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Sample records for antihistamines

  1. Allergic Rhinitis: Antihistamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Allergic Rhinitis | Antihistamines What are antihistamines? Antihistamines are medicines that help stop allergy symptoms, such as itchy eyes, sneezing and a runny nose. Sometimes, an antihistamine ...

  2. IC Treatment: Antihistamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Profile Home Diagnosis & Treatment IC Treatments Antihistamines Antihistamines Some patients report a decrease in interstitial cystitis (IC) symptoms using other antihistamines or medicines with antihistamine properties. Though the most ...

  3. Antihistamines for allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000549.htm Antihistamines for allergies To use the sharing features on ... as pills, chewable tablets, capsules, and liquids. How antihistamines help Antihistamines treat these allergy symptoms: Congestion, runny ...

  4. Antihistamines: Understanding Your OTC Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Antihistamines: Understanding Your OTC Options Antihistamines: Understanding Your OTC Options What types of OTC antihistamines are available? Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines ...

  5. Cardiovascular safety of antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasińska-Wiśniewska, Anna; Olasiński, Jerzy; Grajek, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    Histamine is a mediator, which increases the permeability of capillaries during the early phase of allergic reaction, causes smooth muscle contraction of bronchi and stimulates mucous glands in the nasal cavity. Antihistamines are the basis of symptomatic treatment in the majority of allergic diseases, especially allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, urticaria and anaphylaxis. The cardiotoxic effects of the two withdrawn drugs, terfenadine and astemizole, were manifested by prolonged QT intervals and triggering torsades de pointes (TdP) caused by blockade of the 'rapid' I Kr potassium channels. These phenomena, however, are not a class effect. This review deals with a new generation of antihistamine drugs in the context of QT interval prolongation risk. PMID:25097491

  6. Repurposing Cationic Amphiphilic Antihistamines for Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Ellegaard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. In search for new NSCLC treatment options, we screened a cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD library for cytotoxicity against NSCLC cells and identified several CAD antihistamines as inducers of lysosomal cell death. We then performed a cohort study on the effect of CAD antihistamine use on mortality of patients diagnosed with non-localized cancer in Denmark between 1995 and 2011. The use of the most commonly prescribed CAD antihistamine, loratadine, was associated with significantly reduced all-cause mortality among patients with non-localized NSCLC or any non-localized cancer when compared with use of non-CAD antihistamines and adjusted for potential confounders. Of the less frequently described CAD antihistamines, astemizole showed a similar significant association with reduced mortality as loratadine among patients with any non-localized cancer, and ebastine use showed a similar tendency. The association between CAD antihistamine use and reduced mortality was stronger among patients with records of concurrent chemotherapy than among those without such records. In line with this, sub-micromolar concentrations of loratadine, astemizole and ebastine sensitized NSCLC cells to chemotherapy and reverted multidrug resistance in NSCLC, breast and prostate cancer cells. Thus, CAD antihistamines may improve the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy.

  7. Repurposing Cationic Amphiphilic Antihistamines for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegaard, Anne-Marie; Dehlendorff, Christian; Vind, Anna C; Anand, Atul; Cederkvist, Luise; Petersen, Nikolaj H T; Nylandsted, Jesper; Stenvang, Jan; Mellemgaard, Anders; Østerlind, Kell; Friis, Søren; Jäättelä, Marja

    2016-07-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. In search for new NSCLC treatment options, we screened a cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD) library for cytotoxicity against NSCLC cells and identified several CAD antihistamines as inducers of lysosomal cell death. We then performed a cohort study on the effect of CAD antihistamine use on mortality of patients diagnosed with non-localized cancer in Denmark between 1995 and 2011. The use of the most commonly prescribed CAD antihistamine, loratadine, was associated with significantly reduced all-cause mortality among patients with non-localized NSCLC or any non-localized cancer when compared with use of non-CAD antihistamines and adjusted for potential confounders. Of the less frequently described CAD antihistamines, astemizole showed a similar significant association with reduced mortality as loratadine among patients with any non-localized cancer, and ebastine use showed a similar tendency. The association between CAD antihistamine use and reduced mortality was stronger among patients with records of concurrent chemotherapy than among those without such records. In line with this, sub-micromolar concentrations of loratadine, astemizole and ebastine sensitized NSCLC cells to chemotherapy and reverted multidrug resistance in NSCLC, breast and prostate cancer cells. Thus, CAD antihistamines may improve the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. PMID:27333030

  8. Repurposing Cationic Amphiphilic Antihistamines for Cancer Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Anne-Marie; Dehlendorff, Christian; Vind, Anna C.;

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. In search for new NSCLC treatment options, we screened a cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD) library for cytotoxicity against NSCLC cells and identified several CAD antihistamines as inducers of lysosomal cell death. We the...... of loratadine, astemizole and ebastine sensitized NSCLC cells to chemotherapy and reverted multidrug resistance in NSCLC, breast and prostate cancer cells. Thus, CAD antihistamines may improve the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy...... then performed a cohort study on the effect of CAD antihistamine use on mortality of patients diagnosed with non-localized cancer in Denmark between 1995 and 2011. The use of the most commonly prescribed CAD antihistamine, loratadine, was associated with significantly reduced all-cause mortality among patients...... with non-localized NSCLC or any non-localized cancer when compared with use of non-CAD antihistamines and adjusted for potential confounders. Of the less frequently described CAD antihistamines, astemizole showed a similar significant association with reduced mortality as loratadine among patients with any...

  9. Antihistamines: past answers and present questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Guillermo Alberto; Di Girolamo, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Antihistamines are drugs frequently used. Several drugs in this family had to be withdrawn from the market or limited in their marketing due to potentially fatal adverse events. These events were related to the ability of some antihistamines to affect cardiac potassium channels and prolong the QT interval with an excessive risk of serious arrhythmias such as Torsades de Pointes (TdP). The presence of arrhythmias in the course of a treatment with antihistamines is essentially dependent on the presence of two factors related to the drugs and other factors related to the patient individual risk. First, the drugs ability to affect potassium channels either at therapeutic or higher doses. Secondly the possibility of interactions with other drugs or natural products resulting in increased plasma concentrations obtained following usual dosage. The drugs mainly involved in interactions are the family of macrolide antibiotics and azole antifungal agents. Among patient-related factor, predisposing genes and co morbid conditions are paramount. This article reviews the characteristics and mechanisms of these interactions and the ability of antihistamines to block different potassium channels. Special consideration is prompted to the existence of genetic polymorphism that affects the kinetics of antihistamines as well as its arrhythmogenic potential. However, the tests for their detection are not widely available and the costs significantly limit their use. PMID:20210720

  10. Antihistamine provides sex-specific radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1981-04-01

    Rats suffer an early transient performance decrement immediately after a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation. However, it has been shown that males experience a more severe incapacitation than females. This sex difference has been attributed to the low estrogen levels in the male. In support of this notion, supplemental estrogens in castrated male rats have produced less-severe performance decrements post-irradiation. Antihistamines have also previously been shown to alleviate radiation's effect on behavior. The present study revealed that antihistamines are only effective in altering the behavioral incapacitation of sexually intact male subjects. This contrasts with previous work which indicates that estrogens can only benefit gonadectomized rats. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may underly antihistamine and estrogen radiation protection.

  11. 21 CFR 341.72 - Labeling of antihistamine drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of antihistamine drug products. 341.72... OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 341.72 Labeling of antihistamine drug products. (a) Statement of... product as an “antihistamine.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product states, under the...

  12. New insights into the second generation antihistamines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, GM; Annunziato, L; Frossard, N; Knol, K; Levander, S; Nicolas, JM; Taglialatela, M; Tharp, MD; Tillement, JP; Timmerman, H

    2001-01-01

    Second generation antihistamines are recognised as being highly effective treatments for allergy-based disease and are among the most frequently prescribed and safest drugs in the world. However, consideration of the therapeutic index or the benefit/risk ratio of the H-1 receptor antagonists is of p

  13. Optimal treatment of anaphylaxis: antihistamines versus epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Stanley M

    2014-07-01

    Anaphylaxis is a rapid, systemic, often unanticipated, and potentially life-threatening immune reaction occurring after exposure to certain foreign substances. The main immunologic triggers include food, insect venom, and medications. Multiple immunologic pathways underlie anaphylaxis, but most involve immune activation and release of immunomodulators. Anaphylaxis can be difficult to recognize clinically, making differential diagnosis key. The incidence of anaphylaxis has at least doubled during the past few decades, and in the United States alone, an estimated 1500 fatalities are attributed to anaphylaxis annually. The increasing incidence and potentially life-threatening nature of anaphylaxis coupled with diagnostic challenges make appropriate and timely treatment critical. Epinephrine is universally recommended as the first-line therapy for anaphylaxis, and early treatment is critical to prevent a potentially fatal outcome. Despite the evidence and guideline recommendations supporting its use for anaphylaxis, epinephrine remains underused. Data indicate that antihistamines are more commonly used to treat patients with anaphylaxis. Although histamine is involved in anaphylaxis, treatment with antihistamines does not relieve or prevent all of the pathophysiological symptoms of anaphylaxis, including the more serious complications such as airway obstruction, hypotension, and shock. Additionally, antihistamines do not act as rapidly as epinephrine; maximal plasma concentrations are reached between 1 and 3 hours for antihistamines compared with < 10 minutes for intramuscular epinephrine injection. This demonstrates the need for improved approaches to educate physicians and patients regarding the appropriate treatment of anaphylaxis.

  14. Knowledge and attitude of medical resident doctors toward antihistamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esha Chainani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic rhinitis and urticaria are chronic persistent allergic conditions that need proper management as they significantly reduce quality of life measures. Of the many pharmacological options of allergic rhinitis and urticaria, second-generation antihistamines are the mainstay of therapy. Aims: This review focuses on the knowledge of medical residents toward prescribing antihistamines, according to the new ARIA and GA2LEN guidelines for allergic rhinitis and urticaria, attempting to find the cause of less prescription of newer second-generation antihistamines by finding out the knowledge and attitude of the doctors prescribing them to the patients. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out among resident doctors at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Primary data from 100 resident doctors, who gave their informed consent, was collected. A prevalidated questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitude and prescribing practice of antihistamines was filled up. The data was then analyzed with suitable statistical tests. Every question was first validated using the Chi-square test, and significance was below 10% hence proving validity of the questions. Results: Out of the doctors surveyed, 82% of doctors said they prescribed second-generation antihistamines, while 18% still prescribed first-generation antihistamines. Out of the 82% that prescribed second-generation antihistamines, 8.9% also prescribed first-generation antihistamines as well. 23% of doctors surveyed had heard about the ARIA and GAL2EN guidelines and their recommendations for prescribing second-generation antihistamines over the older first-generation antihistamines, while 77% of them had not heard of these position papers. Conclusion: First-generation or classic antihistamines are still overused due to the lack of knowledge of various guidelines that have been published. The main reason for not prescribing the second-generation antihistamines was due to the increased

  15. Antihistaminic activity of Clitoria ternatea L. roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taur, Dnyaneshwar J; Patil, Ravindra Y

    2010-12-01

    Clonidine, a α2 adrenoreceptor agonist induces dose dependent catalepsy in mice, which was inhibited by histamine H1 receptor antagonists but not by H2 receptor antagonist. Clonidine releases histamine from mast cells which is responsible for different asthmatic conditions. Clitoria ternatea L. (Family: Fabaceae) is a perimial twing herb. The roots have anti-inflammatory properties and are useful in severe bronchitis, asthma. In present study ethanol extract of Clitoria ternatea root (ECTR) at doses 100, 125 and 150 mg/kg i.p were evaluated for antihistaminic activity using clonidine and haloperidol induced catalepsy in mice. Finding of investigation showed that chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) and ECTR inhibit clonidine induced catalepsy significantly P < 0.001 when compare to control group, while CPM and ECTR fail to inhibit haloperidol induced catalepsy. Present study concludes that ECTR possesses antihistaminic activity. PMID:24826001

  16. 21 CFR 341.12 - Antihistamine active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antihistamine active ingredients. 341.12 Section 341.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.12 Antihistamine active ingredients. The active ingredient...

  17. H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in astrocytes through macroautophagy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in vascular smooth muscle cells, which may contribute to their cardiovascular toxicity. The CNS toxicity of H1-antihistamines may also be related to their non-receptor-mediated activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in astrocytes and the mechanism involved. The H1-antihistamines induced large numbers of giant vacuoles in astrocytes. Such vacuoles were marked with both the lysosome marker Lysotracker Red and the alkalescent fluorescence dye monodansylcadaverine, which indicated that these vacuoles were lysosome-like acidic vesicles. Quantitative analysis of monodansylcadaverine fluorescence showed that the effect of H1-antihistamines on vacuolation in astrocytes was dose-dependent, and was alleviated by extracellular acidification, but aggravated by extracellular alkalization. The order of potency to induce vacuolation at high concentrations of H1-antihistamines (diphenhydramine > pyrilamine > astemizole > triprolidine) corresponded to their pKa ranking. Co-treatment with histamine and the histamine receptor-1 agonist trifluoromethyl toluidide did not inhibit the vacuolation. Bafilomycin A1, a vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor, which inhibits intracellular vacuole or vesicle acidification, clearly reversed the vacuolation and intracellular accumulation of diphenhydramine. The macroautophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine largely reversed the percentage of LC3-positive astrocytes induced by diphenhydramine, while only partly reversing the number of monodansylcadaverine-labeled vesicles. In Atg5−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which cannot form autophagosomes, the number of vacuoles induced by diphenhydramine was less than that in wild-type cells. These results indicated that H1-antihistamines induce V-ATPase-dependent acidic vacuole formation in astrocytes, and this is partly mediated by macroautophagy. The pKa and alkalescent characteristic of H1-antihistamines may be the major

  18. H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in astrocytes through macroautophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Ying; Wang, Zhe; Shen, Zhe; Zhang, Xiang-Nan [Department of Pharmacology, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058 (China); Wang, Guang-Hui [College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Chen, Zhong, E-mail: chenzhong@zju.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058 (China)

    2012-04-15

    H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in vascular smooth muscle cells, which may contribute to their cardiovascular toxicity. The CNS toxicity of H1-antihistamines may also be related to their non-receptor-mediated activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in astrocytes and the mechanism involved. The H1-antihistamines induced large numbers of giant vacuoles in astrocytes. Such vacuoles were marked with both the lysosome marker Lysotracker Red and the alkalescent fluorescence dye monodansylcadaverine, which indicated that these vacuoles were lysosome-like acidic vesicles. Quantitative analysis of monodansylcadaverine fluorescence showed that the effect of H1-antihistamines on vacuolation in astrocytes was dose-dependent, and was alleviated by extracellular acidification, but aggravated by extracellular alkalization. The order of potency to induce vacuolation at high concentrations of H1-antihistamines (diphenhydramine > pyrilamine > astemizole > triprolidine) corresponded to their pKa ranking. Co-treatment with histamine and the histamine receptor-1 agonist trifluoromethyl toluidide did not inhibit the vacuolation. Bafilomycin A1, a vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor, which inhibits intracellular vacuole or vesicle acidification, clearly reversed the vacuolation and intracellular accumulation of diphenhydramine. The macroautophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine largely reversed the percentage of LC3-positive astrocytes induced by diphenhydramine, while only partly reversing the number of monodansylcadaverine-labeled vesicles. In Atg5{sup −/−} mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which cannot form autophagosomes, the number of vacuoles induced by diphenhydramine was less than that in wild-type cells. These results indicated that H1-antihistamines induce V-ATPase-dependent acidic vacuole formation in astrocytes, and this is partly mediated by macroautophagy. The pKa and alkalescent characteristic of H1-antihistamines may be the

  19. H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in astrocytes through macroautophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Ying; Wang, Zhe; Shen, Zhe; Zhang, Xiang-Nan; Wang, Guang-Hui; Chen, Zhong

    2012-04-15

    H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in vascular smooth muscle cells, which may contribute to their cardiovascular toxicity. The CNS toxicity of H1-antihistamines may also be related to their non-receptor-mediated activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H1-antihistamines induce vacuolation in astrocytes and the mechanism involved. The H1-antihistamines induced large numbers of giant vacuoles in astrocytes. Such vacuoles were marked with both the lysosome marker Lysotracker Red and the alkalescent fluorescence dye monodansylcadaverine, which indicated that these vacuoles were lysosome-like acidic vesicles. Quantitative analysis of monodansylcadaverine fluorescence showed that the effect of H1-antihistamines on vacuolation in astrocytes was dose-dependent, and was alleviated by extracellular acidification, but aggravated by extracellular alkalization. The order of potency to induce vacuolation at high concentrations of H1-antihistamines (diphenhydramine>pyrilamine>astemizole>triprolidine) corresponded to their pKa ranking. Co-treatment with histamine and the histamine receptor-1 agonist trifluoromethyl toluidide did not inhibit the vacuolation. Bafilomycin A1, a vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor, which inhibits intracellular vacuole or vesicle acidification, clearly reversed the vacuolation and intracellular accumulation of diphenhydramine. The macroautophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine largely reversed the percentage of LC3-positive astrocytes induced by diphenhydramine, while only partly reversing the number of monodansylcadaverine-labeled vesicles. In Atg5⁻/⁻ mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which cannot form autophagosomes, the number of vacuoles induced by diphenhydramine was less than that in wild-type cells. These results indicated that H1-antihistamines induce V-ATPase-dependent acidic vacuole formation in astrocytes, and this is partly mediated by macroautophagy. The pKa and alkalescent characteristic of H1-antihistamines may be the major

  20. H1抗组胺药%H1-antihistamines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张罗; 韩德民

    2013-01-01

    While histamine plays an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, such as allergic rhinitis, H1-antihistamines, which have been using in the treatment of allergic diseases for more than 70 years, are considered as the cornerstone of the medication of allergic diseases. In this review, we discuss the history of histamine studies and anti - histamine discovery, the histamine receptors, as well as the mechanisms and the safety of H1-antihistamines.

  1. H1-antihistamines for chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Maulina; Bennett, Cathy; Cohen, Stuart N; Carter, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is characterised by the development of crops of red, itchy, raised weals or hives with no identifiable external cause.Objectives To assess the effects of H1-antihistamines for CSU.Search methods We searched the following databases up to June 2014: Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (2014, Issue 5), MEDLINE(from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and PsycINFO (from 1806). We searched five trials registers and checked articles for references to relevant randomised controlled trials.Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials of H1-antihistamines for CSU. Interventions included single therapy or a combination of H1-antihistamines compared with no treatment (placebo) or another active pharmacological compound at any dose.Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration.Our primary outcome measures were proportion of participants with complete suppression of urticaria: 'good or excellent' response,50% or greater improvement in quality of life measures, and adverse events.We present risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals(CIs). Main results We identified 73 studies (9759 participants); 34 studies provided data for 23 comparisons. The duration of the intervention was up to two weeks (short-term) or longer than two weeks and up to three months (intermediate-term).Cetirizine 10mg once daily in the short term and in the intermediate term led to complete suppression of urticaria by more participants than was seen with placebo (RR 2.72, 95% CI 1.51 to 4.91). For this same outcome, comparison of desloratadine versus placebo in the intermediate term (5 mg) (RR 37.00, 95% CI 2.31 to 593.70) and in the short term (20 mg) (RR 15.97, 95% CI 1.04 to 245.04)favoured desloratadine, but no differences were seen between 5 mg and 10 mg for short-term treatment.Levocetirizine 20 mg per day (short-term) was more effective for complete suppression of

  2. [Use of antihistamines in a physician's clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luss, L V

    2014-01-01

    Histamine that belongs to one of the most important mediators involved in the regulation of the body's vital functions plays a great role in the pathogenesis of different diseases. Histamine is released during inflammatory and allergic reactions, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid shock, pseudoallergic reactions, and others. Acting through histamine receptors, it leads to increased intracellular concentration of cyclic guanosine monophosphate, enhanced chemotaxis of eosinophils and neutrophils, production of prostaglandins and thromboxane B, suppressed synthesis of lymphokines, etc. and causes contraction of smooth muscles of particularly the bronchi and intestine, dilation of vessels and their increased permeability, mucus hypersecretion in the upper airways, lower blood pressure, angioedema and itch, etc. In this connection, antihistamines that block histamine-induced reactions in various ways: by inhibiting its biosynthesis, enhancing its neutralization, blocking the access to receptors, and suppressing the release from mast cells, occupy a prominent place in clinical practice. The review covers the classification, main mechanisms of pharmacological action, and indications for the use of antihistamines that not only have the well-known antihistamine properties, but have also a broad spectrum of anti-inflammatory activity. There are data on the benefits of a group of antihistamines, the quinuclidine derivatives (quifenadine, sequifenadine) that were designed by Academician M.D. Mashkovsky and are one of the first examples of designing new classes of multifunctional non-sedating antihistamines, which combines a high selective activity to block histamine type 1 receptors and an ability to block serotonin and to break down histamine directly in tissues. PMID:25306755

  3. Antihistamine provides sex-specific radiation protection. [Ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1981-04-01

    Rats suffer an early transient performance decrement immediately after a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation. However, it has been shown that males experience a more severe incapacitation than females. This sex difference has been attributed to the low estrogen levels in the male. In support of this notion, supplemental estrogens in castrated male rats have produced less-severe performance decrements post-irradiation. Antihistamines have also previously been shown to alleviate radiation's effect on behavior. The present study revealed that antihistamines are only effective in altering the behavioral incapacitation of sexually intact male subjects. This contrasts with previous work which indicates that estrogens can only benefit gonadectomized rats. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may underlie antihistamine and estrogen radiation protection.

  4. Analysis for commonly prescribed non-sedating antihistamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. El-Kommos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive review with 185 references for the analysis of commonly prescribed members of an important class of drugs, non-sedating antihistamines (NSAs, is presented. The review covers most of the methods described for the analysis of cetirizine (CTZ, ebastine (EBS, fexofenadine (FXD, ketotifen (KET and loratadine (LOR in pure forms, in different pharmaceutical dosage forms and in biological fluids. The review covers the period from 1991 till now.

  5. Antihistamines and driving ability: Evidence from 30 years Dutch on-road driving research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.; Van De Loo, A.J.A.E.; Garssen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since all antihistamines are capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, they may also cause sedation which may impair daily activities such as driving a car. The purpose of this review was to examine the effects of antihistamines on driving ability. Method: A literature search revealed

  6. Effects of the antihistamine diphenhydramine on selected aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Jason P; Du, Bowen; Connors, Kristin A; Eytcheson, Stephanie A; Kolkmeier, Mark A; Prosser, Krista N; Valenti, Theodore W; Chambliss, C Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W

    2011-09-01

    In recent years pharmaceuticals have been detected in aquatic systems receiving discharges of municipal and industrial effluents. Although diphenhydramine (DPH) has been reported in water, sediment, and fish tissue, an understanding of its impacts on aquatic organisms is lacking. Diphenhydramine has multiple modes of action (MOA) targeting the histamine H1, acetylcholine (ACh), and 5-HT reuptake transporter receptors, and as such is used in hundreds of pharmaceutical formulations. The primary objective of this study was to develop a baseline aquatic toxicological understanding of DPH using standard acute and subchronic methodologies with common aquatic plant, invertebrate, and fish models. A secondary objective was to test the utility of leveraging mammalian pharmacology information to predict aquatic toxicity thresholds. The plant model, Lemna gibba, was not adversely affected at exposures as high as 10 mg/L. In the fish model, Pimephales promelas, pH affected acute toxicity thresholds and feeding behavior was more sensitive (no-observed-effect concentration = 2.8 µg/L) than standardized survival or growth endpoints. This response threshold was slightly underpredicted using a novel plasma partitioning approach and a mammalian pharmacological potency model. Interestingly, results from both acute mortality and subchronic reproduction studies indicated that the model aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, was more sensitive to DPH than the fish model. These responses suggest that DPH may exert toxicity in Daphnia through ACh and histamine MOAs. The D. magna reproduction no-observed-effect concentration of 0.8 µg/L is environmentally relevant and suggests that additional studies of more potent antihistamines and antihistamine mixtures are warranted. PMID:21647947

  7. CHOICE AND STUDY OF BASE FOR PRODUCTION OF SUPPOSITORIES WITH ANTIHISTAMINIC ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Prokuschenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian pharmaceutical industry development is made possible by new medicinal forms production. To widen the assortment of antihistaminic drugs we have offered a model mixture of suppositories

  8. MODULATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NSAIDS IN NORMAL RATS TREATED WITH ANTIHISTAMINICS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilam Nigam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available NSAIDs are frequently used for relief of inflammati on and Antihistaminics are indicated for simultaneous administration for aller gic manifestations. Opioids analgesics have been reported to interact with Antihistaminics. To e xplore the interacting potentiality, in the present study the effects of combined treatment with NSAIDs and antihistaminics were examined in rats. Anti-inflammatory effect was eval uated by Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema in rats. NSAIDs like aspirin, ibuprofen and pir oxicam were selected for study on per se and on concurrent administration with Antihistamini cs such as Promethazine, Cetrizine and Astemizole. All NSAIDs protected animals show anti-i nflammatory activity. Aspirin shows highly significant potentiation of anti-inflammatory effect at all dose level, however ibuprofen and piroxicam show highly significant anti-inflammatory effect at higher doses only and on concurrent administration of antihistaminics, aspiri n, piroxicam and ibuprofen with all antihistaminics produced highly significant potentiat ion except ibuprofen with Cetrizine produced significant potentiation of anti-inflammator y response at higher doses only.

  9. Synergistic effect of broad-spectrum Sunscreens and antihistamines in the control of idiopathic solar urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, A.; Wulf, Hans Chr.

    2008-01-01

    . Observations: Three patients with idiopathic solar urticaria underwent phototesting with UV-B and UV-A radiation. The minimal urticarial dose (MUD) was determined 15 minutes after irradiation. The patients were subsequently tested with 5 times the MUD, and the reaction was graded every minute for 15 minutes......Background: It can be difficult to provide patients with idiopathic solar urticaria adequate protection from sunlight. In a nonrandomized controlled trial, we used a standardized phototest procedure to determine the effects of using sunscreen and antihistamine to control idiopathic solar urticaria......). Antihistamine use did not increase the patients' MUD but did suppress wheal formation and itch, and only immediate erythema sharply located in the irradiated areas occurred. The combination of sunscreen and antihistamine acted synergistically and increased the tolerance to UV radiation markedly (80-267 times...

  10. PREVALANCE OF VARIOUS SKIN DISORDERS AND PRESCRIBING PATTERN OF ANTIHISTAMINES IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, PUNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Manjusha Sajith

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dermatological conditions account for up to 2% of consultations in general practice worldwide. Skin diseases in developing countries have a serious impact on quality of life. The objective of the present study is to assess the prevalence of various skin diseases and to assess the drug utilization pattern of antihistamines in Dermatology Outpatient Department. Methods: A prospective study was carried out in Dermatology department of Bharati Hospital and Research Centre, Pune. The data collection form was prepared which includes patient and medication related information. The prescriptions were analyzed for common skin conditions and prescription patterns. Results: During the study period 320 prescriptions were analyzed including males 158 (49.37% and females 162 (50.62%. The maximum number of patients (38.75% were in the age group of adults (20 to 30years and minimum were children (<10 yrs is 6.25%. Most of them were having Acne problems (31.25%, followed by Eczema (8.75. Antibiotics (31.91% were mostly prescribed class of drugs, followed by steroids (20.33% and antihistamines (17.73%. Among antihistamines, Levocetirizine is mostly prescribed (66.66%. Antihistamines were mostly prescribed in skin problems like Urticaria (20.0%, followed by Dermatitis (18.66%. Ranitidine is prescribed along with other antihistamines to treat Urticaria( hives. Conclusion: Most of the patients were having Acne problems. Antihistamines were mostly prescribed in allergic conditions and rashes. Majority of drugs were prescribed in brand names. Periodic evaluation of prescribing pattern is necessary to improve prescribing standards.

  11. Chemical constituents and antihistamine activity of Bixa orellana leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yoke Keong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bixa orellana L. has been traditionally used in Central and South America to treat a number of ailments, including internal inflammation, and in other tropical countries like Malaysia as treatment for gastric ulcers and stomach discomfort. The current study aimed to determine the major chemical constituents of the aqueous extract of B. orellana (AEBO and to evaluate the antihistamine activity of AEBO during acute inflammation induced in rats. Methods Acute inflammation was produced by subplantar injection of 0.1 mL of 0.1% histamine into the right hind paw of each rat in the control and treatment groups. The degree of edema was measured before injection and at the time points of 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min after injection. Changes of peritoneal vascular permeability were studied using Evans blue dye as a detector. Vascular permeability was evaluated by the amount of dye leakage into the peritoneal cavity in rats. To evaluate the inhibitory effect of AEBO on biochemical mediators of vascular permeability, the levels of nitric oxide (NO and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were determined in histamine-treated paw tissues. The major constituents of AEBO were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Results AEBO produced a significant inhibition of histamine-induced paw edema starting at 60 min time point, with maximal percentage of inhibition (60.25% achieved with a dose of 150 mg/kg of AEBO at 60 min time point. Up to 99% of increased peritoneal vascular permeability produced by histamine was successfully suppressed by AEBO. The expression of biochemical mediators of vascular permeability, NO and VEGF, was also found to be downregulated in the AEBO treated group. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis revealed that the major constituent in AEBO was acetic acid. Conclusions The experimental findings demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory activity of AEBO was

  12. Non-sedating antihistamine drugs and cardiac arrhythmias : biased risk estimates from spontaneous reporting systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruin, M L; van Puijenbroek, E P; Egberts, A C G; Hoes, A W; Leufkens, H G M

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: This study used spontaneous reports of adverse events to estimate the risk for developing cardiac arrhythmias due to the systemic use of non-sedating antihistamine drugs and compared the risk estimate before and after the regulatory action to recall the over-the-counter status of some of these

  13. Non-sedating antihistamine drugs and cardiac arrhythmias -- biased risk estimates from spontaneous reporting systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, M L; van Puijenbroek, E P; Egberts, A C G;

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: This study used spontaneous reports of adverse events to estimate the risk for developing cardiac arrhythmias due to the systemic use of non-sedating antihistamine drugs and compared the risk estimate before and after the regulatory action to recall the over-the-counter status of some of th....... Our findings, however, strongly suggest that the increased risk identified can at least partly be explained by reporting bias as a result of publications about and mass media attention for antihistamine induced arrhythmias.......AIMS: This study used spontaneous reports of adverse events to estimate the risk for developing cardiac arrhythmias due to the systemic use of non-sedating antihistamine drugs and compared the risk estimate before and after the regulatory action to recall the over-the-counter status of some...... was not significantly higher than 1 (OR 1.37 [95% CI: 0.85, 2.23]), whereas the risk estimate calculated after the governmental decision did significantly differ from 1 (OR 4.19 [95% CI: 2.49, 7.05]). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that non-sedating antihistamines might have an increased risk for inducing arrhythmias...

  14. Risk of first-generation H(1)-antihistamines: a GA(2)LEN position paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, M K; Maurer, M; Simons, F E R;

    2010-01-01

    in which these drugs were implicated. RESULTS: First-generation H(1)-antihistamines, all of which are sedating, are generally regarded as safe by laypersons and healthcare professionals because of their long-standing use. However, they reduce rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep, impair learning and reduce work...

  15. Blood-brain barrier in vitro models as tools in drug discovery: assessment of the transport ranking of antihistaminic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, W; Mandikova, J; Pawlowitsch, R; Linz, B; Bennani-Baiti, B; Lauer, R; Lachmann, B; Noe, C R

    2012-05-01

    In the course of our validation program testing blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro models for their usability as tools in drug discovery it was evaluated whether an established Transwell model based on porcine cell line PBMEC/C1-2 was able to differentiate between the transport properties of first and second generation antihistaminic drugs. First generation antihistamines can permeate the BBB and act in the central nervous system (CNS), whereas entry to the CNS of second generation antihistamines is restricted by efflux pumps such as P-glycoprotein (P-gP) located in brain endothelial cells. P-gP functionality of PBMEC/C1-2 cells grown on Transwell filter inserts was proven by transport studies with P-gP substrate rhodamine 123 and P-gP blocker verapamil. Subsequent drug transport studies with the first generation antihistamines promethazine, diphenhydramine and pheniramine and the second generation antihistamines astemizole, ceterizine, fexofenadine and loratadine were accomplished in single substance as well as in group studies. Results were normalised to diazepam, an internal standard for the transcellular transport route. Moreover, effects after addition of P-gP inhibitor verapamil were investigated. First generation antihistamine pheniramine permeated as fastest followed by diphenhydramine, diazepam, promethazine and second generation antihistaminic drugs ceterizine, fexofenadine, astemizole and loratadine reflecting the BBB in vivo permeability ranking well. Verapamil increased the transport rates of all second generation antihistamines, which suggested involvement of P-gP during their permeation across the BBB model. The ranking after addition of verapamil was significantly changed, only fexofenadine and ceterizine penetrated slower than internal standard diazepam in the presence of verapamil. In summary, permeability data showed that the BBB model based on porcine cell line PBMEC/C1-2 was able to reflect the BBB in vivo situation for the transport of

  16. The antihistamine hydroxyzine and Odonata : Bioaccumulation and effects on predator-prey interactions between dragonfly and damselfly larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Bomark, Ellinor

    2014-01-01

    Through wastewater entering aquatic environments, aquatic insects are continuously exposed to pharmaceuticals including neurologically active antihistamines. The antihistamine hydroxyzine has previously been found to lower activity in damselflies and to reach 2000 times the concentration of surrounding water in damselfly tissue. The purpose of this short-term exposure study was to investigate if hydroxyzine also bioaccumulates in dragonflies and if dilute hydroxyzine (362 ± 50, mean ng/l ± SD...

  17. Omalizumab is efficacious for management of recalcitrant, antihistamine-resistant chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, D M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic urticaria continues to be a challenging condition for both patients and physicians. Despite improved understanding of chronic urticaria, many patients continue to experience ongoing symptoms and impaired quality of life. Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the domain at which IgE binds to the high-affinity IgE receptor on mast cells and basophils. The efficacy of omalizumab for antihistamine-resistant chronic urticaria has been demonstrated in several randomized controlled trials as well as observational studies. Omalizumab is generally well tolerated, and is associated with less potential for harm compared with other therapeutic alternatives (e.g., calcineurin inhibitors) for recalcitrant chronic urticaria. Omalizumab has become the best-studied agent for treatment of antihistamine-resistant chronic urticaria, and the agent for which the data in support of its efficacy is most methodologically sound. Omalizumab is an effective therapeutic option for patients with recalcitrant chronic urticaria.

  18. H1 antihistamines in allergic rhinitis: The molecular pathways of interleukin and toll - like receptor systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Karunia Fajar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The complex interaction between inflammatory mediators in allergic rhinitis (AR is determined by the role of genetic polymorphisms, including interleukin (IL and toll-like receptor (TLR genes. This study aimed to discuss the effects of H1-antihistamines on IL and TLR systems. Several ILs involved in AR pathogenesis are: IL-4 (rs2243250, rs1800925, rs1801275, rs2227284, rs2070874, IL-6 (rs1800795, rs1800797, IL-10 (rs1800871, rs1800872, IL-12R (rs438421, IL-13 (rs1800925, rs20541, IL-17 (rs3819024, IL-18 (rs360721, rs360718, rs360717, rs187238, IL-23R (rs7517847, and IL-27 (rs153109, rs17855750. In the IL system, histamines stimulate the IL production in Type 2 helper T (Th2 cells through protein kinase A (PKA, janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT pathway, and the activation of H1-histamine receptor and histidine decarboxylase (HDC genes. On contrary, antihistamines down-regulate the H1-histamine receptor gene expression through the transcription suppression of HDC and IL genes and suppress histamine basal signaling through the inverse agonistic activity. TLRs involved in AR pathogenesis are TLR2 (rs4696480, rs3804099, rs5743708, TLR4 (rs4986790, TLR6 (rs2381289, TLR7 (rs179008, rs5935438, TRL8 (rs2407992, rs5741883, rs17256081, rs4830805, rs3788935, rs178998, and TLR10 (rs11466651. In the TLR system, histamines trigger the TLR expression by stimulating interferon-γ (IFN-γ to up-regulate mast cells and by stimulating receptor-interacting protein (RIP to activate IκB kinase-β. Contrastingly, antihistamines suppress TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein inducing IFN-β (TRIF and RIP protein and thus inhibit the expression of TLR. In addition, several studies indicated that H1-antihistamines inhibit the IL and TLR systems indirectly.

  19. In vitro antibacterial activity of some antihistaminics belonging to different groups against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates

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    Moustafa A El-Nakeeb

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Antihistaminics are widely used for various indications during microbial infection. Hence, this paper investigates the antimicrobial activities of 10 antihistaminics belonging to both old and new generations using multiresistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical isolates. The bacteriostatic activity of antihistaminics was investigated by determining their MIC both by broth and agar dilution techniques against 29 bacterial strains. Azelastine, cyproheptadine, mequitazine and promethazine were the most active among the tested drugs. Diphenhydramine and cetirizine possessed weaker activity whereas doxylamine, fexofenadine and loratadine were inactive even at the highest tested concentration (1 mg/ml. The MIC of meclozine could not be determined as it precipitated with the used culture media. The MBC values of antihistaminics were almost identical to the corresponding MIC values. The bactericidal activity of antihistaminics was also studied by the viable count technique in sterile saline solution. Evident killing effects were exerted by mequitazine, meclozine, azelastine and cyproheptadine. Moreover, the dynamics of bactericidal activity of azelastine were studied by the viable count technique in nutrient broth. This activity was found to be concentration-dependant. This effect was reduced on increasing the inoculum size while it was increased on raising the pH. The post-antimicrobial effect of 100 fg/ml azelastine was also determined and reached up to 3.36 h.

  20. Synthesis, biological evaluation and SAR studies of benzimidazole derivatives as H1-antihistamine agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Jian Wang; Mei Yang Xi; Ji Hua Fu; Fu Rong Zhang; Gui Fang Cheng; Da Li Yin; Qi Dong You

    2012-01-01

    A series of benzimidazole derivatives have been designed,synthesized and evaluated for H1 antihtistamine activity.Six compounds have showed potent antihistamine H1 activity.The primary SAR analysis indicated that benzyl or benzylidinyl substituted on the exo-nitrogen atom and C2 of the benzimidazole were significant.Further experiments indicated that compound 17d displayed excellent activity to reduce mast cell degranulation,moderate anti-PAF activity and decreased potency on hERG compared to astermizole.Hence compound 17d could serve as anti-altergic agent for further development.

  1. Liquid chromatography of antihistamines using post-column tris(2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium(III) chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeman, J A; Danielson, N D

    1994-09-23

    The separation and detection of five antihistamine drugs commonly found within over-the-counter allergy and cold pharmaceutical products was performed by HPLC with chemiluminescence (CL) detection. Comparable detection limits at 5-10 pmol were found for the antihistamines by both UV at 214 nm and tris(2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium(III) CL. However, urine samples were found not to generate as large an unretained peak by CL detection as compared to those peaks by UV detection at 214 and 254 nm. For example, the pheniramine peak representing 0.15 microgram/ml was almost totally obscured at 214 nm. Quantitative results received for three antihistamine commercial samples ranged from 4 to 8% error in accuracy when an internal standard was used to compensate for short term detector drift.

  2. Update on antihistamines%抗组胺药物及其新药研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻雷雷; 胡素娟; 崔勇

    2013-01-01

    组胺与组胺受体结合后引发以组胺为主的炎性介质释放,导致变态反应性疾病的发生.H1受体拮抗剂是抗组胺药物之一,可阻断组胺与Hl受体结合,从而抑制组胺发挥其生物学效应.Hl受体拮抗剂主要用于治疗由组胺释放诱发的变态反应性疾病.第一代抗组胺药作用时间短,有明显的镇静作用.第二代抗组胺药药效与第一代相近或强于第一代,作用时间长,无明显的中枢镇静作用,但有心脏毒性,故新药的研究成为热点.%The binding of histamine to its receptors can induce the release of inflammatory mediators predominated by histamine followed by the development of allergic diseases.H1-receptor antagonists,as a kind of antihistamine,can inhibit the biological effects of histamine by blocking its binding to H1 receptor,and are mainly used to treat allergic diseases which are induced by the release of histamine.First-generation antihistamines have a short duration of action and an obvious sedative effect on central nervous system.Compared with first-generation antihistamines,second-generation antihistamines show a similar or stronger efficacy,longer duration of action and less sedative effects.However,cardiac toxicity has been observed in second-generation antihistamines,which has warranted the development of new antihistamine agents.

  3. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Antihistamines for the Common Cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;11:CD009345].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrantino, Carmel; Duarte, Gonçalo; Costa, João; Vaz-Carneiro, António

    2016-03-01

    The common cold is an acute, self-limiting inflammation of the mucosa of the upper airways, which may involve one or all the sinuses, nasopharynx, oropharynx and larynx. It is common to have at least one episode per year. Common cold symptoms, which may include sore throat, sneezing, nasal congestion, runny nose, headache, malaise and mild fever usually disappear within a few days without treatment. The causative agent of most colds is rhinovirus. Although not associated with mortality, common cold is associated with significant morbidity. There is no vaccine or cure for common cold and, therefore, their treatment is centered on relieving the symptoms. This Cochrane review aimed to synthesize the existing evidence about the clinical benefit of antihistamines, used as monotherapy, compared with placebo or no treatment in children and adult patients with common cold. A total of 18 randomized clinical trials with 4342 participants were included. Main results were: 1) Antihistamines have a small (days one and two) beneficial effect in the short term on the severity of overall symptoms in adult patients, although this effect is not present in the medium to long term; 2) antihistamines were not associated with a clinically significant beneficial effect on the individual symptoms (nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, and sneezing); 3) Antihistamines are not associated with an increased risk of adverse effects; 4) No conclusion can be made about the effectiveness of antihistamines in pediatric populations. Our interpretation of the results is that the available evidence is insufficient to support the prescription or buying OTC antihistamines to relieve the symptoms of common cold without allergic component. PMID:27285091

  4. Pro-arrhythmic potential of oral antihistamines (H1: combining adverse event reports with drug utilization data across Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Poluzzi

    Full Text Available There is appreciable utilisation of antihistamines (H1 in European countries, either prescribed by physician and purchased by patients for self-medication. Terfenadine and astemizole underwent regulatory restrictions in '90 because of their cardiac toxicity, but only scarce clinical data are available on other antihistamines.To investigate the pro-arrhythmic potential of antihistamines by combining safety reports of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS with drug utilization data from 13 European Countries.We identified signals of antihistamine arrhythmogenic potential by analyzing FAERS database for all cases of Torsades de Pointes (TdP, QT abnormalities (QTabn, ventricular arrhythmia (VA and sudden cardiac death/cardiac arrest (SCD/CA. Number of cases ≥3 and disproportionality were used to define alert signals: TdP and QTabn identified stronger signals, whereas SCD/CA identified weaker signals. Drug utilization data from 2005 to 2010 were collected from administrative databases through health authorities and insurance.Antihistamines were reported in 109 cases of TdP/QT prolongation, 278 VA and 610 SCD/CA. Five agents resulted in stronger signals (cetirizine, desloratadine, diphenhydramine, fexofenadine, loratadine and 6 in weaker signals (alimemazine, carbinoxamine, cyclizine, cyproeptadine, dexchlorpheniramine and doxylamine. Exposure to antihistamines with stronger signal was markedly different across European countries and was at least 40% in each Country. Cetirizine was >29 Defined Daily Doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID in Norway, desloratadine >11 DID in France and loratadine >9 DID in Sweden and Croatia. Drugs with weaker signals accounted for no more than 10% (in Sweden and in most European countries their use was negligible.Some second-generation antihistamines are associated with signal of torsadogenicity and largely used in most European countries. Although confirmation by analytical studies is required, regulators

  5. Is there a role for nonsedating antihistamines in motion sickness? Fallout from space research may soon benefit your patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The rotating chair test, a novel research technique for simulating motion sickness, is used to study the effect of nonsedating oral antihistamines in preventing or forestalling motion sickness. After receiving terfenadine, astemizole, doxepin, or placebo, four groups of male volunteers were rotated at accelerating speed, and they made head movements out of the axis of rotation until they perceived that vomiting would occur if additional head movements were made. Those pretreated with doxepin or terfenadine experienced a statistically significant prophylactic effect, as measured by increased tolerance to Coriolis stimulation. This suggests that selective peripheral H1 antihistamine action may protect against motion sickness.

  6. Mast Cell Stabilizing,Antianaphylactic and Antihistaminic Activity of Coccinia grandis Fruits in Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dnyaneshwar J Taur; Ravindra Y Patil

    2011-01-01

    Coccinia grandis Linn(Curcubitaceae)is a climber herb cultivated throughout India.In traditional medicine fruits have been used to treat leprosy,fever,asthma,bronchitis and jaundice.In present study,ethanol extract of C.grandis fruit(ECGF)at 100,125 and 150 mg·kg-1,i.p.,was evaluated for mast cell stabilizing,antianaphylactic and antihistaminic activity using egg albumin induced mast cell degranulation in mice;passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats and clonidine induced catalepsy in mice respectively.ECGF at(100-150 mg·kg-1,i.p.)significantly protected egg albumin induced degranulations of mast cells and caused reduction of blue dye leakage in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in dose dependently.The treatment ECGF also inhibited clonidine induced catalepsy in dose dependent manner.Phytochemical studies observed presence of saponin,steroids,alkaloids,flavonoids and glycosides.In conclusion ECGF possesses mast cell stabilizing;anti anaphylactic and antihistaminic potential which might be used in treatment of asthma.

  7. Pro-arrhythmic potential of oral antihistamines (H1) : Combining adverse event reports with drug utilization data across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Poluzzi (Elisabetta); E. Raschi (Emanuel); B. Godman (Brian); A. Koci (Ariola); U. Moretti (Ugo); Kalaba, M. (Marija); Wettermark, B. (Bjorn); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); F. de Ponti (Fabrizio)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: There is appreciable utilisation of antihistamines (H1) in European countries, either prescribed by physician and purchased by patients for self-medication. Terfenadine and astemizole underwent regulatory restrictions in '90 because of their cardiac toxicity, but only scarce

  8. Early pregnancy exposure to antihistamines and risk of congenital heart defects : results of two case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedts, Huberdina P. M.; de Jonge, Linda; Bandola, Sarah J. G.; Baardman, Marlies E.; Bakker, Marian K.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P. M.

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: We aimed to study the association between use of antihistamines in early pregnancy and congenital heart defects (CHD) in the offspring. DESIGN: Two case-control studies. SETTING: HAVEN study, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, and Eurocat Northern Netherlands (NNL), Univer

  9. Electrooxidation of antihistamine drug methdilazine and its analysis in human urine and blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj P. Shetti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of an antihistamine drug, methdilazine, was studied in 9.2 pH with 0.2 M phosphate buffer as supporting electrolyte at 25 ± 0.2°C. Glassy carbon electrode was used to perform the experiment at cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetric techniques. The dependence of the current on pH, concentration and scan rate were investigated. Differential pulse voltammetric technique was adopted to know the linear relation between peak current and methdilazine concentration. The linear response was obtained in the range of 3.0 μM–1.0 mM with a detection limit of 0.1 μM. The proposed method was also applied for the quantitative determination of methdilazine in pharmaceuticals and biological samples.

  10. Increased brain uptake of morphine in the presence of the antihistamine tripelennamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlamani, N L; Pontani, R B; Misra, A L

    1984-01-01

    Disposition of [6 3H (N)]morphine in plasma, brain and liver of rats was studied 15 min after intravenous injection of either a 2 mg kg-1 dose of morphine or a combination of the same dose of morphine with a 6 mg kg-1 dose of tripelennamine. The concentrations of morphine in brain and the brain to plasma morphine ratios in animals receiving the combination of drugs concurrently were significantly higher than those in the control morphine group. No significant differences were seen in the morphine or morphine metabolite concentrations in plasma and liver or liver to plasma morphine concentration ratios in the 2 groups. Data suggest that pharmacokinetic factors play a role in the potentiation of opiate effects by antihistamine on concurrent i.v. administration of the two drugs. PMID:6141270

  11. [Choice of an antihistamine administration route in the treatment of allergic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luss, L V

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases (AD) are an interdisciplinary problem in practical health care and characterized by high prevalence, severity, and huge financial costs of their treatment, prevention, and rehabilitation in patients. In this connection, control of allergy symptoms attracts the meticulous attention of physicians of all specialties. The efficiency of pharmacotherapy in clinical practice frequently depends not only on what medication, but also what mode of its delivery (administration) is used. Clinicians are well aware of the fact that oral administration of some drugs, antihistamines in particular, may be lowly effective or ineffective and their parenteral route gives rise to their sufficient clinical effect. This communication presents for general practitioners a pathogenetic rationale for prescribing histamines and indications for their parenteral administration in AD. PMID:27030338

  12. Novel Functional Aspect of Antihistamines: The Impact of Bepotastine Besilate on Substance P-Induced Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Kitaba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides histamine, substance P (SP has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in pruritic skin diseases. Although antihistamines are frequently used for pruritic skin diseases, little is known concerning the effect on an SP-induced event such as mast cell degranulation and the upregulation of adhesion molecules or the nitric oxide (NO synthesis in endothelial cells. Our aim was to study the effect of bepotastine besilate on SP-induced degranulation of rat basophillic leukemia (RBL-2H3 cells and expression of adhesion molecules and NO synthesis in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs. Bepotastine besilate significantly inhibited SP-induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and NO synthesis in HMVECs. Bepotastine besilate significantly inhibited expression of adhesion molecules in HMVESs, while it failed to suppress SP-induced upregulation of the adhesion molecules in HMVECs. Therefore, bepotastine besilate is assumed to act favorably on SP-induced basophil degranulation and NO synthesis in HMVECs.

  13. Astemizole: an old anti-histamine as a new promising anti-cancer drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Quiroz, Janice; Camacho, Javier

    2011-03-01

    Mortality-to-incidence ratio in cancer patients is extremely high, positioning cancer as a major cause of death worldwide. Despite hundreds of clinical trials for anti-cancer drugs that are currently in progress, most clinical trials for novel drug treatments fail to pass Phase I. However, previously developed drugs with novel anti-tumor properties offer a viable and cost-effective alternative to fight cancer. Histamine favors the proliferation of normal and malignant cells. Several anti-histamine drugs, including astemizole, can inhibit tumor cell proliferation. Astemizole has gained enormous interest since it also targets important proteins involved in cancer progression, namely, ether à-go-go 1 (Eag1) and Eag-related gene (Erg) potassium channels. Furthermore, Eag1 is thought to be an important marker and a therapeutic target for several different cancers. Astemizole inhibits Eag1 and Erg channel activity, and in cells expressing the Eag1 channel it decreases tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. It should be noted that some cardiovascular side effects have been reported for astemizole in a few rare cases. Nevertheless, astemizole stands as a very promising anti-cancer tool because it displays several anti-proliferative mechanisms, may serve as the basis to synthesize new anti-cancer agents, and has been previously administered clinically. In this review we will summarize the main findings relating to histamine and anti-histamines in cancer cell proliferation focusing on astemizole targets (Eag1 and Erg channels), and its anti-cancer effects in vitro and in vivo. We will also describe the side effects of astemizole and discuss proposals to overcome such effects in cancer patients. Finally, we will remark on the relevance of developing novel astemizole-related compounds. PMID:21443504

  14. Treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria: a review of the newest antihistamine drug bilastine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue Yan; Lim-Jurado, Margaret; Prepageran, Narayanan; Tantilipikorn, Pongsakorn; Wang, De Yun

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis and urticaria are common allergic diseases that may have a major negative impact on patients' quality of life. Bilastine, a novel new-generation antihistamine that is highly selective for the H1 histamine receptor, has a rapid onset and prolonged duration of action. This agent does not interact with the cytochrome P450 system and does not undergo significant metabolism in humans, suggesting that it has very low potential for drug-drug interactions, and does not require dose adjustment in renal impairment. As bilastine is not metabolized and is excreted largely unchanged, hepatic impairment is not expected to increase systemic exposure above the drug's safety margin. Bilastine has demonstrated similar efficacy to cetirizine and desloratadine in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and, in a Vienna Chamber study, a potentially longer duration of action than fexofenadine in patients with asymptomatic seasonal allergic rhinitis. It has also shown significant efficacy (similar to that of cetirizine) and safety in the long-term treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis. Bilastine showed similar efficacy to levocetirizine in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria and can be safely used at doses of up to fourfold higher than standard dosage (80 mg once daily). The fourfold higher than standard dose is specified as an acceptable second-line treatment option for urticaria in international guidelines. Bilastine is generally well tolerated, both at standard and at supratherapeutic doses, appears to have less sedative potential than other second-generation antihistamines, and has no cardiotoxicity. Based on its pharmacokinetic properties, efficacy, and tolerability profile, bilastine will be valuable in the management of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. PMID:27110120

  15. Proposal of employ of extract of Desmodium adscendens as anti-histaminic natural drug: trials of efficacy by Reflectance Spectrophotometry

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Martini; Roberto Solimé

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Aim of our study is to propose the ancient plant Desmodium adscendens, that is hitherto known for combating, when orally administered, a plethora of other ailments and diseases and considered even an anti-histaminic, for external use. An inhibition of histamine depot by inhibiting the enzymatic activity of histidine decarboxylase can be suspected, since biological principles contained in D.A. belong to the same pharmacological class of natural derivatives that elicit the same ef...

  16. Ethosomes-based topical delivery system of antihistaminic drug for treatment of skin allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goindi, Shishu; Dhatt, Bhavnita; Kaur, Amanpreet

    2014-01-01

    Cetirizine is indicated for the treatment of allergic conditions such as insect bites and stings, atopic and contact dermatitis, eczema, urticaria. This investigation deals with development of a novel ethosome-based topical formulation of cetirizine dihydrochloride for effective delivery. The optimised formulation consisting of drug, phospholipon 90 G™ and ethanol was characterised for drug content, entrapment efficiency, pH, vesicular size, spreadability and rheological behaviour. The ex vivo permeation studies through mice skin showed highest permeation flux (16.300 ± 0.300 µg/h/cm(2)) and skin retention (20.686 ± 0.517 µg/cm(2)) for cetirizine-loaded ethosomal vesicles as compared to conventional formulations. The in vivo pharmacodynamic evaluation of optimised formulation was assessed against oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis (AD) in mice. The parameters evaluated were reduction in scratching score, erythema score, skin hyperplasia and dermal eosinophil count. Our results suggest that ethosomes are effective carriers for dermal delivery of antihistaminic drug, cetirizine, for the treatment of AD. PMID:24963956

  17. Clinical study of the effect of asetemizole (antihistamine drug on reducing postoperative pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidar M.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available "nAbstract: Endodontic postoperative pain is still one of the major problems for dentists. According to the researches periapical inflammation after RCT is one of the most important factors causing endodontic postoperative pain. Histamine is one of the effective chemical mediators, which produces such inflammation. So, for controlling pains after RCT, the factors reducing inflammation should be found. The aim of this study was to investigate pain control after RCT by drug prophylaxis with antihistamine (asetemizole. 60 patients were divided in 2 groups (30 patients in each group. Group 1 had a capsule of  asetemizole (20mg and the second group had a placebo capsule one hour before RCT. The patients completed the questionnaire after RCT and gave it back on the next session. The evaluated times were 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 and 72 h after RCT. This study indicated that asetemizole was able to reduce the moderate pericemental pain just at the 9 and 12 hours after RCT, and it was not able to reduce the spontaneous pain after RCT significantly on the evaluated times

  18. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTI-HISTAMINE ACTIVITY OF THE AERIAL PARTS OF TEPHROSIA PURPUREA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisami Nivedithadevi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tephrosia purpurea (Fabaceae has been used as a medicinal plant in all over India. This plant is a much branched perennial herb. Roots are given orally against any type of poisoning such as snakebite and the aerial parts were used for hydrophobia, asthma, cough, heart disease and kidney problems. Anti-microbial activity of 50% alcoholic extract with different concentrations were tested against the fungal strains like Aspergillus fumigates, Aspergillus niger, Ganoderma lucida and Candida albicans and bacterial organisms like Escherichia coli, Serratia mercescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis. The 50% alcoholic extract of Tephrosia purpurea at 5mg, 10mg, and 20mg concentration showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus. Extracts of Tephrosia purpurea at 5mg, 10mg, and 20mg concentration did not show positive antifungal activities against Aspergillus fumigates, Aspergillus niger, Ganoderma lucida and Candida albicans. Antihistamine activity of 50% alcohol extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TP was evaluated in isolated guinea pig ileum. It was observed that different concentrations (2mg, 4mg and 8mg/ml of TP extract antagonized the contraction of ileum induced by histamine. The extracts at 8mg/ml concentration expected maximum antagonistic. The results obtained with histamine in guinea-pig isolated ileum preparations are sensitive to histamine against like histamine at the lower concentration.

  19. Ethosomes-based topical delivery system of antihistaminic drug for treatment of skin allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goindi, Shishu; Dhatt, Bhavnita; Kaur, Amanpreet

    2014-01-01

    Cetirizine is indicated for the treatment of allergic conditions such as insect bites and stings, atopic and contact dermatitis, eczema, urticaria. This investigation deals with development of a novel ethosome-based topical formulation of cetirizine dihydrochloride for effective delivery. The optimised formulation consisting of drug, phospholipon 90 G™ and ethanol was characterised for drug content, entrapment efficiency, pH, vesicular size, spreadability and rheological behaviour. The ex vivo permeation studies through mice skin showed highest permeation flux (16.300 ± 0.300 µg/h/cm(2)) and skin retention (20.686 ± 0.517 µg/cm(2)) for cetirizine-loaded ethosomal vesicles as compared to conventional formulations. The in vivo pharmacodynamic evaluation of optimised formulation was assessed against oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis (AD) in mice. The parameters evaluated were reduction in scratching score, erythema score, skin hyperplasia and dermal eosinophil count. Our results suggest that ethosomes are effective carriers for dermal delivery of antihistaminic drug, cetirizine, for the treatment of AD.

  20. EFFICACY OF ANTIHISTAMINE AGENTS ON MODEL FOR EXERCISE-INDUCED ASTHMA IN GUINEA PIGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Meng-Fei; REN Tao; LIANG Yong-Jie

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of antihistamine agents, loratadine and ketotifen, on the model of exercise-induced asthma in guinea pigs with lipopolysaccharide ( LPS) and metyapone. Methods Nineteen guinea pigs were injected peritoneolly with LPS (1mg/kg, i. p. ) and metyapone ( 50mg/kg, i. p. ). Then they were randomized into 3 groups. The control group ( n =7) did not take any drug, ketotifen group ( n =6) adminisd-1 ) for 4 days. On the fifth day, lung resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance of respiratory system (Cdyn) of 3 groups were measured before and after exercise challenge. The total number of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from 3 groups was counted and differentiated cell type count was measured. Morphometric examination of the animal lungs was performed. Results In control group, RLincreased and Cdyn decreased significantly after exercise challenge. In ketotifen group and loratadine group with no change. There was a significant increase in the number of neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils in BALF from control group. The infiltration of neutrophils in the bronchial mucosa was shown in control group in the morphometric study. Conclusion Loratadine and ketotifen can inhibit the exercise-indaced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs pretreated with LPS and metyrapone. Inhibiting the formation of inflammation in airway may be the therapeutic mechanism of these H-1 receptor antagonists.

  1. Update on histamine and antihistamines%组胺和抗组胺药的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴银华; 方红

    2013-01-01

    The binding of histamine to H1 receptors may result in an increase in the capacity of antigen-presenting cells and in the release of histamine and other mediators from mast cells and basophils,which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of urticaria and other allergic diseases.First-generation H1-antihistamines,which have lipophilicity and low molecular weight,can penetrate blood-brain barrier easily and induce a number of side effects,especially on alertness and consciousness.By contrast,second-generation H1-antihistamines have higher molecular weight,specificity and affinity for receptor,stronger antihistamine activity,and superior safety.International treatment guidelines all recommend second-generation H1-antihistamines as first-choice therapy for chronic urticaria,which permits a dose increase up to 4 times the standard dose when needed with a good security.H3-and H4-antihistamines are under clinical investigations,and are expected to be used for the treatment of allergic diseases and pruritus.%组胺与H1受体结合可增强抗原提呈细胞的能力,促进肥大细胞和嗜碱性粒细胞中组胺和其他介质的释放,在荨麻疹等过敏性疾病的发病中起着作用.第一代H1抗组胺药由于相对分子质量小,嗜脂性,易通过血脑屏障,临床应用可产生较多不良反应,尤其是对警觉性、认知等的影响.第二代H1抗组胺药相对分子质量大,受体专一性强、亲和力高,抗组胺活性更强,安全性更好,国外指南均推荐作为荨麻疹的一线治疗药物,治疗剂量可增至标准剂量的4倍以提高疗效,仍具有很好的安全性.H3、H4抗组胺药也已进入临床试验,有望治疗过敏性疾病及瘙痒症.

  2. H1-antihistamine up-dosing in chronic spontaneous urticaria: patients' perspective of effectiveness and side effects--a retrospective survey study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Weller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The guidelines recommend that first line treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria should be second generation non-sedating H(1-antihistamines with a positive recommendation against the use of old sedating first generation antihistamines. If standard dosing is not effective, increasing the dosage up to four-fold is recommended. The objective of this study was to obtain the chronic spontaneous urticaria-patient perspective on the effectiveness and unwanted effects of H(1-antihistamines in standard and higher doses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a questionnaire based survey, initially completed by 368 individuals. 319 (248 female, 71 male, median age 42 years had a physician-confirmed diagnosis of chronic spontaneous urticaria and were included in the results. Participants believed standard doses (manufacturers recommended dose of second generation antihistamines to be significantly (P<0.005 more effective than first generation drugs. Furthermore, they believed that second generation drugs caused significantly (P<0.001 fewer unwanted effects and caused significantly (P<0.001 less sedation than first generation antihistamines. Three-quarters of the patients stated that they had up-dosed with antihistamines with 40%, 42% and 54% reporting significant added benefit from taking 2, 3 or 4 tablets daily respectively. The number of reports of unwanted effects and sedation following up-dosing were not significantly different from those reported for standard doses. CONCLUSIONS: This survey supports the urticaria guidelines recommendations that the first line treatment for chronic spontaneous urticaria should be second generation rather than first generation H(1-antihistamines and that, if standard dosing is not effective, the dosage should be increased up to four-fold.

  3. Efficacy of H, antihistamine, corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide in the treatment of chronic dermographic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available H, antihistamines relieve urticaria by blocking the action of histamine on the target tissue, while demonstration of autoantibodies in the sera of a proportion of the patients having chronic idiopathic urticaria, use of immunosuppressive drugs for the treatment of these patients has acquired the greater rationality. We evaluated the role of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide in the treatment of chronic dermographic urticaria. Twenty-five patients, 13 males and 12 females, between 18-53 years in age, having chronic dermographic urticaria were taken up for this study. The patients were divided into three groups. Group I patients (n=9 were treated with cetirizine hydrochloride 10 mg per day orally, group II patients (n=7 were treated with betamethasone 2 mg along with cyclophosphamide 50 mg along with cetirizine 10 mg per day for a total period of 4 weeks. The patients were evaluated every week to record the therapeutic response and side effects, and then followed up without treatment for a period of 6 months to look for recurrence of the urticaria, if any. Six patients in group I and all the patients in group II and group III had complete remission while the remaining patients in group I had partial relief. The side effects included drowsiness in 4 patients. All the patients in group II had weight gain, 4 patients had acne and 2 patients developed cushingoid features. Majority of the patients relapsed within 3 days after stopping the treatment. Supplementation of the treatment with oral corticosteroids or cyclophosphamide was more effective in controlling the symptoms as compared to cetirizine alone. But a four weeks supplementation was not adequate for preventing the relapses when the drugs were withdrawn.

  4. Autologous serum therapy in chronic urticaria: A promising complement to antihistamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchami Debbarman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic urticaria (CU is a vexing problem and patients of CU suffer from the morbidity that arise from irritable itch and weals and are also subjected to a huge antihistamine pill burden. The symptoms are more in autoreactive urticaria (AU where auto-antibodies in blood flares-up the condition. Search for newer effective modalities which can reduce pill burden is a felt need. Aims: This study evaluates the effectiveness of autologous serum therapy (AST in CU and also determines its usefulness in AU. Materials and Methods: Double blind, parallel group, randomized, controlled study. Fifty four patients were given AST and 57 patients were given injection normal saline (placebo, along with cetirizine in an on-demand basis in both groups. AST/Placebo was given weekly for nine weeks and followed-up for a total period of 24 weeks. AU was diagnosed by autologous serum skin test. Urticaria total severity score (TSS, Urticaria activity score (UAS, Dermatologic life quality index (DLQI was used as primary effectiveness variables. Safety parameters assessed were the spontaneously reported adverse events and laboratory parameters. Results: TSS showed significant improvement from baseline, 7 th week and 8 th week onwards in AST group and placebo group respectively. Group comparison showed significant improvement 4 th week onwards. UAS showed similar results. DLQI showed significant improvement in AST group compared to placebo at the end of study. Both AU and non-AU patients showed comparable improvement of TSS. Conclusion: AST shows promise in treatment of urticaria regardless of the autoreactive nature.

  5. Efficacy and safety of omalizumab in patients with chronic idiopathic/spontaneous urticaria who remain symptomatic on h1 antihistamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saini, Sarbjit S; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Maurer, Marcus;

    2015-01-01

    ASTERIA I was a 40-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous omalizumab as add-on therapy for 24 weeks in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria/spontaneous urticaria (CIU/CSU) who remained symptomatic despite H1 antihistamine....... The omalizumab 300-mg group met all nine secondary end points, including a significant decrease in the duration of time to reach minimally important difference response (⩾5-point decrease) in weekly ISS (Purticaria activity score over 7...

  6. Proposal of employ of extract of Desmodium adscendens as anti-histaminic natural drug: trials of efficacy by Reflectance Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Martini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aim of our study is to propose the ancient plant Desmodium adscendens, that is hitherto known for combating, when orally administered, a plethora of other ailments and diseases and considered even an anti-histaminic, for external use. An inhibition of histamine depot by inhibiting the enzymatic activity of histidine decarboxylase can be suspected, since biological principles contained in D.A. belong to the same pharmacological class of natural derivatives that elicit the same effects (nicotinic acid, cyanides and quercetine and of synthetic alkylammines (e.g contained in bubble baths. Desmodium adscendens is a perennial plant, growing wild in Africa, especially in Camerun and Ivory Coast as well as in South and Central America and the continent of Asia. Aborigines were accustomed to employ the entire plant for rites of initiation and other shamanistic ceremonies. Notwithstanding, it has been used for thousands of years by peoples native to those areas where it grows for a variety of health issues. This plant has been studied in France, Italy, India and Canada and appreciable are the results with regard to bronchial dilation, relaxation of smooth muscles, antihistamine effects, when orally administered, albeit there is a neat evidence of an extreme paucity of references about its ability to act as a completely natural anti-histaminic herb for external use. Material and Methods: To conduct our study we have recruited 24 volunteers out from 4 cathegories of employees generally suffering from Type I Contact Dermatities. They were prayed to spread the hydroglyceric extract of Desmodium adscendens every morning at 10.00 a.m. and every afternoon at 03.00 p.m onto the skin of forearms and cheeks, where an artificial rash was evoked by the use of a mix made up with allergenic herbs. As far as the evaluation of the degree of severity of skin inflammation is concerned we have used the Reflectance Spectrophotoscopy, to measure the erythematous

  7. A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind pilot study of methotrexate in the treatment of H1 antihistamine-resistant chronic spontaneous urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod K Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic urticaria not responsive to antihistamines is a difficult disease to manage. Methotrexate has been used in difficult chronic urticarias with some benefit. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of methotrexate in the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria poorly responsive to H1 antihistaminics. Methods: In a randomized double-blind trial at the Department of Dermatology and Venereology of a tertiary care centre, 29 patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria not responding well to H1 antihistaminics were recruited. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either a weekly dose of oral methotrexate 15 mg or placebo (calcium carbonate for a total duration of 12 weeks, after which treatment was stopped and patients were followed up for relapse of urticaria. Each group also received levocetrizine 5 mg once daily for symptom control. Primary outcome measured was a reduction by >2/3 rd of baseline urticaria scores after 12 week therapy. Secondary outcome was a reduction in antihistamine requirement after stopping therapy. Results: Fourteen patients were randomized to the methotrexate group and fifteen patients to the placebo group. Out of 17 patients who completed therapy, the primary outcome was achieved by 3.5 ± 1.9 (out of 10 patients in the methotrexate group and by 3.67 ± 1.03 (out of 7 patients in the placebo group (P > 0.05. Ten patients followed up, after stopping therapy, for a mean period of 3.5 ± 2.4 months; 3 remained in remission and 7 had relapsed. One patient had uncontrollable nausea and vomiting after taking methotrexate and was withdrawn from the study. The placebo group did not experience any side effects. Conclusions: Methotrexate 15 mg weekly for 3 months did not provide any additional benefit over H1 antihistamines in this study but an adequately powered study with longer follow up is required to assess its utility.

  8. Antihistamines suppress upregulation of histidine decarboxylase gene expression with potencies different from their binding affinities for histamine H1 receptor in toluene 2,4-diisocyanate-sensitized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Das, Asish K; Maeyama, Kazutaka; Dev, Shrabanti; Shahriar, Masum; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Antihistamines inhibit histamine signaling by blocking histamine H1 receptor (H1R) or suppressing H1R signaling as inverse agonists. The H1R gene is upregulated in patients with pollinosis, and its expression level is correlated with the severity of nasal symptoms. Here, we show that antihistamine suppressed upregulation of histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA expression in patients with pollinosis, and its expression level was correlated with that of H1R mRNA. Certain antihistamines, including mepyramine and diphenhydramine, suppress toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI)-induced upregulation of HDC gene expression and increase HDC activity in TDI-sensitized rats. However, d-chlorpheniramine did not demonstrate any effect. The potencies of antihistamine suppressive effects on HDC mRNA elevation were different from their H1R receptor binding affinities. In TDI-sensitized rats, the potencies of antihistamine inhibitory effects on sneezing in the early phase were related to H1R binding. In contrast, the potencies of their inhibitory effects on sneezing in the late phase were correlated with those of suppressive effects on HDC mRNA elevation. Data suggest that in addition to the antihistaminic and inverse agonistic activities, certain antihistamines possess additional properties unrelated to receptor binding and alleviate nasal symptoms in the late phase by inhibiting synthesis and release of histamine by suppressing HDC gene transcription. PMID:26980430

  9. Can Twitter Be a Source of Information on Allergy? Correlation of Pollen Counts with Tweets Reporting Symptoms of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis and Names of Antihistamine Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesualdo, Francesco; Stilo, Giovanni; D'Ambrosio, Angelo; Carloni, Emanuela; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Velardi, Paola; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Tozzi, Alberto E

    2015-01-01

    Pollen forecasts are in use everywhere to inform therapeutic decisions for patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). We exploited data derived from Twitter in order to identify tweets reporting a combination of symptoms consistent with a case definition of ARC and those reporting the name of an antihistamine drug. In order to increase the sensitivity of the system, we applied an algorithm aimed at automatically identifying jargon expressions related to medical terms. We compared weekly Twitter trends with National Allergy Bureau weekly pollen counts derived from US stations, and found a high correlation of the sum of the total pollen counts from each stations with tweets reporting ARC symptoms (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.95) and with tweets reporting antihistamine drug names (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.93). Longitude and latitude of the pollen stations affected the strength of the correlation. Twitter and other social networks may play a role in allergic disease surveillance and in signaling drug consumptions trends.

  10. Can Twitter Be a Source of Information on Allergy? Correlation of Pollen Counts with Tweets Reporting Symptoms of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis and Names of Antihistamine Drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gesualdo

    Full Text Available Pollen forecasts are in use everywhere to inform therapeutic decisions for patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC. We exploited data derived from Twitter in order to identify tweets reporting a combination of symptoms consistent with a case definition of ARC and those reporting the name of an antihistamine drug. In order to increase the sensitivity of the system, we applied an algorithm aimed at automatically identifying jargon expressions related to medical terms. We compared weekly Twitter trends with National Allergy Bureau weekly pollen counts derived from US stations, and found a high correlation of the sum of the total pollen counts from each stations with tweets reporting ARC symptoms (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.95 and with tweets reporting antihistamine drug names (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.93. Longitude and latitude of the pollen stations affected the strength of the correlation. Twitter and other social networks may play a role in allergic disease surveillance and in signaling drug consumptions trends.

  11. Effect of Treatment with Intranasal Corticosteroid and Oral Antihistamine on Cytokine Profiles of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Allergic Rhinitis Sensitive to Chenopodium album

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrollah Farrokhi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with allergic rhinitis (AR show increased production of the Th2-related cytokines. Almost always, intranasal corticosteroid (INC and antihistamine are used as routine therapy of AR. This study was performed to determine the in vitro secretion of cytokines profiles of PBMCs in patients with AR sensitive to Chenopodium album (Ch.a pollens before and after treatment with INC (Fluticasone propionate and oral antihistamine (Loratadine. PBMCs of 20 patients with AR, were tested in vitro for cytokine production. These cells were stimulated with natural or recombinant Ch.a. The levels of IL-4, IL-13 and IFN-, were measured in supernatants of cultured cell 96h after stimulation using ELISA. The PBMCs of 20 normal individuals were also similarly treared for comparison of results. The production of IL-4 by the patients' cells stimulated with either Ch.a or rCh.a was significantly higher than normal levels before therapy (p=0.04 and p=0.02, respectively. After therapy, a significant decrease in production of IL-4 and a significant increase in production of IL-10 were found in PBMCs stimulated with natural Ch.a, in comparison to the results before stimulation (p=0.03 for IL-4; p=0.04 for IL-10. Similarly, these results were seen in the production of IL-4 and IL-10 stimulated with rCh.a allergen after therapy in comparison to the results before stimulation (p=0.01 for IL-4; p=0.03 for IL-10. This study suggests INC (Fluticasone propionate and oral antihistamine (Loratadine have the capacity to inhibit the production of IL-4 and shift Th2/Th1 responses, probably due to increase the level of immunoregulatory IL-10. Therefore, it could be concluded that therapy with INC and antihistamine has pharmacologic and immunologic therapeutic effects on AR patients.

  12. Treatment of allergic rhinitis in infants and children: efficacy and safety of second-generation antihistamines and the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Hanna; Moeller, Matthew L; Nahata, Milap C

    2009-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) affects a large percentage of paediatric patients. With the wide array of available agents, it has become a challenge to choose the most appropriate treatment for patients. Second-generation antihistamines have become increasingly popular because of their comparable efficacy and lower incidence of adverse effects relative to their first-generation counterparts, and the safety and efficacy of this drug class are established in the adult population. Data on the use of the second-generation antihistamines oral cetirizine, levocetirizine, loratadine, desloratadine and fexofenadine, and the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast as well as azelastine nasal spray in infants and children are evaluated in this review. These agents have been found to be relatively safe and effective in reducing symptoms associated with AR in children. Alternative dosage forms such as liquids or oral disintegrating tablets are available for most agents, allowing ease of administration to most young children and infants; however, limited data are available regarding use in infants for most agents, except desloratadine, cetirizine and montelukast. Unlike their predecessors, such as astemizole and terfenadine, the newer second-generation antihistamines and montelukast appear to be well tolerated, with absence of cardiotoxicities. Comparative studies are limited to cetirizine versus ketotifen, oxatomide and/or montelukast. Although second-generation antihistamines and montelukast are deemed relatively safe for use in paediatric patients, there are some noteworthy drug interactions to consider when selecting an agent. Given the wide variety of available agents for treatment of AR in paediatric patients, the safety and efficacy data available for specific age groups, type of AR, dosage form availability and cost should be considered when selecting treatment for AR in infants and children. PMID:19943707

  13. 抗组胺药物在皮炎湿疹类疾病中的应用%Application of antihistamines in atopic eczema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马一平; 林麟

    2008-01-01

    组胺参与荨麻疹和特应性皮炎等常见疾病的发病机制,故抗组胺药物是皮肤科最常用的系统用药之一.已发现的四种组胺G蛋白耦联受体中,人皮肤主要表达H1和H2亚型.抗组胺药物也称为组胺受体反向激动剂,除了抗组胺作用外,同时具有不依赖于H1受体的抗炎效应.虽然抗组胺药物在临床被广泛用于治疗皮炎湿疹类疾病,但其具体机制仍不明确,证据尚有待探讨.%Antihistamines are systemically administered most widely in dermatology, which may be attributable to the important roles of histamines in common diseases such as urticaria and atopic eczema. Of the currently recognized four subtypes of G protein-coupled histamine receptors, only H1 and H2 subtypes are demonstrated to be expressed in human skin. Antihistamines, also named as H1-inverse agonists, not only have antihistamine activity but also have antiinflammatory effect independent of their actions on H1 receptors. Despite their wide use in dermatology, the action mechanism of antihistamines remains unclear, and additional studies are warranted.

  14. Ginecomastia induzida por anti-histamínicos no tratamento da urticária crônica Antihistaminic-induced gynecomastia in chronic urticaria treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Fusel de Ue

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Os anti-histamínicos são drogas muito usadas na prática do dermatologista, sendo a primeira escolha no tratamento da urticária crônica. Os efeitos colaterais mais comuns são os relacionados ao sistema nervoso central. A ginecomastia é decorrente de várias causas, entre elas a indução por drogas. Apresenta-se caso de ginecomastia induzida por anti-histamínico H1,em paciente em tratamento de urticária crônica. A investigação laboratorial e radiológica descartou outras causas para a ginecomastia, que involuiu com a retirada da medicação. Objetiva-se discutir os efeitos colaterais dos anti-histamínicos e apresentar caso de ginecomastia induzida por drogas.Antihistaminic drugs are very commonly used in dermatological practice, and are the first-line therapy to chronic urticaria. The commonest side effects are related to the central nervous system. Gynecomastia, in turn, may be due to a myriad of disorders, including the use of medication. The case of H1 antihistaminic-induced gynecomastia in a patient undergoing chronic urticaria treatment is reported. Radiological and laboratorial investigations discarded other possible causes for the gynecomastia, which disappeared after removal of the medication. Antihistaminic-related side effects, including gynecomastia, are discussed.

  15. 2008-2011年我院口服抗组胺药利用分析%Utilization analysis of oral antihistamines in our hospital from 2008 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蔚; 郭燕萍; 陈妙英; 王斌; 钟明康

    2012-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the utilization status and development tendency of oral antihistamines in our hospital. METHODS Data about clinical application of oral antihistamines in our hospital during 2008 to 2011 were analyzed statistically in terms of drug varieties, consumption sum and DDDs. RESULTS The consumption sum of oral antihistamines was decreased year by year. The consumption of 2nd generation oral antihistamine and improved 2nd generation oral antihistamine was far greater than the first generation, accounting for more than 96% of the total. Cetirizine and lev-ocetirizine had been at the first two DDDs sort,and mizolastine up to three. CONCLUSION The 2nd generation oral antihistamine and improved 2nd generation oral antihistamine have become the dominant antiallergic drugs due to their advantages of safety, high efficacy and less interaction with other drugs. The choice of antihistamines is in line with rational drug use in our hospital. The study on modified dosage form of the traditional antihistamines and the antihistamines with more reliable safety remains to be done.%目的 评价我院口服抗组胺药应用情况及趋势.方法 对我院2008-2011年口服抗组胺药应用品种、用药金额、用药频度(DDDs)等进行统计、分析.结果 我院口服抗组胺药用药金额逐年下降.第2代口服抗组胺药及其改良品种的使用最远远大于第1代,占到总额的96%以上.2008-2011年西替利嗪和左西替利嗪一直位于DDDs排序的前2位,咪唑斯汀由2008年第5位上升至2011年第3位.结论 我院主要选择安全、高效、与其他药物相互作用少的第2代口服抗组胺药及其改良品种作为抗过敏治疗的主导药物,符合临床合理用药的要求.传统抗组胺药的改良剂型以及安全性更可靠的抗组胺药是研究方向.

  16. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on postirradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-02-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10 min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10 min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Animals given the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels. However, the postirradiation plasma histamine levels in both irradiated groups showed an increase of approximately 1600% above the preirradiation levels and the postirradiation control levels.

  17. Use of Oral Antihistamine Agents in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou in 2013%2013年北京、上海、广州地区医院口服抗组胺药应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹媛; 罗美娟; 邓蓉蓉; 夏延哲

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解2013年北京、上海和广州地区医院口服抗组胺药的应用情况,促进合理用药。方法:采用《医院处方分析》课题数据库,调查2013年北京、上海、广州地区医院口服抗组胺药的用药频度( DDDs )、限定日费用( DDC )、销售总金额、排序比( B/A)、药物利用指数( DUI)以及各代口服抗组胺药处方数和取药数量占比,并进行回顾性统计、分析。结果:2013年北京、上海和广州地区医院口服抗组胺药使用频率和销售总额排序居首位的分别为西替利嗪、左西替利嗪和地氯雷他定;抗组胺药的DUI均≤1;应用最多的抗组胺药为第2代抗组胺药。结论:北京、上海和广州地区医院使用口服抗组胺药较合理,第2代抗组胺药成为临床上治疗过敏性疾病的常用药物。%OBJECTIVE:To investigate the use of antihistamine agents of in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou in 2013 and its rationality. METHODS:The use of antihistamine agents of in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou in 2013 was investigated retrospectively in respect of DDDs, daily drug cost(DDC), consumption sum, order ratio, drug utilization index( DUI) and the ratio of the number of prescriptions to consumption quantity of antihistamine agents by taking the Project of Hospital Prescription Analysis. RESULTS:The leading antihistamine agents in terms of DDDs and consumption sum in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou in 2013 were Cetirizine, Levocetirizine and Desloratadine respectively. The DUIs of antihistamine agents were all less than 1. The second generation antihistamines were the most frequently used antihistamines. CONCLUSIONS:The use of antihistamine agents in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou was rational and the second generation of antihistamine agents have become the common medications for allergic reactions.

  18. Assessment of efficacy and impact on work productivity and attendance after a mandatory switch to generic second-generation antihistamines: results of a patient survey in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ødegård Tone

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, the Norwegian Medicines Agency mandated a switch from desloratadine, ebastine, or fexofenadine to cetirizine or loratadine in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR or chronic urticaria (CU. In an online survey, patients whose medication was switched assessed the impact on efficacy, fatigue, and work productivity/attendance. Methods Allergy patients in Norway completed a 25-item online survey. Patients aged ≥ 18 years with AR or CU who were switched to cetirizine or loratadine from desloratadine, ebastine, or fexofenadine were included. Participants rated post-switch efficacy, fatigue, and effect on work productivity/attendance compared with their pre-switch medication. Patients also reported post-switch change in number of doctor visits required, total treatment cost, and whether they had switched or wanted to switch back to their previous medications. Results Of 1920 patients invited, 493 responded and 409 of these were eligible. Previous antihistamines were desloratadine (78.4% of respondents, ebastine (16.0%, and fexofenadine (5.6%. Post-switch, 64.7% received cetirizine and 35.3% loratadine. Compared with previous therapy, cetirizine and loratadine were rated less effective by 46.3% of respondents; 28.7% reported increased fatigue; and 31.6% reported decreased work productivity with the generic agents. At the time of the survey, 26% of respondents had switched back to their previous medication. Conclusions This is the first survey to assess the impact on patient-reported outcomes of a mandated switch from prescription to generic antihistamines in Norway. The findings suggest that patient response to different antihistamines will vary and that treatment decisions should be individualized for optimal results.

  19. 关注抗组胺药治疗慢性荨麻疹应用的策略%Concerned about the application strategy of antihistamines in chronic urticaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝飞; 钟华; 宋志强

    2012-01-01

    抗组胺药通过拮抗HI受体来阻断组胺与受体的结合,从而影响变态反应发生的过程,是治疗慢性荨麻疹的基本药物.最新研究表明,抗组胺药还可通过其他机制发挥更广泛的药理作用.本文就目前临床抗组胺药物选择及使用的策略进行探讨.%HI antihistamines, which prevent the proceeding of allergic inflammation through against histamine HI receptor, are morewidely used to treat chronic urticaria. In recent studies, HI antihistamines bring into more extensive pharmacological actions based on someother pathways. Therefore, clinical aplication strategy of HI antihistamines has been modified. This paper focus on some approachs to theseissues.

  20. 第二代抗组胺药物的种类及应用策略%Types and application strategy of the second-generation antihistamines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建华

    2012-01-01

    The second-generation antihistamines possess different structures and types, with various efficacy and metabolic characteristics. For allergic diseases of different degrees, either an increased dosage or a combination of different drugs could be used in the treatment. For patients with chronic allergic diseases, gradual withdrawal of drugs generally follows a pattern in top-down order, e. g. from medication every other day to intermittent medication. In case of children, pregnant women, lacta-tional women, hepatic or renal insufficiency patients with allergic diseases, relatively safer antihistamines should be chosen.%第二代抗组胺药结构和种类不同,药效和代谢特点各不相同.对于不同程度的过敏性疾病可采用加大剂量或联合用药的方法治疗;对于慢性过敏性疾病,一般采用隔日服药至间断服药等降阶梯方式逐渐停药;对于儿童,孕妇,哺乳期妇女,肝、肾功能不全的过敏性疾病病人,应该选择相应的安全性高的抗组胺药.

  1. Evaluation of cytotoxic action of antihistamines – desloratadine and loratadine – using bulls spermatozoa as a test object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kuzminov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Antihistamines with active ingredients of loratadine and desloratadine are produced by Ukrainian pharmaceutical industry. According to the law, ther are assessed for their potential danger to human health and the environment, including alternative test objects. Evaluation has been carried out with regard to cytotoxic effect of pharmacological substances (loratadine and desloratadine using the bull sperm suspension as test objects, standardized and highly sensitive to toxic substances. Sperm was divided into the control sample (dissolved by phosphate-buffered saline and the investigated sample. Loratadine was added to phosphate-buffered saline in doses of 1/500 LD50 (12.3 mg, 1/100 LD50 (61.5 mg and LD50 (6150 mg. Desloratadine doses were 1/500 LD50 (1.25 mg, 1/100 LD50 (6.25 mg and LD50 (625 mg. Survival of spermatozoa was defined until termination of rectilinear forward movement in sperm intacted at +2…+5 °C. Respiratory activity (ex tempore was defined in 1.0 ml thermostated cell (temperature of 38.5 °C by polarography with the automatic registration of process flow by potentiometer; restorative activity was defined potentiometrically, using the open microelectrodes that were inserted in thermostated polarographic cell. Survival of spermatozoa in the sperm under the impact of loratadine in doses of 1/500 LD50 and 1/100 LD50 is respectively 136.0 ± 26.2 hours and 144.0 ± 19.6 hours. Adding LD50 dose of loratadine reduced survival to 112.0 ± 26.2 hours, which is lower than the control (160.0 ± 26.1 hours, respectively, by 10.0–15.0 and 30.0%. Loratadine reduces the respiratory activity of sperm: in the dose of 1/500 LD50 by 20.5%, in the dose of 1/100 LD50 – by 43.6%, and that of 100 LD50 – by 61.5% compared to the control. Restorative sperm activity under the impact of the loratadine reduced by 84.0% (dose of 1/500 LD50, 98.0% (dose of 1/100 LD50, 80.0% (dose LD50 compared to controls. The survival of spermatozoa in the sperm

  2. 宜宾市第一人民医院2008~2010年抗组胺药应用分析%Analysis of antihistamine drugs used in the First People's Hospital of Yibin from 2008 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵大贵

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析我院抗组胺药的应用状况和发展趋势.方法 采用金额排序和应用频度分析法对我院2008~2010年度抗组胺药的使用情况进行统计分析.结果 2008~2010年我院抗组胺药销售金额和用药频度(DDDs)逐年上升,DDDs排序前3位依次是左西替利嗪、依巴斯汀、咪唑斯汀,占抗组胺药销售总额的80%以上.用药金额2009年较2008年增长45.09%,2010年较2009年增长12.50%.结论 安全、高效的第二、三代抗组胺药成为我院抗过敏治疗的主要药物.%Objective To study the current situation and future trend of antihistamine drugs in our hospital. Methods According to the order of sales amount and DDDs,the medication of antihistamine drugs used in our hospital from 2008 to 2010 was analyzed. Results Sales amount and drug use frequency of antihistamine drugs rose year by year from 2008 to 2010. Drugs with the top 3 DDDs were Levocetirizine Hydrochloride, Ebastine and Mizolastine respectively. The sales amount of the 3 drugs accounted for more than 80% of total sales of antihistamine drugs. The sales amount of medicine increased by 45. 09% from 2008 to 2009, and that increased by 12. 50% from 2009 to 2010. Conclusion The second and third generation antihistamine drugs are expected to become the dominant anti-allergic medicines in our hospital in virtue of their safety and efficacy.

  3. Synthesis and antihistaminic activity of 3H-benzo [4,5] thieno [2,3-d][1,2,3] triazin-4-ones

    OpenAIRE

    Gollapalle L. Viswanatha; Priyadarshini, B. Janaki; Krishnadas, Nandakumar; Janardhanan, Saravanan; Rangappa, Srinath; Hanumanthappa, Shylaja

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the antihistaminic activity of tricyclic benzothieno 1,2,3-triazine derivatives namely CP-3 (3-(phenyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro,3H-benzo[4,5] thieno [2,3-d][1,2,3] triazin-4-one), CP-5 (3-(3-methyl phenyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro,3H-benzo[4,5] thieno [2,3-d][1,2,3] triazin-4-one) and CP-8 (3-(4-chloro phenyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro,3H-benzo[4,5] thieno [2,3-d][1,2,3] triazin-4-one) were evaluated using in vitro (isolated guinea pig ileum) and in vivo (bronchodilator activity in guinea ...

  4. Misuse and dependence on non-prescription codeine analgesics or sedative H1 antihistamines by adults: a cross-sectional investigation in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Roussin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the growing worldwide market of non-prescription drugs, monitoring their misuse in the context of self-medication represents a particular challenge in Public Health. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of misuse, abuse, and dependence on non-prescription psychoactive drugs. METHOD: During one month, in randomly solicited community pharmacies, an anonymous questionnaire was offered to adults requesting paracetamol (control group, codeine combined with paracetamol in analgesics, or sedative H1 antihistamines. Responses about misuse (drug use not in agreement with the Patient Information Leaflet abuse (excessive drug use having detrimental consequences, and dependence (established according to questions adapted from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria on psychoactive drugs were compared to those of the paracetamol control group. RESULTS: 295 patients (mean age 48.5 years, 68.5% of women having used one of the studied drugs during the previous month were included. Misuse and dependence to codeine analgesics concerned 6.8% and 17.8% of the patients exposed to these drugs, respectively, (n = 118, which was significantly higher than for paracetamol. 19.5% had used codeine analgesics daily for more than six months. Headache was the most frequent reason for persistent daily use. A high prevalence of persistent daily users of sedative H1 antihistamines was also observed. Whereas these drugs are recommended only for short treatment courses of occasional insomnia, 72.2% of the participants having taken doxylamine (n = 36 were daily users, predominantly for more than six months. CONCLUSIONS: Results on misuse and dependence on non-prescription codeine analgesics suggest that chronic pain, in particular chronic cephalalgia, requires better medical care. In addition, as for hypnotics on prescription, persistent use of doxylamine for self-medication is not justified until

  5. NB-UVB联合抗组胺药治疗慢性自发性荨麻疹Meta分析%Efficacy of NB-UVB combined with antihistamines on chronic spontaneous urticaria:a Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊潇; 石春蕊; 王亚婷; 吴瑾

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assess the efficacy of NB-UVB combined with antihistamines in the treatment of the patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria ( CSU) . Methods:The database ( PubMed, the Cochrane Li-brary, SCI, EMbase, WangFa, CNKI and CBM ) was searched to retrieve randomized controlled trials ( RCTs) of NB-UVB combined with antihistamines in the treatment of CSU from the time of the data establish-ment to October, 2014. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the literatures were screened, ex-tracted data and evaluated by two reviewers independently. The Meta-analysis was performed through RevMan 5.3 software. Results:Four RCTs involving 341 patients were included. The results of Meta-analysis showed that the effective rate of NB-UVB combined with antihistamines was higher than that of antihistamines alone with a significant difference. Conclusion:NB-UVB combined with antihistamines is more effective than anti-histamines monotherapy. However, well-designed RCTs with more samples are needed to verify the efficacy.%目的::评价 NB-UVB联合抗组胺药治疗慢性自发性荨麻疹的疗效。方法:计算机检索PubMed、Cochrane图书馆、Web of Science、EMbase、万方、CNKI和CBM,查找NB-UVB联合抗组胺药治疗慢性自发性荨麻疹的随机对照试验( RCT),检索时限从建库至2014年10月。由2名研究者按照纳入与排除标准独立进行文献筛选、资料提取和质量评价后,采用RevMan 5.3软件进行Meta分析。结果:纳入4个RCT,共341例患者。 Meta分析结果显示,NB-UVB联合抗组胺药治疗慢性自发性荨麻疹有效率显著高于单纯使用抗组胺药,差异有统计学意义。结论:与单用抗组胺药相比,NB-UVB联合抗组胺药具有更好的疗效,但目前纳入文献数量较少,需要进一步大样本、高质量的RCT进行验证。

  6. Effect of antihistaminic agents on the ATP-sensitive potassium channel activity in isolated mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes%组胺拮抗剂对小鼠ATP-敏感性钾离子通道的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴伶华; 姜圣男; 柳贤德

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of the first generation histamine H1 receptor antagonists on adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel in isolated mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes using excised inside-out and cell-attached patch clamp techniques. Methods Mouse heart ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated, and excised inside-out and cell-attached patch clamp techniques were used to determine the effect of the antihistamines on the KATP channel activity. Results In the excised inside-out patch configuration, H1-antihistaminic agents (chlorpheniramine, pyrilamine and diphenhydramine), in a dose ranging from 1 to 100 μmol/L, inhibited KATP channel activity in a dose-dependent manner. The potency order reducing the channel activity was pyrilamine>diphenhydramine>chlorpheniramine. All the three antihistamines (100 μmol/L) also inhibited pinacidil-induced KATP channel activity in the cell-attached patch configuration. The potency order of the three antihistamines inhibiting KATP channel activity was pyrilamine>chlorpheniramine>diphenhydramine in the cell-attached configurations. Histamine did not affect the pinacidil-induced KATP channel activity by itself, in addition, did not influence the effects elicited by the three antihistamines on pinacidil-induced KATP channel activity in the cell-attached patches. Conclusions It is concluded that the first generation histamine H1 receptor antagonists are involved in the regulation of ATP-sensitive potassium channel activity in the mouse cardiac ventricular myocytes, and that the inhibitory action of the antihistaminic agents on the channel is not dependent on H1-receptors.%目的 观察比较3种组胺拮抗剂对缺血性心肌细胞的ATP-敏感性钾离子通道中的影响.方法 利用急性酶解法分离小鼠心室肌细胞.结果 组胺拮抗剂pyrilamine、chlorpheniramine及diphenhydramine均可抑制ATP-敏感性钾离子通道的活性,抑制程度为pyrilamine

  7. Analysis of combined use of oral Antihistamines with orhter medicines%我院口服抗组胺药物与其他药物联合应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车斌; 郭晶

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe combined use of antihistamines on the treatment of allergy-related and itch dermatoses. Methods H1-R antagonists combined with other anti-inflammatory drug were use for OPD from July 2007 to June 2008. Results The combined use of H1-R antagonists, corticosteroids,first -generation and second-generation antihistamines of combined use were mostly used and single-use antihistamines were only 8.44%. Conclusion The combined use of antihistamines prevents allergy-related and itch dermatoses.%目的 探讨抗组胺药物的联合应用在治疗变态反应相关性皮肤病及瘙痒性皮肤病中的机制.方法 采用我院门诊日处方查询系统,分析我院2007年7月至2008年6月每月的第一个星期一门诊处方中,H1受体(H1-R)拮抗剂与其他抗炎性反应介质药物的联合使用情况.结果 我院H1-R拮抗剂与肾上腺皮质激素、第一代与第二代H1-R拮抗剂联合应用的情况较多,单用H1-R拮抗剂只占我院口服抗组胺药物处方中的8.44%.结论 口服抗组胺药物的联合应用,对变态反应相关性皮肤病及瘙痒性皮肤病有早期干预作用,可以阻止炎性级联反应的发展.

  8. Thin layer chromatography-densitometric determination of some non-sedating antihistamines in combination with pseudoephedrine or acetaminophen in synthetic mixtures and in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kommos, Michael E; El-Gizawy, Samia M; Atia, Noha N; Hosny, Noha M

    2014-03-01

    The combination of certain non-sedating antihistamines (NSA) such as fexofenadine (FXD), ketotifen (KET) and loratadine (LOR) with pseudoephedrine (PSE) or acetaminophen (ACE) is widely used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis and chronic urticaria. A rapid, simple, selective and precise densitometric method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of six synthetic binary mixtures and their pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method employed thin layer chromatography aluminum plates precoated with silica gel G 60 F254 as the stationary phase. The mobile phases chosen for development gave compact bands for the mixtures FXD-PSE (I), KET-PSE (II), LOR-PSE (III), FXD-ACE (IV), KET-ACE (V) and LOR-ACE (VI) [Retardation factor (Rf ) values were (0.20, 0.32), (0.69, 0.34), (0.79, 0.13), (0.36, 0.70), (0.51, 0.30) and (0.76, 0.26), respectively]. Spectrodensitometric scanning integration was performed at 217, 218, 218, 233, 272 and 251 nm for the mixtures I-VI, respectively. The linear regression data for the calibration plots showed an excellent linear relationship. The method was validated for precision, accuracy, robustness and recovery. Limits of detection and quantitation were calculated. Statistical analysis proved that the method is reproducible and selective for the simultaneous estimation of these binary mixtures.

  9. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100-Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10-min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10-min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60-min postirradiation. Animals given the mast-cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels.

  10. Fiber optic LDF to monitor vascular dynamics of urticarial dermographism in pressure-tested patients before and after treatment with antihistamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikje, Natalja Skrebova; Arase, Seiji

    2008-02-01

    The local microcirculatory dynamics underlying phenomenon of urticarial dermographism (UD) are not yet sufficiently elucidated in dermatological patients. A fiber optic laser Doppler flowmeter (LDF) was used to monitor skin blood flow (SBF) changes on the back of the patients with UD before and after application of the series of pressure stimuli (9.8×10 4, 14.7×10 4, 19.6×10 4 and 24.5×10 4 Pa). All patients acted as self-controls to assess their disease activity by means of SBF values based on response to pressure stimuli before and after treatment with antihistamines, when compared to baseline SBF. Throughout 30 minutes evaluation inter-subject SBF values at pressure-tested sites were noticeably distinguished as high, moderate and low. By LDF we could differentiate the highest development of vascular dynamics after 5 minutes, coming back to normal within about 30 minutes in one group of patients, and the vascular dynamics reaching its maximum in 15 minutes, but with no fade after 30 minutes, in another group of patients. All treatment regimens in both groups of patients by LDF produced a measurable reduction already during 1-2 days of therapy, accompanied by a reduction in SBF baseline values in patients with severe and moderate symptoms of UD.

  11. Controlled-release formulation of antihistamine based on cetirizine zinc-layered hydroxide nanocomposites and its effect on histamine release from basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Al Ali SH

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Samer Hasan Hussein Al Ali,1 Mothanna Al-Qubaisi,2 Mohd Zobir Hussein,1,3 Maznah Ismail,2,4 Zulkarnain Zainal,1 Muhammad Nazrul Hakim51Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, 2Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, 3Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, 4Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra, Malaysia; 5Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaAbstract: A controlled-release formulation of an antihistamine, cetirizine, was synthesized using zinc-layered hydroxide as the host and cetirizine as the guest. The resulting well-ordered nanolayered structure, a cetirizine nanocomposite "CETN," had a basal spacing of 33.9 Å, averaged from six harmonics observed from X-ray diffraction. The guest, cetirizine, was arranged in a horizontal bilayer between the zinc-layered hydroxide (ZLH inorganic interlayers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicated that the intercalation takes place without major change in the structure of the guest and that the thermal stability of the guest in the nanocomposites is markedly enhanced. The loading of the guest in the nanocomposites was estimated to be about 49.4% (w/w. The release study showed that about 96% of the guest could be released in 80 hours by phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 compared with about 97% in 73 hours at pH 4.8. It was found that release was governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. Release of histamine from rat basophilic leukemia cells was found to be more sensitive to the intercalated cetirizine in the CETN compared with its free counterpart, with inhibition of 56% and 29%, respectively, at 62.5 ng/mL. The cytotoxicity assay toward Chang liver cells line show the IC50 for CETN and ZLH are 617 and 670 µg/mL, respectively.Keywords: cetirizine hydrochloric acid

  12. 抗组胺药非索非那定的研究进展%Research progress of the anti-histamine drug fexofenadine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云; 颜耀东; 刘茵; 马长勇

    2012-01-01

    非索非那定是第二代H1抗组胺药,对H1受体有高度选择性,有直接的抗炎活性,起效快、作用维持时间长且长期使用不易出现耐药性.非索非那定的代谢动力学易受几种转运蛋白诱导剂或抑制剂的影响,但未见需调整剂量的报道,转运蛋白对非索非那定代谢的机理有待进一步的研究.临床用于治疗变态反应性疾病,如过敏性鼻炎、荨麻疹、过敏性哮喘、遗传性过敏性斑秃等,且联合其他药物疗效显著.目前,非索非那定微球的鼻内给药制剂正在研发中.非索非那定不良反应少见,无论是单独应用还是联合其他药物使用,都未见严重的心血管事件,不影响胆碱能活性.非索非那定不能透过血脑屏障、不进入中枢神经系统,被推荐于从事安全相关作业人员使用.%Fexofenadine is a second-generation H,-antihistamine with a high selectivity to H, receptor, direct anti-inflammatory effect, rapid onset, long-acting activities, and no tolerance even applied after a long time. The pharmacokinetics can be changed by several transport proteins which was induced or depressed by other drugs, but there was no report about changing the doses. The mechanism affected by transport proteins needs to be further researched. It is used for allergic disease, such as allergic rhinitis, urticaria, allergic asthma, atopic alopecia areata and so on and the effectiveness is better when co-administered with other drugs. The microspheres for intranasal delivery of fexofenadine hydrochloride with quick-acting is in development. The adverse reactions are rare. Fexofenadine does not have any major cardiovascular side effects either administered alone or co-administered with other drugs. It has no effect on the cholinergic activities. Fexofenadine can not permeate the CNS through blood brain barrier and is recommended to use in safety-critical filed patients.

  13. 鼻用抗组胺药物治疗变应性鼻炎的Meta分析%Efficacy of intranasal antihistamine in the treatment of allergic rhinitis: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯韶燕; 邓春涛; 李磊; 廖伟; 樊韵平; 许庚; 李华斌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate the efficacy of intranasal antihistamine in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.Methods The randomized controlled trials (RCT) about intranasal antihistamines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis between January 1985 and January 2014 were searched in OVID,PubMed,EMBASE,CNKI,WanFang Data and Cochrane Library.Two reviewers independently screened the literatures,extracted the data,and evaluated the methodological quality,then meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan 5.1 software.Results A total of thirteen RCTs were included.The results of meta-analysis showed that the efficacy of intranasal antihistamine group was superior to the placebo group in total nasal symptom scores (TNSS),the difference was significant [WMD =-1.96,95% CI (-2.06; -1.85),P < 0.01],and individual nasal symptom scores (blocked nose,rhinorrhea,and sneezing)[WMD=-0.18,95%CI (-0.28;-0.08); WMD=-0.45,95%CI (-0.52;-0.38) ;WMD=-0.41,95% CI (-0.58 ;-0.24),all P < 0.01],with significant differences.There was no significant difference between the intranasal antihistamine group and the corticosteroid group in TNSS [WMD =-1.51,95% CI (-3.51; 0.49),P =0.14],but the intranasal antihistamines group was superior to the corticosteroid group in individual nasal symptom scores (blocked nose,rhinorrhea,and sneezing) [WMD =-0.23,95% CI (-0.40;-0.06) ; WMD =-0.35,95% CI (-0.65 ;-0.05) ; WMD =-0.25,95% CI (-0.42;-0.08),all P < 0.05],with significant differences.The intranasal antihistamine group was superior to the oral antihistamines group in TNSS [WMD =-0.88,95% CI (-1.51 ;-0.25),P < 0.01].Conclusion Intranasal antihistamine is effective in the control of nasal symptoms in AR patients.%目的 系统评价鼻用抗组胺药物治疗变应性鼻炎(AR)的临床疗效,为优化AR药物治疗提供循证参考.方法 计算机检索OVID、PubMed、EMBASE和Cochrane Librar、中国学术期刊全文数据库、万方数据库,检索时间为1985年1

  14. 胸腺五肽联合抗组胺药治疗慢性荨麻疹的疗效观察%Effective observation on treating chronic urticaria with thymopoietin-5 plus antihistamines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓景航; 李仰琪; 罗育武

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate efficacy of thymopoietin-5 plus antihistamines on chronic urticaria.Methods:150 patients were divided into obs ervation group ( 95 c ases) a nd control group (55 cases).With antihistamines in both groups;the c ontrol group w as injected 2mg thymopoietin-5 e very 2 days while the obs ervation group w as injected 10mg thymopoietin-5 every da y.Results:The e fficacy in the observation group was 93.7%,significantly higher than thatin control group(x2=11.716,P0.05). The re currence rate of obs ervation group w as 17. 39%, significantly l ower (x2=8.454, P0.05)。观察组复发率为17.4%,显著低于对照组(x2=8.454,P<0.05)。结论:在抗组胺药的基础上,每日持续使用胸腺五肽治疗慢性荨麻疹可以获得更好的疗效,降低复发率,值得临床推广运用。

  15. Dapsona como alternativa no tratamento de urticária crônica não responsiva a anti-histamínicos Dapsone as an alternative to the treatment of chronic urticaria non-responsive to antihistamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Soares Pires

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A urticária crônica é dermatose que interfere negativamente na qualidade de vida de seus portadores. O tratamento clássico com anti-histamínicos muitas vezes é ineficaz. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia e a segurança do uso da dapsona no tratamento da urticária crônica não responsiva a anti-histamínicos. METÓDOS: Realizou-se estudo retrospectivo mediante a revisão de prontuários de pacientes atendidos em ambulatório especializado em urticária entre novembro de 1996 e março de 2007. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 20 pacientes com urticária crônica de difícil controle, que receberam tratamento com dapsona na dose de 100mg/dia. Associados à dapsona, foram mantidos anti-histamínicos em altas doses, que, isoladamente, não controlavam os sintomas. Quatorze pacientes (70% responderam com melhora do quadro, observada tanto na diminuição ou desaparecimento das lesões quanto na redução do prurido; três (15% não obtiveram nenhum sucesso com a medicação; e três (15% tiveram o tratamento suspenso em decorrência de efeitos colaterais. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo, conclui-se que a dapsona é opção segura e eficaz para pacientes com urticária crônica grave não responsiva a anti-histamínicos.BACKGROUND: Chronic urticaria is a dermatosis that negatively interferes in quality of life of affected individuals. The classic treatment with antihistamines is many times ineffective. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of using dapsone in the treatment of chronic urticaria non-responsive to antihistamines. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing the medical charts of patients seen at an outpatient’s clinic specialized in urticaria, between November 1996 and March 2007. RESULTS: Twenty patients with difficult to control chronic urticaria and who were treated with 100 mg/day of dapsone were evaluated. High doses of antihistamines were maintained and associated with dapsone. Antihistamines alone did

  16. Antihistamines, Decongestants, and Cold Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but drying agents, aspirin (or aspirin substitutes), and cough suppressants may also be added. Therefore, consumers should choose remedies with ingredients best suited to combat their own symptoms. If the label does not clearly state the ingredients and their functions, ask the pharmacist to explain them. * May be available over the counter without a prescription, although often obtained at the counter itself. Read ...

  17. Effect of antihistamines, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or methysergide on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in primates after 25 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Forcino, C.D. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation causes hypotension, cerebral ischemia and release of histamine (HA) and serotonin (5-HT). To investigate the relationship among these responses, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received physiological saline (i.v.), disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), antihistamines (AH, mepyramine and cimetidine), or methysergide (METH), then were given 25 Gy whole-body irradiation. Monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH had higher post-irradiation mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) than saline-treated controls. Compared to levels in controls, post-irradiation hippocampal blood flow (rCBF) levels were higher in monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH. Treatment with the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonist methysergide was the most effective in maintaining both rCBF and MBP after irradiation. Results support the hypothesis that the irradiation-induced cerebral ischemia and, to some extent, the hypotension is mediated by serotonin through 5-HT{sub 2} receptor sites. (author) 72 refs.

  18. Effect of antihistamines, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or methysergide on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in primates after 25 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionizing radiation causes hypotension, cerebral ischemia and release of histamine (HA) and serotonin (5-HT). To investigate the relationship among these responses, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received physiological saline (i.v.), disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), antihistamines (AH, mepyramine and cimetidine), or methysergide (METH), then were given 25 Gy whole-body irradiation. Monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH had higher post-irradiation mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) than saline-treated controls. Compared to levels in controls, post-irradiation hippocampal blood flow (rCBF) levels were higher in monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH. Treatment with the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist methysergide was the most effective in maintaining both rCBF and MBP after irradiation. Results support the hypothesis that the irradiation-induced cerebral ischemia and, to some extent, the hypotension is mediated by serotonin through 5-HT2 receptor sites. (author) 72 refs

  19. Synthesis and Antihistaminic Activity of Diarylmethylpiperazine Derivatives%二芳甲基哌嗪衍生物合成及其抗组胺活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓娜; 尹卓; 汪濛

    2011-01-01

    Objective The diarylmethylpiperazine moiety as active group frequently existing in the structures of H1 receptor antagonists and chromone-2-carboxylic acid moiety as active structure existing in leukotriene receptor antagonists were spliced on the basis of isostere and mosaic theory, and a series of diarylmethylpiperazine derivatives were synthesized and their antihistaminic activities were explored. Methods The lydroxyl-substituted chromone2-carboxylic ester contained an aliphatic chain-linked to diarylmetlylpiperazine to produce diarylmethylpiperazine derivatives. The antihistaminic activities of diarylmethylpiperazine derivatives were measured. Results The structures of diarylmethylpiperazine derivatives were identified by MS and H NMR spectra.%目的 利用电子等排和拼合原理,选择H1受体拮抗剂的活性部分二芳甲基哌嗪与白三烯受体拮抗剂的活性结构色酮-2-羧酸拼接,设计合成二芳甲基哌嗪衍生物,并且考察其抗组胺活性.方法 以羟基取代的色酮-2-羧酸酯为母体,将羟基与二芳甲基哌嗪通过脂肪链相连,得二芳甲基哌嗪衍生物,并测定化合物的抗组胺活性.结果 目标化合物的组成和结构经质谱和核磁共振氢谱确认.

  20. Effects of antihistamine treatment on immune fuction in rats with experimental hepatitis%抗组织胺治疗对实验性肝炎大鼠免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 赵龙凤; 郝彦琴; 韩德五

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of antihistamine treatment on immune function in rats with experimental hepatitis.Methods Thirty Wistar rats were randomly allocated into three groups:experimental hepatitis group (EH group),antihistamine treatment group (AH group) and normal control group (NC group).Rats in the EH group received the subcutaneous injection of 40% carbon tetrachloride oil solution and were fed on diet with low-protein,low-choline,high-fat and highalcohol,while rats in the AH group received antihistamine treatment(ketotifen + vitamin C) additionally.They were sacrificed after 4 weeks,and the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase(ALT),total bilirubin (TBil),histaminne(HA),IFNγ,IL-12,IL-4 and IL-10 were determined.The levels of IL-12 mRNA and IFN-γmRNA in liver tissue were determined via real-time reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).Results (1) Compared to the NC group,in the EH group,the levels of ALT,TBil,and circulating and intrahepatic HA were significantly increased(P < 0.05); and the levels ofALT and circulating and intrahepatic HA were significantly decreased(P < 0.05) after antihistamine treatment.(2) Compared to the NC group,in the EH group,the levels of IL-4,IL-10 were significantly increased((0.504 ± 0.202)ng/ml and (29.025 ± 1.478) pg/ml vs (0.811 ± 0.244)ng/ml and (33.72 ± 4.293)pg/ml respectively,P < 0.05),and the levels of IL-12 were decreased ((6.515 ± 2.893)pg/ml vs (3.519 ± 1.113)pg/ml,P < 0.05); and after antihistamine treatment the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were significantly decreased (were (0.423 ± 0.168)ng/ml and (30.412 ± 3.275)pg/ml,P< 0.05),the levels of IL-12 were significantly increased (P < 0.05),but the level of IFNγhad no siganificance (P > 0.05).The levels of intrahepatic IL-12 mRNA and IFNγ mRNA had similar results.Conclusion Antihistamine treatment may improve liver function and correct Th1/Th2 unbalance.%目的 研究抗组织胺治疗对实验性肝

  1. 抗组胺耐药慢性荨麻疹患者甲状腺自身抗体检测结果分析%Analysis of thyroid autoantibodies detection in patients with antihistamine-resistant chronic urticaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄珍; 刘万红; 侯占英

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析抗组胺耐药慢性荨麻疹患者的甲状腺自身抗体及甲状腺激素水平变化与意义。方法选取抗组胺耐药慢性荨麻疹患者40例为观察组,同期在我院做体检的健康者40例为对照组,检测两组受试者的甲状腺自身抗体和甲状腺各项功能指标,并进行自体血清皮肤试验(ASST)。结果观察组的促甲状腺素受体抗体(TRAb)、抗甲状腺过氧化物酶抗体(TPOAb)和甲状腺球蛋白抗体(TGAb)等甲状腺自身抗体指标及ASST的阳性率明显高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组患者的游离甲状腺素(FT4)、游离三碘甲状腺原氨酸(FT3)、总甲状腺激素(TT4)、总三碘甲状腺原氨酸(TT3)、超敏促甲状腺素(TSH)等指标明显高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论抗组胺耐药慢性荨麻疹患者甲状腺发病与甲状腺自身抗体密切相关,血清出现各种自身抗体表达及甲状腺激素水平异常,值得临床深入研究。%Objective To analyze the changes and significance of thyroid autoantibodies and thyroid hormone levels in patients with antihistamine-resistant chronic urticaria. Methods Forty patients with antihistamine-resistant chronic urticaria were selected as the study group, and 40 healthy persons were selected as the control group. The thyroid autoantibodies [thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb)] in two groups were detected, and autologous serum skin test (ASST) was performed. Thyroid function indexes of the two groups were detected. Results TRAb, TPOAb, TGAb levels and the positive rate of ASST in the study group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The differences were of statistical significance (P<0.05). The free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), the total thyroid hormone (TT4), three total triiodothyro-nine (TT3), high sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone

  2. Evaluation of Three Kinds of Antihistamines Curative Effect for the Treatment of Chronic Idiopathic Urticarial%评价3种抗组胺药治疗慢性特发性荨麻疹的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海兵

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价3种抗组胺药治疗慢性特发性荨麻疹的疗效。方法选取于我院就诊的慢性特发性荨麻疹患者90例作为研究对象,随机分为三组,每组各30人,分别给予西替利嗪药物治疗、氯雷他定药物治疗、依巴斯丁药物治疗。结果第7天、14天、28天三组有效率为:氯雷他定组分别为70.00%、83.33%、93.33%;西替利嗪组分别为66.67%、86.67%、90.00%;依巴斯丁组分别为76.67%、86.67%、96.67%。结论三种抗组胺药物在临床治疗慢性特发荨麻疹上都具有较好的效果,具有临床应用价值。%Objective To evaluate three kinds of antihistamines curative effect for the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria. Methods 90 patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria were selected from our hospital as research object, randomly dividing into three groups (30 people a group). Cetirizine group was given cetirizine medication, loratadine group was given loratadine drug therapy, by buss butyl group was given by buss butyl drug therapy. Results 7 days, 14 days, the effective rate of 28 days three groups:loratadine group was 70.00%, 83.33%and 70.00%respectively. Cetirizine group was 66.67%, 86.67%and 66.67%respectively. By bass butyl group 76.67%, 86.67, 96.67, respectively. Conclusion The three kinds of antihistamines in clinical treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria had good effect, had clinical application value.

  3. 固相萃取/高效液相色谱法测定化妆品中5种抗组胺药物残留%Determination of Five Antihistamine Residues in Cosmetics by SPE/HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车文军; 张征; 徐春祥; 王莉; 卢剑; 王燕芹; 邹洁; 武中平

    2012-01-01

    建立了固相萃取/高效液相色谱( SPE/HPLC)测定化妆品中5种抗组胺药物(多西拉敏、曲吡那敏、溴苯那敏、苯海拉明、氯苯沙明)残留的分析方法.试样经三氯乙酸溶液超声提取,PCX柱净化后,以甲醇-磷酸盐缓冲溶液为流动相,经C18柱分离后进行HPLC检测.5种抗组胺药物在5.0~ 100 mg/L范围内均呈良好的线性关系,线性系数均大于0.999.在5.0、10.0、25.0 mg/kg 3个加标水平下的平均回收率为92%~ 108%,相对标准偏差(RSD,n=6)为2.1%~4.2%,检出限为0.5~1.0 mg/L.该方法灵敏度高、重现性好、定量准确.%A solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography ( SPE/ HPLC) was developed for the determination of five antihistamines, e. g. doxylamine, tripelen-namine, brompheniramine, diphenhydramine, chlorphenoxamine, in cosmetics. The samples were extracted with trichloroacetic acid solution under ultrasonication, and cleaned up with PCX solid phase extraction. The separation of five antihistamines was carried out on a C18 column using metha-nol - phosphate buffer as mobile phase. The calibration curves of five drugs were linear in the range of 5. 0 - 100 mg/L, with correlation coefficients more than 0. 999. The mean recoveries at spiked levels of 5.0, 10.0, 25. 0 mg/kg were in the range of 92% -108% with RSDs(n =6)of 2. 1% -4. 2% . The limits of detection were in the range of 0. 5 -1.0 mg/L. The method was sensitive, reproducible and accurate.

  4. Antihistamine drugs usage analysis of outpatient pharmacy of skin disease hospital from 2010 to 2012%皮肤病医院2010-2012年门诊药房抗组胺药物使用情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志林

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore application and problems of antihistamine drugs usage of outpatient pharmacy of our hospital from 2010 to 2012.Methods With hospital information system (HIS),extracted the data of antihistamines usage,including drug name,specification,quantity,sales etc.in outpatient pharmacy of our hospital from 2010 to 2012.At the same time,a retrospective analysis of 3000 copies of dermatology prescription for allergic skin disease and skin itching of outpatient department was issued,evaluated antihistamines usage.Results The use of antihistamines of the out-patient service pharmacy was reasonable.Usage and dosage in part of prescriptions had shortcomings,mainly the larger dose and the longer course of treatment; the combination treatment was also not reasonable,too much emphasis on efficacy,while ignoring the poisonous side effect.Conclusion Outpatient department should strengthen the rational use of antihistamine drugs,reduce side effects of drugs and ensure patient health.%目的 分析和了解2010至2012年间我院门诊药房抗组胺药物的使用情况及存在问题.方法 利用医院信息系统(HIS),提取我院在2010至2012年门诊药房抗组胺药物的使用情况数据,包括药物名称、药品规格、使用量、销售量等.同时,结合皮肤科对门诊过敏性皮肤病、瘙痒性皮肤病所开具的处方3000份,并进行回顾性分析,评价抗组胺药物的使用情况.结果 门诊药房抗组胺药物的使用情况基本合理,部分处方中用法用量有不足之处,主要表现为剂量较大而且疗程较长,其中联合用药也有不合理之处,过分注重疗效而忽视了抗组胺药物的毒副作用.结论 门诊部门应加强对抗组胺药物的合理使用,降低药物的毒副作用,保证病人身体健康.

  5. The Effect of Compound Glycyrrhizin Combined with Antihistamines on Chronic Urticaria%复方甘草酸苷联合抗组胺类药物治疗慢性荨麻疹的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑旭; 陀志国; 黄静; 高建明; 贾青

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of compound glycyrrhizin combined with antihistamines on chronic urticaria. Methods: 150 cases with chronic urticaria were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. The treatment group was given compound glycyrrhizin combined with cetirizine, while the control group was treated with cetirizine only. After 14 days, the urticaria activity score (UAS) and efficacy were evaluated by the end of one and two weeks. Results: The UAS in the both groups were lowered significantly after one and two weeks' treatment (P<0.05), and the two groups also showed significant difference by the end of one and two weeks (P<0.05). The total effective rate in the two groups at one week were 64.0% and 38.7%, respectively (P<0.05); And also at two weeks the total effective rate in treatment group was higher than that of control group (90.7% vs 61.3%, PO.05). Conclusions: Compound glycyrrhizin combined with antihistamines is an effective therapy for chronic urticaria, with rapid and high efficacy.%目的:观察复方甘草酸苷联合抗组胺类药物治疗慢性荨麻疹的临床疗效.方法:150例慢性荨麻疹患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组口服复方甘草酸苷片和西替利嗪片,对照组只给予西替利嗪片,疗程14d.评价1周和2周时的荨麻疹活动度评分表和临床疗效.结果:治疗1周末和2周末两组的荨麻疹活动度评分都明显下降,与治疗前比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),两组1周末和2周末时比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).1周末两组总有效率分别为64.0%和38.7%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);2周末总有效率分别为90.7%和61.3%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:复方甘草酸苷联合西替利嗪片治疗慢性荨麻疹具有起效快、疗效高的特点.

  6. Comparative study on the inhibitory effect of several antihistamines on the release of inflammatory mediators from lymphocytes%依匹斯汀等抗组胺药物抗炎作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭燃景; 郝进

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of several antihistamines,including epinastine,on the release of leukotriene B4(LTB4),interleukin 4(IL-4)and interleukin 5(IL-5)from spleen lymphocytes of allergic mice challenged by ovalbumin(OVA).Methods OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice were used as animal model of allergy.Spleen lymphocytes isolated from these mice were treated with epinastine(0.1,1.0,10 μmol/L),ebastine(10 μmol/L),cetirizine(10 μmol/L),and dexamethasone(1.0 μmol/L),respectively,followed by incubation with OVA.Those cells without pretreatment with antihistamines served as the control.One hour after the challenge,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)was applied to measure the level of LTB4,IL-4 and IL-5 in the cell culture supernates.Results Following the incubation with OVA,the levels of LTB4,IL-4 and IL-5 increased significantly in culture supernates of control spleen lymphocytes.Epinastine significantly inhibited the release of LTB4,IL-4 and IL-5 in a dose-dependent manner.At the concentration of 10 μmol/L,the inhibitory effect of epinastine was more potent than that of ebastine and cetirizine for IL-5 and LTB4 release(all P<0.05):for IL-4,the efrect of epinastine was similar to that of ebastine (P>0.05)but more potent than that of cetirizine(P<0.05).Conclusion Epinastine has a potent anti-inflammatory effect.%目的 观察依匹斯汀等几种临床常用抗组胺药物对卵蛋白致敏小鼠脾淋巴细胞表达炎症因子的影响.方法 小鼠腹腔注射卵蛋白构建致敏动物模型,分离小鼠脾淋巴细胞,以依匹斯汀等儿种抗组胺药物进行阻断处理.用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)检测培养细胞上清液中白三烯B4(LTB4)、白介素4(IL-4)、白介素5(IL-5)的水平.结果 依匹斯汀具有明显的抑制敛敏淋巴细胞释放LTB4、IL-4、IL-5的作用,且具有剂量依赖性.在相同作用浓度下,依匹斯汀组致敏淋巴细胞释放的LTB4浓度显著低于依巴斯汀组和西替利嗪组;IL-4

  7. Health technology assessment of four non-sedating antihistamines for allergic diseases%四种第二代抗组胺药物的卫生技术评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鑫; 曹立亚; 马涛; 兰奋; 李夏; 肖爱丽; 陈心足; 李幼平

    2003-01-01

    Objectives This review compared clinical effectiveness, cardiac safety and economics of astemizole, lorata dine, cetirizine and terfenadine to provide evidence for adjustment of Essential Drug List in China. Search strategy We searched Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase and Chinese Biomedical Database. Fourteen databases for drug safety and pharmaceutical economics were additionally searched. Selection Criteria Randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews, published in English and Chinese and comparing two or more of these four antihistamines for allergic rhinitis and urticaria were included for study of effectiveness. Non-randomized clinical trials were additionally included for eco nomic evaluation. Cardiac safety studies of antihistamines for allergic diseases of any type were included. Quality Appraisal Jadad scale was primarily applied to randomized controlled trials. Allocation concealment and intention-to treat analysis were also appraised. The QUOROM statement was applied to systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Data extraction and analyses For the study of effectiveness, composite data were primarily extracted and analyzed by fixed effect model. Sensitivity analysis was done to explore the heterogeneity. For the study of cardiac safety, cases of adverse drug reactions and death were summarized. Difference of occurrence rate in sex and age were analyzed if possible.Electrocardiography and clinical symptoms were summarized. Results No studies on economic evaluation were identified. 27 and 6 randomized controlled trials, including 3 227 participants, for allergic rhinitis and urticaria were identified.Cetirizine was superior to loratadine (n=709) in symptom score and onset of action, superior to terfenadine (n=645) in Quality of Life and superior to astemizole (n=498) in patient satisfaction and onset of action. 73 h-ADR cases were identified in astemizole, 27 cases in terfenadine, 1 case in loratadine and none in cetirizine. No deaths were identified

  8. 鼻用皮质类固醇激素联合抗组胺药对变应性鼻炎疗效的系统评价%Effectiveness of intranasal corticosteroid plus antihistamine on allergic rhinitis:a systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简洁君; 伍启刚; 田磊; 郜元坤

    2016-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the efficacy of corticosteroid nasal spray plus antihistamine versus either therapy given alone or placebo in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR).Methods The PubMed, EMbase, Google Scholar and The Cochrane Library were electronically searched for randomized controlled trials ( RCTs ) about the efficacy of corticosteroid plus antihistamine for AR .The duration of the search was from the inception of the databases to April 2015 . After literature selection , data extraction and quality assessment conducted by two reviewers independently , meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.3 software.Results Ten studies involving 6568 patients were finally included .The qualitative analysis showed that the combination therapy had greater efficacy than oral antihistamines alone or placebo on improving symptoms.The results of meta-analysis showed that pooled results of two trials failed to show significant difference in total nasal symptoms between combination therapy and intranasal corticosteroid alone [ WMD =-0.20, 95%CI (-0.38,-0.01),P=0.04].The cumulative meta-analysis of six RCTs showed that the combination therapy was superior to intranasal corticosteroid alone[WMD=-1.16, 95%CI( -1.49,-0.83), P<0.00001], intranasal antihistamine alone[WMD=-1.73, 95%CI( -2.08,-1.38),P<0.00001], and placebo [WMD =-2.81, 95%CI( -3.16,-2.47), P<0.00001].Conclusion Intranasal corticosteroid plus oral antihistamine has similar efficacy to intranasal corticosteroid alone, greater efficacy than oral antihistamines alone or placebo in reducing nasal symptoms for AR patients . Intranasal corticosteroid plus intranasal antihistamine is significantly superior to either therapy given alone or placebo .%目的:系统评价鼻内喷雾皮质类固醇激素联合口服或局部喷雾抗组胺药对变应性鼻炎的疗效。方法计算机检索PubMed,EMbase,Google Scholar,The Cochrane Library,并手工检索相关期刊,全面收集鼻用皮质类固醇

  9. Caffeoylquinic acid derivatives from Bidens parviflora and their antihistamine release activites%小花鬼针草中咖啡酰奎宁酸类成分及其抑制组胺释放活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏; 王乃利; 姚新生; 北中進

    2006-01-01

    目的研究小花鬼针草Bidens parviflora全株的化学成分,并通过抑制组胺释放活性方法寻找生物活性化合物.方法采用硅胶、Sephadex LH-20和ODS柱色谱分离化合物,运用1D NMR,2D NMR等波谱法鉴定了化学结构,通过组胺抑制实验探讨抗炎活性.结果分离鉴定6种咖啡酰奎宁酸类化合物及其甲酯,分别是3,5-二氧咖啡酰奎宁酸(3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid,Ⅰ)、3,4-二氧咖啡酰奎宁酸(3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid,Ⅱ)、4,5-二氧咖啡酰奎宁酸(4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid,Ⅲ)、4-氧-咖啡酰奎宁酸(4-O-caffeoylquinic acid,Ⅳ)、5-氧-咖啡酰奎宁酸(5-O-caffeoylquinic acid,Ⅴ)、4-[3-(3,4-二羟基苯基)-丙烯酰氧基]-2,3-二羟基-2-甲基-丁酸{4-[3-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-acryloyloxy]-2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butyric acid,Ⅵ}.结论所有化合物均为首次从该植物中分得,化合物Ⅵ为新化合物.这些化合物显示一定的抑制组织胺释放活性.%Objective Based on the activities of antihistamine release to study the compounds from Bidens parvi-flora and find biological active compounds. Methods The chemical constituents from B.parviflora were isolated by silica gel and Sphadex LH-20 column chromatographies and purified by preparative HPLC. The chemical structures had been identified by physiochemical properties and spectroscopic methods. Results Six caffeoylquinic acid derivatives were identified as 3, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid ( Ⅰ ),3, 4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid ( Ⅱ ), 4, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid ( Ⅲ ), 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid ( Ⅳ ), 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid ( Ⅴ ), 4-[3-(3, 4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-acryloyloxy]-2, 3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butyric acid ( Ⅵ ). Conclusion Compounds Ⅰ - Ⅵ are first obtained from B. parviflora and Ⅵ is new one. Some of the compounds exhibit the activities in antiallergic assays. Moreover, the structure-activity relationships of these compounds have been also discussed in this paper.

  10. Efficacy and Safety of BCG Polysaccharide and Nucleic Acid Injection Combined With Antihistamines in the Treatment of Chronic Urticaria:A Systematic Review%卡介菌多糖核酸注射液联合抗组胺药治疗慢性荨麻疹有效性和安全性的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄梦雅; 温路; 周汛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of BCG - PSN combined with antihistamines in the treatment of chronic urticaria. Methods We made a retrieval in PubMed,Cochrane Library,EMBase,CNKI,Wanfang,ⅤIP for literatures about the efficacy and safety of BCG - PSN combined with antihistamines in the treatment of chronic urticaria from January 1979( or from the establishment of some databases)to October 2014. The RevMan 5. 1 statistical software was employed to conduct systematic review. Results We included 8 pieces of literature and 853 patients. The meta - analysis showed the following results:the two groups were significantly different in effective rate〔OR(95% CI) = 3. 49(2. 42,5. 04),P <0. 01〕;the two groups were significantly different in recurrence rate〔OR(95% CI) = 0. 22(0. 12,0. 41),P < 0. 01〕;the two groups were not significantly different in the rate of adverse reaction〔OR(95% CI) = 0. 85(0. 50,1. 43),P = 0. 53〕. Conclusion Compared with the treatment with pure antihistamines,BCG - PSN combined with antihistamines has high effective rate and low recurrence rate,causes no severe adverse reactions and has favorable efficacy and safety.%目的:系统评价卡介菌多糖核酸注射液联合抗组胺药治疗慢性荨麻疹的有效性和安全性。方法计算机检索 PubMed、Cochrane 图书馆对照试验资料库、EMBase、中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI)、万方数据库、维普信息资源系统(ⅤIP)中关于卡介菌多糖核酸注射液联合抗组胺药治疗慢性荨麻疹有效性和安全性的文献,检索时间为1979年1月(1979年未建立的数据库以建库日为起始时间)—2014年10月。采用 RevMan 5.1统计软件对纳入文献进行系统评价。结果共纳入文献8篇,纳入患者总数为853例。Meta 分析结果显示,两组有效率比较,差异有统计学意义〔OR(95% CI)=3.49(2.42,5.04),P <0.01〕;复发率比较

  11. 雷公藤多苷联合抗组胺药治疗慢性荨麻疹临床疗效及生活质量的观察%Clinical Efficacy of Triptergium Wilfordii Combined with Antihistamines on Treating Chronic Urticaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱苗; 张少渊

    2011-01-01

    目的 临床观察雷公藤多苷联合不同的第二代抗组胺药治疗慢性荨麻疹的临床疗效及对患者生活质量的影响.方法 360例慢性荨麻疹患者,随机分为六组.治疗组为雷公藤多苷联合不同的抗组胺药(氯雷他定、西替利嗪、咪唑斯汀)各一组,以及仅使用不同抗组胺药(氯雷他定、西替利嗪、咪唑斯汀)各一组作为对照组的治疗方案.六组于治疗前后记录荨麻疹症状评分以及皮肤病生活质量评分表.结果 治疗4周后,雷公藤多苷和抗组胺药联合应用的治疗组的症状评分均低于仅使用抗组胺药物的对照组(P<0.001),有效率治疗组也高于对照组(P<0.05).在生活质量方面,治疗组的DLQI评分在用药2周与4周后均显著低于对照组(P<0.05,P<0.001)结论 使用雷公藤多苷联合抗组胺药(尤其是咪唑斯汀)能够更快的减轻患者症状,提高患者的生活质量.%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of Triptergium wilfordii combined with different antihistamines on treating chronic urticaria (CU), and to evaluate the effects on dermatology life quality index of patients. Methods 360 patients with CU were randomly divided into six groups. Patients in three treatment groups were taken Triptergium wilfordii and antihistamines daily for four weeks. And the patients in three control groups were only taken antihistamines daily for four weeks. The severity of chronic urticaria in patients was rated according to Urticaria Activity Score (UAS). Dermatology life quality index (DLQI) questionnaire scores were used and then statistical analysis was made. Results After four weeks, there were significant differences in the UAS and DLQI among these six groups. The UAS and DLQI scores were significantly improved in the treatment groups. Conclusion Triptergium wilfordii combined with antihistamines can not only decrease UAS scores, but also improve the DLQI of patients with chronic urticaria.

  12. Clinical features of non-allergic rhinitis and the therapeutic efficacy of combination of intranasal steroid and H1-antihistamine%非变应性鼻炎临床特点及鼻内糖皮质激素联合抗组胺药物治疗效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 安立峰; 孟粹达; 朱学伟; 董震; 朱冬冬

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the basic clinical features of non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) in age, sex, incentives, and the effect of treatment with combined intranasal steroids and antihistamines. Methods One hundred consecutive NAR patients were included in this study and the age, gender, predisposing factors and clinical symptoms were analyzed. Combined intranasal steroids and antihistamines used for 8 weeks, the symptoms were recorded before and after treatment with visual analogue scale( VAS) score as the assessment of treatment effects. SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. Results Ninty-three NAR patients were adults, and the sex ratio was 1 : 1.2( male: female) , and the peak age incidence was between 30 - 39 years old. The main nasal symptoms were sneezing (96 cases) , rhinorrhea (88 cases) , nasal blockage (72 cases) and nasal itching (69 cases). The symptoms of eye and respiratory tract were always accompanied as eye itching (49 cases) , tears ( 32 cases) , congestion ( 22 cases) , swelling ( 13 cases) , cough (21 cases) , suffocation ( 19 cases) , chest compression ( 13 cases) , wheezing ( 10 cases) ; Seventy-nine(79. 0% ) patients could indicate at least one kind of incentives, the temperature change (54 cases) , dust (28 cases) , irritating odor (21 cases) was the main incentive of NAR. Forty-seven patients completed the combined treatment of intranasal steroids and antihistamines, 38 (80.9%) patients were satisfied with the result with all symptoms relieved except wheezing ( P < 0. 05 ) , but36 patients had the NAR returned when they were exposed with the predisposing factors in the coming year; the remaining 9 (19. 1 % ) patients failed the treatment. Conclusions The clinical features of NAR were as follows: adult constituted the main patient population, women were slightly more than man but with no difference between genders; sneezing and nasal discharge were the main clinical symptoms, always more than 1 incentives. The combination of

  13. Augmentation of acetaminophen analgesia by the antihistamine phenyltoloxamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine, A; Zighelboim, I; De Castro, A; Sorrentino, J V; Smith, D S; Bartizek, R D; Olson, N Z

    1989-07-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was performed to compare the analgesic activity of the combination of 650 mg acetaminophen plus 60 mg phenyltoloxamine citrate with that of 650 mg acetaminophen alone. Two hundred female inpatients who had severe pain associated with a recent episiotomy procedure were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of one of the two active treatments or a placebo. Analgesia was assessed over a 6-hour period. Treatments were compared on the basis of standard subjective scales for pain intensity and relief, a number of derived variables based on these data and two global measures. For essentially all measures, the two active treatments were significantly superior to the placebo control. The combination was significantly superior to acetaminophen alone for all analgesic measures including SPID, TOTAL, and global ratings. The results of this study demonstrate that 60 mg phenyltoloxamine produces significant augmentation of the analgesic activity of 650 mg acetaminophen in postepisiotomy pain. PMID:2569485

  14. Antihistaminic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antiallergic Properties of the Nonsedating Second-Generation Antihistamine Desloratadine: A Review of the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Canonica, G. Walter; Blaiss, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The allergy cascade presents widespread inflammatory and proinflammatory activation, robust cytokine and chemokine signaling, and heterogeneous immune and endothelial responses that lead ultimately to the manifestations of allergic reaction. Histamine, a small peptide with inherent vasoactive properties, is released from granules contained within mast cells, basophils, lymphocytes, and other reservoirs and interacts with histamine receptors to regulate numerous cellular functions in...

  15. Medications and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... older adults and often require the use of antihistamines. Antihistamines are divided into two classes: first generation antihistamines and second generation antihistamines. First generation antihistamines, while ...

  16. Topical antihistamines display potent anti-inflammatory activity linked in part to enhanced permeability barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Tzu-Kai; Man, Mao-Qiang; Santiago, Juan-Luis;

    2013-01-01

    dermatitis), topical H1/2r agonists aggravated, whereas H1/2r antagonists improved, inflammation and/or barrier function. The apparent ability of topical H1r/2r antagonists to target epidermal H1/2r could translate into increased efficacy in the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses, likely due to decreased...... express both Hr1 and Hr2, we hypothesized that H1/2r antagonists might be more effective if they were used topically to treat inflammatory dermatoses. Topical H1/2r antagonists additively enhanced permeability barrier homeostasis in normal mouse skin by the following mechanisms: (i) stimulation...... of epidermal differentiation, leading to thickened cornified envelopes; and (ii) enhanced epidermal lipid synthesis and secretion. As barrier homeostasis was enhanced to a comparable extent in mast cell-deficient mice, with no further improvement following application of topical H1/2r antagonists, H1/2r...

  17. Delayed phase of hematoporphyrin-induced phototoxicity: modulation by complement, leukocytes, and antihistamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, H.W.; Young, L.; Hagan, M.; Gigli, I.

    1985-02-01

    The role of complement, leukocytes, and histamine was investigated in the delayed phase of hematoporphyrin-induced phototoxicity in guinea pigs. The phototoxic response was quantified by the accumulation of intravenously injected (/sup 125/I)bovine serum albumin in the skin. There was a greater than 6-fold increase in the vascular response at the completion of irradiation, which subsided partially to reach a plateau of twice the preirradiation level between 0.5 h and 12 h. At 18 h, the vascular responsiveness returned to the baseline value. The 7 h timepoint was selected in this study to evaluate the modulation of the delayed phase. In complement-depleted guinea pigs, as well as in leukopenic animals, the enhancement in the vascular response was significantly suppressed (p vs control, less than 0.0001 and 0.0022, respectively). Cimetidine, when administered prior to irradiation, significantly suppressed the phototoxic response (p vs control, 0.0365). The combination of diphenhydramine and cimetidine, administered 6 h after the induction of phototoxicity, also suppressed the vascular response (p vs control, less than 0.0001). These data indicate that the expression of the delayed phase of hematoporphyrin-induced phototoxicity, similar to the early phase, requires the presence of an intact complement system, leukocytes, and histamine.

  18. Effects of antihistamines on innate immune responses to severe bacterial infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metz, Martin; Doyle, Elizabeth; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    2011-01-01

    Sedating and non-sedating histamine H(1) receptor (H1R) antagonists and H2R blockers are widely used drugs which are generally considered to be safe medications. However, recently, these drugs have been shown to possibly impair the outcome of perforating appendicitis in children....

  19. Antihistamines block radiation-induced increased intestinal blood flow in canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Donlon, M.A.; Gossett-Hagerman, C.J.

    1985-06-01

    Radiation-induced systemic hypotension is accompanied by increased intestinal blood flow (IBF) and an increased hematocrit (HCT) in dogs. Histamine infusion leads to increased IBF and intestinal edema with consequent secretion of fluid into the intestinal lumen. This study was performed to determine whether these effects could be diminished by prior administration of H1 and H2 histamine blockers. Dogs were given an iv infusion of mepyramine (0.5 mg/min) and cimetidine (0.25 mg/min) for 1 hr before and for 1 hr after radiation (H1 and H2 blockers, respectively). Mean systemic arterial blood pressure (MBP), IBF, and HCT were monitored for 2 hr. Systemic plasma histamine levels were determined simultaneously. Data obtained indicated that the H1 and H2 blockers, given simultaneously, were successful in blocking the increased IBF and the increased HCT seen after 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation. However, the postradiation hypotension was only somewhat affected, with the MBP falling to a level 28% below the preradiation level. Plasma histamine levels reached a sharp peak, as much as 20% above baseline, at 4 min postradiation. These findings implicate histamine in the radiation-induced increase in IBF and HCT but not for the gradual decrease in postradiation blood pressure.

  20. Effects of histamine and antihistamines on the kinetics of carbon dioxide in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J.C.; Chambers, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of chlorpheniramine (an H1 histamine inhibitor) and metiamide (an H2 inhibitor) on response to 14C pulse-labeling of carbon dioxide in the rat in the presence and absence of histamine. Neither chlorpheniramine nor metiamide alone had any effect upon the gastric venous/arterial ratio (VG/A) or the peripheral venous/arterial ratio (Vp/A). As in the case with no drug present, Vp/A rose with time following pulse-labeling to a value of 1.15-1.20. The presence of a preexisting steady-state infusion of histamine caused no changes in the ratios in the presence or absence of the inhibitors. The inhibitors did completely abolish the oscillations of both VG/A and Vp/A caused by initiation of histamine infusion coincident with the pulse-labeling. The results suggest that the histamine effects are largely mediated through H1 receptors.

  1. Antihistamines block radiation-induced increased intestinal blood flow in canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Donlon, M.A.; Gossett-Hagerman, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation-induced systemic hypotension is accompanied by increased intestinal blood flow (IBF) and an increased hematocrit (HCT) in dogs. Histamine infusion leads to increased IBF and intestinal edema with consequent secretion of fluid into the intestinal lumen. This study was performed to determine whether these effects could be diminished by prior administration of H/sub 1/ and H/sub 2/ histamine blockers. Dogs were given an iv infusion of mepyramine (0.5 mg/min) and cimetidine (0.25 mg/min) for 1 hr before and for 1 hr after radiation (H sub 1 and H sub 2 blockers, respectively). Mean systemic arterial blood pressure (MBP), IBF, and HCT were monitored for 2 hr. Systematic plasma histamine levels were determined simultaneously. Data obtained indicated that the H sub 1 and H sub 2 blockers, given simultaneously, were successful in blocking the increased IBF and the increased HCT seen after 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation. However, the postradiation hypotension was only somewhat affected, with the MBP falling to a level 28% below the preradiation level. Plasma histamine levels reached a sharp peak, as much as 20% above baseline, at 4 min postradiation. These findings implicate histamine in the radiation-induced increase in IBF and HCT but not for the gradual decrease in postradiation blood pressure. (Author)

  2. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF CHEWABLE TABLETS CONTAINING NON- SEDATING ANTIHISTAMINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev Patil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Various formulations of Loratadine Chewable tablets containing different pharmaceutical compositions with simple manufacturing procedures were developed by using different excipients. The excipients used here are Lactose, Mannitol, Ethyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, Maize Starch, Citric Acid, Aspartame, Colloidal silicon dioxide, Magnesium Stearate, D & C Yellow No 10 and Raspberry flavour. Oral chewable tablets are the most preferred among the conventional dosage forms due to its aesthetic appeal and ease of administering to children, which has entered the market. Loratadine is formulated into chewable tablets by wet granulation method using suitable excipients as mentioned earlier, which are evaluated by using simple analytical equipments. The chewable tablet was better presented using artificial sweetener Aspartame and Raspberry flavour as flavouring agent. The chewable tablets are prepared to ensure that they are easily crushed by chewing. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability; drug content and mouth feel along with in-vitro dissolution. As per monograph, the chewable tablets are not required to comply with disintegration test. Wet granulation process using Mannitol, Lactose, Micro crystalline cellulose (Avicel-CE 15, Ethyl cellulose and Sweeteners and Flavors were found to be simple and robust method to prepare chewable tablets.

  3. Taste Masked Orally Disintegrating Pellets of Antihistaminic and Mucolytic Drug: Formulation, Characterization, and In Vivo Studies in Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj, Yasmeen; Pai, Roopa S.; Kusum Devi, V.; Singh, Gurinder

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of orally disintegrating pellets (ODPs) as an approach for taste masking of bitter drugs, namely, Ambroxol hydrochloride (A-HCl) and Cetirizine dihydrochloride (C-DHCl). Pellets were prepared by extrusion/spheronization with Eudragit EPO, kyron T-134, Kyron T-314, mannitol, sorbitol, MCC (Avicel PH-101), sucralose, chocolate flavor, and 5% xanthum gum. The prepared pellets were characterized for percentage yield, drug content, particle size, in vitro drug release, and in vivo evaluation on humans for taste, mouth feel, and in vivo disintegration time. The results revealed that the average size of pellets was influenced greatly by the percentage of binder and extrusion speed. The optimized ODPs disintegrated in less than 20 s and showed more than 98% of drugs in ODPs dissolved within 15 min. Taste perception study was carried out on human volunteers to evaluate the taste masking ability of ODPs for taste, mouth feel, and in vivo disintegration time. Crystalline state evaluation of drugs in the optimized ODPs was conducted for X-ray powder diffraction. In conclusion, the study confirmed that ODPs can be utilized as an alternative approach for effective taste masking and rapid disintegration in the oral cavity. PMID:27379290

  4. Taste Masked Orally Disintegrating Pellets of Antihistaminic and Mucolytic Drug: Formulation, Characterization, and In Vivo Studies in Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj, Yasmeen; Pai, Roopa S; Kusum Devi, V; Singh, Gurinder

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of orally disintegrating pellets (ODPs) as an approach for taste masking of bitter drugs, namely, Ambroxol hydrochloride (A-HCl) and Cetirizine dihydrochloride (C-DHCl). Pellets were prepared by extrusion/spheronization with Eudragit EPO, kyron T-134, Kyron T-314, mannitol, sorbitol, MCC (Avicel PH-101), sucralose, chocolate flavor, and 5% xanthum gum. The prepared pellets were characterized for percentage yield, drug content, particle size, in vitro drug release, and in vivo evaluation on humans for taste, mouth feel, and in vivo disintegration time. The results revealed that the average size of pellets was influenced greatly by the percentage of binder and extrusion speed. The optimized ODPs disintegrated in less than 20 s and showed more than 98% of drugs in ODPs dissolved within 15 min. Taste perception study was carried out on human volunteers to evaluate the taste masking ability of ODPs for taste, mouth feel, and in vivo disintegration time. Crystalline state evaluation of drugs in the optimized ODPs was conducted for X-ray powder diffraction. In conclusion, the study confirmed that ODPs can be utilized as an alternative approach for effective taste masking and rapid disintegration in the oral cavity.

  5. Antisecretory Action of the Extract of the Aerial Parts of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) Occurs through Antihistaminic and Anticholinergic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André Perfusion, Amang; Tan, Paul V; Ernestine, Nkwengoua; Barthélemy, Nyasse

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to find out the possible antiulcer mechanism of action of Eremomastax speciosa. Method. Carbachol- and histamine-induced hypersecretion, associated with the pylorus ligation technique, were used in rats. Gastric mucosal ulceration, mucus production, pH, gastric volume, and acidity were measured. Results. Histamine and carbachol raised gastric acidity to 86.50 and 84.80 mEq/L, respectively, in the control rats, and the extracts (200 mg/kg) reduced gastric acidity to 34.60 and 39.00 mEq/L, respectively. Intraduodenal aqueous extract (400 mg/kg) in histamine- and carbachol-treated rats produced significant (P mEq/L, respectively, and 100 percent inhibition of gastric ulceration. Augmented histamine-induced gastric acid secretion (90.20 mEq/L) was significantly reduced to 52.60 and 27.50 mEq/L by the 200 and 400 mg/kg doses of the aqueous extract, respectively. The extract significantly reduced (P < 0.001) the volume of gastric secretion and significantly increased mucus production. The ulcer inhibition potential of the extract significantly dropped to 25-44% (oral extract) and to 29-37% (duodenal extract) in carbachol/indomethacin-treated rats. Conclusion. The aqueous extract of E. speciosa has both cytoprotective and antisecretory effects. The antisecretory effect may involve a mechanism common to both cholinergic and histaminergic pathways. PMID:24695819

  6. Antisecretory Action of the Extract of the Aerial Parts of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae Occurs through Antihistaminic and Anticholinergic Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amang André Perfusion

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study was to find out the possible antiulcer mechanism of action of Eremomastax speciosa. Method. Carbachol- and histamine-induced hypersecretion, associated with the pylorus ligation technique, were used in rats. Gastric mucosal ulceration, mucus production, pH, gastric volume, and acidity were measured. Results. Histamine and carbachol raised gastric acidity to 86.50 and 84.80 mEq/L, respectively, in the control rats, and the extracts (200 mg/kg reduced gastric acidity to 34.60 and 39.00 mEq/L, respectively. Intraduodenal aqueous extract (400 mg/kg in histamine- and carbachol-treated rats produced significant (P<0.001 decreases in acid secretion to 28.50 and 28.80 mEq/L, respectively, and 100 percent inhibition of gastric ulceration. Augmented histamine-induced gastric acid secretion (90.20 mEq/L was significantly reduced to 52.60 and 27.50 mEq/L by the 200 and 400 mg/kg doses of the aqueous extract, respectively. The extract significantly reduced (P<0.001 the volume of gastric secretion and significantly increased mucus production. The ulcer inhibition potential of the extract significantly dropped to 25–44% (oral extract and to 29–37% (duodenal extract in carbachol/indomethacin-treated rats. Conclusion. The aqueous extract of E. speciosa has both cytoprotective and antisecretory effects. The antisecretory effect may involve a mechanism common to both cholinergic and histaminergic pathways.

  7. A New Marmoset P450 4F12 Enzyme Expressed in Small Intestines and Livers Efficiently Metabolizes Antihistaminic Drug Ebastine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yuki, Yukako; Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are attracting attention as animal models in preclinical studies for drug development. However, cytochrome P450s (P450s), major drug-metabolizing enzymes, have not been fully identified and characterized in marmosets. In this study, based on the four novel P450 4F genes found on the marmoset genome, we successfully isolated P450 4F2, 4F3B, 4F11, and 4F12 cDNAs in marmoset livers. Deduced amino acid sequences of the four marmoset P450 4F forms exhibited high sequence identities (87%-93%) to the human and cynomolgus monkey P450 4F homologs. Marmoset P450 4F3B and 4F11 mRNAs were predominantly expressed in livers, whereas marmoset P450 4F2 and 4F12 mRNAs were highly expressed in small intestines and livers. Four marmoset P450 4F proteins heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed the ω-hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 In addition, marmoset P450 4F12 effectively catalyzed the hydroxylation of antiallergy drug ebastine, a human P450 2J/4F probe substrate. Ebastine hydroxylation activities by small intestine and liver microsomes from marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys showed greatly higher values than those of humans. Ebastine hydroxylation activities by marmoset and cynomolgus monkey small intestine microsomes were inhibited (approximately 60%) by anti-P450 4F antibodies, unlike human small intestine microsomes, suggesting that contribution of P450 4F enzymes for ebastine hydroxylation in the small intestine might be different between marmosets/cynomolgus monkeys and humans. These results indicated that marmoset P450 4F2, 4F3B, 4F11, and 4F12 were expressed in livers and/or small intestines and were functional in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds, similar to those of cynomolgus monkeys and humans.

  8. Taste Masked Orally Disintegrating Pellets of Antihistaminic and Mucolytic Drug: Formulation, Characterization, and In Vivo Studies in Human

    OpenAIRE

    Taj, Yasmeen; Pai, Roopa S.; V Kusum Devi; Singh, Gurinder

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of orally disintegrating pellets (ODPs) as an approach for taste masking of bitter drugs, namely, Ambroxol hydrochloride (A-HCl) and Cetirizine dihydrochloride (C-DHCl). Pellets were prepared by extrusion/spheronization with Eudragit EPO, kyron T-134, Kyron T-314, mannitol, sorbitol, MCC (Avicel PH-101), sucralose, chocolate flavor, and 5% xanthum gum. The prepared pellets were characterized for percentage yield, drug content, pa...

  9. Anti-histamine effect of Rubia tibetica, used to treat anaphylaxis caused by tick bites in the Pamir Mountains, Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Anne S.; Kristiansen, Uffe; Soelberg, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    The roots of Rubia tibetica are chewed as an antidote to anaphylaxis caused by bites of the tick Ornithodoros lahorensis by the Wakhi people in Afghanistan.......The roots of Rubia tibetica are chewed as an antidote to anaphylaxis caused by bites of the tick Ornithodoros lahorensis by the Wakhi people in Afghanistan....

  10. 抗组胺药的药物相互作用%Drug-drug interactions of antihistamines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙平华; 姚志红; 孙铁民

    2006-01-01

    介绍了抗组胺药物和其他临床常用药物的相互作用,为患者安全用药提供参考.第一、二代抗组胺药易与多种药物发生相互作用而致心脏毒性等不良反应,第三代抗组胺药联用时不会导致严重的不良反应.所以抗组胺药作为临床和OTC常用抗过敏药,应对其药物相互作用及产生的不良反应引起注意.

  11. Taste Masked Orally Disintegrating Pellets of Antihistaminic and Mucolytic Drug: Formulation, Characterization, and In Vivo Studies in Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj, Yasmeen; Pai, Roopa S; Kusum Devi, V; Singh, Gurinder

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of orally disintegrating pellets (ODPs) as an approach for taste masking of bitter drugs, namely, Ambroxol hydrochloride (A-HCl) and Cetirizine dihydrochloride (C-DHCl). Pellets were prepared by extrusion/spheronization with Eudragit EPO, kyron T-134, Kyron T-314, mannitol, sorbitol, MCC (Avicel PH-101), sucralose, chocolate flavor, and 5% xanthum gum. The prepared pellets were characterized for percentage yield, drug content, particle size, in vitro drug release, and in vivo evaluation on humans for taste, mouth feel, and in vivo disintegration time. The results revealed that the average size of pellets was influenced greatly by the percentage of binder and extrusion speed. The optimized ODPs disintegrated in less than 20 s and showed more than 98% of drugs in ODPs dissolved within 15 min. Taste perception study was carried out on human volunteers to evaluate the taste masking ability of ODPs for taste, mouth feel, and in vivo disintegration time. Crystalline state evaluation of drugs in the optimized ODPs was conducted for X-ray powder diffraction. In conclusion, the study confirmed that ODPs can be utilized as an alternative approach for effective taste masking and rapid disintegration in the oral cavity. PMID:27379290

  12. Treating Allergies, Hay Fever, and Hives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Comparing Effectiveness, Safety, and Price There are newer antihistamines. Antihistamines are drugs that can relieve the symptoms of ... important to treat allergies. If you have allergies, antihistamines are likely to help. It is important to ...

  13. Pollen Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help reduce the severity of pollen allergy symptoms. Antihistamines Antihistamines, which are taken by mouth or as a ... to a lesser extent, nasal stuffiness. Some older antihistamines can cause side effects such as drowsiness and ...

  14. Drug: D07790 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available STEMIC USE R06AX Other antihistamines for systemic use R06AX16 Deptropine D07790 ...ssification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R06 ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06A ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SY

  15. OTC Medicines and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with other active ingredients, such as decongestants or antihistamines. Drug Recall Information View information on recent drug ... in nursing babies. Limit long-term use of antihistamines. Just like other medicines you take, antihistamines will ...

  16. Comment: Proposal of employ of extract of Desmodium adscendens as anti-histaminic natural drug: trials of efficacy by Reflectance Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Jeseňák

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine is surviving across the decades and also in the medicine of 21st century. The physicians are meeting different preparations during their praxis and the challenge for them is to find the right way how to navigate the patients in the middle of thousands of preparations and methods. Complementary and alternative medicine is considered to be the therapeutic approaches and methods which are not involved in the standard conventional treatment schema.

  17. Comment: Proposal of employ of extract of Desmodium adscendens as anti-histaminic natural drug: trials of efficacy by Reflectance Spectrophotometry

    OpenAIRE

    Miloš Jeseňák

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is surviving across the decades and also in the medicine of 21st century. The physicians are meeting different preparations during their praxis and the challenge for them is to find the right way how to navigate the patients in the middle of thousands of preparations and methods. Complementary and alternative medicine is considered to be the therapeutic approaches and methods which are not involved in the standard conventional treatment schema.

  18. Development, Validation and Application of RP-HPLC Method: Simultaneous Determination of Antihistamine and Preservatives with Paracetamol in Liquid Formulations and Human Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Najmul; Chaiharn, Mathurot; Toor, Umair Ali; Mirani, Zulfiqar Ali; Sajjad, Ghulam; Sher, Nawab; Aziz, Mubashir; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe development and validation of stability indicating, accurate, specific, precise and simple Ion-pairing RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and cetirizine HCl along with preservatives i.e. propylparaben, and methylparaben in pharmaceutical dosage forms of oral solution and in serum. Acetonitrile: Buffer: Sulfuric Acid (45:55:0.3 v/v/v) was the mobile phase at flow rate 1.0 mL min(-1) using a Hibar(®) Lichrosorb(®) C18 column and monitored at wavelength of 230nm. The averages of absolute and relative recoveries were found to be 99.3%, 99.5%, 99.8% and 98.7% with correlation coefficient of 0.9977, 0.9998, 0.9984, and 0.9997 for cetirizine HCl, paracetamol, methylparaben and Propylparaben respectively. The limit of quantification and limit of detection were in range of 0.3 to 2.7 ng mL(-1) and 0.1 to 0.8 ng mL(-1) respectively. Under stress conditions of acidic, basic, oxidative, and thermal degradation, maximum degradation was observed in basic and oxidative stress where a significant impact was observed while all drugs were found almost stable in the other conditions. The developed method was validated in accordance with ICH and AOAC guidelines. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify amount of paracetamol, cetirizine HCl and two most common microbial preservatives in bulk, dosage form and physiological fluid. PMID:27651840

  19. The second generation of antihistamines and its new member mizolastine%第二代抗组胺药及其新成员咪唑斯汀

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾有守

    2001-01-01

    概述了自上世纪80年代后问世的各种第二代非中枢镇静作用H1拮抗剂的药代动力学、药效学、不良反应及适应证等,对其优缺点作了比较;并着重介绍了最近推出的抗组胺药咪唑斯汀,它具有选择性拮抗H1受体和抗5-脂氧合酶的双重活性,是较理想的抗组胺药,用于治疗急、慢性荨麻疹及寒冷性荨麻疹等过敏性疾病.

  20. The efficacy and safety of the third generation antihistamine desloratadine in clinical use%第三代抗组胺药地氯雷他定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐道华

    2005-01-01

    地氯雷他定是氯雷他定在体内主要的活性代谢产物,为一种口服非镇静抗组胺药.在美国和欧洲用于治疗过敏性鼻炎和慢性荨麻疹,起效快,不良反应小,尤其对儿童患者安全性好.对其药理作用、临床应用及安全性进行评价.

  1. 第2代抗组胺药儿科用药分析%Analysis of Second- Generation Antihistamines Used for Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安芳

    2009-01-01

    目的 促进抗组胺药的临床合理用药.方法 随机抽查医院门诊处方近3823张,对其中使用抗组胺药的171张处方进行分析.结果 与结论第2代抗组胺药是治疗Ⅰ型变态反应性疾病比较安全有效的药物,但不同药物的药代动力学、临床疗效及不良反应等存在一定的差异,在儿科应用时应加以注意.

  2. Utilization Analysis of Antihistamines in Our Hospital from 2006 to 2008%2006~2008年我院抗组胺药应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岚; 王晓玲

    2010-01-01

    目的:了解抗纽胺药在我院的应用情况和发展趋势.方法:采用金额排序和使用频度分析法时我院2006~2008年抗组胺药的使用情况进行统计分析.结果:左西替利嗪片、西替利嗪滴剂、氯雷他定糖浆的用药频率一直保持领先.结论:安全、有效的第2、3代抗组胺药将成为抗过敏治疗的主要药物.

  3. Update on Cardiotoxicity Study of the Second Generation of Antihistamines%第2代抗组胺药物心脏毒性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马满玲; 刘璐

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨第2代抗组胺药物心脏毒性,为临床合理用药提供依据.方法:分析药代动力学性质和心脏不良反应(延长QT间期、导致心律失常)的发生机理.结果:第2代抗组胺药物有阻断心脏钾离子通道作用.结论:不同药物引起心脏毒性反应的程度也不同,这与药物的亲脂性、分布容积有关.

  4. Evaluation of clinical application for second-generation antihistamines%第二代抗组胺药临床应用中的若干问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝飞; 叶庆佾

    2003-01-01

    第二代抗组胺药安全有效,已成为临床上治疗过敏性皮肤病的主要药物之一,但仍存在一些有争议的问题.本文从药理作用来探讨临床用药几个值得注意的问题,包括药物在体内的相互作用、药物致心脏毒性的机制及相关因素、正确评价对中枢神经系统的镇静作用以及如何看待抗组胺药更广泛的药理作用等.

  5. 第二代抗组胺药物在儿科的临床应用%Analysis of the Second-Generation Antihistamines Clinical Application for Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安芳

    2009-01-01

    目的 对我院常用的几种第二代抗组胺药物在药效学、不良反应及临床作用等方面进行了归纳和分析,为临床合理用药提供参考.方法 通过查阅相关的文献,进行分析、归纳和总结.结果与结论 第二代抗组胺药物是治疗Ⅰ型变态反应疾病比较安全有效的药物,但不同药物在药代动力学、临床疗效及不良反应等方面具有一定差异,在儿科应用时应予以注意.

  6. Clinical application of antihistamines in children allergic rhinitis%抗组胺药在儿童变应性鼻炎治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟立新

    2013-01-01

    儿童变应性鼻炎(AR)的临床诊治受到耳鼻喉科、变态反应科、呼吸科和儿科等相关学科的关注,权威AR指南的药物治疗规范都强调抗组胺药的重要性.本文综述抗组胺药在儿童AR中的应用.

  7. 抗组胺药物的合理联合用药探讨%Antihistamine medicine reasonable union medication discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东; 郭玲丽; 叶圣春

    2011-01-01

    抗组胺药物自1937年开发以来,在临床上的应用越来越频繁.在临床的不断试验中,抗组胺药物对患者的不良反应也逐渐被人们所重视,随着产生了2代、3代抗组胺药物.由于1代、2代、3代抗组胺药物各自的作用特点不同,因此,我们要深入了解抗组胺药物的分类及药理作用,合理用药,减少不良反应.

  8. Heart Damage by Combination of Erythromycin and Antihistamine Drug%琥乙红霉素与抗组胺药合用引起心脏损害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琴; 余更生

    2006-01-01

    琥乙红霉素(利君沙)联合抗组胺药[富马酸酮替芬或曲普利啶(克敏)],引起心脏损害少见,尤其是引起心脏迷走神经张力增高,导致窦性心动过缓、显著窭性心律不齐、窦房结游走心律未见报告,易误诊误治,现报告2例。

  9. Antihistamine effect study of setastine hydrochloride%盐酸司他斯汀抗组胺作用的药效学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡士高; 王辉; 孙备

    2005-01-01

    盐酸司他斯汀可竞争性拮抗由组胺引起的豚鼠回肠的收缩,其PA2值及95%可信限分别为8.38和1.04;能降低由组胺引起大鼠皮肤通透性增高,其ED5o在组胺量为50μg时为0.508 9 mg·kg-1,在组胺量为25 μg时为0.513 8 mg·kg-1,与相当剂量下的特非那丁作用相近;并能显著延长iv组胺致豚鼠呼吸加快的潜伏期及惊厥倒下时间,降低死亡率,其ED50为0.120 3mg·kg-1.

  10. 抗组胺新药非索非那定的合成和应用%Synthesis and Application of a New Antihistamine Drug--Fexofenadine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 容如滨; 袁华; 喻宗沅

    2005-01-01

    非索非那定是新一代的抗组胺药,用于治疗过敏性疾病,无镇静和嗜睡感,毒副作用小.综述了抗组胺新药非索非那定的合成方法,比较了它们的优缺点,并对其应用前景作了展望.

  11. A new conception about histamine receptor and antihistamines%对组胺受体和抗组胺药的新认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦晓蕾; 徐金华

    2008-01-01

    人体内组胺受体主要有H1、H2、H3、H4 4种类型,属于G蛋白偶联受体(GPCRs).最新的研究发现,GPCRs以结构活性方式存在,抗组胺药具有负性内在活性,能够阻断组胺受体的自发活性.绝大多数抗组胺药是受体的反向激动剂,在临床上具有广泛的应用前景.

  12. The second generation of H1-antihistaminic agent Ebastine%第二代H1抗组胺类药物--依巴斯汀

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 肖亚平

    2008-01-01

      The study advance and production of Ebastine at home and abroad was reviewed. Emphasis was placed on the introduction of synthesis methods. The outlook of Ebastine in the field of medicine was foreshown.%  概述了近年来国内外依巴斯汀的研究及生产状况,对其合成路线进行了较深入的介绍,同时展望了依巴斯汀在医药领域的发展前景。

  13. Research development on Anti- allergic Effect of Antihistamines%抗组胺药物的抗过敏作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋洪杰; 胡晋红

    2003-01-01

    抗组胺药物在临床上已应用多年,其机理主要是通过阻断H1受体而起抗过敏作用.研究发现过敏炎症中有许多细胞因子和趋化因子参与,抗组胺药物对炎症细胞的迁移和激活有抑制作用.本文对组胺及其受体,抗组胺药物的抗过敏炎症作用进行综述.

  14. 我院抗组胺药应用动态分析%Dynamic Andlysis of Antihistamine Drugs in Our Hospital from 2001 to 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹艳莲

    2005-01-01

    目的:分析我院抗组胺药的应用现状及趋势预测,引导临床合理用药.方法:采用用药金额和用药频度排序法,对我院2001~2003年抗组胺药应用情况进行统计分析.结果:第一代抗组胺药的用药频度呈下降趋势,第二代稳步上升.结论:毒副作用小,服用方便,经济高效的抗组胺药是医生患者的首选.

  15. Development, Validation and Application of RP-HPLC Method: Simultaneous Determination of Antihistamine and Preservatives with Paracetamol in Liquid Formulations and Human Serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Najmul; Chaiharn, Mathurot; Toor, Umair Ali; Mirani, Zulfiqar Ali; Sajjad, Ghulam; Sher, Nawab; Aziz, Mubashir; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe development and validation of stability indicating, accurate, specific, precise and simple Ion-pairing RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and cetirizine HCl along with preservatives i.e. propylparaben, and methylparaben in pharmaceutical dosage forms of oral solution and in serum. Acetonitrile: Buffer: Sulfuric Acid (45:55:0.3 v/v/v) was the mobile phase at flow rate 1.0 mL min-1 using a Hibar® Lichrosorb® C18 column and monitored at wavelength of 230nm. The averages of absolute and relative recoveries were found to be 99.3%, 99.5%, 99.8% and 98.7% with correlation coefficient of 0.9977, 0.9998, 0.9984, and 0.9997 for cetirizine HCl, paracetamol, methylparaben and Propylparaben respectively. The limit of quantification and limit of detection were in range of 0.3 to 2.7 ng mL-1 and 0.1 to 0.8 ng mL-1 respectively. Under stress conditions of acidic, basic, oxidative, and thermal degradation, maximum degradation was observed in basic and oxidative stress where a significant impact was observed while all drugs were found almost stable in the other conditions. The developed method was validated in accordance with ICH and AOAC guidelines. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify amount of paracetamol, cetirizine HCl and two most common microbial preservatives in bulk, dosage form and physiological fluid. PMID:27651840

  16. Cyproheptadine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cyproheptadine is in a class of medications called antihistamines. It works by blocking the action of histamine, ... pharmacist if you are allergic to cyproheptadine, other antihistamines, or any other medications.tell your doctor and ...

  17. Snoring

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pills can cause that. Perhaps some of the antihistamines that we prescribe can cause that but a bigger culprit might be the over-the-counter antihistamines. And people can be fooled. Things like Tylenol ...

  18. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antihistamines are medicines that work well for treating allergy symptoms. They are often used when symptoms do ... pill, capsule, or liquid without a prescription. Older antihistamines can cause sleepiness. They may affect a child's ...

  19. Hydroxyzine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hydroxyzine is in a class of medications called antihistamines. It works by blocking the action of histamine ... Be sure to mention any of the following: antihistamines; azithromycin (Zithromax, ZMax), certain antidepressants such as citalopram ( ...

  20. Atopic dermatitis - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... light gloves if nighttime scratching is a problem. Antihistamines taken by mouth may help with itching if ... you can buy them over-the-counter. Some antihistamines can cause sleepiness. But they may help with ...

  1. Drug: D07482 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tion [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R06 ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06A ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06AX Other antihista...mines for systemic use R06AX09 Azatadine D07482 Azatadine (INN) Target-based classi

  2. Drug: D07493 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TORY SYSTEM R06 ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06A ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06AX Other antihista...mines for systemic use R06AX01 Bamipine D07493 Bamipine lactate Target-based classi

  3. Drug: D07458 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YSTEMIC USE R06AX Other antihistamines for systemic use R06AX05 Antazoline D07458...ids R01AC04 Antazoline D07458 Antazoline (INN) R06 ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06A ANTIHISTAMINES FOR S

  4. Drug: D07900 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tion [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R06 ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06A ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06AX Other antihista...mines for systemic use R06AX24 Epinastine D07900 Epinastine (INN) S SENSORY ORGANS

  5. 四种抗变态反应药物的卫生技术评估的研究方案%Four non-sedating antihistamines for allergic diseases: health technology assessment (protocol)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鑫; 曹立亚; 陈心足; 兰奋; 李夏; 肖爱丽; 马涛; 李幼平

    2003-01-01

    Background In the latter of 20th century, a global growth in allergic diseases has been witnessed, accompanyingwith spring- out of therapeutic drugs. However, trials did not clarify the comparative effectiveness and pharmaceutical eco-nomics of these agents. Severe adverse drug effects have been reported increasingly in the last few years. These made it diffi-cult for clinical practice and selection of national essential drugs. Objective To assess astemizole, loratadine, cetirizine and tefe-nadine for allergic rhinitis (AR) and urticaria in terms of effectiveness, heart-related drug adverse effects and pharmaceuticaleconomics. Search strategy Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and Chinese Biomedical Database will be searched. Addition-al database should be searched for safety and economic studies. Selection Criteria The publication languages are restrained toEnglish and Chinese. 1) Effectiveness: high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic Reviews (SRs)/meta-analysis for AR and uritcaria are included, with comparisons restrained to among these four drugs; 2) Safety: a hierar-chy of evidences of these four drugs for allergic diseases are included. 3) Economical evaluation: cost-effectiveness and cost-utility assessment of these four drugs for AR and urticaria should be included. Methods of review data extraction sheet andquality appraisal table are separately designed. QUOROM STATEMENT and Jadad Scale are applied, respectively, to SRsand RCTs. Two reviewers independently select the studies, appraise the quality and extract the data. Any disagreement issolved by discussion. Data analysis Fixed effect model is first applied. Sensitivity analysis is employed to study the heterogene-ity between trials. Randomized effect model is alternatively used when compromised.%背景过敏性疾病自20世纪后叶迅速增加,其治疗药物随之上市.但大量临床研究并未明确药物治疗效果和经济学特性好坏,药物严重不良反应的出现给临床用药和国家基本药物遴选带来困难.目的运用卫生技术评估方法,评价阿司咪唑、氯雷他丁、西替利嗪和特非那定治疗过敏性鼻炎、荨麻疹的有效性,心脏不良反应和经济学特性.检索策略数据库包括Cochrane图书馆、Medline、Embase和中文生物医学数据库,安全性和经济学另检索相关数据库.选择标准中文或英文研究.1)有效性:四种抗变态反应药物中的两种或以上用于过敏性鼻炎和荨麻疹的系统评价/meta-分析和高质量随机对照试验;2)安全性:四种抗变态反应药物用于各种变态反应性疾病后出现心脏不良反应的各种级别的证据;3)经济学特性:四种抗变态反应药物中的两种或以上用于过敏性鼻炎、荨麻疹的成本-效果和成本效用的研究.评价方法设计质量评价和资料提取表.系统评价和随机对照试验分别使用QUOROMSTATEMENT和Jadad评价表评价研究质量.两名评价者独立选择文献、评价研究质量和提取原始资料,不同意见经讨论解决.数据分析Revman 4.1使用固定效应模型分析原始数据,敏感性分析解决研究间异质性,若仍有异质性使用随机效应模型.

  6. Analysis of Antihistamines Used in Dermatoiogist Department of Our Hospital from 2008 to 2010%2008年至2010年我院皮肤科抗组胺药物应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄辉

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究我院抗组胺药的应用状况和发展趋势.方法 采用金额排序和应用频度分析法对我院2008年至2010年度抗组胺药的使用情况进行统计分析.结果 用药金额及用药频度呈逐年上升趋势,以第二代抗组胺药应用广泛.结论 第二代抗组胺药在皮肤病治疗中起重要作用,氯雷他定和西替利嗪目前仍是我院治疗过敏性疾病的首选药物.

  7. ANALYZE THE STATUS OF APPLICATION OF ANTIHISTAMINE DRUGS IN A HOSPITAL FROM 2009 TO 2012%某院2009~2012年抗组胺类药物使用情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玉屏

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价分析某院抗组胺类药物的应用状况和发展趋势.方法 采用金额排序和使用频度分析法对近三年来某院抗组胺类药物的使用情况进行统计分析.结果 地氯雷他定片、氯苯那敏片、氯雷他定片、赛庚定片的用药频率一直处于该类药物前四位.结论 目前价格适中的第三代抗组胺药应用广泛且适宜性好.

  8. Analysis of the use antihistamine agents in 81 hospitals of Shanghai during the period 2006~2008%2006~2008年上海市81家医院抗组胺药应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    归成

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解上海市医院抗组胺药的应用情况和发展趋势.方法 调查上海市81家样本医院2006~2008年抗组胺药应用主要品种金额、用量、DDDs以及新品种临床应用的评价.结果抗组胺药最常用品种是西替嗪和氯雷他定.新品种的上市逐渐打破二药的垄断,呈现群雄逐鹿局面.结论:应加强对抗组胺药的开发和合理应用.

  9. Observation of Therapeutic Effect of Antihistamines Combining with TF in Treating Chronic Urticaria%抗组胺药联合转移因子治疗慢性荨麻疹疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 李西萍

    2004-01-01

    目的观察抗组胺药联合转移因子治疗慢性荨麻疹的疗效.方法分别采用组胺H1和H2受体拮抗剂、转移因子及三者联合治疗.结果抗组胺药组与转移因子组疗效相近(P>0.05),联合治疗组疗效与其它两组相比,疗效有极其显著性差异(P<0.01).结论联合治疗组治疗慢性荨麻疹疗效显著.

  10. 28-case Report of the Effects of Antihistamine on the Male Sexual Function%抗组胺药对28例男性性功能影响的报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦宗正; 张东华; 周忠福

    1999-01-01

    目的:为了观察抗组胺药对男性性功能的影响.方法:首先制定表格,统一性功能障碍的诊断标准和观察项目.结果:通过1~6个月的观察记录,共有28例服用6种抗组胺药后出现不同程度性功能障碍.结论:服用抗组胺药引起男性性功能障碍现象是存在的,应当引起足够的重视.

  11. Analysis of the Use of Antihistamine Agents in Hospitals of Shanghai During the 1999~ 2001 Period%1999年~2001年上海市医院抗组胺药应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    归成; 徐红冰; 席宇飞

    2002-01-01

    目的:分析上海市医院抗组胺药的应用情况,供生产、营销、应用等部门参考.方法:调查上海市47家医院1999年~2001年抗组胺药主要品种、用量、金额、DDDs以及临床的评价和不良反应.结果与结论:抗组胺药品种变化不大,用量2001年有所下降,目前最常用的为西替利嗪、氯雷他定和酮替芬等.报道的心脏毒性发生率虽然极低,亦应警惕.

  12. Analysis on Use of Antihistamine Agents in Our Hospital from 2005 to 2007%我院2005-2007年抗组胺药用药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏智中; 陈加容

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解抗组胺药应用情况和发展趋势.方法 调查医院2005-2007年抗组胺药使用品种、年销售量,采用金额排序及用药频度和日均费用进行统计.结果 第1代抗组胺药的临床应用呈下降趋势,第2代抗组胺药则稳步上升.结论 毒副作用小、服用方便、经济高效的抗组胺药是医生和患者的首选.

  13. 抗组胺新药枸地氯雷他定研究综述%A Review of the Research on Desloratadine Citrate Disodium, a New Antihistamine Drug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘为中; 何广卫; 崔进

    2014-01-01

    枸地氯雷他定是一种可以口服的抗组胺新药,系列的药理、药效、毒理、药代动力学和临床研究证明了枸地氯雷他定缓解慢性特发性荨麻疹及常年性过敏性鼻炎的全身及局部症状的安全和有效性.

  14. 抗组胺药敏感性的细胞色素P450研究进展%Study advances of cytochome P450 sensitive to antihistamine drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅民; 王乃平

    2005-01-01

    HP450具有细胞色素P450特征和抗组胺药敏感的双重性,它在不同的大鼠肝脏疾病模型中有明显的变化规律,与肝脏疾病的发展具有一定的相关性,在肝癌发生过程中HP450基因的转录及表达均发生了变化.HP450有可能作为诊断肝癌的新指标,在预防和治疗肝癌中可能作为一个新靶点.

  15. 长江流域146家医院抗组胺药用药情况分析%Investigation and Analysis of the Antihistamine Drugs in 146 Hospitals of Drainage Area of the Yangtse River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建平; 金大源; 田小宁

    2004-01-01

    目的:分析抗组胺药用药现状和趋势.方法:调查了6城市146家医院2000~2002年抗组胺药的使用金额,分析其临床用药情况.结果:抗组胺药的用药金额2000,2001,2002年分别为人民币4 171.43万,4 382.91万,3908.67万元,2001年较2000年增长4.83%,2002年较2001年减少12.13%.结论:西替利嗪和氯雷他定是首选抗组胺药,此类药物有心脏毒性作用,发生率虽低,但应予以警惕.

  16. Do OTC remedies relieve cough in acute URIs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dealleaume, Lauren; Tweed, Beth; Neher, Jon O

    2009-10-01

    Dextromethorphan (DM) for adults and honey for children provide some relief. DM may modestly decrease cough in adults compared with placebo. The data supporting zinc for the common cold are mixed. Antihistamines, antihistamine-decongestant combinations, and guaifenesin do not provide greater relief than placebo in adults. In children, antihistamines, decongestants, DM, or combinations of them do not relieve cough better than placebo. Honey may modestly decrease frequency and severity of cough compared with DM or no treatment. PMID:19874728

  17. Histamine H1 antagonists and clinical characteristics of febrile seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolaly MA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed A ZolalyDepartment of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine whether seizure susceptibility due to antihistamines is provoked in patients with febrile seizures.Methods: The current descriptive study was carried out from April 2009 to February 2011 in 250 infants and children who visited the Madinah Maternity and Children's Hospital as a result of febrile convulsions. They were divided into two groups according to administration of antihistamines at the onset of fever.Results: Detailed clinical manifestations were compared between patients with and without administration of antihistamines. The time from fever detection to seizure onset was significantly shorter in the antihistamine group than that in the nonantihistamine group, and the duration of seizures was significantly longer in the antihistamine group than in the nonantihistamine group. No significant difference was found in time from fever detection to seizure onset or seizure duration between patients who received a first-generation antihistamine and those who received a second-generation antihistamine.Conclusion: Due to their central nervous system effects, H1 antagonists should not be administered to patients with febrile seizures and epilepsy. Caution should be exercised regarding the use of histamine H1 antagonists in young infants, because these drugs could potentially disturb the anticonvulsive central histaminergic system.Keywords: antihistamine, nonantihistamine, histamine H1 antagonist, febrile seizures

  18. Drug: D08353 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available stamines for systemic use R06AX04 Phenindamine D08353 Phenindamine (INN) Target-bas...ication [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R06 ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06A ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06AX Other antihi

  19. Drug: D08161 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available histamines for systemic use R06AX15 Mebhydrolin D08161 M...ification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R06 ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06A ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06AX Other anti

  20. Safety,therapeutic effect and correlative issues of using Antihistamine drug in pregnant,lactational and infant patients%妊娠、哺乳期及婴幼儿患者抗组胺药物应用的安全性、疗效及相关问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏杰; 郭在培

    2009-01-01

    抗组胺药物广泛应用于各种变应性疾病、瘙痒性皮肤病的治疗及预防,其疗效肯定,耐受性好.文中就近10年来妊娠、哺乳期及婴幼儿患者抗组胺药物应用的安全性、疗效及相关问题进行了综述.

  1. Analysis of the Use of Antihistamine Agents in 18 Hospitals of Hangzhou During the Period 2000~2002%2000年~2002年杭州地区18家医院抗组胺药物利用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建平; 金大源; 田小宁

    2004-01-01

    目的:了解杭州地区抗组胺药用药现状和趋势.方法:调查杭州地区18家医院2000年~2002年抗组胺药的用药金额、生产厂家等信息,并进行回顾性分析.结果:抗组胺药的用药金额2001年较2000年增长17.89%,2002年较2001年下降4.58%;西替利嗪和氯雷他定是抗组胺药的首选;合资、进口药品占70%以上市场分额.结论:抗组胺药品种变化不大,用量呈下降趋势.

  2. Neuropatía hemorrágica tóxica aguda y fallo multiorgánico tras intoxicación por anticoagulantes, disolventes, AINES y antihistamínicos: A propósito de un caso fatal Acute toxic haemorrhagic neuropathy and multiorganic failure following poisoning by anticoagulants, solvents, nsaids and antihistaminic drugs: Report of a fatal case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garfia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de intoxicación mortal por ingestión del raticida Brodifacum, un anticoagulante superwarfarínico, junto con otros fármacos, entre los que se incluían antiinflamatorios no esteroideos y un disolvente orgánico de uso doméstico. El sujeto falleció en la UCI, con un cuadro de insuficiencia respiratoria aguda, seguida de fallo hepático y renal. En la autopsia se pusieron de manifiesto lesiones hemorrágicas circunferenciales que afectaban a diversos tejidos, entre los que se encontraban la grasa mesentérica, el epicardio, y la grasa perirrenal. El estudio microscópico demostró la existencia de una típica lesión hemorrágica aguda, circunferencial, en los nervios vegetativos epicárdicos y del área del esplácnico. La explicación de porqué los nervios periféricos vegetativos se constituyen en diana de los efectos tóxicos se atribuye a la acción combinada de los disolventes y de los anticoagulantes, sobre el sistema nervioso periférico. Se sabe que los disolventes orgánicos producen una lesión neuronal aguda, consistente en tumefacción axonal y del soma neuronal, que conlleva a la alteración del sistema de transporte a lo largo del axón. Creemos que -desde el punto de vista fisiopatológico- la vasodilatación reactiva de los vasa nervorum, producida a consecuencia de la lesión neuronal aguda inducida por los disolventes, unida al estado de hipocoagulabilidad sanguínea -dependiente de la ingestión de Brodifacum (superwarfarina y potenciada por los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos- constituyen los mecanismos íntimos que podrían explicar esta peculiar Neuropatía Hemorrágica Aguda Tóxica de los nervios periféricos del Sistema Nervioso Neurovegetativo. Desconocemos si los nervios periféricos mixtos se encontraban afectados por esta lesión, al carecer de muestras para un estudio definitivo.In this paper we describe a case of mortal poisoning by ingestion of the rodenticide Brodifacoum, a superwarfarin anticoagulant, together with other drugs, among which were non steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and a domestic organic solvent. The individual died in the Intensive Care Unit, with acute respiratory insufficiency, followed by hepatic and renal failure. At autopsy round haemorrhagic lesions were seen, which affected several tissues, among which were mesenteric fat, the epicardium, and the peri-renal fat. Microscopic study revealed the existence of a typical acute haemorrhagic lesion, located around the epicardial vegetative nerves and those found in the splanchnic beds. The reason why the peripheral vegetative nerves constitute the target of the toxic effects is attributed to the combined action of the solvents together with the superwarfarin drug, on the Peripheral Nervous System. It is known that organic solvents produce an acute neuronal lesion, consisting in tumefaction of the axon and the neuronal soma, which leads to the alteration of the system of transport (neurotubules along the axon. We believe that - from a physiological point of view - the reactive vascular congestion of the vasa-nervorum, produced as a consequence of the acute neuronal lesion induced by the solvents, together with the state of hipocoagulability of the blood - due to the ingestion of the superwarfarin (Brodifacoum and potentiated by the the anticoagulant action of the non steroid anti-inflammatory drugs - make up the intimate mechanisms which could explain this characteristic Acute Toxic Haemorrhagic Neuropathy of the peripheral nerves of the Neurovegetative Nervous System. We do not know if the mixed peripheral nerves were affected by this lesion, due to absence of samples for a more definitive study.

  3. Drug: D08432 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08432 Drug Promethazine maleate; Romergan (TN) C17H20N2S. C4H4O4 400.1457 400.4913...L. ANTIHISTAMINES, ANESTHETICS, ETC. D04AA Antihistamines for topical use D04AA10 Promethazine D08432 Promet... R06AD Phenothiazine derivatives R06AD02 Promethazine D08432 Promethazine maleate... USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antiemetics Antiemetics, Other Promethazine D08432 Promethazine maleat...e Respiratory Tract/Pulmonary Agents Antihistamines Promethazine D08432 Promethazine maleate Target-based cl

  4. OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you.Your doctor may use an anesthetic cream, or a cold pack, to numb your skin, ... as warfarin (Coumadin); antihistamines; aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and ...

  5. Dextromethorphan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dextromethorphan comes alone and in combination with antihistamines, cough suppressants, and decongestants. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for advice on which product is best for your symptoms. Check nonprescription cough and cold product labels carefully before using 2 ...

  6. A heteroaromatic acid from marine sponge Suberites vestigium

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mishra, P.D.; Wahidullah, S.; Kamat, S.Y.

    The 4-Methyl- pyrazole-3(5)-carboxylic acid has been isolated from the buttanol fraction of marine sponge, Sunerites vestigium for the first time. The methanol extract of the sponge exhibits in vitro antihistaminic activity. Pyrazole derivatives...

  7. Eosinophilic Disorders Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... irritated or infected with bowel movements, therefore good hygiene habits are necessary. Anemia Anemia refers to low ... motion sickness or chemotherapy drugs, and helping with sleep problems. Non-sedating antihistamines are relatively new and ...

  8. Eszopiclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of medications called hypnotics. It works by slowing activity in the brain to allow sleep. ... to mention any of the following: antidepressants; certain antifungals such as itraconazole (Sporanox) and ketoconazole (Nizoral); antihistamines; ...

  9. Children and IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and caffeinated beverages such as sodas (Mountain Dew, Coca-Cola, Pepsi Cola, and Orange Crush, for example), Kool- ... IC Treatment Guideline IC Treatments IC Diet & Self Management Physical Therapy Antidepressants Antihistamines Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium Bladder ...

  10. Aspirin to Zoloft: Ways Medicines Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Aspirin to Zoloft: Ways Medicines Work By Emily Carlson ... biology of how cancer cells grow. Antihistamines, Antidepressants, Aspirin Adrenergic receptor with carazolol, a beta-blocker. View ...

  11. Weekly injection of histaglobulin produces long-term remission in chronic urticaria: A prospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurumoorthy Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Histaglobulin was found to be effective in producing long-term remission and it reduced the antihistamine requirement as well. Thus, it can serve as an effective alternative to existing treatment modalities.

  12. Comparative evaluation of H1 receptor blocking activity and safety of newer H1antagonist mizolastine with loratadine and placebo: a randomized double blind three way crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Swarnalatha

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Mizolastine has good antihistaminic activity than loratadine. Neither drug causes any psychomotor impairment or has anti-cholinergic action. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 661-675

  13. Snoring

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... obstruction of our breathing. It always occurs when we're sleeping and it's caused by a variety ... cause that. Perhaps some of the antihistamines that we prescribe can cause that but a bigger culprit ...

  14. Allergic rhinitis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    During pregnancy, the first-choice drugs for allergic rhinitis are nasal or oral "non-sedating" antihistamines without antimuscarinic activity, in particular cetirizine, or loratadine after the first trimester. PMID:27186624

  15. Iatrogenic nocturnal eneuresis- an overlooked side effect of anti histamines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Italiano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal enuresis is a common disorder in childhood, but its pathophysiological mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Iatrogenic nocturnal enuresis has been described following treatment with several psychotropic medications. Herein, we describe a 6-year-old child who experienced nocturnal enuresis during treatment with the antihistamine cetirizine. Drug rechallenge was positive. Several neurotransmitters are implicated in the pathogenesis of nocturnal enuresis, including noradrenaline, serotonin and dopamine. Antihistamine treatment may provoke functional imbalance of these pathways resulting in incontinence.

  16. Acute dystonia in a young schizophrenic patient associated with ingestion of a cloperastine containing cough syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linazasoro, G; Garmendia, M T; Lizaso, X

    2000-01-01

    Acute dystonic reactions are usually observed after exposure to drugs with antidopaminergic actions. We report on one patient with acute dystonia associated with ingestion of a cloperastine containing syrup, who suffered from schizophrenia but had been neuroleptic-free for 6months. Cloperastine has antihistaminic properties. We suggest that antihistaminic agents may induce acute dystonia by altering the balance between dopamine and acetylcholine in the striatum. PMID:18591150

  17. Anafylaksi efter bi- eller hvepsestik i Region Syddanmark i perioden 2008-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza, Athamaica Ruiz; Mikkelsen, Søren; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    intramuskulær adrenalin (64 % ifølge Sampson’s skala og 76 % ifølge Muraro’s). Af de 38 patienter der blev set i Odense fik 66 % intravenøs (IV) binyrebarkhormon, 63 % IV antihistamin og 5 % IV adrenalin (blandt dem med moderat til svær anafylaksi fik op til 77 % IV binyrebarkhormon og op til 82 % IV...... antihistamin). Blandt de 55 patienter i resten af Region Syddanmark fik 80 % IV binyrebarkhormon, 78 % IV antihistamin og 7 % IV adrenalin (blandt dem med moderat til svær anafylaksi fik op til 94 % IV binyrebarkhormon og op til 90 %, IV antihistamin). Af dem der fik IV adrenalin havde 2 ud af 2 tidligere fået...... intramuskulær adrenalin i Odense-området og 1 ud af 4 i resten af Region Syddanmark. Konklusion: Over 50 % af de reporterede tilfælde af allergi efter bi- og hvepsestik kunne gradueres som moderat til svær anafylaksi. Lang de fleste fik behandling med IV binyrebarkhormon og antihistamin, men kun omkring 50 % af...

  18. Drug: D00234 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00234 Drug Astemizole (JAN/USP/INN); Hismanal (TN) C28H31FN4O 458.2482 458.5703 D0...mizole D00234 Astemizole (JAN/USP/INN) Target-based clas...sification of drugs [BR:br08310] G Protein-coupled receptors Rhodopsin family Histamine H1-receptor [HSA:3269] [KO:K04149] Astemizole... [ATC:R06AX11] D00234 Astemizole (JAN/USP/INN) CAS: 68844-77-9 PubChem: 7847301 Dru...TEM R06 ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06A ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06AX Other antihistamines for systemic use R06AX11 Aste

  19. Experimentally induced nasal hypersecretion does not reduce the efficacy of intranasal levocabastine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Stefan; Nielsen, K; Bisgaard, H;

    1998-01-01

    In allergic rhinitis, a nasal H1-antihistamine spray seems to be well suited for usage on an as-needed basis, because it has a quick onset of action, and many patients prefer to take medicine only when they have symptoms. It is a prerequisite, however, that nasal hypersecretion during a rhinitis......% (p < 0.0001) and the secretion weight with 62% (p < 0.001) compared with placebo. Neither methacholine-induced hypersecretion nor washing the nose with saline reduced the efficacy of the antihistamine spray. We conclude that experimentally induced nasal hypersecretion does not reduce the efficacy of...... the antihistamine spray, and probably the same applies to rhinorrhea during an acute episode of allergic rhinitis....

  20. Critical appraisal of bepotastine in the treatment of ocular itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy B Wingard

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Jeremy B Wingard, Francis S MahUPMC Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Bepotastine besilate 1.5% solution is an H1-antihistamine recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the topical treatment of ocular itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis. Several clinical studies have demonstrated its safety as well as its efficacy versus placebo. This review finds that bepotastine besilate 1.5% solution is a suitable alternative to other agents within the class of H1-antihistamines, but there are no clinical trial data to suggest that it holds any specific advantages over other agents.Keywords: allergic conjunctivitis, antihistamine, ocular itching

  1. Histamine H1 receptor induces cytosolic calcium increase and aquaporin translocation in human salivary gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Park, Seong-Hae; Moon, Young Wha; Hwang, Sungmin; Kim, Donghoon; Jo, Su-Hyun; Oh, Seog Bae; Kim, Joong Soo; Jahng, Jeong Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Sung Joong; Choi, Se-Young; Park, Kyungpyo

    2009-08-01

    One of the common side effects of antihistamine medicines is xerostomia (dry mouth). The current consensus is that antihistamine-induced xerostomia comes from an antimuscarinic effect. Although the effect of antihistamines on salivary secretion is both obvious and significant, the cellular mechanism whereby this happens is still unclear because of the lack of knowledge of histamine signaling in human salivary glands. Here, we have studied histamine receptors and the effect of antihistamines on human submandibular acinar cells. In primary cultured human submandibular gland and a HSG cell line, histamine increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. The histamine-induced cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) increase was inhibited by histamine H1 receptor-specific antagonists, and the expression of the functional histamine H1 receptor was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Interestingly, histamine pretreatment did not inhibit a subsequent carbachol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise without "heterologous desensitization." Chlorpheniramine inhibited a carbachol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase at a 100-fold greater concentration than histamine receptor antagonism, whereas astemizole and cetrizine showed more than 1000-fold difference, which in part explains the xerostomia-inducing potency among the antihistamines. Notably, histamine resulted in translocation of aquaporin-5 to the plasma membrane in human submandibular gland cells and green fluorescent protein-tagged aquaporin-5 expressing HSG cells. We found that histidine decarboxylase and the histamine H1 receptor are broadly distributed in submandibular gland cells, whereas choline acetyltransferase is localized only at the parasympathetic terminals. Our results suggest that human salivary gland cells express histamine H1 receptors and histamine-synthesizing enzymes, revealing the cellular mechanism of antihistamine-induced xerostomia. PMID:19443731

  2. [Treatment of eye allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Osmo; Saari, K Matti

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal atopic conjunctivitis is treated with antihistamines, cromoglycate and short courses of corticosteroids, in severe cases with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy. Chronic conjunctivitis requires year-round treatment with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines or topical corticosteroids. Long-term treatment of atopic blepharoconjunctivitis consists of tacrolimus or pimecrolimus cream. For atopic keratoconjunctivitis corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops are needed. First-line therapy of vernal conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers and, if necessary, corticosteroid eye drops. Treatment of non-allergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers, corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops. PMID:22428383

  3. Drug: D08497 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08497 Drug Rupatadine fumarate; Rinialer (TN) C26H26ClN3. C4H4O4 531.1925 532.0299...SYSTEMIC USE R06A ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06AX Other antihistamines for systemic use R06AX28 Rupatadine D08497 Ru...patadine fumarate Target-based classification of drugs [BR:br08310] G Protein-coupled receptor...s Rhodopsin family Histamine H1-receptor [HSA:3269] [KO:K04149] Rupatadine [ATC:R06AX28] D08497 Ru

  4. Drug: D07406 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07406 Drug Pimethixene (INN); Calmixene (TN) C19H19NS 293.1238 293.4259 D07406.gif...NES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06A ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06AX Other antihistamines for systemic use R06AX23 Pimethixene D07406...tor [HSA:1128 1129 1131 1132 1133] [KO:K04129 K04130 K04131 K04132 K04133] Pimethixene [ATC:R06AX23] D07406 ...Pimethixene (INN) CAS: 314-03-4 PubChem: 51091742 LigandBox: D07406 NIKKAJI: J11.609B ATOM 21 1 C8x C 15.750

  5. Drug: D07662 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07662 Drug Cetirizine (INN); Cetiderm (TN) C21H25ClN2O3 388.1554 388.8878 D07662.g...FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06A ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06AE Piperazine derivatives R06AE07 Cetirizine D07662 Cetirizine...y Agents Antihistamines Cetirizine D07662 Cetirizine (INN) Target-based classification of drugs [BR:br08310]... G Protein-coupled receptors Rhodopsin family Histamine H1-receptor [HSA:3269] [KO:K04149] Cetirizine [ATC:R06AE07] D07662 Cetirizine... (INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Respiratory Tract/Pulmonar

  6. Position statement for the use of omalizumab in the management of chronic spontaneous urticaria in Indian patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran Godse; Murlidhar Rajagopalan; Mukesh Girdhar; Sanjiv Kandhari; Bela Shah; Chhajed, Prashant N.; Sushil Tahiliani; D S Krupa Shankar; Vijay Somani; Vijay Zawar

    2016-01-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) affects 1% of the world population and also their quality of life, and 50% of these patients are refractory to H1-antihistamines. Omalizumab is a humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody that binds with free IgE antibodies and reduces the circulating levels of free IgE. This reduction in free IgE prevents mast-cell degranulation. The EAACI/GA2LEN/EDF/WAO guidelines recommend omalizumab as the third-line of therapy as an add-on to antihistamines. The recommend...

  7. Drug: D01768 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oxil (TN) C17H28N2O3. HCl 344.1867 344.8768 D01768.gif Anesthetic [topical] Therapeutic category: 1313 ATC c...ANTIHISTAMINES, ANESTHETICS, ETC. D04AB Anesthetics for topical use D04AB03 Oxybuprocaine D01768 Oxybuprocai

  8. Drug: D00739 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) C17H27NO3. HCl 329.1758 329.8621 D00739.gif Anesthetic [topical] ATC code: C05AD07 D04AB07 Anatomical Ther...HISTAMINES, ANESTHETICS, ETC. D04A ANTIPRURITICS, INCL. ANTIHISTAMINES, ANESTHETICS, ETC. D04AB Anesthetics for topic

  9. THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF SOME COSMETIC PROCEDURES: PROTECTION POSSIBILITIES, MEDICAL AND PREVENTIVE AGENTS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Majorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the possible side responses on cosmetic procedures. There is a review of pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical agents for external use to treat and prevent the complications. We have described the reasonability of the external dosage forms use of anti-histaminic action.

  10. Adverse Reaction to Omalizumab in Patients with Chronic Urticaria: Flare Up or Ineffectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertaş, Ragıp; Özyurt, Kemal; Yıldız, Sinem; Ulaş, Yılmaz; Turasan, Abdullah; Avcı, Atıl

    2016-02-01

    Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized anti-Ig E monoclonal antibody used as the third line treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). We report four patients with severe antihistamine-resistant CSU, who developed angioedema, anaphylaxis and/or flare up of urticaria at different times following omalizumab therapy. PMID:26996116

  11. OTC Cough and Cold Products: Not for Infants and Children Under 2 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The terms on the label include "nasal decongestants", "cough suppressants", "expectorants" and "antihistamines." Q. How did FDA arrive at its decision to issue these recommendations? A. FDA’s ... determined that OTC cough and cold medicines, which treat symptoms and not ...

  12. 21 CFR 341.70 - Labeling of OTC drug products containing ingredients that are used for treating concurrent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .../cough suppressant” or “antihistamine/antitussive (cough suppressant).” The indications shall be combined... name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as a “cough suppressant/oral anesthetic” or “antitussive (cough suppressant)/oral anesthetic.” The indications shall be combined from § 341.74(b) and...

  13. Drug: D02249 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C4H4O4)2 534.2326 534.5589 D02249.gif Antihistaminic, H1-receptor; Asthma prophylactic; Anti-allergic Therap...RGANS S01 OPHTHALMOLOGICALS S01G DECONGESTANTS AND ANTIALLERGICS S01GX Other antiallergics S01GX06 Emedastin

  14. Drug: D01801 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l 322.156 322.833 D01801.gif Antiallergic; Histamine, H1-receptor antagonist; Antihistaminic ATC code: D04AA...RATIONS FOR TOPICAL USE R01AC Antiallergic agents, excl. corticosteroids R01AC06 Thonzylamine D01801 Thonzyl

  15. Steroids vs immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, Kristian; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Treatment for seasonal allergic rhinitis induced by airborne allergens can be divided into two major groups: symptom-dampening drugs, such as antihistamines and corticosteroids, and disease-modifying drugs in the form of immunotherapy. It has been speculated that depot-injection corticosteroids g...

  16. Synthesis of carbon-14 labeled doxylamine succinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doxylamine succinate, N,N-dimethyl-2-[1-phenyl-1-(2-pyridinyl)-ethoxy]ethanamine succinate is an antihistamine used primarily as a sedative. Carbon-14 labeled doxylamine succinate, required for toxicological studies, was synthesized in two steps starting from 2-benzoyl pyridine. (author)

  17. Hyperemesis gravidarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schouenborg, L O; Honnens de Lichtenberg, M; Djursing, H;

    1992-01-01

    of the pregnancy usually runs a normal course. All of the forms of treatment are dominated by the tendency to spontaneous remission and great placebo effect. Antihistamines, antiemetics, ginger, change of environment, hypnotherapy and psychotherapy appear to be the best forms of treatment....

  18. Cardiac arrest in a young woman with the long QT syndrome and concomitant astemizole ingestion.

    OpenAIRE

    Broadhurst, P; Nathan, A. W.

    1993-01-01

    Ventricular fibrillation developed in a 19 year old woman taking the antihistamine astemizole. She was successfully resuscitated. QTc prolongation was found and persisted despite withdrawal of the drug. Aggravation of congenital long QTc syndrome by astemizole is postulated. More caution should be exercised with the use of this drug.

  19. ASSURE-CSU : a real-world study of burden of disease in patients with symptomatic chronic spontaneous urticaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weller, Karsten; Maurer, Marcus; Grattan, Clive; Nakonechna, Alla; Abuzakouk, Mohamed; Bérard, Frédéric; Sussman, Gordon; Giménez-Arnau, Ana M; Ortiz de Frutos, Javier; Knulst, André; Canonica, G Walter; Hollis, Kelly; McBride, Doreen; Balp, Maria-Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) formerly known as chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is a severe and distressing skin condition that remains uncontrolled in approximately one half of patients, despite the use of licensed, recommended doses of modern, second-generation H1-antihistamin

  20. A case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with piperazine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Yeong; Jo, Eun-Jung; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, Sae-Hoon

    2013-10-01

    Fixed drug eruption is an uncommon adverse drug reaction caused by delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Levocetirizine is an active (R)-enatiomer of cetirizine and there have been a few reports of fixed drug eruption related to these antihistamines. We experienced a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with other piperazine derivatives confirmed by patch test. A 73-year-old female patient presented with recurrent generalized itching, cutaneous bullae formation, rash and multiple pigmentation at fixed sites after taking drugs for common cold. She took bepotastine besilate (Talion®) and levocetirizine (Xyzal®) as antihistamine. She took acetaminophen, pseudoephedrine 60 mg / triprolidine 2.5 mg (Actifed®), dihydrocodeinebitartrate 5 mg / di-methylephedrine hydrochloride 17.5 mg / chlorpheniramine maleate 1.5 mg / guaifenesin 50 mg (Codening®) and aluminium hydroxide 200 mg / magnesium carbonate 120 mg (Antad®) at the same time. Patch test was done with suspected drugs and the result was positive with levocetirizine. We additionally performed patch test for other antihistamines such as cetirizine, hydroxyzine, fexofenadine and loratadine. Piperazine derivatives (cetirizine and hydroxyzine) were positive, but piperidine derivatives (fexofenadine and loratadine) were negative to patch test. There was no adverse drug reaction when she was challenged with fexofenadine. We report a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption confirmed by patch test. Cross-reactions were only observed in the piperazine derivatives and piperidine antihistamine was tolerant to the patient. PMID:24260733

  1. Allergisk reaktion i forbindelse med anæstesi kræver grundig postoperativ udredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Louise; Garvey, Lene Heise; Krøigaard, Mogens;

    2012-01-01

    allergy to fentanyl investigated at the Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre. Allergy to this drug could not be demonstrated by skin tests or challenge. The reaction was due to unspecific histamine release induced by several opioids given at the same time. Future pretreatment with antihistamine...

  2. Centipede Envenomation: Bringing the Pain to Hawai‘i and Pacific Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Fenderson, Joshua L

    2014-01-01

    Scolopendra subspinipes is the only clinically significant centipede found in Hawai‘i. Envenomation typically leads to extreme localized pain, erythema, induration, and tissue necrosis and possible lymphedema or lymphangitis. Mortality is uncommon and results from secondary infection or anaphylaxis. Management is supportive and includes wound care, pain control, and treatment with topical or oral antihistamines and anti-inflammatory medications.

  3. Drug: D08769 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08769 Mixture, Drug Diphenhydramine hydrochloride - calcium bromide mixt; Rescalmi...n (TN) Diphenhydramine hydrochloride [DR:D00669], Calcium bromide [DR:D01723] Therapeutic category: 4419 The... Antihistamines 4419 Others D08769 Diphenhydramine hydrochloride - calcium bromide mixt PubChem: 96025452 ...

  4. Recurrent facial urticaria following herpes simplex labialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Zawar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe recurrent acute right-sided facial urticaria associated with herpes labialis infection in a middle-aged female patient. Antiviral medications and antihistamines not only successfully cleared the herpes infection and urticaria but also prevented further recurrences.

  5. Solar urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old female and a 41-year-old male presented with clinical features suggestive of solar urticaria. The diagnosis of solar urticaria and the effectiveness of a combination of H1 and H2 blocking antihistamines were confirmed by phototesting with a solar simulator

  6. Cold urticaria patients exhibit normal skin levels of functional mast cells and histamine after tolerance induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring Tannert, Line; Stahl Skov, Per; Bjerremann Jensen, Louise;

    2012-01-01

    Cold urticaria is a skin condition characterized by rapid appearance of itchy wheals and occasionally angioedema in response to cold stimulation. Antihistamines do not sufficiently protect all patients from symptoms, even when used in higher than standard doses. In these patients, desensitization...

  7. Pankreatisk pannikulitis er nekrose af fedtceller i subcutis ledsaget af intense smerter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise Møller; Halkjær, Liselotte Brydensholt; Lauritsen, Anne Øberg

    2012-01-01

    We report an unusual history of pain in a young patient in the intensive care unit. A 33 year-old alcoholic male with acute pancreatitis had generalized intense pain and developed erythema on the lower truncus and the lower extremities. Treatment with different antibiotics, antihistamines and...

  8. Life-threatening systemic toxicity and airway compromise from a common European adder bite to the tongue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, L C G; Jessen, C L; Lambertsen, K;

    2009-01-01

    A 24-year-old man was bit on the tongue by a European common adder. Within 15 min following envenomation, he experienced tongue swelling, hypotension and impaired consciousness. Antihistamine, corticosteroid and crystalloids were administered. Within 105 min of envenomation, increasing oral...

  9. Aktinsk prurigo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockbridge, Eva Boné; Deleuran, Mette Søndergaard; Steiniche, Torben

    2008-01-01

    to the conclusion that the patient suffered from Actinic Prurigo. The disease was very severe and there was a lack of response to treatment with oral prednisolone, antihistamines and pentoxyfyllin. Therefore the patient was treated with Thalidomide 50 mg/25 mg daily (alternating). This resulted in the complete...

  10. Rational Choice of Antiemetic Agents during Cancer Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigden, Malcolm L.; Wilson, Kenneth S.; Barnett, Jeffrey B.

    1983-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are major limitations in cancer chemotherapy. Individual susceptibility to nausea varies enormously. There is no ideal antiemetic, but some work with some chemotherapeutic agents, and some are more effective in younger patients. This article describes a flexible, stepped approach using the phenothiazines, metoclopramide, cannabinoids, anticholinergics, antihistamines and others. PMID:21283402

  11. Snoring

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... people snore more than others? Dr. Jon Hallberg: Well, snoring can be a temporary thing. People can have an allergy. ... the over-the-counter antihistamines. And people can be fooled. Things like ... can you do? Dr. Jon Hallberg: Well, most people resort to a quick jab in ...

  12. Paediatric rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, G; Xatzipsalti, M; Borrego, L M;

    2013-01-01

    conditions such as adenoidal hypertrophy, septal deviation and nasal polyps. Examination by anterior rhinoscopy and allergy tests may help to substantiate a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. Avoidance of relevant allergens may be helpful for allergic rhinitis (AR). Oral and intranasal antihistamines and nasal...

  13. Suplatast tosilate alleviates nasal symptoms through the suppression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells-mediated IL-9 gene expression in toluene-2,4-diisocyanate-sensitized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Orimoto, Naoki; Kadota, Takuya; Kominami, Takahiro; Das, Asish K; Sawada, Akiho; Tamada, Misaki; Miyagi, Kohei; Adachi, Tsubasa; Matsumoto, Mayumi; Kosaka, Tomoya; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    Histamine H1 receptor (H1R) gene is upregulated in patients with pollinosis; its expression level is highly correlated with the nasal symptom severity. Antihistamines are widely used as allergy treatments because they inhibit histamine signaling by blocking H1R or suppressing H1R signaling as inverse agonists. However, long-term treatment with antihistamines does not completely resolve toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI)-induced nasal symptoms, although it can decrease H1R gene expression to the basal level, suggesting additional signaling is responsible for the pathogenesis of the allergic symptoms. Here, we show that treatment with suplatast tosilate in combination with antihistamines markedly alleviates nasal symptoms in TDI-sensitized rats. Suplatast suppressed TDI-induced upregulation of IL-9 gene expression. Suplatast also suppressed ionomycin/phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced upregulation of IL-2 gene expression in Jurkat cells, in which calcineurin (CN)/nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling is known to be involved. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that suplatast inhibited binding of NFAT to DNA. Furthermore, suplatast suppressed ionomycin-induced IL-9 mRNA upregulation in RBL-2H3 cells, in which CN/NFAT signaling is also involved. These data suggest that suplatast suppressed NFAT-mediated IL-9 gene expression in TDI-sensitized rats and this might be the underlying mechanism of the therapeutic effects of combined therapy of suplatast with antihistamine. PMID:26874672

  14. Drug: D01358 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 93 300.8257 D01358.gif Serotonin inhibitor; Antihistaminic Therapeutic category: 1179 ATC code: N06AX03 Tetracyclic antidepressant...peutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N06 PSYCHOANALEPTICS N06A ANTIDEPRESSANTS N06AX Other antidepressa...nts N06AX03 Mianserin D01358 Mianserin hydrochloride (JA

  15. Serum Clusterin as a Prognostic Marker of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hyung-Young; Ban, Ga-Young; Shin, Yoo-Seob; Park, Hae-Sim; Ye, Young-Min

    2016-05-01

    A substantial proportion of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) are refractory to antihistamines. However, identifying the subpopulation whose urticaria is not completely controlled by antihistamines remains difficult. The response of autologous serum skin test (ASST), a clinical test for the detection of basophil histamine-releasing activity upon autoantibodies or autoreactive stimulation, has been suggested as a potential predictor in the control of urticaria. We sought to identify proteins that were differentially expressed in the sera of patients with positive and negative ASST results and to investigate their association with urticaria control.Proteomics analysis was performed using sera from 3 CSU patients with positive ASST results compared with those showing negative ASST results. Seven upregulated and 5 downregulated proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in the ASST-positive group compared with the ASST-negative group.Proteins that were differentially expressed according to the ASST results in CSU patients were classified into 6 groups: apolipoproteins, glycoproteins, modified albumin, haptoglobulin, plectin, and others. Among these, apolipoprotein J or clusterin was validated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clusterin levels in 69 ASST-positive patients were significantly higher than those in 69 ASST-negative patients and in 86 healthy controls (231.2 ± 44.0 vs 210.2 ± 36.1 vs 118.7 ± 71.9 μg/mL, P antihistamine treatment within 3 months (231.0 ± 39.1 vs 205.1 ± 40.4 μg/mL, P antihistamines. Serum clusterin can be a prognostic marker to determine the responsiveness to antihistamine treatment in patients with CSU. PMID:27175709

  16. TNF-Alpha Inhibitors for Chronic Urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Freja Lærke; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2013-01-01

    Patients with severe chronic urticaria may not respond to antihistamines, and other systemic treatment options may either be ineffective or associated with unacceptable side effects. We present data on efficacy and safety of adalimumab and etanercept in 20 adult patients with chronic urticaria...... be effective and relatively safe treatment options in a significant proportion of patients with chronic urticaria who do not respond sufficiently to high-dose antihistamines or in whom standard immunosuppressive drugs are ineffective or associated with unacceptable side effects........ Twelve (60%) patients obtained complete or almost complete resolution of urticaria after onset of therapy with either adalimumab or etanercept. Further three patients (15%) experienced partial response. Duration of treatment ranged between 2 and 39 months. Those responding completely or almost completely...

  17. Lack of effects of astemizole on vestibular ocular reflex, motion sickness, and cognitive performance in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Randall L.; Homick, Jerry L.; Cintron, Nitza; Calkins, Dick S.

    1987-01-01

    Astemizole was orally administered to 20 subjects in a randomized, double-blind design to assess the efficacy of this peripherally active antihistamine as an antimotion sickness drug possessing no central side-effects. Measures of vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) were made to evaluate the agent as a selective vestibular depressant. Following one week of orally administered astemizole (30 mg daily), a Staircase Profile Test, a VOR test, and a variety of tests of cognitive performance were administered. These tests revealed no statistically significant effects of astemizole. This leads to the conclusion that, although the drug probably reaches the peripheral vestibular apparatus in man by crossing the blood-vestibular barrier, a selective peripheral antihistamine (H1) action is inadequate to control motion sickness induced through cross-coupled accelerative semicircular canal stimulation in a rotating chair.

  18. Structural determinants for histamine H(1) affinity, hERG affinity and QTc prolongation in a series of terfenadine analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanian, Robert; Piwinski, John J; Zhu, Xiaohong; Priestley, Tony; Sorota, Steve; Du, Xiao-Yi; Zhang, Xue-Song; McLeod, Robbie L; West, Robert E; Williams, Shirley M; Hey, John A

    2009-09-01

    In the late 1980's reports linking the non-sedating antihistamines terfenadine and astemizole with torsades de pointes, a form of ventricular tachyarrhythmia that can degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and sudden death, appeared in the clinical literature. A substantial body of evidence demonstrates that the arrhythmogenic effect of these cardiotoxic antihistamines, as well as a number of structurally related compounds, results from prolongation of the QT interval due to suppression of specific delayed rectifier ventricular K+ currents via blockade of the hERG-IKr channel. In order to better understand the structural requirements for hERG and H(1) binding for terfenadine, a series of analogs of terfenadine has been prepared and studied in both in vitro and in vivo hERG and H(1) assays. PMID:19660947

  19. A case of recurrent arrhythmia in an acute pancreatitis patient--pathophysiological explanation using shortage of 'repolarization reserve'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvelin, Arsen; Hajduković, Danica; Vrsajkov, Vladimir; Kolak, Radmila; Lazukić, Aleksandra; Vicković, Sanja; Gojković, Zoran

    2013-12-01

    We report a case of a patient with acute pancreatitis who developed serious heart rhythm abnormalities on three occasions, two of which were associated with administration of the first generation antihistamine chloropyramine, and the third one with hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia. Dysrhythmic events consisted of bigeminy, multifocal ventricular extrasystoles and torsades de pointes-like ventricular tachycardia. Electrocardiographic changes in acute pancreatitis in the absence of previous heart disease can occur in more than half of the cases. Antihistamines are medications that are known to produce heart rhythm disturbances, especially the second generation drugs astemizole and terfenadine. This is the first report of chloropyramine causing dysrhythmia. It seems that acute pancreatitis patients are especially prone to heart dysrhythmia caused by different factors such as electrolyte disturbances and pronounced vagal tone. Acute pancreatitis may be added to the list of risk factors with altered 'repolarization reserve', predisposing to drug-induced QT interval prolongation and possible torsades de pointes occurrence. PMID:24697004

  20. Chronic intractable diarrhea caused by gastrointestinal mastocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyungil; Park, Sang Hyoung; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Woo, Chang Gok; Hong, Seung-Mo; Chang, Kiju; So, Hoonsub; Kwak, Minseob; Kim, Wan Soo; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Ye, Byong Duk; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun

    2016-07-01

    As mast cells have been highlighted in the pathogenesis of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, a new term "mastocytic enterocolitis" was suggested by Jakate and colleagues to describe an increase in mucosal mast cells in patients with chronic intractable diarrhea and favorable response to treatment with antihistamines. Although it is not an established disease entity, two cases have been reported in the English medical literature. Here, for the first time in Asia, we report another case of chronic intractable diarrhea caused by gastrointestinal mastocytosis. The patient was a 70-year-old male with chronic intractable diarrhea for 3 months; the cause of the diarrhea remained obscure even after exhaustive evaluation. However, biopsy specimens from the jejunum were found to have increased mast cell infiltration, and the patient was successfully treated with antihistamines. PMID:27433151

  1. Fixed drug eruption due to levocetirizine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaj, Ratinder; Asati, Dinesh Prasad; Chaudhary, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    A fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a cutaneous adverse drug reaction due to Type IV or delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Antihistamines, which antagonize the action of histamine during an allergic reaction by blocking the H1 histamine receptors, are used routinely for the treatment of various allergic disorders such as urticaria, eczemas, and also in itchy lesions of skin like scabies. Levocetirizine, an active (R)-enantiomer of cetirizine, is a newer or second generation antihistamine, with more specific actions and fewer side effects, including cutaneous reactions. FDE due to levocetirizine as well as with cetirizine are rare. We report a case of levocetirizine induced FDE in a 49-year-old male patient with scabies. The patient had a history of cetirizine induced FDE in the past. PMID:27440959

  2. Fixed drug eruption due to levocetirizine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratinder Jhaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A fixed drug eruption (FDE is a cutaneous adverse drug reaction due to Type IV or delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Antihistamines, which antagonize the action of histamine during an allergic reaction by blocking the H 1 histamine receptors, are used routinely for the treatment of various allergic disorders such as urticaria, eczemas, and also in itchy lesions of skin like scabies.Levocetirizine, an active (R-enantiomer of cetirizine, is a newer or second generation antihistamine, with more specific actions and fewer side effects, including cutaneous reactions. FDE due to levocetirizine as well as with cetirizine are rare. We report a case of levocetirizine induced FDE in a 49-year-old male patient with scabies. The patient had a history of cetirizine induced FDE in the past.

  3. Some medicinal plants with antiasthmatic potential:a current status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dnyaneshwar J Taur; Ravindra Y Patil

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide with the highest prevalence in industrialized countries. Asthma affect about 300 million people worldwide and it has been estimated that a further 100 million will be affected by 2025. Since the ancient times, plants have been exemplary sources of medicine. Current asthma therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat their asthma. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about 45 000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researches conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for asthma have shown antiasthmatic, antihistaminic and antiallergic activity. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have antiasthmatic, antihistaminic, anticholinergic and antiallergic activity.

  4. Treating rhinitis in the older population: special considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavin Raymond G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rhinitis in the elderly is a common but often neglected condition. Structural changes in the nose associated with aging, predisposes the elderly to rhinitis. There are a number of specific factors that affect medical treatment of the elderly including polypharmacy, cognitive dysfunction, changes in body composition, impairment of liver and renal function and the cost of medications in the face of limited resources. Rhinitis in the elderly can be placed in several categories and treatment should be appropriate for each condition. The most important aim is to moisten the nasal mucosa since the nose of the elderly is so dry. Great caution should be used in treatment with first generation antihistamines and decongestants. Medications generally well tolerated by the elderly are second generation antihistamines, intra-nasal anti-inflammatory agents, leukotriene modifiers and iprapropium nasal spray.

  5. Continuous-Flow Multistep Synthesis of Cinnarizine, Cyclizine, and a Buclizine Derivative from Bulk Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borukhova, Svetlana; Noël, Timothy; Hessel, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Cinnarizine, cyclizine, buclizine, and meclizine belong to a family of antihistamines that resemble each other in terms of a 1-diphenylmethylpiperazine moiety. We present the development of a four-step continuous process to generate the final antihistamines from bulk alcohols as the starting compounds. HCl is used to synthesize the intermediate chlorides in a short reaction time and excellent yields. This methodology offers an excellent way to synthesize intermediates to be used in drug synthesis. Inline separation allows the collection of pure products and their immediate consumption in the following steps. Overall isolated yields for cinnarizine, cyclizine, and a buclizine derivative are 82, 94, and 87 %, respectively. The total residence time for the four steps is 90 min with a productivity of 2 mmol h(-1) . PMID:26663906

  6. Virus and bacteria enhance histamine production in middle ear fluids of children with acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonmaitree, T; Patel, J A; Lett-Brown, M A; Uchida, T; Garofalo, R; Owen, M J; Howie, V M

    1994-06-01

    Histamine levels were measured in 677 middle ear fluid (MEF) samples from 248 children (aged 2 months to 7 years) with acute otitis media (AOM); of these, 116 (47%) had documented viral infection. Histamine content was higher in bacteria-positive than in bacteria-negative MEF samples (P = .007) and higher in samples from patients with viral infection than in those from patients with no viral infection (P = .002). Bacteria and viruses together had an additive effect on histamine content in MEF. Histamine concentration in the initial MEF sample tended to be higher in patients with persistent otitis than in those with good response to treatment (P = .14). Results suggest that viruses, bacteria, or both induce histamine production, which leads to increased inflammation in the middle ear. Antihistaminic drugs may be beneficial. Large, prospective, controlled trials of the effects of antihistamine as an adjunct therapy in bacterial and viral AOM are required before recommendations can be made.

  7. Preclinical and human surrogate models of itch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeck, Emil August; Marker, Jens Broch; Gazerani, Parisa;

    2016-01-01

    Pruritus, or simply itch, is a debilitating symptom that significantly decreases the quality of life in a wide range of clinical conditions. While histamine remains the most studied mediator of itch in humans, treatment options for chronic itch, in particular antihistamine-resistant itch, are lim...... currently applied in animals and humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......Pruritus, or simply itch, is a debilitating symptom that significantly decreases the quality of life in a wide range of clinical conditions. While histamine remains the most studied mediator of itch in humans, treatment options for chronic itch, in particular antihistamine-resistant itch......, are limited. Relevant preclinical and human surrogate models of non-histaminergic itch are needed to accelerate the development of novel antipruritics and diagnostic tools. Advances in basic itch research have facilitated the development of diverse models of itch and associated dysesthesiae. While...

  8. Paroxysmal Hypnogenic Dyskinesia Responsive to Doxylamine: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Williams

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paroxysmal hypnogenic dyskinesia is a rare clinical entity characterized by intermittent dystonia and choreoathetoid movements that begin exclusively during sleep, often with consciousness preserved once the patient is awakened during the episodes. They occur almost every night and are often misdiagnosed as sleeping disorders. Paroxysmal hypnogenic dyskinesia is currently known to be a form of frontal lobe epilepsy, but not in all cases. We present a 19-year-old male patient with paroxysmal hypnogenic dyskinesia who responded to antihistamines. This supports an alternative theory from 1977 (before the cases had been adequately described that the disorder lies in dysregulation in the basal ganglia. This description now appears similar to acute dystonic reactions such as extrapyramidal symptoms from antipsychotic medications, which also respond to antihistamines.

  9. The Economics of Topical Immunomodulators for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    William Abramovits; Mark Boguniewicz; Paller, Amy S.; Diane L. Whitaker-Worth; Mary M. Prendergast; Michael Tokar; Tong, Kuo B

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common, chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin disease frequently affecting infants and children. The worldwide prevalence of atopic dermatitis is estimated to be 5-20% of the paediatric population. First-line therapy has generally consisted of dry skin care, avoidance of triggers, application of topical corticosteroids, and administration of antihistamines and oral antibacterials. Topical corticosteroids improve the lesions of atopic dermatitis; however, concern on the p...

  10. Cyclosporine Treatment in a Patient with Concurrent Autoimmune Urticaria and Autoimmune Hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Hye Young; Kim, Hei Sung; Kim, Hyung Ok; Park, Young Min

    2009-01-01

    Patients with autoimmune urticaria show a higher rate of seropositivity for other autoantibodies and often have a history of autoimmune conditions. They also tend to have more severe symptoms and to have a poor response to conventional antihistamine treatment. Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder in which progressive liver injury is thought to be the result of a T-cell-mediated immunologic attack against liver cells in genetically predisposed individuals. While the associat...

  11. Ecotoxicological effects on a food-web exposed to pharmaceuticals : Uptake and effects of oxazepam, fexofenadine and a mixture of both in algae, zooplankton and sticklebacks.

    OpenAIRE

    Sundelin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Complex mixtures of biologically active pharmaceutical residues continuously enter aquatic environments via wastewater, where it can affect species through preserved human drug targets or cause unexpected effects in non-target species. Benzodiazepines and antihistamines are two highly consumed groups of pharmaceuticals that have been shown to bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms and induce behavioural alterations affecting individual fitness. Few studies have investigated bioaccumulation and p...

  12. Essential oil from Citrus aurantifolia prevents ketotifen-induced weight-gain in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sarker, Satyajit Dey; Delazar, Abbas; Nahar, Lutfun

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is a major health problem world-wide. Medical intervention is often needed to tackle this problem, and accordingly the need for developing more effective, safer and cheaper weight reducing drugs has become paramount in recent years. In the present study, the effects of lime (Citrus aurantifolia) essential oils in reducing body weight, individually and in co-administration with ketotifen, an antihistaminic drug that causes weight-gain, has been investigated using mi...

  13. Dystonia as acute adverse reaction to cough suppressant in a 3-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzi, A; Incorpora, G; Ruggieri, M

    2001-01-01

    Cough suppressant preparations containing mixtures of dextromethorphan or codeine with antihistamines, decongestants (sympathomimetic), expectorants and antipyretics with either sedative or anticholinergic activity have been associated with dystonic reactions in children. We report on a 3-year-old girl who presented with episodic stiffness and abnormal posturing with rigidity after arbitrary maternal administration of a mixture of methylcodeine and extract from Hedera plant. PMID:11587381

  14. The Distinct Roles of Two GPCRs, MrgprC11 and PAR2, in Itch and Hyperalgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qin; Weng, Hao-Jui; Patel, Kush N.; Tang, Zongxiang; Bai, Haihua; Steinhoff, Martin; Dong, Xinzhong

    2011-01-01

    Itch has been defined as an unpleasant skin sensation that triggers the urge to scratch. Primary sensory dorsal root ganglia neurons detect itch stimuli through peripheral axons in the skin, playing an important role in generating itch. Itch is broadly categorized as histaminergic (sensitive to antihistamines) or nonhistaminergic. The peptide Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Arg-Leu (SLIGRL) is an itch-inducing agent widely used to study histamine-independent itch. Here, we show that Mrgprs (Mas-related G pro...

  15. TRPA1 is required for histamine-independent, Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor-mediated itch

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Sarah R.; Kristin A Gerhold; Bifolck-Fisher, Amber; Liu, Qin; Patel, Kush N.; Dong, Xinzhong; Bautista, Diana M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Itch, the unpleasant sensation that evokes a desire to scratch, accompanies numerous skin and nervous system disorders. In many cases, pathological itch is insensitive to antihistamine treatment. Recent studies have identified members of the Mas-related GPCR (Mrgpr) family that are activated by mast cell mediators and promote histamine-independent itch. MrgprA3 and MrgprC11 act as receptors for the pruritogens chloroquine and BAM8–22, respectively. However, the signaling pathways and ...

  16. Icatibant er en ny behandlingsmulighed ved livstruende angiotensinkonverterende enzym-inhibitor-udløst angioødem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Søren; Henningsen, Emil; Bygum, Anette

    2011-01-01

    A 78 year-old woman with life-threatening angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-i) induced angioedema was unresponsive to conventional treatment with corticosteroids, antihistamines and epinephrine. She was successfully treated with icatibant licensed for treatment of hereditary angioedema...... knowing that both conditions involve bradykinin induced activation of bradykinin B2 receptors. Randomised, controlled trials are warranted to document the efficacy of icatibant in ACE-i angioedema....

  17. Urticaria after methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher M; Green, W Harris; Hatfield, H Keith; Cognetta, Armand B

    2012-11-01

    Methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) is utilized in several countries for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma, but allergic sensitization has been reported by the manufacturer. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of urticaria following MAL-PDT in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Prophylactic use of antihistamines may allow continued use of MAL-PDT in this setting.

  18. Omalizumab for Urticarial Vasculitis: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Misbah Nasheela Ghazanfar; Simon Francis Thomsen

    2015-01-01

    Urticarial vasculitis is characterised by inflamed itching or burning red patches or wheals that resemble urticaria but persist for greater than 24 hours. It is often idiopathic but is sometimes associated with collagen-vascular disease, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus. Treatment options include oral antihistamines, oral corticosteroids, dapsone, colchicine or hydroxychloroquine. We describe a male patient with urticarial vasculitis who was treated with omalizumab (anti-IgE) with co...

  19. Beware of the caterpillar: Anaphylaxis to the spotted tussock moth caterpillar, Lophocampa maculata

    OpenAIRE

    DuGar, Brandon; Sterbank, Julie; Tcheurekdjian, Haig; Hostoffer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We present a case report of a 5-year-old boy with presumed anaphylaxis to the caterpillar, Lophocampa maculata, manifesting as the acute development of diffuse urticaria and progressive dyspnea. This reaction required prompt treatment with antihistamines and a bronchodilator. Allergen scratch testing with a homogenized caterpillar extract suggests that immunoglobulin E–mediated type I hypersensitivity as the pathophysiological mechanism responsible for the boy's anaphylaxis. This case report ...

  20. Tacalcitol in the Treatment of Acquired Perforating Collagenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano-Stablé, J.C.; Doménech, C.; Matarredona, J.; Pascual, J.C.; Jaen, A; Vicente, J.

    2014-01-01

    Acquired perforating collagenosis (APC) is a rare perforating dermatosis characterized by transepidermal collagen elimination. We describe a 65-year-old patient, with long-standing type 2 diabetes mellitus and a 2-year history of itchy hyperkeratotic nodules situated on the back, who was subsequently diagnosed with APC. Treatment included topical corticosteroids and antihistamines, without improvement of the lesions. However, therapy with topical tacalcitol administered for 2 months produced ...

  1. Tacalcitol in the Treatment of Acquired Perforating Collagenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Escribano-Stablé

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Acquired perforating collagenosis (APC is a rare perforating dermatosis characterized by transepidermal collagen elimination. We describe a 65-year-old patient, with long-standing type 2 diabetes mellitus and a 2-year history of itchy hyperkeratotic nodules situated on the back, who was subsequently diagnosed with APC. Treatment included topical corticosteroids and antihistamines, without improvement of the lesions. However, therapy with topical tacalcitol administered for 2 months produced a significant response leading to complete remission of APC.

  2. Sustainable synthesis of diverse privileged heterocycles by palladium-catalyzed aerobic oxidative isocyanide insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaar, Tjøstil; Cioc, Razvan C; Mampuys, Pieter; Maes, Bert U W; Orru, Romano V A; Ruijter, Eelco

    2012-12-21

    O(2) in, H(2)O out: Various diamines and related bisnucleophiles readily undergo oxidative isocyanide insertion with Pd(OAc)(2) (1 mol %) as the catalyst and O(2) as the terminal oxidant to give a diverse array of medicinally relevant N heterocycles. The utility of this highly sustainable method is demonstrated by a formal synthesis of the antihistamines astemizole and norastemizole. PMID:23161862

  3. Dimebon Does Not Ameliorate Pathological Changes Caused by Expression of Truncated (1–120) Human Alpha-Synuclein in Dopaminergic Neurons of Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Shelkovnikova, Tatyana A.; Ustyugov, Alexey A.; Millership, Steven; Peters, Owen; Anichtchik, Oleg; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Buchman, Vladimir L.; Bachurin, Sergey O.; Ninkina, Natalia N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that dimebon, a drug originally designed and used as a non-selective antihistamine, ameliorates symptoms and delays progress of mild to moderate forms of Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases. Although the mechanism of dimebon action on pathological processes in degenerating brain is elusive, results of studies carried out in cell cultures and animal models suggested that this drug might affect the process of pathological accumulation and a...

  4. A comparison of the in vivo effects of ketotifen, clemastine, chlorpheniramine and sodium cromoglycate on histamine and allergen induced weals in human skin.

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, M. J.; Meyrick Thomas, R H; I. Moodley; Davies, R J

    1983-01-01

    The effect of ketotifen was compared with that of clemastine and chlorpheniramine, known antihistamines, and sodium cromoglycate, a drug considered to have mast cell "stabilizing' properties on histamine and allergen wealing reactions in human skin, in random order, double-blind, placebo controlled studies. Ketotifen was significantly more potent in the inhibition of both histamine (P less than 0.001) and allergen (P less than 0.001) skin wealing reactions than either clemastine or chlorpheni...

  5. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT CHRONIC INSOMNIA

    OpenAIRE

    G.A Dian Puspitha Candra

    2013-01-01

    Insomnia is defined as difficulty to start sleeping, maintain it, or low quality sleeping, if the condition persist for more than one month, it is called chronic insomnia. Diagnosis is made through anamnesa and sleep wake diaries, aktigraphy, polisomnography. Pharmachologycally drugs that have been used to treat insomnia are benzodiazepin reseptor agonis, antihistamine, antidepressant. Non pharmacological ways include behavioural intervention for insomnia, give significant result in decreasin...

  6. Ondansetron to Treat Pruritus Due to Cholestatic Jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Sarah; Tobias, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    Intractable itching is a symptom of cholestatic liver disease of various causes that is bothersome and difficult to manage. Although treatment of the primary cause of cholestasis is paramount in resolving the issue, given the debilitating consequences of pruritus, symptomatic treatment is frequently necessary. Although many medications including cholestyramine, rifampin, opioid antagonists (i.e., naloxone, naltrexone), phenobarbital, and antihistamines have been used to treat cholestatic-indu...

  7. A case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with piperazine derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi-Yeong; Jo, Eun-Jung; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, Sae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Fixed drug eruption is an uncommon adverse drug reaction caused by delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Levocetirizine is an active (R)-enatiomer of cetirizine and there have been a few reports of fixed drug eruption related to these antihistamines. We experienced a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with other piperazine derivatives confirmed by patch test. A 73-year-old female patient presented with recurrent generalized itching, cutaneous bullae format...

  8. Inhibition of histamine-induced nasal obstruction by cetirizine in allergic rhinitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Braunstein, G; Malaquin, F; Fajac, I; Melac, M; Frossard, N

    1992-01-01

    This double-blind randomized crossover placebo-controlled study was designed to assess objectively the nasal antihistamine effect of cetirizine in patients with allergic rhinitis and control subjects. Nasal challenge was performed by nebulization of increasing doubling doses of histamine (0; 0.04 to 1.28 mg/nostril) in six patients with allergic rhinitis and six control subjects on cetirizine (2 x 10 mg daily for 3 days) or placebo. Sneezings were counted and nasal obstruction was assessed by...

  9. Tian Jiu therapy for allergic rhinitis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kun, Wai; Zhong, Linda L.D.; Dai, Liang; Cheng, Chung-Wah; Lu, Ai-Ping; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common allergic diseases. The conventional treatments of allergic rhinitis are oral anti-histamines, the use of intranasal corticosteroids, and immunotherapy. Dissatisfied with the ineffectiveness and side effects of these treatments, substantial numbers of patients are turning to alternative treatments like Chinese herbal medicine, particularly Tian Jiu (TJ). TJ is a form of moxibustion in which herbal patches are applied to specific acupo...

  10. Latrepirdine, a potential novel treatment for Alzheimer’s disease and Huntington’s chorea

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Shill, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    Latrepirdine (Dimebon) is a novel compound currently under development by Medivation Inc and Pfizer Inc for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and Huntington’s chorea. Originally developed and marketed as an antihistamine in Russia, it has potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Early research suggested that the mechanism of action is centered on AChE inhibition and NMDA antagonism. Newer research casts some doubt regarding these early findings and other mechanisms of act...

  11. Urticaria multiforme er en variant af urticaria, som imiterer erythema multiforme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Authried, Georg; Bracher, Linda; Bygum, Anette

    2013-01-01

    A 21-month-old boy developed urticaria multiforme during the course of a presumed pneumonia, which was treated with imacillin. At admission to hospital he was initially considered to have erythema multiforme, but the correct diagnosis was soon established as urticaria multiforme. He had a good re...... response to antihistamines. The diagnostic differences between urticaria multiforme and erythema multiforme are presented in this case report....

  12. Effects of bilastine on T-wave morphology and the QTc interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Claus; Struijk, Johannes; Kanters, Jørgen K.;

    2012-01-01

    The International Conference of Harmonisation (ICH) E14 guideline for thorough QT studies requires assessing the propensity of new non-antiarrhythmic drugs to affect cardiac repolarization. The present study investigates whether a composite ECG measure of T-wave morphology (Morphology Combination...... Score [MCS]) can be used together with the heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) in a fully ICH E14-compliant thorough QT study to exclude clinically relevant repolarization effects of bilastine, a novel antihistamine....

  13. Clinical observation on treating pollinosis in soldiers%探讨部队官兵花粉症的优化治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽霞

    2016-01-01

    本文综述对花粉症的现行治疗方法,包括抗组胺类、色甘酸钠、糖皮质激素等,以期为相关研究提供参考。%A review on treating pollinosis were summarized, including application antihistamines, cromolyn sodium, corticosteroids etc. in order to provide more reference.

  14. [Therapy of allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Ludger; Sperl, Annette

    2016-03-01

    If the avoidance of the provoking allergen is insufficient or not possible, medical treatment can be tried. Therapeutics of the first choice for the treatment of the seasonal and persistent allergic rhinitis are antihistamines and topical glucocorticoids. Chromones are less effective so they should only be used for adults with a special indication, for example during pregnancy. Beside the avoidance of the allergen the immunotherapy is the only causal treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:27120870

  15. Role of neurotensin in radiation-induced hypothermia in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Harris, A.H. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The role of neurotensin in radiation-induced hypothermia was examined. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of neurotensin produced dose-dependent hypothermia. Histamine appears to mediate neurotensin-induced hypothermia because the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and antihistamines blocked the hypothermic effects of neurotensin. An ICV pretreatment with neurotensin antibody attenuated neurotensin-induced hypothermia, but did not attenuate radiation-induced hypothermia, suggesting that radiation-induced hypothermia was not mediated by neurotensin.

  16. Maternal use of Loratadine during pregnancy and risk of hypospadias in offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine the risk of hypospadias after exposure to loratadine and other antihistamines during pregnancy, we conducted a population-based case-control study in four Danish counties, which account for 30% of the Danish population (~1.6 M. We obtained data on maternal use of antihistamines from prescription databases, and data on birth outcomes from the Danish Medical Birth Registry (MBR and the Hospital Discharge Registry (HDR. A total of 65,383 male births with a full prescription history of the mother in the study period from 1989-2002 were available for analysis. Within this cohort, we identified cases with a diagnosis of hypospadias, and 10 selected controls per case without such a diagnosis (matched on birth month, gender and year of birth. We identified 227 cases of hypospadias recorded in the HDR within six months postpartum and 2270 controls. One case (0.4% and eight (0.4% controls were exposed to loratadine in the first trimester and up to 30 days before the time of conception. The adjusted odds ratio (OR for hypospadias among users of loratadine relative to non-users was 1.4 (95% CI: 0.2-11.2 and the corresponding OR for other antihistamines was 1.9 (95% CI: 0.7-5.7. In this study, maternal exposure to loratadine did not appear to be associated with an increased risk of hypospadias when compared with other antihistamines, although it should be noted that the statistical precision of the risk estimates might be limited.

  17. Cinnarizine: Comprehensive Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haress, Nadia G

    2015-01-01

    Cinnarizine is a piperazine derivative with antihistaminic, antiserotonergic, antidopaminergic, and calcium channel-blocking activities. A comprehensive profile was performed on cinnarizine including its description and the different methods of analysis. The 1H NMR and 13C one- and two-dimensional NMR methods were used. In addition, infrared and mass spectral analyses were performed which all confirmed the structure of cinnarizine. PMID:26051684

  18. Assessing satisfaction with desloratadine and fexofenadine in allergy patients who report dissatisfaction with loratadine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harper Anne S

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The FDA recently moved loratadine (Claritin from prescription only status to over-the-counter (OTC. In response to the availability of an OTC non-sedating antihistamine, many managed care organizations are reevaluating which if any prescription antihistamines should remain on formulary. From a managed care perspective, determining which of the remaining prescription antihistamines results in the greatest patient satisfaction with allergy treatment would be informative. Methods We report on a weighted cross sectional survey (n = 10,023 delivered online to a sample of allergy sufferers in the U.S. during the month of December 2002. Two segments were identified for analysis: patient who were dissatisfied with loratadine and converted to desloratadine (Clarinex; n = 61, and patients who were dissatisfied with loratadine and converted to fexofenadine (Allegra; n = 211. The two segments were compared along a series of measures that the literature suggests are related to treatment satisfaction. Results The survey found that two of the satisfaction measures differentiated desloratadine converters from fexofenadine converters (p Conclusions On average, patients who were dissatisfied with loratadine reported equal or better satisfaction with desloratadine as fexofenadine. Patients with severe allergic rhinitis reported greater satisfaction when converted from loratadine to desloratadine than fexofenadine for select satisfaction measures. These results suggest that if managed care intends to position prescription antihistamines as second line for OTC loratadine treatment dissatisfaction, desloratadine is a useful treatment alternative. These findings, while informative to formulary decision-makers, must be interpreted with caution. Only through head-to-head controlled clinical trials can differences in efficacy and safety be established.

  19. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical evaluation of Agasti leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Pramod; Harisha, C. R.; Prajapati, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers., commonly known as Agasti, is widely used in Ayurveda for the treatment of diseases and for processing of various formulations in Rasashastra. It is used for its astringent, antihistaminic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsive and febrifugal activities. Moreover, because of its edible nature, the leaves and pods are used as flavoring items in the cuisine of South India. A detailed investigation of fresh and powder of leaves of Agasti was carried out. The diagnostic chara...

  20. Current challenges and controversies in the management of chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asero, Riccardo; Pinter, Elena; Marra, Alessandro Maria; Tedeschi, Alberto; Cugno, Massimo; Marzano, Angelo Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is characterized by the recurrence of itchy wheals for at least 6 weeks, affects up to 1% of the general population and may severely impair quality of life. H1-antihistamines are the cornerstones of treatment, but in about 10% of cases they fail to control the disease even at higher than licensed doses. In these patients, short courses of oral steroids may induce a remission in about 50% of cases. Omalizumab, a monoclonal anti-IgE, is effective in antihistamine-unresponsive patients although optimal treatment duration needs to be defined. Immunosuppressive treatment with cyclosporine is also effective in the majority of antihistamine-resistant chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) patients, but its use is limited by potential side effects. In refractory patients, other approaches include intravenous immunoglobulin, rituximab, dapsone and anticoagulants. The present review looks with particular interest at the prevalence of treatment failures with the main third-level treatments (corticosteroids, omalizumab and cyclosporine) and discusses them in light of the possible different pathogenic mechanisms underlying chronic spontaneous urticaria.

  1. Omalizumab for the treatment of chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuberbier, Torsten; Maurer, Marcus

    2015-02-01

    Urticaria is a common and often debilitating dermatological condition defined by the sudden appearance of wheals, angioedema or both. It is further classified into specific subtypes based on duration and specific triggers. Awareness and understanding of urticaria are important to ensure a correct initial diagnosis and initiate appropriate guideline-based treatment outlining a stepwise approach. However, in chronic urticaria, approximately 50% of patients are refractory to the first step, the use of licensed doses of second-generation H1-antihistamines. If the second step, an increase in the dose of the second-generation H1-antihistamines, is also not successful, in the third step omalizumab (Xolair™, Novartis Pharma AG(©)/Genentech, Inc.(©)), an anti-IgE therapy, is recommended as an add-on. Of all alternative treatments mentioned in the guidelines, omalizumab is currently the only licensed treatment for H1-antihistamine-refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria, has a favorable risk/benefit ratio and was well tolerated in clinical studies.

  2. Role of biologics in intractable urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Cooke,1 Adeeb Bulkhi,1,2 Thomas B Casale1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Allergy and Immunology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Chronic urticaria (CU is a common condition faced by many clinicians. CU has been estimated to affect approximately 0.5%–1% of the population, with nearly 20% of sufferers remaining symptomatic 20 years after onset. Antihistamines are the first-line therapy for CU. Unfortunately, nearly half of these patients will fail this first-line therapy and require other medication, including immune response modifiers or biologics. Recent advances in our understanding of urticarial disorders have led to more targeted therapeutic options for CU and other urticarial diseases. The specific biologic agents most investigated for antihistamine-refractory CU are omalizumab, rituximab, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG. Of these, the anti-IgE monoclonal antibody omalizumab is the best studied, and has recently been approved for the management of CU. Other agents, such as interleukin-1 inhibitors, have proved beneficial for Schnitzler syndrome and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS, diseases associated with urticaria. This review summarizes the relevant data regarding the efficacy of biologics in antihistamine-refractory CU. Keywords: chronic urticaria, omalizumab, intravenous immunoglobulin, anakinra, canakinumab

  3. The use of New Generation H1 Receptor Blockers and Advantages in Terms of Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Yayla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available H1 receptor blockers are one of the most commonly prescribed medications in the treatment of allergic disorders. These disease have reduced life quality of people and prevalent in the world. H1 receptor blockers has been used since 1940 and lead to some adverse effects such as sedation because of their chemical and pharmacological properties. Therefore new generations have been studied for reduced their adverse effect. The aims of this review are to exhibit advantages of new produced H1 receptor blockers compared to classical antihistamines and demonstrate efficacies of clinical uses of new produced H1 antihistamines. New generation H1 receptor blockers which have been developed after 1980s has less lipophilic properties and their sedative effects are minimized compared to classical antihistamines. Also, their specificity, affinity for H1 receptors and antihistaminergic effects are higher than classical H1 receptor blockers. Although new generation H1 receptor blockers are better tolerated than classical H1 receptor blockers, some of them lead to potential cardio toxicity. Consequently new generation H1 receptor blockers are reliable and efficient drugs, they provide convenience in the treatment of allergic disorders and prevent development of phobia against drugs.

  4. Position statement for the use of omalizumab in the management of chronic spontaneous urticaria in Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godse, Kiran; Rajagopalan, Murlidhar; Girdhar, Mukesh; Kandhari, Sanjiv; Shah, Bela; Chhajed, Prashant N; Tahiliani, Sushil; Shankar, D S Krupa; Somani, Vijay; Zawar, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) affects 1% of the world population and also their quality of life, and 50% of these patients are refractory to H1-antihistamines. Omalizumab is a humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody that binds with free IgE antibodies and reduces the circulating levels of free IgE. This reduction in free IgE prevents mast-cell degranulation. The EAACI/GA2LEN/EDF/WAO guidelines recommend omalizumab as the third-line of therapy as an add-on to antihistamines. The recommended dose of omalizumab is 300 mg, 4 weekly in the management of CSU refractory to standard of care with H1-antihistamines in adults and adolescents ≥12 years of age. In some patients, a dose of 150 mg may be acceptable. Omalizumab has a good safety profile. However, due to the biologic nature of the drug, all patients administered omalizumab must be observed for 2 h after administration for anaphylactoid reactions. There have been no studies on the effect of impaired renal or hepatic function on the pharmacokinetics of omalizumab. While no particular dose adjustment is recommended, omalizumab should be administered with caution in these patients. PMID:26955580

  5. Position statement for the use of omalizumab in the management of chronic spontaneous urticaria in Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Godse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU affects 1% of the world population and also their quality of life, and 50% of these patients are refractory to H1-antihistamines. Omalizumab is a humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody that binds with free IgE antibodies and reduces the circulating levels of free IgE. This reduction in free IgE prevents mast-cell degranulation. The EAACI/GA2LEN/EDF/WAO guidelines recommend omalizumab as the third-line of therapy as an add-on to antihistamines. The recommended dose of omalizumab is 300 mg, 4 weekly in the management of CSU refractory to standard of care with H1-antihistamines in adults and adolescents ≥12 years of age. In some patients, a dose of 150 mg may be acceptable. Omalizumab has a good safety profile. However, due to the biologic nature of the drug, all patients administered omalizumab must be observed for 2 h after administration for anaphylactoid reactions. There have been no studies on the effect of impaired renal or hepatic function on the pharmacokinetics of omalizumab. While no particular dose adjustment is recommended, omalizumab should be administered with caution in these patients.

  6. Cinnarizine is a useful and well-tolerated drug in the treatment of acquired cold urticaria (ACU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosoni, Cinzia; Lodi-Rizzini, Fabio; Bettoni, Lorenzo; Toniati, Paola; Zane, Cristina; Capezzera, Rossana; Venturini, Marina; Calzavara-Pinton, Piergiacomo; Bettoni, Lucia

    2003-01-01

    Old generation H1-type antihistamines are the standard therapeutic option for acquired cold urticaria (ACU), but adverse effects are common. New antihistamines are well tolerated but efficacy is often poor. The present study aims to evaluate efficacy and safety of cinnarizine in the treatment of ACU patients intolerant to old antihistamines and resistant to new drugs. We studied 14 patients (4 males and 10 females). Mean duration of the disease was 48.9 (range 7-102) months. Cold cube test was positive in 78.6 % of patients. Cold urticaria was idiopathic in 10 (71.4 %) patients. Cryoglobulins were detected in the serum of 4 cases (28.6 %). Cinnarizine (25 mg t.i.d.) was administered for 3 months, and then it was gently tapered off and stopped within 2 months. A complete or good response was obtained in 8 (57.1 %) and 2 (14.3 %) patients, respectively. Only two patients were unresponsive (21.4 %). Tapering off or stopping cinnarizine was followed by the relapse of cold urticaria in 7 cases (50.0 %). These patients were amenable to a second treatment cycle. Six patients (42.9 %) had a persistent remission. A patient interrupted the therapy because of severe vertigo. Three patients reported mild and transitory adverse effects including epigastralgia, weight gain and drowsiness. In conclusion, cinnarizine at high doses may be considered as an effective and well-tolerated treatment for ACU. PMID:12609783

  7. AB037. Drug-related costs of rhinitis in Australia: a NostraData cross-sectional study of pharmacy ​​purchases​

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, A. Simon; Price, David B.; Smith, Pete; Harvey, Richard; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Christian, Louise; Skinner, Derek; Carter, Victoria; Durieux, Alice M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intranasal corticosteroids (INS) are a first-line therapy for rhinitis according to all international clinical guidelines for rhinitis. Although many added treatments are not recommended, the use of multiple therapies to control symptoms is frequent, as patients often continue to experience debilitating symptoms while on medication. Previous estimates of multiple therapy prescriptions may have been too conservative, as most rhinitis therapies are also available over-the-counter (OTC). This may affect the cost burden of rhinitis treatment. To investigate the extent of multiple therapy use to treat rhinitis in Australia, using doctor prescriptions and OTC medication; and to assess the additional cost incurred by multiple therapy use. Methods This was a historical cohort study of pharmacy-related claims from NostraData, Australia. We examined all rhinitis therapy purchases (antihistamines, INS, combination treatments of both such as Dymista, non-steroidal nasal sprays, leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA), eye drops for allergic conjunctivitis, oral steroids and systemic steroids) from 909 pharmacies, including OTC and prescription drugs. We used therapies purchased at the same transaction to assess the proportion of multiple therapy purchases and their cost. Results A total of 4,247,193 pharmacy transactions including rhinitis therapies were analysed; 4% of transactions included multiple rhinitis therapy classes. The average transaction cost was 12.82 EUR for single therapy purchases and 26.72 EUR for multiple therapy purchases. 15% of single therapy purchases were INS, for an average cost of 20.68 EUR. The most frequent additions to INS therapy were antihistamine (74%) and non-steroidal nasal spray (10%). About 94% of antihistamine and 97% of non-steroidal nasal spray purchased as add-on therapy to INS were bought over-the-counter. The average cost of INS & antihistamine and INS & non-steroidal nasal spray transactions was 30.65 and 26.57 EUR

  8. Updates in the treatment of ocular allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmo Kari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Osmo Kari1, K Matti Saari21Department of Allergology, Skin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Turku, Turku, FinlandAbstract: Allergic diseases have greatly increased in industrialized countries. About 30% of people suffer from allergic symptoms and 40%–80% of them have symptoms in the eyes. Atopic conjunctivitis can be divided into seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC. The treatment of SAC is simple; antihistamines, anti-inflammatory agents, or chromoglycate. In severe cases of SAC, subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy is helpful. PAC needs longer therapy, often year round, with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines, and sometimes local steroids. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis is a more severe disease showing chronic blepharitis often connected with severe keratitis. It needs, in many cases, continuous treatment of the lid eczema and keratoconjunctivitis. Blepharitis is treated with tacrolimus or pimecrolimus ointment. Conjunctivitis additionally needs corticosteroids and, if needed, cyclosporine A (CsA drops are administered for longer periods. Basic conjunctival treatment is with mast cell-stabilizing agents and in addition, antihistamines are administered. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis is another chronic and serious allergic disease that mainly affects children and young people. It is a long-lasting disease which commonly subsides in puberty. It demands intensive therapy often for many years to avoid serious complicating corneal ulcers. Treatment is mast cell-stabilizing drops and additionally antihistamines. In relapses, corticosteroids are needed. When the use of corticosteroids is continuous, CsA drops should be used, and in relapses, corticosteroids should be used additionally. Nonallergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis (NAEC is a less known, but rather common, ocular disease. It affects mostly middle-aged and

  9. Treatment of congestion in upper respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli O Meltzer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eli O Meltzer1, Fernan Caballero2, Leonard M Fromer3, John H Krouse4, Glenis Scadding51Allergy and Asthma Medical Group and Research Center, San Diego, CA and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, USA; 2Allergy and Clinical Immunology Service, Centro Medico-Docente La Trinidad, Caracas, Venezuela; 3David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, USA; 4Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA; 5Department of Allergy and Rhinology, Royal National TNE Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Congestion, as a symptom of upper respiratory tract diseases including seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, acute and chronic rhinosinusitis, and nasal polyposis, is principally caused by mucosal inflammation. Though effective pharmacotherapy options exist, no agent is universally efficacious; therapeutic decisions must account for individual patient preferences. Oral H1-antihistamines, though effective for the common symptoms of allergic rhinitis, have modest decongestant action, as do leukotriene receptor antagonists. Intranasal antihistamines appear to improve congestion better than oral forms. Topical decongestants reduce congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, but local adverse effects make them unsuitable for long-term use. Oral decongestants show some efficacy against congestion in allergic rhinitis and the common cold, and can be combined with oral antihistamines. Intranasal corticosteroids have broad anti-inflammatory activities, are the most potent long-term pharmacologic treatment of congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, and show some congestion relief in rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Immunotherapy and surgery may be used in some cases refractory to pharmacotherapy. Steps in congestion management include (1 diagnosis of the cause(s, (2 patient education and monitoring, (3 avoidance of environmental triggers where possible, (4 pharmacotherapy, and (5 immunotherapy

  10. Use of cough and cold preparations during breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J L

    1999-12-01

    Adverse reactions in infants from maternal drug ingestion depend largely on the amount of milk consumed by the infant, timing of breastfeeding in relation to dosing, dose of the medication, dosing interval, and duration of therapy. When taking medications, breastfeeding mothers should be instructed to take their medication after breastfeeding, at the lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration. Overall, there are few data from human studies on the use of antihistamines, decongestants, and cough products during breastfeeding. Studies of pseudoephedrine, triprolidine, and loratadine in humans conclude that low levels of each drug would reach a breastfed infant. Since triprolidine and pseudoephedrine are also considered compatible with breastfeeding by the AAP, these 2 drugs should be the first-line choices. Codeine is considered compatible with breastfeeding by the AAP, and would be an acceptable choice for short-term use as a cough suppressant. It is important to note that many of the liquid cough and cold products contain alcohol. In addition, many of the combination products are a mixture of an antihistamine and a decongestant and may also contain aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or caffeine. It is preferable for nursing mothers to only take medications that are necessary and to avoid such combination products. The AAP considers alcohol, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and caffeine compatible with breastfeeding. Aspirin has been associated with significant negative effects on some nursing infants, and the AAP recommends giving aspirin to nursing mothers with caution. Mothers taking cough and cold products should watch for adverse events in their breastfed infants. Infants may experience paradoxical central nervous stimulation from antihistamines and irritability and insomnia from decongestants. PMID:10776186

  11. Critical appraisal of bilastine for the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaba B

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Belen Sadaba, Jose Ramon Azanza, Almundena Gomez-Guiu, Raquel RodilClinical Pharmacology Service, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Navarra, SpainAbstract: Bilastine is a second generation antihistamine indicated for the treatment of seasonal or perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and chronic urticaria with a daily dose of 20 mg, in adults and children over 12 years of age. The efficacy of bilastine has been shown to be similar to that of the comparator drugs for the control of the nasal and nonnasal symptoms of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, while also showing a subjective improvement in the quality of life and in overall clinical impression. For chronic urticaria the symptoms (itching and the development of papules lessens from the second day of treatment onwards, in a similar way to other antihistamines used as comparators. Bilastine should not be administered at meal times to avoid interference with the absorption process. It is not distributed to the central nervous system, is scarcely metabolized, and elimination is through the kidneys and feces, with a 14-hour elimination half-life. It has no effect on cytochrome P450. During clinical development, bilastine was shown to be a drug that is adequately tolerated, with a similar effect to placebo with regard to drowsiness and changes in heart rate. In relation to its use, headaches were the most frequent adverse effect to be reported. No cardiotoxic effects have been observed, and the therapeutic dose does not alter the state of alertness.Keywords: bilastine, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, chronic urticaria, second generation antihistamine, drowsiness, CYP450

  12. The Turkish Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Urticaria-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emek Kocatürk Göncü

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Albeit an easily recognized disease, urticaria features many diverse approaches which rationalize the need for an algorithm for the diagnosis, classification, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic approach. Therefore, authors from Dermatoallergy Working Group of the Turkish Society of Dermatology and the Turkish Dermatoimmunology and Allergy Association aimed to create an urticaria guideline for the diagnosis, treatment and followup of urticaria. Materials and Methods: Each section of the guideline has been written by a different author. The prepared sections were evaluated in part by e-mail correspondence and have taken its final form after revision in the last meeting held by the participation of all authors. Results: The guideline includes the description, classification, pathophysiology as well as diagnosis and treatment of urticaria. Urticaria is classified into two main types: acute urticaria and chronic urticaria while chronic urticaria is further subdivided into spontaneous urticaria and inducible urticaria. The first step of treatment includes standard doses of H1-blockers. In patients who do not respond to the first step, antihistamine dose is increased up to four times; if unsuccessful, another second-generation antihistamine is given in the same dose. In antihistamine-resistant cases, introduction of omalizumab is required. Omalizumab dose may be increased in patients failing to respond to the standard dose. In patients unresponsive to omalizumab, cyclosporine-A may be given. Routine diagnostic tests are not recommended in acute urticaria. In chronic urticaria, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, differential blood count and C-reactive protein testing are the only investigations that are needed routinely. Conclusion: Chronic urticaria is a disease that can be challenging for the physician in terms of treatment and follow-up. Depending on evidence-based data (and individual experiences, this

  13. Outcomes of premedication for non-ionic radio-contrast media hypersensitivity reactions in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sae-Hoon, E-mail: imimdr@yahoo.co.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So-Hee, E-mail: lshsophia@hanmail.net [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Min, E-mail: sangminlee77@naver.com [Department of Internal Medicine, The Korean Armed Force Capital Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hye-Ryun, E-mail: helenmed@hanmail.net [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heung-Woo, E-mail: guineapark@snu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun-Sin, E-mail: ssksting@hanmail.net [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang-Heon, E-mail: shcho@plaza.snu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Background: Radio-contrast media (CM)-related adverse reactions are important clinical problems that may cause fatal anaphylaxis. Accordingly, it has been common practice to premedicate patients who have had previous reactions to CM with corticosteroids, antihistamines, and H2 blockers to prevent hypersensitive reactions. However, the effectiveness of premedication has not been properly demonstrated, especially in cases related to non-ionic CM. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of premedication at preventing of non-ionic CM immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions. Methods: A total of 30 patients who had been pretreated with corticosteroid and H1 antihistamines and/or H2 blockers in a 3-year period were enrolled. The results of premedication were evaluated in terms of clinical characteristics and the features of breakthrough reactions. Results: Hypersensitivity reactions were not prevented in 5 of the 30 patients who had experienced prior CM reactions (overall recurrence rate after premedication 16.7%; 4/17 patients with mild previous reactions, and 1/13 patients with severe previous reactions). The recurrence rate after premedication was significantly higher in patients with mild previous reactions than in those with severe reactions (23.5% vs. 7.7%; p < 0.001). The breakthrough reactions were similar to the prior reactions in terms of severity and clinical manifestations. Conclusion: Premedication with corticosteroid and H1 antihistamines and/or H2 blockers effectively prevent non-ionic CM-related adverse events in most patients who have had severe previous reactions to CM. However, physicians should be aware of the possibility of premedication failing and of breakthrough reactions, even in cases in which the previous reactions were mild.

  14. Probiotics and refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettis, E; Di Leo, E; Pastore, A; Distaso, M; Zaza, I; Vacca, M; Macchia, L; Vacca, A

    2016-09-01

    Background. In chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) first-line therapy with an antihistamine-based regimen may not achieve satisfactory control in patients. Thus, a continuing need exists for effective and safe treatments for refractory CSU. Aim. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of an intake of a combination of 2 probiotics (Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03) in patients with CSU who remain symptomatic despite concomitant H1-antihistamine therapy. Methods. This report analyzes the effects of therapy with two probiotic strains on the clinical progress of 52 unselected patients with difficulty to treat CSU underwent to medical examination in two Italian specialist urticaria Clinics between September 2013 and September 2014. A mixture of Lactobacillus LS01 and Bifidobacterium BR03 were administered in each patient twice daily for 8 weeks. To evaluate patients' improvement with probiotics, urticaria activity score over 7 days (UAS7) was used at baseline and at week 8 in addition to a 5-question urticaria quality of life questionnaire. Results. Fifty-two patients with CSU were included in this study (10 male and 42 female, age range 19-72 years). Mean disease duration was 1.5 years. Fourteen patients discontinued treatment, so evaluable population consisted of 38 patients. Nine of the 38 patients experienced mild clinical improvement during probiotic treatment (23.7%); one patient reported significant clinical improvement (2.6%) and one patient had complete remission of urticaria (2.6%). Twenty-seven patients did not have improvement in symptoms (71.1%). No side effects during the course of therapy were reported. Conclusions. A combination of Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 administered twice daily for 8 weeks might reduce the symptoms scores and improve quality of life scores in a part of patients with CSU who remained symptomatic despite treatment with H1 antihistamine mostly in subjects with allergic

  15. 荨麻疹的分层次治疗%Layered treatmention urticaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈年; 成琼辉; 孙仁山; 伍津津

    2014-01-01

    The urticarial guidelines in multiple regions and countries of Europe and Asia referred a four-level medicine treatments on urticaria.The ifrst-level medicine treatment of urticaria is new generation, nonsedating H1-antihistamines. The second-level medicine treatment is increasing the dosage of nonsedating H1-antihistamines up two to four-fold. The third-level medicine treatment is antihistamines and leukotriene antagonist or short courses of systemic steroids. The fourth-level medicine treatment is to add the following drugs including cyclosporine, omalizumab ordapsone based on the ifrst-level medicine treatment. Clinicians should select appropriate treatments based on individual circumstances.%欧洲和亚洲等多个地区和国家的荨麻疹指南中均提到荨麻疹的4层次治疗。荨麻疹的第1层次治疗为非镇静的H1受体拮抗剂;第2层次治疗使用非镇静的H1受体拮抗剂为常规剂量的2~4倍;第3层次治疗为抗组胺药物联合白三烯受体拮抗剂或短时间的系统使用糖皮质激素;第4层次治疗是在第1层次治疗的基础上联合环孢素、奥马株单抗或氨苯砜等药物。临床医师应根据个体情况,选择合适的治疗方案。

  16. Facial hormone-dependent dermatitis: a clinical analysis of 68 cases%面部激素依赖性皮炎临床分析及其治疗效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄静

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the incidence of facial hormone-dependent dermatitis, and to raise the healing rate of it. Methods We applied non-steroid drug topically, cold compress combined with anti-histamine agents to treat facial hormone-dependent dermatitis in 68 cases. The results were compared before and after the treatment. Results There were significantly clinical effects of non-steroid drug topically, cold compress combined with antihistamine agents on facial hormone-dependent dermatitis, with healing rate of 82. 4 % , and effective rate of 100 %. Conclusions In order to reduce the incidence of facial hormone-dependent dermatitis, we should follow the principal of applying steroid agent strictly to treat facial dermatitis. Meanwhile, there is significantly clinical effects of non-steroid drug with topical use and cold compress combined with antihistamine agents on facial steroid-dependent dermatitis.%目的 探讨减少面部激素依赖性皮炎的发生率和提高治愈率.方法 对68例面部激素依赖性皮炎治疗采用外用冷敷收敛联合内服抗组胺药,并对治疗效果进行对比分析.结果 采用外用、冷敷收敛联合抗组胺药取得满意疗效,痊愈率82.4%,有效率100%.结论 在使用糖皮质激素时,应严格掌握外用药物使用原则,减少面部激素依赖性皮炎的发生.采取内服、外用药物的综合治疗方法 ,对面部激素依赖性皮炎可以取得较好的临床疗效.

  17. Comparison of effects of alcaftadine and olopatadine on conjunctival epithelium and eosinophil recruitment in a murine model of allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa J Ono

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Santa J Ono1, Keith Lane21Emory University School of Medicine and Emory Eye Center, Dobbs Ocular Immunology Laboratories, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Ora Inc., 300 Brickstone Square, Andover, MA, USABackground: Antihistamines constitute the first line of therapy for allergic conjunctivitis, and are safe and effective in relieving the signs and symptoms of ocular allergy. Despite this, they are less effective than some other drugs in relieving delayed symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis. Recent evidence suggests that changes in the conjunctival epithelium may underlie aspects of delayed reactions. In this study we compared two antihistamines, olopatadine and alcaftadine, for their ability to modify epithelial cell changes associated with allergic conjunctivitis at time points selected to reflect late-phase reactions.Methods: Studies employed a modified conjunctival allergen challenge model. Sensitized mice were challenged with topical allergen with or without drug treatments. Treatment groups were assayed for acute-phase (15 minutes and delayed-phase (24 hours responses. Groups were scored for allergy symptoms (redness, itch, tearing, and edema and for conjunctival mast cell numbers. Delayed-phase groups were also examined for eosinophil numbers and for tight junctional protein expression.Results: Olopatadine-treated and alcaftadine-treated animals had similar efficacy profiles and mast cell numbers, suggesting both were effective at ameliorating symptoms of the acute phase. In contrast, alcaftadine-treated animals had significantly lower conjunctival eosinophil infiltration than either controls or olopatadine-treated animals. Allergen challenge caused a significant decrease in expression of the junctional protein, ZO-1, and this decrease was prevented by alcaftadine but not by olopatadine.Conclusion: Alcaftadine displays therapeutic properties beyond its antihistamine action. These include an ability to reduce conjunctival eosinophil recruitment, and a

  18. Outcomes of premedication for non-ionic radio-contrast media hypersensitivity reactions in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Radio-contrast media (CM)-related adverse reactions are important clinical problems that may cause fatal anaphylaxis. Accordingly, it has been common practice to premedicate patients who have had previous reactions to CM with corticosteroids, antihistamines, and H2 blockers to prevent hypersensitive reactions. However, the effectiveness of premedication has not been properly demonstrated, especially in cases related to non-ionic CM. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of premedication at preventing of non-ionic CM immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions. Methods: A total of 30 patients who had been pretreated with corticosteroid and H1 antihistamines and/or H2 blockers in a 3-year period were enrolled. The results of premedication were evaluated in terms of clinical characteristics and the features of breakthrough reactions. Results: Hypersensitivity reactions were not prevented in 5 of the 30 patients who had experienced prior CM reactions (overall recurrence rate after premedication 16.7%; 4/17 patients with mild previous reactions, and 1/13 patients with severe previous reactions). The recurrence rate after premedication was significantly higher in patients with mild previous reactions than in those with severe reactions (23.5% vs. 7.7%; p < 0.001). The breakthrough reactions were similar to the prior reactions in terms of severity and clinical manifestations. Conclusion: Premedication with corticosteroid and H1 antihistamines and/or H2 blockers effectively prevent non-ionic CM-related adverse events in most patients who have had severe previous reactions to CM. However, physicians should be aware of the possibility of premedication failing and of breakthrough reactions, even in cases in which the previous reactions were mild.

  19. Profile of omalizumab in the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrador-Horrillo M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Moises Labrador-Horrillo,1 Marta Ferrer2 1Allergy Section, Internal Medicine Department, Vall d’Hebron Hospital, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 2Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, IDISNA, Instituto de Investigación de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain Abstract: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU is a disease with significant morbidity and relative prevalence that has important effects on the quality of life (QoL of those who suffer from it. Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE antibody that binds to the Cε3 domain of the IgE heavy chain and prevents it from binding to its high-affinity receptor FcεRI. It has been largely studied in the field of asthma and is currently approved for the treatment of both adult and pediatric (children; >6-year-old patients. In addition, in recent, well-controlled clinical trials in patients with CSU resistant to antihistamines, add-on therapy with subcutaneous omalizumab significantly reduced the severity of itching, and the number and size of hives, and increased patients’ health-related QoL and the proportion of days free from angioedema compared with placebo, with an excellent tolerance. Thus, omalizumab is an effective and well-tolerated add-on therapy for patients with CSU who are symptomatic despite background therapy with H1 antihistamines. In this review, we cover the following points: epidemiology, pathogenesis, assessment of activity, impact on QoL, and treatment of CSU, and finally, we focus on omalizumab in the treatment of CSU including the pharmacokinetic properties and mechanism of action, and use in pregnant women, nursing infants, and children. Keywords: omalizumab, chronic spontaneous urticaria, antihistamines, subcutaneous administration, add-on therapy

  20. The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy - a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K; Jacobi, H H;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America....... METHODS: Thirty-five patients with severe rhinoconjunctivitis (hay fever) to birch pollen were allocated to double-blinded clustered IT with a depot birch pollen extract (Betula verrucosa) or placebo injections. Seven patients in each group had concomitant self-reported seasonal asthma. Treatment...... antihistamines (P effects at the same level as placebo...

  1. Life-threatening ACE inhibitor-induced angio-oedema successfully treated with icatibant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostenfeld, Sarah; Bygum, Anette; Rasmussen, Eva Rye

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 75-year-old woman treated with an ACE inhibitor, who presented with angio-oedema of the tongue and had difficulty speaking. No symptoms of anaphylaxis or urticaria were present. The patient was treated intravenously with antihistamine and glucocorticoid in combination....... Although the angio-oedema was potentially life threatening, the patient avoided intubation and mechanical ventilation. ACE inhibitor-induced angio-oedema is most likely caused by an accumulation of bradykinin and substance P. Consequently, a bradykinin receptor antagonist is the rational treatment...

  2. Adverse Events during Immunotherapy against Grass Pollen-Induced Allergic Rhinitis - Differences between Subcutaneous and Sublingual Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, Kristian; Dalhoff, Kim Peder; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) triggered by grass pollen is a common disease, affecting millions of people worldwide. Treatment consists of symptom-alleviating drugs, such as topical corticosteroids or antihistamines. Another option is potentially curative immunotherapy, currently available as sublingual...... and subcutaneous treatment. We investigated the potential differences in the prevalence and severity of adverse events related to subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) against grass pollen-induced AR. A thorough literature search was performed with PubMed and EMBASE. The findings were compared...

  3. Drug: D07407 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07407 Drug Rupatadine (INN) C26H26ClN3 415.1815 415.9577 D07407.gif ATC code: R06A...EMIC USE R06AX Other antihistamines for systemic use R06AX28 Rupatadine D07407 Rupatadine (INN) Target-based classification of dru...gs [BR:br08310] G Protein-coupled receptors Rhodopsin family Histamine H1-receptor [HSA:3269] [KO:K04149] Ru...patadine [ATC:R06AX28] D07407 Rupatadine (INN) CAS: 158876-

  4. Drug: D02220 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available OF HEMORRHOIDS AND ANAL FISSURES FOR TOPICAL USE C05AD Local anesthetics C05AD04 Cinchocaine D02220 Dibucain... ANTIPRURITICS, INCL. ANTIHISTAMINES, ANESTHETICS, ETC. D04AB Anesthetics for topical use D04AB02 Cinchoca... ANESTHETICS, LOCAL N01BB Amides N01BB06 Cinchocaine D02220 Dibucaine hydrochloride (JP16/USP) S SENSORY ORG...ANS S01 OPHTHALMOLOGICALS S01H LOCAL ANESTHETICS S01HA Local anesthetics S01HA06 Cinchocaine D02220 Dibucain...s and anesthetics S02DA04 Cinchocaine D02220 Dibucaine hydrochloride (JP16/USP) Target-based classification

  5. Treatment of refractory chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aayushi Mehta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic spontaneous urticaria is a distressing disease encountered frequently in clinical practice. The current mainstay of therapy is the use of second-generation, non-sedating antihistamines. However, in patients who do not respond satisfactorily to these agents, a variety of other drugs are used. This article examines the available literature for frequently used agents including systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, dapsone, sulfasalazine, hydroxychloroquine, H2 antagonists, methotrexate, cyclosporine A, omalizumab, autologous serum therapy, and mycophenolate mofetil, with an additional focus on publications in Indian literature.

  6. Management of difficult urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Sudha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria, a major health problem causing patient′s distress, induces often physicians′ dilemma while dealing with its etiology, investigations and management. Clinical approach of such cases should include apart from clinical history and physical examination laboratory investigations like routine blood test, thyroid profile, etc. as well as sometimes special test like autologous serum skin test. Management includes reassurance, avoidance of precipitating factors, treatment of underlying disorders, and non-pharmacological approach along with pharmacotherapy. First line drug therapy comprises non-sedative and sedative antihistamines, second line doxepin, nifedipine, leukotriene-inhibitors, sulfasalazine, etc. and third line cyclosporine, dapsone, colchicin, etc.

  7. [Histaminergic angioedema and chronic urticaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacard, Florence; Nosbaum, Audrey; Bensaid, Benoit; Nicolas, Jean-François; Augey, Frédéric; Goujon, Catherine; Bérard, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Most angioedemas are histaminergic and correspond to deep urticarial swelling. Recurrent histaminergic angioedema led to the diagnosis of chronic urticaria, even when there are no superficial associated hives. Chronic urticaria is a benign disease, and autoimmune in 40 % of cases. The occurrence of angioedema in chronic urticaria is not a sign of severity. The occurrence of angioedema in chronic urticaria is associated with a longer duration of urticarial disease. NSAIDs and/or systemic corticotherapy are classic triggers of angioedema in chronic urticaria. In the absence of clinical endpoints, there is no need to make further assessment in chronic urticaria good responders to antihistamines.

  8. Eosinophilic cystitis mimicking tuberculosis: An analysis of five cases with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic cystitis (EC is a rare disease. It is a transmural inflammation of the bladder, predominantly with eosinophils. High index of suspicion is needed for timely intervention. EC should be kept as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms due to small capacity bladder with a negative workup for urinary tuberculosis and in patients having hematuria and negative cytology, or incidentally found bladder lesions with known risk factors. Initial treatment is conservative with removal of risk factor, anti-histaminics and steroids. Augmentation cystoplasty should be considered in patients with a small capacity bladder. These patients need a strict and long term follow-up.

  9. Treatment of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Allen P

    2012-01-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria is defined as persistent symptoms of urticaria for 6 weeks or more. It is associated with autoimmunity in approximately 45 percent of patients. Therapy is often difficult however the initial approach should employ high-dose non-sedating antihistamines; 4-6 tablets/day may be necessary. It has been shown that the response to 4 tablets/day exceeds 3, and exceeds 2, which exceeds 1. However the dose that corresponds to the maximal dose of first generation antihistam...

  10. Omalizumab for Urticarial Vasculitis: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misbah Nasheela Ghazanfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urticarial vasculitis is characterised by inflamed itching or burning red patches or wheals that resemble urticaria but persist for greater than 24 hours. It is often idiopathic but is sometimes associated with collagen-vascular disease, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus. Treatment options include oral antihistamines, oral corticosteroids, dapsone, colchicine or hydroxychloroquine. We describe a male patient with urticarial vasculitis who was treated with omalizumab (anti-IgE with convincing results and provide a review of previous reports of patients with urticarial vasculitis treated with omalizumab.

  11. Omalizumab for Urticarial Vasculitis: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfar, Misbah Nasheela; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2015-01-01

    Urticarial vasculitis is characterised by inflamed itching or burning red patches or wheals that resemble urticaria but persist for greater than 24 hours. It is often idiopathic but is sometimes associated with collagen-vascular disease, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus. Treatment options include oral antihistamines, oral corticosteroids, dapsone, colchicine or hydroxychloroquine. We describe a male patient with urticarial vasculitis who was treated with omalizumab (anti-IgE) with convincing results and provide a review of previous reports of patients with urticarial vasculitis treated with omalizumab. PMID:26435858

  12. XXIV World Allergy Congress 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Heung-Man; Park, Il-Ho; Shin, Jae-Min; Zeher, Margit; Matsui, Katsuhiko; Tamai, Saki; Ikeda, Reiko; Suri, Drsushil; Suri, Dranu; Arani, Marzieh Heidarzadeh; Lubis, Azwin; Endaryanto, Anang; Koga, Shinichiro; Tsuzuki, Yasunobu; Jin, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Table of Contents A1 Pirfenidone inhibits TGF-b1-induced extracellular matrix production in nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts Jae-Min Shin, Heung-Man Lee, Il-Ho Park A2 The efficacy of a 2-week course of oral steroid in the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria refractory to antihistamines Hyun-Sun Yoon, Gyeong Yul Park A3 The altered distribution of follicular t helper cells may predict a more pronounced clinical course of primary sjögren’s syndrome Margit Zeher A4 Betamethasone suppresse...

  13. Pharmacokinetic Dose Proportionality Between Two Strengths (12.5 mg and 25 mg) of Doxylamine Hydrogen Succinate Film-Coated Tablets in Fasting State: A Single-Dose, Randomized, Two-Period Crossover Study in Healthy Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Videla, Sebastián; Cebrecos, Jesús; Lahjou, Mounia; Wagner, France; Guibord, Pascal; Xu, Zhengguo; Cabot, Anna; Encabo, Mercedes; Encina, Gregorio; Sicard, Eric; Sans, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Background Doxylamine succinate, an ethanolamine-based antihistamine, is used in the short-term management of insomnia because of its sedative effects. No data on the dose proportionality of the pharmacokinetics of doxylamine are available, although this drug has been marketed in European countries for more than 50 years. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the dose proportionality between two marketed strengths (12.5 mg and 25 mg) of doxylamine hydrogen succinat...

  14. Pharmacologic options for the treatment and management of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobernick, Aaron K; Chambliss, Jeffrey; Burks, A Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy affects approximately 5% of adults and 8% of children in developed countries, and there is currently no cure. Current pharmacologic management is limited to using intramuscular epinephrine or oral antihistamines in response to food allergen exposure. Recent trials have examined the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy, with varying levels of efficacy and safety demonstrated. Bacterial adjuvants, use of anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies, and Chinese herbal formulations represent exciting potential for development of future pharmacotherapeutic agents. Ultimately, immunotherapy may be a viable option for patients with food allergy, although efficacy and safety are likely to be less than ideal. PMID:26289224

  15. Recent advancements in the therapeutics of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Kriti; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-12-01

    Food allergy is a health complication induced by certain food in the susceptible individuals. Due to lack of permanent cure and the global prevalence, the preventive approach is highly required for food allergy. Recently published patents have shown significant improvements in the food allergy research. In this review, an attempt has been done to highlight the recently developed patents related to the detection of allergens in food mixture. Also, patents regarding treatment options like use of herbal therapy, antihistamines, pre-, pro and synbiotics, nanocarriers, hypoallergens and several immune molecules towards amelioration of food allergy have been reviewed in this article. PMID:24032435

  16. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis induced by rarely implicated drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Rajagopalan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN and Steven-Johnson Syndrome (SJS are serious disorders commonly caused as idiosyncratic reactions to drugs, the most common ones being oxicams, anticonvulsants, allopurinol, and sulfonamides. We present a case of TEN in a patient who developed the lesions after ingesting multiple drugs including paracetamol, metoclopramide, antihistamines, and multivitamins. These drugs have rarely been implicated in this disorder. The suspected drugs in this case were paracetamol and metoclopramide. However, the role of other drugs could not be ruled out definitely. The patient was managed with antibiotics, corticosteroids, and parenteral fluids and recovered well.

  17. Pityriasis rosea-like eruptions due to mustard oil application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawar, Vijay

    2005-01-01

    A young man employed in a construction company, presented with cutaneous lesions clinically simulating pityriasis rosea. Satisfactory and complete response to corticosteroids and antihistamines was followed by recurrence. Multiple recurrences within a short span of time arose a suspicion of alternative diagnosis. Site visit helped us to rule out occupational contact dermatitis. Further history taking revealed that he was recently using mustard oil for body massage. Subsequent patch testing confirmed contact hypersensitivity to mustard oil. Avoidance of the contact with mustard oil arrested appearance of further skin lesions. We stress the importance of taking a good history in clinical practice in disclosing a possible contactant. PMID:16394442

  18. Pityriasis rosea-like eruptions due to mustard oil application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawar Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A young man employed in a construction company, presented with cutaneous lesions clinically simulating pityriasis rosea. Satisfactory and complete response to corticosteroids and antihistamines was followed by recurrence. Multiple recurrences within a short span of time arose a suspicion of alternative diagnosis. Site visit helped us to rule out occupational contact dermatitis. Further history taking revealed that he was recently using mustard oil for body massage. Subsequent patch testing confirmed contact hypersensitivity to mustard oil. Avoidance of the contact with mustard oil arrested appearance of further skin lesions. We stress the importance of taking a good history in clinical practice in disclosing a possible contactant.

  19. Drug: D00664 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00664 Drug Cetirizine hydrochloride (JP16/USAN); Zyrtec (TN) C21H25ClN2O3. 2HCl 46...Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 44 Allergic agents 449 Miscellaneous 4490 Miscellaneous D00664 Cetirizine...S FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06AE Piperazine derivatives R06AE07 Cetirizine D00664 Cetirizine hydrochloride (JP16/USA...N) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Respiratory Tract/Pulmonary Agents Antihistamines Cetirizine... D00664 Cetirizine hydrochloride (JP16/USAN) Target-based classification of drugs [BR:br0

  20. Neuraxial opioid-induced pruritus: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Szarvas, Szilvia

    2012-02-03

    When intrathecal and epidural opioids are administered, pruritus occurs as an unwanted and troublesome side effect. The reported incidence varies between 30% and 100%. The exact mechanisms of neuraxial opioid-induced pruritus remain unclear. Postulated mechanisms include the presence of an "itch center" in the central nervous system, medullary dorsal horn activation, and antagonism of inhibitory transmitters. The treatment of intrathecal opioid-induced pruritus remains a challenge. Many pharmacological therapies, including antihistamines, 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonists, opiate-antagonists, propofol, nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs, and droperidol, have been studied. In this review, we will summarize pathophysiological and pharmacological advances that will improve understanding and ultimately the management of this troublesome problem.

  1. Creutzfeldt-Jacob’s Disease Presenting with Psychiatric Symptomsand Severe Itching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Rabia Koç

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal prion-like proteins in the central nervous system. Clinical features, electroencephalography, brain magnetic resonance imaging and protein 14.3.3 is useful in diagnosis. Protein 14.3.3 may be negative in the early or late stages of the disease. Presentation with psychiatric symptoms and itching is not typical in the beginning of the disease In this paper, we present a patient who was first accepted to the pschiatry ward because of his psychiatric symtpoms and had severe itching, resistant to antihistaminic drugs.

  2. Histamine release and endothelial leakage from an intravascular contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raininko, R.

    1981-04-01

    The endothelial injury produced by meglumine iodamide was studied in the rat aorta. A mixture of blood and contrast medium was more toxic to the endothelium than the pure contrast agent. This difference disappeared after premedication with antihistamine, which did not affect the injury produced by the pure contrast agent. Meglumine iodamide appears to cause a release of histamine from blood but not from the aortic endothelium nor from surrounding tissues in amounts demonstrable by this method. Leucocytes are a source of histamine after intravascular contrast medium administration.

  3. MISCELLANEOUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930204 Randomized clinical controlled cross-over trial(RCT)in the prevention of blood transfusion febrile reactions with small dose ofhydrocortisone versus antihistamines.WANGJuesheng(王觉生),et al.Dept Intern Med,West-China Med Univ,610041.Chin J InternMed 1992;31(9):536—538.RCT was used in 73 patients who had experi-enced blood transfusion febrile reactions.Forfurther two transfusions Benadryl was used be-fore the first transfusion and hydrocortisone be-

  4. [On the antipyretic effect of paracetamol. Clinical investigation with two different forms of application (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götte, R; Liedtke, R

    1978-01-01

    144 children, aged between 15 days and 12 years, suffering from febrile condition of various etiology, were treated with differentiated single doses of paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol) in form of syrup, suppositories and a combination of syrup with the antihistamine doxylaminsuccinate. During investigation periods of four hours, applying reduced doses, the syrup application showed the same antipyretic effects as those obtained with paracetamol suppositories. When administering the combination with doxylaminsuccinate, the antipyretic effect was reduced and the psychomotoric superactivity did not improve. A control of the actual rectal dosage scheme for repetitive applications is recommended and the combination of paracetamol with sedatives is to be discussed. PMID:304522

  5. Bullous Mastocytosis Mimicking Congenital Epidermolysis Bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Salas-Alanis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A 2-month-old female infant was referred to DebRA Mexico from the Regional Children's Hospital because of a generalized dermatosis from birth characterized by multiple blisters and erosions on the trunk, face and limbs, associated with minor trauma. A skin biopsy showing subepidermal blisters associated with a dermal infiltrate of Giemsa-positive cells and CD117-positive antibody was consistent with the diagnosis of bullous mastocytosis. Treatment with oral antihistamines, topical steroids, and antibiotics was initiated, leading to a remission of the lesions.

  6. Occupational Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Leslie C

    2016-05-01

    Occupational rhinitis (OR) involves nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, and/or sneezing resulting from workplace exposures. OR can have a significant negative effect on quality of life and productivity. OR can be divided into allergic or nonallergic subgroups based on the underlying pathogenesis. Certain occupational exposures place employees at greater risk for developing disease. Primary treatment is avoidance of implicated exposures. Antihistamines, saline rinses, and nasal steroids may be useful. OR can coexist with occupational asthma, and rhinitis symptoms have been reported to precede those of the lower respiratory tract. OR is has both medical and socioeconomic implications. PMID:27083106

  7. The Link between Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma: A Role for Antileukotrienes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis and asthma are both chronic heterogeneous disorders, with an overlapping epidemiology of prevalence, health care costs and social costs in quality of life. Both are inflammatory disorders with a similar pathophysiology, and both share some treatment approaches. However, each disorder has an array of treatments used separately in controlling these atopic disorders, from inhaled corticosteroids, beta2-agonists and antihistamines to newer monoclonal antibody-based treatments. The present article reviews the shared components of allergic rhinitis and asthma, and examines recent evidence supporting antileukotrienes as effective agents in reducing the symptoms of both diseases.

  8. Sorafenib-induced hand-foot syndrome in a patient of renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Sil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, is approved for treatment of renal cell cancer and hepatocellular cancer. Hand-foot syndrome (HFD is a condition where erythema, scaling, and bullous lesion affect the hand and feet. In this case, a post-nephrectomy renal carcinoma patient prescribed sorafenib developed HFD 1 week after the drug usage. All laboratory parameters were within normal limits. The dose of sorafenib was reduced and topical corticosteroids, antihistamines, and emollients were prescribed. The reaction reduced after 2 weeks of therapy, only to reappear again when the second cycle of sorafenib-targeted therapy was started. The case was diagnosed as sorafenib-induced HFD.

  9. Driving under the influence of non-alcohol drugs--An update. Part II: Experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, M C; Gjerde, H; Mørland, J

    2016-07-01

    Experimental studies on the impairing effects of drugs of relevance to driving-related performance published between 1998 and 2015 were reviewed. Studies with on-the-road driving, driving simulators, and performance tests were included for benzodiazepines and related drugs, cannabis, opioids, stimulants, GHB, ketamine, antihistamines, and antidepressants. The findings in these experimental studies were briefly discussed in relation to a review of epidemiological studies published recently. The studies mainly concluded that there may be a significant psychomotor impairment after using benzodiazepines or related drugs, cannabis, opioids, GHB, or ketamine. Low doses of central stimulants did not seem to cause impairment of driving behavior. PMID:27257716

  10. [The marketing analysis of assortment of market of pharmaceuticals applied in treatment of psoriasis in Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotvitskaya, A A; Karlo, V V

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of assortment of pharmaceuticals for treatment of psoriasis recommended by Minzdrav of Ukraine and present at the national pharmaceutical market is made. The characteristics of distribution of national and foreign producers of antihistamine and anti-psoriatic pharmaceuticals are established The availability of particular medicinal forms of various producers is analyzed too. The characteristics and tendencies in consumption of these groups of pharmaceuticals in natural and monetary units are analyzed including dynamics of changes of mean wholesale prices during the analyzed period.

  11. Brakioradial pruritus behandlet effektivt med gabapentin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldall Pallesen, Kristine Appel; Bygum, Anette

    2012-01-01

    Brachioradial pruritus is a characteristic clinical condition with a deep intense itching, tingling or burning sensation localized to the dorsolateral part of the upper extremities. The symptoms occur primarily in the late summer in fair skin type people who are extensively sun-exposed. The condi......-exposed. The condition is difficult to treat and does not respond to topical steroids and antihistamines. We describe a 57-year-old woman with longstanding brachioradial itching due to cervical radiculopathy and sun exposure, which was successfully treated with gabapentin....

  12. Omalizumab for Urticarial Vasculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghazanfar, Misbah Nasheela; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2015-01-01

    Urticarial vasculitis is characterised by inflamed itching or burning red patches or wheals that resemble urticaria but persist for greater than 24 hours. It is often idiopathic but is sometimes associated with collagen-vascular disease, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus. Treatment options...... include oral antihistamines, oral corticosteroids, dapsone, colchicine or hydroxychloroquine. We describe a male patient with urticarial vasculitis who was treated with omalizumab (anti-IgE) with convincing results and provide a review of previous reports of patients with urticarial vasculitis treated...

  13. Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in elite athletes: optimal management for quality of life and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katelaris, Constance H; Carrozzi, Fiona M; Burke, Therese V

    2003-01-01

    Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is a common condition with a peak incidence in the age range of the majority of elite athletes. The condition has been shown to have a significant impact on the quality of life of those affected and poses particular challenges when present in the elite athlete. When an athlete is looking for exceptional performance at events such as the Olympic Games, any factor which affects quality of life by interfering with sleep, decreasing the ability to concentrate, or reducing peak physical fitness, may have a significant impact on the ability to perform at one's best. Optimal management begins with correct diagnosis and identification of triggering factors. There are a number of therapeutic options available to the treating physician. When formulating a management plan for the elite athlete, the physician must consider "doping" rules and the possible effect of medication on athletic performance. Medication choices include the newer, non-sedating antihistamines, used either orally or topically, and the prophylactic use of intranasal corticosteroids. When allergic conjunctivitis is the principal problem, the newer, topical antihistamines are highly effective and have a rapid onset of action. Since avoidance strategies are rarely practical for the athlete, consideration should be given to strategies such as immunotherapy, where long-term benefit is possible. PMID:12744714

  14. Unmet clinical needs in chronic spontaneous urticaria. A GA²LEN task force report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M; Weller, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Giménez-Arnau, A; Bousquet, P J; Bousquet, J; Canonica, G W; Church, M K; Godse, K V; Grattan, C E H; Greaves, M W; Hide, M; Kalogeromitros, D; Kaplan, A P; Saini, S S; Zhu, X J; Zuberbier, T

    2011-03-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria, formerly also known as chronic idiopathic urticaria and chronic urticaria (CU), is more common than previously thought. At any time, 0.5-1% of the population suffers from the disease (point prevalence). Although all age groups can be affected, the peak incidence is seen between 20 and 40 years of age. The duration of the disease is generally 1-5 years but is likely to be longer in more severe cases, cases with concurrent angioedema, in combination with physical urticaria or with a positive autologous serum skin test (autoreactivity). Chronic spontaneous urticaria has major detrimental effects on quality of life, with sleep deprivation and psychiatric comorbidity being frequent. It also has a large impact on society in terms of direct and indirect health care costs as well as reduced performance at work and in private life. In the majority of patients, an underlying cause cannot be identified making a causal and/or curative treatment difficult. Nonsedating H₁-antihistamines are the mainstay of symptomatic therapy, but treatment with licensed doses relieves symptoms effectively in < 50% of patients. Although guideline-recommended updosing up to fourfold increases symptom control in many patients, a substantial number of patients have only little benefit from H₁ -antihistamines. Consequently, there is a great need for new therapeutic strategies.

  15. Genetic Variation along the Histamine Pathway in Children with Allergic versus Nonallergic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvari, Sara; Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Dai, Hongying; Jones, Bridgette L

    2015-12-01

    Histamine is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of asthma. Variation in genes along the histamine production, response, and degradation pathway may be important in predicting response to antihistamines. We hypothesize that differences exist among single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of the histamine pathway between children with allergic versus nonallergic asthma. Children (7-18 yr of age; n = 202) with asthma were classified as allergic or nonallergic based on allergy skin testing. Genotyping was performed to detect known SNPs (n = 10) among genes (HDC, HNMT, ABP1, HRH1, and HRH4) within the histamine pathway. Chi square tests and Cochran-Armitage Trend were used to identify associations between genetic variants and allergic or nonallergic asthma. Significance was determined by P asthma. Genotype differences specifically among the African-American children were also observed: HRH1-17 TT (13% allergic versus 0% nonallergic; P = 0.04) and HNMT-1639 TT (23% allergic versus 3% nonallergic; P = 0.03) genotypes were overrepresented among African-American children with allergic asthma. Our study suggests that genetic variation within the histamine pathway may be associated with an allergic versus nonallergic asthma phenotype. Further studies are needed to determine the functional significance of identified SNPs and their impact on antihistamine response in patients with asthma and allergic disease.

  16. Google unveils a glimpse of allergic rhinitis in the real world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M-G; Song, W-J; Choi, S; Kim, H; Ha, H; Kim, S-H; Cho, S-H; Min, K-U; Yoon, S; Chang, Y-S

    2015-01-01

    Google Trends (GT) is a Web-based surveillance tool used to explore the searching trends of specific queries on Google. Recent studies have suggested the utility of GT in predicting outbreaks of influenza and other diseases. However, this utility has not been thoroughly evaluated for allergic diseases. Therefore, we investigated the utility of GT for predicting the epidemiology of allergic rhinitis. In the USA, GT for allergic rhinitis showed repetitive seasonality that peaked in late April and early May and then rapidly decreased, and a second small peak occurred in September. These trends are highly correlated with the searching trends for other queries such as 'pollen count', antihistamines such as loratadine and cetirizine (all r > 0.88 and all P Google Trends for allergic rhinitis was similar to the monthly changes in rhinitis symptoms according to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, sales for Claritin(®) and all over-the-counter antihistamines, and the number of monthly page views of 'claritin.com'. In conclusion, GT closely reflects the real-world epidemiology of allergic rhinitis in the USA and could potentially be used as a monitoring tool for allergic rhinitis.

  17. Profile of omalizumab in the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador-Horrillo, Moises; Ferrer, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a disease with significant morbidity and relative prevalence that has important effects on the quality of life (QoL) of those who suffer from it. Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody that binds to the Cε3 domain of the IgE heavy chain and prevents it from binding to its high-affinity receptor FcεRI. It has been largely studied in the field of asthma and is currently approved for the treatment of both adult and pediatric (children; >6-year-old) patients. In addition, in recent, well-controlled clinical trials in patients with CSU resistant to antihistamines, add-on therapy with subcutaneous omalizumab significantly reduced the severity of itching, and the number and size of hives, and increased patients' health-related QoL and the proportion of days free from angioedema compared with placebo, with an excellent tolerance. Thus, omalizumab is an effective and well-tolerated add-on therapy for patients with CSU who are symptomatic despite background therapy with H1 antihistamines. In this review, we cover the following points: epidemiology, pathogenesis, assessment of activity, impact on QoL, and treatment of CSU, and finally, we focus on omalizumab in the treatment of CSU including the pharmacokinetic properties and mechanism of action, and use in pregnant women, nursing infants, and children.

  18. Oral iron therapy and chronic idiopathic urticaria: sideropenic urticaria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Fabrizio; Guarneri, Claudio; Cannavò, Serafinella Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    Chronic urticaria (CU) is frequent, remains often idiopathic despite diagnostic efforts, and sometimes poorly responds to oral antihistamines and/or corticosteroids. We noticed that hyposideremia is often found in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria poorly responsive to usual treatments (prCIU), and oral iron therapy is frequently associated to improvement or resolution of urticaria. Between 2003 and 2012, we observed 122 patients with prCIU, of which 81 had moderate hyposideremia at our first visit. They continued the antihistamines already practiced and received oral iron therapy for 30 or 45 days. Two months after our first visit, all had normal serum iron levels; 64 reported complete remission of urticaria and 17 reported improvement superior to 80%. No adverse reactions to treatment were observed. Follow-up visits confirmed stability of results over 6 months. Our preliminary data show that hyposideremia is the only abnormality in many patients with prCIU, and restoration of normal iron serum levels is associated to remission or remarkable clinical improvement of urticaria. In consideration of low cost and potential benefits for some patients, determination of serum levels of iron could be introduced in the diagnostic workup of chronic urticaria, maybe as a second-level exam in patients without other relevant clinical or laboratory abnormalities.

  19. Loratadine versus levocetirizine in chronic idiopathic urticaria: A comparative study of efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU is challenging because of its unpredictable course and negative influence on the quality of life. New treatments are being developed, but antihistaminics remain the cornerstone of the therapeutic approach. Newer generation antihistaminics such as loratadine and levocetirizine have already proved to be safe and efficacious for CIU. Objective : To choose the better drug between loratadine and levocetirizine for CIU, by comparing their efficacy and safety. Methods : A randomized, open, outdoor-based clinical study was conducted on 60 patients of CIU, to compare the two drugs. After initial clinical assessment and baseline investigations, loratadine was prescribed to 30 patients and levocetirizine to another 30 patients for four weeks. At follow-up, the patients were re-evaluated and then compared using different statistical tools. Result : The comparative study showed that the changes in differential eosinophil count (P = 0.006 and absolute eosinophil count (P = 0.003 in the levocetirizine group was statistically significant. The results of the Total Symptom Score showed better symptomatic improvement of CIU with levocetirizine as compared to loratadine. The overall incidence of adverse drug reactions was also found to be less in the levocetirizine group. Conclusion : An analysis of the results of all the parameters of safety and efficacy proves the superiority of levocetirizine over loratadine for CIU.

  20. Guideline of Chronic Urticaria Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Lauren M; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-09-01

    Urticaria is a relatively common condition that if chronic can persist for weeks, months or years and affect quality of life significantly. The etiology is often difficult to determine, especially as it becomes chronic. Many cases of chronic urticaria are thought to be autoimmune, although there is no consensus that testing for autoimmunity alters the diagnostic or management strategies or outcomes. Many times, urticaria is easily managed with antihistamines and/or short courses of oral corticosteroids, but too often control is insufficient and additional therapies must be added. For years, immune modulating medications, such as cyclosporine and Mycophenolate Mofetil, have been used in cases refractory to antihistamines and oral corticosteroids, although the evidence supporting their efficacy and safety has been limited. Omalizumab was recently approved for the treatment of chronic urticaria unresponsive to H1-antagonists. This IgG anti-IgE monoclonal antibody has been well demonstrated to safely and effectively control chronic urticaria at least partially in approximately 2/3 of cases. However, the mechanism of action and duration of treatment for omalizumab is still unclear. It is hoped that as the pathobiology of chronic urticaria becomes better defined, future therapies that target specific mechanistic pathways will be developed that continue to improve the management of these often challenging patients.

  1. A report of acute atrial fibrillation induced by misapplication of epinephrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jang Su

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Urticaria is a systemic allergic reaction leading to wheal formation with skin itching. Occasionally we come across some intractable cases, in which we may administrate epinephrine infusion besides steroid and anti-histamine. A 19 year-old man suffered from intractable urticaria for 2 days, although anti-histamine and steroids were used. Titration of adrenaline was considered in the treatment of intractable urticaria. He was administrated 1 mg epinephrine intravenous bolus due to mis-dilution by the nurse. Transient atrial fibrillation with cardiac ischemia occurred. After 12.5 mg labetalol i.v., and 11-hour observation in the emergency room, he gradually recovered to normal sinus rhythm without ST-T change. In the past, ventricular tachycardia, hypertension, chest pain, pulmonary edema, the need to intubate, renal failure requiring renal transplant, coronary artery spasm, myocardial ischemia/infarction and hypokalemia have been reported after mis-diluted or excessive doses of epinephrine in treating anaphylaxis. To our knowledge, our case is the first worldwide to describe transient atrial fibrillation after epinephrine overdose, and the patient was successfully resuscitated by 12.5 mg labetalol. It is important to know how to rescue accidental epinephrine intravenous injection patients.

  2. A report of acute atrial fibrillation induced by misapplication of epinephrine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Jang Su

    2015-01-01

    Urticaria is a systemic allergic reaction leading to wheal formation with skin itching. Occasionally we come across some intractable cases, in which we may administrate epinephrine infusion besides steroid and anti-histamine. A 19 year-old man suffered from intractable urticaria for 2 days, although anti-histamine and steroids were used. Titration of adrenaline was considered in the treatment of intractable urticaria. He was administrated 1 mg epinephrine intravenous bolus due to mis-dilution by the nurse. Transient atrial fibrillation with cardiac ischemia occurred. After 12.5 mg labetalol i.v., and 11-hour observation in the emergency room, he gradually recovered to normal sinus rhythm without ST-T change. In the past, ventricular tachycardia, hypertension, chest pain, pulmonary edema, the need to intubate, renal failure requiring renal transplant, coronary artery spasm, myocardial ischemia/infarction and hypokalemia have been reported after mis-diluted or excessive doses of epinephrine in treating anaphylaxis. To our knowledge, our case is the first worldwide to describe transient atrial fibrillation after epinephrine overdose, and the patient was successfully resuscitated by 12.5 mg labetalol. It is important to know how to rescue accidental epinephrine intravenous injection patients.

  3. Simultaneous gene expression signature of heart and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in astemizole-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hee; Oh, Jung-Hwa; Park, Han-Jin; Kim, Do-Geun; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Kim, Choong-Yong; Kwon, Myung-Sang; Yoon, Seokjoo

    2010-08-01

    We investigated the effects of astemizole, a second-generation antihistamine, on the heart and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and identified the early markers of its cardiotoxicity using gene expression profiling. Astemizole causes torsades de pointes, which is a type of ventricular tachycardia. We administered astemizole (dosage: 20, 60 mg/kg) to male Sprague-Dawley rats, using an oral gavage. Cardiac tissue and PBMCs were collected from the rats 4 h after treatment. Gene expression profiles were obtained using an Affymetrix GeneChip. The most deregulated genes were associated with energy metabolism pathways and calcium ion homeostasis in the heart of astemizole-treated rats. The most altered genes in the PBMCs were those involved in developmental processes and cardiotoxicity. Genes related to the response to oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, heat shock proteins, hypoxia, immunity, and inflammation were also deregulated in the heart and PBMCs. These data provide further insight into the genetic pathways affected by astemizole. In addition, the simultaneously deregulated genes identified herein may be further studied. It will be interesting to find out whether single genes or certain sets of these genes could finally serve as biomarkers for cardiotoxicity of astemizole or other similar antihistamine drugs. PMID:20221588

  4. An overview of bilastine metabolism during preclinical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, María Luisa; Gonzalo, Ana; Mumford, Rory; Betanzos, Mónica; Alejandro, Ana

    2012-06-01

    Knowledge of the biotransformation of oral H₁ antihistamines is clinically important because it can define their pharmacokinetic profile through possible effects on absorption (i.e., first-pass metabolism) and elimination. Further, clinically significant interactions with inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP) have previously been reported for drugs of this therapeutic group, such as terfenadine and astemizole, indicating the possibility of drug-drug interactions involving agents that share the same metabolic pathway. The aim of this article was to review the preclinical testing of a new antihistamine (i.e., bilastine) in terms of its biotransformation in various animal species, including humans, and to evaluate its potential for possible drug-drug interactions involving the CYP system. A wide array of preclinical experiments were reviewed, all of which demonstrated that bilastine undergoes minimal metabolism in all species tested to date, including humans. Further, bilastine did not interact significantly, either as an inhibitor or inducer, with the CYP enzyme system, suggesting a low propensity for involvement in drug-drug interactions. These characteristics demonstrate the potential for bilastine to be a good choice for allergic patients receiving treatment for other concomitant diseases, including those with renal or hepatic dysfunction. PMID:22616812

  5. Modern opportunities of therapeutic treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Maychuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available H1‑receptor antagonists are drugs of choice to treat allergy. They work very fast as their therapeutic effect develops within 10‑15 min, have good tolerability and almost no adverse side-effects, and require no frequent instillations. Levocabastine quickly inhibits allergic reaction caused by specific allergen or histamine. Levocabastine while being a highly-selective H1‑receptor antagonist is the most perspective topical mono-drug used to treat acute allergic conjunctivitis. Levocabastine applied on a spot produces instant effect which persists for a long time so that instillations twice a day (BID are enough. Levocabastine is more effective than other 15 antihistamines. In contrast to previous antihistamines, levocabastine blocks vasodilatation and reduces vascular permeability increase. Levocabastine eye drops have good tolerability comparable with cromoglicic acid eye drops and placebo. Levocabas tine is successfully used in allergic conjunctivitis (pollinosis, perennial, vernal, rhinoconjunctivitis treatment in children. Its efficacy is the same or even higher than that of cromoglycate and azelastine. 20 clinical studies (more than 1200 patients revealed that levocabastine eye drops are effective, work quickly and have good tolerability. This drug is efficient in allergic conjunctivitis treatment and acute infectious conjunctivitis complex therapy. 

  6. Implementation of anaphylaxis management guidelines: a register-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Grabenhenrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis management guidelines recommend the use of intramuscular adrenaline in severe reactions, complemented by antihistamines and corticoids; secondary prevention includes allergen avoidance and provision of self-applicable first aid drugs. Gaps between recommendations and their implementation have been reported, but only in confined settings. Hence, we analysed nation-wide data on the management of anaphylaxis, evaluating the implementation of guidelines. METHODS: Within the anaphylaxis registry, allergy referral centres across Germany, Austria and Switzerland provided data on severe anaphylaxis cases. Based on patient records, details on reaction circumstances, diagnostic workup and treatment were collected via online questionnaire. Report of anaphylaxis through emergency physicians allowed for validation of registry data. RESULTS: 2114 severe anaphylaxis patients from 58 centres were included. 8% received adrenaline intravenously, 4% intramuscularly; 50% antihistamines, and 51% corticoids. Validation data indicated moderate underreporting of first aid drugs in the Registry. 20% received specific instructions at the time of the reaction; 81% were provided with prophylactic first aid drugs at any time. CONCLUSION: There is a distinct discrepancy between current anaphylaxis management guidelines and their implementation. To improve patient care, a revised approach for medical education and training on the management of severe anaphylaxis is warranted.

  7. Theoretical investigation of loratadine reactivity in order to understand its degradation properties: DFT and MD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J; Abramović, Biljana F

    2016-10-01

    Antihistamines are frequently used pharmaceuticals that treat the symptoms of allergic reactions. Loratadine (LOR) is an active component of the second generation of selective antihistaminic pharmaceutical usually known as Claritin. Frequent usage of this type of pharmaceuticals imposes the need for understanding their fundamental reactive properties. In this study we have theoretically investigated reactive properties of LOR using both density functional theory (DFT) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. DFT study is used for collecting information related to the molecule stability, structure, frontier molecular orbitals, quantum molecular descriptors, charge distribution, molecular electrostatic potential surfaces, charge polarization, and local reactivity properties according to average local ionization energy surfaces. Based on these results, N24 atom of pyridine ring and oxygen atom O1 were identified with nucleophilic nature. In order to collect the information necessary for the proposition of degradation compounds we also calculated bond dissociation energies (BDE) for hydrogen abstraction and single acyclic bonds as well. According to BDE, the oxidation is likely to occur in the piperidine and cycloheptane rings. MD simulations were used in order to understand the interactions with water through radial distribution functions (RDF). Based on RDFs the most important interactions with solvent are determined for carbon atom C5, chlorine atom Cl15, and oxygen atom O1. Collected results based on DFT calculations and MD simulations provided information important for suggestion of possible degradation compounds. Covalent and noncovalent interactions between LOR and (•)OH have also been investigated. PMID:27640160

  8. Drug: D10510 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10510 Drug Sequifenadine C22H27NO 321.2093 321.4559 D10510.gif ATC code: R06AX32 A... SYSTEMIC USE R06A ANTIHISTAMINES FOR SYSTEMIC USE R06AX Other antihistamines for systemic use R06AX32 Sequifenadine D10510... Sequifenadine CAS: 57734-69-7 PubChem: 172232603 ATOM 24 1 N1y N 20.7200 -16.310...0 2 C1x C 19.4600 -16.9400 3 C1x C 19.8800 -17.9200 4 C1y C 21.4900 -17.5000 5 C1y C 22.6100 ...-17.9200 6 C1x C 22.2600 -16.8000 7 C1x C 21.4900 -15.6100 8 C1x C 20.7200 -14.9100 9 C1d C 22.6100 -19.3200 10

  9. Contemporary challenges in mastocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, H David; Teuber, Suzanne S; Kong, James S; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-04-01

    Mastocytosis denotes a wide range of disorders characterized by having abnormal growth and accumulation of mast cells. Mast cells contain histamine and other inflammatory mediators, which have diverse actions within the body, and play crucial roles in acquired and innate immunity. The diverse actions of these inflammatory mediators can lead to puzzling symptoms in individuals with mastocytosis. These symptoms can include flushing, pruritus, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vascular instability, and headache. These clinical features generally divide into cutaneous and systemic manifestations, giving rise to the two divisions of mastocytosis: cutaneous mastocytosis (CM) and systemic mastocytosis. CM has a highly favorable clinical prognosis. Systemic mastocytosis has a range of severity, with the milder forms often remaining chronic conditions, while the severe forms have rapid complex courses with poor prognoses. Generally, treatment is aimed at avoiding mast cell degranulation, inhibiting the actions of the constitutive mediators released by mast cells and, in severe cases, cytoreductive and polychemotherapeutic agents. Behavioral intervention includes avoidance of triggers, such as heat, cold, pressure, exercise, sunlight, and strong emotions. Treatment for released histamine and other inflammatory mediators includes H1 antihistamines, H2 antihistamines, proton pump inhibitors, anti-leukotriene agents, and injectible epinephrine (for possible anaphylaxis). For severe cases, treatment includes cytoreductive agents (interferon alpha, glucocorticoids, and cladribine) and polychemotherapeutic agents (daunomycin, etoposide, and 6-mercaptopurine). For very specific and severe cases, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, imatinib and midostaurine, have shown promise. PMID:19639428

  10. Clinical efficiency of cyclosporine in chronic idiopathic urticaria in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Petrov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of cyclosporine and other antihistamines in patients with chronic forms of urticaria resistant to basic first-line therapy. Open randomized controlled study has been performed in parallel groups. 53 patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria ages 18-50 years have been examined. In case of ineffectiveness of previous therapy, patients have been randomized into 2 groups: group I receiving cyclosporine (Sandimmune Neoral ® 2,5 mg/kg/day, group II receiving cetirizine (Zyrtec ® 10 mg/day and ranitidine (Zantac ® 300 mg/day orally. It has been found that the administration of cyclosporine in patients with severe chronic idiopathic urticaria provides a more rapid achievement of clinical effect than the therapy with H1/H2 histamine antagonists. It is confirmed by a significant decrease of total index of severity of illness and major symptoms of skin lesions. This tendency towards normalization of quality of life of patients taking cyclosporine remains during 8 weeks after the medication. Thus administration of cyclosporine can be considered as therapy of choice in patients with chronic idio-pathic urticaria with a severe course and ineffective long-term therapy with antihistamines / systemic corticosteroids

  11. Itch in Urticaria Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deza, Gustavo; Giménez-Arnau, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    Urticaria is a common skin disorder defined by the occurrence of itchy and even painful wheals, angioedema, or both. The lifetime prevalence for its acute and chronic form is 20 and 1%, respectively. The patients' quality of life is impaired because of itch, disfigurement, and high associated comorbidity. To understand the pathophysiology of the wheal in order to ensure a correct therapeutic approach is critical. Mast cells are the primary effector cells in urticaria, which produce and secrete a variety of inflammatory mediators, mainly histamine. Their peripheral effects are responsible for the signs and symptoms of the disease, such as cutaneous swelling and pruritus. Management of itch in urticaria includes both nonpharmacological (avoidance or minimization of aggravating factors) and pharmacological treatments. The main therapeutic objective is to obtain complete relief of signs (hives and angioedema) and symptoms (pruritus) as quickly as possible. Licensed and up-dosed nonsedating H1-antihistamines are currently the first- and second-line therapies according to the European guidelines. When antihistamines are not enough, other treatments include anti-IgE antibodies, mast cell modulators, mast cell mediator blockers, and immunomodulators. As the knowledge of the pathogenesis of urticaria improves, the development of alternative therapies targeting these pathways may improve the patient's quality of life through the control of the pruritus, its main symptom. PMID:27578075

  12. Actual therapeutic management of allergic and hyperreactive nasal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudack, Claudia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis (AR and hyperractive disorders of the upper airways, depending upon the type of releasing stimuli, are defined as nasal hyperreactivity, for example in the case of AR, or as non-specific nasal hyperreactivity and as idiopathic rhinitis (IR (synonyms frequently used in the past: non-specific nasal hyperreactivity; vasomotor rhinitis in the case of non-characterised stimuli.An early and professional therapy of allergic disorders of the upper airways is of immense importance as allergic rhinitis is detected in comorbidities such as asthma and rhino sinusitis. The therapeutic concept is influenced by new and further developments in pharmacological substance classes such as antihistamines and glucocorticosteroids. Specific immune therapy, the only causal therapy for AR, has been reviewed over the past few years in respect of the type and pattern of application. However, to date no firm recommendations on oral, sublingual and /or nasal immune therapy have yet been drawn up based on investigations of these modifications.Therapeutic management of IR is aimed at a symptom-oriented therapy of nasal hyperactivity as etiological factors relating to this form of rhinitis are not yet sufficiently known. Drug groups such as mast cell stabilizers, systemic and topic antihistamines, topic and systemic glucocorticosteroids, ipatroium bromide and alpha symphatomimetics belong to the spectrum of the therapeutics employed.

  13. Differences of promethazine and terfenadine on ion channels in guinea pig ventricular myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-wen; NIU Shuan-cheng; ZHANG Xuan-ping; L(U) Ji-yuan; BAI Feng; ZHANG Ling; WU Bo-wei

    2006-01-01

    @@ Promethazine, a first generation antihistamine,has an antiarrhythmic effect on ischemia-reperfusion inducing arrhythmias1 and experimental arrhythmias.2 However, terfenadine as a second generation of antihistamine, has been reported to elicit hypotension, bradycardia, prolongation of the QTc interval and torsades de pointes (TdP) like ventricular arrhythmia.3 This may be due to the blockage on rectifier postassium current (Ik) of terfenadine, resulting in the prolongation of the action potential duration (APD) and dispersion of the repolarization duration, which might provoke a specific form of polymorphic ventricular tachydysrhythmia, i.e. TdP.4 In clinical practice,however, the class Ⅲ antiarrhythmic agents, which target on the Ik and prolong the action potential duration and QTc interval, rarely lead to arrhythmias.Other actions must be considered to underlie the arrhythmogenic tendency of terfenadine besides its inhibition on Ik. Though both promethazine and terfenadine block the H1 receptor, there must be a different pharmacology profile between the two compounds on ion channels of cardiac myocytes.Whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to investigate the effects of these two antagonists of the H1 receptor on the main ion currents in cardiac electrical activities.

  14. Trace analysis of doxylamine succinate in animal feed, human urine, and wastewater by GC using a rubidium-sensitized nitrogen detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, H.C. Jr.; Holder, C.L.; Bowman, M.C.

    1982-08-01

    Doxylamine succinate, a drug used as a sleep-inducing agent, an antihistamine, and in a therapeutic formulation taken by pregnant women as an antinauseant, was scheduled for toxicological evaluation as part of a structure activity relationship study, with rats and mice, because a deficiency of such data exists with regard to many antihistamines. Analytical chemical procedures that ensure proper concentration, homogeneity, and stability of the drug in dosed feed, as well as the safety of personnel and the environment, were prerequisites for the toxicological tests. GC methods using a rubidium-sensitized nitrogen detector were developed for analysis of doxylamine succinate in animal feed, human urine, and wastewater at levels as low as 1 ppm, 100 ppb, and 100 ppb, respectively. Sample extracts were cleaned up by liquid-liquid partitioning, followed by additional cleanup on a column of silica gel. Data are presented concerning the stability of the drug in animal feed, extraction efficiencies, and the use of the silica gel cleanup column to separate the caffeine interference from doxylamine in extracts of human urine. Partition values and ancillary data concerning analysis of the drug in feed, by HPLC at levels as low as 10 ppm, are also reported.

  15. Reduction of erythema in hairless guinea pigs after cutaneous sulfur mustard vapor exposure by pretreatment with niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yourick, J.J.; Dawson, J.S.; Mitcheltree, L.W.

    1995-12-31

    Erythema is the initial symptom that occurs after sulfur mustard (HD) cutaneous exposure. The time course of HD-induced erythema is similar to that observed after UV irradiation, which can be reduced by indomethacin. Sulfur mustard lethality is decreased by using promethazine, which is an antihistamine. Niacinamide can reduce microvesication after HD vapor exposure in hairless guinea pig (HGP) skin. The present study examines the effect of the combined administration of niacinamide, indomethacin and promethazine used alone or in all possible combinations on the degree of erythema and histopathologic skin damage after HD exposure in HGP. Niacinamide (750 mg kg%`, i.p.), promethazine (12.5 mg kg%1, i.m.) or indomethacin (4 mg kg%1, p.o.) used singly or in combination was given as a 30-min pretreatment before an 8-min HD vapor cup skin exposure. Using a combination pretreatment of niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin, erythema was reduced at 4 (91%) and 6 (55%) h, but not 24 h after HD. The incidence of histopathological skin changes (microvesicles, follicular involvement, epidermal necrosis, intracellular edema and pustular epidermatitis) 24 h after HD was not reduced. This study indicates that HD (induced erythema) may result from several different mechanisms, including inflammation, histamine release and DNA damage. It is suggested that two phases of inflammation may occur: an early phase sensitive to antihistamines and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and a late phase of extensive cell damage that was not sensitive to these drug pretreatments.

  16. Guideline of Chronic Urticaria Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Lauren M; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-09-01

    Urticaria is a relatively common condition that if chronic can persist for weeks, months or years and affect quality of life significantly. The etiology is often difficult to determine, especially as it becomes chronic. Many cases of chronic urticaria are thought to be autoimmune, although there is no consensus that testing for autoimmunity alters the diagnostic or management strategies or outcomes. Many times, urticaria is easily managed with antihistamines and/or short courses of oral corticosteroids, but too often control is insufficient and additional therapies must be added. For years, immune modulating medications, such as cyclosporine and Mycophenolate Mofetil, have been used in cases refractory to antihistamines and oral corticosteroids, although the evidence supporting their efficacy and safety has been limited. Omalizumab was recently approved for the treatment of chronic urticaria unresponsive to H1-antagonists. This IgG anti-IgE monoclonal antibody has been well demonstrated to safely and effectively control chronic urticaria at least partially in approximately 2/3 of cases. However, the mechanism of action and duration of treatment for omalizumab is still unclear. It is hoped that as the pathobiology of chronic urticaria becomes better defined, future therapies that target specific mechanistic pathways will be developed that continue to improve the management of these often challenging patients. PMID:27334777

  17. Current Situation and Progress in Mizolastin Application in Dermatology%咪唑斯汀在皮肤科的应用现状及新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敏; 乔亮

    2012-01-01

    咪唑斯汀是第二代新型抗组胺药物,对H1受体具有较强的选择性和特异性,其抗组胺作用不仅起效快,而且持续时间长,药效能维持24 h,且无抗胆碱、抗肾上腺素及抗5-羟色胺活性.如今,咪唑斯汀被广泛应用于皮肤科各种疾病的治疗中,如急性及慢性荨麻疹、湿疹、各种皮炎等.现就近年来此药在皮肤科临床应用中的进展予以综述.%Mizolastin is the second generation of antihistamine, with strong selectivity and specificity to histamine H1 -receptor,which has no anticholinergic,resistance to adrenaline and resistance to 5-HT activity. Mizolastin has a quick and long antihistamine effect( up to 24 h ), and has been widely used in dermatological treatment,such as acute and chronic urticaria,eczema,and various dermatotes. Here is to make a review on the clinical application of mizolastin in dermatology in recent years.

  18. Clinical features of serum sickness after Australian snake antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Nicole M; Downes, Michael A; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2015-12-15

    Serum sickness is a delayed immune reaction in which the immune system responds to a protein in antiserum as a potentially harmful substance and mounts an IgG-mediated antibody response. A 32 year-old female patient had systemic envenoming following a bite by a red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus). She was treated with Tiger snake antivenom and recovered over 24 h and did not develop myotoxicity. She then presented with local pain, itching and swelling, which was partially treated with antihistamines. Eleven days after the bite she presented again with symptoms of worsening serum sickness including rash on the upper legs, joint and muscle pain in arms, ankles and knees, and nausea. The patient was prescribed five days of prednisone 50 mg/day, antihistamine 10 mg/day and analgesia 1000 mg/day and improved over 2 days. She had no further problems on follow up at 4 months. This case highlights that serum sickness can cause significant effects after the treatment of snake envenoming. It develops 5-14 days after antivenom administration and has characteristic clinical and laboratory features. Severe cases of serum sickness can result in morbidity but it appears to respond well to corticosteroid treatment. PMID:26525657

  19. Role of Leukotriene receptor antagonist Montelukast in the treatment of chronic urticaria: A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic urticaria is a disabling disease which may be refractory to standard therapies. Leukotriene receptor antagonists like montelukast have been tried in allergic diseases like asthma and find mention as a therapeutic option in chronic urticaria. Purposes: A randomized single-blinded non-placebo controlled study to evaluate the role of montelukast, in addition to the adjunctive role of non-sedating antihistamine levocetirizine (H1, was conducted in patients with chronic urticaria.Methods: Thirty-five patients with chronic urticaria were enrolled. Medication was given for a period of twelve weeks. Montelukast 10mg/day in an adult and 5mg in the age group 6-13 years,4 mg 2-6 years and levocetirizine 5 mg once a day was added, if patient had new weals while on therapy. The improvement was monitored by estimating the episodes of wheals and pruritus in any two weeks period.Results: Twenty-two patients showed a good response with occasional wheals at the end of 2 weeks and no weals at the end of 12 weeks. These included all 8 patients on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS. Four of these patients relapsed on discontinuation of therapy.Conclusion: Montelukast is effective in chronic refractory urticaria especially in patients on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with occasional add-on use of a non-sedating anti-histamine.

  20. Evaluation of domperidone as a modifier of gamma-radiation-induced emesis. Report for January 1984-January 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordts, R.E.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Hardy, K.A.

    1987-09-01

    The D2 antidopaminergic drug Domperidone was evaluated singly and in combination with synthetic adrenocorticoid and an H2 antihistamine for its ability to reduce the acute emetic effects of /sup 60/Co whole-body radiation. Random-source adult male dogs were fasted 12 hours, fed a standard meal, injected 44 minutes later and irradiated 47 minutes after that. Four groups of dogs were radiated after drug injections as follows: saline (Con), domperidone (Dom), cimetidine + thiethylperazine (Cim+Thi), and dexamethasone + domperidone + cimetidine (Dex+Dom+Cim). Drug quantities for dogs represented 10 mg Dom, 10 mg Thi, 20 mg Dex, and 300 mg Cim for an average human (70 ka, 1.8 m2). Subjects were exposed on an up-down schedule to determine the radiation necessary to produce vomiting in 50% (ED50) of each group. Emesis onset times, offset times, and number of episodes were recorded. The ED50 of Dex+Dom+Cim was higher than Con. Dom produced more emetic episodes than Con or Dex+Dom+Cim. This drug in combination with an adrenocorticoid and antihistamine significantly raised the emetic threshold while maintaining episodes at a low incidence.

  1. Effects of loratadine and cetirizine on serum levels of neuropeptides in patients with chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başak, Pinar Y; Vural, Huseyin; Kazanoglu, Oya O; Erturan, Ijlal; Buyukbayram, Halil I

    2014-12-01

    H1-receptor inhibiting drugs, namely loratadine and cetirizine, were frequently used in treatment of chronic urticaria. Urticarial weal and flare reactions, a neurogenic reflex due to neuropeptides, were reported to be more effectively inhibited by cetirizine than loratadine. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of systemic loratadine and cetirizine treatments on serum levels of selected neuropeptides in chronic urticaria. Treatment groups of either systemic loratadine or cetirizine (10 mg/d), consisting of 16 and 22 patients, respectively, were included. Serum levels of stem cell factor (SCF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nerve growth factor (NGF), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and substance P (SP) were detected before and after one week of treatment with antihistamines. Serum NPY and VIP levels were significantly decreased when compared before and after treatment with antihistamines (P neuropeptides. Systemic loratadine and cetirizine treatments in patients with chronic urticaria precisely caused variations in serum levels of neuropeptides. The predominant effect of cetirizine compared to loratadine on reducing serum SCF levels might be explained with anti-inflammatory properties of cetirizine.

  2. Poisoning of dogs and cats by drugs intended for human use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Pizzo, Fabiola; Caloni, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    One of the main causes of poisoning of small animals is exposure to drugs intended for human use. Poisoning may result from misuse by pet owners, off-label use of medicines or, more frequently, accidental ingestion of drugs that are improperly stored. This review focuses on classes of drugs intended for human use that are most commonly involved in the poisoning of small animals and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature. To perform this review a comprehensive search of public databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar) using key search terms was conducted. Additionally, relevant textbooks and reference lists of articles pertaining to the topic were reviewed to locate additional related articles. Most published information on small animal poisoning by drugs intended for human use was from animal and human poison control centres or from single case reports. The dog was the species most frequently poisoned. The major drugs involved included analgesics (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), antihistamines (H1-antihistamines), cardiovascular drugs (calcium channel blockers), central nervous system drugs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, baclofen, benzodiazepines and zolpidem), gastrointestinal drugs (loperamide), nutritional supplements (vitamin D and iron salts) and respiratory drugs (β2-adrenergic receptor agonists). PMID:25475169

  3. Serious drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, J

    1993-10-01

    Of the many varieties of drug interactions, which occur when the disposition or actions of one drug are changed by another, only a few are serious or potentially fatal. A representative outline of some of these illustrates the problem. Precipitant drugs are those which produce the interaction, and object drugs are those whose effects are changed. The interactions which are usually significant are those which alter the metabolism, involve renal excretion, or change the effects of the object drug, especially when the object drug has a low therapeutic index (cardiovascular drugs, anticoagulants, drugs acting on the brain, hypoglycemic drugs, hormones, and cytotoxic drugs). Warfarin toxicity, for example, is produced by aspirin, phenylbutazone, and azapropazone. The dosage requirements of warfarin are reduced by chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and other quinolones, erythromycin and some of the other macrolides, metronidazole and other imidazoles, tetracyclines, amiodarone, cimetidine (but not ranitidine), and fibrates. Potassium-depleting drugs can potentiate the action of digoxin, and the elimination of digoxin can be reduced by amiodarone, propafenone, quinidine, and verapamil. Combined oral contraceptives can lose effectiveness through the interaction of carbamazepine, griseofulvin, phenytoin, or rifampicin, which increase estrogen metabolism. In addition, broad-spectrum antibiotics such as ampicillin or tetracyclines also reduce contraceptive effectiveness by altering gut absorption. Even a single drink of an alcoholic beverage may be dangerous to people taking antidepressants, antihistamines, antipsychotic drugs, benzodiazepines, or lithium. Antihistamines suffer inhibited metabolism in the liver if taken in conjunction with the antifungal imidazoles and some of the macrolide antibiotics. Cardiotoxicity of antihistamines is also enhanced by drugs with similar cardiotoxic effects. Lithium potentiation is enhanced by the new serotonin-reuptake inhibitors, and lithium

  4. 慢性荨麻疹与幽门螺旋杆菌感染相关性的探讨%The investigation of the relationship of Chronic idiopathic urticaria and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻荣武; 胡鲜香

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship of chronic idiopathic urticaria(CIU) and Helicobacter pylori(Hp). Methods The Helicobacter pylori stool antigens(HpSA) from 59 Chronic idiopathic urticaria patients and 65 cases of the healthy control group were detected with monoclonal antibody. And besides antihistamine, the patients with positive HpSA were treated with the eradication of Hp. And the patients with negative HpSA were only treated with antihistamine. Results There were 46 cases among 59 Hp patients showed positive HPSA, the ratio was 77.96%. And the cured was 41 cases (As cure rate was 89.13%). After the treatment, all 13 cases of the CIU patients with negative HpSA recrudesced in different degree. Conclusions CIU partly occurs related to Hp infection. On CIU patients with unknown pathogeny, Hp infection should be examined. If the examination indicates Hp infection, the patients should be treated with antihistamine, and be carried out the eradication of the Hp.%目的 探讨慢性荨麻疹(chronic idiopathic urticaria,CIU)与幽门螺旋杆菌(Helicobacter pylori,HP)的关系.方法 采用单克隆抗体对59例慢性荨麻疹患者及65例健康对照组的粪便Hp抗原进行检测,对粪便Hp抗原检测阳性患者除给予抗组胺治疗外,同时给予根除HP治疗.对粪便HP抗原检测阴性患者单给予抗组胺治疗.结果 59例慢性荨麻疹患者有46例粪便Hp抗原阳性,阳性率77.96%.治愈41例(治愈率89.13%).13例HP粪便抗原阴性慢性荨麻疹患者治疗后全部不同程度复发.结论 部分慢性荨麻疹发病与HP感染有关,对于病因不明的慢性荨麻疹患者,要给予检测是否有HP感染,检测提示HP感染,在给予抗组织胺药的同时,应同时进行根除HP治疗.

  5. Pediatric cinnarizine overdose and toxicokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dan; Lurie, Yael; Finkelstein, Yoram; Schmid, Tal; Gopher, Asher; Kleid, David; Bentur, Yedidia

    2006-05-01

    Cinnarizine, a piperazine derivative, is a widely prescribed medication for the treatment of vestibular disorders and motion sickness. Cinnarizine has antihistaminic, antiserotoninergic, antidopaminergic, and calcium channel-blocking properties. We present the first report in the English literature of cinnarizine poisoning and toxicokinetics. A 30-month-old toddler ingested 225 mg of cinnarizine, 18 times the recommended dose for older children. Four hours later, she became jittery with a wide-based gait and vomited 3 times. She was examined by her family physician, who reported stupor and twitching in both hands. On admission to the hospital, 6 hours after the ingestion, she was stuporous and had 3 short, generalized tonic-clonic convulsions that were controlled with a single dose of midazolam. Full clinical recovery was seen 10 hours after ingestion. Serum cinnarizine levels were 7407, 2629, and 711 ng/mL on admission and at 4 and 12 hours thereafter, respectively, 26.9 times higher than the therapeutic levels in adults. Elimination rate constant, calculated by linear regression of the ln concentrations of the 3 data points, was 0.19. Half-life, calculated from the equation t(1/2) = 0.693/kel, where kel is the elimination rate constant, was 3.65 hours. The manufacturing company revealed that their database contains 23 reports of cinnarizine overdose (adult and children), received between 1972 and 2004. Clinically, these cases reflect mainly symptoms of alterations in consciousness ranging from somnolence to stupor and coma, vomiting, extrapyramidal symptoms, and hypotonia. In a small number of young children, convulsions developed; recovery was uneventful in 4 cases and not reported in 1. The neurologic complication may be explained by the antihistaminic effect of cinnarizine because central nervous system depression and convulsions are known complications of antihistaminic overdose. It is hypothesized that cinnarizine-induced convulsions also are related to the

  6. Fluconazole-induced Stevens-Jonson syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umashanker P. Keshri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old girl self-administered tab fluconazole for vulvovaginal candidiasis and developed fever, myalgia and erythematous papular eruptions with itching at both upper and lower lip, mucous membrane of the mouth, vaginal region, which subsequently changed into blister and multiple ulcers. She also had difficulty in swallowing due to painful erosions of the mouth and oropharynx and severe burning pain at vulval and vaginal region. There was bilateral conjunctival hemorrhage. Investigation report revealed leukocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein, which was suggesting the diagnosis of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. She was treated mainly by corticosteroids, antihistamines and antimicrobials and improved. Time taken for resolution of the lesion was 14 days. Rechallenge with the offending drug was not done in the interest of the patient and due to ethical constraints. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 566-568

  7. A Recent Perspective on Discovery and Development of Diverse Therapeutic Agents Inspired from Isatin Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Rajesh A; Karunanidhi, Sivanandhan; Jain, Kavita; Shaikh, Mahamadhanif; Hampannavar, Girish; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar

    2016-01-01

    Isatin as an alkaloidal framework have consistently attracted attention of medicinal chemist towards development of wide range of novel therapeutic agents. This review report has discussed significant isatin lead molecules and their derivatives which have shown promising biological potential in recent times. The substituted isatins showing a potent pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antitubercular, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-histaminic, anti-HIV, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-Parkinson's and antidiabetic have been described in this review. The mechanism of action leading to therapeutic activity of the respective isatin derivation has also been recorded. This review reveals that the systematic and rational modifications on isatin motif exhibited significant bio-activities which can be exploited for the development of potent novel therapeutic agents in the future studies. Hence the quest to investigate more structural alterations on isatin scaffold should be continued. PMID:26369813

  8. Difficult to control atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsow, Ulf; Wollenberg, Andreas; Simon, Dagmar; Taïeb, Alain; Werfel, Thomas; Oranje, Arnold; Gelmetti, Carlo; Svensson, Ake; Deleuran, Mette; Calza, Anne-Marie; Giusti, Francesca; Lübbe, Jann; Seidenari, Stefania; Ring, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Difficult to control atopic dermatitis (AD) presents a therapeutic challenge and often requires combinations of topical and systemic treatment. Anti-inflammatory treatment of severe AD most commonly includes topical glucocorticosteroids and topical calcineurin antagonists used for exacerbation management and more recently for proactive therapy in selected cases. Topical corticosteroids remain the mainstay of therapy, the topical calcineurin inhibitors tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are preferred in certain locations. Systemic anti-inflammatory treatment is an option for severe refractory cases. Microbial colonization and superinfection contribute to disease exacerbation and thus justify additional antimicrobial / antiseptic treatment. Systemic antihistamines (H1) may relieve pruritus but do not have sufficient effect on eczema. Adjuvant therapy includes UV irradiation preferably of UVA1 wavelength. "Eczema school" educational programs have been proven to be helpful. PMID:23663504

  9. Efficacy of levodropropizine in pediatric cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blasio, Francesco; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi; Zanasi, Alessando

    2012-10-01

    Cough in children is among the most common problems managed by pediatricians, and occurs more frequently in preschool than in older children. Most acute episodes of cough are due to viral upper respiratory tract infections. The morbidity associated with acute cough in a child extends also to parents, teachers, and other family members and caregivers. Unfortunately, therapeutic options for acute cough in children are severely limited due to the absence of drugs shown to be effective antitussives with an acceptable safety profile. Agents used in the management of adult cough, such as narcotics (codeine, hydrocodone), the non-narcotic opioid dextromethorphan, first-generation, potentially sedating antihistamines, and decongestants such as pseudoephedrine, have all been deemed inadequate for treatment of acute pediatric cough on a risk/benefit basis. A growing body of evidence suggests that the peripherally acting antitussive, levodropropizine, may be an attractive alternative for the treatment of bothersome acute cough in children.

  10. Childhood Pityriasis Rosea Inversa without Herald Patch Mimicking Cutaneous Mastocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Ertan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Pityriasis rosea is a self-limited inflammatory condition of the skin that mostly affects young adults. Several less common atypical presentations have been reported. Case Presentation:A 6-year old girl with red-brown maculopapular eruption sized 0, 5-1 cm in diameter localized on neck, trunk and popliteal region visited our general pediatric outpatient clinic. The eruption was wide spread especially on flexural areas. After consulting dermatologist skin biopsy was performed. According to clinical and histopathological findings as inverse (flexural pityriasis rosea was diagnosed. For treatment, systemic antihistamine, topical corticosteroid cream and emollient were applied. The lesions healed in two months. Spontaneous healing of the eruption also confirmed the diagnosis of pityriasis rosea. Conclusion:We present this interesting pediatric case to show and discuss pityriasis rosea, atypical presentations, differential diagnosis and the importance of dermatological examination and importance of dermatologic consultation for pediatric patients with skin eruption.

  11. The current and future therapy of allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlaender, M H

    1998-08-01

    A wealth of antiallergic drugs is available for ocular allergy, and many new drugs will soon be approved. Pharmaceutical companies frequently seek approval of anti-inflammatory drugs for allergic indications, because it is relatively easy to perform clinical trials for ocular allergy. Extremely safe drugs for mild to moderate degrees of allergic conjunctivitis include antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Topical corticosteroids, preferably those with reduced side effects, are available for more severe forms of ocular allergy. The choice of an antiallergic drug may be guided by the indication for which the drug was approved. The ultimate selection will be made based on the patient's symptoms, the drug's availability, and its cost. PMID:10387470

  12. Simultaneous Determination of 25 Common Pharmaceuticals in Whole Blood Using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose; Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2012-01-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of 25 common pharmaceuticals in whole blood. The selected pharmaceuticals represent the most frequently detected drugs in our forensic laboratory with basic properties...... such as analgesics, antidepressants, antihistamines, antihypertensives, antipsychotics and ß-blockers. Whole blood samples were extracted with butyl acetate after adjusting pH with 2M NaOH. The target analytes were separated on a 100 × 2.1 mm ACQUITY BEH 1.7 µm C18 column by a formic acid/acetonitrile gradient...... elution using a Waters ACQUITY Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography system. Quantification was performed on a Waters tandem quadrupole ACQUITY TQD using multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode. The analytes were eluted within 11 min. The limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.002 to 0.01 mg...

  13. Drug-induced QT interval prolongation in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben K. Becker

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer patients are at an increased risk for QT interval prolongation and subsequent potentially fatal Torsade de pointes tachycardia due to the multiple drugs used for treatment of malignancies and the associated symptoms and complications. Based on a systematic review of the literature, this article analyzes the risk for prolongation of the QT interval with antineoplastic agents and commonly used concomitant drugs. This includes anthracyclines, fluorouracil, alkylating agents, and new molecularly targeted therapeutics, such as vascular disruption agents. Medications used in the supportive care can also prolong QT intervals, such as methadone, 5-HT3-antagonists and antihistamines, some antibiotics, antifungals, and antivirals. We describe the presumed mechanism of QT interval prolongation, drug-specific considerations, as well as important clinical interactions. Multiple risk factors and drug–drug interactions increase this risk for dangerous arrhythmias. We propose a systematic approach to evaluate cancer patients for the risk of QT interval prolongation and how to prevent adverse effects.

  14. Contractile reaction of isolated frog aorta after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action of X-rays (50 kV, filtered by 0.3 mm Al) on helical strip of frog aorta (rana esculenta) has been investigated. The isolated preparations have a stable basal tone and are radio-sensitive to X-rays which induce reversible, dose-dependent, contractile responses. After repeated irradiational tachyphylaxis appears. The threshold doses are about 250 R at 3 to 6 kR/min, antiadrenergic (phentolamine, propranolol), anticholinergic (atropin), antihistaminic (Neo-Bridal) and serotoninergic (Deseril) drugs have no visible influence on the X-ray induced reaction, i.e. these action mechanisms of the irradiation-induced contraction do not seem probable. Theophylline and cAMP inhibit the X-ray contraction probably non-specifically. Indometacin also inhibits the X-ray contraction: this suggests participation of prostaglandin-mechanism on the contraction of frog aorta after irradiation. (orig.)

  15. 支气管哮喘防治药物的进展%The Advances of Clinical Research and Application of Drugs for Prevention and Treatment of Bronchial Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉

    2001-01-01

    文章系统地介绍了支气管哮喘防治药物的进展,内容包括β2-激动药、茶碱、抗胆碱药物、糖皮质激素、肥大细胞稳定药、抗组胺药、抗白三烯类药物、新型抗炎药、免疫抑制药及免疫疗法的进展等,可供大家参考。%In This paper, the advances of clinical research and application of the drugs for preventing and treating bronchial asthma were reviewed, with a detailed reference to such drugs as β2-adrenoceptor agonist, theophylline, anticholinergic drugs, glucocorticoids, mast cell membrane stabilizers, antihistamines, leukotriene receptor antogonists, new anti-inflammatory drugs and immunosuppressive drugs as well as immunotherapy.

  16. [Antidepressives of the 3rd, 4th and 5th generation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svestka, J

    1994-02-01

    Antidepressants are classified into five generations. Preparations of the first generation affect various neurotransmitter systems and are therefore associated with many undesirable effects (e.g. tricyclic antidepressants, maprotiline). The second generation of antidepressants is already devoid of anticholinergic action and their adrenolytic and antihistaminic effects are weaker (e.g. mianserine, mirtazapine, trazodone). The antidepressant action of preparations of the third generation is mediated only by one of the three main neurotransmitter systems for depression (5-HT, noradrenaline, dopamine) and does not affect muscarine, histamine and adrenergic cerebral systems (e.g. SSRI, ipsapirone, viloxazine, reboxetine, bupropione). Recently antidepressants of the fourth generation were synthetized which influence only the serotonin, and noradrenaline or dopamine system (e.g. milnacipran, befloxatone). The fifth generation of antidepressants foresees the exclusive action on 5-HT, noradrenaline and dopamine systems of the CNS in varying ratios (e.g. venlafaxine, cericlamine). PMID:8174184

  17. Treating cough and cold: Guidance for caregivers of children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ran D

    2011-11-01

    Despite the widespread use of over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medications (CCMs), the effectiveness of most CCMs has not been proven in children. A meta-analysis summarizing trials using OTC CCMs for viral-induced cough found no evidence for or against the use of OTC medicines in both paediatric and adult populations when cough frequency and severity, as well as physician assessments, were compared. Furthermore, North American data suggest that OTC CCMs may be associated with medication errors and adverse events, resulting in visits to emergency departments and even leading to death. The present article provides information on current evidence for cough and cold therapies, including fluid intake, humidified air, antihistamines, echinacea, zinc, honey and vitamin C, for caregivers of children and youth. PMID:23115499

  18. Gabapentin and pregabalin for the treatment of chronic pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Kazuki M; Sharma, Divya; Schonfeld, Ariel R; Kwatra, Shawn G

    2016-09-01

    Chronic pruritus is a distressing symptom that is often refractory to treatment. Patients frequently fail topical therapies and oral over-the-counter antihistamines, prompting the clinician to consider alternative therapies such as neuroactive agents. Herein, the use of gabapentin and pregabalin, 2 medications well known for treating neuropathic pain and epilepsy that are occasionally used for relieving chronic pruritus is explored. The findings from original sources published to date to evaluate the use of gabapentin and pregabalin as antipruritic agents are explored. They are found to be promising alternative treatments for the relief of several forms of chronic pruritus, particularly uremic pruritus and neuropathic or neurogenic itch, in patients who fail conservative therapies.

  19. Inclusion Complex of Paclitaxel in Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yue; ZHOU Yu-lai; REN Yong; YAN Wei-qun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction Paclitaxel (as Taxol) is a kind of diterpenoid natural product[1] extracted from Chinese yew. It has been reported to have high anti-tumor effects, such as the activity against oophorama, mammary cancer, encephaloma, cervical carcinoma, and non- small-cell lung carcinoma[2-5]. One of the major problems of paclitaxel applied to therapy is its extremely low solubility in water[6]. In addition, paclitaxel is administered as a slow infusion in a vehicle consisting of Cremophor EL (polyoxyethylated castor oil ). However, Cremophor has been observed to cause severe, occasionally fatal hypersensitivity reactions in animals and humans[7].Therefore, paclitaxel therapy includes a prophylactic regimen of antihistamines and corticosteroids[8] , along with a prolonged infusion time to reduce the severity and incidence of hypersensitivity reactions. Because of the reasons mentioned above, currently its preparation needs to be improved further[9].

  20. Chronic toxicity of diphenhydramine hydrochloride and erythromycin thiocyanate to Daphnia, Daphnia magna, in a continuous exposure test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, J.R.; Schreier, T.M.; Bernardy, J.A.; Franz, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DH; Benadryl TM, an over-the-counter antihistamine) and erythromycin thiocyanate (ET; a commonly used macrolide antibiotic) are pharmaceutical compounds whose chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna had not been characterized. Continuous exposure to DH concentrations about 5 times greater than the maximum reported environmental concentration of 0.023 lg/L for 21 days or to ET concentrations about 40 times the maximum reported environmental concentration of 6 (mu or u)g/L for 21 days did not significantly impact D. magna survival and production. In this study the no observable effect concentration for DH was 0.12 (mu or u)g/L and for ET was 248 (mu or u)g/L.

  1. Topical levocabastine—a review of therapeutic efficacy compared with topical sodium cromoglycate and oral terfenadine on days with high pollen counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela de Azevedo

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Levocabastine is a new H1-receptor antagonist specifically developed for the topical treatment of seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Clinical experience to date clearly demonstrates that levocabastine eye drops and nasal spray are effective and well tolerated for the treatment of this allergic disorder. Analysis of data from a number of comparative trials reveals that topical levocabastine is at least as effective as sodium cromoglycate and the oral antihistamine terfenadine, even on days with high pollen counts (≥ 50 pollen particles/m3 when symptoms are severe. Coupled with a rapid onset of action and twice daily dosing, these findings make topical levocabastine an attractive alternative to other therapeutic approaches as a first-line therapy for the treatment, of this common condition.

  2. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF 3-[(5-SUBSTITUED-1, 3, 4 OXADIAZOLE-2-YL METHYL AMINO]-2-METHYL QUINAZOLIN-4(3H-ONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Dhani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of establishing a new drug is exceedingly complexioned involves the talents of people from a variety of disciplines including Pharmaceutical chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, pharmaceutics and medicine. Quinazolinone is a heterocyclic chemical compound. There are two structural isomers, 2-quinazolinone and 4-quinazolinone, with the 4-isomer being the more common. Various novel classes of structurally different quinazolinones have been designed and synthesized depicting potential interventions such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, anticancer CNS depressant, and so on. All the synthesized quinazolinone derivatives were confirmed preliminarily by M.P and TLC and further all the synthesized compounds were screened for anti-inflammatory activity using Phenyl butazone as the standard and carragennin induced paw oedema model used for anti-inflammatory activity.

  3. Acute and long-term management of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, D; Geromi, M; Panesar, S S;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic reactions to food can have serious consequences. This systematic review summarizes evidence about the immediate management of reactions and longer-term approaches to minimize adverse impacts. METHODS: Seven bibliographic databases were searched from their inception to September...... reviewers critically appraised the studies using the appropriate tools. Data were not suitable for meta-analysis due to heterogeneity so were narratively synthesized. RESULTS: Eighty-four studies were included, but two-thirds were at high risk of potential bias. There was little evidence about acute...... management for non-life-threatening reactions. H1-antihistamines may be of benefit, but this evidence was in part derived from studies on those with cross-reactive birch pollen allergy. Regarding long-term management, avoiding the allergenic food or substituting an alternative was commonly recommended...

  4. [Acquired angioedema with C1-INH deficiency and accompanying chronic spontaneous urticaria in a patient with chronic lymphatic B cell leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klossowski, N; Braun, S A; von Gruben, V; Losem, C; Plewe, D; Homey, B; Meller, S

    2015-10-01

    Acquired angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE) is characterized by recurrent edema of the subcutaneous and/or submucosal tissue without wheals and negative family history of angioedema. Here, we present the case of a patient with a chronic lymphatic B cell leukemia who suffered from both C1-INH-AAE and chronic spontaneous urticaria. Oral corticosteroids, antihistamines, and the anti-IgE antibody omalizumab were applied to treat the chronic urticaria in combination with the plasma-derived C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate Berinert® and the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist icatibant, but the symptoms did not improved significantly. Thus, polychemotherapy targeting the slow-growing lymphoproliferative disease including rituximab was initiated, which resulted in remission of both the urticaria and the angioedema.

  5. Update on the treatment of chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto-Barredo, L; Silvestre, J F; Giménez-Arnau, A M

    2014-06-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria, also known as chronic idiopathic urticaria or simply chronic urticaria, is a common disorder that has a prevalence in the general population that ranges between 0.5% and 1%. This condition negatively affects the patient's quality of life and has considerable impact on direct and indirect health-related costs. Chronic urticaria is difficult to manage. Nonsedating H1 antihistamines are the first line of therapy, but fewer than 50% of patients experience relief at recommended dosages. Although guidelines call for increasing the dosage when response is inadequate, some patients still do not achieve adequate control of symptoms. New treatment alternatives, with proven efficacy under the standards of evidence-based medical practice, must therefore be developed.

  6. Oral Mirtazapine in Persistent Chronic Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kulaç

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria accounts for up to 75% of patients with urticaria attending dermatology clinics and can persist for many years. Chronic urticaria often causes significant quality of life issues due to pruritus and urticarial lesions resistant to treatment. Patients attending urticaria clinics have a similar impairment of quality of life as those with eczema or those with coronary disease awaiting by pass surgery. A good response to standard treatment with oral H1 receptor antagonists occurs in under 50%. Immunomodulatory or immunosuppression therapy might therefore required in patients with severe refractory chronic urticaria. But these treatments have too many adverse effects and difficulties in their using. In two current reports, three cases of severe chronic urticaria, unresponsive to conventional therapy, with a successful response to antidepressant mirtazapine were presented. Herein we present three cases responding oral mirtazapine, resistant combination therapies including antihistaminics, leucotrien antagonists and systemic corticosteroids. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 31-3

  7. Analysis of Drug Utilization for Acute Urticaria and Chronic Urticaria in Our Hospital%我院治疗急性与慢性荨麻疹的药物使用情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敏华; 吴晓玲

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解我院治疗荨麻疹的用药情况,比较慢性及急性荨麻疹的用药特点.方法:选取我院2012年1-10月门诊诊断为急性或慢性荨麻疹的处方各600张,采用回顾性分析方法,调查急性荨麻疹与慢性荨麻疹不同处方药物类别使用频次、具体使用药物构成比排序、不合理用药情况.结果:抗组胺药在荨麻疹的治疗中共被使用2 085次,用药频次最高;糖皮质激素在急性荨麻疹的治疗中共被使用303次,作用较突出;部分新型抗过敏药物已逐渐应用于慢性荨麻疹的治疗;荨麻疹不合理用药率为33.0%,不合理用药主要存在于抗组胺药联用、抗菌药物、糖皮质激素类药及中成药的使用等方面.结论:抗组胺药仍是荨麻疹治疗的首选药物;临床医师应严格掌握抗组胺药联用、抗生素、糖皮质激素类药及中成药的使用原则,避免滥用.%OBJECTIVE:To investigate the drug utilization for urticaria in our hospital,and to compare the medication characteristics of chronic urticaria and acute urticaria.METHODS:A total of 1 200 prescriptions which included 600 samples diagnosed as the acute urticaria and the remaining 600 as chronic urticaria were selected from our hospital during Jan.-Oct.2012.The frequency of different category of drugs,constituent ratio sorting of drug used and irrational drug use were investigated in those prescriptions.RESULTS:In the treatment of urticaria,antihistamine showed the highest frequency of drug use,which was used for 2 085 times; the effect of glucocorticoid which was used for 303 times was prominent in the treatment of acute urticaria; part of new type anti-allergic drugs was gradually applied for chronic urticaria; the rate of irrational drug use was 33.0%,which mainly existed in the combined use of antihistamines,antibiotics,glucocorticoids and Chinese patent drug.CONCLUSIONS:Antihistamines still are the preferred drugs for urticaria; clinicians should

  8. BSACI guideline for the management of chronic urticaria and angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R J; Leech, S C; Till, S; Huber, P A J; Nasser, S M; Clark, A T

    2015-03-01

    This guidance for the management of patients with chronic urticaria and angioedema has been prepared by the Standards of Care Committee of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI). The guideline is based on evidence as well as on expert opinion and is aimed at both adult physicians and paediatricians practising in allergy. The recommendations are evidence graded. During the development of these guidelines, all BSACI members were included in the consultation process using a Web-based system. Their comments and suggestions were carefully considered by the Standards of Care Committee. Where evidence was lacking, a consensus was reached by the experts on the committee. Included in this management guideline are clinical classification, aetiology, diagnosis, investigations, treatment guidance with special sections on children with urticaria and the use of antihistamines in women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Finally, we have made recommendations for potential areas of future research.

  9. Chronic urticaria in adults: state-of-the-art in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Criado, Roberta Facchini Jardim; Maruta, Celina Wakisaka; Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva dos

    2015-01-01

    Chronic urticaria has been explored in several investigative aspects in the new millennium, either as to its pathogenesis, its stand as an autoimmune or auto-reactive disease, the correlation with HLA-linked genetic factors, especially with class II or its interrelation with the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. New second-generation antihistamines, which act as good symptomatic drugs, emerged and were commercialized over the last decade. Old and new drugs that may interfere with the pathophysiology of the disease, such as cyclosporine and omalizumab have been developed and used as treatments. The purpose of this article is to describe the current state of knowledge on aspects of chronic urticaria such as, pathophysiology, diagnosis and the current therapeutic approach proposed in the literature.

  10. New combination therapies for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, J F; Ohar, J A

    2001-03-01

    Combination products often have useful clinical benefits in asthma. The scientific rationale for combination therapy includes the fact that different agents have complimentary modes of action. Long-acting beta(2)-agonists have effects on airway smooth muscle, and inhaled corticosteroids have potent topical antiinflammatory effect. This combination has been shown to effectively reduce exacerbations and improve symptoms. Substantial clinical trial data provide a rationale for dual-control therapy supported by basic scientific data. Another combined therapy is inhaled steroids plus leukotriene-receptor antagonists, which provides the patient with two effective therapies. Leukotriene-receptor antagonist can also be combined with antihistamines for improved asthma control. Older therapies including theophylline and controlled release albuterol have been effectively added to inhaled corticosteroids, enabling a reduction in the dose of the inhaled steroids. Many other combination therapies are presently being tested. PMID:11224725

  11. Eosinophilic colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnenna Okpara; Bassam Aswad; Gyorgy Baffy

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic colitis (EC) is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease with a bimodal peak of prevalence in neonates and young adults. EC remains a little understood condition in contrast to the increasingly recognized eosinophilic esophagitis. Clinical presentation of EC is highly variable according to mucosal, transmural, or serosal predominance of inflammation. EC has a broad differential diagnosis because colon tissue eosinophilia often occurs in parasitic infection, drug-induced allergic reactions,inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders, which require thorough searching for secondary causes that may be specifically treated with antibiotics or dietary and drug elimination.Like eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease involving other segments of the gastrointestinal tract, EC responds very well to steroids that may be spared by using antihistamines, leukotriene inhibitors and biologics.

  12. Solar urticaria successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hughes, R

    2012-02-01

    Idiopathic solar urticaria (SU) is a rare, debilitating photodermatosis, which may be difficult to treat. First-line treatment with antihistamines is effective in mild cases, but remission after phototherapeutic induction of tolerance is often short-lived. Other treatment options include plasma exchange, photopheresis and cyclosporin. We present two cases of severe, idiopathic SU, which were resistant to conventional treatment. Both patients achieved remission after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and have remained in remission at 13 months and 4 years, respectively. There are only two case reports of successful treatment of solar urticaria with IVIg. In our experience IVIg given at a total dose of 2 g\\/kg over several 5-day courses about a month apart is an effective treatment option for severe idiopathic SU. It is also generally safe, even if certainly subject to significant theoretical risks, such as induction of viral infection or anaphylaxis.

  13. Dermatological medication effects on male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian Wong; Heller, Misha M; Eliason, Mark J; Murase, Jenny E

    2013-01-01

    Many drugs have been reported to impair semen parameters, leading to temporary or persistent infertility. Therefore, potential fathers may be concerned about the effect of medications on fertility. We searched the MEDLINE database of articles in English combining key terms including "male infertility," "spermatogenesis," "fertility," "drug effects," and "dermatology." Administration of methotrexate and finasteride has resulted in severe oligospermia and reversible infertility. Ketoconazole has had negative effects on sperm motility and testosterone production. Few individual case reports and a limited number of studies have demonstrated negative effects of tetracyclines, erythromycin, chloroquine, glucocorticoids, spironolactone, and antihistamines on fertility. It is important to counsel male patients when appropriate about the reversible negative effect on fertility when taking methotrexate and finasteride, and the adverse effect of ketoconazole. Patients may be reassured that taking oral retinoids, cyclosporine, azathioprine, and tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors should not affect their fertility. PMID:23914891

  14. Chronic urticaria: new management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic urticaria is defined as episodic or daily hives lasting for at least 6 weeks and impairs quality of life. Two main subtypes include chronic idiopathic (spontaneous) urticaria and inducible (physical) urticaria, but some patients have urticarial vasculitis. "Autoimmune chronic urticaria" implies the presence of histamine releasing or mast cell activating autoantibodies to IgE or FcϵRI, the high affinity receptor on mast cells and basophils. In patients not readily controlled with labeled dosages of second generation H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines), there is evidence for reduction of urticaria using up to 4 fold increases in labeled dosages. The biologic modifier, omalizumab, helps to reduce lesions of chronic urticaria within 1-2 weeks. PMID:25383135

  15. Chronic Urticaria: Indian Context—Challenges and Treatment Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujoy Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urticaria is a common condition that occurs in both children and adults. Most cases have no specific allergic trigger and the aetiology of urticaria remains idiopathic and occasionally spontaneous in nature. Inappropriate advice such as avoidance of foods (milk, egg, prawn, and brinjal is common place in certain sections of India mostly by nonspecialists that should not be routinely recommended. It is important to look for physical urticarias such as pressure urticaria in chronic cases, which may be present either alone or in combination with other causes. Autoimmune causes for chronic urticaria have been found to play an important role in a significant proportion of patients. Long-acting nonsedating antihistamines at higher than the standard doses is safe and effective. Quality of life is affected adversely in patients with chronic symptomatic urticaria and some may require multidisciplinary management.

  16. Pain – Part I. Pharmaco-therapeutic management (ro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuns, C. I.,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of pain mechanisms require different treatments that address to the different stages of pain production, transmission, modulation and control and at the same time can be individualized according to each patient. In this respect several substances with specific anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic activity,tranquilizers, etc. are successfully used in pain, they are supplemented by physical and chemical means. Treatment of pain is achieved by removing the cause that produced it. Elimination of inflammation, ischemia control, of infection or nerve compression, many times can lead to complete disappearance of pain. In thepresent referate groups of substances with implications in pain are presented. Are presented sintheticaly:amines, antihistamines group, anti-inflammatory nonsteroidic drugs (classic and modern, anesthetics and tranquilizers groups etc. Are also presented other means of pain therapy (analgesic electrotherapy: low frequency effect analgesic currents: diadynamic, Trabert, stochastic, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, pain stimulation by galvanic current.

  17. Mapping pharmaceuticals in rat brain sections using MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yunsheng; Li, Fangbiao; Korfmacher, Walter A

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem mass spectrometric method (MALDI-MS/MS) has proven to be a reliable tool for direct measurement of the disposition of small molecules in animal tissue sections. As example, MALDI-MS/MS imaging system was employed for visualizing the spatial distribution of astemizole and its primary metabolite in rat brain tissues. Astemizole is a second-generation antihistamine, a block peripheral H1 receptor, which was introduced to provide comparable therapeutic benefit but was withdrawn in most countries due to toxicity risks. Astemizole was observed to be heterogeneously distributed to most parts of brain tissue slices including cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamic, thalamus, and ventricle regions while its major metabolite, desmethylastemizole, was only found around ventricle sites. We have shown that astemizole alone is likely to be responsible for the central nervous system (CNS) side effects when its exposures became elevated. PMID:20680589

  18. Amitriptyline and bromazepam in the treatment of vibratory angioedema: which role for neuroinflammation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Fabrizio; Guarneri, Claudio; Marini, Herbert Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Vibratory angioedema is a rare form of physical urticaria, hereditary or acquired, which occurs at body sites exposed to vibrations. Pathogenic mechanisms of disease are not completely clear and, consequently, current pharmacological treatment is sometimes unsatisfactory. We report the case of a horn player affected by acquired vibratory angioedema, relapsing after prolonged use of the instrument and resistant to systemic antihistamines and corticosteroids, which successfully responded to therapy with low doses of amitriptyline and bromazepam. A neuroinflammatory mechanism can be likely implicated in the pathogenesis of vibratory angioedema, in line with many different cutaneous/mucosal diseases involving a complex interplay of homeostatic/allostatic systems. Furthermore, in mucosal diseases, such as vibratory angioedema, physical/psychological stressors have a relevant role. In such cases, because of the complex interplay between nervous and immune system, the pharmacological activity of benzodiazepines and typical antidepressants may downregulate neuroinflammation. PMID:25052839

  19. Self-medication among medical student in King Abdul-Aziz University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooataz Mohammed Aashi

    2016-03-01

    Results: Paracetamol were the most frequently 117 (23.1% drug uses by medical students, followed by antihistaminic 48 (9.5%, antibiotic 33 (6.5%, NSAIDS 22 (4.3%, anti- anxiety 7 (1.4% and opioid 4 (0.8%. Most of them were self-medication (74%. Relief fever was the most common cause for seeking self-medication reported by medical student 103 (20.4%, most frequent side effects was nausea and vomiting 47 (9.3% Conclusions: There is an increase of self-medication in medical students of KAU especially paracetamol and NSAIDs use. We suggest increasing studies on the local irrational use of medications and increasing awareness on the importance of prescribed medications. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 942-946

  20. [Clinical symptomps, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrot, C; Rostaher, A; Fischer, N

    2014-07-01

    Allergies are often suspected in cats and they are mainly hypersensitivity reactions against insect bites, food- or environmental allergens. Cats, with non flea induced atopic dermatitis, normally present with one oft he following reaction patterns: miliary dermatitis, eosinophilic dermatitis, selfinduced alopecia or head and neck excoriations. None of these reaction patterns is nevertheless pathognomonic for allergic dermatitis, therefore the diagnosis is based on the one hand on the exclusion of similar diseases on the other hand on the successful response on a certain therapy. Recently a study on the clinical presentation of cats with non flea induced atopic dermatitis was published. In this study certain criteria for diagnosing atopy in cats were proposed. For therapy of allergic cats cyclosporin, glucocorticoids, antihistamines, hypoallergenic diets and allergen specific immunotherapy are used. This article should provide a recent overview on the clinical symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis.

  1. PENGARUH EKSTRAK BEBERAPA TANAMAN OBAT TERHADAP USUS TERISOLASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dzulkarnain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of Anacardium occidentale L.leaves, Aegle marmelos Corr leaves and wood bark, Acorus calamus L. tuber and Desmodium triquetrum D.C. leaves has been tested on the isolated rabbit and guinea pig intestine. The extraction of A. occidentale L. leaves stimulated the isolated rabbit and guinea pig intestine which may due to the anacardic acid content. No consistent influence was seen by the extraction of A.marmelos Corr. leaves and wood bark. The A. calamus L. tuber extraction decreases the isolated intestine activities which is of the atropine-like type not antihistamin one. This may explain the use as antidysentri agent from the motility point of view. The D. triquetrum D.C. leaves extraction stimulated the isolated intestine which has a pilocarpine and histamine-like activity but does not exclude a seretonine-like action.

  2. A REVIEW ARTICLE ON IMPORTANCE OF HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOURAV DE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic compounds are of very much interest in our daily life. Heterocyclic compounds have one or more heteroatoms in their structure. They may be cyclic or non-cyclic in nature. Heterocyclic compounds have a wide range of application. They are predominantly used as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and veterinary products. They also find applications as sanitizers, developers, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, copolymers, dyestuff. They are used as vehicles in the synthesis of other organic compounds. Some of the natural products e.g. antibiotics such as penicillin’s, cephalosporin; alkaloids such as vinblastine, morphine, reserpine etc. have heterocyclic moiety. More than 90% of new drugs contain heterocycles and the interface between chemistry and biology, at which so much new scientific insight, discovery, and application is taking place is crossed by heterocyclic compounds. This review article covers the most active heterocycles that have shown considerable biological actions such as antibiotic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antihistamine, antidepressant activities.

  3. Regimen analysis of children infected by macrolide-resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae%耐药肺炎支原体感染患儿的用药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王穗琼; 王豫; 邓文喻; 张琳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the regimen of children infected by macrolide - resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae. Methods The regimens were analyzed of children whose throat swab mycoplasma pneumoniae cultures were positive, from November 2010 to May 2012 in our hospital. And the courses of medications were returned visits. Results There were 116 children whose throat swab mycoplasma pneumoniae cultures were positive. All of them took macrolide antibacterial agents. In addition to three children combined (3-lactam antibacterials, there were 49 children in the drug - resistant group of 52 children infected by macrolide - resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae. There were 64 children in the drug - susceptive group. No significant differences were found in sex, age, usage rates of macrolide antibacterial agents, antipyretic drugs, antihistamines and phlegm drugs, P > 0. 05. Compared to drug - susceptive group, the courses of macrolide antibacterial agents were shorter, and antipyretic drugs, antihistamine drugs and apophlegmatisants were longer in the drug -resistant group, P < 0. 05. Conclusions The children infected by macrolide - resistant mycoplasma pneumoniae treated by antipyretic drugs, antihistamine drugs and apophlegmatisants. Compared to the children infected by macrolide - susceptive mycoplasma pneumoniae, the children infected by macrolide - resistant had shorter course of macrolide antibacterial agents, and longer courses of antipyretic drugs, antihistamine drugs and apophlegmatisants.%目的 探讨耐大环内酯类抗菌药的肺炎支原体感染患儿的用药方案.方法 分析2010年11月至2012年5月广东省妇幼保健院收治的咽拭子肺炎支原体培养阳性患儿的用药方案,并回访用药疗程.结果 MP培养阳性患儿116例均使用了大环内酯类抗菌药抗感染治疗,其中耐药52例,除去3例联合了β内酰胺类抗菌药,耐药组为49例;敏感组为64例,没有联合β内酰胺类抗菌药病例.两组

  4. Co-Trimoxazole-Induced DRESS Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paitorn, Limvorraphan

    2016-02-01

    Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS syndrome) is a severe adverse drug reaction. The drugs, which most commonly induce this condition, are anti-convulsants and sulfonamides. A 15-year-old Thai woman with no known underlying disease was prescribed co-trimoxazole, and two months after initiation, DRESS was diagnosed by RegiSCAR's score. Her clinical symptoms were fever laboratory abnormalities and maculopapular rash on her face, trunk and extremities. She was treated with antipyretics, antihistamines and steroid therapy, and her clinical and laboratory findings were restored to normal by the 10th day of treatment. Early diagnosis, discontinuation of the culprit drug, and management with steroids therapy can reduce the severity of DRESS syndrome. PMID:27266243

  5. Efficacy of levodropropizine in pediatric cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blasio, Francesco; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi; Zanasi, Alessando

    2012-10-01

    Cough in children is among the most common problems managed by pediatricians, and occurs more frequently in preschool than in older children. Most acute episodes of cough are due to viral upper respiratory tract infections. The morbidity associated with acute cough in a child extends also to parents, teachers, and other family members and caregivers. Unfortunately, therapeutic options for acute cough in children are severely limited due to the absence of drugs shown to be effective antitussives with an acceptable safety profile. Agents used in the management of adult cough, such as narcotics (codeine, hydrocodone), the non-narcotic opioid dextromethorphan, first-generation, potentially sedating antihistamines, and decongestants such as pseudoephedrine, have all been deemed inadequate for treatment of acute pediatric cough on a risk/benefit basis. A growing body of evidence suggests that the peripherally acting antitussive, levodropropizine, may be an attractive alternative for the treatment of bothersome acute cough in children. PMID:22771902

  6. Ondansetron to Treat Pruritus Due to Cholestatic Jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Sarah; Tobias, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Intractable itching is a symptom of cholestatic liver disease of various causes that is bothersome and difficult to manage. Although treatment of the primary cause of cholestasis is paramount in resolving the issue, given the debilitating consequences of pruritus, symptomatic treatment is frequently necessary. Although many medications including cholestyramine, rifampin, opioid antagonists (i.e., naloxone, naltrexone), phenobarbital, and antihistamines have been used to treat cholestatic-induced pruritus, none has resulted in uniform success. We report anecdotal success with the use of ondansetron to treat pruritus associated with cholestasis following prolonged intensive care unit course of a 16-year-old. The theories accounting for pruritus with cholestasis are presented, treatment options are reviewed, and the role of ondansetron in the treatment of pruritus is discussed. PMID:24052788

  7. Management of anaphylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, S; Panesar, S S; Roberts, G;

    2014-01-01

    To establish the effectiveness of interventions for the acute and long-term management of anaphylaxis, seven databases were searched for systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted...... time series and - only in relation to adrenaline - case series investigating the effectiveness of interventions in managing anaphylaxis. Fifty-five studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. We found no robust studies investigating the effectiveness of adrenaline (epinephrine), H1-antihistamines......, systemic glucocorticosteroids or methylxanthines to manage anaphylaxis. There was evidence regarding the optimum route, site and dose of administration of adrenaline from trials studying people with a history of anaphylaxis. This suggested that administration of intramuscular adrenaline into the middle...

  8. Formulation, optimization and evaluation of levocetirizine dihyrochloride oral thin strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gunjan Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present research was to develop a fast releasing oral polymeric film, with good mechanical properties, instant disintegration and dissolution, producing an acceptable taste when placed on tongue. Solvent casting method was used to prepare oral films. Levocetirizine dihydrochloride, an antihistaminic was incorporated to relieve the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. The polymers selected were HPMC E 15 and PVA. Propylene glycol was the plasticizers used. Nine batches of films with drug were prepared using different combinations of polymers and plasticizer concentration. The resultant films were evaluated for weight variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, thickness, surface pH, in vitro disintegration and in vitro dissolution. The optimized films which disintegrated in less than 30 sec, releasing 85-98% of drug within 2 minutes. The percentage release was varying with concentration of plasticizer and polymer. The films made with HPMC: PVA (1:2 released 96% of drug in 1 min, which was the best release amongst all.

  9. A case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome due to rifampicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana A. Badar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A 25 year old female known case of category II pulmonary Tuberculosis was on anti-coch’s treatment in the FDC of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and Streptomycin. Fifteen days after the commencement of Cat II anti TB treatment she developed diffuse erythematous rash on face, trunk and both extremities which turned into blisters. There were ulcers on oral and genital cavity. A diagnosis of Stevens Johnson’s syndrome was made. The patient had a history of cat I pulmonary TB and treated for 8 months and at the end of 8th month she was sputum smear negative. Four months later she had a relapse of sputum smear positive for pulmonary TB. She responded to the stoppage of drugs and oral/inj. Corticosteroids, antihistaminics and antibiotics. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 239-241

  10. BAHAN AKTIF DALAM KOMBINASI OBAT FLU DAN BATUK-PILEK, DAN PEMILIHAN OBAT FLU YANG RASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Gitawati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakFlu, salesma atau batuk pilek adalah infeksi saluran pernapasan akut (ISPA akibat virus, merupakan self-limiting disease dan hanya memerlukan pengobatan simtomatik. Obat-obat yang digunakan adalah obat bebas, umumnya dalam bentuk kombinasi tetap, dengan komposisi zat aktif bervariasi. Tulisan ini bertujuan mengkaji bahan aktif dalam preparat flu kombinasi tetap dan pemilihan obat flu yang rasional. Kajian dilakukan secara cross-sectional dengan sumber data berasal dari 56 referensi berupa buku, panduan, jurnal/artikel on-line maupun publikasi tercetak, menggunakan kata kunci ”common cold, cough, over-the-counter drugs, non-prescription, self-medication, analgetics, sympathomimetics, antihistamines, decongestant, antibiotics, immunomodulators, food supplement, flu, dan batuk-pilek”.Diperoleh sejumlah 191 preparat kombinasi tetap berbentuk tablet dan sirup yang diindikasikan untuk mengurangi gejala flu (common-cold, dengan komposisi zat aktif utama antihistamin dan dekongestan. Komponen tambahan lainnya adalah analgesik, antitusif, ekspektoran, stimulan. Kekuatan (strength dosis tiap komponen masih sesuai dengan dosis yang direkomendasi, namun tercatat masih ada preparat dengan dosis dekongestan (fenilpropanolamin yang lebih tinggi dari yang direkomendasi. Tidak ada preparat tunggal yang mampu mengatasi semua gejala flu sekaligus, sehingga preparat flu kombinasi menjadi pilihan utama. Dalam menggunakan preparat flu kombinasi perlu memilihproduk yang tepat dan rasional sesuai dengan gejala spesifik, karena kemungkinan tidak semua zat aktif dalam komposisi produk obat flu diperlukan oleh penderita.Kata kunci: flu, batuk-pilek, komposisi obat flu, simtomatik.AbstractFlu or common-cold is an acute upper respiratory tract infection mainly caused by virus, and a self-limiting disease which is requires only symptomatic treatments to alleviate the symptoms. Common-cold medication is usually an OTC drug and a fixed-dose combination of various

  11. Acute cholestasis related to desloratidine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramón Pérez; Luis Rodrigo; Rosa Pérez; Ruth de Francisco

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Desloratidine (Clarinex, Neoclarytin, Aerius, Azomyr, Opulis,Allex), the principal active metabolite of loratadine is itself a new oral antihistamine drug Its main indications are for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) and chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). The pharmacologic profile of desloratidine offers particular benefits, in terms of histamine H1-receptor binding potency and H1 selectivity. It has a half-life of 21-27 h, permitting a once-daily dose. No specific precautions are required with respect to its administration in renal or hepatic failure. No clinically relevant racial or gender variations in the disposition of desloratidine have been noted. We present here a clinical case of acute reversible idiosyncratic liver toxicity, related to its administration.

  12. [Prophylaxis and treatment of side effects due to iodinated contrast media relevant to radiological practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, C

    2007-09-01

    Increased utilization of iodinated contrast media may be associated with increased incidence of adverse events. The most important side effects include contrast-induced nephropathy, anaphylactoid reaction, thyrotoxicosis, and extravasation. In patients with moderate renal dysfunction, saline hydration and reduction of contrast media volume are recommended. No regime to prevent anaphylactoid reactions has yet proven to be efficient. If subclinical hyperthyroidism has been determined, prophylaxis with sodium perchlorate is advised. Contrast-induced nephropathy is commonly transient and needs to be followed over time. Mild general anaphylactoid reactions may be treated with antihistaminic drugs and corticosteroids. Furthermore the choice of the X-ray contrast media might influence the risk of any adverse effects. PMID:17768601

  13. [Adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media: how to prevent them?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Jeanne; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Becker, Christoph D; Nendaz, Mathieu

    2009-10-14

    The incidence of acute iodine contrast media reactions, appearing within the first hour after the procedure, is low but clinically important due to their daily use. Previous adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media, asthma and a history of allergic reaction are the most recognized risk factors, but the identification of patients at risk remains difficult. The efficacy of preventive measures such as corticosteroid and/or antihistaminic administration rests on low-level evidence. Practical recommendations are presented in this article. Rather than relying on the sole administration of a premedication, the importance of other measures must be stressed: assessing the relevance of the indication to the radiologic exam, use of low osmolarity contrast media, and ensuring a proper monitoring of the patient during and after the procedure. PMID:19911686

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiulcerogenic activities of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis flowers extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaiedh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

    2011-11-01

    The Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis methanolic flowers extract (OMFE) was phytochemical studied, in vitro tested for their potential antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power, linoleic acid peroxidation assays and in vivo evaluated for its ability to prevent ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The OMFE was rich in polysaccharide, phenolics and flavonoids contents and exhibited a moderate in vitro antioxidant activity when compared with (+)-catechin and ascorbic acid. Pre-treatment with OMFE at oral doses 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer by averting the deep necrotic lesions of the gastric epithelium, by preserving normal antioxidant enzymes activities, by inhibiting the lipid peroxidation, the oxidation of protein and the DNA fragmentation in gastric mucosa. The antiulcerogenic activity of OMFE might be due to a possible synergistic antioxidant and antihistaminic-like effects.

  15. Carboxyterfenadine antacid interaction monitoring by UV spectrophotometry and RP-HPLC techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Shehnaz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Carboxyterfenadine, a primary metabolite of terfenadine, a second generation antihistaminic compound was introduced in therapy as a successor of terfenadine due to its cardiac arrhythmia. There are number of drug interactions of fexofenadine with erythromycin, ketoconazole and alike reported in the literature. In this paper, fexofenadine antacid interaction has been studied in presence of sodium bicarbonate, megaldrate, calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium trisilicate, simethicone (dimethylpolysiloxane and calcium hydroxide by UV–Vis spectrophotometer and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. These in vitro fexofenadine–antacid interactions were carried out in simulated gastric and intestinal juices and in buffer of pH 7.4 (simulating blood pH on BP 2005 dissolution apparatus. The results show non-concordant availability of fexofenadine envisaged due to formation of unstable charge transfer complexes.

  16. Association between rheumatoid arthritis and systemic mastocytosis: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latar, Ichraq; Koufany, Meriem; Hablot, Julie; Loeuille, Damien; Netter, Patrick; Jouzeau, Jean-Yves; Chary-Valckenaere, Isabelle; Moulin, David

    2016-10-01

    Classically, mast cells (MC) are considered as important actors of the innate immune response playing a pivotal role in IgE-mediated allergic and antiparasite responses. In the last two decades, many experimental evidences demonstrated that these hematopoietic-derived cells present in both connective and mucosal tissues are also key modulators of the adaptive immune response and could contribute to autoimmune disease notably in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently, Bader-Meunier et al. reported a series of 31 patients suffering from inflammatory joint diseases associated with mastocytosis, suggesting that mastocytosis was associated with a higher prevalence in spondyloarthritis. We discuss here the possible link between chronic inflammatory arthritis and mastocytosis through the report of a clinical case describing a patient developing RA after a long history of mastocytosis. Of great interest, antihistamine treatment alone was sufficient to treat RA in this patient. PMID:27507661

  17. Allergic Rhinitis in Childhood - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Babayiğit

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis, an immunoglobulin E mediated disease, is the most common chronic allergic childhood disease. The disease is characterized by nasal sneezing, rhinorrhea, palate and eye itchiness, and congestion and it can significantly impact children’s health. It causes uncomfortable symptoms, impairs quality of life and can predispose to the development of comorbidities such as asthma. Etiological diagnosis is based on cutaneous prick tests, which have a high sensitivity and specificity rate and which can be easily applied to young children. Treatment initially involves avoidance measures and, when necessary, pharmacotherapy or immunotherapy. Pharmacotherapy generally involves antihistamines and/or nasal corticosteroids, but leukotriene antagonists have also demonstrated effectiveness in treating allergic rhinitis symptoms. In this article, the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis in childhood are discussed. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 105-12

  18. Erythema multiforme due to arsenic trioxide in a case of acute promyelocytic leukemia: A diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish V Badarkhe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema multiforme (EM is an acute, self-limited, Type IV hypersensitivity reactions associated with infections and drugs. In this case of acute promyelocytic leukemia, EM diagnosed during the induction phase was mistakenly attributed to vancomycin used to treat febrile neutropenia during that period. However, the occurrence of the lesions of EM again during the consolidation phase with arsenic trioxide (ATO lead to a re-evaluation of the patient and both the Naranjo and World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre scale showed the causality association as “probable.” The rash responded to topical corticosteroids and antihistamines. This rare event of EM being caused by ATO may be attributed to the genetic variation of methyl conjugation in the individual which had triggered the response, and the altered metabolic byproducts acted as a hapten in the subsequent keratinocyte necrosis.

  19. [Complementary and alternative medicine for insomnia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hidehisa; Machino, Akihiko; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Yoshino, Atsuo; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2015-06-01

    Frequency of insomnia is increasing with age. Benzodiazepine receptor agonist has been prescribed for insomnia in the elderly, but there are some patients who complain the effect is not sufficient. Adherence for sleeping pills is very low in elderly Japanese, because there has been strong stigma against sleeping pills. Complementary and alternative medicine for insomnia is widely used in elderly Japanese. Sedative antidepressants, novel antipsychotics, anti-histamine drugs, and supplements are used for insomnia as complementary and alternative medicine. But evidence of these drugs for insomnia is insufficient. In this paper, we outline the previous reports such as the advantages and disadvantages of these drugs for the treatment of insomnia in the elderly. PMID:26065137

  20. Marine bromopyrrole alkaloids: synthesis and diverse medicinal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Rajesh; Sahu, Niteshkumar; Shah, Chetan; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar

    2014-01-01

    Marine organisms have been found to be a very rich source of bioactive molecules. Among marine organisms, sponges have been proven to be excellent producers of secondary metabolites. More than 5,300 compounds have been isolated from sponges with around 200 new molecules reported each year. Bromopyrrole alkaloids constitute a family of exclusively marine alkaloids and represent a fascinating example of the large variety of compounds formed by marine sponges which exhibit different biological activities such as antifeedent, anti-biofilm, anticancer, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antiserotonergic, antiangiogenic, antihistaminic, chitinase inhibitor and actimyosin ATPase activator. More than 140 derivatives with different structures and biological activities, have been isolated from more than 20 different sponges. Most of these alkaloids share a key building block, pyrrole-imidazole with oroidin being their underlying structural motif. In this review detailed account of isolation and medicinal application of marine bromopyrrole alkaloids and their synthetic derivatives are discussed. PMID:24359195

  1. Sorafenib-triggered radiation recall dermatitis with a disseminated exanthematous reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Dong Ryul; Park, Hee Chul; Lim, Ho Yeong; Yoo, Byung Chul [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Sorafenib is a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor, which is the current standard treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Only one case of radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) associated with sorafenib has been reported so far. Our patient with recurrent HCC was treated with palliative radiotherapy (RT) for the chest wall mass. Sorafenib at 400 mg twice daily was begun on the day following RT. On the 14th day post-RT, an erythematous patch was observed on right chest wall which matched area previously irradiated. It was consistent with RRD. Ten days later, a disseminated exanthematous rash and severe pruritus occurred. Sorafenib was stopped and an oral antihistamine was prescribed to relieve symptoms. At the 1-week follow-up after the cessation of sorafenib, all symptoms were resolved. Physicians should be alert to this recall phenomenon as it can occur both in the skin and elsewhere and the occurrence of RRD may be unpredictable.

  2. [Snake bite by Philodryas chamissonis. A case presentation and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira O, Patricia; Jofré M, Leonor; Oschilewski L, David; Subercaseaux S, Benjamín; Muñoz S, Nelson

    2007-06-01

    There are two species of snakes associated with snake bite poisoning in Chile: Philodryas chamissonis and Tachymenis peruviana. A case associated with a P. chamissonis bite occurring during a summer activity in San Antonio, V Region, is presented. The bite compromised the dorsum of the right hand between the thumb and the index finger and was initially painless. During the following 24 hours equimotic edema developed up to the shoulder and pectoral region, with intense pain, headache, nausea, fever and appearance of a serohematic bulla on the elbow fold. The patient was treated with antihistamines, systemic steroids, analgesia and antibiotics for 7 days. Other cases of snake bites published in Chile are reviewed and treatment and prevention strategies are proposed. PMID:17554446

  3. Sodium valproate induced Stevens Johnson syndrome and hepatitis in a pediatric patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodkumar Mugada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stevens Johnson syndrome is a life threatening IgE mediated hypersensitivity reaction affecting the skin and mucous membranes and should be considered in any child who has been on antiepileptic medication. A case of Stevens Johnson Syndrome and hepatitis following treatment with sodium valproate is presented. A 2 year old female pediatric patient suffering from atonic seizures and myoclonic seizures was treated with sodium valproate monotherapy. The patient reported skin peeling and rash since 15 days and yellowish discoloration of sclera since 7 days. Her laboratory investigations revealed abnormal hemoglobin levels, blood urea and liver function. Based on physical examination and laboratory findings it was diagnosed that she was suffering from sodium valproate induced Stevens Johnson Syndrome with hepatitis. The score of toxic epidermal necrosis (SCORTEN criteria score was 1. She was treated with antihistamines, iron folic acid and topical liquid paraffin lotion. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 3058-3060

  4. 抗组胺药物的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘启超

    1998-01-01

    @@ 抗组胺药(antihistaminics)是广泛应用于抗过敏症状的药物.目前常用及一些书本所载的都多属第一代抗组胺药.第一代药物1937年发现,至50年代已发展成熟.近来已有第二代抗组胺药的出现.然而,第二代药物有心血管毒性.所以,必须了解它、掌握它,才能对抗组胺药的临床应用作出选择,本文对这类药物的发展作一概述.

  5. Scombroid Poisoning: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergué-Díaz de Cerio, O; Barrutia-Borque, A; Gardeazabal-García, J

    2016-09-01

    Scombroid poisoning is a common cause of food poisoning worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of oily fish contaminated with bacteria that trigger the formation of high concentrations of histamine. Scombroid poisoning manifests mainly as a skin complaint (flushing that spreads downward and/or an erythematous urticarial rash affecting the face and upper trunk). Although the clinical course is usually self-limiting and benign, vascular compromise, bronchospasm, and arrhythmias have been described. It is important to establish a differential diagnosis that includes conditions such as fish allergy. Oral antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Scombroid poisoning is best prevented by refrigerating fish properly. The practical review of scombroid poisoning provided here is intended for dermatologists. PMID:27133773

  6. Aceclofenac induced Stevens-Johnson/toxic epidermal necrolysis overlap syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaderthambi Hajamohideen Nooru Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to report a rare occurrence of Stevens-Johnson/Toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN overlap syndrome after the use of aceclofenac. A 38 year old healthy adult male presented with rapidly evolving rash over face and upper body with ulceration of buccal mucosa and breathlessness after taking aceclofenac tablet. Naranjo score for this adverse drug event was six, thereby making it a probable adverse drug reaction. Despite aggressive fluid resuscitation and use of antihistamines and systemic steroids, patient′s health rapidly worsened and died within six hours of presentation. Aceclofenac induced SJS/TEN overlap is an extremely rare clinical association previously reported only once in medical literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of such an association in the Indian population. We are presenting this case to highlight the serious adverse reactions possible from a routinely prescribed drug.

  7. Successful treatment of provisional cutaneous mastocytosis with interferon alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastocytosis is a disorder characterized by the clonal proliferation of mast cells and their accumulation in skin, bone marrow, liver, and spleen. Cutaneous mastocytosis presents in children in over 90% of the cases and any cutaneous manifestation in an adult is the earliest sign of the systemic disease. A 45-year-old patient presented with itchy dark lesions over the body since childhood and Darier's sign was positive. Skin biopsy showed features of mastocytosis and immunohistochemistry was positive for CD34. Since the patient was refractory to treatment with antihistamines and psoralen-ultraviolet A therapy, injections of interferon alpha were given – 3 million IU twice weekly subcutaneously as they have been proven to improve constitutional symptoms. Very few reports of successful treatment of cutaneous mastocytosis using interferon alpha have been published.

  8. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) reports, April-June 1985. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The following titles are included in this collection of reprints: Presence of a high-affinity Ca(s+) - and Mg(2+) - dependent ATPase in rat peritoneal mast-cell membranes; Prostanoid production by lipopolysaccharide stimulated Kupffer cells; Antihistamines block radiation-induced increased intestinal blood flow in canines; WR-2721 inhibition of radiation-induced prostaglandin excretion in rats; Effects of mixed neutron-gamma total-body irradiation on physical activity performance of rhesus monkeys; Immunologic and hematologic perturbations in models of combined injury; Hematopoiesis in conventional mice after wound trauma; Carrier generation recombination, and transport in organic crystals; Energy transfer and molecular weight effects on polymer luminescence. Keywords: Radiobiology; Military research.

  9. Role of Crosstalk between Epithelial and Immune Cells, the Epimmunome, in Allergic Rhinitis Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamekura, Ryuta; Yamashita, Keiji; Jitsukawa, Sumito; Nagaya, Tomonori; Ito, Fumie; Ichimiya, Shingo; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis has been dramatically increasing worldwide. As conventional therapies for allergic rhinitis, such as antihistamines, leukotriene receptor antagonists, nasal sprays and allergen immunotherapy, have limitations, the development of new drugs is required. Recent studies have revealed that epithelial cell-derived cytokines, including thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin (IL)-25 and IL-33, are able to control immune cells, such as dendritic cells and T cells, thereby acting as 'master switches' in allergic disease. In addition, new roles have been identified for follicular helper T cells and regulatory B cells in allergic disease, and they are considered to be promising targets for new therapies. Thus, crosstalk between epithelial and immune cells, the epimmunome, underlies the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Greater understanding of the epimmunome may lead to breakthroughs in the development of new treatments for allergic rhinitis and will help us cure many patients suffering from its severe symptoms in the future. PMID:27116609

  10. Prurigo Nodularis Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsianakas, Athanasios; Zeidler, Claudia; Ständer, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Characterized by the clinical presentation of individual to multiple symmetrically distributed, hyperkeratotic, and intensely itchy papules and nodules, prurigo nodularis (PN) is a rare disease that emerges in patients with chronic pruritus due to continuous scratching over a long period of time. The itching and scratching of the lesions contribute to the vicious cycle that makes this disease difficult to treat, thus reducing the quality of life of affected patients. The pathogenesis of PN is ambiguous, although immunoneuronal crosstalk is implicated. Its etiology was found to be heterogenous. It can emerge as the symptom of various dermatological, neurological, psychiatric, and systemic diseases. There is currently no approved therapy for PN. However, contemporary therapies consist of calcineurin inhibitors, capsaicin, topical steroids, UV therapy, and a systemic application of antihistamines, anticonvulsants, μ-opioid receptor antagonists, and immunosuppressants. Multimodal therapy should be utilized in order to achieve optimal results, including topical and systemic symptomatic therapies. PMID:27578077

  11. [Drug therapy for cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Heikki; Naaranlahti, Toivo

    2016-01-01

    An efficient therapy for cough usually requires identification and treatment of the underlying disease, like asthma. However an underlying disease in cough is not found in all cases and conventional treatment of the underlying disease is ineffective against cough. Drug therapy options are available also for these situations. Honey or menthol can be tried for cough associated with respitatory infections, antihistamines for cough associated with allergic rhinitis, blockers of the leukotriene receptor or muscarinic receptor for asthma-associated cough and morphine for cough associated with a malignant disease. Menthol, blockers of the muscarinic receptor, or dextrometorphan can be tried for prolonged idiopathic cough. Codeine is not necessary in the treatment of cough. Refraining from drug treatment should always be considered. PMID:27089619

  12. Interaction of nicotine and other amines with the endocttic and exocytic functions of macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    Nicotine inhibits endocytosis and stimulates exocytosis in macrophages. At the same concentrations (5 to 15 mM) that the alkaloid exerts these effects, it is also vacuologenic. Consideration was given to one hypothesis that the internalization was a result of surfactant activity. Nicotine was found to have surfactant properties. Studies involving measurements of the contact angles of a sessile drop of saline on cell monolayers suggested that nicotine increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane. The possibility has been considered that this may be indicative of membrane expansion and that this expansion leads to collapse and vesicle formation. This would be analogous to the effects of surface-active amines (e.g., local anesthetics, tranquilizers, antihistamines) on lipid monolayers and erythrocytic membranes. It is suggested that if such a mechanism does occur, then the possibility exists for a variety of amines to nonspecifically alter membrane and receptor availability of the macrophage.

  13. Complements Are Not Always a Good Thing: Novel Therapies for Angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Abby Mynatt; Reed, Brittany S; Weant, Kyle A; Justice, Stephanie Baker

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema attacks are rare, but emergency care providers must be aware of the clinical presentation and treatment of these patients because the emergency department remains the most common setting where these patients seek treatment. If providers are not aware of the past medical history of these patients, they are likely to receive standard therapies for respiratory distress and anaphylaxis including antihistamines, corticosteroids, and epinephrine. However, these medications may not work in these patients, given the pathophysiology of their underlying disease. Since 2009, several new therapies have been approved for the treatment of acute hereditary angioedema attacks. This article discusses pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and use of novel therapies for the management of angioedema. PMID:27139131

  14. 依巴斯汀治疗慢性荨麻疹临床疗效的Meta分析%Effect and Safety of Ebastine on Chronic Urticaria:A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐翔; 杨燕; 梁东辉; 马红利; 牛香群

    2011-01-01

    目的:评价依巴斯汀治疗慢性荨麻疹临床疗效及不良反应.方法:计算机检索Cochrane图书馆、PubMed、EMbase、中国知网和万方数据库.检索时间均为建库至2011年2月.收集以依巴斯汀与其他药物对照治疗慢性荨麻疹的随机对照临床试验(RCT).评价纳入文献的研究质量,提取有效数据,采用RevMan 5.0软件进行Meta分析.结果:共纳入12个研究,包括1 567例慢性荨麻疹患者.Meta分析结果显示,依巴斯汀治疗慢性荨麻疹临床疗效较其他抗组胺药高;依巴斯汀联合用药或其他抗组胺药联合用药治疗慢性荨麻疹临床疗效比单一应用依巴斯汀的疗效高,但复发率比较差异无统计学意义;依巴斯汀治疗慢性荨麻疹的不良反应与依巴斯汀联合用药或其他抗组胺药联合用药比较,差异无统计学意义.结论:依巴斯汀能有效治疗慢性荨麻疹,不良反应少.由于慢性荨麻疹病因复杂,且本次研究仍有局限性,还需要更多大样本、设计严格的随机临床对照试验加以证实.%Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ebastine on patients with chronic urticaria ( CU ). Method:The electronic databases (the Cochrane,Library, PubMed, Embase, CNKI and WANFANG DATA ) were searched in order to retrieve randomized controlled trials( RCT) about comparing ebastine with other drug therapy for CU. The related references were traced to obtain the information. The Jadad' s scale and Cochrane collaboration' s RevMan 5.0 soft-ware were used to assess the trial methodological quality and data analyses. Result: 12 trials involving 1 567 patients were included. The Meta-analysis results showed that the efficacy of ebastine was better than that of the treatment with other antihistamine drugs, the effect of ebastine combination therapy or other antihistaminic combination therapy were better than that of the treatment only with ebastine, the difference between the groups of the combination therapy

  15. Successful Treatment of Provisional Cutaneous Mastocytosis with Interferon Alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Andrea; Bhat, Ramesh M

    2016-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a disorder characterized by the clonal proliferation of mast cells and their accumulation in skin, bone marrow, liver, and spleen. Cutaneous mastocytosis presents in children in over 90% of the cases and any cutaneous manifestation in an adult is the earliest sign of the systemic disease. A 45-year-old patient presented with itchy dark lesions over the body since childhood and Darier's sign was positive. Skin biopsy showed features of mastocytosis and immunohistochemistry was positive for CD34. Since the patient was refractory to treatment with antihistamines and psoralen-ultraviolet A therapy, injections of interferon alpha were given - 3 million IU twice weekly subcutaneously as they have been proven to improve constitutional symptoms. Very few reports of successful treatment of cutaneous mastocytosis using interferon alpha have been published. PMID:27293273

  16. Acupuncture plus Point-injection for 32 Cases of Obstinate Urticaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to observe the therapeutic effects of acupuncture plus point-injection for obstinate urticaria, 64cases of obstinate urticaria were randomly divided into the following two groups. 32 cases in the treatment group were treated with acupuncture at the points of Quchi (LI11), Xuehai (SP10), Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP6) and Fengchi (GB20) plus point-injection at the points of Zusanli (ST36) and Quchi (LI11). 32 cases in the control group were treated with antihistamines (such as Acrivastine, Cinnarizine or Ranitidine). The results showed that the therapeutic effect in the treatment group was obviously better than that in the control group (P<0.05), with a much lower relapse rate in the former than that in the latter (P<0.01).

  17. Ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Babu Ramineni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ofloxacin is a commonly used antimicrobial agent to combat various infections. The adverse profile of quinolones includes gastrointestinal symptoms, which are the most frequent, neuropsychiatric symptoms, hematologic abnormalities are less common. We report a rare case of ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction in a 57 year old female patient with complaints of rashes over the axilla, upper limb and back, abdomen, thorax associated with exfoliation of skin all over the axilla associated with severe itching. Based on history and clinical examination patient was diagnosed as ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction and was successfully treated with antihistamines and corticosteroids. Pharmacovigilance should be a part of patient care in order to reduce occurrence of adverse drug reaction and also encourage practitioners in reporting so as to gather more and more data regarding adverse drug reactions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(1.000: 349-351

  18. Erythema multiforme due to arsenic trioxide in a case of acute promyelocytic leukemia: A diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badarkhe, Girish V; Sil, Amrita; Bhattacharya, Sabari; Nath, Uttam Kumar; Das, Nilay Kanti

    2016-01-01

    Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute, self-limited, Type IV hypersensitivity reactions associated with infections and drugs. In this case of acute promyelocytic leukemia, EM diagnosed during the induction phase was mistakenly attributed to vancomycin used to treat febrile neutropenia during that period. However, the occurrence of the lesions of EM again during the consolidation phase with arsenic trioxide (ATO) lead to a re-evaluation of the patient and both the Naranjo and World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre scale showed the causality association as "probable." The rash responded to topical corticosteroids and antihistamines. This rare event of EM being caused by ATO may be attributed to the genetic variation of methyl conjugation in the individual which had triggered the response, and the altered metabolic byproducts acted as a hapten in the subsequent keratinocyte necrosis. PMID:27114640

  19. Gabapentin and pregabalin for the treatment of chronic pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Kazuki M; Sharma, Divya; Schonfeld, Ariel R; Kwatra, Shawn G

    2016-09-01

    Chronic pruritus is a distressing symptom that is often refractory to treatment. Patients frequently fail topical therapies and oral over-the-counter antihistamines, prompting the clinician to consider alternative therapies such as neuroactive agents. Herein, the use of gabapentin and pregabalin, 2 medications well known for treating neuropathic pain and epilepsy that are occasionally used for relieving chronic pruritus is explored. The findings from original sources published to date to evaluate the use of gabapentin and pregabalin as antipruritic agents are explored. They are found to be promising alternative treatments for the relief of several forms of chronic pruritus, particularly uremic pruritus and neuropathic or neurogenic itch, in patients who fail conservative therapies. PMID:27206757

  20. Becker nevus with vitiligo and lichen planus: Cocktail of dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Gupta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Becker nevus has been reported to be associated with lichen planus (LP in isolated case reports in past. The association of LP and vitiligo has been noted in few cases and has been attributed to a common autoimmune etiology. The coexistence of lichen planus, vitiligo and Becker nevus has not been reported so far. Case Report: A thirty five years old male presented with lesions of Becker nevus along with vitiligo and Lichen planus coexisting at one place on right side of the chest. Vitiligo and Becker nevus could not be treated. Lichen planus was confirmed histopathologically. We were able to treat lichen planus with topical potent steroids, tacrolimus and systemic antihistamines. The vitiligo lesion in our case was resistant to treatment. Conclusion: This case is being reported for the rare occurrence of three different well defined skin conditions in our patient and reviews the possible known etiological factors for their coexistence.

  1. Becker nevus with vitiligo and lichen planus: Cocktail of dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Becker nevus has been reported to be associated with lichen planus (LP in isolated case reports in past. The association of LP and vitiligo has been noted in few cases and has been attributed to a common autoimmune etiology. The coexistence of lichen planus, vitiligo and Becker nevus has not been reported so far. Case Report: A thirty five years old male presented with lesions of Becker nevus along with vitiligo and Lichen planus coexisting at one place on right side of the chest. Vitiligo and Becker nevus could not be treated. Lichen planus was confirmed histopathologically. We were able to treat lichen planus with topical potent steroids, tacrolimus and systemic antihistamines. The vitiligo lesion in our case was resistant to treatment. Conclusion: This case is being reported for the rare occurrence of three different well defined skin conditions in our patient and reviews the possible known etiological factors for their coexistence.

  2. Effectiveness of Dietary Allergen Exclusion Therapy on Eosinophilic Colitis in Chinese Infants and Young Children ≤ 3 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic colitis is a well recognized clinical entity mainly associated with food allergies. Empiric treatment options include dietary allergen exclusion (extensively hydrolyzed protein formula and elimination diet, anti-allergy medications (antihistamines and leukotriene receptor antagonists and corticosteroids. We evaluated the effectiveness of dietary antigen exclusion on clinical remission of eosinophilic colitis in infants and young children. We retrospectively reviewed charts of all infants and children ≤3 years of age who were diagnosed with eosinophilic colitis (defined as mucosal eosinophilia ≥20 hpf−1 from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013 at a tertiary children’s hospital in China. Forty-nine children were identified with eosinophilic colitis. Elemental formula, simple elimination diet or combination therapy resulted in clinical improvement in 75%, 88.2% and 80% of patients, respectively. In conclusion, eosinophilic colitis in infants and children ≤3 years of age responded well to dietary allergen exclusion.

  3. Dermanyssus gallinae infestation: an unusual cause of scalp pruritus treated with permethrin shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramaci, Asena Cigdem; Culha, Gulnaz; Ozçelik, Semra

    2010-09-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a blood parasite of wild birds, but it is also a pest in the poultry industry. It occasionally bites mammals and thus rarely creates skin problems such as itching, papules, vesicles, and dermatitis. A 92-year-old man presented with severe itch on his head, particularly at night. He had been misdiagnosed with senile pruritus and treated with antihistamines and topical corticosteroids with temporary relief of the symptoms. On the basis of clinical and parasitological findings, D. gallinae dermatitis was diagnosed. Decontamination of the patient's immediate environment was not helpful. The patient was successfully treated using a 1% permethrin shampoo once a week for 2 weeks. During 3 months of follow-up he was free of symptoms. The case is of significance because most dermatologists have difficulty identifying ectoparasitoses, such as those that arise within new or atypical conditions.

  4. Assessing fitness-for-duty and predicting performance with cognitive neurophysiological measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael E.; Gevins, Alan

    2005-05-01

    Progress is described in developing a novel test of neurocognitive status for fitness-for-duty testing. The Sustained Attention & Memory (SAM) test combines neurophysiologic (EEG) measures of brain activation with performance measures during a psychometric test of sustained attention and working memory, and then gauges changes in neurocognitive status relative to an individual"s normative baseline. In studies of the effects of common psychoactive substances that can affect job performance, including sedating antihistamines, caffeine, alcohol, marijuana, and prescription medications, test sensitivity was greater for the combined neurophysiological and performance measures than for task performance measures by themselves. The neurocognitive effects of overnight sleep deprivation were quite evident, and such effects predicted subsequent performance impairment on a flight simulator task. Sensitivity to diurnal circadian variations was also demonstrated. With further refinement and independent validation, the SAM Test may prove useful for assessing readiness-to-perform in high-asset personnel working in demanding, high risk situations.

  5. Mechanism of action and clinical benefits of colloidal oatmeal for dermatologic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerio, Rino; Dohil, Magdalene; Jeanine, Downie; Magina, Sofia; Mahé, Emmanuel; Stratigos, Alexander J

    2010-09-01

    Colloidal oatmeal has a long history of beneficial use in dermatology. It is a natural product that has an excellent safety record and has demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, drug-induced rash and other conditions. In recent years, in vitro and in vivo studies have begun to elucidate the multiple mechanisms of action of naturally derived colloidal oatmeal. Evidence now describes its molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity. The avenanthramides, a recently described component of whole oat grain, are responsible for many of these effects. Studies have demonstrated that avenanthramides can inhibit the activity of nuclear factor kappaB and the release of proinflammatory cytokines and histamine, well known key mechanisms in the pathophysiology of inflammatory dermatoses. Topical formulations of natural colloidal oatmeal should be considered an important component of therapy for atopic dermatitis and other conditions and may allow for reduced use of corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors.

  6. The prevention of postoperative vomiting following strabismus surgery in children with using Promethazine and Droperidol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaigh al Islam V

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Children undergoing general anesthesia for strabismus surgery have a higher incidence of postoperative vomiting than those receiving the same anaesthesia for other types of ambulatory surgical procedures. Droperidol (0/0 75 mg/kg IV and promethazine (0.05-1.0 mg/kg were used in 100 children between 2-15 years old. Promethazine which has sedative property, anticholinergic antihistaminic, antiemetic and anti-motion sickness effects is recommended for children 0.05 mg-1.0 mg/kg of body weight IV. After induction of anesthesia and before operation and manipulation of the eye and combined with 0.5 mg/kg IM promethazine after operation. The incidence of vomiting following strabismus surgery might be reduced more than with intravenous droperidol

  7. [The feasibility of Erwinia asparaginase for pediatric patients who developed an allergic reaction to E.coli asparaginase during treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroyoshi; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Kato, Motohiro; Isobe, Kiyotaka; Yasui, Naoko; Mori, Makiko; Akiyama, Kosuke; Kikuchi, Akira; Hanada, Ryoji

    2013-04-01

    Asparaginase (ASNase) is one of the most important key drugs in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, clinical hypersensitivity reactions often occur and lead to the discontinuation of ASNase treatment. Here, we report a retrospective study of 68 Erwinia ASNase (Erw-ASNase) administrations in 11 patients with childhood ALL who developed allergic reactions to E.coli-ASNase in our hospital between 2006 and 2012. The median age of the patients was 6 (range, 0 to 14). Erw-ASNase purchased overseas by the patients' guardians had already been administered when we obtained informed consent from the guardians. In all patients, fibrinogen and/or anti-thrombin III levels were decreased, but thrombosis did not develop. There was only one mild adverse event (grade 2 urticaria) in one patient, in whom Erw-ASNase could be continued after increasing the doses of premedication with antihistamine and prednisolone. Erw-ASNase could be safely administered to all patients.

  8. Misuse and abuse of quetiapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Piróg-Balcerzak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent, frequently used in psychiatry, often for symptomatic treatment against a number of mental disorders differing from the registration indications. One of the use is to soothe the clinical conditions caused by the use of various psychoactive substances. The paper presents and discusses the reports of quetiapine misuse, abuse, and even mental addiction, as well as symptoms similar to the so-called discontinuation syndrome, often mixed with withdrawal syndrome occurring in the course of addiction. Most reports concern males, and especially those with a history of other psychoactive substance abuse, and personality disorders, often in conflict with the law. Therefore, clinicians should be cautious when prescribing quetiapine to such patients. The article discusses potential mechanisms responsible for quetiapine abuse. This is probably related to its sedative and anxiolytic activity which results in the frequent use with stimulants. Also, high affinity for the H1 receptor, as antihistamines agents causes rewarding action.

  9. Sorafenib-triggered radiation recall dermatitis with a disseminated exanthematous reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorafenib is a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor, which is the current standard treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Only one case of radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) associated with sorafenib has been reported so far. Our patient with recurrent HCC was treated with palliative radiotherapy (RT) for the chest wall mass. Sorafenib at 400 mg twice daily was begun on the day following RT. On the 14th day post-RT, an erythematous patch was observed on right chest wall which matched area previously irradiated. It was consistent with RRD. Ten days later, a disseminated exanthematous rash and severe pruritus occurred. Sorafenib was stopped and an oral antihistamine was prescribed to relieve symptoms. At the 1-week follow-up after the cessation of sorafenib, all symptoms were resolved. Physicians should be alert to this recall phenomenon as it can occur both in the skin and elsewhere and the occurrence of RRD may be unpredictable.

  10. Brachioradial pruritus in a patient with cervical disc herniation and Parsonage-Turner syndrome*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sandrina; Sanches, Madalena; Alves, Rosário; Selores, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Brachioradial pruritus is a chronic sensory neuropathy of unknown etiology which affects the skin of the shoulders, arms and forearms on the insertion of the brachioradialis muscle. We describe the case of a 60-yearold woman recently diagnosed with multiple myeloma who refers paresis, severe pruritus and itching lesions on the right arm with 6 months of evolution. Investigation led to a diagnosis of Brachioradial pruritus consequent to the presence of cervical disc herniation and Parsonage-Turner syndrome. The patient started gabapentin 900mg/day with good control of itching. Corticosteroids and antihistamines are often ineffective in the treatment of BP. Gabapentin has been used with encouraging results. All patients with Brachioradial pruritus should be evaluated for cervical spine injuries. PMID:26131874

  11. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: current and emerging treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihler F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Friedrich Ihler, Martin CanisDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, GermanyAbstract: Ragweed (Ambrosia spp. is an annually flowering plant whose pollen bears high allergenic potential. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis has long been seen as a major immunologic condition in Northern America with high exposure and sensitization rates in the general population. The invasive occurrence of ragweed (A. artemisiifolia poses an increasing challenge to public health in Europe and Asia as well. Possible explanations for its worldwide spread are climate change and urbanization, as well as pollen transport over long distances by globalized traffic and winds. Due to the increasing disease burden worldwide, and to the lack of a current and comprehensive overview, this study aims to review the current and emerging treatment options for ragweed-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. Sound clinical evidence is present for the symptomatic treatment of ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with oral third-generation H1-antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists. The topical application of glucocorticoids has also been efficient in randomized controlled clinical trials. Combined approaches employing multiple agents are common. The mainstay of causal treatment to date, especially in Northern America, is subcutaneous immunotherapy with the focus on the major allergen, Amb a 1. Beyond this, growing evidence from several geographical regions documents the benefit of sublingual immunotherapy. Future treatment options promise more specific symptomatic treatment and fewer side effects during causal therapy. Novel antihistamines for symptomatic treatment are aimed at the histamine H3-receptor. New adjuvants with toll-like receptor 4 activity or the application of the monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody, omalizumab, are supposed to enhance conventional immunotherapy. An approach targeting toll-like receptor 9 by

  12. Management of chronic spontaneous urticaria: practical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, A V; Pigatto, P; Cristaudo, A; Ayala, F; Rossi, O; Senna, G; Triggiani, M; Asero, R

    2015-04-01

    Chronic urticaria (CU) is a skin disorder characterized by transient, pruritic wheals persisting for longer than 6 weeks. According to the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) guidelines, CU can be categorized into two main types: chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), in which the wheals appear spontaneously, and inducible urticaria, that is triggered by physical agents. CSU may be due to triggering factors such as food allergens or infections, but in at least 40% of cases it is autoimmune in origin, caused by circulating autoantibodies anti-FcεR1 or anti-IgE, or autoreactive. In the present paper, re-evaluating the EAACI guidelines, we have developed a document containing some practical indications which are useful for diagnosis and management of CSU in the context of the Italian situation. Concerning CSU treatment, second generation antihistamines are the first-line treatment; these drugs can be used, as second-line treatment, at a higher than licensed dose in patients who do not respond adequately at licensed doses. The third-line treatment includes leukotriene receptor antagonists which, however, do not have a specific indication for the treatment of CSU, cyclosporine, whose use in this disease is still off-label, and omalizumab. The latter is a recombinant monoclonal IgG antibody that binds free IgE, down regulates mast cell function and induces eosinophil apoptosis. Recently, it has emerged as an effective and safe treatment for antihistamine-unresponsive CSU of both autoimmune/autoreactive and non-autoimmune/non-autoreactive, and has been officially approved for use against this disease.

  13. Advances in Understanding and Managing Chronic Urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolani, Yasmin; Lynde, Charles; Sussman, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    There have been recent advances in the classification and management of chronic urticaria. The new term chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) has replaced chronic idiopathic urticaria and chronic autoimmune urticaria. In addition, chronic inducible urticaria (CINDU) has replaced physical urticaria and includes other forms of inducible urticaria, such as cholinergic and aquagenic urticaria. Furthermore, novel research has resulted in a new understanding with guidelines being revised in the past year by both the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI) and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI)/Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA (2)LEN)/European Dermatology Forum (EDF)/World Allergy Organization (WAO). There are some differences in the recommendations, which will be discussed, but the core updates are common to both groups. The basic treatment for chronic urticaria involves second-generation non-sedating non-impairing H 1 antihistamines as first-line treatment. This is followed by up to a 4-fold increase in the licensed dose of these H 1 antihistamines. The major therapeutic advance in recent years has been in third-line treatment with omalizumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E (anti-IgE) antibody that prevents binding of IgE to the high-affinity IgE receptor. Several multicenter randomized controlled trials have shown safety and efficacy of omalizumab for CSU. There are also some small studies showing efficacy of omalizumab in CINDU. While there were previously many treatment options which were lacking in strong evidence, we are moving into an era where the treatment algorithm for chronic urticaria is simplified and contains more evidence-based, effective, and less toxic treatment options.

  14. Chronic spontaneous urticaria - a management pathway for patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termeer, Christian; Staubach, Petra; Kurzen, Hjalmar; Strömer, Klaus; Ostendorf, Rolf; Maurer, Marcus

    2015-05-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a common and challenging disease, especially with respect to healthcare provision in the context of the German statutory health insurance system. If treatment with second-generation antihistamines is unsuccessful, current guidelines recommend further therapeutic options. However, most of these are off-label. This discrepancy between treatment according to guidelines and the ability to prescribe drugs at the expense of the statutory health insurance (reimbursability) often leads to uncertainties in everyday clinical practice. In addition, physicians prescribing certain drugs are faced with the difficulty of measuring and documenting therapeutic success/outcome. Respective outcome measurement methods have not yet been established in daily practice. Using a consensus process, a working group composed of dermatologists in private practice and specialized urticaria centers has defined a practical pathway for the implementation of current treatment recommendations based on the 2013 S3 guidelines for urticaria. Here, we present a diagnostic and therapeutic management pathway for CSU. Further, we discuss prescription issues in daily practice, including updosing of antihistamines, with regard to cost-effectiveness and drug approval on the basis of published studies and current legislation. Constituting the highest treatment level, the use of cyclosporine A, montelukast, and omalizumab, which has recently become available as therapeutic option, is reviewed. The urticaria control test (UCT) is presented as a valid outcome measure in routine practice. Our objective was to provide physicians in private practice with a practical guideline-based therapeutic decision tool, taking into account the requirements imposed by the statutory health insurance system. It is not meant to replace individualized history taking or treatment of this heterogeneous disease. Rather, we would like to suggest reference points for clinical diagnosis and treatment

  15. Methotrexate: a useful steroid-sparing agent in recalcitrant chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, A; Woods, A; Grattan, C E H

    2010-01-01

    Background Reports of methotrexate for chronic urticaria are anecdotal. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of methotrexate in steroid-dependent chronic urticaria, its impact on steroid reduction and any differences in response between patients with and without functional autoantibodies. Methods A retrospective case-note review of 16 patients with steroid-dependent chronic urticaria treated with methotrexate was carried out. Ten patients had chronic ordinary/spontaneous urticaria (CU), including three with associated delayed-pressure urticaria; four patients had normocomplementaemic urticarial vasculitis (UV); and two patients had idiopathic angio-oedema without weals. Median disease duration before methotrexate was 48.5 months (range 12-164). All were unresponsive to antihistamines and second-line agents, except prednisolone. Eleven were assessed for autoimmune urticaria with the basophil histamine release assay (n = 5), autologous serum skin test (n = 5) or both (n = 1). Response to methotrexate was scored: no benefit; some benefit (fewer weals and symptomatic improvement but no steroid reduction); considerable benefit (improvement with steroid reduction); or clear (no symptoms, off steroids but on antihistamines). Results Twelve of 16 patients (eight CU, three UV, one idiopathic angio-oedema) responded. Three showed some benefit, seven considerable benefit and two cleared. Four of eight responders and three out of three nonresponders showed evidence of functional autoantibodies. The dose to achieve a steroid-sparing effect was 10-15 mg weekly (cumulative dose range 15-600 mg, median 135 mg). Methotrexate was well tolerated. Conclusions Methotrexate may be a useful treatment for steroid-dependent chronic urticaria. Functional autoantibodies do not correlate with response. The beneficial effects of methotrexate may be anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive. It may therefore benefit chronic urticaria independently of the pathogenic mechanism, whether autoimmune

  16. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: current and emerging treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihler, Friedrich; Canis, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Ragweed (Ambrosia spp.) is an annually flowering plant whose pollen bears high allergenic potential. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis has long been seen as a major immunologic condition in Northern America with high exposure and sensitization rates in the general population. The invasive occurrence of ragweed (A. artemisiifolia) poses an increasing challenge to public health in Europe and Asia as well. Possible explanations for its worldwide spread are climate change and urbanization, as well as pollen transport over long distances by globalized traffic and winds. Due to the increasing disease burden worldwide, and to the lack of a current and comprehensive overview, this study aims to review the current and emerging treatment options for ragweed-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. Sound clinical evidence is present for the symptomatic treatment of ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with oral third-generation H1-antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists. The topical application of glucocorticoids has also been efficient in randomized controlled clinical trials. Combined approaches employing multiple agents are common. The mainstay of causal treatment to date, especially in Northern America, is subcutaneous immunotherapy with the focus on the major allergen, Amb a 1. Beyond this, growing evidence from several geographical regions documents the benefit of sublingual immunotherapy. Future treatment options promise more specific symptomatic treatment and fewer side effects during causal therapy. Novel antihistamines for symptomatic treatment are aimed at the histamine H3-receptor. New adjuvants with toll-like receptor 4 activity or the application of the monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody, omalizumab, are supposed to enhance conventional immunotherapy. An approach targeting toll-like receptor 9 by synthetic cytosine phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides promises a new treatment paradigm that aims to modulate the immune response, but it has

  17. Eliminating Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Outpatient Surgery with Multimodal Strategies including Low Doses of Nonsedating, Off-Patent Antiemetics: Is “Zero Tolerance“ Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Skledar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For ondansetron, dexamethasone, and droperidol (when used for prophylaxis, each is estimated to reduce risk of postoperative nausea and/or vomiting (PONV by approximately 25%. Current consensus guidelines denote that patients with 0–1 risk factors still have a 10–20% risk of encountering PONV, but do not yet advocate routine prophylaxis for all patients with 10–20% risk. In ambulatory surgery, however, multimodal prophylaxis has gained favor, and our previously published experience with routine prophylaxis has yielded PONV rates below 10%. We now propose a “zero-tolerance” antiemetic algorithm for outpatients that involves routine prophylaxis by first avoiding volatile agents and opioids to the extent possible, using locoregional anesthesia, multimodal analgesia, and low doses of three nonsedating off-patent antiemetics. Routine oral administration (immediately on arrival to the ambulatory surgery suite of perphenazine 8 mg (antidopaminergic or cyclizine 50 mg (antihistamine, is followed by dexamethasone 4 mg i.v. after anesthesia induction (dexamethasone is avoided in diabetic patients. At the end of surgery, ondansetron (4 mg i.v., now off-patent is added. Rescue therapy consists of avoiding unnecessary repeat doses of drugs acting by the same mechanism: haloperidol 2 mg i.v. (antidopaminergic is prescribed for patients pretreated with cyclizine or promethazine 6.25 mg i.v. (antihistamine for patients having been pretreated with perphenazine. If available, a consultation for therapeutic acupuncture procedure is ordered. Our approach toward “zero tolerance” of PONV emphasizes liberal identification of and prophylaxis against common risks.

  18. Idiopathic histaminergic angioedema without wheals: a case series of 31 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisant, C; Boccon-Gibod, I; Mansard, C; Dumestre Perard, C; Pralong, P; Chatain, C; Deroux, A; Bouillet, L

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic histaminergic acquired angioedema (IH-AAE) is a common cause of recurrent angioedema without wheals. It is a mast cell-mediated disease thought to belong to the same clinical entity as chronic urticaria (CU). The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of IH-AAE patients. From 2014 to 2015, 534 patients were seen at our national reference centre for angioedema and/or urticaria. Among them, we identified 31 patients with idiopathic histaminergic acquired angioedema without wheals (IH-AAE). Thirty-one patients (15 men and 16 women) with a mean age of 50 years met the criteria for IH-AAE. The average delay in diagnosis was 6·3 years. A history of allergy was found in 12 patients (38·7%), nine suffering from allergic rhinitis. The mean duration of attacks was 28·1 h. The AE attack was located in the upper respiratory tract in 54·8% of cases (17 patients). A lingual location was found in 29% of patients. Men were more likely than women to have an upper airway involvement. No intubations or admissions to intensive care units were reported. The dosage of anti-histamines to control the symptoms was onefold the recommended dose in 51·6% of patients (16 patients), twofold in 32% (10 patients) and three-fourfold in 16·1% (five patients). IH-AAE is characterized by an important delay in diagnosis, a frequent involvement of the upper airway and a benign course during attacks. As in CU, a trial of up to fourfold dose of H1-anti-histamines may be necessary to control symptoms. PMID:26969870

  19. 综合应用中西药物预防术后肠粘连的实验研究%An Experimental Study of Prevention of Postoperative Intestinal Adhesions Used in Combination of Traditional Chinese Herbs with Western Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李民驹; 林惠钧; 方素飞; 童尔昌

    1982-01-01

    @@ 术后肠粘连和粘连性肠梗阻的发病率在小儿剖腹术中约占6%,且发病率逐年增高.因此,术后肠粘连的预防甚为重要.对术后肠粘连的预防,国外多应用皮质激素类或促进局部纤溶的药物,国内则广泛应用中药制剂.但文献报告多为单独用某种药物.%The purpose of this experiment is to assess the effect of combination of traditional Chinese herbs with western medicines in prevention of postoperative intestinal adhesigns in rats.Five centimeters of the terminal part of the ileum were exposed and surface of the bowel was circularly stroked and then disposed of by five methods:(1) control;(2) fibrinogenase activators(varidase and urokinase) were used by the intraperitoneal route;(3) traditional Chinese herbs to activate blood and dispersed stagnation was treated by oral administration and Injektio salvia miltiorrhiza composita were used by the intraperitoneal route;(4) corticosteroid and antihistamine (dexamethasone and promethaz ine);(5) comprehensive treatment used in combination of fibrinogenase activators,corticosteroid and antihistamine with traditional Chinese herbs to activate blood and disperse stagnation.Two weeks after surgery,animals underwent further exploratory surgery and adhesions were evaluated.The results shown that combination of traditional Chinese herbs with western medicines (method V) was the most effective in prevention of postoperative intestinal adhesions.

  20. Role of Cysteinyl Leukotrienes in Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Hideaki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are lipid mediators that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Pharmacological studies using CysLTs indicate that two classes of receptor exist: CysLT1 receptor (CysLT1R) and CysLT2 receptor (CysLT2R). The CysLT1R is a high-affinity leukotriene D4 receptor with lower affinity for leukotriene C4 that is sensitive to the CysLT1R antagonist currently used to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis. Our previous immunohistochemical and autoradiographic studies have demonstrated the presence of anti-CysLT1R antibodies labeled in eosinophils, mast cells, macrophages, neutrophils and vascular endothelial cells in human nasal mucosa. Furthermore, we have revealed that the novel radioactive CysLT1R antagonist [3H]-pranlukast bound specifically to CysLT1R in human inferior turbinates and its binding sites were localized to vascular endothelium and the interstitial cells. These data suggest that the major targets of CysLT1R antagonists in allergic rhinitis are the vascular bed and infiltrated leukocytes such as mast cells, eosinophils and macrophages. Clinical trials have demonstrated that CysLT1R antagonists are as effective as antihistamines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis; however, they are less effective than intranasal steroids. The use of CysLT1R antagonists in combination with antihistamines has generally resulted in greater efficacy than when these agents were used alone. PMID:27115997

  1. Effect of standard medication on quality of life of patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Makoto; Harada, Shotaro

    2007-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis present with debilitating symptoms, including pruritus and subsequent excoriation, which significantly reduces their quality of life (QOL). At present, the standard therapy for atopic dermatitis constitutes a topical steroid and/or a topical immunomodulator, an emollient and an oral antihistamine, although few studies have reported the effect of this treatment regimen on QOL. The current study aimed to verify the efficacy of the standard therapy for both clinical symptom severity and patient QOL, assessed using the validated Skindex-16 questionnaire. Atopic dermatitis patients receiving the standard therapy (n=771) were enrolled in the current phase IV, multicenter, 12-week, open-label study. The Rajka and Langeland scale (used to rate the severity of atopic dermatitis symptoms) and the Skindex-16 QOL questionnaire were completed at weeks 0 (baseline), 4 and 12. Of 415 patients completing the questionnaire at all time points (per-protocol population), 95.2% were prescribed the antihistamine fexofenadine HCl 60 mg. There were significant improvements in symptoms, emotions and functioning scale scores at weeks 4 and 12 compared with baseline (PSkindex-16, improved over the treatment period (score decreased by >or=1 and >or=2 in 75.2% and 50.9% of patients, respectively). Significant (P<0.005) improvements from baseline in global scores were also observed at weeks 4 and 12, and for week 12 compared with week 4. Severity scores improved significantly (P<0.005) from weeks 0-4 and from weeks 4-12. The standard therapy was generally well tolerated with only mild adverse events reported (0.5%). These data suggest that patients with atopic dermatitis and associated pruritus experience significant improvements in both symptom severity and QOL when receiving standard therapy. PMID:17204095

  2. Maintenance of remission with low-dose olopatadine hydrochloride for itch in well-controlled chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makino T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Teruhiko Makino,1 Yoshiaki Takegami,1 Mati Ur Rehman,1 Yoko Yoshihisa,1 Waka Ishida,2 Takashi Toyomoto,3 Tadamichi Shimizu11Department of Dermatology, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Niigata Central Hospital, Joetsu, Japan; 3Department of Dermatology, Saiseikai Takaoka Hospital, Takaoka, JapanBackground: The long-term follow-up of chronic urticaria (CU is important to ensure the adequate treatment of patients. Olopatadine hydrochloride is one of the second-generation nonsedating antihistamines.Methods: This study was designed to assess the optimal dose of olopatadine to suppress symptoms of chronic urticarial itch in well-controlled patients. After CU patients were treated with 10 mg olopatadine, patients having a visual analogue scale (VAS itch score of less than 20 were randomly allocated into one of three groups: 10 mg/day (n = 35, 5 mg/day (n = 30, or no medication (n = 32.Results: The suppressive effects of both the 5 mg and 10 mg olopatadine treatments on the VAS itch score were more significant and longer lasting over a period of 4 weeks than the no-medication treatment. Both the 5-mg group and the 10-mg group showed improved urticarial symptoms and maintained their VAS itch score within normal limits compared to the no-medication group. The differences between the 5-mg and 10-mg groups were not significant.Conclusion: These results demonstrate that treatment with olopatadine at a dose of 5 mg once daily is effective and safe for the management and prevention of CU symptoms for itch in well-controlled patients.Keywords: chronic urticaria, olopatadine, dose, antihistamine, itch, histamine

  3. T、B、NK细胞亚型与慢性荨麻疹发病机制的关系%T, B and NK lymphocyte subgroups in the pathogenesis of chronic urticaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱慧兰; 李润祥; 郭庆; 罗静英; 李振洁; 李嘉彦; 吴志华

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship of T, B and NK lymphocytes with the pathogenesis of chronic urticaria. Methods Flow cytometry was applied to assess the proportion of T, B and NK lymphocyte subgroups in the peripheral blood of 51 patients with chronic urticaria and 30 sex and age-matched human controls. The CD4:CD8 ratio was calculated. Moreover, the symptoms, disease course and response to antihistamines of these patients were evaluated by one physician. Results The percentage of CD8+ T and NK cells, CD4:CD8 ratio were (27.20±8.22)%, (21.20±10.84)% and 1.48±0.62, respectively, in these patients,(29.9±3.74)%, (17.5±3.56)%, 1.24±0.27, respectively, in the controls; the differences were significant between the two groups (all P<0.05). Decreased levels of CD3+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and B cells were noted in patients resistant to antihistamines compared with those responsive to antihistamines[(61.81±11.70)% vs (75.74±2.36)%, (24.00±7.79)% vs (34.22±9.30)%, (10.78±2.07)% vs (15.25±4.10)%, P<0.05, 0.01, 0.05, respectively)], while the CD4:CD8 ratio and percentage of NK cells were increased in antihistamine-resistant patients compared to those in antihistamine-sensitive patients [1.67±0.76 vs 1.17±0.41, (28.61±12.62)% vs (12.78±6.02)%, both P<0.01 ]. In these patients with chronic urticaria, the percentages of CD3+ T and CD8+ T cells were negatively correlated with the symptom scores (R = -0.31, -0.28, respectively, both P<0.05 ), while the percentage of B cells was positively correlated with the symptom scores and disease course (R = 0.53, 0.55, respectively, both P<0.01 ). Conclusions There is an abnormality in the proportion of T, B and NK lymphocyte subgroups in patients with chronic urticaria,which indicates that humoral immunity may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic urticaria and the mechanism for responsiveness to antihistamine.%目的 探讨T、B、NK细胞亚型与慢性荨麻疹发病机制的关系.方法

  4. 避光教育对多形性日光疹患者病情和治疗的影响%Effects of sun protection education on the severity and treatment of polymorphous light eruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄淳韵; 严淑贤; 项蕾红; 马莉; 胡跃; 徐昱

    2013-01-01

    .SPSS 11.5 software was used for data processing.Rank sum test,t test and chi-square test were carried out to assess the differences in the severity and treatment of PLE between the control group and intervention group as well as between pre-and post-intervention.Results The patients receiving sun protection education showed a significant decrease in the severity of PLE,including the number of months affected by PLE (t =4.611,P < 0.01),number of PLE episodes (t =3.569,P < 0.01),frequency of facial involvement (Z =2.369,P < 0.05) and the time taken for lesions to appear after sun exposure (Z =2.650,P <0.01) in the year after enrollment compared with that before enrollment.Significant differences were also observed between the intervention group and control group in the number of months affected by PLE (t =3.679,P < 0.01),number of PLE episodes (t =2.995,P < 0.05),frequency of facial involvement (Z =2.169,P < 0.05),the time taken for lesions to appear after sun exposure (Z =2.169,P < 0.05) in the year after enrollment.The percentage of patients applying highly potent topical glucocorticosteroids (x2 =10.928,P < 0.01)and administrating antihistamines (x2 =18.723,P < 0.01) as well as the cumulative time of treatment with oral antihistamines (Z =2.656,P < 0.01) were significantly reduced in the intervention group in the year after enrollment than in that before enrollment.Further more,a marked decrease was found in the percentage of patients applying topical highly potent glucocorticosteroids (x2 =4.521,P < 0.05) and administrating antihistamines (x2 =10.949,P <0.01) as well as the cumulative time of treatment with oral antihistamines (Z =3.353,P < 0.01).Conclusions Sun protection education through lectures and manuals appears to be an efficient adjuvant for the relief of PLE severity as well as for the reduction in the use of antihistamines and glucocorticosteroids,suggesting that dermatologists should pay more attention to sun protection education

  5. Therapy of atopic eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias

    2006-10-01

    anti-septic treatment of the skin. Due to the lack of randomized controlled studies there is still not certain proof that antimicrobial or anti-septic treatment of non-infected eczematous skin is efficient for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. A reduction of Staphylococcus aureus is observable during an anti-inflammatory treatment of the skin with topical corticosteroids and/or the topical calcineurin-inhibitor tacrolimus. Antihistaminic drugs which are orally applied in atopic dermatitis may support the therapy of the itching skin disease. One controlled study showed a rapid reduction of itch during the use of a non-sedating antihistaminic drug. There are, however, no controlled studies which show the efficacy of antihistaminic drugs on the skin condition in atopic dermatitis. Dietetic restrictions should be applied only after a specific allergological diagnostic clarification. The “gold standard” is still a (blinded oral provocation test which has to show an influence of a given food on the skin condition. There is sufficient evidence that there is no general dietetic approach which shows efficacy in atopic dermatitis. The treatment of patients with lactobacillae is still controversially discussed. Available studies which showed an efficacy show methodological weaknesses so that this approach can not be generally recommended for clinical practice at the time now. Approaches reducing house dust mite in the surroundings of patients with atopic dermatitis can have an effect on the skin condition so that at least in mite sensitized patients this approach appears to be reasonable. The specific immunotherapy with house dust mite showed clinical efficacy in a controlled study and in some open studies. The education of patients with atopic dermatitis or their parents is a further efficient approach in the management of this chronic skin disease. Interdisciplinary approaches in patients’ education containing also psychological elements appear to be an attractive new

  6. Clinical outcomes and adverse effect monitoring in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniper, Elizabeth F; Ståhl, Elisabeth; Doty, Richard L; Simons, F Estelle R; Allen, David B; Howarth, Peter H

    2005-03-01

    The subjective recording in diary cards of symptoms of itch, sneeze, nose running, and blockage, with the use of a rating scale to indicate the level of severity, is usual for clinical trials in allergic rhinitis. The primary outcome measure is usually a composite score that enables a single total symptoms score endpoint. It is appreciated, however, that rhinitis has a greater effect on the individual than is reflected purely by the recording of anterior nasal symptoms. Nasal obstruction is troublesome and may lead to sleep disturbance in addition to impaired daytime concentration and daytime sleepiness. These impairments affect school and work performance. Individuals with rhinitis find it socially embarrassing to be seen sneezing, sniffing, or blowing their nose. To capture these and other aspects of the disease-specific health-related quality of life, questionnaires such as the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire have been developed and validated for clinical trial use. The adoption of health-related quality of life questionnaires into clinical trials broadens the information obtained regarding the effect of the therapeutic intervention and helps focus on issues relevant to the individual patient. It must be appreciated that it is not only the disease that may adversely affect health-related quality of life; administered therapy, although intended to be beneficial, may also cause health impairment. Adverse-event monitoring is thus essential in clinical trials. The first-generation H 1 -histamines, because of their effect on central H 1 -receptors, are classically associated with central nervous system (CNS) effects such as sedation. Although this is not always perceived by the patient, it is clearly evident with objective performance testing, and positron emission tomography scanning has directly demonstrated the central H 1 -receptor occupancy. The second-generation H 1 -antihistamines have reduced central H 1 -receptor occupancy and considerably

  7. [Rhinitis in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogjera, Livije

    2011-01-01

    test, and by proving specific antibody IgE in patient serum. Allergic rhinitis is categorized according to sensitivity to allergens that occur seasonally, like pollens, or to allergens that are present all year round, like house dust mite, molds and animal dander, into seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Allergy to pollens causes the same mechanism of inflammation in response to allergens, which is the result of allergen binding to specific IgE antibody; however, patients with pollen allergy usually complain more of sneezing and runny nose, whereas patients with allergy to perennial allergens more often complain of obstruction, with the episodes of sneezing and runny nose occurring only when exposed to higher concentrations of allergens (house cleaning, around pets). Treatment includes avoidance of allergens, medical treatment and immunotherapy (allergy vaccines, tablets with allergens). Avoidance of allergens means reduction of environmental allergen load to the respiratory system including workplace, which is not easy to accomplish. Medical treatment is usually necessary to control symptoms, and it includes antihistamines, nasal or in tablets, and nasal glucocorticoids (steroids). Antihistamines should be second generation, which do not cause sedation, and such treatment shows more efficacy on runny nose, sneezing and nasal itch than on nasal stuffiness. Nasal steroids are more potent in improving nasal patency than antihistamines, and are at least as potent in the control of all other nasal and ocular symptoms. Nasal patency may be improved by nasal or oral decongestants, but such treatment should be reduced to as short period as possible, since after several days of using nasal decongestants rebound congestion may occur and patients will need nasal decongestants to improve nasal airways even when allergens are not around anymore.

  8. 重视变态反应性结膜炎治疗中非甾体抗炎药物的应用%Consideration of application of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹

    2014-01-01

    近年来随着工业化进程的加快,变态反应性结膜炎的发生率逐渐升高.目前,变态反应性结膜炎的治疗以眼局部治疗为主,主要目的在于针对病因,减轻症状和预防并发症.变态反应性结膜炎的治疗药物包括抗组胺药、肥大细胞稳定剂、双效作用药物(稳定肥大细胞/抗组胺)、非甾体抗炎药(NSAIDs)、糖皮质激素及免疫抑制剂六大类.抗组胺药、肥大细胞稳定剂、双效作用药物的主要作用是减轻眼部瘙痒、结膜充血等症状和体征,也可用于急性变态反应性结膜炎患者,而NSAIDs、糖皮质激素及免疫抑制剂则用于症状严重患者或慢性病例.糖皮质激素类药物治疗变态反应性结膜炎效果显著,可作用于过敏反应的多个环节,但是长期应用可能会导致眼压升高、视力障碍、视野缺损和后囊下白内障,有角膜溃疡的患者更应谨慎使用.免疫抑制剂具有抑制免疫的作用,可抑制局部或机体异常的免疫反应,但由于价格较高及局部刺激性强等不良反应,故也不宜长期应用.NSAIDs具有良好的抗炎效果,作用温和,刺激性小,目前在眼表变态反应性结膜炎中广泛应用.%Allergic conjunctivitis is a very common pathology and its incidence has increased in developing countries with the development of industrialization.At present,the therapy of allergic conjunctivitis is mainly the use of topical eyedrops to eliminate causative factors,relieve symptoms and prevent complications.The drugs used in allergic conjunctivitis have 6 groups,including antihistamine,mastocyte stabilizer,drugs with dual effects (antihistamine and mastocyte stabilizer),non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),glucocorticoids and immunosuppressors.The goals of topical use of antihistamine,mastocyte stabilizer and drugs of dual effects are to remove the itching and hyperaemia of eye or to treat the patients with acute allergic conjunctivitis; while NSAIDs

  9. 慢性荨麻疹的机理及治疗%The mechanism and treatment of chronic urticarial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成敏; 夏笔军; 冯雪萍

    2014-01-01

    慢性荨麻疹(chronic urticaria,CU)是皮肤科常见的一种变态反应性疾病,临床表现为反复发生的风团伴随瘙痒,病程迁延难愈.CU发病因素广泛,机制复杂.目前已知可能的病因有药物、食物、感染、动物及植物因素、精神因素及内分泌改变、内科疾病、遗传等.其主要发病机制除肥大细胞脱颗粒释放组胺,还能够使 IgE及其受体的自身抗体 FcεRI所引起 Th1/Th2细胞亚群失衡和自身免疫反应及其炎症递质白三烯释放,致使后续出现炎症反应等症状.CU发病出现异常免疫反应后,会对单纯用抗组胺药物治疗难度较大的 CU,提供更多的治疗靶位.目前用于治疗的药物和方法有抗组胺药、皮质类固醇激素、免疫抑制剂、中药、穴位埋线等.咪唑斯汀是一种新的第二代抗组胺药,具有起效迅速,抗组胺作用强,有效强度持续24h,人体内无蓄积作用等特点.不管是单用,还是联合用药,咪唑斯汀都是很好的 CU治疗药物.%Chronic urticarial is one of the most common skin al ergic dermatological disease,its clinical manifestations including frequent recurrence wheal with itch and long course.The causes of the disG ease is unknown,the pathogenesis is complicated and yet not wel clarified.The cause of disease possibly linked to drug、food、infection、animal、plant、mental factor、inheritance and so on.The main pathogenG esis is that mast cellrelease histamine,in addition,IgE and autoantibody of its receptor cause Th1/Tsh2 cells imbalances and immune reaction,then release leukotriene and appear subsequent inflammation response、etc.After the abnormal immune response,it is dif icult to treat CU with pure antihistamine drugs,which can provide more therapeutic target.Currently,the drugs and methods in the treatment of CU are antihistamine 、corticosteroids 、immunosuppressor 、traditional Chinese medicine 、acupoint catgut embedding,etc.Mizolastine is one of the new

  10. Co-Administration of Chenopodium Album Allergens and CpG Oligodeoxy-nucleotides Effects on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Allergic Rhinitis Treated with Intranasal Corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrollah Farrokhi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Allergic Rhinitis (AR is one of the most common chronic diseases in the developed countries. This study was performed to investigate the effect of CpG-ODN in alteration of T-helper (Th1/Th2 balance of patients with AR treated with intranasal corticosteroids (INCs and antihistamines. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of 20 patients with AR were isolated before and after 45 days therapy.Cytokine production (IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ and specific Ch.a IgE in response to CpG co- administration  of  natural  chenopodium  album  (CpG/Ch.a  or  recombinant  Ch.a  (CpG/rCh.a allergen were investigated in supernatants.of cultured PBMCs using ELISA Intracellular IL-10 was also assessed in CD4+ cells using flow cytometry. Significant increase in production of IFN-γ and IL-10 and decrease in production of IL-4 were found in supernatants of cultured PBMCs activated with CPG/ch.a and CPG/rch.a. of both CpG/Ch.a and CpG/rCh.a compared to allergens alone, before and after therapy.After therapy, IFN-γ production with CpG/Ch.a was significantly increased in comparison with before (237 vs. 44 pg/ml, p=0.001. IFN-γ and IL-10 production with CpG/rCh.a was significantly increased after therapy compared to before (407.6 vs. 109 pg/ml, p=0.01 for IFN-γ; 171.7 vs. 52.6 pg/ml, p=0.008  for  IL-10,  whilst  IL-4  was  significantly decreased (2.1  vs.  5.8  pg/ml,  p=0.02. Intracellular IL-10 expression was also significantly increased in response to either CpG/Ch.a or CpG/rCh.a that showed intracellular assay could be more sensitive than ELISA. Also, treatment with intranasal corticosteroids and antihistamines could enhance this CpG effect, in vitro.

  11. Prevention of generalized reactions to contrast media: a consensus report and guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcos, S.K. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Thomsen, H.S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Webb, J.A.W. [Diagnostic Radiology Department, St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to document, using consensus methodology, current practice for prevention of generalized reactions to contrast media, to identify areas where there is disagreement or confusion and to draw up guidelines for reducing the risk of generalized contrast media reactions based on the survey and a review of the literature. A document with 165 questions was mailed to 202 members of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology. The questions covered risk factors and prophylactic measures for generalized contrast media reactions. Sixty-eight members (34%) responded. The majority indicated that a history of moderate and severe reaction(s) to contrast media and asthma are important risk factors. The survey also indicated that patients with risk factors should receive non-ionic contrast media. In patients at high risk of reaction, if the examination is deemed absolutely necessary, a resuscitation team should be available at the time of the procedure. The majority (91%) used corticosteroid prophylaxis given at least 11 h before contrast medium to patients at increased risk of reaction. The frequency of the dosage varied from one to three times. Fifty-five percent also use antihistamine Hl, mainly administered orally and once. Antihistamine H2 and ephedrine are rarely used. All essential drugs are available on the emergency resuscitation trolley. Patients with risk factors are observed up to 30 min by 48% and up to 60 min by 43% of the responders. Prophylactic measures are not taken before extravascular use of contrast media. Prophylactic drugs are given to patients with a history of moderate or severe generalized reaction to contrast media. In patients with asthma, opinion is divided with only half of the responders giving prophylactic drugs. Aspirin, {beta}-blockers, interleukin-2 and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs are not considered risk factors and therefore are not stopped before injection of contrast media. The survey showed some variability in

  12. Clinical analysis of ocular injuries caused by bee sting%蜂螫伤眼病例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海萍; 於水清; 张志勇

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical feature,treatment and pathogenesis of ocular injuries caused by bee sting.Methods Retrospective study on the 25 eyes of 20 patients harmed by bee sting.Results The clinical feature of the patients suffered from bee sting included tissue edema,corneal epithelium defect,iridocyclitis,secondary glaucoma,cataract and optic neuritis.The vision was recovered after immediate removal of the stinger,and the application of corticosteroids,antihistamines and neurotrophic drugs.Nonenzymatic polypeptide toxins and enzymes in bee venom caused severe toxic effect and hypersensitivity reaction might be the main pathogenesis of ocular injuries caused by bee sting.Conclusion Bee stings can cause the injury of ocular tissues.Removal of the stinger,and application of steroids,antihistamines,and neurotrophic drugs are effective treatments for bee stings.%目的 探讨蜂螫伤的临床表现、治疗方法以及致病机制.方法 回顾性分析我院就诊的蜂螫伤21例(25眼)的临床资料.结果 患者的临床表现主要为组织水肿,角膜上皮缺损,虹膜睫状体炎,继发性青光眼,白内障,视神经炎.通过去除蜂螫刺,应用糖皮质激素、抗组胺药及神经营养药,大部分患者的视力基本恢复.蜂毒中的非酶多肽类毒素产生的直接毒性作用和酶类引起的超敏变态反应可能是致病的主要因素.结论 蜂螫伤可以产生明显的眼组织损伤,去除蜂的螫刺以及应用糖皮质激素,抗组胺药,神经营养药是有效治疗方法.

  13. The Histamine H4 Receptor: From Orphan to the Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L. Thurmond

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The histamine H4 receptor (H4R was first noted as a sequence in genomic databases that had features of a G-protein coupled receptor. This putative receptor was found to bind histamine consistent with its homology to other histamine receptors and thus became the fourth member of the histamine receptor family. Due to the previous success of drugs that target the H1 and H2 receptors, an effort was made to understand the function of this receptor and determine if it represented a drug target. Taking advantage of the vast literature on histamine, a search for histamine activity that did not appear to be mediated by the other three histamine receptors was undertaken. From this asthma and pruritus emerged as areas of particular interest. Histamine has long been suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma, but antihistamines that target the H1 and H2 receptors have not been shown to be effective for this condition. The use of selective ligands in animal models of asthma has now potentially filled this gap by showing a role for the H4R in mediating lung function and inflammation. A similar story exists for chronic pruritus associated with conditions such as atopic dermatitis. Antihistamines that target the H1 receptor are effective in reducing acute pruritus, but are ineffective in pruritus experienced by patients with atopic dermatitis. As for asthma, animal models have now suggested a role for the H4R in mediating pruritic responses, with antagonists to the H4R reducing pruritus in a number of different conditions. The anti-pruritic effect of H4R antagonists has recently been shown in human clinical studies, validating the preclinical findings in the animal models. A selective H4R antagonist inhibited histamine-induced pruritus in health volunteers and reduced pruritus in patients with atopic dermatitis. The history to date of the H4R provides an excellent example of the deorphanization of a novel receptor and the translation of this into

  14. Prevention of generalized reactions to contrast media: a consensus report and guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to document, using consensus methodology, current practice for prevention of generalized reactions to contrast media, to identify areas where there is disagreement or confusion and to draw up guidelines for reducing the risk of generalized contrast media reactions based on the survey and a review of the literature. A document with 165 questions was mailed to 202 members of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology. The questions covered risk factors and prophylactic measures for generalized contrast media reactions. Sixty-eight members (34%) responded. The majority indicated that a history of moderate and severe reaction(s) to contrast media and asthma are important risk factors. The survey also indicated that patients with risk factors should receive non-ionic contrast media. In patients at high risk of reaction, if the examination is deemed absolutely necessary, a resuscitation team should be available at the time of the procedure. The majority (91%) used corticosteroid prophylaxis given at least 11 h before contrast medium to patients at increased risk of reaction. The frequency of the dosage varied from one to three times. Fifty-five percent also use antihistamine Hl, mainly administered orally and once. Antihistamine H2 and ephedrine are rarely used. All essential drugs are available on the emergency resuscitation trolley. Patients with risk factors are observed up to 30 min by 48% and up to 60 min by 43% of the responders. Prophylactic measures are not taken before extravascular use of contrast media. Prophylactic drugs are given to patients with a history of moderate or severe generalized reaction to contrast media. In patients with asthma, opinion is divided with only half of the responders giving prophylactic drugs. Aspirin, β-blockers, interleukin-2 and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs are not considered risk factors and therefore are not stopped before injection of contrast media. The survey showed some variability in

  15. AB042. Allergy Working Group Update: the burden and management of rhinitis and rhinosinusitis in UK primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkens, Wytske; Nibber, Anjan; Chisholm, Alison; Hellings, Peter; Skinner, Derek; Price, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are diseases of the upper airways with a high prevalence and when they are chronic with a high quality of life burden on patients and costs for society. To date, data on the primary care burden of rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are limited as is knowledge of how primary care physicians currently manage these patients. This study aims to quantify the burden of CRS and characterize related management approaches in UK primary care. Methods Patients with diagnostic codes for rhinitis and rhinosinusitis were identified within the UK’s Optimum Patient Care Research Database (OPCRD), a respiratory enriched primary care database. Consultations over a 5-year period (latest for each patient) code for rhinitis and rhinosinusitis symptoms resulting in prescriptions for antibiotics, oral steroids and/or antihistamines were identified. Diagnostic codes were used to further categorize patients into acute/chronic rhinitis/rhinosinusitis and allergic/non allergic chronic rhinitis subgroups. Prescribed therapies were categorized as: antibiotics (all); steroids (oral, injectable, nasal) and antihistamines, nasal spray and eye drops and mapped across rhinitis/rhinosinusitis and allergic/non-allergic patient subgroups. Results A total of 685,429 patients were identified with rhinitis and rhinosinusitis diagnostic codes. Of these patients: 80,900 (5%) had a diagnostic code for acute rhinitis (common cold); 176,353 (26%) for acute rhinosinusitis; 65,610 (10%) for chronic rhinosinusitis; 306,030 (45%) for chronic allergic rhinitis; 4,747 (1%) for chronic non-allergic rhinitis and 51,790 (8%) undefined chronic rhinitis. A total of 1,664,068 consultations for rhinitis and rhinosinusitis symptoms were identified, of which 185,730 (27%) resulted in an antibiotic prescription, 5,597 (0.8%) in an oral steroid prescription and 1,898 (0.3%) in an antibiotic and oral steroid prescription. Drug prescribing varied markedly across diagnostic subgroups with

  16. Sleep complaints: Whenever possible, avoid the use of sleeping pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    (1) Most sleep complaints involve difficulties in getting to sleep or staying asleep, or not feeling refreshed on awakening. Misconceptions and worrying over the lack of sleep and its consequences can contribute to reinforcing these disorders; (2) How can patients who complain of poor-quality sleep be helped, without resorting to treatments that can have adverse effects? To answer this question, we conducted a systematic review of the literature based on the standard Prescrire procedure; (3) One effective approach is to explain the basic physiology of sleep, to discuss misconceptions, and to adopt a strategy of "stimulus control". This method has a similar efficacy to prescribing a benzodiazepine. and the effect is longer lasting; (4) Moderate, regular physical exercise, especially in the morning, seems to help some patients, but the evidence is weak; (5) Some clinical trials of phytotherapy have shown a positive risk-benefit balance of weak aqueous or hydroalcoholic valerian extracts. Efficacy is limited, however; (6) A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials showed that benzodiazepines and related drugs increase the duration of sleep and help patients to fall asleep sooner. However, none of these trials provides comparative data spanning periods of more than two weeks. Efficacy is uncertain in the longer term, as patients quickly develop a tolerance to the hypnotic effects of benzodiazepines; (7) The adverse effects of benzodiazepines include frequent memory disorders, daytime drowsiness, falls, fractures and road accidents, and a withdrawal syndrome after treatment cessation. Related drugs such as zolpidem and zopiclone provoke similar adverse effects; (8) Sedative antihistamines have not been as well-evaluated as benzodiazepines in this setting. Small comparative trials of doxylamine and diphenhydramine showed no major difference in efficacy versus benzodiazepines and related drugs. The main adverse effects of sedative antihistamines are daytime drowsiness

  17. Erythema multiforme as the result of taking carbamazepine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Erythema multiforme is an acute mucocutaneus disease which is caused by the hypersensitivity reaction. It is characterized by target lesions on the skin or ulcerative oral lesion. Etiology of the disease is unknown, it is currently considered as immunologic disease. The triggering factors is the use of certain type of drugs like antibiotics, anticonvulsant, and NSAID. Most of the dentists do not know about it is mechanism, so a lot of people consider it as a malpractice. Purpose: This paper reported a case of a man, 46 years old which had ulcerative oral mucous, peeled and pain lips after taking carbamazepine drugs. Case: The clinical diagnosis of this case was erythema multiforme because of the hypersensitivity reaction as the result of taking carbamazepine. Case management: The final diagnosis based on anamnesis history of taking systemic drugs and clinical manifestation of erythema multiforme in the oral cavity. The drugs therapy that had been given were antihistamine, oral corticosteroid, gargle liquid contained of topical anesthetic, corticosteroid, and antibiotic. Conclusion: In this case, it can be concluded that erythema multiforme appeared was triggered by taking carbamazepine as the drug of choice for trigeminal neuralgia therapy. These drugs can cause type III hypersensitivity reaction. The final diagnosis based on anamnesis history of taking carbamazepine before lesions erupted and the characterized clinical manifestation.Latar belakang: Erythema multiforme adalah penyakit mukokutaneus akut yang menyerang kulit dan mukosa sebagai akibat dari reaksi hipersensitivitas. Secara karakteristik ditandai oleh lesi target pada kulit atau lesi ulserasi pada mukosa rongga mulut. Etiologi penyakit ini belum jelas, diduga karena adanya reaksi imunologi. Pencetusnya dikarenakan adanya pemakaian obat-obatan tertentu seperti antibiotik, antikonvulsan dan NSAID. Banyak dokter gigi kurang memahami mekanisme timbulnya penyakit ini, sehingga

  18. Utilization of antiallergic drugs in Shanghai Dermatology Hospital from 2007 to 2011%上海市皮肤病医院2007-2011年抗过敏药物应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈中建; 姜泽静

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the utilization of antiallergic drugs in the Shanghai Dermatology Hospital, so as to provide evidence for rational use of drugs clinically. Methods: Statistical analyses were made in the changes in frequency of medication (DDDs), daily dose cost (DDC), and total amount of all the antiallergic drug sales in the outpatient pharmacy of the hospital in the last 5 years from 2007 to 2011. Results: Generally, the frequency of antiallergic drug medication from 2007 to 2011 remained basically stable, with the average daily cost decreased year by year. Piperazines antihistaminics like cetirizine and pi-peridines antihistaminics as loratadine were most widely used clinically. The types of antiallergic drugs consumed in these years in the hospital were mostly domestic cetirizine and loratdine, as well as imported cetirizine hydrochloride. Conclusion: The utilization of antiallergic drugs in the hospital is generally rational.%目的:分析上海市皮肤病医院抗过敏药物的应用情况,为临床合理用药提供参考.方法:对本院2007-2011年5年门诊中消耗的各类抗过敏药物的销售金额、用药频度及日均费用的变化进行统计和分析.结果:2007-2011年抗过敏药物总用药频度基本保持稳定,但日均费用逐年下降;以西替利嗪为代表的哌嗪类抗组胺药和以氯雷他定为代表的哌啶类抗组胺药在临床应用最广泛,具体品种以国产的盐酸西替利嗪和氯雷他定及进口盐酸西替利嗪为主.结论:本院抗过敏药的使用基本合理.

  19. 卡介菌多糖核酸对慢性荨麻疹临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽

    2013-01-01

    the joint application card interface nucleic acid injection polysaccharides in the treatment of chronic urticaria clinical curative effect, better than conventional al ergy single treatment. methods the single blind correlation method wil be 2006-2010 outpatient diagnosis of chronic urticaria during the 8 ~ 62 years old patients were randomly divided into two groups: treatment group in 42 cases and control 42 cases. The control group to give the antihistamine conventional treatment. The treatment group in addition to give the antihistamine treatment such as outside, also give card interface nucleic acid injection polysaccharides 1 ml muscle injection, tertian. results two groups after treating the total effective rate are significant difference (P < 0.01). conclusion combined application card interface nucleic acid injection polysaccharides in patients with clinical symptoms obvious, the recurrence rate is low.%目的联合应用卡介菌多糖核酸注射液在治疗慢性荨麻疹的临床疗效,优于常规抗过敏的单一治疗方案。方法采用单盲对比法将2006年~2010年期间门诊诊断为慢性荨麻疹的8~62岁患者84例随机分为两组,治疗组42例,对照组42例。对照组给予脱敏等常规治疗。治疗组除给予脱敏等治疗外,同时给予卡介菌多糖核酸注射液1ml肌肉注射,隔日一次。结果两组治疗后总有效率差别有显著意义(P<0.01)。结论联合应用卡介菌多糖核酸注射液使患者临床症状缓解明显,复发率低。

  20. Cost analysis of inappropriate treatments for suspected dermatomycoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Fiammenghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Superficial mycoses are estimated to affect more than 20-25% of the world’s population with a consistent increase over the years. Most patients referred to our clinic for suspected dermatomycoses have already been treated with pharmacotherapy, without a previous mycological examination and many show changes in the clinical manifestations. Indeed, some medications, such as steroids, antiviral, antibiotics and antihistamines are not able to erase a fungal infection, but also they can cause atypical clinical manifestations. The consequences of inappropriate treatment include delayed diagnosis, prolonged healing time, and additional costs. The aims of this study were (1 to evaluate the incidence of increased costs attributable to inappropriate therapy sustained by the National Health Service and patients and (2 to highlight the importance of mycological evaluation before starting treatment, in order to improve diagnostic accuracy. An observational retrospective and prospective study was performed from September 2013 to February 2014, in 765 patients referred to our center (University Hospital “ Federico II” in Naples, Italy, for suspected mycological infection. The following treatments (alone or in combination were defined as inappropriate: (1 cortisone in a patient with at least one positive site; (2 antifungals in (a patients with all negative sites or (b ineffective antifungal treatment (in terms of drug chosen, dose or duration in those with all positive sites; or (3 antibiotics; (4 antivirals or (5 antihistamines, in patients with ≥ 1 positive site. Five hundred and fifty patients were using medications before the assessment visit. The total amount of avoidable costs related to inappropriate previous treatments was € 121,417, representing 74% of the total treatment costs. 253/550 patients received drugs also after the visit. For these patients, the cost of treatment prescribed after mycological testing was € 42,952, with a decrease

  1. 别嘌呤醇致重型药疹3例临床对策%The Possible Pathogenesis and Clinic Treatment of Heavy Drug Eruption Caused by Allopurinol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈辉; 张秋子

    2010-01-01

    Objective the paper aims at discussing the possible pathogenesis and clinic treatment of the heavy drug eruption. Methods the authors made an analysis on 3 clinic cases in the hospital,in which some heavy drug eruptions occurred on patients taking allopurinol.Results the result was that there were 7 cases with drug eruption,3 of which erupted heavily. Among the three patients with heavy drug eruption,two were cured and one died when using corticotrophin and antihistamine for treatment.Conclusion the conclusion was that resulting from chemical mechanism of allopurinol,the pathogenesis of heavy drug eruption caused by the antigout medicine is very complicated and it is the body's allergic reaction to allopurinol. The preferred treatment is to use enough corticotrophin and antihistamine.%目的 探讨别嘌呤醇所致重型药疹的可能机制及临床对策.方法 对我院收治的3例别嘌呤醇致重型药疹患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 2例男性患者经综合处理,分别于住院29天、35天病情好转而出院,1例病情危怠而转住某省级医院进一步救治,经随访,患者终救治无效死亡.结论 抗痛风药别嘌呤醇致重型药疹的发生机制非常复杂,可能与其化学结构有关,是机体对别嘌呤醇的一种超敏反应,也有非变态反应机制参与,足量皮质激素及抗组胺药应是首选治疗方案.

  2. Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyerdahl Fridtjof

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. Methods Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings in subjects aged ≥16 years in Oslo (428 198 inhabitants were included consecutively in an observational multi-centre study including the ambulance services, the Oslo Emergency Ward (outpatient clinic, and hospitals, as well as medico-legal autopsies from 1st April 2003 to 31st March 2004. Characteristics of fatal poisonings were examined, and a comparison of toxic agents was made between fatal and non-fatal acute poisoning. Results In Oslo, during the one-year period studied, 103 subjects aged ≥16 years died of acute poisoning. The annual mortality rate was 24 per 100 000. The male-female ratio was 2:1, and the mean age was 44 years (range 19-86 years. In 92 cases (89%, death occurred outside hospital. The main toxic agents were opiates or opioids (65% of cases, followed by ethanol (9%, tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs (4%, benzodiazepines (4%, and zopiclone (4%. Seventy-one (69% were evaluated as accidental deaths and 32 (31% as suicides. In 70% of all cases, and in 34% of suicides, the deceased was classified as drug or alcohol dependent. When compared with the 2981 non-fatal acute poisonings registered during the study period, the case fatality rate was 3% (95% C.I., 0.03-0.04. Methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines had the highest case fatality rates; 33% (95% C.I., 0.008-0.91, 14% (95% C.I., 0.04-0.33, and 10% (95% C.I., 0.02-0.27, respectively. Conclusions Three per cent of all acute poisonings were fatal, and nine out of ten deaths by acute poisonings occurred outside hospital. Two-thirds were evaluated as accidental

  3. The prevention of anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated radiological contrast media: a systematic review

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    Carter Andrew

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated contrast media are relatively common and potentially life threatening. Opinion is divided as to the utility of medications for preventing these reactions. We performed a systematic review to assess regimes for the prevention of anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated contrast media. Methods Searches for studies were conducted in the Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL and CENTRAL databases. Bibliographies of included studies and review articles were examined and experts were contacted. Randomised clinical trials that examined agents given prior to iodinated contrast material for the prevention of anaphylactoid reactions were included in the review. The validity of the included studies was examined using a component approach. Results Six studies met the inclusion criteria, but only one of these fulfilled all of the validity criteria. There were four studies that examined the use of H1 antihistamines, each was used to prevent anaphylactoid reactions to ionic contrast. The random effects pooled relative risk demonstrated a significant reduction in the overall rate of anaphylactoid reactions (RR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.18-0.9, p = 0.027. There were insufficient studies to produce a pooled statistic for the use of corticosteroids, however regimes of steroids (methylprednisolone 32 mg given at least six hours and again two hours prior to the administration of contrast suggested a reduction in the incidence of anaphylactoid reactions. Conclusion In conclusion, there are few high quality randomised clinical trials that have addressed the question of the optimal methods to prevent allergic type reactions to iodinated radiological contrast media. Allowing for these limitations, the results suggest that H1 antihistamines given immediately prior to the administration of ionic contrast may be useful in preventing reactions to ionic contrast and are suggestive of a protective effect of corticosteroids when given in two doses

  4. Studies on Ancylostomiasis: II.Clinical Symptomatology, Effects of Drugs, especially of Iron Compounds, with Relation to the Severity of Artificial Infection

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    Lee, Mun Ho; Kim, Dong Jip; Lee, Jang Kyu; Seo, Byong Sul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1967-09-15

    This study was aimed; firstly to observe various clinical symptomatology with relation to the number of Ancylostoma duodenale larvae orally given to the human beings, secondly to evaluate the effects of some drugs like steroid hormones, antihistaminics and antitussives, and, thirdly to study the influences of some iron compounds in prevention and treatment of anemia of such origin. Ten healthy volunteers free from the previous history of hookworm infection were divided into 4 groups, to whom various numbers of actively moving filariform Ancylostoma duodenale larvae were orally given; 500 to 4 cases, 250 to 3 cases and 100 to 3 cases. Following were the results: 1. Clinical symptomatology. 1) The most frequently encountered symptoms and signs were general malaise, cough and hoarseness. The tracheal itching and pain, low back pain, arthralgia, sputum and salivation, acid belching, loss of appetite, abdominal pain and vomiting were also noted. 2) If the larger number of the larvae was given, the clinical symptomatology was more severe. 3) Prednisolone medication caused some improvement of such symptomatology, while the antihistaminics and antitussives like codeine or ephedrine were ineffective. 4) In volunteers whose nutritional conditions were rather poor appeared to show more severe symptomatology. 2. Effects of iron compounds. 1) The oral administration of ferrous fumarate induced a slight increase of serum iron levels in the initial stage of the infection, then a decrease from 15-20 days later and a recovery after 2 months. 2) The intravenous administration of saccharated ferric oxide induced a steady upkeep of the serum iron levels. 3) The hemoglobin contents also showed the upkeeps after either the oral or intravenous administration of the iron compounds. 4) The iron compounds, therefore, are considered to have the preventive as well as the therapeutic effects on hookworm anemia, which may strongly suggest that hookworm anemia is essentially the iron deficiency

  5. Inverse agonism and its therapeutic significance

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    Gurudas Khilnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs show varying degrees of basal or constitutive activity. This constitutive activity is usually minimal in natural receptors but is markedly observed in wild type and mutated (naturally or induced receptors. According to conventional two-state drug receptor interaction model, binding of a ligand may initiate activity (agonist with varying degrees of positive intrinsic activity or prevent the effect of an agonist (antagonist with zero intrinsic activity. Inverse agonists bind with the constitutively active receptors, stabilize them, and thus reduce the activity (negative intrinsic activity. Receptors of many classes (α-and β-adrenergic, histaminergic, GABAergic, serotoninergic, opiate, and angiotensin receptors have shown basal activity in suitable in vitro models. Several drugs that have been conventionally classified as antagonists (β-blockers, antihistaminics have shown inverse agonist effects on corresponding constitutively active receptors. Nearly all H 1 and H 2 antihistaminics (antagonists have been shown to be inverse agonists. Among the β-blockers, carvedilol and bucindolol demonstrate low level of inverse agonism as compared to propranolol and nadolol. Several antipsychotic drugs (D 2 receptors antagonist, antihypertensive (AT 1 receptor antagonists, antiserotoninergic drugs and opioid antagonists have significant inverse agonistic activity that contributes partly or wholly to their therapeutic value. Inverse agonism may also help explain the underlying mechanism of beneficial effects of carvedilol in congestive failure, naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome in opioid dependence, clozapine in psychosis, and candesartan in cardiac hypertrophy. Understanding inverse agonisms has paved a way for newer drug development. It is now possible to develop agents, which have only desired therapeutic value and are devoid of unwanted adverse effect. Pimavanserin (ACP-103, a highly selective 5-HT

  6. A comparison of the leaf gel extracts of Aloe ferox and Aloe vera in the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis in Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finberg, M J; Muntingh, G L; van Rensburg, C E J

    2015-12-01

    Aloe vera gel is widely used in the treatment of an array of disturbances, especially skin disorders. The wound-healing effects have been attributed to its moisturizing and anti-inflammatory effects as well as its beneficial effect on the maturation of collagen. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of topically applied extracts of Aloe ferox with that of Aloe vera on the symptoms as well as IgE levels of a mouse model of atopic dermatitis (AD). Mice were sensitized and challenged with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and treated afterwards for 10 consecutive days with the gels of either A. ferox or A. vera applied topically to the affected areas. A placebo gel was used for the control mice. Blood was collected at the beginning and end of the treatment period to measure serum IgE levels. Although the gels of both the Aloe species inhibited the cutaneous inflammatory response as well as serum IgE levels in the rats, the extracts of A. ferox were superior to that of A. vera in reducing IgE levels. The gels of A. ferox and A. vera, applied topically, may be a safe and useful alternative to antihistamines and topical corticosteroids, for the treatment of patients suffering from recurring chronic AD. PMID:26510768

  7. Studies on Treating Eczema by Chinese Herbal Medicine with Anti-Type Ⅳ Allergic Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study Chinese herbal prescription for treatment of eczema on the basis of the suppressive effect of Chinese herbal medicine with type Ⅳ allergic reaction. Methods: Various formulae composed of Chinese herbal medicines possessing suppressive effect on murine allergic contact dermatitis were formed following the therapeutic principles of traditional Chinese medicine in treating eczema, and their effect on ear swelling, ear flake weight, dermal inflammatory infiltration cell count and plasma level of calcitonin gene related peptide ( CGRP) were examined in mice with dinitrofluorobenzene induced dermatitis. The prescription, Composite Poria Decoction was formulated and made into granule form, which was used to treat 63 cases of eczema (atopic dermatitis was excluded), and compared with 59 cases treated with antihistaminic that was aimed at the type I allergic reaction. Results: Experimental study showed that all the 4 Chinese prescriptions had the effect of anti-type Ⅳ allergic reaction, among them, the formula for cooling blood and removing Heat, Wind and Dampness evil possessed the most potent effect in suppressing murine dermatitis, and it was also able to up-regulate the plasma CGRP concentration. The clinical cure rate of Composite Poria Granule treatment was 47.6%, and that of the control was 22.0%. The difference was significant between the two groups (u=2.9555, P<0.01). Conclusions: Chinese herbal medicine has the effect of anti-type Ⅳ allergic reaction. Composite Poria Granule has good effect in treating eczema.

  8. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

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    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  9. A comparison of the leaf gel extracts of Aloe ferox and Aloe vera in the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis in Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finberg, M J; Muntingh, G L; van Rensburg, C E J

    2015-12-01

    Aloe vera gel is widely used in the treatment of an array of disturbances, especially skin disorders. The wound-healing effects have been attributed to its moisturizing and anti-inflammatory effects as well as its beneficial effect on the maturation of collagen. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of topically applied extracts of Aloe ferox with that of Aloe vera on the symptoms as well as IgE levels of a mouse model of atopic dermatitis (AD). Mice were sensitized and challenged with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and treated afterwards for 10 consecutive days with the gels of either A. ferox or A. vera applied topically to the affected areas. A placebo gel was used for the control mice. Blood was collected at the beginning and end of the treatment period to measure serum IgE levels. Although the gels of both the Aloe species inhibited the cutaneous inflammatory response as well as serum IgE levels in the rats, the extracts of A. ferox were superior to that of A. vera in reducing IgE levels. The gels of A. ferox and A. vera, applied topically, may be a safe and useful alternative to antihistamines and topical corticosteroids, for the treatment of patients suffering from recurring chronic AD.

  10. Atypical Toxicity Associated with 5-Fluororacil in a DPD-Deficient Patient with Pancreatic Cancer. Is Ethnicity a Risk Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Fluoropyrimidines constitute the backbone of chemotherapy regimens for GI tumors, including pancreatic cancer where it is used either as a radiosensitizer or as second-line after failing gemcitabine. While normal dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD enzyme activity is rate limiting in 5- fluorouracil (5-FU catabolism, its deficiency could increase concentrations of bioavailable 5-FU anabolic products leading to 5-FU related toxicity syndrome. The most common toxicities include myelosuppression, stomatitis, neuropathy, and diarrhea. The prevalence of this autosommal codominently inherited pharmacogenetic syndrome is approximately 3-5% in the Caucasian population and 8% in the African-American population. Case report We present here a case of an African-American patient with pancreatic cancer who developed a desquamative skin rash on the face, trunk, and forearms as the worst rash (grade 3 following 5-FU bolus that led to the investigation of DPD enzyme. Measurement of DPD activity by radioisotopic assay methods described previously revealed an abnormally low level of 0.087 nmol/min/mg protein (reference range: 0.182-0.688 nmol/min/mg protein. She was treated toxicity with intravenous steroids and antihistamine therapy. Further 5- FU therapy was discontinued. Conclusions This case suggest that the pattern of toxicities associated with 5-FU can vary, especially in patients with different ethnic backgrounds (whites versus nonwhites. These findings become of further importance as our recent study suggests that DPD deficiency may be more common among African-Americans.

  11. Psychogenic Itch Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szepietowski, Jacek C; Reszke, Radomir

    2016-01-01

    Pruritus is a bothersome and prevalent symptom reported by patients suffering from both cutaneous and extracutaneous diseases. Psychogenic pruritus, also referred to as functional itch disorder, is a distinct clinical entity. According to the definition proposed by the French Psychodermatology Group (FPDG) in 2007, the disorder is characterized by pruritus which is the chief complaint and psychologic factors that contribute to eliciting, worsening, and sustaining the symptoms. Specific diagnostic criteria were proposed, including 3 compulsory and 7 optional, of which 3 have to be met in order to establish the diagnosis. Psychogenic pruritus may require cooperation between dermatologists, psychiatrists, and psychologists. Psychotherapy and psychopharmacotherapy are mainstays of managing the disease. However, publications regarding psychogenic itch management are uncommon. Initially, general measures have to be taken, including avoiding irritating factors, preventing skin dryness, and frequent application of emollients. As in pruritus of other causes, several drugs are used, with more emphasis on substances that influence central nervous system: H1-antihistamines (hydroxyzine, chlorpheniramine, cyproheptadine, diphenhydramine, promethazine), tricyclic antidepressants (doxepin), tetracyclic antidepressants (mirtazapine), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline), antipsychotic drugs (pimozide), anticonvulsants (topiramate), and benzodiazepines (alprazolam), preferably depending on the coexisting symptoms. PMID:27578081

  12. Adverse reactions to food: allergies and intolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalto, Massimo; Santoro, Luca; D'Onofrio, Ferruccio; Curigliano, Valentina; Gallo, Antonella; Visca, Dina; Cammarota, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    All the anomalous reactions secondary to food ingestion are defined as 'adverse reactions to food'. In 1995 the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology suggested a classification on the basis of the responsible pathogenetic mechanism; according to this classification, non-toxic reactions can be divided into 'food allergies' when they recognize immunological mechanisms, and 'food intolerances' when there are no immunological implications. The diagnostic approach to adverse reactions to food is based on accurate clinical history and objective examination, and further execution of specific tests when allergy or intolerance is suspected. The therapy for food allergies is the elimination of the food to which hypersensibility has been found; this strategy can lead, especially in pediatric age, to tolerance. If elimination diets cannot be completely performed, or if it is not possible to identify the food to eliminate, some drugs (e.g. antihistaminics, steroids, etc.) can be administered. Specific allergen immunotherapy has been recently introduced. Fundamental is food allergy prevention, especially in high-risk subjects. The therapeutic approach to secondary food intolerances is based principally on primitive disease resolution; on the other hand, some specific treatments (e.g. beta-galactosidases in lactose malabsorption) are available in case of primary intolerance. PMID:18431058

  13. How not to miss autoinflammatory diseases masquerading as urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, K; Grattan, C E; Bindslev-Jensen, C;

    2012-01-01

    Urticarial skin reactions are one of the most frequent problems seen by allergists and clinical immunologists in daily practice. The most common reason for recurrent wheals is spontaneous urticaria. There are, however, several less common diseases that present with urticarial rash, such as urtica......Urticarial skin reactions are one of the most frequent problems seen by allergists and clinical immunologists in daily practice. The most common reason for recurrent wheals is spontaneous urticaria. There are, however, several less common diseases that present with urticarial rash......, such as urticarial vasculitis and autoinflammatory disorders. The latter include cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome and Schnitzler's syndrome, both rare and disabling conditions mediated by increased interleukin-1 secretion. Apart from the urticarial rash, patients are suffering from a variety of systemic...... symptoms including recurrent fever attacks, arthralgia or arthritis and fatigue. Autoinflammatory diseases are often associated with a diagnostic delay of many years and do not respond to antihistamines and other treatments of urticaria. Also, the chronic inflammation may lead to long-term complications...

  14. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CINNARIZINE FLOATING OIL ENTRAPPED CALCIUM ALGINATE BEADS

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    Mowafaq M. Ghareeb et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastroretentive delivery systems can be retained in the stomach and assist in improving absorption and consequently the bioavailability of drug that has a narrow absorption window in a particular region of gastrointestinal tract. A floatable multiparticulate system with potential for intragastric sustained delivery is one of the approaches to get the gastroretention. Cinnarizine(CNZ, an antihistaminic drug used in vertigo caused by meniere’s disease was taken as a model drug for floating beads prepared by non effervescent method. Floating CNZ olive oil-entrapped emulsion gel beads were prepared by the emulsion–gelation method. Different concentrations of sodium alginate (1%, 2%, and 3% w/v, oil (5%, 10%, and 15% v/v, and calcium chloride (0.02, 0.1, and 0.5M were used and their influence on beads uniformity, buoyancy, and in vitro drug release was studied. The results indicated that retardation of drug release was achieved by the oil hydrophobic diffusion barrier, especially in the presence of the compact network of alginate beads. The selected formula of calcium alginate beads using 3% w/v sodium alginate, 15% v/v oil and 0.1 M calcium chloride, showed a higher similarity factor (f2 =70.1 of CNZ release in comparison to release from standard gastroretentive sustained release floating cinnarizine tablet with good floating over duration of more than 12 hours.

  15. Carboxymethyl starch/alginate microspheres containing diamine oxidase for intestinal targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blemur, Lindsay; Le, Tien Canh; Marcocci, Lucia; Pietrangeli, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The association of carboxymethyl starch (CMS) and alginate is proposed as a novel matrix for the entrapment of bioactive agents in microspheres affording their protection against gastrointestinal degradation. In this study, the enzyme diamine oxidase (DAO) from white pea (Lathyrus sativus) was immobilized by inclusion in microspheres formed by ionotropic gelation of CMS/alginate by complexation with Ca2+. The association of CMS to alginate generated a more compact structure presenting a lesser porosity, thus decreasing the access of gastric fluid inside the microspheres and preventing the loss of entrapped enzyme. Moreover, the immobilized enzyme remained active and was able to oxidize the polyamine substrates even in the presence of degrading proteases of pancreatin. The inclusion yield in terms of entrapped protein was of about 82%–95%. The DAO entrapped in calcium CMS/alginate beads retained up to 70% of its initial activity in simulated gastric fluid (pH 2.0). In simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.2) with pancreatin, an overall retention of 65% of activity for the immobilized DAO was observed over 24 H, whereas in similar conditions the free enzyme was totally inactivated. Our project proposes the vegetal DAO as an antihistaminic agent orally administered to treat food histaminosis and colon inflammation. PMID:25779356

  16. Stability-indicating High-performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Simultaneous Determination of Aminophylline and Chlorpheniramine Maleate in Pharmaceutical Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Ahmed, M; Mahmud, T; Qadir, M A; Nadeem, K; Saleem, A

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with the development and validation of method for simultaneous determination of antihistaminic drugs in pharmaceutical formulations. A precise, specific and accurate reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous measurement of aminophylline and chlorpheniramine maleate was developed. The separation of drugs was achieved on C-18 (5 μm, 250×4.6 mm) high-performance liquid chromatography column. The runtime for analysis was 10 min. Mobile phase is mixture containing dilute H2SO4:methanol (60:40% v/v) with flow rate adjusted at 1.5 ml/min. The detection of components was performed at a wavelength of 264 nm. Retention times of aminophylline and chlorphinramine maleate were found to be 2.00 and 3.25 min, respectively. Linearity was found in the range of 16-24 μg/ml for chlorpheniramine maleate and 102.4-153.6 μg/ml for aminophylline with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 and 0.9996, respectively. High peak purity index of 99.99% indicated the complete separation of analytes in the presence of degradation products is justification of method stability. Linearity, accuracy, specificity, precision and robustness studies were performed for method validation. PMID:26798164

  17. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashner, Julia; Ericson, Kevin; Werner, Sarah

    2012-07-15

    The common cold, or upper respiratory tract infection, is one of the leading reasons for physician visits. Generally caused by viruses, the common cold is treated symptomatically. Antibiotics are not effective in children or adults. In children, there is a potential for harm and no benefits with over-the-counter cough and cold medications; therefore, they should not be used in children younger than four years. Other commonly used medications, such as inhaled corticosteroids, oral prednisolone, and Echinacea, also are ineffective in children. Products that improve symptoms in children include vapor rub, zinc sulfate, Pelargonium sidoides (geranium) extract, and buckwheat honey. Prophylactic probiotics, zinc sulfate, nasal saline irrigation, and the herbal preparation Chizukit reduce the incidence of colds in children. For adults, antihistamines, intranasal corticosteroids, codeine, nasal saline irrigation, Echinacea angustifolia preparations, and steam inhalation are ineffective at relieving cold symptoms. Pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, inhaled ipratropium, and zinc (acetate or gluconate) modestly reduce the severity and duration of symptoms for adults. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and some herbal preparations, including Echinacea purpurea, improve symptoms in adults. Prophylactic use of garlic may decrease the frequency of colds in adults, but has no effect on duration of symptoms. Hand hygiene reduces the spread of viruses that cause cold illnesses. Prophylactic vitamin C modestly reduces cold symptom duration in adults and children. PMID:22962927

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Mercuric Bromide-Phenothiazine Complexes

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    Vidisha A. Alwani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available N-alkylphenothiazines (NAPTZs are biologically active heterocyclic compounds that find extensive applications in the field of medicine. In the pharmaceutical industry, they are used as psychotherapeutic, antiemetic, and antihistaminic drugs. In this study, complexation reactions of mercuric bromide with NAPTZs as principal ligands have been investigated in MeOH medium. Five mercuric bromide complexes of the NAPTZ ligands namely, chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CP.HCl, promethazine hydrochloride (PM.HCl, ethopropazine hydrochloride (EP.HCl, trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (TF.2HCl and thioridazine hydrochloride (TR.HCl have been synthesized. These complexes were subjected to elemental analysis, solubility, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility, U.V-Vis, I.R, and NMR spectroscopy. The molecular formulations of the complexes have been found to be: [HgBr2(CP2].4H2O; [HgBr2(PM2].2H2O; [HgBr2(EP2]; [HgBr2(TF2].2H2O and [HgBr2(TR2]. Tentative molecular structures have been proposed and presented.

  19. Stinging Nettle: the Bad, the Good, the Unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica is native to most of the United States. It has a characteristic description and distribution in the environment. Physical contact with numerous tiny needlelike hairs present on leaves and stems of this plant may result in a contact urticarial dermatitis due to chemical and mechanical irritation triggered by skin penetration of the hairs. The manifestations are self-limited in humans and may be treated by washing the skin, topical preparations and oral antihistamines. Explanation of the natural history of these encounters to the patient is helpful in reducing the sometimes significant anxiety. Preparations and extracts of stinging nettle have been proposed for treatment of a variety of inflammatory and other disorders including osteoarthritis, benign prostatic hypertrophy, allergic rhinitis and asthma, bleeding problems and diabetes. While in vitro studies have shown that stinging nettle possesses a number of potentially beneficial anti-inflammatory and modulating properties, beneficial effects have often not been confirmed by well-designed clinical trials. Further study, perhaps with novel types of extracts, are needed to determine the clinical utility of this plant in human inflammatory-related conditions and diabetes mellitus.

  20. Prevalence of psychoactive drug use among drivers in Thailand: a roadside survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingsathit, Atiporn; Woratanarat, Patarawan; Anukarahanonta, Tongtavuch; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Chatchaipun, Porntip; Wattayakorn, Kanokporn; Lim, Stephen; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of psychoactive drug and alcohol use among general drivers and predictors of the drug use in Thailand. One thousand six hundred and thirty-five motor vehicle drivers were randomly selected from five geographical regions of Thailand between December 2005 and May 2006. The prevalence of psychoactive drugs was determined using urine tests by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Among 1635 drivers, 5.5% were tested positive for breath alcohol with 2% having a level exceeding the legal limit (> or =50mg%). Psychoactive drug was presented in 158 (9.7%) urine samples for drug analysis. The top 3 most frequently detected licit drugs were antihistamines (2.0%), sedative cough suppressant (0.7%) and benzodiazepines (0.2%). Illicit drugs detected included amphetamine (1.8%), cannabis (1.1%), mitragynine (Kratom) (0.9%) and morphine (0.1%). Only type of driver (commercial/non-commercial) was a significant predictor with psychoactive drug use. The prevalence of psychoactive drug use among drivers not involved in road crashes in Thailand was not as low as an earlier study in Europe using objective measurements, particularly among commercial drivers. However, for illicit drugs, the prevalence detected in this study was lower than those of earlier studies from high-income countries. PMID:19393795