysis showed a change in surface morphology of Sb doped ZnO thin films. Doping results in a marked increase in conductivity without affecting the transmittance of the films. ZnO films prepared with 3 at % Sb shows the lowest resistivity of 0.185 Ohm cm with a Hall mobility of 54.05 cm{sup 2} V{sup –1} s{sup –1}, and a hole concentration of 6.25 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup –3}.

  18. Antimony Complexes for Electrocatalysis: Activity of a Main-Group Element in Proton Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianbing; Materna, Kelly L; Hedström, Svante; Yang, Ke R; Crabtree, Robert H; Batista, Victor S; Brudvig, Gary W

    2017-07-24

    Main-group complexes are shown to be viable electrocatalysts for the H 2 -evolution reaction (HER) from acid. A series of antimony porphyrins with varying axial ligands were synthesized for electrocatalysis applications. The proton-reduction catalytic properties of TPSb(OH) 2 (TP=5,10,15,20-tetra(p-tolyl)porphyrin) with two axial hydroxy ligands were studied in detail, demonstrating catalytic H 2 production. Experiments, in conjunction with quantum chemistry calculations, show that the catalytic cycle is driven via the redox activity of both the porphyrin ligand and the Sb center. This study brings insight into main group catalysis and the role of redox-active ligands during catalysis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Evaluations of antimony and strontium interaction in an Al–Si–Cu–Zn die cast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahany, Saeed, E-mail: saeedfarahany@gmail.com; Idris, Mohd Hasbullah; Ourdjini, Ali

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Probable interactions between Sb and Sr in a complex Al–Si alloy were evaluated. • Sequence of addition did not affect thermal and microscopical characteristics. • Threshold ratio for the Sb and Sr interaction is proposed. - Abstract: The interaction between antimony and strontium in an ADC12 die casting alloy is investigated comprehensively by using a computer aided cooling curve thermal analysis coupled with microstructure inspection. The results of the thermal analysis show significant changes in Al–Si eutectic reaction based on different concentrations of Sb and Sr. Sb reduces the efficiency of Sr in modifying the eutectic Si. Based upon the data obtained in this study, the threshold Sr/Sb ratio should exceed about 0.5 in order to obtain fully modified structure. Moreover, a pre-eutectic reaction of Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sr intermetallic was detected for high concentrations of Sr.

  20. Synthesis of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles by the nitrate-citrate combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianrong; Gao Lian

    2004-01-01

    Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles having rutile structure have been synthesized by the combustion method using citric acid (CA) as fuel and nitrate as an oxidant, the metal sources were granulated tin and Sb 2 O 3 . The influence of citric acid (fuel) to metal ratio on the average crystallite size, specific surface area and morphology of the nanoparticles has been investigated. X-ray diffraction showed the tin ions were reduced to elemental tin during combustion reaction. The average ATO crystallite size increased with the increase of citric acid (fuel). Powder morphology and the comparison of crystallite size and grain size shows that the degree of agglomeration of the powder decreased with an increase of the ratio. The highest specific surface area was 37.5 m 2 /g when the citric acid to tin ratio was about 6