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Sample records for antihemophilic factor injection

  1. Antihemophilic factor (recombinant plasma/albumin-free method for the management and prevention of bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia A

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    Steven Pipe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven PipeDepartment of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Hemophilia is a rare genetic bleeding disorder that, if not adequately controlled, is associated with life-threatening bleeding events and serious and costly complications, primarily from joint damage. The advent of effective clotting factor replacement therapy for patients with hemophilia is considered one of the foremost medical advances of the 20th century. The last 3 decades of experience in hemophilia care have witnessed the effectiveness of the care of patients with hemophilia within specialized comprehensive care centers, advances in factor replacement therapies, the benefits of prophylaxis over on-demand replacement therapy, and the role of aggressive management of joint disease to prevent dysfunction. Ongoing challenges, including the management of inhibitors to factor therapies and the consequences of thousands of patients with hemophilia becoming infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus in the 1980s from contaminated plasma-derived factor concentrates, have highlighted the need for vigilance with respect to clotting factor product safety, access to care, and a full complement of choice of factor replacement therapies. Advate® (antihemophilic factor [recombinant] plasma/albumin-free method [rAHF-PFM] is the first recombinant factor VIII therapy manufactured without human or animal protein additives to eliminate the risk of pathogen transmission that could be carried by these additives. Preclinical studies established bioequivalence with recombinant antihemophilic factor (Recombinate®, a product with 16 years of clinical experience. Currently licensed in 44 countries worldwide, rAHF-PFM has over 7 years of clinical research within 5 global studies supporting its safety and efficacy in the treatment of patients with hemophilia A.Keywords: factor VIII, hemophilia A, recombinant proteins, clinical

  2. Inactivation of the AIDS-causing retrovirus and other human viruses in antihemophilic plasma protein preparations by pasteurization.

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    Hilfenhaus, J; Herrmann, A; Mauler, R; Prince, A M

    1986-01-01

    Heat treatment at 60 degrees C for 10 h in solution (pasteurization) was introduced into the manufacturing process of antihemophilic cryoprecipitate (AHC) and factor VIII concentrates (F VIII) to reduce the risk of transmission of hepatitis to hemophiliacs. Since the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) may also be transmitted to hemophiliacs by antihemophilic plasma protein preparations, we have investigated inactivation of the AIDS virus HTLV III by pasteurization in AHC or F VIII and included in this study cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), poliovirus and vaccinia virus. Each of these viruses was efficiently inactivated by pasteurization although considerable differences were observed between the different viruses HTLV III was rapidly inactivated, becoming nondetectable within 30-60 min. Our findings indicate that pasteurized AHC or F VIII should have a high margin of safety regarding the transmission of AIDS or any other infectious disease caused by viruses such as those tested.

  3. Injectable fibroblast growth factor-2 coacervate for persistent angiogenesis.

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    Chu, Hunghao; Gao, Jin; Chen, Chien-Wen; Huard, Johnny; Wang, Yadong

    2011-08-16

    Enhancing the maturity of the newly formed blood vessels is critical for the success of therapeutic angiogenesis. The maturation of vasculature relies on active participation of mural cells to stabilize endothelium and a basal level of relevant growth factors. We set out to design and successfully achieved robust angiogenesis using an injectable polyvalent coacervate of a polycation, heparin, and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2). FGF2 was loaded into the coacervate at nearly 100% efficiency. In vitro assays demonstrated that the matrix protected FGF2 from proteolytic degradations. FGF2 released from the coacervate was more effective in the differentiation of endothelial cells and chemotaxis of pericytes than free FGF2. One injection of 500 ng of FGF2 in the coacervate elicited comprehensive angiogenesis in vivo. The number of endothelial and mural cells increased significantly, and the local tissue contained more and larger blood vessels with increased circulation. Mural cells actively participated during the whole angiogenic process: Within 7 d of the injection, pericytes were recruited to close proximity of the endothelial cells. Mature vasculature stabilized by vascular smooth muscle cells persisted till at least 4 wk. On the other hand, bolus injection of an identical amount of free FGF2 induced weak angiogenic responses. These results demonstrate the potential of polyvalent coacervate as a new controlled delivery platform.

  4. Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs

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    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 :l/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose?response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this orientation

  5. On maximal injective subalgebras in a wΓ factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Let L(FQ) ×α Z be the crossed product von Neumann algebra of the free group factor L(FQ), associated with the left regular representation λ of the free group FQ with the set {ur : r ∈ Q} of generators, by an automorphism α defined by α(λ(ur)) = exp(2πri)λ(ur), where Q is the rational number set. We show that L(FQ) ×α Z is a wΓ factor, and for each r ∈ Q, the von Neumann subalgebra Ar generated in L(FQ) ×α Z by λ(ur) and v is maximal injective, where v is the unitary implementing the automorphism α. In particular, L(FQ) ×α Z is a wΓ factor with a maximal abelian selfadjoint subalgebra A0 which cannot be contained in any hyperfinite type II1 subfactor of L(FQ) ×α Z. This gives a counterexample of Kadison’s problem in the case of wΓ factor.

  6. Risk factors associated with injection initiation among drug users in Northern Thailand

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    Suriyanon Vinai

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circumstances surrounding injection initiation have not been well addressed in many developing country contexts. This study aimed to identify demographic factors, sexual behaviors and drug use characteristics related to injection initiation among drug users in northern Thailand. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,231 drug users admitted to the Northern Drug Treatment Center in Mae Rim, Chiang Mai, Thailand, between February 1, 1999 and December 31, 2000. A multiple logistic regression was employed to identify the independent effects from potential risk factors of transition into injection. Results After controlling for other covariates, being 20 years of age or older, single, ever receiving education, urban residence, and having a history of smoking or incarceration were significantly associated with higher likelihood of injection initiation. Multiple sex partners and an experience of sex abuse were associated with an increased risk of injection initiation. Comparing to those whose first drug was opium, individuals using heroin as their initiation drug had greater risk of injection initiation; conversely, those taking amphetamine as their first drug had less risk of injection initiation. Age of drug initiation was negatively associated with the risk of injection initiation: the older the age of drug initiation, the less the risk of injection initiation. Conclusion Injection initiation was related to several demographic factors, sexual behaviors and drug use characteristics. Understanding these factors will benefit the design of approaches to successfully prevent or delay transition into injection.

  7. Cardiac output obtained from test bolus injections as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of following coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, Masahiko [Division of Diagnostic Image Analysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Yamagata Prefecture Comprehensive Rehabilitation and Education Center, Yamagata (Japan)], E-mail: mkonno@med.tohoku.ac.jp; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Usui, Akihito; Abe, Mitsuya; Tateishi, Toshiki; Kawasumi, Yusuke; Saito, Haruo [Division of Diagnostic Image Analysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Tsuda, Masashi; Ota, Hideki; Takase, Kei [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Background.. Optimal contrast enhancement is crucial for the detection of coronary artery stenoses and atherosclerotic changes in coronary CT angiography (CTA). Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using the cardiac output (CO) obtained from the test bolus injection data-set (CO test) as a factor in contrast injection rate revision of the following coronary CTA. Material and Methods. The test bolus injection data-sets of 52 consecutive coronary CTAs were examined. CO test was calculated from the test bolus data-set. Aortic peak enhancement (APE) was measured on the following coronary CTA. We simulated the APE at a fixed contrast injection rate of 4 mL/s (simAPE) in each patient. Results. The ranges of COtest and simAPE were 2.82-7.56 L/min and 194-527 Hounsfield Units, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation (R = -0.802, P < 0.001) between simAPE and COtest. Conclusion. COtest can be used for injection rate revision on coronary CTA.

  8. Vascular endothelial growth factor-loaded injectable hydrogel enhances plasticity in the injured spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Preat, V. (Veronique); Clotman, F; Bailly, Ch. (Christian); Carmeliet, P; Blanco-Prieto, M.J. (María José); Feron, O.; Simon-Yarza, T. (Teresa); Auhl, D.; Bouzin, C; Audouard, E.; Schakman, O.; Jacobs, D.; Ucakar, B. (Bernard); E. Ansorena; Berdt, P. (Pauline) de

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-containing hydrogels that gelify in situ after injection into a traumatized spinal cord, could stimulate spinal cord regeneration. Injectable hydrogels composed of 0.5% Pronova UPMVG MVG alginate, supplemented or not with fibrinogen, were used. The addition of fibrinogen to alginate had no effect on cell proliferation in vitro but supported neurite growth ex vivo. When injected into a rat spinal cord in a hemisection model, algina...

  9. Factors associated with being asked to initiate someone into injection drug use

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    Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Wenger, Lynn; Chu, Daniel; Lorvick, Jennifer; Quinn, Brendan; Thing, James P.; Kral, Alex H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Injection drug use initiation typically involves an established person who injects drugs (PWID) helping the injection-naïve person to inject. Prior to initiation, PWID may be involved in behaviors that elevate injection initiation risk for non-injectors such as describing how to inject and injecting in front of injection-naïve people. In this analysis, we examine whether PWID who engage in either of these behaviors are more likely to be asked to initiate someone into drug injection. Methods Interviews with PWID (N=602) were conducted in California between 2011 and 2013. Multivariate analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with being asked to initiate someone. Results The sample was diverse in terms of age, race/ethnicity, and drug use patterns. Seventy-one percent of the sample had ever been asked to initiate someone. Being asked to initiate someone was associated with having injected in front of non-injectors (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]=1.80, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]=1.12, 2.91), having described injection to non-injectors (AOR=3.63; 95% CI=2.07, 6.36), and doing both (AOR=9.56; 95% CI=4.43, 20.65) as compared to doing neither behavior (referent). Being male (AOR=1.73; 95% CI=1.10, 2.73) and non-injection prescription drug misuse in the last 30 days (AOR=1.69; 95% CI=1.12, 2.53) were also associated with having been asked to initiate someone. Conclusion Reducing initiation into injection drug use is an important public health goal. Intervention development to prevent injection initiation should include established PWID and focus on reducing behaviors associated with requests to initiate injection and reinforcing refusal skills and intentions among established PWID. PMID:25735468

  10. Risk Factors Associated with Unsafe Injection Practices at the First Injection Episode among Intravenous Drug Users in France: Results from PrimInject, an Internet Survey

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    Anne Guichard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. New drug use patterns may increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis infections. In France, new injection patterns among youths with diverse social backgrounds have emerged, which may explain the persistently high rates of hepatitis C virus infection. This study explores factors associated with injection risk behaviours at first injection among users who began injecting in the post-2000 era. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on the Internet from October 2010 to March 2011, through an online questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression identified the independent correlates of needle sharing and equipment (cooker/cotton filter sharing. Results. Among the 262 respondents (mean age 25 years, 65% were male. Both risk behaviours were positively associated with initiation before 18 years of age (aOR 3.7 CI 95% 1.3–10.6 and aOR 3.0 CI 95% 1.3–7.0 and being injected by another person (aOR 3.1 CI 95% 1.0–9.9 and aOR 3.0 CI 95% 1.3–7.1. Initiation at a party was an independent correlate of equipment sharing (aOR 2.6 95% CI 1.0–6.8. Conclusions. Results suggest a need for innovative harm reduction programmes targeting a variety of settings and populations, including youths and diverse party scenes. Education of current injectors to protect both themselves and those they might initiate into injection is critically important.

  11. Intraocular Pressure in Eyes Receiving Intravitreal Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Injections

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, V; Cabugueira, A; de Noronha, M; Abegão Pinto, L; Reina, M.; Branco, J; Gomes, T

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the this study was to determine the effect of intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor injections on intraocular pressure (IOP) and identify possible risk factors for the development of increased IOP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study included a total of 106 eyes receiving intravitreal injection of bevacizumab as treatment for macular edema or active choroidal neovascularization. IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry immediately be...

  12. Experimental induction of rheumatoid factor and joint lesions in rabbits after intravenous injections of killed bacteria.

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    Hanglow, A C; Welsh, C.J.; Conn, P; Pitts, J M; Rampling, A; Coombs, R R

    1986-01-01

    Rabbits receiving repeated intravenous injections of killed bacteria (Escherichia coli or Bacillus subtilis) developed IgM rheumatoid factor which reacted with autologous heat-aggregated IgG. In addition, 5/7 'Old English' and 7/8 'Sandy Lop' rabbits receiving killed E. coli developed rheumatoid-like synovial lesions. 'Old English' rabbits developed lesions of a more severe nature. Three of eight 'Sandy Lop' rabbits injected with killed B. subtilis had high levels of rheumatoid factor but onl...

  13. Some Factors Controlling the Seismic Hazard due to Earthquakes Induced by Fluid Injection at Depth

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    McGarr, A.

    2012-12-01

    The maximum seismic moment (or moment magnitude) is an important measure of the seismic hazard associated with earthquakes induced by deep fluid injection. Although it would be advantageous to be able to predict the induced earthquake outcome, including the maximum seismic moment, of a specified fluid injection project in advance, this capability has, to date, proved to be elusive because the geomechanical and hydrological factors that control the seismic response to injection are too poorly understood. Fortunately, the vast majority of activities involving the injection of fluids into deep aquifers do not cause earthquakes that are large enough to be of any consequence. There have been, however, significant exceptions during the past 50 years, starting with the earthquakes induced by injection of wastewater at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Well, during the 1960s, that caused extensive damage in the Denver, CO, area. Results from numerous case histories of earthquakes induced by injection activities, including wastewater disposal at depth and the development of enhanced geothermal systems, suggest that it may be feasible to estimate bounds on maximum magnitudes based on the volume of injected liquid. For these cases, volumes of injected liquid ranged from approximately 11.5 thousand to 5 million cubic meters and resulted in main shock moment magnitudes from 3.4 to 5.3. Because the maximum seismic moment appears to be linearly proportional to the total volume of injected fluid, this upper bound is expected to increase with time as long as a given injection well remains active. For example, in the Raton Basin, southern Colorado and northern New Mexico, natural gas is produced from an extensive coal bed methane field. The deep injection of wastewater associated with this gas production has induced a sequence of earthquakes starting in August 2001, shortly after the beginning of major injection activities. Most of this seismicity defines a northeast striking plane dipping

  14. Factors affecting the development of sprays produced by multihole injectors for direct-injection engine applications

    OpenAIRE

    Van Romunde, R. Z.

    2011-01-01

    The spray form development from a state of the art multi-hole injector for gasoline direct injection internal combustion engines is examined to attempt to determine the thermo-fluid dynamics affecting the spray development. The current state of knowledge regarding spray break-up and the interactivity of the factors on spray form are detailed. The spray under investigation was injected into purposely designed quiescent chambers to decouple the effects of the fluid mechanics on s...

  15. Injection site infections and injuries in men who inject image- and performance-enhancing drugs: prevalence, risks factors, and healthcare seeking.

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    Hope, V D; McVeigh, J; Marongiu, A; Evans-Brown, M; Smith, J; Kimergård, A; Parry, J V; Ncube, F

    2015-01-01

    People who inject drugs are vulnerable to infections and injuries at injection sites, but these have rarely been studied in those injecting image- and performance-enhancing drugs (IPEDs). This study examined the factors associated with reported symptoms of injection site infections and injuries in IPED injectors. Of the 366 male IPED injectors surveyed, 42% reported ever having redness, swelling and tenderness (36% in the preceding year), and 6·8% had ever had an abscess or open wound at an injection site. Having these symptoms was associated with a range of factors related to drug use and healthcare utilization. One sixth (17%) of those reporting redness, tenderness and swelling had ever sought treatment, as had the majority (76%) of those reporting an abscess, sore or open wound. Most common sources of advice were emergency clinics and General Practitioners. Interventions are needed to support access to appropriate injecting equipment and provide targeted harm reduction advice. PMID:24713416

  16. Improvement of Power Flow Calculation with Optimization Factor Based on Current Injection Method

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    Lei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improvement in power flow calculation based on current injection method by introducing optimization factor. In the method proposed by this paper, the PQ buses are represented by current mismatches while the PV buses are represented by power mismatches. It is different from the representations in conventional current injection power flow equations. By using the combined power and current injection mismatches method, the number of the equations required can be decreased to only one for each PV bus. The optimization factor is used to improve the iteration process and to ensure the effectiveness of the improved method proposed when the system is ill-conditioned. To verify the effectiveness of the method, the IEEE test systems are tested by conventional current injection method and the improved method proposed separately. Then the results are compared. The comparisons show that the optimization factor improves the convergence character effectively, especially that when the system is at high loading level and R/X ratio, the iteration number is one or two times less than the conventional current injection method. When the overloading condition of the system is serious, the iteration number in this paper appears 4 times less than the conventional current injection method.

  17. Tissue localization and fate in mice of injected multipotential colony-stimulating factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hemopoietic regulator multipotential colony-stimulating factor [Multi-CSF (interleukin 3)] has proliferative effects on a wide range of hemopoietic cells in vitro and in vivo. Native or recombination Multi-CSF injected intravenoulsy into adult mice had an initial half-life of 3-5 min and a second phase of 50 min. Clear labeling of hemopoietic cells was observed in the bone marrow and spleen of mice injected intravenously with recombinant 125I-labeled Multi-CSF showing that injected Multi-CSF can obtain access to such cells in situ. A high proportion of injected 125I-labeled Multi-CSF of both types became localized in the liver and in the kidney (in cells of the Bowman's capsule and proximal renal tubules). The kidney appeared to be an active site of degradation of Multi-CSF with the early appearance of low molecular weight labeled material in the urine

  18. Factors Associated with Syringe Sharing Among Users of a Medically Supervised Safer Injecting Facility

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    Evan Wood

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancouver, Canada recently opened a medically supervised safer injecting facility (SIF in an effort to reduce HIV and overdose risk and public injection drug use. We sought to examine factors associated with syringe sharing among SIF users. SIF users were randomly recruited into a prospective cohort of SIF users known as the Scientific Evaluation of Supervised Injecting (SEOSI cohort. We examined the prevalence and correlates of used syringe borrowing among baseline HIV-negative participants and used syringe lending among baseline HIV-infected participants. Between 22 March 2004 and 22 October 2004, 479 baseline HIV-negative subjects (48 [10%] syringe borrowing events and 103 baseline HIV-infected participants (17 [16.5%] syringe lending events were recruited into the cohort. For baseline HIV negative participants, syringe borrowing was positively associated with public drug use (p<0.001 and requiring help injecting (p=0.001, whereas exclusive SIF use was inversely associated with syringe sharing (p=0.019. For baseline HIV-infected participants, syringe lending was positively associated with daily cocaine injection (p=0.022 and shooting gallery use (p=0.007. Although ongoing injection-related HIV risk behavior was reported among some SIF users, rates of syringe sharing were substantially lower than the rate observed previously in this community and it is noteworthy that exclusive SIF use was associated with reduced syringe sharing.

  19. Vascular endothelial growth factor-loaded injectable hydrogel enhances plasticity in the injured spinal cord.

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    des Rieux, Anne; De Berdt, Pauline; Ansorena, Eduardo; Ucakar, Bernard; Damien, Jacobs; Schakman, Olivier; Audouard, Emilie; Bouzin, Caroline; Auhl, Dietmar; Simón-Yarza, Teresa; Feron, Olivier; Blanco-Prieto, Maria J; Carmeliet, Peter; Bailly, Christian; Clotman, Fréderic; Préat, Véronique

    2014-07-01

    We hypothesized that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-containing hydrogels that gelify in situ after injection into a traumatized spinal cord, could stimulate spinal cord regeneration. Injectable hydrogels composed of 0.5% Pronova UPMVG MVG alginate, supplemented or not with fibrinogen, were used. The addition of fibrinogen to alginate had no effect on cell proliferation in vitro but supported neurite growth ex vivo. When injected into a rat spinal cord in a hemisection model, alginate supplemented with fibrinogen was well tolerated. The release of VEGF that was incorporated into the hydrogel was influenced by the VEGF formulation [encapsulated in microspheres or in nanoparticles or in solution (free)]. A combination of free VEGF and VEGF-loaded nanoparticles was mixed with alginate:fibrinogen and injected into the lesion of the spinal cord. Four weeks post injection, angiogenesis and neurite growth were increased compared to hydrogel alone. The local delivery of VEGF by injectable alginate:fibrinogen-based hydrogel induced some plasticity in the injured spinal cord involving fiber growth into the lesion site. PMID:23946111

  20. The Indecomposable Modules of Self-Injective Algebra and Their Composition Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a sufficient and necessary condition for the indecomposable modules of the self-injective algebra of finite-representation type to be determined by their composition factors is presented by means of the quiver with relations with the help of covering.

  1. 77 FR 4227 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gonadotropin Releasing Factor Analog...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Pfizer, Inc. The supplemental NADA extends the slaughter interval for intact male swine injected with..., filed a supplement to NADA 141-322 for IMPROVEST (gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria...

  2. Factors associated with inability to access addiction treatment among people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Prangnell, Amy; Daly-Grafstein, Ben; Dong, Huiru; Nolan, Seonaid; Milloy, M-J; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; Hayashi, Kanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Addiction treatment is an effective strategy used to reduce drug-related harm. In the wake of recent developments in novel addiction treatment modalities, we conducted a longitudinal data analysis to examine factors associated with inability to access addiction treatment among a prospective cohort of persons who inject drugs (PWID). Methods Data were derived from two prospective cohorts of PWID in Vancouver, Canada, between December 2005 and November 2013. Using multivariate genera...

  3. Factors that help injecting drug users to access and benefit from services: A qualitative study

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    sheard Laura

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International research shows that injecting drug users (IDUs can encounter many barriers when they try to access drug treatment and other services. However, the existing literature is mostly quantitative and does not consider the kinds of factors that injectors themselves identify as enabling them to access and benefit from services. Responding to this gap in knowledge, our paper explores IDUs' own suggestions for improving service engagement and their reports of other factors enabling them to seek help. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 75 current illicit drug injectors in three geographically diverse areas of West Yorkshire, England. Recruitment was through needle exchange programmes, with additional snowball sampling to ensure inclusivity of gender, ethnicity and primary drug injected. Transcribed data were analysed thematically using Framework. Results Although participants were often satisfied with current access to services, they made three broad suggestions for improving engagement. These were: providing more services (more providers and more forms of support; better operation of existing services (including better communication systems and more flexibility around individual needs; and staffing-related improvements (particularly, less judgemental and more understanding staff attitudes. Other factors identified as important enablers of help seeking were: having supporting relationships (particularly with family members; personal circumstances/life events (especially becoming a parent; and an injector's state of mind (such as feeling motivated and positive. Conclusion A range of practical suggestions for improving IDUs' access to drug treatment and other services are identified.

  4. Exogenous factors contributing to column bed heterogeneity: Part 1: Consequences of 'air' injections in liquid chromatography.

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    Samuelsson, Jörgen; Fornstedt, Torgny; Shalliker, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    It has been shown that not only the packing homogeneity, but also factors external to the column bed, such as, frits and distributors can have important effects on the column performance. This current communication is the first in a series focusing on the impact of exogenous factors on the column bed heterogeneity. This study is based on several observations by us and others that chromatographic runs often, for technical reasons, include more or less portions of air in the injections. It is therefore extremely important to find out the impact of air on the column performance, the reliability of the results derived from analyses where air was injected, and the effect on the column homogeneity. We used a photographic approach for visualising the air transport phenomena, and found that the air transport through the column is comprised of many different types of transport phenomena, such as laminal flow, viscous fingering like flows, channels and bulbs, and pulsations. More particularly, the air clouds within the column definitely interact in the adsorption, i.e. mobile phase adsorbed to the column surface is displaced. In addition, irrespective of the type of air transport phenomena, the air does not penetrate the column homogeneously. This process is strongly flow dependent. In this work we study air transport both in an analytical scale and a semi-prep column.

  5. Injection drug use is a risk factor for HCV infection in urban Egypt.

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    Adela Paez Jimenez

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify current risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV transmission in Greater Cairo. DESIGN AND SETTING: A 1:1 matched case-control study was conducted comparing incident acute symptomatic hepatitis C patients in two "fever" hospitals of Greater Cairo with two control groups: household members of the cases and acute hepatitis A patients diagnosed at the same hospitals. Controls were matched on the same age and sex to cases and were all anti-HCV antibody negative. Iatrogenic, community and household exposures to HCV in the one to six months before symptoms onset for cases, and date of interview for controls, were exhaustively assessed. RESULTS: From 2002 to 2007, 94 definite acute symptomatic HCV cases and 188 controls were enrolled in the study. In multivariate analysis, intravenous injections (OR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.2-20.2, medical stitches (OR = 4.2; 95% CI = 1.6-11.3, injection drug use (IDU (OR = 7.9; 95% CI = 1.4-43.5, recent marriage (OR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.1-9.9 and illiteracy (OR = 3.9; 95% CI = 1.8-8.5 were independently associated with an increased HCV risk. CONCLUSION: In urban Cairo, invasive health care procedures remain a source of HCV transmission and IDU is an emerging risk factor. Strict application of standard precautions during health care is a priority. Implementation of comprehensive infection prevention programs for IDU should be considered.

  6. Systematic investigation of transcription factors critical in the protection against cerebral ischemia by Danhong injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junying; Zhang, Yanqiong; Jia, Qiang; Liu, Mingwei; Li, Defeng; Zhang, Yi; Song, Lei; Hu, Yanzhen; Xian, Minghua; Yang, Hongjun; Ding, Chen; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    Systematic investigations of complex pathological cascades during ischemic brain injury help to elucidate novel therapeutic targets against cerebral ischemia. Although some transcription factors (TFs) involved in cerebral ischemia, systematic surveys of their changes during ischemic brain injury have not been reported. Moreover, some multi-target agents effectively protected against ischemic stroke, but their mechanisms, especially the targets of TFs, are still unclear. Therefore, a comprehensive approach by integrating network pharmacology strategy and a new concatenated tandem array of consensus transcription factor response elements method to systematically investigate the target TFs critical in the protection against cerebral ischemia by a medication was first reported, and then applied to a multi-target drug, Danhong injection (DHI). High-throughput nature and depth of coverage, as well as high quantitative accuracy of the developed approach, make it more suitable for analyzing such multi-target agents. Results indicated that pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1 and cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor 1, along with six other TFs, are putative target TFs for DHI-mediated protection against cerebral ischemia. This study provides, for the first time, a systematic investigation of the target TFs critical to DHI-mediated protection against cerebral ischemia, as well as reveals more potential therapeutic targets for ischemic stroke. PMID:27431009

  7. Injectable and microporous scaffold of densely-packed, growth factor-encapsulating chitosan microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Michael S; Requist, Brennan D; Payne, Karin A; Way, J Douglas; Krebs, Melissa D

    2016-11-01

    In this work, an emulsion crosslinking method was developed to produce chitosan-genipin microgels which acted as an injectable and microporous scaffold. Chitosan was characterized with respect to pH by light scattering and aqueous titration. Microgels were characterized with swelling, light scattering, and rheometry of densely-packed microgel solutions. The results suggest that as chitosan becomes increasingly deprotonated above the pKa, repulsive forces diminish and intermolecular attractions cause pH-responsive chain aggregation; leading to microgel-microgel aggregation as well. The microgels with the most chitosan and least cross-linker showed the highest yield stress and a storage modulus of 16kPa when condensed as a microgel paste at pH 7.4. Two oppositely-charged growth factors could be encapsulated into the microgels and endothelial cells were able to proliferate into the 3D microgel scaffold. This work motivates further research on the applications of the chitosan microgel scaffold as an injectable and microporous scaffold in regenerative medicine.

  8. Injectable and microporous scaffold of densely-packed, growth factor-encapsulating chitosan microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Michael S; Requist, Brennan D; Payne, Karin A; Way, J Douglas; Krebs, Melissa D

    2016-11-01

    In this work, an emulsion crosslinking method was developed to produce chitosan-genipin microgels which acted as an injectable and microporous scaffold. Chitosan was characterized with respect to pH by light scattering and aqueous titration. Microgels were characterized with swelling, light scattering, and rheometry of densely-packed microgel solutions. The results suggest that as chitosan becomes increasingly deprotonated above the pKa, repulsive forces diminish and intermolecular attractions cause pH-responsive chain aggregation; leading to microgel-microgel aggregation as well. The microgels with the most chitosan and least cross-linker showed the highest yield stress and a storage modulus of 16kPa when condensed as a microgel paste at pH 7.4. Two oppositely-charged growth factors could be encapsulated into the microgels and endothelial cells were able to proliferate into the 3D microgel scaffold. This work motivates further research on the applications of the chitosan microgel scaffold as an injectable and microporous scaffold in regenerative medicine. PMID:27516331

  9. Role of Intravitreal Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Injections for Choroidal Neovascularization due to Choroidal Osteoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We treated 26 eyes of 25 young patients having a mean age of 30 years with intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitor for choroidal new vessel (CNV formation overlying choroidal osteoma over a mean follow-up of 26 months. Mean number of injections was 2.4 at 6 months, 3.2 at 12 months, and 5.5 at 24 months. CNV was subfoveal in 14 eyes, juxtafoveal in 5, extrafoveal in 5, and peripapillary in 2. By paired comparison, mean decrease from baseline was 119.7 microns at 6 months (n=15; P=0.001, 105.3 microns at 1 year (n=10; P=0.03, and 157.6 microns at 2 years (n=7; P=0.08. BCVA improved by 3.3 lines at 6 months after therapy (n=26; P<0.001, 2.8 lines (n=20; P=0.01 at 1 year, and 3.1 lines (n=13; P=0.049 at 2 years. We conclude that intravitreal anti-VEGF injections improve vision in majority of eyes with CNV from choroidal osteoma.

  10. Role of Intravitreal Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Injections for Choroidal Neovascularization due to Choroidal Osteoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M.; Al Kahtani, Eman; Zegarra, Hernando; Anand, Rajiv; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Sisk, Robert A.; Mirza, Salman; Tuncer, Samuray; Navea Tejerina, Amparo; Mataix, Jorge; Ascaso, Francisco J.; Pulido, Jose S.; Guthoff, Rainer; Goebel, Winfried; Roh, Young Jung; Banker, Alay S.; Gentile, Ronald C.; Martinez, Isabel Alonso; Morris, Rodney; Panday, Neeraj; Min, Park Jung; Mercé, Emilie; Lai, Timothy Y. Y.; Massoud, Vicky; Ghazi, Nicola G.

    2014-01-01

    We treated 26 eyes of 25 young patients having a mean age of 30 years with intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor for choroidal new vessel (CNV) formation overlying choroidal osteoma over a mean follow-up of 26 months. Mean number of injections was 2.4 at 6 months, 3.2 at 12 months, and 5.5 at 24 months. CNV was subfoveal in 14 eyes, juxtafoveal in 5, extrafoveal in 5, and peripapillary in 2. By paired comparison, mean decrease from baseline was 119.7 microns at 6 months (n = 15; P = 0.001), 105.3 microns at 1 year (n = 10; P = 0.03), and 157.6 microns at 2 years (n = 7; P = 0.08). BCVA improved by 3.3 lines at 6 months after therapy (n = 26; P < 0.001), 2.8 lines (n = 20; P = 0.01) at 1 year, and 3.1 lines (n = 13; P = 0.049) at 2 years. We conclude that intravitreal anti-VEGF injections improve vision in majority of eyes with CNV from choroidal osteoma. PMID:25147732

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hepatitis B Infection in Injection Drug Users, Tehran (2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tavakkoli

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection has a high incidence among injection drug users (IDUs. Several important behavioral risk factors influence transmission of HBV in this group. However, consensus has not been achieved on many of them. The aim of this investigation was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for HBV in IDUs. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out between 2001 and 2002 in Tehran. IDUs included people who were being treated for drug abuse and those in the prison. Physician-completed risk factor questionnaires and blood samples (5 ml for serologic HBV markers (ELISA were used. Risk factors were evaluated in binary logistic regression (LR model (forward procedure for possible association with odds of past or current HBV infection. The evaluated risk factors were age, gender, sexual behavior, shared syringe use, duration of addiction, imprisonment, tattooing, past history of surgery, dental procedures, blood transfusion, jaundice, type of illicit drug use and level of education.Results: This study sample was comprised of 518 IDUs (89.6% males, including 386 (74.5% prisoners. Antibody against HBV core antigen (HBcAb was detected in 61.2% (n=317. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg was 3.7% (n=19. Among HBsAg positive patients, HBeAg was positive in 12 individuals (63.2%. In comparison with seronegative IDUs for HBcAb and/or HBsAg, the odds of using shared syringes, male sex and past history of bisexual relationship were 1.5 (P<0.05, 1.9 (P<0.05 and 2.4 (P<0.01, respectively.Conclusions: These results suggest that seroprevalence of hepatitis B is high but chronic carrier state is not frequent in IDUs. Imprisonment, male sex and having past history of bisexual relationship are independent risk factors for past or current hepatitis B infection.

  12. Factors associated with reported pain on injection and reactogenicity to an OMV meningococcal B vaccine in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Petousis-Harris, Helen; Jackson, Catherine; Stewart, Joanna; Coster, Gregor; Turner, Nikki; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Lennon, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Pain on vaccine injection and subsequent site reactions of pain and swelling may influence confidence in vaccines and their uptake. This study aimed to identify factors associated with reported pain on injection and reactogenicity following administration of a strain specific meningococcal B outer membrane vesicle vaccine. A retrospective analysis of data was conducted from a phase II single center randomized observer-blind study that evaluated the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of...

  13. [Analysis suspected allergic factors to shenqi fuzheng injection based on prescription sequence analysis and nested case control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Qing-Hua; Zeng, Xian-Bin; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei

    2014-09-01

    This study based on twenty 3A grade hospital information system (HIS) database in China, adopt toprescription sequence analysis (PSA) with nested case control study (NCCS) to analysis mainly suspected allergy factor of Shenqi Fuzheng injection (Shenqi Fuzheng). Study design according to start to stop using Shenqi Fuzheng whether using dexamethasone injection will crowd divided into cases group and control group, each case matched 4 controls were selected, two groups according to the ratio of the age and sex matched well. Square test, Fisher exact test, single factor and multiple factor logistic regression were used to analyze data Condition on admission, allergic history, dosage and drug combinations were taken into account in cases of suspected allergic reactions. After analysis in two subgroups we found that the single dose (P = 0.000 2) and the combined use of matrine (P marketing Chinese medicine injection. PMID:25532396

  14. Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection for neck pain and cervical radiculopathy: effect and prognostic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jong Won; Lee, Joon Woo; Kim, Sung Hyun; Kwack, Kyu-Sung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Gyeonggi-do (Korea); Choi, Ja-Young; Moon, Sung Gyu; Jun, Woo Sun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Yeom, Jin-Sup [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyeongi-Do (Korea); Kim, Hyun-Jib [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Gyeongi-Do (Korea); Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Gyeonggi-do (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea)

    2007-05-15

    To verify the usefulness of a fluoroscopy guided cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection (CIESI) in patients with neck pain and cervical radiculopathy and to evaluate outcome predictors. We retrospectively analyzed 91 patients from July 2004 to June 2005 in whom CIESI was initially performed for neck pain and cervical radiculopathy. Therapeutic effects were evaluated 2 weeks after the administration of CIESI, and CIESI effectiveness was graded using a five-point scale, namely, whether the pain had disappeared, was much improved, slightly improved, the same, or aggravated. We also used a visual analog scale (VAS) for the clinical evaluation. According to documentation and follow-up charts, we categorized treatments as effective or ineffective. Possible outcome predictors, namely, diagnosis (spinal stenosis vs herniated disc), primary symptoms (neck pain vs radiculopathy vs both), age, gender, and duration of pain (more or less than 6 months) were also analyzed. Fisher's exact test, the chi-square test, and multiple logistic regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. After their medical records had been reviewed, 76 patients were included in this study. Inclusion criteria were: the availability of a cross-sectional image, such as a CT scan or an MR image, and a follow-up record after injection. The medical records of 76 patients (male:female = 41: 35) of mean age 53.1 years (range 32 years to 82 years) were reviewed. Two weeks after injection, 55 patients (72.4%) had experienced effective pain relief. Patients with herniated discs had significantly better results than patients with spinal stenosis (86.1% vs 60.0%) (P < 0.05). Other non-significant predictors of an improved outcome included: a symptom duration of <6 months, a young age, and the presence of cervical radiculopathy. Multiple regression analysis showed that the only factor that was significantly associated with outcome was the cause of the pain, i.e., herniated disc or

  15. Study of the various factors influencing deposit formation and operation of gasoline engine injection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Z.

    2016-09-01

    Generally, ethanol fuel emits less pollutants than gasoline, it is completely renewable product and has the potential to reduce greenhouse gases emission but, at the same time can present a multitude of technical challenges to engine operation conditions including creation of very adverse engine deposits. These deposits increasing fuel consumption and cause higher exhaust emissions as well as poor performance in drivability. This paper describes results of research and determination the various factors influencing injector deposits build-up of ethanol-gasoline blends operated engine. The relationship between ethanol-gasoline fuel blends composition, their treatment, engine construction as well as its operation conditions and fuel injectors deposit formation has been investigated. Simulation studies of the deposit formation endanger proper functioning of fuel injection system were carried out at dynamometer engine testing. As a result various, important factors influencing the deposit creation process and speed formation were determined. The ability to control of injector deposits by multifunctional detergent-dispersant additives package fit for ethanol-gasoline blends requirements was also investigated.

  16. Evaulation of Incidence and Risk Factors for Intraocular Pressure Elevation After Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didar Uçar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA used for the macular edema on intraocular pressure (IOP and to determine the risk factors for IOP elevation. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 93 eyes of 85 patients who had 4 mg intravitreal triamcinolone injection. Of the 85 patients, 56 (65.8% had diabetic macular edema, 22 (25.8% had branch retinal, and 7 (8.2% had central retinal vein occlusion. IOP changes after injection as well as the relation between IOP elevation and age, sex, lens status, etiology of macular edema, baseline IOP were evaluated. Results: Fourty-six male and 39 female patients with mean age 61.58±9.5 years were evaluated. IOP was recorded to be >24 mmHg in 30 eyes (32.2% at follow-up visit after an average of 7.5 weeks. Normalization of IOP with medication was achieved in all IOP elevated eyes. Fifteen of 29 eyes (51.7% with vein occlusion and 15 of 64 eyes (23.3% with diabetic macula edema had IOP elevation (p=0.01. Twenty-six of 73 phakic (35.6% and 4 of 20 pseudophakic eyes (20% had IOP >24 mmHg (p=0.16. There was no association between IOP elevation and sex (p=0.33. Baseline IOP was 16.47±2.8 mmHg in eyes which had elevated IOP and 14.78±2.4 mmHg in the remaining. There was significant relation between IOP elevation and baseline IOP level (p=0.01. Conclusion: Elevated IOP is common side effect after IVTA, but normalization is usually achieved by topical medication. Patients with baseline IOP ≥15 mmHg and vein occlusion have higher risk for IOP elevation. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 86-91

  17. Efficient delivery of human clotting factor Ⅸ after injection of lentiviral vectors in utero

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-guang CHEN; Huan-zhang ZHU; Ju-li GONG; Feng LI; Jing-lun XUE

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore gene transfer feasibility for human clotting factor IX (hFⅨ) mediated by recombinant lentivirus in utero. METHODS: ICR mice fetus at 17-19 d gestation were received lentiviral vectors carrying hFⅨ eDNA under the control of liver specific promoter by intrahepatic injection. The expression and distribution of hFⅨ cDNA and possible immune responses against the hFIX were assessed by ELISA, PCR, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry, respectively. RESULTS: The serum hFⅨ protein were detected at different time points in all newborn mice, the highest level of hFⅨ was 50 μg/L and lasted for more than 30 d. Anti-hⅨ antibody was not detected, hFIX cDNA was detected in liver, spleen, and heart. The expression of hFⅨ eDNA was only detected in liver. Besides, no germ line transmission was found at DNA and RNA levels, and no side effect associated with gene transfer was detected. CONCLUSION: The efficient delivery of hFⅨ can be achieved by prenatal gene transfer. It thus shows the feasibility of gene therapy for hemophilia in utero.

  18. Risk factors of HIV infection and needle sharing among injecting drug users in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hien, N.T.; Giang, L.T.; Binh, P.N.; Devillé, W.; Ameijden, E.J.C. van; Wolffers, I.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify risk factors for needle sharing and HIV infection among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. METHODS: Three cross-sectional surveys among IDUs, both on the street (in 11 urban districts) and in the rehabilitation center for IDUs in HCMC, w

  19. Optimisation of contrast medium volume and injection-related factors in CT pulmonary angiography: 64-slice CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal Ramadan, Selma [Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Cebeci, Ankara (Turkey); Kosar, Pinar; Sonmez, Iclal; Kosar, Ugur [Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Karahan, Sevilay [Hacettepe University, Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    To compare the image quality of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) obtained with the injection of various low doses of contrast medium (CM) with different injection-related factors. A total of 90 patients (42 females, 48 males; 54.3 {+-} 18.6 years) undergoing CTPA were included. Three CM protocols, each containing 30 patients, were created. Protocols 1, 2 and 3 consisted of a CM of 60 ml, 55 ml and 50 ml, and a bolus trigger level of 120 HU, 90 HU and 75 HU, respectively. Injection was uniphasic for protocols 1 and 2 (flow rate 5 ml/s), and biphasic for protocol 3 (flow rates 5 and 4 ml/s); with saline flushing afterwards. Enhancement was measured in three central and six peripheral pulmonary arteries. The mean attenuation value for pulmonary arteries was over 250 HU for all protocols. There was no difference between the attenuation levels with the protocols (p > 0.05). The percentage of pulmonary arteries exceeding optimal attenuation ({>=}250 HU) showed that protocols 2 and 3 were 90-100% successful (p < 0.05). The use of proper injection-related factors during CTPA, such as a low trigger level and a high flow rate with saline injection following a decreased CM volume (55 ml or 50 ml), will enable adequate pulmonary artery contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  20. Factors influencing time course of pain after depot oil intramuscular injection of testosterone undecanoate

    OpenAIRE

    Sartorius, Gideon; Fennell, Carolyn; Spasevska, Sasa; Turner, Leo; Conway, Ann J.; Handelsman, David J

    2010-01-01

    Pain following depot intramuscular (IM) injection of oil vehicle-based drugs has been little studied. This study aimed to determine prospectively the prevalence, determinants, severity and functional consequences of pain during the week after IM injection of 1 000 mg testosterone undecanoate (TU) in a 4-mL castor oil vehicle. Androgen-deficient men receiving regular T replacement therapy at an academic andrology clinic were recruited to report pain scores using a coloured visual linear analog...

  1. Learning and memory changes in rats following exogenous human hepatocyte growth factor gene injection into cerebral ischemic penumbra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijun You; Yong Liu; Jianye Yang; Qingping Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Human hepatocyte growth factor can be used to treat cerebral infarction, administered by lateral ventricular, cerebellomedullary cistern or subarachnoid injections. However, the target gene expression product is scarcely found in the ischemic penumbra, but extensively distributes in other regions, increasing the risks of gene therapy. The present study directly transfected hepatocyte growth factor gene into the ischemic penumbra of rats with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that infarct volume was significantly decreased, hepatocyte growth factor protein expression level and vessel quantity in the ischemic penumbra were significantly increased, and learning and memory were significantly improved.

  2. Geological Factors Affecting Flow Spatial Continuity in Water Injection of Units Operating in the LGITJ–0102 Ore Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilver M. Soto-Loaiza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to identify the geological factors affecting the spatial continuity of the flow during the process of flank water injection in the units operating in the Lower Lagunilla Hydrocarbon Ore Body. This included the evaluation of the recovery factor, the petro-physic properties such as porosity, permeability, water saturation and rock type and quality in each flow unit. it was observed that the rock type of the geologic structure in the ore body is variable. The lowest values for the petro-physic properties were found in the southern area while a high variability of these parameters was observed in the northern and central areas. It was concluded that the northern area has a great potential for the development of new injection projects for petroleum recovery.

  3. Gender differences in mortality and risk factors in a 13-year cohort study of street-recruited injecting drug users

    OpenAIRE

    Gjersing, Linn; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line

    2014-01-01

    Background Injecting drug users (IDUs) are at risk of premature mortality. This study examined gender differences in mortality, risk factors, and causes of death among IDUs. Methods In a 13-year cohort study including 172 street-recruited IDUs from Oslo, Norway in 1997, interview data was merged with the National Cause of Death Registry. Crude mortality rate (CMR) and indirect standardized mortality ratio (SMR) were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A log-logistic multivariate sur...

  4. Injection Drug Use and Hepatitis C as Risk Factors for Mortality in HIV-Infected Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Margaret T; Justice, Amy C; Birnie, Kate;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals with a history of transmission through injection drug use (IDU) have poorer survival than other risk groups. The extent to which higher rates of hepatitis C (HCV) infection in IDU explain survival differences is unclear. METHODS: Adults who started antiretrovi...

  5. A nanoparticulate injectable hydrogel as a tissue engineering scaffold for multiple growth factor delivery for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyondi D

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Deepti Dyondi,1 Thomas J Webster,2 Rinti Banerjee11Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; 2Nanomedicine Laboratories, Division of Engineering and Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Gellan xanthan gels have been shown to be excellent carriers for growth factors and as matrices for several tissue engineering applications. Gellan xanthan gels along with chitosan nanoparticles of 297 ± 61 nm diameter, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7 were employed in a dual growth factor delivery system to promote the differentiation of human fetal osteoblasts. An injectable system with ionic and temperature gelation was optimized and characterized. The nanoparticle loaded gels showed significantly improved cell proliferation and differentiation due to the sustained release of growth factors. A differentiation marker study was conducted, analyzed, and compared to understand the effect of single vs dual growth factors and free vs encapsulated growth factors. Dual growth factor loaded gels showed a higher alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition compared to single growth factor loaded gels. The results suggest that encapsulation and stabilization of growth factors within nanoparticles and gels are promising for bone regeneration. Gellan xanthan gels also showed antibacterial effects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, the common pathogens in implant failure.Keywords: bone tissue engineering, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, hydrogel, nanoparticles, osteoblasts

  6. Direct evaluation of contact injection efficiency into small molecule based transport layers: Influence of extrinsic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkowitz, M.; Facci, J. S.; Rehm, J.

    1998-03-01

    Studies of interface formation on conventional semiconductor materials are typically carried out under relatively pristine conditions. However, for devices based on the use of electronic polymers there is also compelling interest in exploring the variations in contact behavior that might result under realistic manufacturing conditions like multilayer device assembly based on solution coating technology. Small molecule doped polymers (MDPs) developed principally as large area coatings for electrophotographic use are now finding wider device applications. These polymers are insulators capable of transporting excess injected charge with a unipolar drift mobility which can be tuned over a wide range by varying the concentration of transport active species. Most significant in the present context, MDPs can be rendered trap free by molecular design. These unique characteristics of MDPs make it possible to analyze the relative injection efficiencies of their interfaces with various contacts simply by a direct comparison of current-voltage characteristics with time of flight drift mobility measurements carried out on the same film coatings. In this way, and apart from their intrinsic interest and practical value, MDPs and closely related polymeric media provide the ideal venue for the study of contact phenomena on molecular solids. Almost all the present measurements were carried out by measuring dark hole injection from various preformed metal substrates into the MDP film TPD/polycarbonate. Under these circumstances it was found that while injection efficiency nominally scaled with the estimated interfacial energy step there was significant variance that in some cases could be clearly associated with the specific details of interfacial chemistry. For one exceptional case where Au was evaporated on the free surface of an already cast film a time and temperature dependent contact forming process could be delineated in which the interface systematically evolved from emission

  7. Risk Factors for Vitamin D Deficiency among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Injection Drug Users

    OpenAIRE

    Allison A Lambert; Drummond, M. Bradley; Mehta, Shruti H.; Brown, Todd T.; Lucas, Gregory M.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Estrella, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent and is associated with bone disease, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and malignancy. Injection drug users (IDUs), with or without HIV infection, are at risk for these conditions; however, limited data on vitamin D deficiency exist in this population. We determined the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency among urban IDUs in the AIDS Linked to the IntraVenous Experience (ALIVE) Study cohort. Methods For this cross-se...

  8. Homelessness and Other Risk Factors for HIV Infection in the Current Outbreak Among Injection Drug Users in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sypsa, Vana; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Malliori, Meni; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K; Panopoulos, Anastasios; Kantzanou, Maria; Katsoulidou, Antigoni; Psichogiou, Mina; Fotiou, Anastasios; Pharris, Anastasia; Van De Laar, Marita; Wiessing, Lucas; Jarlais, Don Des; Friedman, Samuel R; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined HIV prevalence and risk factors among injection drug users (IDUs) in Athens, Greece, during an HIV outbreak. Methods. We used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit 1404 IDUs to the Aristotle intervention in August to October 2012. We interviewed participants and tested for HIV. We performed bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results. Estimated HIV prevalence was 19.8% (RDS-weighted prevalence = 14.8%). Odds of infection were 2.3 times as high in homeless as in housed IDUs and 2.1 times as high among IDUs who injected at least once per day as among less frequent injectors (both, P homelessness as well as scaling up prevention services, such as needle and syringe distribution and other risk reduction interventions.

  9. Homelessness and Other Risk Factors for HIV Infection in the Current Outbreak Among Injection Drug Users in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sypsa, Vana; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Malliori, Meni; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K; Panopoulos, Anastasios; Kantzanou, Maria; Katsoulidou, Antigoni; Psichogiou, Mina; Fotiou, Anastasios; Pharris, Anastasia; Van De Laar, Marita; Wiessing, Lucas; Jarlais, Don Des; Friedman, Samuel R; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined HIV prevalence and risk factors among injection drug users (IDUs) in Athens, Greece, during an HIV outbreak. Methods. We used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit 1404 IDUs to the Aristotle intervention in August to October 2012. We interviewed participants and tested for HIV. We performed bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results. Estimated HIV prevalence was 19.8% (RDS-weighted prevalence = 14.8%). Odds of infection were 2.3 times as high in homeless as in housed IDUs and 2.1 times as high among IDUs who injected at least once per day as among less frequent injectors (both, P homelessness as well as scaling up prevention services, such as needle and syringe distribution and other risk reduction interventions. PMID:24524508

  10. Aggressive cutaneous vasculitis in a patient with chronic lymphatic leukemia following granulocyte colony stimulating factor injection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Husseiny Noha M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Vasculitis has been reported in a few cases of chronic lymphatic leukemia and with granulocytic colony-stimulating factor therapy. Those with granulocytic colony-stimulating factor occurred after prolonged therapy and there was a rise in total leukocyte count unlike that in our patient who received just a single injection for the first time. Case presentation We report the case of a 64-year-old Egyptian man with chronic lymphatic leukemia who developed progressive cutaneous vasculitic lesions following injection of a single dose of a granulocytic colony stimulating factor before a third cycle of chemotherapy to improve neutropenia. This is an unusual case and the pathogenesis is not fully understood. Our patient was not on any medical treatment except for bisoprolol for ischemic heart disease. Although aggressive management with steroids, anticoagulation and plasmapheresis had been carried out, the condition was aggressive and the patient's consciousness deteriorated. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of his brain revealed multiple ischemic foci that could be attributed to vasculitis of the brain. Conclusion The aim of this case report is to highlight the importance of monitoring patients on granulocytic colony-stimulating factor therapy, especially in the context of other conditions (such as a hematological malignancy that may lead to an adverse outcome.

  11. Assessment of Factors Influencing Effective CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity and Injectivity in Eastern Gas Shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godec, Michael

    2013-06-30

    Building upon advances in technology, production of natural gas from organic-rich shales is rapidly developing as a major hydrocarbon supply option in North America and around the world. The same technology advances that have facilitated this revolution - dense well spacing, horizontal drilling, and hydraulic fracturing - may help to facilitate enhanced gas recovery (EGR) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage in these formations. The potential storage of CO {sub 2} in shales is attracting increasing interest, especially in Appalachian Basin states that have extensive shale deposits, but limited CO{sub 2} storage capacity in conventional reservoirs. The goal of this cooperative research project was to build upon previous and on-going work to assess key factors that could influence effective EGR, CO{sub 2} storage capacity, and injectivity in selected Eastern gas shales, including the Devonian Marcellus Shale, the Devonian Ohio Shale, the Ordovician Utica and Point Pleasant shale and equivalent formations, and the late Devonian-age Antrim Shale. The project had the following objectives: (1) Analyze and synthesize geologic information and reservoir data through collaboration with selected State geological surveys, universities, and oil and gas operators; (2) improve reservoir models to perform reservoir simulations to better understand the shale characteristics that impact EGR, storage capacity and CO{sub 2} injectivity in the targeted shales; (3) Analyze results of a targeted, highly monitored, small-scale CO{sub 2} injection test and incorporate into ongoing characterization and simulation work; (4) Test and model a smart particle early warning concept that can potentially be used to inject water with uniquely labeled particles before the start of CO{sub 2} injection; (5) Identify and evaluate potential constraints to economic CO{sub 2} storage in gas shales, and propose development approaches that overcome these constraints; and (6) Complete new basin

  12. Matching-adjusted indirect comparisons of efficacy of BAY 81-8973 vs two recombinant factor VIII for the prophylactic treatment of severe hemophilia A

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Nanxin

    2016-01-01

    Jennifer Pocoski,1 Nanxin Li,2 Rajeev Ayyagari,2 Nikki Church,1 Monika Maas Enriquez,1 Quer Xiang,2 Sneha Kelkar,3 Ella X Du,2 Eric Q Wu,2 Jipan Xie3 1Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Whippany, NJ, 2Analysis Group, Inc., Boston, MA, 3Analysis Group, Inc., New York, NY, USA Background: No head-to-head trials comparing recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) products currently exist. This was a matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC) study of efficacy of BAY 81-8973 with antihemophilic factor (...

  13. Release of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-2, and gamma-interferon in serum after injection of OKT3 monoclonal antibody in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, D; Schandene, L; Goldman, M; Crusiaux, A; Vereerstraeten, P; De Pauw, L; Wybran, J; Kinnaert, P; Dupont, E; Toussaint, C

    1989-04-01

    High levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-2, and gamma-interferon appeared in the circulation of kidney transplant recipients after the first injection of the monoclonal antibody OKT3. This initial injection was systematically followed by fever. The three cytokines were released in all patients (n = 9), with peak serum levels of tumor necrosis factor occurring 1 hr after OKT3 injection and those of interleukin-2 and gamma-interferon after 2 hr. Cytokines were not released after the second and third OKT3 injections, when CD3+ cells had disappeared from blood. These findings suggest that circulating cytokines are released by T cells after activation by OKT3. These cytokines are probably involved in the systematic reactions observed after injection of OKT3. PMID:2523100

  14. Factors affecting radiation exposure during lumber epidural steroid injection: A prospective study in 759 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Young; Lee, Joon Woo; Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Guen Young; Ahn, Joong Mo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Joon Ho [Dept. of Rehabilitation, National Rehabilitation Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To estimate and compare radiation exposure and intervention time during lumbar epidural steroid injection (ESI) 1) under different practitioners and methods with continuous fluoroscopic monitoring, and 2) under one practitioner with different methods and monitoring. We consecutively recruited 804 patients who underwent lumbar ESI and 759 patients who underwent 922 interventions were included for analysis in this investigation. Three different practitioners (a senior faculty member, junior faculty member, trainee) performed lumbar ESI using different methods (caudal, interlaminar, transforaminal). The senior faculty member performed lumbar ESI under two different methods of fluoroscopic monitoring (continuous [CM] and intermittent monitoring [IM]). The dose area product (DAP) fluoroscopy time, and intervention time during lumbar ESI were compared for 1) ESI methods and practitioners under CM, and 2) ESI methods and monitoring. With CM, interaction between the effects of the practitioner and the intervention on DAP was significant (p < 0.001), but not fluoroscopy time (p = 0.672) or intervention time (p = 0.852). The significant main effects included the practitioner and intervention on DAP, fluoroscopy time, and intervention time with CM (p < 0.001). DAPs and fluoroscopy time for caudal, interlaminar, and transforaminal ESI were higher with CM than with IM (p < 0.001). Intervention time did not differ between CM and IM. Radiation exposure is dependent on the practitioners and methods and within the established safety limits during lumbar ESIs under CM. With an experienced practitioner, IM leads to less radiation exposure than CM.

  15. Effect of intramuscular injection of hepatocyte growth factor plasmid DNA with electroporation on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Xiang; XIONG Sheng-dao; XIONG Wei-ning; XU Yong-jian

    2007-01-01

    Background So far, there is no efficient treatment for pulmonary fibrosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether intramuscular injection of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) plasmid DNA by in vivo electroporation could prevent bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, and to investigate the possible mechanisms.Methods Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group(group C), model group (group M), early intervention group (group Ⅰ ) and late intervention group (groupⅡ). Groups M, Ⅰ and Ⅱ were intratracheally infused with bleomycin, then injected the plasmid pcDNA3.1-hHGF to group Ⅰ on day 7, 14 and 21. Group Ⅱ received the same treatment like Group Ⅰ on day 14 and 21. All the rats were killed on day 28 after bleomycin injection. We detected Homo HGF expression in the rats with ELISA method and estimated the pathological fibrosis score of lung tissue using hematoxylin eosin (HE) and Massion staining. The mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1),cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2), and rat HGF in rat pulmonary parenchyma were evaluated by RT-PCR.Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were performed to determine the protein expression of transforming TGF-β1 and COX-2 in lung parenchyma.Results The plasmid pcDNA3.1-hHGF could express hHGF in NIH3T3 cells and the hHGF protein is secreted into the culture medium. The expression of hHGF protein could be monitored in quadriceps muscle, plasma and lung in Groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ. Pulmonary fibrosis levels of Groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ were obviously lower than that of group M (P<0.05).Expression of TGF-β1 protein and mRNA in lung tissue was markedly decreased in Groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ compared with Group M (P<0.05). The level of expression of HGF and COX-2 mRNA was higher in Groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ than in Group M (P<0.05).Conclusions Injection of the plasmid pcDNA3.1-hHGF into skeletal muscle with electroporation has a potential role in the treatment of bleomycin

  16. Adalimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... swelling and scales on the skin), chronic plaque psoriasis (a skin disease in which red, scaly patches form on some areas of the body). Adalimumab injection is in a class of medications called tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. It works by blocking the action ...

  17. 76 FR 27888 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gonadotropin Releasing Factor-Diphtheria...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... drug regulations to reflect approval of a new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Pfizer, Inc. The NADA provides for the veterinary prescription use of gonadotropin releasing factor-diphtheria toxoid...-5755, filed NADA 141-322 that provides for the veterinary prescription use of IMPROVEST...

  18. Injection of recombinant tumor necrosis factor directly into liver metastases: an experimental and clinical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); M. Scheringa (Marcel); G. van der Schelling; R.A. Geerling; R.L. Marquet (Richard); J. Jeekel (Hans)

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Systemic treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is associated with side-effects, limiting its clinical use in the treatment of malignancies. To investigate the feasibility of other routes of administration experimental and clinical studies were started to establish

  19. Nerve growth factor injected into the gastric ulcer base incorporates into endothelial, neuronal, glial and epithelial cells: implications for angiogenesis, mucosal regeneration and ulcer healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, T; Ahluwalia, A; Watanabe, T; Arakawa, T; Tarnawski, A S

    2015-08-01

    A previous study has demonstrated that locally administered growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor can accelerate healing of experimental gastric ulcers in rats. That study indicates that locally administered growth factors can exert potent biological effects resulting in enhanced gastric ulcers healing. However, the fate of injected growth factors, their retention and localization to specific cellular compartments have not been examined. In our preliminary study, we demonstrated that local injection of nerve growth factor to the base of experimental gastric ulcers dramatically accelerates ulcer healing, increases angiogenesis - new blood vessel formation, and improves the quality of vascular and epithelial regeneration. Before embarking on larger, definitive and time sequence studies, we wished to determine whether locally injected nerve growth factor is retained in gastric ulcer's tissues and taken up by specific cells during gastric ulcer healing. Gastric ulcers were induced in anesthetized rats by local application of acetic acid using standard methods; and, 60 min later fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled nerve growth factor was injected locally to the ulcer base. Rats were euthanized 2, 5 and 10 days later. Gastric specimens were obtained and processed for histology. Unstained paraffin sections were examined under a fluorescence microscope, and the incorporation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled nerve growth factor into various gastric tissue cells was determined and quantified. In addition, we performed immunostaining for S100β protein that is expressed in neural components. Five and ten days after ulcer induction labeled nerve growth factor (injected to the gastric ulcer base) was incorporated into endothelial cells of blood vessels, neuronal, glial and epithelial cells, myofibroblasts and muscle cells. This study demonstrates for the first time that during gastric ulcer healing

  20. Individual, Social, and Environmental Factors Associated with Initiating Methamphetamine Injection: Implications for Drug Use and HIV Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Brandon DL; Wood, Evan; Shoveller, Jean A.; Buxton, Jane A.; Montaner, Julio SG; Kerr, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and predictors of initiating methamphetamine injection among a cohort of injection drug users (IDU). We conducted a longitudinal analysis of IDU participating in a prospective study between June 2001 and May 2008 in Vancouver, Canada. IDU who had never reported injecting methamphetamine at the study's commencement were eligible. We used Cox proportional hazards models to identify the predictors of initiating methamphetamine injection. T...

  1. Lower concentrations of chemotactic cytokines and soluble innate factors in the lower female genital tract associated with the use of injectable hormonal contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngcapu, Sinaye; Masson, Lindi; Sibeko, Sengeziwe; Werner, Lise; McKinnon, Lyle R; Mlisana, Koleka; Shey, Muki; Samsunder, Natasha; Karim, Salim Abdool; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2015-08-01

    Progesterone-based injectable hormonal contraceptives (HCs) potentially modulate genital barrier integrity and regulate the innate immune environment in the female genital tract, thereby enhancing the risk of STIs or HIV infection. We investigated the effects of injectable HC use on concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and other soluble factors associated with genital epithelial repair and integrity. The concentrations of 42 inflammatory, regulatory, adaptive growth factors and hematopoietic cytokines, five matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and four tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) were measured in cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs) from 64 HIV-negative women using injectable HCs and 64 control women not using any HCs, in a matched case-control study. There were no differences between groups in the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV; Nugent score ≥7), or common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In multivariate analyses adjusting for condom use, sex work status, marital status, BV and STIs, median concentrations of chemokines (eotaxin, MCP-1, MDC), adaptive cytokines (IL-15), growth factors (PDGF-AA) and a metalloproteinase (TIMP-2) were significantly lower in CVLs from women using injectable HCs than controls. In addition, the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12p40 and the chemokine fractalkine were less likely to have detectable levels in women using injectable HCs compared with those not using HCs. We conclude that injectable HC use was broadly associated with an immunosuppressive female genital tract innate immune profile. While the relationship between injectable HC use and STI or HIV risk is yet to be resolved, our data suggest that the effects of injectable HCs were similar in STI-positive and STI-negative participants.

  2. Factors associated with uptake, adherence, and efficacy of hepatitis C treatment in people who inject drugs: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mravčík V

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Viktor Mravčík,1,2 Lisa Strada,3 Josef Štolfa,4,5 Vladimir Bencko,6 Teodora Groshkova,7 Jens Reimer,3 Bernd Schulte3 1National Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2Department of Addictology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 3Centre for Interdisciplinary Addiction Research, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; 4Department of General Practice, Institute for Postgraduate Medical Education in Prague, 5Department of General Practice, Second Faculty of Medicine, 6Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 7European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon, Portugal Introduction and methods: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infections are highly prevalent amongst people who inject drugs (PWID. Despite well documented evidence of its effectiveness, suggested cost-effectiveness, and potential to reduce HCV prevalence rates, the uptake of antiviral HCV treatment by PWID is low. This nonsystematic literature review describes factors associated with the uptake, adherence, and efficacy of HCV treatment among PWID and discusses strategies to increase their uptake of treatment. Results: Low HCV treatment uptake among PWID is associated with a number of patient-related and provider-related barriers. Beliefs and fears about low efficacy and adverse effects on the patient’s part are common. A substantial number of factors are associated with the chaotic lifestyle and altered social functioning of PWID, which are often associated with decompensation or relapsing into drug addiction. This may lead to perceived low adherence with treatment and low efficacy on the provider’s part too, where lack of support, inadequate management of addiction, and other drug-related problems and poor treatment of side effects have been described. Practical issues such as the accessibility of treatment and finances also play a role

  3. Influencing Factors on Oilfield Injection Scaling%油田注水结垢影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐素鹏; 苏小莉; 黄翼; 张玉芳

    2012-01-01

    模拟某油田注水环境,通过测定模拟水样失钙率和SEM观察垢物晶型,分析常压静态和高温、高压动态条件下油田结垢的影响因素.试验结果表明:在常压静态条件下,随着矿化度的提高,水样中NaCl浓度提高,失钙率先提高后下降;在高温、高压动态条件下,随着温度的升高和pH值的增加,模拟水样的失钙率提高,油田结垢趋势增强;随着压力、流速的增加,模拟水样的失钙率下降,油田结垢趋势减弱.SEM观察结果表明:某油田结垢的主要原因是温度变化和注水与地层水混合后pH值的变化,阻垢措施应为:调节注水的酸碱度和选用耐温性好的阻垢剂.%Influencing factors on oilfleld scaling are discussed under static atmospheric pressure and dynamic high temperature and pressure conditions, by simulating an oilfield injection environment, measuring the simulation water calcium loss rate and observing scale crystal from SEM. Results are as the followings: in high temperature and pressure and dynamic state, NaCl concentrations increases and the calcium loss rate increases first, then decreases with the rise of mineralization; in high temperature and pressure and dynamic state, calcium loss rate increases and scaling tendency enhanced with the rise of temperature and pH value; calcium loss rate and Scaling tendency decrease with the rise of pressure and flow velocity. SEM results show that the main reason for the oilfield scaling is temperature change and pH value change caused by injection water and formation water mixture And the way to inhibit scaling is adjusting acidity-alkalinity of injection water and selecting good temperature resistance scale inhibitor.

  4. Influencing Factors for the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Micro Porous Titanium Manufactured by Metal Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Lu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Porous titanium is a new structural and functional material. It is widely used in many fields since it integrates the properties of biomaterials with those of metallic foam. A new technology that combines both the preparation and forming of porous materials has been proposed in this paper. Moreover, a new solder was developed that could be employed in the joining of porous materials. Influencing factors for microstructure and mechanical properties of the parent material and joint interface are identified. Metal injection molding (MIM technology was used for fabricating porous materials. The feedstock for injection molding of porous titanium powders was prepared from titanium powders and a polymer-based binder system. In addition, the proportion of powder loading and binders was optimized. Through MIM technology, a porous titanium filter cartridge was prepared. For the purpose of investigating the thermal debinding technology of the filter cartridge, effects of the sintering temperature on the porosity, morphology of micropores and mechanical properties were analyzed. It could be found that when the sintering temperature increased, the relative density, bending and compression strength of the components also increased. Moreover, the porosity reached 32.28% when the sintering temperature was 1000 °C. The microstructure morphology indicated that micropores connected with each other. Meanwhile, the strength of the components was relatively high, i.e., the bending and compression strength was 65 and 60 MPa, respectively. By investigating the joining technology of porous filter cartridges, the ideal components of the solder and pressure were determined. Further research revealed that the micropore structure of the joint interface is the same as that of the parent material, and that the bending strength of the joint interface is 40 MPa.

  5. Effect of Astragalus Injection on Plasma Levels of Apoptosis-related Factors in Aged Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Astragalus injection (Al) on plasma levels of apoptosis-related factors in aged patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods: Seventy-two CHF patients were randomly divided into the Al group (36 cases) treated with Al and the control group (36 cases) treated with conventional treatment. Plasma levels of soluble Fas (sFas), soluble Fas ligand (sFasL), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) with monoclonal anti-human antibodies. Besides, New York Heart Association (NYHA) grading was assessed according to improved symptoms and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were assessed by echocardiogram after 4 weeks of treatment. Results: After 4 weeks of treatment, NYHA grading was markedly improved in the two groups, but it was significantly better in Al group than that in the control group (P<0.05). As compared with the control group, sFas, sFasL,TNF-α and IL-6 in the Al group were obviously lower, the difference between the two groups and between before and after treatment were significant (P<0.05 or P 0.01).Moreover, in Al group, LVESV and LVEDV decreased, LVEF increased, which was significantly different than that before treatment (P<0.05), respectively. Conclusion: Al could lower plasma levels of apoptosisrelated factors, and is one of the effective drugs in improving cardiac function in the aged patients with CHF.

  6. Danshen injection ameliorates STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy in association with suppression of oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory factors and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linhao; Shen, Peiqiang; Bi, Yanli; Chen, Jian; Xiao, Zhangang; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wang, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most frequent complications in diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to explore whether Danshen injection is protective to renal tissue in diabetes. Intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (60mg/kg) was used to induce diabetes in rats. Some STZ-induced diabetic rats were also intraperitoneally injected with Danshen solution at two different dosages (0.5 or 1ml/kg/day) for 6weeks. Our results showed that serum creatinine (sCr) and blood urea nitrogen were significantly increased in STZ-induced diabetic rats, which was alleviated upon Danshen injection. Danshen injection was also found to ameliorate hypertrophy and dilatation of renal tubule and glomeruli possibly by decreasing the expression of collagen and fibronectin in association with suppression of TGF-β1/Smad pathway. Further investigation revealed that Danshen injection could increase the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats, indicating suppression of oxidative stress. In addition, we also found that Danshen injection could suppress IκB/NF-κB signaling pathway and reduce the level of a number of pro-inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the diabetic renal tissue, indicating suppression of inflammation. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that Danshen injection may rescue STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy, possibly via suppressing the oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and fibrosis progression. PMID:27355131

  7. Prevention of bone loss by injection of insulin-like growth factor-1 after sciatic neurectomy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hai-biao; CHEN Jun-chang

    2013-01-01

    Injection of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) can prevent bone loss in sciatic nerve transaction rats.We try to investigate the action mechanism of IGF-1 on bone formation.Methods:A total of 40 adult male Spragne-Dawley rats were divided into two groups (experimental group and control group) with 20 animals in each.Sciatic neurectomy was performed to model disuse osteoporosis in all rats.IGF-1was administered in experimental group with the dose of 100 μg/kg per day for 3 days.Meanwhile,the rats in control group were treated with saline.Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry 4 and 6 weeks after neurectomy respectively.Expression of Osterix and Runx2 was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay.Results:There was a significant increase in the bone mineral density of experimental group compared with control group.There was a significant decrease in the level of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κ B-ligand but an increase in the level of osteoprotegerin 4 and 6 weeks after neurectomy in the experimental group compared with control one.The expression of Osterix and Runx2 was up-regulated in the bone marrow of experimental group compared with control group.Conclusion:IGF-1 can increase bone formation by stimulation of osteoblast number and activity,and reduce bone resorption by restriction of differentiation of osteoclast,suggesting that IGF-1 may improve the therapeutic efficacy for disuse osteoporosis.

  8. High HIV Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors Among Female Sexual Partners of Male Injection Drug Users (MWID) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadol, Patrick; Tran, Hoang; Hammett, Theodore; Phan, Son; Nguyen, Duong; Kaldor, John; Law, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Injection drug use is a major factor in acquiring and transmitting HIV in Vietnam. This analysis aims to present estimates of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV infection among female sex partners (FSP) of MWID in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2013 among males who inject drugs (MWID) who then referred their FSP for a behavioral and biologic survey. In total, 445 MWID and FSPs were enrolled. HIV prevalence among MWID was 50 and 35 % among FSPs. Among FSPs, 60.3 % reported ever using illegal drugs and among those, 72.7 % reported ever injecting illicit drugs. Among FSP, injection drug for >1 year [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR), 95 % CI 2.94, 1.19-7.26), p value = <0.001] and having a male partner infected with HIV [(aOR 3.35: 1.97-5.69), p value = <0.001] were associated with HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV infection is high among FSP of MWID in HCMC and is highly associated with the injection drug use behavior of the FSP. Harm-reduction intervention programs that focus on the MWID-FSP couple or directly on the FSPs are required.

  9. Social and structural factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers who inject drugs in the Mexico-US border region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffanie A Strathdee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FSWs who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs can acquire HIV through high risk sexual and injection behaviors. We studied correlates of HIV infection among FSW-IDUs in northern Mexico, where sex work is quasi-legal and syringes can be legally obtained without a prescription. METHODS: FSW-IDUs>18 years old who reported injecting drugs and recent unprotected sex with clients in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez underwent surveys and HIV/STI testing. Logistic regression identified correlates of HIV infection. RESULTS: Of 620 FSW-IDUs, prevalence of HIV, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, trichomonas, syphilis titers ≥1:8, or any of these infections was 5.3%, 4%, 13%, 35%, 10% and 72%, respectively. Compared to other FSW-IDUs, HIV-positive women were more likely to: have syphilis titers ≥1:8 (36% vs. 9%, p<0.001, often/always inject drugs with clients (55% vs. 32%, p = 0.01, and experience confiscation of syringes by police (49% vs. 28%, p = 0.02. Factors independently associated with HIV infection were syphilis titers ≥1:8, often/always injecting with clients and police confiscation of syringes. Women who obtained syringes from NEPs (needle exchange programs within the last month had lower odds of HIV infection associated with active syphilis, but among non-NEP attenders, the odds of HIV infection associated with active syphilis was significantly elevated. CONCLUSIONS: Factors operating in both the micro-social environment (i.e., injecting drugs with clients and policy environment (i.e., having syringes confiscated by police, attending NEPs predominated as factors associated with risk of HIV infection, rather than individual-level risk behaviors. Interventions should target unjustified policing practices, clients' risk behaviors and HIV/STI prevention through NEPs.

  10. Risk behaviors and risk factors for HIV infection among participants in the Bangkok tenofovir study, an HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis trial among people who inject drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Martin

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HIV spread rapidly among people who inject drugs in Bangkok in the late 1980s. In recent years, changes in drug use and HIV-associated risk behaviors have been reported. We examined data from the Bangkok Tenofovir Study, an HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis trial conducted among people who inject drugs, to assess participant risk behavior and drug use, and to identify risk factors for HIV infection. METHODS: The Bangkok Tenofovir Study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. HIV status was assessed monthly and risk behavior every 3 months. We used generalized estimating equations logistic regression to model trends of injecting, needle sharing, drugs injected, incarceration, and sexual activity reported at follow-up visits; and proportional hazards models to evaluate demographic characteristics, sexual activities, incarceration, drug injection practices, and drugs injected during follow-up as predictors of HIV infection. RESULTS: The proportion of participants injecting drugs, sharing needles, and reporting sex with more than one partner declined during follow-up (p<0.001. Among participants who reported injecting at enrollment, 801 (53.2% injected methamphetamine, 559 (37.1% midazolam, and 527 (35.0% heroin. In multivariable analysis, young age (i.e., 20-29 years (p = 0.02, sharing needles (p<0.001, and incarceration in prison (p = 0.002 were associated with incident HIV infection. Participants reporting sex with an opposite sex partner, live-in partner, casual partner, or men reporting sex with male partners were not at a significantly higher risk of HIV infection compared to those who did not report these behaviors. CONCLUSION: Reports of HIV-associated risk behavior declined significantly during the trial. Young age, needle sharing, and incarceration were independently associated with HIV infection. Sexual activity was not associated with HIV infection, suggesting that the reduction in HIV incidence among

  11. Prevalence of needle sharing, commercial sex behaviors and associated factors in Chinese male and female injecting drug user populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jing; Wang, Renfan; Chen, Hongyao; Lau, Joseph T F; Zhang, Linglin; Hu, Xianyou; Lei, Zhangquan; Li, Zhenglin; Cai, Hua; Wang, Tao; Tsui, Hiyi

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate prevalence and associated factors of commercial sex behaviors and condom use at commercial sex, as well as prevalence of needle sharing among injecting drug users (IDUs) in China. In this study, 162 IDUs were recruited by peer workers in Dazhou, Sichuan and were anonymously interviewed by using a structured questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed and interaction between gender and the studied independent variables were tested for significance. The results of this study showed that the male and female respondents, respectively 11.7 and 16.9% were HIV positive; 34.0 and 40.7% engaged in commercial sex and 23.3 and 11.9% shared needles with others in the last six months. Percent using a condom in the last episode of commercial sex was 30.3% for males and 76.2% for females. The multivariate analyses showed that higher drug dosage (OR=0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.9) and reduced sexual drive (OR=0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.9) were associated with lower likelihood for commercial sex among male IDUs while higher drug dosage (OR=9.1, 95% CI: 1.0-86.0), perceived difficulty in finding a job (OR=5.1, 95% CI: 1.3-20.1) and lack of family support (OR=4.0, 95% CI: 1.1-15.4) were associated with commercial sex among female IDUs. Similarly, unknown HIV status (OR=8.2, 95% CI: 1.7-9.2) and having a regular sex partner (OR=3.7, 95% CI: 1.3-10.9) was associated with needle sharing. It is concluded that male and female IDUs were sexually active and often engaged in commercial sex. Drug dosage and reduced sexual drive were relevant but did not stop commercial sex behaviors. More supportive social environment is required to prevent female IDUs to enter sex work. PMID:19085218

  12. Changes of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and the Effects of Ulinastatin Injection during Cardiopulmonary Cerebral Resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫; 黄唯佳; 陈寿权; 李章平; 王万铁; 王明山

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The changes of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and brain ultrastructure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the effects of ulinastation injection were observed, and the mechanism was investigated. Twenty-four adult healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into.control group (8 rats), resuscitation group (8 rats) and ulinastatin (UTI) group (8 rats). Rats in control group underwent tracheotomy without clipping the trachea to induce circulatory and respiratory standstill. Rats in resuscitation and ulinastatin group were subjected to the procedure of establishing the model of cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation (CPCR). Rats in ulinastatin group were given with UTI 104 U/kg once after CPCR. In the control group, the plasma was collected immediate,30 min, 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h after tracheotomy. In resuscitation group and UTI group, plasma was collected immediate after tracheotomy, 30 min, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h after successful resuscitation. The plasma levels of TNF-α were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). At the end of the experi-ment, 2 rats were randomly selected from each group and were decapitated. The cortex of the brain was taken out immediately to observe the ultrastructure changes. In control group, there were nosignificant differences in the level of TNF-α among different time points (P>0.05). In resuscitation group, the level of TNF-α was increased obviously after resuscitation (P<0.01) and reached its peak 2 h later after resuscitation. An increasing trend of TNF-α showed in UTI group. There were no differences in TNF-α among each sample taken after successful resuscitation and that after tracheotomy. The utrastructure of brains showed the injury in UTI group was ameliorated as compared with that in resuscitation group. In early period of CPCR, TNF-α was expressed rapidly and kept increasing. It indicated that TNF-α might take part in the tissue injury after CPCR. The administration of UTI during CACR could depress TNF

  13. Identification and weighting factors influencing the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in plastic injection industry using VIKOR and Shannon Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Hashemzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Single minute exchange of dies (SMED is one of the most important tools to achieve lean production system. The main idea of this system is to provide methods and to use creative and innovative solutions for continuous improvement. Due to the importance of this issue and its effect on reducing waste during the production process, this study presents a method to identify and to weight factors in the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in 14 plastic injection factories. In this study, fourteen factories in injection industry were chosen and the factors influencing the implementation of single minute exchange of dies were identified. Following data collection, decision matrix was formed and the weight of each factor was determined by using Shannon Entropy. Then, in order to determine the readiness of factories, VIKOR method was used to rank companies. The results indicate priorities of the following factors in establishing SMED that include: Senior management support, technical capabilities, technical knowledge of staff and consultants, knowledge of mold design, manufacturing infrastructure, team work, combination of the project team work, benchmarking, training, clear understanding of project objectives, rewards and motivation, proper management expectation, project management, teamwork and organizational culture. Practical implications: Due to the factors, Top manager can make the best decision for implementing of SMED technique. This study develops factors influencing on SMED implementation based on Shannon and VIKOR methods for ranking parameters and plants.

  14. Experimental investigation of the factors influencing the polymer-polymer bond strength during two-component injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bondo, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Two-component injection moulding is a commercially important manufacturing process and a key technology for combining different material properties in a single plastic product. It is also one of most industrially adaptive process chain for manufacturing so-called moulded interconnect devices (MID...

  15. Identifying factors associated with clinical success in patients treated with NASHA®/Dx injection for fecal incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin H; Barrett AC; Wolf R

    2016-01-01

    Howard Franklin,1 Andrew C Barrett,1 Ray Wolf2 1Department of Medical Affairs, Salix, a Division of Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC, Bridgewater, NJ, USA; 2Department of Medical Affairs, Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC, Wilton Manors, FL, USA Purpose: Injection with the bulking agent consisting of non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid/dextranomer (NASHA®/Dx) is well tolerated and efficacious for the treatment of fecal incontinence (FI); however, the patient population...

  16. Spheromak injection into a tokamak

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, M R; Bellan, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results from the Caltech spheromak injection experiment [to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett.] are reported. First, current drive by spheromak injection into the ENCORE tokamak as a result of the process of magnetic helicity injection is observed. An initial 30% increase in plasma current is observed followed by a drop by a factor of 3 because of sudden plasma cooling. Second, spheromak injection results in an increase of tokamak central density by a factor of 6. The high-current/high-density...

  17. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temozolomide is used to treat certain types of brain tumors. Temozolomide is in a class of medications called alkylating ... Temozolomide injection comes as a powder to be added to fluid and injected over 90 minutes intravenously ( ...

  18. Methotrexate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methotrexate injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat gestational trophoblastic tumors (a ... in bones) after surgery to remove the tumor. Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis ( ...

  19. Leucovorin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall; cancer chemotherapy medication) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of cancer. Leucovorin injection is used to treat people who ...

  20. Pembrolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with ... who have a specific type of melanoma tumor. Pembrolizumab injection is also used to treat a certain ...

  1. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  2. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evolocumab injection is used along with diet and certain cholesterol-lowering medications, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), ... cholesterol cannot be removed from the body normally). Evolocumab injection is in a class of medications called ...

  3. Octreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octreotide immediate-release injection is used to decrease the amount of growth hormone (a natural substance) produced ... be treated with surgery, radiation, or another medication. Octreotide immediate-release injection is also used to control ...

  4. Naltrexone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large amounts of alcohol to avoid drinking again. Naltrexone injection is also used along with counseling and ...

  5. Vancomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancomycin injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat certain serious infections such ... infections of the lungs, skin, blood, and bones. Vancomycin injection is in a class of medications called ...

  6. Naloxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor to get a new injection device.The automatic injection device has an electronic voice system that provides step by step directions ... guard has been removed, safely dispose of the automatic injection ... local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  7. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    at the injection site was influenced by the needle length and the injected volume. Several imaging analysis tools were optimized for the characterization, and these tools were implemented also on subcutaneous injections in rats, visualized by low dose μCT, and used for characterization of the morphology in mouse...

  8. Ustekinumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do not inject into an area where the skin is tender, bruised, red, or hard or where you have scars or stretch marks.Your doctor or pharmacist will ... injection.you should know that ustekinumab injection may decrease your ability ... new or changing skin lesions, minor infections (such as open cuts or ...

  9. Experimental investigation of the factors influencing the polymer-polymer bond strength during two component injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2007-01-01

    effectively control the adhesion between two polymers. The effects of environmental conditions on the bond strength after moulding are also investigated. The material selections and environmental conditions were chosen based on the suitability of MID production, but the results and discussion presented in......Two component injection moulding is a commercially important manufacturing process and a key technology for Moulded Interconnect Devices (MIDs). Many fascinating applications of two component or multi component polymer parts are restricted due to the weak interfacial adhesion of the polymers. A...

  10. A novel injectable BRET-based in vivo imaging probe for detecting the activity of hypoxia-inducible factor regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Suka, Tomoya; Hirota, Keisuke; Kadonosono, Tetsuya; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a selective protein degradation system that plays a critical role in many essential biological processes by regulating the existence of various cellular proteins. The target proteins of UPS are recognized and tagged with polyubiquitin chains by E3 ubiquitin ligases, which have high substrate-specific activities. Here we present a novel injectable imaging probe POL-N that can detect the UPS-regulated hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activity in vivo. Because the luciferase is fused to the E3 ligase-recognition domain of the HIF-1α, POL-N is intact only in the HIFα-overexpressing cells, that is, HIF-active cells, generating signals via an intramolecular bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) between luciferase and a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye at the C-terminal end of the probe. Off-target signals of the NIR-BRET were so low that we could achieve highly sensitive and fast detection of intratumoral HIF-activity. Notably, we successfully detected hypoxic liver metastasis, which is extremely difficult to detect by injectable imaging probes due to strong off-target signals, as early as 1 h after systemic injection of POL-N. Our probe design can be widely adapted to UPS-target proteins and may contribute to the exploration of their roles in animal disease models. PMID:27698477

  11. Intragastric injection of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota suppressed spleen sympathetic activation by central corticotrophin-releasing factor or peripheral 2-deoxy-d-glucose in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida, Mamoru; Takada, Mai; Kato-Kataoka, Akito; Kawai, Mitsuhisa; Miyazaki, Kouji; Shibamoto, Toshishige

    2016-04-21

    Intragastric (IG) administration of probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) decreases the sympathetic nerve outflow of anesthetized rats in a tissue-specific manner. In the present study, we examined the effects of IG administration of LcS on sympathetic activation induced by an intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and an intravenous (IV) injection of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) or interleukin (IL)-1β in urethane-anesthetized rats. The IG administration of LcS differently affected the stimulatory responses of sympathetic nerve outflow to CRF. LcS suppressed the increase in splenic sympathetic nerve activity (Spleen-SNA), induced by central CRF, in a dose-dependent manner; however, it did not alter adrenal sympathetic nervous activity (ASNA). In contrast, LcS did not affect spleen-SNA and ASNA following an IV injection of IL-1β. On the other hand, IG administration of LcS suppressed the activation of ASNA following an IV injection of 2DG. These findings suggest that the suppression of central CRF-induced sympathetic activation by LcS is tissue-specific. Moreover, it can suppress the 2DG-induced sympathetic activation. Furthermore, we found that stomach-specific vagotomy attenuates the suppressive effect of LcS on CRF-mediated spleen-SNA activation. Thus, the present study suggests that LcS administered to the stomach may act on the afferent vagal nerve and send afferent signals to the brain to regulate efferent SNA induced by sympathetic stimulators. PMID:26971699

  12. Pharmacokinetics of 125I-labelled recombinant epidermal growth factor after intravenous injection of the drug in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I-rhEGF was prepared by Iodogen method. Purity was (97.1 +- 0.45)% as determined by SDS-PAGE. The results revealed that plasma radioactivities remained at high level within 8 hours, while fraction of 125I-rhEGF determined by RHPLC decreased rapidly and 125I labelled hydrophilic fraction increased simultaneously. Concentration-time curve of 125I-rhEGF was best fitted with two-compartment model. Disintegration half-lives were 9 min and 11.6 h, respectively. Levels in tissues were urine>thyroid gland>contents in jejunum>kidneys>plasma>bile>submaxillary glands>lungs. A total of (20.3 +- 5.1)% of injected radioactivity was excreted through urine within 8 h

  13. An individualized contrast material injection protocol with respect to patient-related factors for dual-source CT coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To optimize contrast media (CM) injection protocols by individually tailoring the dose to the patient's body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI) and heart rate (HR) at dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography (DSCT-CA). Materials and methods: A total of 423 patients were prospectively enrolled and were randomly assigned to four groups. The control group received 80 ml CM at 5 ml/s. For the HR-optimized group, the injection duration was the same as the scan duration plus 8 s. In the Body-optimized group, the dose of CM was tailored to BW and BMI. In the HR + Body-optimized group, CM protocols tailored to body size and scan duration were applied. Individual variability of arterial attenuation and incidence of arterial over-opacification (attenuation >500 HU) in the four groups were compared. Correlations between BW, BMI, HR, and arterial attenuations were evaluated in the four groups, respectively. Results: Reduced individual variability of arterial attenuation and a significantly lower incidence of arterial over-opacification were found in the Body-optimized group and HR + Body-optimized group. Arterial attenuation was inversely correlated with BW, BMI, and HR in the control group, inversely correlated with BW and BMI in the HR-optimized group, and inversely correlated with HR in the Body-optimized group. In the HR + Body-optimized group, arterial attenuation was not significantly correlated with BW, BMI, or HR respectively. Conclusion: CM protocols individually tailored to BW, BMI, and HR can lead to reduced individual variability and a lower incidence of over-opacification of arterial attenuation, but also can reduce the influence of BW, BMI, and HR on arterial attenuations at DSCT-CA

  14. Hepatitis C virus and associated risk factors among prison inmates with history of drug injection in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Kassaian

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: According to relatively high prevalence of HCV infection and associated risk factors which observed in this study it is important to primary prevention in prisons through syringe/needle exchange and counsel with imprisoned IDUs.

  15. Hepatitis C virus and associated risk factors among prison inmates with history of drug injection in Isfahan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nazila Kassaian; Peyman Adibi; Alireza Kafashaian; Majid Yaran; Zary Nokhodian; Parisa Shoaei; Razieh Hassannejad; Anahita Babak; Behrooz Ataei

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem worldwide with serious complications. According to the importance of intravenous drug use (IDU) as the main risk factor for HCV infection and transmission and prison as the main source of risky behaviors, this study conducted to define HCV infection and related risk factors in prison inmates with history of IDU in Isfahan province, Iran. Methods: This is a cross –sectional study which the prison inmates with IDU hi...

  16. Identifying factors associated with clinical success in patients treated with NASHA®/Dx injection for fecal incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin H

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Howard Franklin,1 Andrew C Barrett,1 Ray Wolf2 1Department of Medical Affairs, Salix, a Division of Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC, Bridgewater, NJ, USA; 2Department of Medical Affairs, Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC, Wilton Manors, FL, USA Purpose: Injection with the bulking agent consisting of non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid/dextranomer (NASHA®/Dx is well tolerated and efficacious for the treatment of fecal incontinence (FI; however, the patient population that may derive maximum benefit has not been established. This post hoc responder analysis assessed demographic and baseline characteristics predictive of responsiveness to NASHA/Dx treatment. Methods: Adults with a Cleveland Clinic Florida fecal incontinence score (CCFIS ≥10 were randomized to receive NASHA/Dx or sham treatment. The primary end point was response to treatment (ie, decrease from baseline of ≥50% in number of FI episodes at 6 months; a prespecified secondary end point was change in fecal incontinence quality of life (FIQL score at 6 months. Post hoc subgroup analyses were performed for baseline and demographic characteristics and prior FI treatments. Results: Overall, response to treatment was significantly greater with NASHA/Dx versus sham injection (52.7% vs 32.1%; P=0.0089. All subgroups analyzed demonstrated evidence of improvement, favoring NASHA/Dx versus sham treatment for both response to treatment and change in the FIQL coping/behavior subscale score. For the primary end point, a significantly greater percentage of patients with CCFIS ≤15, FI symptoms ≤5 years’ duration, or obstetric causes of FI responded to NASHA/Dx treatment versus patients receiving sham treatment (51.1% vs 28.3%, P=0.0169; 55.4% vs 25.7%, P=0.0026; and 53.6% vs 23.1%, P=0.0191, respectively. The mean change in the FIQL coping/behavior score significantly favored NASHA/Dx versus sham treatment for patients with CCFIS ≤15 (P=0.0371, FI symptoms ≤5 years

  17. A hepatitis A, B, C and HIV prevalence and risk factor study in ever injecting and non-injecting drug users in Luxembourg associated with HAV and HBV immunisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmit Jean-Claude

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Luxembourg, viral hepatitis and HIV infection data in problem drug users (PDUs are primarily based on self-reporting. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of HAV, HBV, HCV and HIV infections in ever injecting (IDUs and non-injecting drug users (nIDUs including inherent risk factors analysis for IDUs. Secondary objectives were immunisation against HAV and HBV, referral to care and treatment facilities as well as reduction in risk behaviour. Methods A nationwide, cross-sectional multi-site survey, involving 5 in-, 8 out-treatment and 2 prison centres, included both an assisted questionnaire (n = 368 and serological detection of HIV and Hepatitis A, B, C (n = 334. A response rate of 31% resulted in the participation of 310 IDUs and 58 nIDUs. Risk factors such as drug use, sexual behaviour, imprisonment, protection and health knowledge (HAV, HBV status and immunisations, HCV, HIV, piercing/tattoo and use of social and medical services were studied by means of chi2 and logistic models. Results Seroprevalence results for IDUs were 81.3% (218/268, 95%CI=[76.6; 86.0] for HCV, 29.1% (74/254, 95%CI=[25.5;34.7 ] for HBV (acute/chronic infection or past cured infection, 2.5% (5/202, 95%CI=[0.3; 4.6] for HIV-1 and 57.1% (108/189, 95%CI=[50.0; 64.1] for HAV (cured infections or past vaccinations. Seroprevalence results for nIDUs were 19.1% (9/47, 95%CI=[7.9;30.3] for HCV, 8.9% (4/45, 95%CI=[0.6;17.2] for HBV (acute/chronic infection or past cured infection, 4.8% (2/42, 95%CI=[-1.7;11.3] for HIV-1 and 65.9% (27/41, 95%CI=[51.4;80.4] for HAV. Prisoners showed the highest rates for all infections. Age, imprisonment and setting of recruitment were statistically associated with HCV seropositivity. Age, speedball career and nationality were significantly associated with HBV seropositivity. Only 56% of the participants in outpatient centres collected their serology results and 43 doses of vaccine against HAV and/or HBV were administered

  18. Certolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and swelling and scales on the skin), active ankylosing spondylitis (a condition in which the body attacks the ... continues. When certolizumab injection is used to treat ankylosing spondylitis, it is usually given every 2 weeks for ...

  19. Olanzapine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Olanzapine injection is used to treat episodes of ... this medication affects you.you should know that alcohol can add to the drowsiness caused by this ...

  20. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Haloperidol injection is also used to control motor ... this medication affects you.you should know that alcohol can add to the drowsiness caused by this ...

  1. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a person who was not in the hospital), skin infections, and infections of the abdomen (area between the ... that developed in people who were in a hospital or foot infections in people who have diabetes. Tigecycline injection is ...

  2. Golimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golimumab injection is used alone or with other medications to relieve the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders ( ... did not help or could not be tolerated. Golimumab is in a class of medications called tumor ...

  3. Ferumoxytol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  4. Aripiprazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mixed with water (Abilify Maintena) and as a suspension (liquid) (Aristada) to be injected into a muscle ... decisions, and react quickly. Do not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how this ...

  5. Ertapenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertapenem injection is used to treat certain serious infections, including pneumonia and urinary tract, skin, diabetic foot, ... for the prevention of infections following colorectal surgery. Ertapenem is in a class of medications called carbapenem ...

  6. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testosterone cypionate (Depo-Testosterone), testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl), testosterone undecanoate (Aveed), and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are forms of testosterone injection used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in men who have hypogonadism (a ...

  7. Fludarabine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also sometimes used to treat non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; cancer that begins in a type of white ... this medication. You should not plan to have children while receiving fludarabine injection or for at least ...

  8. Ramucirumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dose of ramucirumab injection. Tell your doctor or nurse if you experience any of the following while you receive ramucirumab: uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body; back pain or spasms; chest pain and tightness; chills; flushing; ...

  9. Basiliximab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. ... Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about basiliximab injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of ...

  10. Nafcillin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to nafcillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  11. Oxacillin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to oxacillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  12. Ampicillin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to ampicillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin (Ancef, ...

  13. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to treat infections such as pneumonia; chronic bronchitis; and sinus, urinary tract, kidney, prostate ( ... skin or eyes dark urine decreased urination seizures unusual bruising or bleeding joint or muscle pain Levofloxacin ...

  14. Linezolid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linezolid injection is used to treat infections, including pneumonia, and infections of the skin and blood. Linezolid ... to 2 months or more after your treatment) unusual bleeding or bruising cough, chills, sore throat, and ...

  15. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... joint, genital, blood, heart valve, respiratory tract (including pneumonia), biliary tract, and urinary tract infections. Cefazolin injection ... effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while using this medication.If you experience ...

  16. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... appropriate for them to remain available as a therapeutic option.FDA is continuing to assess safety issues ... review has shown that fluoroquinolones when used systemically (i.e. tablets, capsules, and injectable) are associated with disabling ...

  17. Gemcitabine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with surgery. Gemcitabine is also used to treat cancer of the pancreas that has spread to other parts of the ... 4 weeks. When gemcitabine is used to treat cancer of pancreas it may be injected once every week. The ...

  18. Fluconazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and fungal infections of the eye, prostate (a male reproductive organ), skin and nails. Fluconazole injection is ... Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan); oral contraceptives (birth control pills); oral medication for diabetes such ...

  19. Insulin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or buttocks. Do not inject insulin into muscles, scars, or moles. Use a different site for each ... you are using insulin.Alcohol may cause a decrease in blood sugar. Ask your doctor about the ...

  20. Tesamorelin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is colored, cloudy, contains particles, or if the expiration date on the bottle has passed.Never reuse ... swelling of the face or throat shortness of breath difficulty breathing fast heartbeat dizziness fainting Tesamorelin injection ...

  1. Secukinumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... secukinumab solution before injecting it. Check that the expiration date has not passed and that the liquid ... fever, sweats, or chills, muscle aches, shortness of breath, warm, red, or painful skin or sores on ...

  2. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... further decrease the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') in the blood. Alirocumab injection is ... antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of ...

  3. Integrating candidate metabolites and biochemical factors to elucidate the action mechanism of Xue-sai-tong injection based on (1)H NMR metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Miaomiao; Zhao, Xiaoping; Wang, Linli; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Li, Zheng

    2016-07-15

    A strategy of integrating candidate metabolites with crucial biochemical factors was proposed in this study to discover relevant biological functions for interpreting the action mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM). This approach was applied to Xue-Sai-Tong injection (XST) to reveal the action mechanism based on the metabolic response in an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rat model by analyzing NMR profile. Partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) was used to compare metabolic profiles of serum samples and revealed nine metabolites altered by I/R injury could be restored to normal status (sham-operated group) under the therapy of XST. The pathway enrichment analysis suggested the metabolic changes were mainly involved in pyruvate metabolism, glycolysis, and citrate cycle. The functional roles of the candidate metabolites were further identified by Pearson correlation analysis with the key biochemical factors in serum. The results indicated pyruvate, succinate, acetate and lysine showed significant associations with the oxidative stress factors. Elevated level of pyruvate was found as an essential metabolic response for the major effect of XST against I/R injury by enhancing glycolysis and overcoming the induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). This metabolomics approach provides a better understanding of the mechanisms of TCM and helps to develop a holistic view of TCM efficacy. PMID:26862062

  4. Microsocial environmental influences on highly active antiretroviral therapy outcomes among active injection drug users: the role of informal caregiving and household factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Amy R; Arnsten, Julia H; Gourevitch, Marc N; Eldred, Lois; Wilkinson, James D; Rose, Carol Dawson; Buchanan, Amy; Purcell, David W

    2007-11-01

    Active injection drug users (IDUs) are at high risk of unsuccessful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We sought to identify baseline factors differentiating IDUs' treatment success versus treatment failure over time among those taking HAART. Interventions for Seropositive Injectors-Research and Evaluation (INSPIRE) study participants were assessed at baseline and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Multinominal regression determined baseline predictors of achieving or maintaining viral suppression relative to maintaining detectable viral loads over 12 months. Of 199 participants who were retained and remained on HAART, 133 (67%) had viral load change patterns included in the analysis. At follow-up, 66% maintained detectable viral loads and 15% achieved and 19% maintained viral suppression. Results indicated that those having informal care (instrumental or emotional support) were 4.6 times more likely to achieve or maintain viral suppression relative to experiencing treatment failure. Those who maintained viral suppression were 3.5 times less likely to live alone or to report social discomfort in taking HAART. Study results underscore the importance of microsocial factors of social network support, social isolation, and social stigma for successful HAART outcomes among IDUs. The findings suggest that adherence interventions for IDUs should promote existing informal HIV caregiving, living with supportive others, and positive medication-taking norms among social networks. PMID:18089980

  5. Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection results in improved clinical outcomes in couples with previous ICSI failures or male factor infertility: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Amanda S; Braga, Daniela P A F; Figueira, Rita C S; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to perform the first meta-analysis to compare conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes and intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) outcomes in couples with previous ICSI failures (IF) or male factor infertility (MF). A systematic review was performed by searching Medline database to identify articles reporting on the comparison between ICSI and IMSI outcomes in couples with IF or MF. The main outcome measures were the implantation, pregnancy and miscarriage rates. Thirteen studies fulfilled our predetermined criteria. The overall results of meta-analysis for implantation (OR: 2.88; CI: 2.13-3.89), pregnancy (OR: 2.07; CI: 1.22-3.50) and miscarriage rates (OR: 0.31; CI: 0.14-0.67) were in favor of IMSI in couples with IF. Additionally, the overall result of meta-analysis for implantation (OR: 1.56; CI: 1.11-2.18) and pregnancy rate (OR: 1.61; CI: 1.17-2.23) were in favor of IMSI in couples with MF. IMSI increases the odds of implantation by 50% and pregnancy by 60% in couples with MF. In light of improved clinical outcomes, we recommend promoting the IMSI method in couples with MF. Moreover, IMSI results in a 3-fold increase in implantation rate, a 2-fold increase in pregnancy rate and a 70% decrease in miscarriage rate as compared to ICSI in couples with IF, however, as no randomized evidence exists, randomized studies are needed to confirm the IMSI benefits in couples with IF. PMID:25461360

  6. Ibritumomab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have received ibritumomab injection.do not have any vaccinations without talking to your doctor.you should know ... cells) and myelodysplastic syndrome (condition in which blood cells do not ... online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  7. Tositumomab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have received tositumomab injection.do not have any vaccinations without talking to your doctor.you should know ... blood cells), myelodysplastic syndrome (condition in which blood cells do not ... online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  8. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call your doctor.plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight and to wear protective clothing, sunglasses, and sunscreen. Doxycycline injection may make your skin sensitive to sunlight.you should know that when doxycycline is used during pregnancy or in babies or children up to age ...

  9. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection when you are a teenager or young adult. Tell your doctor if you or anyone in your family has osteoporosis; if you have or have ever had any other bone disease or anorexia nervosa (an eating disorder); or if you drink a ...

  10. Lanreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanreotide injection is used to treat people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial features; joint pain; and other symptoms) who have not successfully, or cannot be treated ...

  11. Paliperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invega® Trinza® ... Paliperidone extended-release injections (Invega® Sustenna, Invega® Trinza) are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of interest in life, and strong or ...

  12. Letrozole in a low-cost in vitro fertilization protocol in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles for male factor infertility: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuli Mukherjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Letrozole, a selective aromatase inhibitor, reduces the total dose of gonadotrophin required for inducing follicular maturation. We evaluated if incorporation of letrozole could be an effective alternative for low-cost in vitro fertilization (IVF protocol particularly in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles where male factor infertility is the sole indication for IVF. Materials and Methods: It is a randomized controlled single-blind trial. 94 women with history of severe male factor infertility were selected. 42 women (study group received letrozole, 5 mg daily from day 3-7 and recombinant FSH (rFSH 75IU/day from day 5 continuously till hCG injection. 52 women (control group underwent continuous stimulation by rFSH (150-225IU/day from day 2. GnRH-antagonist (Inj. Orgalutran 0.25 ml sub-cutaneous was started at maximum follicle size of 14 in both groups. Ovulation was triggered by 10,000IU of hCG followed by IVF-ET. Main outcome measures were total dose of rFSH (IU/cycle, terminal E2 (pg/ml, number of mature follicles, number of oocyte retrieved, transferable embryo, endometrial thickness, pregnancy rate and mean expenditure. Statistical analysis is done by using SPSS11. Results :0 As compared to control group (1756 ± 75IU, the study group i.e., Let-rFSH received (625 ± 98IU significantly lower (P = 0.0001 total dose of rFSH. Terminal E2 was significantly lower (P = 0.0001 in study group than control (830 ± 36 vs. 1076 ± 41 pg/ml with significant increment in endometrial thickness (P = 0.0008 in study group, (9.1 ± 0.32 vs. 8.7 ± 0.69 which maintained an improved pregnancy rate though nonsignificant. The risk of hyperstimulation had significantly (P = 0.01 reduced in study group than control (0 vs. 7.Treatment outcome in all other aspects including pregnancy rate were statistically comparable. Per cycle mean expenditure was reduced by 34% in study group than control. Conclusion: Adjunctive use of letrozole may be an

  13. Nonviral Gene Delivery of Growth and Differentiation Factor 5 to Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Injected into a 3D Bovine Intervertebral Disc Organ Culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bucher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc (IVD cell therapy with unconditioned 2D expanded mesenchymal stem cells (MSC is a promising concept yet challenging to realize. Differentiation of MSCs by nonviral gene delivery of growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF5 by electroporation mediated gene transfer could be an excellent source for cell transplantation. Human MSCs were harvested from bone marrow aspirate and GDF5 gene transfer was achieved by in vitro electroporation. Transfected cells were cultured as monolayers and as 3D cultures in 1.2% alginate bead culture. MSC expressed GDF5 efficiently for up to 21 days. The combination of GDF5 gene transfer and 3D culture in alginate showed an upregulation of aggrecan and SOX9, two markers for chondrogenesis, and KRT19 as a marker for discogenesis compared to untransfected cells. The cells encapsulated in alginate produced more proteoglycans expressed in GAG/DNA ratio. Furthermore, GDF5 transfected MCS injected into an IVD papain degeneration organ culture model showed a partial recovery of the GAG/DNA ratio after 7 days. In this study we demonstrate the potential of GDF5 transfected MSC as a promising approach for clinical translation for disc regeneration.

  14. Factors associated with physical and sexual violence by police among people who inject drugs in Ukraine: implications for retention on opioid agonist therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsa, Oksana; Marcus, Ruthanne; Bojko, Martha J; Zelenev, Alexei; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Dvoriak, Sergii; Filippovych, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ukraine's volatile HIV epidemic, one of the largest in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, remains concentrated in people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV prevalence is high (21.3% to 41.8%) among the estimated 310,000 PWID. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT) is the most cost-effective HIV prevention strategy there, yet OAT services are hampered by negative attitudes and frequent harassment of OAT clients and site personnel by law enforcement. This paper examines the various types of police violence that Ukrainian PWID experience and factors associated with the different types of violence, as well as the possible implications of police harassment on OAT retention. Methods In 2014 to 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in five Ukrainian cities with 1613 PWID currently, previously and never on OAT, using a combination of respondent-driven sampling, as well as random sampling. We analysed correlates of police violence by multiple factors, including by gender, and their effects on duration of OAT retention. Self-reported physical and sexual violence by police were the two primary outcomes, while retention on OAT was used as a secondary outcome. Results Overall, 1033 (64.0%) PWID reported being physically assaulted by police, which was positively correlated with currently or previously being on OAT (69.1% vs. 60.2%; pviolence experiences differed by sex, with men experiencing significantly more physical violence, while women experienced more sexual violence (65.9% vs. 42.6%; pviolence is a frequent experience among PWID in Ukraine, particularly for those accessing OAT, an evidence-based primary and secondary HIV prevention strategy. Police violence experiences, however, were different for men and women, and interventions with police that address these sexual differences and focus on non-violent interactions with PWID to improve access and retention on OAT are crucial for improving HIV prevention and treatment goals for Ukraine. PMID:27435717

  15. Intragingival injection of Porphyromonas gingivalis-derived lipopolysaccharide induces a transient increase in gingival tumour necrosis factor-a, but not interleukin-6, in anaesthetised rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroko Taguchi; Yuri Aono; Takayuki Kawato; Masatake Asano; Noriyoshi Shimizu; Tadashi Saigusa

    2015-01-01

    This study used in vivo microdialysis to examine the effects of intragingival application of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg-LPS) on gingival tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-a and interleukin (IL)-6 levels in rats. A microdialysis probe with an injection needle attached to the surface of the dialysis membrane was implanted into the gingiva of the upper incisor. For comparison, the effects of LPS derived fromEscherichia coli (Ec-LPS) on IL-6 and TNF-a levels were also analysed. Pg-LPS (1 mg/1 mL) or Ec-LPS (1 or 6 mg/1 mL) was applied by microsyringe, with gingival dialysates collected every hour. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that gingival dialysates contained approximately 389 pg?mL21 of IL-6 basally; basal TNF-a levels were lower than the detection limit of the ELISA. Pg-LPS failed to alter IL-6 levels but markedly increased TNF-a levels, which remained elevated for 2 h after treatment. Neither IL-6 nor TNF-a were affected by Ec-LPS. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that the gingiva expresses Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 mRNA. Immunohistochemical examination showed that TLR2 and TLR4 are expressed by gingival epithelial cells. The present study provides in vivo evidence that locally applied Pg-LPS, but not Ec-LPS, into the gingiva transiently increases gingival TNF-a without affecting IL-6. The present results suggest that TLR2 but not TLR4 expressed on gingival epithelial cells may mediate the Pg-LPS-induced increase in gingival TNF-a in rats.

  16. Prevalence of, and risk factors for, HIV, hepatitis B and C infections among men who inject image and performance enhancing drugs: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hope, Vivian D.; McVeigh, Jim; Marongiu, Andrea; Evans-Brown, Michael; Smith, Josie; Kimergård, Andreas; Croxford, Sara; Beynon, Caryl M.; Parry, John V.; Bellis, Mark A; Ncube, Fortune

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe drug use, sexual risks and the prevalence of blood-borne viral infections among men who inject image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs). Design A voluntary unlinked-anonymous cross-sectional biobehavioural survey. Setting 19 needle and syringe programmes across England and Wales. Participants 395 men who had injected IPEDs. Results Of the participants (median age 28 years), 36% had used IPEDs for

  17. Factors associated with physical and sexual violence by police among people who inject drugs in Ukraine: implications for retention on opioid agonist therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Kutsa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ukraine's volatile HIV epidemic, one of the largest in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, remains concentrated in people who inject drugs (PWID. HIV prevalence is high (21.3% to 41.8% among the estimated 310,000 PWID. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT is the most cost-effective HIV prevention strategy there, yet OAT services are hampered by negative attitudes and frequent harassment of OAT clients and site personnel by law enforcement. This paper examines the various types of police violence that Ukrainian PWID experience and factors associated with the different types of violence, as well as the possible implications of police harassment on OAT retention. Methods: In 2014 to 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in five Ukrainian cities with 1613 PWID currently, previously and never on OAT, using a combination of respondent-driven sampling, as well as random sampling. We analysed correlates of police violence by multiple factors, including by gender, and their effects on duration of OAT retention. Self-reported physical and sexual violence by police were the two primary outcomes, while retention on OAT was used as a secondary outcome. Results: Overall, 1033 (64.0% PWID reported being physically assaulted by police, which was positively correlated with currently or previously being on OAT (69.1% vs. 60.2%; p<0.01. HIV prevalence rates were higher in those receiving OAT than those not on OAT (47.6% vs. 36.1%; p<0.01. Police violence experiences differed by sex, with men experiencing significantly more physical violence, while women experienced more sexual violence (65.9% vs. 42.6%; p<0.01. For PWID who had successfully accessed OAT, longer OAT retention was significantly correlated both with sexual assault by police and fewer non-fatal overdoses. Conclusions: Police violence is a frequent experience among PWID in Ukraine, particularly for those accessing OAT, an evidence-based primary and secondary HIV prevention strategy. Police

  18. Presurgical localization of abnormal parathyroid glands using a single injection of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile: comparison of different techniques including factor analysis of dynamic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocklet, D; Martin, P; Schoutens, A; Verhas, M; Hooghe, L; Kinnaert, P

    1997-01-01

    Single-tracer methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) imaging is considered to be a sensitive method for the localization of abnormal parathyroid glands. The aims of this study were to determine which of the analytical techniques described for this method - visual comparison of early (15-min) and late (120-min) images, use of time-activity curves (TACs) generated on regions of interest and factor analysis of dynamic structures (FADS) - corresponds best with surgical findings, and to ascertain the potential overall contribution of presurgical scintigraphy. Fifty-five patients were studied, 34 of whom presented with primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and 21 with secondary HPT. After a 925 MBq injection of technetium-99m MIBI, a 40-min dynamic acquisition was performed and static images were acquired at 5, 20, 40 and 120 min using a gamma camera equipped with a pinhole collimator. The dynamic series were submitted to FADS, an attractive non-operator-dependent technique, and TACs were generated on regions of interest after the visual comparison of early and 120-minute images (15'-120'). The presumed localizations of abnormal glands were compared with a sketch drawn by the surgeon. Sensitivity was defined as the percentage of true-positive localizations and was 84.4%, 74% and 65% in adenoma and 76%, 66.6% and 45% in hyperplasia for 15'-120', FADS and TACs, respectively. Surgical accuracy, i.e. the percentage of patients accurately and completely described, was 72%, 56% and 59% in adenoma and 53%, 30% and 22% in hyperplasia for 15'-120', FADS and TACs, respectively. The visual comparison method scored best in all cases. FADS was found to be sensitive in cases of adenoma but was handicapped by more false-positive localizations. TACs were particular inefficient in hyperplasia. With respect to the detection of adenomas, we found a relationship between the gland weight and scintigraphic positivity. This dependence on gland weight was not found in hyperplasia. The poorer results

  19. Factors affecting results of fluoroscopy-guided facet joint injection: Probable differences in the outcome of treatment between pure facet joint hypertrophy and concomitant diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Albayrak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Purpose: Facet joints are considered a common source of chronic low-back pain. To determine whether pathogens related to the facet joint arthritis have any effect on treatment failure. Materials and Methods: Facet joint injection was applied to 94 patients treated at our hospital between 2011 and 2012 (mean age 59.5 years; 80 women and 14 men. For the purpose of analysis, the patients were divided into two groups. Patients who only had facet hypertrophy were placed in group A (47 patients, 41 women and 6 men, mean age 55.3 years and patients who had any additional major pathology to facet hypertrophy were placed in group B (47 patients, 39 women and 8 men, mean age 58.9 years. Injections were applied around the facet joint under surgical conditions utilizing fluoroscopy device guidance. A mixture of methylprednisolone and lidocaine was used as the injection ingredient. Results: In terms of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI and visual analog scale (VAS scores, no significant difference was found between preinjection and immediate postinjection values in both groups, and the scores of group A patients were significantly lower (P < 0.005 compared with that of group B patients at the end of the third, sixth, and twelfth month. Conclusion: For low-back pain caused by facet hypertrophy, steroid injection around the facet joint is an effective treatment, but if there is an existing major pathology, it is not as effective.

  20. Etanercept Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... areas causing pain and joint damage), chronic plaque psoriasis (a skin disease in which red, scaly patches form on some areas of the body) Etanercept is in a class of medications called tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. It works by blocking the action ...

  1. Influencing factor analysis of water injection test in earthfill dam%土坝坝体注水试验的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文双; 江晓益

    2013-01-01

    针对目前病险土坝地质勘察中选取坝体土渗透系数较难的问题,采用适合土坝坝体注水试验的渗透系数计算公式,分析了注水试验参数对渗透系数的影响,并对常水头与降水头室内渗透试验与现场注水试验成果进行对比分析.结果表明:土坝坝体注水试验水头和初始水位对试验结果影响最大,注水试验水头过高易产生坝体水力劈裂,造成坝体土渗透系数偏大的假象;大坝坝体填土均适合进行常水头及降水头注水试验;土坝坝体土渗透系数的确定应综合注水试验及室内渗透试验的成果.%Considering the difficulty of determining the hydraulic conductivity of a dangerous earthfill dam during geological investigations, the influence of a water injection test on hydraulic conductivity was analyzed using the hydraulic conductivity calculation formula which is suitable for a water injection test in an earthfill dam. The results of stable-water-flow and flexible-water-flow laboratory permeability tests were analyzed and compared with those of field water injection tests. The results show that the water head and initial water level of the water injection test have the largest influence on the test results. Hydraulic fracturing in the dam occurs easily under high-head water in water injection tests, leading to a larger permeability than the real one. The filled soil of the dam is suitable for stable-water-flow and flexible-water-flow water injection tests. The hydraulic conductivity can be determined through water injection tests and laboratory permeability tests.

  2. 关节腔注射肿瘤坏死因子拮抗剂与注射甲氨蝶呤治疗类风湿关节炎对比观察%Articular Cavity Injection of Tumor Necrosis Factor Antagonists and Methotrexate Injection to Treat Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琳; 潘秀霞; 刘冬松; 高飞; 王兆芬

    2015-01-01

    Objective Compare the articular cavity injection of tumor necrosis factor antagonists and methotrexate injection for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.Methods Randomly in February 2012 to February 2015 in our hospital for treatment of 100 patients with rheumatoid arthritis as research object, according to treatment the patients were randomly divided into two groups, one group of patients implement articular cavity injection of tumor necrosis factor antagonists (according to the heap) treatment, 2 groups of patients with articular cavity injection of methotrexate injection treatment, compared two groups of curative effect. ResultsTwo groups of patients during treatment, the incidence of adverse drug reactions does not appear obvious difference (P>0.05), 1 group total effective rate was obviously higher than 2, and 1 set of joints, arthritis relieved after treatment was significantly better than 2 group, significant difference was found in two groups (P<0.05).Conclusion Joint injection of tumor necrosis factor antagonists (etanercept) and methotrexate injection can play a good therapeutic effect in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and will lead to different degree of adverse reactions to patients. But, joint injection of tumor necrosis factor in relief extent joint activity degree and arthritis.%目的:比较关节腔注射肿瘤坏死因子拮抗剂与注射甲氨蝶呤针剂治疗类风湿关节炎的临床效果。方法随机抽取2012年2月~2015年2月在我院接受治疗的100例类风湿关节炎患者作为观察对象,根据治疗方法将患者随机分为两组,1组患者实施关节腔注射肿瘤坏死因子拮抗剂(依那西普)疗法,2组患者接受关节腔注射甲氨蝶呤针剂治疗,比较两组疗效。结果两组患者治疗期间,不良反应发生率未出现明显差异(P>0.05);1组总有效率高于2组,且1组治疗后关节活动程度、关节炎缓解程度优于2组,两组差异显著(P<0.05

  3. Double-antibody radioimmunoassay for factor VIII-related antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plasma protein required for the support of ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation was isolated from antihemophilic factor concentrate and radiolabeled with 125I. A double-antibody radioimmunoassay was developed, with use of specific rabbit anti-VIII related antigen serum and goat anti-rabbit globulin. The assay is sensitive, reproducible, and technically simple to perform. Values obtained in normal subjects ranged from 0.65 to 1.53 units, similar to our normal range for VIII coagulant activity (0.67 to 1.43 units). However, normal or increased values of VIII-related antigen were observed in VIII coagulant-deficient hemophiliacs. Also, concentrations of VIII-related antigen significantly exceeded coagulant concentrations in several patients with liver disease or disseminated intravascular coagulation, or both. Of a broad selection of congenital coagulation disorders examined, only patients with von Willebrand's disease had decreased VIII-related antigen concentrations, and these corresponded to the lowered concentration of ristocetin cofactor in the patients. In three transfused patients, VIII-related antigen values correlated with the concentration of the cofactor. Our results suggest that the radioimmunoassay of VIII-related antigen is a simple and valuable adjunct in the study of patients with clotting abnormalities

  4. 注气驱替煤层瓦斯时效特性影响因素分析%Influencing factors on time-varying characteristics of displacement coalbed methane by gas injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏民; 夏会辉; 王兆丰

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, to analyze the influencing factors on time-varying characteristics of displace- , ment coalbed methane by gas injection, the mathematical model of displacement coalbed methane technology by N2 injection was established, and the effects of the influencing factors, such as gas injection pressure, drainage negative pressure, gas injection time, et al, on the time-varying characteristics of displacement coalbed methane by gas injection have been simulated by using COMSOL multiphysics software, then the variation laws of the methane content and outburst elimination cycle under different conditions were studied. The results show that the greater the gas injection pressure is, the faster the methane content decreases, and the shorter the outburst elimination cycle is, while the reasonable gas injection pressure is 0.5 MPa. In addition, the influence of drainage negative pressure on the time-varying characteristics is not obvious, and the reasonable drainage negative pressure is 5-13 KPa. Moreover, the methane content decreases gradually with the increase of injection time, while the position near the gas injection borehole is the weak area in the displacement coalbed methane technol ogy by gas injection. Furthermore, the field tests were carried out in Shigang Company. By comparing with the numerical results, the measured methane contents are always slightly smaller than that in simulation results under the same conditions. The reasons for this difference were also analyzed.%为了分析注气驱替煤层瓦斯时效特性的影响因素,建立了注N2驱替煤层瓦斯的数学模型,采用COMSOL Multiphysics软件模拟了注气压力、抽采负压和注气时间对注气驱替煤层瓦斯时效特性的影响,研究了不同条件下煤层瓦斯含量和消突周期的变化规律,结果表明:注气压力越大,瓦斯含量下降越快,消突周期越短,合理的注气压力为0.5 MPa;抽采负压对其时效特性的影响不

  5. Factors associated with physical and sexual violence by police among people who inject drugs in Ukraine: implications for retention on opioid agonist therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Kutsa; Ruthanne Marcus; Bojko, Martha J.; Alexei Zelenev; Alyona Mazhnaya; Sergii Dvoriak; Sergii Filippovych; Altice, Frederick L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Ukraine's volatile HIV epidemic, one of the largest in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, remains concentrated in people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV prevalence is high (21.3% to 41.8%) among the estimated 310,000 PWID. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT) is the most cost-effective HIV prevention strategy there, yet OAT services are hampered by negative attitudes and frequent harassment of OAT clients and site personnel by law enforcement. This paper examines the various types of police ...

  6. The prevalence of isolated hepatitis B core antibody and its related risk factors among male injected drug users in Isfahan prisons

    OpenAIRE

    Kiana Shirani; Zary Nokhodian; Nazila Kassaian; Peyman Adibi; Alireza Emami Naeini; Behrooz Ataei

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of isolated hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) varies between 1% and 30% in different populations. Isolated anti-HBc-positive patients who suffer from occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have the potential to transmit HBV infection. So isolated anti-HBc screening is a valuable tool to prevent HBV transmission. Considering the importance of isolated anti-HBc screening and high prevalence of HBV among injected drug users (IDU) prisoners, we designed this study ...

  7. Muscle injection of rAAV/mFIX to secrete clotting factor IX corrects the hemorrhagic tendencies in hemophilia B mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立; 陈浩明; 陆华中; 吴小兵; 卢大儒; 邱信芳; 薛京伦

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant AAV particles of high titer (>1013 virus genome/mL) were prepared according to the rHSV/AAV helper virus method. After intramuscular injection of viral vectors in the hind limb, a sustained elevated level (>370 ng/mL) of murine FIX expression in the plasma of hemophilia B mouse was detected and persisted for more than 350 days. The biological activity reached 30% of normal levels, and bleeding symptoms in the treated mice were significantly alleviated. No anti-FIX antibody (inhibitor) was detected, though anti-AAV antibodies were found at a very low level after single injection. Repeated injection with rAAV/mFIX led to a variation in anti-AAV antibody levels between the two groups which had received different doses. Results from tissue analysis confirmed the skeletal muscle as the origin for circulating functional mFIX. Our results suggest that AAV-mediated gene transfer offers a promising method of gene therapy for hemophilia B.

  8. The influencing factors of Sodium Bicarbonate Injection and the controlling measures%影响碳酸氢钠注射液质量的因素与控制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯燕

    2015-01-01

    To study the factors that affect the quality of Sodium Bicarbonate Injection from the producing procedure;To discuss and analyze the stability problems and the existance of visible foreign matters confronted in the procedure of Sodium Bicarbonate Injection producing. To raise the improving measures,ensure and improve product quality.%从制剂生产过程探讨影响碳酸氢钠质量的影响因素及改进措施。对碳酸氢钠注射液生产中常面临的稳定性问题、可见异物问题进行分析讨论,提出改进措施,保证和提高产品质量。

  9. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to treat ... in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of medications ...

  10. 注射用重组人凝血因子Ⅷ治疗血友病A的护理%The nursing for patients with hemophilia treated with recombinant coagulation factor Ⅷ for injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲君; 余菊; 吉承玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the nursing methods and points for patients with hemophilia treated by recombinant coagulation factor VI for injection. Methods Seven patients with hemophilia were treated with 31 injections of recombinant coagulation factor VIE, as well as nursing interventions including psychological nursing, drug preparation, observation and health education. Results No adverse response was observed in the treatment of recombinant coagulation factor VBI for the 7 patients with hemophilia. Conclusion In use of recombinant coagulation factor VB for injection, we are able to strengthening the nursing for patients and drugs can help decrease the side effects and improve the patient's compliance and response.%目的 探讨注射用重组人凝血因子Ⅷ(拜科奇)治疗血友病A的护理方法和要点.方法 通过对7例血友病A患者31次使用注射用重组人凝血因子Ⅷ进行治疗时,予心理护理、药物配制、用药观察以及健康教育等护理干预.结果 7例血友病A患者31次使用注射用重组人凝血因子Ⅷ治疗,均未见不良反应.结论 在使用注射用重组人凝血因子Ⅷ治疗中,加强药物及患者的护理,可减少不良反应,提高患者的治疗依从性与治疗效果.

  11. Forum for injection techniques, India: The first Indian recommendations for best practice in insulin injection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the treatment of diabetes have led to an increase in the number of injectable therapies, such as human insulin, insulin analogues, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues. The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique, among many other factors. Good injection technique is vital in achieving glycemic control and thus preventing complications of diabetes. From the patients′ and health-care providers′ perspective, it is essential to have guidelines to understand injections and injection techniques. The abridged version of the First Indian Insulin Injection technique guidelines developed by the Forum for Injection Technique (FIT India presented here acknowledge good insulin injection techniques and provide evidence-based recommendations to assist diabetes care providers in improving their clinical practice.

  12. Risk Factors for Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type I among Injecting Drug Users in Northeast Brazil: Possibly Greater Efficiency of Male to Female Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dourado Inês

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed in the city of Salvador, State of Bahia, the highest seroprevalence of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I infection in Brazil as demonstrated by national wide blood bank surveys. In this paper, we report results of an investigation of drug use and sexual behavior associated with HTLV-I infection among male and female injecting drug users (IDUs in Salvador. A cross sectional study was conducted in the Historical District of Salvador from 1994-1996 (Projeto Brasil-Salvador and 216 asymptomatic IDUs were selected using the snowball contact technique. Blood samples were collected for serological assays. Sera were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1/2 and HTLV-I/II antibodies by ELISA and confirmed by Western blot. The overall prevalence of HTLV-I/II was 35.2% (76/216. The seroprevalence of HTLV-I, HTLV-II and HIV-1 was for males 22%, 11.3% and 44.1% and for females 46.2%, 10.3% and 74.4% respectively. HTLV-I was identified in 72.4% of HTLV positive IDUs. Variables which were significantly associated with HTLV-I infection among males included needle sharing practices, duration of injecting drug use, HIV-1 seropositivity and syphilis. Among women, duration of injecting drug use and syphilis were strongly associated with HTLV-I infection. Multivariate analysis did not change the direction of these associations. Sexual intercourse might play a more important role in HTLV-I infection among women than in men.

  13. Effects of Shen-Fu Injection on the Expression of T-Cell-Specific Transcription Factors T-bet/Gata-3 in Porcine Postresuscitation Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shen-Fu injection (SFI derived from the ancient traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, the effects of SFI on the expression of T-bet/GATA-3 and its potential mechanisms causing the shift of T cells from Th2 to Th1 on postresuscitation lung injury were examined in a porcine model of cardiac arrest. 30 pigs were randomly divided into SHAM ( and three return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC groups ( per group; 24 pigs were subjected to 8 min of electrically induced cardiac arrest and 2 min of basic life support, which received central venous injection of Shen-Fu (SFI, epinephrine (EP or saline (SA. After successful ROSC, 18 surviving pigs were sacrificed at 24 h after ROSC ( per group. The levels of serum and lung tissue interleukin (IL-4 and interferon (IFN-γ were measured by ELISA, and the protein and mRNA levels of GATA-3 and T-bet in the lung tissue were determined by western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Compared with the EP and SA groups, SFI treatment reduced the levels of IL-4 (, increased levels of IFN-γ (, and induced T-bet mRNA upregulation and GATA-3 mRNA downregulation (. SFI attenuated lung injury and regulated lung immune disorders. Therefore, SFI could protect postresuscitation lung injury by modulating a Th1/Th2 imbalance.

  14. Study of the Transition from Non-Injection to Injection in Heroin Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yarmohammadi Vasel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: The goal of our study was to elucidate the time and factors influencing the transition from non-injection to injection among male heroin users.Materials & Methods: In this retrospective cohort study conducted in Iran from April to August 2007, the data was obtained from the subjects who had never injected heroin at study entry. The total population included 7743 (402 women and 7341 men substance dependents in Iran. In this study we enrolled 1641 non-injecting male heroin users. The data was collected through Inventory Rapid Situation Assessment (RSA.Results: The results revealed that among the 1641 never injectors, 591 had initiated injection (The incidence of initiation into injection was 36% after 6.5 years. Independent predictors of transition into injection among non-injecting heroin users were being single, unemployment, attending injecting friends’ gatherings , age at first heroin use(early adolescent drug use. Conclusion: The study suggests that several factors increase the risk of injecting drugs among heroin users. Interventions to prevent injecting should identify risk factors associated with the transition from heroin sniffing to heroin injection.

  15. The prevalence of isolated hepatitis B core antibody and its related risk factors among male injected drug users in Isfahan prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiana Shirani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of isolated hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc varies between 1% and 30% in different populations. Isolated anti-HBc-positive patients who suffer from occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection have the potential to transmit HBV infection. So isolated anti-HBc screening is a valuable tool to prevent HBV transmission. Considering the importance of isolated anti-HBc screening and high prevalence of HBV among injected drug users (IDU prisoners, we designed this study to evaluate the isolated anti-HBc positivity among inmates with the history of IDU in our area. Materials and Methods: We did this cross-sectional study from September 2009 to March 2010 among volunteer male IDU prisoners in Isfahan. Blood samples were taken from all of subjects and tested for HBV markers. Then a questionnaire containing socio-demographic, drug histories and high risk behaviors information was completed for all participants. Data analysis was done utilizing univariate analysis and multiple logistic regressions. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Totally 970 male IDU prisoners (mean age 32.6 ± 8.1 were included in our study. The prevalence of isolated HBc Ab was 4.5%. Isolated anti-HBc significantly was related to tooth filling (OR: 2.62, CI: 1.20-7.14 and imprisonment (OR: 3.95, CI: 1.39-11.18 . We couldn′t find any relationship between isolated anti-HBc positivity and addiction duration, incarceration frequency, recent incarceration duration or number of injection per month. Conclusion: For screening high risk groups in parallel with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb and other viral markers, maybe it is better to check HBcAb too, because isolated HBcAb-positive patients may have occult hepatitis B infection which could transfer the infection to others.

  16. The Processing Factors of Polypropylene Foam Injection based on Intermittent Supercritical N2 Gas Injection System%基于非连续超临界N2注气系统的聚丙烯发泡注塑工艺参数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏青; 信春玲; 赖进枝; 闫宝瑞; 何亚东; 李庆春

    2012-01-01

    将聚丙烯与1%的滑石粉混合适粒,使用N2作为物理发泡剂,通过自行搭建的非连续超临界N2注气系统,研究发泡注塑工艺过程中注射行程、注射速度、螺杆转速、熔体温度对制品表面质量、减重和泡孔结构的影响.结果表明:注射行程引起的熔体填充量变化是影响制品减重的首要因素,随着填充量的增加,减重下降明显;高压力降速率能够得到均匀泡孔分布且泡孔密度较高的制品;螺杆转速导致停留时间改变对制品表面质量影响较大;熔体温度影响到发泡剂在聚合物熔体中的溶解,螺杆转速130~150 r/min、熔体温度200℃时,能够得到减重、制品表面质量和泡孔结构俱佳的制品.%Polypropylene mixed with 1% talc and then palletized by twin-screw extruder. Nitrogen was used as a physical blowing agent. By the use of self-built intermittent supercritical N2 gas injection system,the impact of injection molding process including injection stroke, injection speed, screw speed and melt temperature on product surface quality, weight reduction and cell structure were studied. It showed that the injection stroke was the primary factor that affected weight reduction. As the plasticizing length increased, the weight reduction decreased obviously. High pressure drop rale could improve the foaming performance. Screw speed had an obvious impact on the product surface quality;melt temperature impacted the solubility of the blowing agent. When the screw speed 130 ~ 150 r/min,melt temperature 200 ℃,the PP product was obvious improvement of weight reduction,surface quality and foaming performance.

  17. Adjustable hybrid gas bearing – Influence of piezoelectrically adjusted injection on damping factors and natural frequencies of a flexible rotor operating under critical speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierart, Fabián G.; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2016-01-01

    fourradial injectors equally pressurized. For the two configurations, the theoretical results are experimentally validated as afunction of the piezoactuators input voltage and the journal angular velocity. Results show a good agreement for natural frequencies and damping factors. Theoretical and experimental...

  18. On Maximal Injectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yi WANG; Guo ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    A right R-module E over a ring R is said to be maximally injective in case for any maximal right ideal m of R, every R-homomorphism f : m → E can be extended to an R-homomorphism f' : R → E. In this paper, we first construct an example to show that maximal injectivity is a proper generalization of injectivity. Then we prove that any right R-module over a left perfect ring R is maximally injective if and only if it is injective. We also give a partial affirmative answer to Faith's conjecture by further investigating the property of maximally injective rings. Finally, we get an approximation to Faith's conjecture, which asserts that every injective right R-module over any left perfect right self-injective ring R is the injective hull of a projective submodule.

  19. Intra-myocardial injection of both growth factors and heart derived Sca-1+/CD31- cells attenuates post-MI LV remodeling more than does cell transplantation alone: neither intervention enhances functionally significant cardiomyocyte regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF are two potent cell survival and regenerative factors in response to myocardial injury (MI. We hypothesized that simultaneous delivery of IGF+HGF combined with Sca-1+/CD31- cells would improve the outcome of transplantation therapy in response to the altered hostile microenvironment post MI. One million adenovirus nuclear LacZ-labeled Sca-1+/CD31- cells were injected into the peri-infarction area after left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD ligation in mice. Recombinant mouse IGF-1+HGF was added to the cell suspension prior to the injection. The left ventricular (LV function was assessed by echocardiography 4 weeks after the transplantation. The cell engraftment, differentiation and cardiomyocyte regeneration were evaluated by histological analysis. Sca-1+/CD31- cells formed viable grafts and improved LV ejection fraction (EF (Control, 54.5+/-2.4; MI, 17.6+/-3.1; Cell, 28.2+/-4.2, n = 9, P<0.01. IGF+HGF significantly enhanced the benefits of cell transplantation as evidenced by increased EF (38.8+/-2.2; n = 9, P<0.01 and attenuated adverse structural remodeling. Furthermore, IGF+HGF supplementation increased the cell engraftment rate, promoted the transplanted cell survival, enhanced angiogenesis, and minimally stimulated endogenous cardiomyocyte regeneration in vivo. The in vitro experiments showed that IGF+HGF treatment stimulated Sca-1+/CD31- cell proliferation and inhibited serum free medium induced apoptosis. Supperarray profiling of Sca-1+/CD31- cells revealed that Sca-1+/CD31- cells highly expressed various trophic factor mRNAs and IGF+HGF treatment altered the mRNAs expression patterns of these cells. These data indicate that IGF-1+HGF could serve as an adjuvant to cell transplantation for myocardial repair by stimulating donor cell and endogenous cardiac stem cell survival, regeneration and promoting angiogenesis.

  20. Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    Experiences with injecting geothermal fluids have identified technical problems associated with geothermal waste disposal. This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented, including: Raft River, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake and Hatchobaru in Japan, and Ahuachapan in El Salvador. Hydrogeologic and design/operational factors affecting the success of an injection program are identified. Hydrogeologic factors include subsidence, near-surface effects of injected fluids, and seismicity. Design/operational factors include hydrodynamic breakthrough, condition of the injection system and reservoir maintenance. Existing and potential effects of production/injection on these factors are assessed.

  1. Factoring

    OpenAIRE

    Lenstra, Arjen K.

    1994-01-01

    Factoring, finding a non-trivial factorization of a composite positive integer, is believed to be a hard problem. How hard we think it is, however, changes almost on a daily basis. Predicting how hard factoring will be in the future, an important issue for cryptographic applications of composite numbers, is therefore a challenging task. The author presents a brief survey of general purpose integer factoring algorithms and their implementations

  2. Presurgical localization of abnormal parathyroid glands using a single injection of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile: comparison of different techniques including factor analysis of dynamic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blocklet, D. [Hopital Universitaire Erasme, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Martin, P. [Hopital Universitaire Brugmann, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Schoutens, A. [Hopital Universitaire Erasme, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Verhas, M. [Hopital Universitaire Brugmann, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Hooghe, L. [Hopital Universitaire Brugmann, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Kinnaert, P. [Hopital Universitaire Erasme, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1997-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine which of the analytical techniques described for this method time-activity curves analysis of dynamic structures corresponds best with surgical findings, and to ascertain the potential overall contribution of presurgical scintigraphy. 55P patients were studied, 34 of whom presented with primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and 21 with secondary HPT. After a 925 MBq injection of technetium-99m MIBI, a 40-min dynamic acquisition was performed and static images were acquired at 5, 20, 40 and 120 min using a gamma camera equipped with a pinhole collimator. Sensitivity was 84.4%, 74% and 65% in adenoma and 76%, 66.6% and 45% in hyperplasia for 15`-120`, FADS and TACs, respectively. Surgical accuracy was 72%, 56% and 59% in adenoma and 53%, 30% and 22% in hyperplasia for 15`-120`, FADS and TACs, respectively. The visual comparison method scored best in all cases. FADS was found to be sensitive in cases of adenoma but was handicapped by more false-positive localizations. TACs were particular inefficient in hyperplasia. With respect to the detection of adenomas, we found a relationship between the gland weight and scintigraphic positivity. This dependence was not found in hyperplasia. The poorer results obtained with all techniques for surgical accuracy can be explained by the need for a complete scintigraphic description of all pathological glands found by the surgeon in a patient. This study demonstrates that the 15`-120` visual comparison method is more efficient However, it was less efficient than neck exploration by an experienced surgeon. (orig./ vhe) (orig.). With 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. RimabotulinumtoxinB Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (rim a bott' you lye num bee)RimabotulinumtoxinB injection may spread from the area of injection and ... Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  4. Iron Sucrose Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due ... may cause the kidneys to stop working). Iron sucrose injection is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to help control urine leakage ( urinary incontinence ) caused by a ... into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the hospital. Or ...

  6. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hard, or sensitive, or that has tattoos, warts, scars, or birthmarks. Do not inject the medication into ... you are injecting the medication. You can help decrease your child's pain by placing an ice cube ...

  7. Factors associated with liver biopsy performance in HCV-HIV coinfected injecting drug users with HCV viremia: Results from a five-year longitudinal assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, Dominique; Carrieri, Maria-Patrizia; Spire, Bruno; Loubière, Sandrine; Dellamonica, Pierre; Gallais, Hervé; Cassuto, Gilles-Patrice; Gastaut, Jean-Albert; Obadia, Yolande

    2004-01-01

    The last international consensus conference about hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment emphasized the importance of treatment for persons coinfected with HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). As liver biopsy precedes treatment, we aimed to identify factors associated with the performance of liver biopsy among HIV-HCV coinfected drug users during a 5-year follow-up to study their access to HCV treatment. Of the 296 patients followed in the HIV hospital departments of Nice and Marseilles and...

  8. A Logic of Injectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Adamek, J; Souza, L

    2007-01-01

    Injectivity of objects with respect to a set $\\ch$ of morphisms is an important concept of algebra, model theory and homotopy theory. Here we study the logic of injectivity consequences of $\\ch$, by which we understand morphisms $h$ such that injectivity with respect to $\\ch$ implies injectivity with respect to $h$. We formulate three simple deduction rules for the injectivity logic and for its finitary version where \\mor s between finitely ranked objects are considered only, and prove that they are sound in all categories, and complete in all "reasonable" categories.

  9. Analysis about the Influence Factors of Injection White Oil Adjuvant on Immune Effects%影响注射用白油佐剂免疫效果的因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武桂梅; 刘纯德; 王振辉; 慈洪波; 刘军

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the influence factors of injection white oil adjuvant on immune effects, 3 batches of injection white oil ( JH) were prepared on basis of preliminary studies and by reference to large amount of the composition as well as the content of distillate hydrocarbon types in foreign GW1 white oil. Firstly we took the national injection white oil ( GN2, GN1 ) which had better immune effects and imports injection white oil ( GW1, GW2 ) as reference and analysed the content of distillate hydrocarbon types, data about carbon number distribution of injection white oil samples. Then inavtivated newcastle disease vaccine were prepared for immunization effect test to detect the serum antibody titer and the drug residues of the immune chicken. It turned out that the amount of impurityes in white oil samples ranged from high to low, the order was GW2>GN2>GW1>GN1>JH2>JH3>JH1. The immune effects order from high to weak was JH2> GW1> JH1> GN2> GN1> GW2> JH3. Experimental analysis concludes that the main factors affecting the white oil adjuvant effect are the content of total aromatic and the heavy mental concentrations, the kinematic viscosity of the white oil is less related.%为分析影响白油佐剂免疫效果的主要因素,在前期研究基础上,参照国内大量进口白油GW1的馏分烃类组成及含量,制备出3批白油( JH)。以免疫效果较好的国内白油( GN1、GN2)和进口白油( GW1、GW2)作参照,首先分析了白油样品的馏分烃类组成含量和正碳数分布数据;然后分别制备新城疫灭活疫苗进行免疫,检测免疫鸡血清抗体效价和药物残留情况。结果显示,白油样品杂质含量由高到低的顺序是GW2>GN2>GW1>GN1>JH2>JH3>JH1,免疫效果由高到低的顺序是JH2>GW1>JH1>GN2>GN1>GW2>JH3。试验表明,影响白油佐剂免疫效果的主要因素是总芳烃含量和重金属含量,其次是白油的运动黏度。

  10. Avidity-controlled hydrogels for injectable co-delivery of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells and growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyasasmita, Widya; Cai, Lei; Dewi, Ruby E; Jha, Arshi; Ullmann, Sabrina D; Luong, Richard H; Huang, Ngan F; Heilshorn, Sarah C

    2014-10-10

    To translate recent advances in induced pluripotent stem cell biology to clinical regenerative medicine therapies, new strategies to control the co-delivery of cells and growth factors are needed. Building on our previous work designing Mixing-Induced Two-Component Hydrogels (MITCHs) from engineered proteins, here we develop protein-polyethylene glycol (PEG) hybrid hydrogels, MITCH-PEG, which form physical gels upon mixing for cell and growth factor co-delivery. MITCH-PEG is a mixture of C7, which is a linear, engineered protein containing seven repeats of the CC43 WW peptide domain (C), and 8-arm star-shaped PEG conjugated with either one or two repeats of a proline-rich peptide to each arm (P1 or P2, respectively). Both 20kDa and 40kDa star-shaped PEG variants were investigated, and all four PEG-peptide variants were able to undergo a sol-gel phase transition when mixed with the linear C7 protein at constant physiological conditions due to noncovalent hetero-dimerization between the C and P domains. Due to the dynamic nature of the C-P physical crosslinks, all four gels were observed to be reversibly shear-thinning and self-healing. The P2 variants exhibited higher storage moduli than the P1 variants, demonstrating the ability to tune the hydrogel bulk properties through a biomimetic peptide-avidity strategy. The 20kDa PEG variants exhibited slower release of encapsulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), due to a decrease in hydrogel mesh size relative to the 40kDa variants. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (hiPSC-ECs) adopted a well-spread morphology within three-dimensional MITCH-PEG cultures, and MITCH-PEG provided significant protection from cell damage during ejection through a fine-gauge syringe needle. In a mouse hindlimb ischemia model of peripheral arterial disease, MITCH-PEG co-delivery of hiPSC-ECs and VEGF was found to reduce inflammation and promote muscle tissue regeneration compared to a saline control. PMID

  11. Pharmaceutical Approval Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Mary

    2016-05-01

    Coagulation factor IX (recombinant), albumin fusion protein (Idelvion) for hemophilia B; captisol-enabled melphalan hydrochloride (Evomela) for multiple myeloma; and antihemophilic factor (recombinant) (Kovaltry) for hemophilia A. PMID:27162467

  12. Epidural injections for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  13. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger;

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an...... injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  14. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  15. Clinical efficacy of mouse nerve growth factor and cattle encephalon glycoside and ignotin injection on cerebnal palsy%鼠神经生长因子与脑苷肌肽治疗脑性瘫痪的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兴礼

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨鼠神经生长因子与脑苷肌肽治疗脑性瘫痪的临床效果.方法 选取郸城县第二人民医院收治的脑性瘫痪患儿80例,随机分为观察组(鼠神经生长因子)与对照组(脑苷肌肽),每组40例.两组患儿均接受常规运动康复训练,观察两组患儿治疗前后发育商(DQ)及治疗期间不良反应发生情况.结果 两组患儿发育商治疗后均显著提高(P<0.05),观察组提高程度明显大于对照组(P<0.05),两组患儿接受治疗期间不良反应发生率比较差异未见统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 鼠神经生长因子治疗脑性瘫痪患儿效果显著,安全性较高.%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of mouse nerve growth factor and cattle encephalon glycoside and ignotin injection on cerebral palsy.Methods Eighty cases of cerebral palsy were selected and randomly divided into observation group (treated with mouse nerve growth factor) and control group (treated with cattle encephalon glycoside and ignotin injection),with 40 cases in each group.Both two groups received conventional rehabilitation training.Developmental quotient (DQ) before and after treatment,adverse reactions in the two groups were observed.Results DQ after treatment was significantly improved than before treatment in both two groups,and there was better improvement in observation group than that in control group (P < 0.05).The differences of adverse reactions during treatment in the two groups were not statistically significant (P > 0.05).Conclusions Mouse nerve growth factor has good efficacy and high safety in the treatment of cerebral palsy.

  16. 射吸式液体燃料割炬性能影响因素分析%Analysis of Influence Factors of Efflux Function of Injection-type Liquid Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王通; 李继光

    2014-01-01

    基于射吸式气体割炬易造成回火的状况,为了减小操作过程中的不利因素,研制了一种射吸式液体燃料割炬。通过介绍该类割炬关键部件射流泵的工作原理,分析了工作性能影响因素,包括设计参数、装配质量和操作方法等,最终得到最佳设计参数及操作方法,以提高工作效率及生产过程的安全性。%Based on condition of easy tempering of efflux function of injection-type liquid fuel, the authors has developed a kind of shoot cutting torch suction liquid fuel in order to reduce the adverse factors in the process of operation. By introduc-ing the cutting torch key components of jet pump working principle, the authors analyzed the performance influence factors, including design parameters, assembly quality and operation methods. Finally, the authors obtained the best design parameter and operation method in order to improve the work efficiency and the safety in production process.

  17. Applying the pre-intentional phase of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) Model to investigate factors associated with intention on consistent condom use with various types of female sex partners among males who inject drugs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Hi Yi; Lau, Joseph T F; Wang, Zixin; Gross, Danielle L; Wu, Anise M S; Cao, Wangnan; Gu, Jing; Li, Suning

    2016-09-01

    Both drug injection and sexual transmission are the primary drivers of the HIV epidemic in China. This study investigated the prevalence and associated factors of intention of consistent condom use during sexual intercourse with female regular partners (RP), non-regular partners (NRP) and sex workers (FSW) among male people who inject drugs (PWID)in China. A total of 529 male non-institutionalized PWID aged 18-45 years with negative/unknown HIV status were recruited by multiple methods in Dazhou and Hengyang, China. The constructs of the pre-intention phase of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) Model, including partner-specific HIV risk perception, condom use positive outcome expectancies, condom use negative outcome expectancies, and self-efficacy of condom use, were assessed. The prevalence of behavioral intention of consistent condom use with RP, NRP, and FSW was 32.1%, 49.1%, and 63.6%, respectively. In multivariate stepwise analysis, conditional risk perception of HIV transmission via unprotected sex with RP/NRP/FSW was associated with intention of consistent condom use with these types of female sex partners (multivariate odds ratio (ORm) = 3.25-7.06). Condom use negative outcome expectancies were associated with intention of consistent condom use with RP and NRP (ORm = 0.30-0.46), while condom use self-efficacy was associated with intention of consistent condom use with RP and FSW in the next six months (ORm = 2.24-3.81). Male PWID are at high risk of HIV transmission through sexual behaviors. The pre-intention phase of the HAPA model may be applied to plan interventions to increase behavioral intention of consistent condom use with various types of female partners. Such interventions are warranted. PMID:26882352

  18. Surface micro topography replication in injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    , the topography itself, and other factors were also investigated. The experimental work is based on a multi-purpose experimental injection mould with a collection of test surface inserts manufactured by EDM (electrical discharge machining). Experimental production took place with an injection moulding machine......Thermoplastic injection moulding is a widely used industrial process that involves surface generation by replication. The surface topography of injection moulded plastic parts can be important for aesthetical or technical reasons. With the emergence of microengineering and nanotechnology additional...... in a clean room environment. The mould and the injection moulding machine were fitted with transducers for subsequent process analysis. A total of 13 different plastic material grades were applied. Topographical characterisation was performed with an optical laser focus detection instrument. Replication...

  19. Cessation of injecting drug use among street-based youth

    OpenAIRE

    Steensma, Colin; Boivin, Jean-François; Blais, Lucie; Roy, Élise

    2005-01-01

    Young injecting drug users (IDUs) are at high risk for a number of negative health outcomes such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, very little is known about injecting drug-use patterns among this population, particularly with respect to cessation of injection. We sought to identify the factors associated with cessation of injection in a population of young street-based IDUs. A prospective cohort study design was used to assess long-term (...

  20. Separably injective Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Avilés, Antonio; Castillo, Jesús M F; González, Manuel; Moreno, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    This monograph contains a detailed exposition of the up-to-date theory of separably injective spaces: new and old results are put into perspective with concrete examples (such as l∞/c0 and C(K) spaces, where K is a finite height compact space or an F-space, ultrapowers of L∞ spaces and spaces of universal disposition). It is no exaggeration to say that the theory of separably injective Banach spaces is strikingly different from that of injective spaces. For instance, separably injective Banach spaces are not necessarily isometric to, or complemented subspaces of, spaces of continuous functions on a compact space. Moreover, in contrast to the scarcity of examples and general results concerning injective spaces, we know of many different types of separably injective spaces and there is a rich theory around them. The monograph is completed with a preparatory chapter on injective spaces, a chapter on higher cardinal versions of separable injectivity and a lively discussion of open problems and further lines o...

  1. Perceptions of injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on interviews with experts in the petroleum and natural gas exploration industry and results of a workshop insight is given into the attitudes, opinions and perceptions on the possibility to store wastes from the exploration activities in the deep underground, e.g. by means of injection. In a separate report a comparison is made on injection and other waste processing options

  2. Spin injection into semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, M.; Hübner, J.; Hägele, D.; Klar, P. J.; Heimbrodt, W.; Rühle, W. W.; Ashenford, D. E.; Lunn, B.

    1999-03-01

    The injection of spin-polarized electrons is presently one of the major challenges in semiconductor spin electronics. We propose and demonstrate a most efficient spin injection using diluted magnetic semiconductors as spin aligners. Time-resolved photoluminescence with a Cd0.98Mn0.02Te/CdTe structure proves the feasibility of the spin-alignment mechanism.

  3. [Intra-articular injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Ch

    2015-09-01

    It is not unusual for a specialist or general practitioner to be presented with a pathology which necessitates the use of an intra-articular injection of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid or a local anaesthetic. It would seem to be interesting to update and to precise the techniques and methods of intraarticular injections which have appeared in recent international publications, when we know that 30 % of the injections given into the knee and so called "dry" are incorrect and, therefore, inefficient. The indication of an articular injection depends, firstly, on the diagnosis which should be done with great care; after which should be an objective analysis complete with secondary effects linked to both the injection and the product used. The conditions of asepsis, the choice of needles and quantities of the injection and even the ways of the injections should be reviewed in detail. The last studies clearly question the secondary effects of the cartilage degradations of the cortisone given as an intra-articular injection and shows its efficiency on the pain and inflammatory phenomonen in osteoarthritis. Studies on hyaluronic acid are often contradictory going from a modest result to an important pain relief but it is necessary to be aware that the objective criteria are difficult to interpret. The use of local anaesthetics in intra-articular is limited by the few indications in view of the major risk of aggravating the pre-existing lesions by the disappearing signs of pain.

  4. Insight into 144 patients with ocular vascular events during VEGF antagonist injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Shahin, Maha; Kofoed, Peter K;

    2012-01-01

    To record ocular vascular events following injections of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) antagonists.......To record ocular vascular events following injections of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) antagonists....

  5. Long-term effects of continuous subcutaneous infusion versus daily subcutaneous injections of growth hormone (GH) on the insulin-like growth factor system, insulin sensitivity, body composition, and bone and lipoprotein metabolism in GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Heickendorff, Lene;

    2001-01-01

    injections (inj) in the evening as usual, and 7 received a continuous infusion (inf) of GH by means of a portable pump. The GH dose was kept unchanged before and during the study. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) tended to increase in the patients switched to constant infusion (from 175...... +/- 36 to 209 +/- 50 microg/L), but the differences obtained during the two regimens [+34.3 (inf) vs. -11.9 (inj)] were not significant (P = 0.34). Serum levels of IGF-II (P = 0.71) and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 (P = 0.75) were identical during the two modes of treatment. Serum levels of IGFBP-1 (P...... for 6 months are comparable with respect to the IGF-IGFBP axis, whereas intermittent exposure may be of importance for the lipolytic effect of GH. The data on insulin sensitivity and lipoproteins suggest that constant GH exposure is as safe as intermittent GH administration....

  6. Analysis on impact factors of needle exchange programs among injecting drug users in Guangxi%广西注射吸毒人群参与针具交换的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣健; 蓝光华; 李明丽; 黄玉满; 刘伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨和分析广西注射吸毒人群参与针具交换的影响因素,为吸毒人群综合干预策略与模式的建立提供科学依据.方法 选取社区及新进入戒毒所的注射吸毒者为研究对象,采用结构式问卷进行面对面调查,采用单因素及多因素Logistic回归分析评估影响参与针具交换的因素.结果 共调查474人.近1年内参加过针具交换的比例为67.3%,但维持时间在10-12个月的调查对象仅占25.7%.害怕被抓和路途遥远,是调查对象报告的其本人及毒友不愿参与针具交换的主要原因.单因素Logistic回归分析结果显示:女性、汉族、已婚/同居、注射吸毒年限较长、对共用注射辅助材料的危害有正确认识及最近30天无高危注射行为,是参与针具交换的促进因素.多因素Logistic回归分析显示:除婚姻状况外,上述单因素分析有意义的变量均是注射吸毒者参与针具交换的影响因素.结论 进一步向注射吸毒者宣传共用针具及注射辅助材料的危害,重视对注射吸毒年限较低的人群的干预,根据民俗特点加强少数民族注射吸毒者的干预等,有可能促进更多的注射吸毒者参与针具交换.%Objective To explore and analyze the factors associated with needle exchange programs (NEPs) among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Guangxi for establishing comprehensive intervention strategies and patterns.Methods Face to face interviewing with structural questionnaire was carried out among IDUs from communities and newly entered to mandatory detoxification center.Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to define impact factors of needle exchange.Results Of 474 participants,67.3% attended NEPs in the recent year,but only 25.7% subjects maintained for 10-12 months; Causes of subjects self-reported and their peers refusing to attend needle exchange were attributed to long journey and afraid of being caught.Univariate logistic

  7. 吸毒艾滋病病人参加抗病毒治疗的影响因素及促进策略%Influential factors and promotion strategies for HIV positive injecting drug users to accept antiretroviral therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓青; 庞琳

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) has positive effects on HIV positive injecting drug users (IDUs) , the coverage of ART in IDUs population is still low. This article reviews factors that influence the HIV positive IDUs' decision to participate in ART. It also summaries therapies based on substance abuse treatment and community health service in some countries, so as to provide reference to promote ART among IDUs in China.%尽管艾滋病抗病毒治疗能对吸毒艾滋病病人的健康状况产生积极作用,但目前治疗覆盖率仍较低.文章针对影响吸毒艾滋病病人参加抗病毒治疗的因素进行了综述,并总结了一些国家针对该人群实施的以成瘾治疗和社区卫生服务为基础的艾滋病治疗策略,以期为进一步促进中国吸毒艾滋病病人参加抗病毒治疗提供参考.

  8. Influential Factors for Quality of Fasudil Hydrochloride Injection and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Its Photodegradation Product%盐酸法舒地尔注射液影响因素试验及其光降解产物的液相色谱-质谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    湛常娟; 冯汉林; 严启新; 刘小柔; 叶勤

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influencing factors for the quality of Fasudil Hydrochloride Injection and identify its photodegradation product. Methods Fasudil Hydrochloride Injection was put at high temperature and under illumination. The photodegradation product of Fasudil Hydrochloride Injection was identified by liquid chro-matography-mass spectrometry. Results Fasudil Hydrochloride Injection was stable at high temperature, but produced isoquinoline-5-sulfonic acid as an impurity under illumination. Conclusion Fasudil Hydrochloride Injection is stable at high temperature, but it is unstable under illumination, with isoquinoline-5-sulfonic acid as a photodegradation product. Fasudil Hydrochloride Injection should be kept in the dark.%目的 考察盐酸法舒地尔注射液的影响因素并鉴定其光降解产物.方法对盐酸法舒地尔注射液进行高温、光照处理,并用液相色谱-质谱联用技术鉴定其光降解产物.结果 盐酸法舒地尔注射液高温条件下稳定,光照条件下产生一光降解杂质异喹啉-5-磺酸.结论 盐酸法舒地尔注射液在高温条件下稳定,在光照条件下不稳定,应避光保存,光降解杂质为异喹啉-5-磺酸.

  9. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy-guided botulinum toxin Treatment; ...

  10. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  11. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a medication used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Epoetin alfa injection is also used before and ... record book.If you are being treated with dialysis (treatment to remove waste from the blood when ...

  12. Giving an insulin injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000660.htm Giving an insulin injection To use the sharing features on this ... and syringes. Filling the Syringe - One Type of Insulin Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry ...

  13. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  14. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  15. The changes of aqueous humor vascular endothelial growth factor and pigment epithelium-derived factor levels before and after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab in proliferative diabetic retinopathy%增生性DR玻璃体腔注射ranibizumab前后房水中VEGF和PEDF水平的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云鹏; 陈小红; 陈梅珠

    2016-01-01

    .Objective This study was to determine the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in aqueous humor of PDR eyes before and after intravitreai injection of ranibizumab.Methods Self-controlled observational study was designed.Fifteen eyes of 15 PDR patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included in Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command from January to August 2014, and 1 eye combined with neovascular glaucoma and iris rubeosis.Aqueous samples of 0.1 ml at each time were collected before and 7 days after the injection of ranibizumab from all patients under the informed consent.The changes of aqueous VEGF and PEDF concentrations were detected and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.This study complied with Declaration of Helsinki and the protocol was approved by this hospital.Results The freeVEGF concentrations before and 7 days after intravitreal injection were (179.4±136.5) pg/ml and (27.1 ±23.5) pg/ml, respectively, showing a significant reduce after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (t =4.172, P =0.001).PEDF concentrations before and 7 days after intravitreal injection were (394.0-±237.2) pg/ml and (267.7±199.6) pg/ml, respectively, showing a significant reduce after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (t =5.443, P =0.000).Intraocular neovascularization vanished after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab and vitrectomy was carried out at the seventh day after intravitreal injection.Conclusions Free VEGF and PEDF levels in aqueous humor appear to be significantly decreased after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab, and ocular neovascularization disappears at same time,which avoids intraoperative bleeding during vitrectomy.

  16. Soft tissue injections

    OpenAIRE

    Inês, Luís P. B. S.; Silva, José António P. da

    2005-01-01

    Soft tissue rheumatism includes a wide spectrum of common lesions of the tendons, enthesis, tendon sheaths, bursae, ligaments and fasciae as well as nerve compression syndromes. Studies on the pathogenesis of these lesions do not support a major role for inflammation, thus questioning the rationale for glucocorticoid injections. This chapter reviews current indications for local glucocorticoid injections and available evidence on its efficacy, as well as contraindications and potential risks....

  17. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  18. Office-based laryngeal injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallur, Pavan S; Rosen, Clark A

    2013-02-01

    Office-based vocal fold injection (VFI), though initially described more than a century ago, has recently reemerged as an attractive alternative to VFI performed during microsuspension laryngoscopy. Multiple office-based approaches exist, including percutaneous, peroral, and transnasal endoscopic approaches. Surgeon preference typically dictates the approach, although patient tolerance or anatomic variations are also key factors. Regardless of the approach or indication, a myriad of technical considerations make preparation and familiarity requisite for optimal patient outcomes. Office-based VFI offers several distinct advantages over traditional direct or microsuspension laryngoscopy VFI, making it a standard of treatment for a variety of indications. PMID:23177408

  19. Effects of Xingnaojing Injection on the Expression of Vascular endothelial Growth Factor in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction%醒脑静注射液对急性脑梗死患者血清VEGF表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓玲; 翟丽萍; 官俏兵; 杜瑛媛; 钱淑霞

    2012-01-01

      目的:观察醒脑静注射液对急性脑梗死患者血清血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)表达的影响.方法:65例急性脑梗死患者随机分为醒脑静注射液治疗组33例和对照组32例,另设立正常对照组60例.两组急性脑梗死患者均给予常规抗血小板、他汀类药物治疗,治疗组在此基础上加用醒脑静注射液20mL加入生理盐水250mL中静滴,1天1次,14天为1个疗程.采用双抗体夹心酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)动态测定两组患者发病第1、3、7、14天时血清VEGF浓度.同时记录入院时和治疗14天的脑梗死灶体积,并进行神经功能缺损评分(NIHSS).结果:与正常对照组比较,65例患者中风后1、3、7、14天各时间点的血清VEGF浓度均明显增高,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论:醒脑静注射液能促进急性脑梗死后血清VEGF的表达,参与新生血管形成,提高临床疗效.%  Objective: To explore the effects of Xingnaojing injection on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with acute cerebral infarction (ACI). Methods: Sixty-five patients with ACI were randomly divided into Xingnaojing treatment group (experimental group, n=33) and routine treatment group(n=32). Both groups were treated with anti-platelet aggregation and stating, and patients in the experimental group were given additional Xingnaojing injection (20mL/250mL saline, vd, qd) for 14 days. Serum concentrations of VEGF were measured by double antibody sandwich ELISA on day 1,3,7 and 14 after the onset of stroke. Vol⁃umes of infarction and scores of national institutes of health stroke scale(NIHSS)were recorded on admission and on day 14. Other 60 healthy individuals served as blank controls. Results: Compared with the blank control group, the serum concentrations of VEGF in patients with ACI on day 1,3,7 and 14 were obviously increased (P0.05). Conclusion: Xingnaojing injection can promote the production of VEGF and participate in

  20. Vascular endothelial growth factor induces anti‑Müllerian hormone receptor 2 overexpression in ovarian granulosa cells of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yanqiu; Lu, Xiaodan; Liu, Lei; Lin, Xiuying; Sun, Munan; Fu, Jianhua; Xu, Shufen; Tan, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Misregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF‑A) has been implicated in numerous types of ovarian disease, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, endometriosis and ovarian cancer. VEGF regulates blood vessel permeability and angiogenesis. In our previous study, VEGF‑regulated gene expression was profiled in the uterus of a transgenic mouse model with repressed VEGF expression, which indicated that VEGF is an important regulator in controlling gene expression in the uterus. The anti‑Müllerian hormone (AMH) is expressed by ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) and acts through its type 2 receptor, AMH receptor 2 (AMHR2). Serum AMH levels are used to predict ovarian reserves and the small antral follicles contribute markedly to the serum AMH level. AMH recruits primordial follicles and inhibits excessive follicular development by follicular stimulating hormone (FSH). However, AMH may be influenced by suppression of gonadotrophin secretion and VEGF inhibition. In the current study, human primary ovarian GCs were isolated from ovarian follicle fluid of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles (IVF/ICSI). It was identified that the FSH receptor was consistently expressed in the isolated cells. VEGF‑A treatment stimulated AMHR2 overexpression at the gene and protein levels. In addition, VEGF induced AMHR2 expression on the surface of the isolated GCs from mature follicles. The VEGF treatment was also performed in an ovarian granulosa‑like cell line, KGN. AMH and AMHR2 are co‑expressed in normal GCs; however, as a result of VEGF misregulation, AMHR2 overexpression increases AMH binding, which may attenuate follicular or oocyte maturation. However, the associated function and underlying mechanism requires further investigation. PMID:27109000

  1. Implications of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) with codissolved brain-derived neurotrophic factor injectable scaffold on motor function recovery rate following cervical dorsolateral funiculotomy in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grous, Lauren Conova; Vernengo, Jennifer; Jin, Ying; Himes, B. Timothy; Shumsky, Jed S.; Fischer, Itzhak; Lowman, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Object In a follow-up study to their prior work, the authors evaluated a novel delivery system for a previously established treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI), based on a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), lightly cross-linked with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) injectable scaffold. The primary aim of this work was to assess the recovery of both spontaneous and skilled forelimb function following a cervical dorsolateral funiculotomy in the rat. This injury ablates the rubrospinal tract (RST) but spares the dorsal and ventral corticospinal tract and can severely impair reaching and grasping abilities. Methods Animals received an implant of either PNIPAAm-g-PEG or PNIPAAm-g-PEG + brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The single-pellet reach-to-grasp task and the staircase-reaching task were used to assess skilled motor function associated with reaching and grasping abilities, and the cylinder task was used to assess spontaneous motor function, both before and after injury. Results Because BDNF can stimulate regenerating RST axons, the authors showed that animals receiving an implant of PNIPAAm-g-PEG with codissolved BDNF had an increased recovery rate of fine motor function when compared with a control group (PNIPAAm-g-PEG only) on both a staircase-reaching task at 4 and 8 weeks post-SCI and on a single-pellet reach-to-grasp task at 5 weeks post-SCI. In addition, spontaneous motor function, as measured in the cylinder test, recovered to preinjury values in animals receiving PNIPAAm-g-PEG + BDNF. Fluorescence immunochemistry indicated the presence of both regenerating axons and BDA-labeled fibers growing up to or within the host-graft interface in animals receiving PNIPAAm-g-PEG + BDNF. Conclusions Based on their results, the authors suggest that BDNF delivered by the scaffold promoted the growth of RST axons into the lesion, which may have contributed in part to the increased recovery rate. PMID:23581453

  2. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  3. Factors influencing the immune response. II. Effects of the physical state of the antigen and of lymphoreticular cell proliferation on the response to intraperitoneal injection of bovine serum albumin in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinckard, R. N.; Weir, D. M.; McBride, W. H.

    1967-01-01

    The injection of Corynebacterium parvum at the same time as centrifuged bovine albumin has been shown not to have the adjuvant effect found when C. parvum is injected 6 days before. The implication of this is discussed and related to mechanisms of antibody synthesis. Whereas particulate alum-precipitated centrifuged bovine albumin was shown to be more effective than centrifuged bovine albumin in inducing primary antibody stimulation, the reverse was true for secondary stimulation by the intraperitoneal route. PMID:6035197

  4. Effect of Tanreqing injection on inflannatory factor of rats with acute lung injury%痰热清注射液对急性肺损伤大鼠肺内炎症因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋旭宏; 黄小民; 何煜舟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of Tanreqing injectio (a Chinese herb preparation acts as an anti-inflammatory agent to eliminate the pulmonary infection) on inflammatory cytokines of rats with acute lung injury (ALI). Methods Fifty-six clean grade healthy male SD rats were randomly (random number) divided into three groups: normal group, model group and treatment group. Rats in the model group and treatment group were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into tail vein. Rats in treatment group were treated with Tanreqing injection one hour after LPS injection. The observing intervals were respectively set in 2 h, 4 h and 6 h. At each observing interval, TNF-α, IL-1 β and IL-8 in brochoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected by radioimmunoassay, and the ratio of polymorphonuclear neutrophiles (ωPMN) in BALF were calculated by Wright-Giermsa staining, as well as to observe the pathological changes of lungs and to examine the lung wet/dry weight ratio (W/D). Data were analyzed with SPSS version 17.0 software. Results At 2, 4 and 6 h intervals, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 and ωPMN in BALF were significantly higher in model group than those in normal group (P <0. 05 or P <0. 01 ), the lung W/D in model group were obviously higher than those in normal group ( P < 0. 01 ), and the pathological injury of lung tissue in model group were severe. At each observing interval, compared with model group,TNF-o, IL-1 β, IL-8 and oPMN in BALF were significantly reduced in treatment group ( P < 0. 05 or P <0.01 ), the lung W/D in treatment group were obviously decreased ( P <0.01 ), and the lung injury were attenuated in treatment group. Conclusions Tanreqing injection could provide partly protection in rats with ALI by inhibiting inflammatory factor.%目的 研究痰热清注射液对内毒素性急性肺损伤(ALI)大鼠肺内炎症因子的影响。方法 清洁级健康SD雄性大鼠56只,随机(随机数字法)分为空白组、模型组、干预组。模

  5. Flow Injection Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    2004-01-01

    This chapter provides an introduction to automated chemical analysis, which essentially can be divided into two groups: batch assays, where the solution is stationary while the container is moved through a number of stations where various unit operations performed; and continuous-flow procedures......, where the system is stationary while the solution moves through a set of conduits in which all required manipulations are performed. Emphasis is placed on flow injection analysis (FIA) and its further developments, that is, sequential injection analysis (SIA) and the Lab-on-Valve (LOV) approach. Since...

  6. Orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Belov, Mikhail E

    2014-04-15

    An orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process are described in which ions are directly injected into an ion guide orthogonal to the ion guide axis through an inlet opening located on a side of the ion guide. The end of the heated capillary is placed inside the ion guide such that the ions are directly injected into DC and RF fields inside the ion guide, which efficiently confines ions inside the ion guide. Liquid droplets created by the ionization source that are carried through the capillary into the ion guide are removed from the ion guide by a strong directional gas flow through an inlet opening on the opposite side of the ion guide. Strong DC and RF fields divert ions into the ion guide. In-guide orthogonal injection yields a noise level that is a factor of 1.5 to 2 lower than conventional inline injection known in the art. Signal intensities for low m/z ions are greater compared to convention inline injection under the same processing conditions.

  7. Hip joint injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of the pain. For some, it can last weeks or months. Alternative Names Cortisone shot - hip; Hip injection; Intra-articular steroid ... writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ... Institutes of Health Page last updated: 23 August 2016

  8. Water injection dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Some twenty years ago WIS-dredging has been developed in the Netherlands. By injecting water into the mud layer, the water content of the mud becomes higher, it becomes fluid mud and will start to flow. The advantages of this system are that there is no need of transporting the mud in a hopper, and

  9. Other Injectable Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Medication > Insulin & Other Injectables Share: Print Page Text ... Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your ...

  10. Injection performance evaluation for storage ring of SSRF

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yong; Yan, Ying-Bing; Chen, Zhi-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Injection performance of storage ring is one of the important factors for the light efficiency and quality of Synchrotron Radiation Facility when it is in top-up mode. To evaluate the injection performance of storage ring at SSRF, we build a bunch-by-bunch position measuring system based on oscilloscope IOC. Accurate assessment of energy mismatching, distribution of residual oscillation and angle error of injection kickers can be achieved by this system.

  11. Tendon lesion and VEGF-111 injection

    OpenAIRE

    Kaux, Jean-François; Drion, Pierre; Libertiaux, Vincent; Pascon, Frédéric; Colige, Alain; Le Goff, Caroline; Lambert, Charles; Janssen, Lauriane; Nusgens, Betty; Gothot, André; CESCOTTO, Serge; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Rickert, Markus; Crielaard, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Tendon lesion is one of the most frequent pathology in sports and by physical workers. This pathology often becomes chronic. For this reason, it is of interest to develop new treatments. Injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) seems to be a promising one by releasing growth factors (GF) locally. Among all the GF released by activated platelets, the vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is known to induce positive effects on vascular function and angiogenesis, and could b...

  12. Effect of compound salvia miltiorrhiza injection on the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro%复方丹参注射液对人外周血单个核细胞体外分泌TNF-α的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    接力刚; 杜红延; 沈鹰; 黄清春; 孙维峰; 韦嵩

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible mechanism of compound salvia miltiorrhiza injection in treating ankylosing spondylitis. Methods Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) derived from vein blood of healthy volunteer were divided into five groups and were respectively treated with normal saline, large dose of compound salvia miltiorrhiza injection, moderate dose salvia miltiorrhiza injection, low dose salvia miltiorrhiza injection and dexamethasone repectively fore for 48 h. The level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF -α) in supernatant were determined by radioim-munity. Results The levels of TNF - α in supernatant from large dose compound salvia miltiorrhiza injection group and dexamethasone group were significantly lower than that from normal saline group ( P < 0. 05 ). The level of TNF - α in supernatant from large dose compound salvia miltiorrhiza injection group was significantly lower than those from moderate dose salvia miltiorrhiza injection group and low dose salvia miltiorrhiza injection group. Conclusion Inhibition of TNF - α secretion from human PBMCs may be one of mechanisms of compound salvia miltiorrhiza injection in treating ankylosing spondylitis.%目的 探讨复方丹参注射液治疗强直性脊柱炎(AS)可能的作用机制.方法 将分离的正常人外周血单个核细胞分成5组,分别给予生理盐水、大剂量复方丹参、中荆量复方丹参、小剂量复方丹参和地塞米松;孵育48 h后,提取细胞培养液上清液,用放免法检测肿瘤坏死因子α的含量.结果 大剂量复方丹参组和地塞米松组细胞培养液的上清液TNF-α含量明显低于生理盐水组(P<0.05),大剂量复方丹参组的TNF-α的含量水平明显低于中、小剂量复方丹参组(P<0.05).结论 抑制人PBMC分泌TNF-α可能是复方丹参注射液治疗AS的途径之一.

  13. 影响激光驱动器注入镜组特性的误差因素分析%AnaIysis of Error Factor Impacting on the Performance of Laser-driver Injection Compound Lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏占伟; 谢志江; 袁晓东

    2014-01-01

    研究了惯性约束大功率激光聚变驱动器注入镜组特性影响因素,分析表明透镜的几何尺寸公差、透镜装配公差和镜组在线安装公差等因素对镜组焦距公差、焦斑分布、波像差方面的特性影响较大。针对影响镜组特性的主要因素,建立了镜组特性影响分析的相关数学模型,并基于MatIab和Zemax软件平台对模型进行模拟计算,结果表明数学模型可以保证镜组特性需要的制造、安装公差。%During the study Of aII kinds Of tOIerance infIuencing factOrs On the perfOrmance Of injectiOn cOmpOund Iens made Of high pOwer Iaser inertiaI cOnfinement fusiOn drive,anaIysis shOws that geOmetry dimensiOn tOIerance Of the Iens,Iens assembIy tOIerance and cOmpOund Iens have a significant effect On the perfOmance Of cOmpOund Iens fOcaI Iength tOIerance, fOcaI spOt pOsitiOn and wave aberratiOn. AccOrding tO the main infIuencing factOrs,reIated perfOrmance mathematicaI mOdeIs are set up. The mOdeIs are simuIated and the resuIts Of simuIatiOn are anaIyzed based On the sOftware pIatfOrm Of MatIab and Zemax. The manufacturing and instaIIatiOn tOIerance ensuring the perfOrmance are aIsO determined based On the simuIatiOn resuIts and tOIerance Of cOmpOund Iens.

  14. Control over Drug Acquisition, Preparation, and Injection: Implications for HIV and HCV Risk among Young Female Injection Drug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karla D.; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer; Hathazi, Susan Dodi; Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    Young female injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for HIV/HCV, and initiating the use of a new drug may confer additional and unexpected risks. While gender differences in the social context of injection drug use have been identified, it is unknown whether those differences persist during the initiation of a new drug. This mixed-methods study examined the accounts of 30 young female IDUs in Los Angeles, CA, USA from 2004 to 2006, who described the social context of initiating injection drug use and initiating ketamine injection. The analysis aimed to understand how the social context of young women's injection events contributes to HIV/HCV risk. Women's initiation into ketamine injection occurred approximately 2 years after their first injection of any drug. Over that time, women experienced changes in some aspects of the social context of drug injection, including the size and composition of the using group. A significant proportion of women described injection events characterized by a lack of control over the acquisition, preparation, and injection of drugs, as well as reliance on friends and sexual partners. Findings suggest that lack of control over drug acquisition, preparation, and injection may elevate women's risk; these phenomena should be considered as a behavioral risk factor when designing interventions. PMID:24364027

  15. Progress in Titanium Metal Powder Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall M. German

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Metal powder injection molding is a shaping technology that has achieved solid scientific underpinnings. It is from this science base that recent progress has occurred in titanium powder injection molding. Much of the progress awaited development of the required particles with specific characteristics of particle size, particle shape, and purity. The production of titanium components by injection molding is stabilized by a good understanding of how each process variable impacts density and impurity level. As summarized here, recent research has isolated the four critical success factors in titanium metal powder injection molding (Ti-MIM that must be simultaneously satisfied—density, purity, alloying, and microstructure. The critical role of density and impurities, and the inability to remove impurities with sintering, compels attention to starting Ti-MIM with high quality alloy powders. This article addresses the four critical success factors to rationalize Ti-MIM processing conditions to the requirements for demanding applications in aerospace and medical fields. Based on extensive research, a baseline process is identified and reported here with attention to linking mechanical properties to the four critical success factors.

  16. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Looking against the direction of protons in the main ring (left): the beam coming from the linac 1 either goes to the booster (on the right) or is deflected towards the PS to be directly injected into section 26 (facing the camera). Also shown the start of the TT2 line, ejected from straight section 16 to go towards the ISR passing over the beam line from the linac. (see Photo Archive 7409009)

  17. Medication error: Subarachnoid injection of tranexamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina P Butala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some factors have been identified as contributing to medical errors, such as labels, appearance and location of ampoules. We present a case of accidental injection of tranexamic acid instead of Bupivacaine during spinal anaesthesia. One minute after the injection of 3 mL of the solution, the patient developed myoclonus of her lower extremities. Accidental intrathecal injection of the wrong drug was suspected and a used ampoule of tranexamic acid was discovered in the trash can. The ampoules of Bupivacaine (5 mg/mL, trade name "Sensovac Heavy" and tranexamic acid (500 mg/mL, Trade name "Nexamin" were similar in appearance. Her myoclonus was successfully treated with phenytoin, sodium valproate, thiopental sodium infusion, midazolam infusion and supportive care of haemodynamic and respiratory systems. The surgery was temporarily deferred. The patient′s condition progressively improved to full recovery.

  18. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did not respond ... to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in a class of medications ...

  19. Dihydroergotamine Injection and Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migranal® Nasal Spray ... inject subcutaneously (under the skin) and as a spray to be used in the nose. It is ... that you know how to use the nasal spray or administer the injection correctly. After that, you ...

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF CELLULAR INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Garbacz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In a study of cellular injection, molding process uses polyvinylchloride PVC. Polymers modified with introducing blowing agents into them in the Laboratory of the Department of Technologies and Materiase of Technical University of Kosice. For technological reasons, blowing agents have a form of granules. In the experiment, the content of the blowing agent (0–2,0 % by mass fed into the processed polymer was adopted as a variable factor. In the studies presented in the article, the chemical blowing agents occurring in the granulated form with a diameter of 1.2 to 1.4 mm were used. The view of the technological line for cellular injection molding and injection mold cavity with injection moldings are shown in Figure 1. The results of the determination of selected properties of injection molded parts for various polymeric materials, obtained with different content of blowing agents, are shown in Figures 4-7. Microscopic examination of cross-sectional structure of the moldings were obtained using the author's position image analysis of porous structure. Based on analysis of photographs taken (Figures 7, 8, 9 it was found that the coating containing 1.0% of blowing agents is a clearly visible solid outer layer and uniform distribution of pores and their sizes are similar.

  1. Ultrasound-guided injection for plantar fasciitis: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Nair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantar fasciitis (PF is a distressing condition experienced by many patients. Although self-limiting, it tends to become a chronic ailment if the precipitating factors are not addressed. One of the modality of treating PF is intra-lesional corticosteroid injection. This was done using palpation technique earlier but nowadays many specialists use ultrasound (US imaging as a guide to give injection accurately instead of inadvertently damaging the plantar fascia or injecting into surrounding soft tissue, both of which can have serious implications. We did a literature search in Medline, Scopus, and Embase databases to find out articles describing US-guided corticosteroid injection for treating PF and whether guided injection was effective than injection given by palpation.

  2. Reductant injection and mixing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Matt; Henry, Cary A.; Ruth, Michael J.

    2016-02-16

    A gaseous reductant injection and mixing system is described herein. The system includes an injector for injecting a gaseous reductant into an exhaust gas stream, and a mixer attached to a surface of the injector. The injector includes a plurality of apertures through which the gaseous reductant is injected into an exhaust gas stream. The mixer includes a plurality of fluid deflecting elements.

  3. Multiobjective Design of Turbo Injection Mode for Axial Flux Motor in Plastic Injection Molding Machine by Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Long Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a turbo injection mode (TIM for an axial flux motor to apply onto injection molding machine. Since the injection molding machine requires different speed and force parameters setting when finishing a complete injection process. The interleaved winding structure in the motor provides two different injection levels to provide enough injection forces. Two wye-wye windings are designed to switch two control modes conveniently. Wye-wye configuration is used to switch two force levels for the motor. When only one set of wye-winding is energized, field weakening function is achieved. Both of the torque and speed increase under field weakening operation. To achieve two control objectives for torque and speed of the motor, fuzzy based multiple performance characteristics index (MPCI with particle swarm optimization (PSO is used to find out the multiobjective optimal design solution. Both of the torque and speed are expected to be maximal at the same time. Three control factors are selected as studied factors: winding diameter, winding type, and air-gap. Experimental results show that both of the torque and speed increase under the optimal condition. This will provide enough large torque and speed to perform the turbo injection mode in injection process for the injection molding machine.

  4. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berteau C

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cecile Berteau,1 Orchidée Filipe-Santos,1 Tao Wang,2 Humberto E Rojas,2 Corinne Granger,1 Florence Schwarzenbach1 1Becton-Dickinson Medical Pharmaceutical Systems, Le Pont de Claix, France; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Aim: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC injection pain tolerance. Methods: The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s. All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain. The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results: Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003. Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm than medium (VAS =16.6 mm or low (VAS =22.1 mm viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002. Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89. Slow (0.02 mL/s or fast (0.30 mL/s injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79. In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High

  5. MKI UFOs at Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Drosdal, L; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Zerlauth, M

    2011-01-01

    During the MD, the production mechanism of UFOs at the injection kicker magnets (MKIs) was studied. This was done by pulsing the MKIs on a gap in the circulating beam, which led to an increased number of UFOs. In total 43 UFO type beam loss patterns at the MKIs were observed during the MD. The MD showed that pulsing the MKIs directly induces UFO type beam loss patterns. From the temporal characteristics of the loss profile, estimations about the dynamics of the UFOs are made.

  6. SQL Injection Defenses

    CERN Document Server

    Nystrom, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut introduces you to how SQL injection vulnerabilities work, what makes applications vulnerable, and how to protect them. It helps you find your vulnerabilities with analysis and testing tools and describes simple approaches for fixing them in the most popular web-programming languages. This Short Cut also helps you protect your live applications by describing how to monitor for and block attacks before your data is stolen. Hacking is an increasingly criminal enterprise, and web applications are an attractive path to identity theft. If the applications you build, manage, or guar

  7. On L-injective Covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德旭

    2004-01-01

    We use the class of L-injective modules to define L-injective covers, and provide the characterizations of L-injective covers by the properties of kernels of homomorphisms. We prove that the right L-noetherian right L-hereditary ring is just such that every right R-module has an L-injective cover which is monic. We also use kernels of homomorphisms to investigate L-simple L-injective covers and give some constructions ofL-simple L-iniective covers.

  8. Epidemiology of Injection Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Nelson; Bruneau, Julie; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2016-01-01

    After more than 30 years of research, numerous studies have shown that injection drug use is associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes such as drug overdoses, drug-related suicidal behaviours, comorbid psychiatric disorders, bloodborne pathogens and other infectious diseases, and traumas. This review explores new trends and prominent issues associated with injection drug use. The dynamic nature of injection drug use is underlined by examining its recent trends and changing patterns in Canada and other “high-income countries.” Three research topics that could further contribute to the development of comprehensive prevention and intervention strategies aimed at people who inject drugs are also discussed: risk behaviours associated with the injection of prescription opioids, binge injection drug use, and mental health problems as determinants of injection risk behaviours. PMID:27254088

  9. Gender differences in sexual and injection risk behavior among active young injection drug users in San Francisco (the UFO Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jennifer L; Hahn, Judith A; Page-Shafer, Kimberly; Lum, Paula J; Stein, Ellen S; Davidson, Peter J; Moss, Andrew R

    2003-03-01

    Female injection drug users (IDUs) represent a large proportion of persons infected with HIV in the United States, and women who inject drugs have a high incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of gender in injection risk behavior and the transmission of blood-borne virus. In 2000-2002, 844 young (<30 years old) IDUs were surveyed in San Francisco. We compared self-reported risk behavior between 584 males and 260 female participants from cross-sectional baseline data. We used logistic regression to determine whether demographic, structural, and relationship variables explained increased needle borrowing, drug preparation equipment sharing, and being injected by another IDU among females compared to males. Females were significantly younger than males and were more likely to engage in needle borrowing, ancillary equipment sharing, and being injected by someone else. Females were more likely than males to report recent sexual intercourse and to have IDU sex partners. Females and males were not different with respect to education, race/ethnicity, or housing status. In logistic regression models for borrowing a used needle and sharing drug preparation equipment, increased risk in females was explained by having an injection partner who was also a sexual partner. Injecting risk was greater in the young female compared to male IDUs despite equivalent frequency of injecting. Overlapping sexual and injection partnerships were a key factor in explaining increased injection risk in females. Females were more likely to be injected by another IDU even after adjusting for years injecting, being in a relationship with another IDU, and other potential confounders. Interventions to reduce sexual and injection practices that put women at risk of contracting hepatitis and HIV are needed. PMID:12612103

  10. Gender differences in sexual and injection risk behavior among active young injection drug users in San Francisco (the UFO Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jennifer L; Hahn, Judith A; Page-Shafer, Kimberly; Lum, Paula J; Stein, Ellen S; Davidson, Peter J; Moss, Andrew R

    2003-03-01

    Female injection drug users (IDUs) represent a large proportion of persons infected with HIV in the United States, and women who inject drugs have a high incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of gender in injection risk behavior and the transmission of blood-borne virus. In 2000-2002, 844 young (<30 years old) IDUs were surveyed in San Francisco. We compared self-reported risk behavior between 584 males and 260 female participants from cross-sectional baseline data. We used logistic regression to determine whether demographic, structural, and relationship variables explained increased needle borrowing, drug preparation equipment sharing, and being injected by another IDU among females compared to males. Females were significantly younger than males and were more likely to engage in needle borrowing, ancillary equipment sharing, and being injected by someone else. Females were more likely than males to report recent sexual intercourse and to have IDU sex partners. Females and males were not different with respect to education, race/ethnicity, or housing status. In logistic regression models for borrowing a used needle and sharing drug preparation equipment, increased risk in females was explained by having an injection partner who was also a sexual partner. Injecting risk was greater in the young female compared to male IDUs despite equivalent frequency of injecting. Overlapping sexual and injection partnerships were a key factor in explaining increased injection risk in females. Females were more likely to be injected by another IDU even after adjusting for years injecting, being in a relationship with another IDU, and other potential confounders. Interventions to reduce sexual and injection practices that put women at risk of contracting hepatitis and HIV are needed.

  11. Surface Micro Topography Replication in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kjær, Erik Michael

    2005-01-01

    The surface micro topography of injection moulded plastic parts can be important for aesthetical and technical reasons. The quality of replication of mould surface topography onto the plastic surface depends among other factors on the process conditions. A study of this relationship has been...... carried out with rough EDM (electrical discharge machining) mould surfaces, a PS grade, and by applying established three-dimensional topography parameters. Significant quantitative relationships between process parameters and topography parameters were established. It further appeared that replication...

  12. Statement on injectable contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Injectable hormonal contraception with 2 longacting steroidal preparations--norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)--provides an effective means of fertility regulation and has become an important method of family planning. DMPA and NET-EN have several advantages which make them particularly appropriate for some women and acceptable in family planning programs. A single injection can provide highly effective contraception for 2 or more months, delivery is simple, independent of coitus, and ensures periodic contact with medical or other trained health personnel. Currently, DMPA is registered as a therapeutic agent in nearly all countries and as a contraceptive agent in over 80 developed and developing countries. NET-EN is registered as a contraceptive in 40 countries. Administered by intramuscular injection in an aqueous microcrystalline suspension, DMPA exerts its contraceptive effect primarily by suppression of ovulation, but its effects on the endometrium, the uterine tubes, and the production of cervical mucus may also play a role in reducing fertility. DMPA as a contraceptive agent is generally given at a dosage of 150 mg every 90 days. NET-EN when administered as an intramuscular injection of an oil preparation at a dose of 200 mg inhibits ovulation. It should be administered at 8 weekly intervals for the 1st 6 months of use, then at intervals of 8 or 12 weeks. Longterm animal studies with DMPA have been completed mainly on beagle bitches and rhesus monkeys, and similar studies with NET-EN are nearing completion. None of the findings in beagles is considered applicable to human populations because the beagle responds differently than humans to steroidal hormones. None of the deaths among rhesus monkeys was attributable to effects of the drug. Endometrial carcinoma was found in 2 of the replacement monkeys but the number of animals was too small for statistically significant studies, and it is not possible to conclude

  13. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  14. Injectable barriers for waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification

  15. Injectable barriers for waste isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Apps, J.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Muller, S.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-03-01

    In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification.

  16. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes. PMID:27594185

  17. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes.

  18. A comparison of molding procedures - Contact, injection and vacuum injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathiard, G.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the contact, injection and vacuum injection molding of reinforced plastic components are compared for the example of a tractor roof with a gel-coated surface. Consideration is given to the possibility of reinforcement, number of smooth faces, condition of the gel-coated surface, reliability, and labor and workplace requirements of the three processes, and advantages of molding between the mold and a countermold in smooth faces, reliability, labor requirements, working surface and industrial hygiene are pointed out. The times and labor requirements of each step in the molding cycles are examined, and material requirements and yields, investment costs, amortization and product cost prices of the processes are compared. It is concluded that, for the specific component examined, the processes of vacuum injection and injection molding appear very interesting, with injection molding processes resulting in lower cost prices than contact molding for any production volume.

  19. Understanding compliance issues for daily self-injectable treatment in ambulatory care settings

    OpenAIRE

    Brod, Meryl; Rousculp, Matthew; Cameron, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Background The challenge of understanding factors influencing compliance with injectable treatments is critical as injectable biologics/medications become more common. Objective Understanding compliance issues for long term self-injectable treatments, using a chronic condition (osteoporosis) as a model. Research design A qualitative study to generate hypotheses regarding compliance issues for self-injectable treatments. Semi-structured interview guides were developed and data collected from p...

  20. MR epidurography: distribution of injectate at caudal epidural injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Darra T. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); St Paul' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Moynagh, Michael R.; Eustace, Stephen [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin 7 (Ireland); Poynton, Ashley; Chan, Vikki O. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland)

    2014-08-02

    To (a) evaluate the feasibility of MR epidurography (MRE) and (b) assess the distribution of injectate using two different volumes at caudal epidural steroid injection. Twenty patients who were referred with symptomatic low back pain for caudal epidural steroid injection were assigned to have either 10 ml (9/20) or 20 ml (11/20) of injectate administered. Gadolinium was included in the injection. The patients proceeded to MRI where sagittal and coronal T1-weighted fat-saturated sequences were acquired and reviewed in the mid-sagittal and right and left parasagittal views at the level of the exit foramina. Gadolinium was observed at or above the L3/4 disc level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %), compared with only five of nine patients who received 10 ml (56 %). Injectate was seen to the L4 nerve root level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %) but only four out of nine patients who received 10 ml (44 %), not even reaching the L5 nerve root level in four further of these nine patients (44 %). Overall, there was a trend to visualize gadolinium at higher levels of the epidural space with higher volumes injected. Firstly, MR epidurography is a safe technique that allows excellent visualization of the distribution of gadolinium in the epidural space following injection via the caudal hiatus. Secondly, a volume of 10 ml is unlikely to treat L5/S1 disease in almost half of patients at caudal epidural steroid injection and at least 20 ml of injectate is likely required for any medication to reach the desired level. (orig.)

  1. Computational Analysis of Safety Injection Tank Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Oan; Nietiadia, Yohanes Setiawan; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Addad, Yacine; Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-10-15

    The APR 1400 is a large pressurized water reactor (PWR). Just like many other water reactors, it has an emergency core cooling system (ECCS). One of the most important components in the ECCS is the safety injection tank (SIT). Inside the SIT, a fluidic device is installed, which passively controls the mass flow of the safety injection and eliminates the need for low pressure safety injection pumps. As more passive safety mechanisms are being pursued, it has become more important to understand flow structure and the loss mechanism within the fluidic device. Current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations have had limited success in predicting the fluid flow accurately. This study proposes to find a more exact result using CFD and more realistic modeling. The SIT of APR1400 was analyzed using MARS and CFD. CFD calculation was executed first to obtain the form loss factor. Using the two form loss factors from the vendor and calculation, calculation using MARS was performed to compare with experiment. The accumulator model in MARS was quite accurate in predicting the water level. The pipe model showed some difference with the experimental data in the water level.

  2. Characterization of Injection Molded Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Ling; Søgaard, Emil; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard;

    Microscopy has been widely applied to understand surface structures of solid samples. According to the instrumental methodology, there are different microscopy methods: optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and scanning probe microscopy (SPM). These microscopy methods have individual advantage......-properties relationship of the injection molded polymer samples. These results are very important in optimizing injection molding parameters....

  3. Injection treatments for patellar tendinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ark, Mathijs; Zwerver, Johannes; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Objective Injection treatments are increasingly used as treatment for patellar tendinopathy. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the different injection treatments, their rationales and the effectiveness of treating patellar tendinopathy. Methods A computerised search of the Medline, Em

  4. Towards spin injection into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, S.P.

    2007-08-15

    Si has been studied for the purpose of spin injection extensively in this thesis. Three different concepts for spin injection into Si have been addressed: (1) spin injection through a ferromagnet-Si Schottky contact, (2) spin injection using MgO tunnel barriers in between the ferromagnet and Si, and (3) spin injection from Mn-doped Si (DMS) as spin aligner. (1) FM-Si Schottky contact for spin injection: To be able to improve the interface qualities one needs to understand the atomic processes involved in the formation of silicide phases. In order to obtain more detailed insight into the formation of such phases the initial stages of growth of Co and Fe were studied in situ by HRBS with monolayer depth resolution.(2) MgO tunnel barrier for spin injection into Si: The fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin crystalline MgO tunnel barriers on Si (100) was presented. (3) Mn doped Si for spin injection: Si-based diluted magnetic semiconductor samples were prepared by doping Si with Mn by two different methods i) by Mn ion implantation and ii) by in-diffusion of Mn atoms (solid state growth). (orig.)

  5. Interferon Alfa-2b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon alfa-2b injection is used to treat a number of conditions.Interferon alfa-2b injection is used alone or in ... Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; a slow-growing blood cancer). Interferon alfa-2b is in a class of medications ...

  6. Evaluation of Injection Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide Using an Integrated Injection Well and Geologic Formation Numerical Simulation Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, J.; Park, S.; Kim, J.; SNU CO2 GEO-SEQ TEAM

    2011-12-01

    fluid pressure and temperature at the well bottom are the most important factors in evaluating the injection efficiency of carbon dioxide because they determine the fluid pressure difference and the kinematic viscosity of carbon dioxide at the well bottom. In summary, the numerical simulation results reveal that the fluid pressure and temperature at the well bottom can be simply predicted with an assumption of the vertical variations of hydrostatic fluid pressure and isenthalpic or adiabatic temperature in the injection well, and they provide significant and practical implications for evaluation of the injection efficiency of carbon dioxide. Therefore, it is expected that the integrated injection well and geologic formation numerical simulation scheme, which is applied in this study, can be utilized as reasonable and practical guidelines when more quantitative evaluation of the injection efficiency of carbon dioxide is required. This work was supported by a grant funded by the Korea Research Council for Industrial Science and Technology (ISTK), Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Republic of Korea.

  7. Laboratory Experiments on Enhanced Oil Recovery with Nitrogen Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Siregar

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on previous studies, nitrogen injection could recover oil up to 45-90% of initial reserves. Although this method has a very good ability to produce oil, sometimes the operation pressure is higher than leak off formation pressure. In this study, operation pressure used a low pressure to solve this problem under immiscible process. Objective of this study is to determine the effect of injection pressure and displacement rate on oil recovery performance of continuous one dimensional nitrogen gas injection with a slim tube apparatus. The effect of nitrogen gas-oil contact on the gas composition was investigated using Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer apparatus. In the experiments, nitrogen gas was injected into an oil sample of 38.5 oAPI gravity at various rates: 20 cc/hr, 30 cc/hr and 36.66/hr under 1500 psi pressure, and then at 20 cc/hr undr 2500 psi pressure. The results showed that an increase in injection rate increased oil recovery factor. The recovery factor lies between 40-54% of original oil in place. Gas analysis before injection and at the injection outlet showed a change of composition. when oil was contacted by nitrogen, indicating that some molecular mass transfer had taken place.

  8. Bone marrow injection: A novel treatment for tennis elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Gangwar, Devendra Singh; Singh, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this prospective study was assessment of efficacy of bone marrow aspirate (BMA) (containing plasma rich in growth factors and mesenchymal stem cells) injection in treatment of tennis elbow. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 adult patients of previously untreated tennis elbow were administered single injection of BMA. This concentrate was made by centrifugation of iliac BMA at 2000 rpm for 20-30 min and only upper layer containing platelet rich plasma and mononuclear cells was injected. Assessment was performed at baseline, 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 12 weeks using Patient-rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) score. Results: Baseline pre-injection mean PRTEE score was 72.8 ± 6.97 which decreased to a mean PRTEE score of 40.93 ± 5.94 after 2 weeks of injection which was highly significant (P < 0.0001). The mean PRTEE score at 6 week and 12 week follow-up was 24.46 ± 4.58 and 14.86 ± 3.48 respectively showing a highly significant decrease from baseline scores (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Treatment of tennis elbow patients with single injection of BMA showed a significant improvement in short to medium term follow-up. In future, such growth factors and/or stem cells based injection therapy can be developed as an alternative conservative treatment for patients of tennis elbow, especially who have failed non-operative treatment before surgical intervention is taken. PMID:25097421

  9. Bone marrow injection: A novel treatment for tennis elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Gangwar, Devendra Singh; Singh, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this prospective study was assessment of efficacy of bone marrow aspirate (BMA) (containing plasma rich in growth factors and mesenchymal stem cells) injection in treatment of tennis elbow. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 adult patients of previously untreated tennis elbow were administered single injection of BMA. This concentrate was made by centrifugation of iliac BMA at 2000 rpm for 20-30 min and only upper layer containing platelet rich plasma and mononuclear cells was injected. Assessment was performed at baseline, 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 12 weeks using Patient-rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) score. Results: Baseline pre-injection mean PRTEE score was 72.8 ± 6.97 which decreased to a mean PRTEE score of 40.93 ± 5.94 after 2 weeks of injection which was highly significant (P tennis elbow patients with single injection of BMA showed a significant improvement in short to medium term follow-up. In future, such growth factors and/or stem cells based injection therapy can be developed as an alternative conservative treatment for patients of tennis elbow, especially who have failed non-operative treatment before surgical intervention is taken. PMID:25097421

  10. Survey of intravitreal injection techniques among retina specialists in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Ori; Segal-Trivitz, Yael; Nemet, Arie Y; Geffen, Noa; Nesher, Ronit; Mimouni, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe antivascular endothelial growth factor intravitreal injection techniques of retinal specialists in order to establish a cornerstone for future practice guidelines. Methods All members of the Israeli Retina Society were contacted by email to complete an anonymous, 19-question, Internet-based survey regarding their intravitreal injection techniques. Results Overall, 66% (52/79) completed the survey. Most (98%) do not instruct patients to discontinue anticoagulant therapy and 92% prescribe treatment for patients in the waiting room. Three quarters wear sterile gloves and prepare the patient in the supine position. A majority (71%) use sterile surgical draping. All respondents apply topical analgesics and a majority (69%) measure the distance from the limbus to the injection site. A minority (21%) displace the conjunctiva prior to injection. A majority of the survey participants use a 30-gauge needle and the most common quadrant for injection is superotemporal (33%). Less than half routinely assess postinjection optic nerve perfusion (44%). A majority (92%) apply prophylactic antibiotics immediately after the injection. Conclusion The majority of retina specialists perform intravitreal injections similarly. However, a relatively large minority performs this procedure differently. Due to the extremely low percentage of complications, it seems as though such differences do not increase the risk. However, more evidence-based medicine, a cornerstone for practice guidelines, is required in order to identify the intravitreal injection techniques that combine safety and efficacy while causing as little discomfort to the patients as possible. PMID:27366050

  11. A New Comprehensive Approach for Predicting Injectivity Decline during Waterflooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Shapiro, Alexander;

    Injectivity decline during sea waterflooding or produced water re-injection is widely observed in North Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Campos Basin fields. The formation damage occurs mainly due to the deposition of suspended solids around injectors and the build-up the external filter cakes in the well...... bores. The ability to predict injectivity decline accurately is of great importance for project designs and water management. A comprehensive model that incorporates a variety of factors influencing the process is desirable for the prediction. In this paper, a new comprehensive approach for predicting...

  12. Comment on bilateral same-session intravitreal injections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Levent; Karabas; Fehim; Esen; Ozlem; Sahin

    2015-01-01

    <正>Dear Editor,We have read the article by Abu-Yahgi et al[1]with great interest.The authors share their experience with bilateral same-session intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factors(anti-VEGF).They report a single case of endophthalmitis in a series of 342 injections of 74patients and compare their results with their 3634 cases of unilateral injections with 2 cases of endophthalmitis[1].There are some issues related with the article that may benefit from

  13. Steam injection in Colombia under challenging environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waghray, J.P. [Mansovar Energy Colombia Ltd (Colombia)

    2011-07-01

    Mansarovar Energy Columbia Ltd. is a company extracting heavy oil from its Colombian fields. In order to enhance the production and at the same time to contribute to the economic recovery, they are using the cyclic steam injection method. The aim of this presentation is to show what are the challenges facing heavy oil extraction in Colombia, what is the state of the art, and what needs to be improved. Heavy oil extraction in Colombia presents two sorts of challenges: operational ones related to sanding problems and diluents and gas availability; and commercial ones, related to low return rates. The use of steam injection in conventional wells can, however, increase both productivity and the rate of return while at the same time enhancing the recovery factor by 10 to 15%. For the future, improvement in drilling and completion, production, and steam efficiency will be necessary as well as the implementation of the appropriate enhanced oil recovery processes.

  14. Bone marrow injection: A novel treatment for tennis elbow

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajit; Gangwar, Devendra Singh; Singh, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this prospective study was assessment of efficacy of bone marrow aspirate (BMA) (containing plasma rich in growth factors and mesenchymal stem cells) injection in treatment of tennis elbow. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 adult patients of previously untreated tennis elbow were administered single injection of BMA. This concentrate was made by centrifugation of iliac BMA at 2000 rpm for 20-30 min and only upper layer containing platelet rich plasma and mononuc...

  15. Drug injection and HIV prevalence in inmates of Glenochil prison.

    OpenAIRE

    Gore, S M; Bird, A G; Burns, S M; Goldberg, D J; Ross, A.J.; MacGregor, J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine prevalence of HIV infection and drug injecting behaviour among inmates of Glenochil Prison on a specified date a year after an outbreak of hepatitis B and HIV infection. DESIGN--Cross sectional: voluntary, anonymous HIV salivary antibody surveillance and linked self completion questionnaire on risk factors. SETTING--Glenochil prison, Scotland, a year after an outbreak of hepatitis B and HIV transmission related to drug injection. SUBJECTS--352 prisoners, of whom 295 (8...

  16. COMPARITIVE STUDY OF LOCAL STEROID INJECTION VERSUS AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD INJECTION THERAPY FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF LATERAL EPICONDYLITI S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partap

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES : Local corticosteroid infiltration is a common practice of treatment for lateral epicondylitis. In recent studies no statistically significant or clinically relevant results in favour of corticosteroid injections were found. The injection of autologous blood has been reported to be effective for both intermediate and long - term outcomes. It is hypothesized that blood contains growth factors, which induce the healing cascade. METHODS : A total of 50 patients were included in this prospective randomized study. Patients were divided in 2 groups of 25 patients each. Group I received 2 ml local corticosteroid +1 ml 2% lignocaine, Group II received 2 ml autologous blood drawn from ipsilateral upper limb vein +1 ml 2% lignocaine, and at the lateral epicondyle. Outcome was measured using a pain score (VAS . Follow - up was continued for tota l of six months. RESULTS : The corticosteroid injection group showed a statistically significant decrease in pain compared with autologous blood injection group at six weeks follow up. At final six - month follow - up, autologous blood injection group showed st atistically significant decrease in pain compared with corticosteroid injection group. CONCLUSIONS : Autologous blood injection is efficient compared with corticosteroid injection, with less side - effects and minimum recurrence rate in long term.

  17. Injecting equipment schemes for injecting drug users : qualitative evidence review

    OpenAIRE

    Cattan, Mima; Bagnall, Anne-Marie; Akhionbare, Kate; Burrell, Kim

    2009-01-01

    This review of the qualitative literature about needle and syringe programmes (NSPs) for injecting drug users (IDUs) complements the review of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. It aims to provide a more situated narrative perspective on the overall guidance questions.

  18. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Marcic

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped withmulti-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changinghydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individualinjection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paperallows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injectionrates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today knownmeasuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate indiesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possibledifferences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformationalmeasuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation ofmembrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. Thepressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For eachhole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into whichfuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. Duringmeasurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain anoverpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into thegraduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.Themembrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane andforming the full Wheatstone’s bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shapeand temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  19. The Case for Synthetic Injectables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, John H

    2015-11-01

    There are several different classes of synthetic dermal fillers and volume enhancers including semipermanent and permanent products available in the United States. Based on clinical and scientific evidence, this article reviews the chemical and polymeric properties, clinical data, patient selection, indications for use, injection technique, and adverse event profiles of permanent synthetic injectables currently used in clinical practice in the United States: medical-grade liquid injectable silicone and polymethyl methacrylate. Understanding the unique characteristics of these two products reinforces the advantages and disadvantages of each, including under what circumstances they should be used and why they perform the way they do. PMID:26505540

  20. Injection nozzle for a turbomachine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

    2012-09-11

    A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

  1. Particles in small volume injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S A; Spence, J

    1983-12-01

    The level of particulate contamination in small volume injections has been examined using the light blockage (HIAC) and electrical sensing zone (Coulter counter) techniques, the HIAC system being found to be the more suitable. Particle counts on the same batch of injection showed a large and variable difference between the HIAC and the Coulter counter results, especially below 5 micron. None of the injections examined complied with the British Pharmacopoeia limits for particulates in large volume parenterals, suggesting the unsuitability of the limits for small volume parenterals. PMID:6141237

  2. Injection drug use, unsafe medical injections, and HIV in Africa: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Savanna R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The reuse of injecting equipment in clinical settings is well documented in Africa and appears to play a substantial role in generalized HIV epidemics. The U.S. and the WHO have begun to support large scale injection safety interventions, increased professional education and training programs, and the development and wider dissemination of infection control guidelines. Several African governments have also taken steps to control injecting equipment, including banning syringes that can be reused. However injection drug use (IDU, of heroin and stimulants, is a growing risk factor for acquiring HIV in the region. IDU is increasingly common among young adults in sub-Saharan Africa and is associated with high risk sex, thus linking IDU to the already well established and concentrated generalized HIV epidemics in the region. Demand reduction programs based on effective substance use education and drug treatment services are very limited, and imprisonment is more common than access to drug treatment services. Drug policies are still very punitive and there is widespread misunderstanding of and hostility to harm reduction programs e.g. needle exchange programs are almost non-existent in the region. Among injection drug users and among drug treatment patients in Africa, knowledge that needle sharing and syringe reuse transmit HIV is still very limited, in contrast with the more successfully instilled knowledge that HIV is transmitted sexually. These new injection risks will take on increased epidemiological significance over the coming decade and will require much more attention by African nations to the range of effective harm reduction tools now available in Europe, Asia, and North America.

  3. 神经生长因子不同给药方式对坐骨神经吻合后修复与再生的影响%Effects of nerve growth factor injection via different ways on repair and regeneration of the sciatic nerve after its anastomosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梨明; 唐际存; 辛林伟; 李强; 周英琼; 陈灏; 古振林

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nerve growth factor (NGF) can promote the repair of nerve after nerve injury. However the advantages anddisadvantages of different treatment methods are still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of intrathecal injection and local injection of NGF on repair and regeneration of rabbitsciatic nerve after its anastomosis.METHODS: Sciatic nerves from 24 New Zealand white rabbits were cut-off and then sutured. NGF at 30 μg or saline at the samedose were injected intrathecally or locally into the rabbits.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After 12 weeks of sciatic nerve injury, the sheath of sciatic nerve was thickened in the intrathecalinjection group, nerve fibers arranged in neat rows and was similar with normal nerve fibers; the nerve conduction velocity,number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness in the intrathecal injection group were obviously increasedcompared with the other groups (P < 0.05), the local injection group took the second place. NGF can promote the repair andregeneration of peripheral nerve after its anastomosis, and the intrathecal injection NGF is superior to local injection.%背景:神经生长因子对神经损伤后的修复有促进作用,但目前对不同用药方式的优劣性尚有争议.目的:观察鞘膜内与局部应用神经生长因子对兔坐骨神经吻合后修复与再生的影响.方法:将24 只新西兰大白兔坐骨神经切断后再缝合,分别向兔鞘膜内或损伤局部注射30 μg 神经生长因子或等量生理盐水.结果与结论:坐骨神经损伤后12 周,鞘膜内注射神经生长因子组损伤坐骨神经鞘膜增厚,神经纤维排列较整齐,与正常神经纤维差异不大;且其神经干传导速度、有髓神经纤维数目、髓鞘厚度也明显高于其他组(P < 0.05),损伤局部注射神经生长因子组次之.说明神经生长因子具有促进外周神经吻合后修复与再生的功能,鞘膜内应用优于局部注射.

  4. Penicillin G (Potassium, Sodium) Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you experience any of the following symptoms: fever, chills, muscle aches, headache, worsening of skin sores, fast ... weakness fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat return of fever, sore throat, chills, or other signs of infection Penicillin G injection ...

  5. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people ... with severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications ...

  6. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1b injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms in patients with relapsing-remitting (course ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1b is in a class of medications ...

  7. New aspects of injectable contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, O P

    2001-01-01

    Despite the availability of efficacious and safe contraceptive agents, not all women's contraceptive needs are being met. An injectable contraceptive method offers convenience and encourages compliance, both very important aspects for women seeking ideal contraception. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a long-acting injectable, and is highly effective; one injection provides 3 months of contraception. Drawbacks of DMPA include irregular bleeding and a slow return to fertility. A new monthly injectable contraceptive agent is medroxyprogesterone acetate/estradiol cypionate suspension (Lunelle). It provides menstrual regulation and a rapid return to fertility. The estrogen ensures a withdrawal bleed monthly; however, women with contraindications to estrogen-containing contraception are not candidates for Lunelle. PMID:11294618

  8. Powder co-injection moulding

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, S. M. J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel powder processing technique has been developed by combining conventional powder injection moulding with polymer co-injection moulding, to permit the in-situ surface engineering of metal or ceramic components as an integral step within the processing cycle. The new technique has been used to produce surface engineered iron based components with either corrosion resistant or wear resistant surfaces, and to produce alumina based components with toughened surfaces. Th...

  9. New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Injections administered by patients are one of the mainstays of diabetes management. Proper injection technique is vital to avoiding intramuscular injections, ensuring appropriate delivery to the subcutaneous tissues and avoiding common complications such as lipohypertrophy. Yet few formal guid

  10. Teriparatide (rDNA origin) Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patients). Teriparatide injection contains a synthetic form of natural human hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH). It works ... container.Teriparatide injection controls osteoporosis but does not cure it. Continue to use teriparatide injection even if ...

  11. Antithrombin Ⅲ injection via the portal vein suppresses liver damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masavuki Mivazaki; Kazuhiro Kotoh; Ryoichi Takayanagi; Masaki Kato; Masatake Tanaka; Kosuke Tanaka; Shinichiro Takao; Motoyuki Kohjima; Tetsuhide Ito; Munechika Enjoji; Makoto Nakamuta

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects of antithrombin Ⅲ (AT Ⅲ) injection via the portal vein in acute liver failure.METHODS:Thirty rats were intraperitoneally challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine (GaiN) and divided into three groups:a control group; a group injected with AT Ⅲ via the tail vein; and a group injected with AT Ⅲ via the portal vein.AT Ⅲ (50U/kg body weight) was administrated 1 h after challenge with LPS and GAIN.Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and fibrin degradation products,hepatic fibrin deposition,and hepatic mRNA expression of hypoxiarelated genes were analyzed.RESULTS:Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase,tumor necrosis factor-o and interleukin-6 decreased significantly following portal vein AT Ⅲ injection compared with tail vein injection,and control rats.Portal vein AT Ⅲ injection reduced liver cell destruction and decreased hepatic fibrin deposition.This treatment also significantly reduced hepatic mRNA expression of lactate dehydrogenase and heme oxygenase-1.CONCLUSION:A clinically acceptable dose of AT Ⅲ injection into the portal vein suppressed liver damage,probably through its enhanced anticoagulant and antiinflammatory activities.

  12. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  13. Survey of intravitreal injection techniques among retina specialists in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segal O

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ori Segal,1,2 Yael Segal-Trivitz,1,3 Arie Y Nemet,1,2 Noa Geffen,1,2 Ronit Nesher,1,2 Michael Mimouni4 1Department of Ophthalmology, Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 3Department of Psychiatry, Geha Psychiatric Hospital, Petah Tikva, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe antivascular endothelial growth factor intravitreal injection techniques of retinal specialists in order to establish a cornerstone for future practice guidelines. Methods: All members of the Israeli Retina Society were contacted by email to complete an anonymous, 19-question, Internet-based survey regarding their intravitreal injection techniques. Results: Overall, 66% (52/79 completed the survey. Most (98% do not instruct patients to discontinue anticoagulant therapy and 92% prescribe treatment for patients in the waiting room. Three quarters wear sterile gloves and prepare the patient in the supine position. A majority (71% use sterile surgical draping. All respondents apply topical analgesics and a majority (69% measure the distance from the limbus to the injection site. A minority (21% displace the conjunctiva prior to injection. A majority of the survey participants use a 30-gauge needle and the most common quadrant for injection is superotemporal (33%. Less than half routinely assess postinjection optic nerve perfusion (44%. A majority (92% apply prophylactic antibiotics immediately after the injection. Conclusion: The majority of retina specialists perform intravitreal injections similarly. However, a relatively large minority performs this procedure differently. Due to the extremely low percentage of complications, it seems as though such differences do not increase the risk. However, more evidence-based medicine, a cornerstone for practice guidelines, is required in order to identify the intravitreal injection techniques

  14. Evaluation of CT after combined injection method by intra and para-variceal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urita, Yoshihisa; Ishihara, Manabu; Ozaki, Motonobu; Hachiya, Akihiko; Yamada, Shuuichi; Mutoh, Masue; Nakata, Masayuki; Ohtsuka, Sachio; Machida, Keiichi (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the distribution of sclerosant injected into the paravariceal esophageal wall. CT scan of the chest was performed 30 minutes after combined injection sclerotherapy (EIS) using 1% Polidocanol (Aethoxysklerol: AS) in 23 patients with esophageal varices. CT findings included (1) ring-enhanced esophageal wall (2) ring-enhanced paraesophageal wall (3) locally enhanced esophageal wall (4) beltlike-enhanced parietal pleura. Types (1) (2) (4) were obtained in the 1st or the 2nd EIS, and type (3) was obtained in the 3rd EIS or more. These CT findings did not correlate with total volume of injected sclerosant. Seven of 8 patients with CT finding of Type (3) had esophageal ulcer. (We consider that esophageal ulcer is necessary to fibrosis of the lower eshophageal wall). When CT finding of type (3) was obtained, we put off the next procedure of EIS. Pleural effusion occured after 2 of 18 procedures with CT finding of type (1), 2 of 9 with type (2), 0 of 8 with type (3), and 1 of 14 with type (4). We speculated that most of patients with type (4) would have pleural effusion. But CT findings did not correlate with pleural effusion. Chest pain occurred after 1 of 18 procedures with CT finding of type (1), 1 of 9 with type (2), 2 of 8 with type (3), and 1 of 14 with type (4). Fever occurred after 0 of 18 procedures with CT findings of type (1), 0 of 9 with type (2), 2 of 8 with type (3), 0 of 14 with type (4). These results suggest that 1% AS injected into paravariceal esophageal wall have no reference to the minor complications. The sclerosants injected into the paravaries was thought to diffuse rapidly, but it is unlikely that this distribution of 1% AS is the main factor of pleural effusion, chest pain, and fever after EIS. (author).

  15. Seawater injection experience: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, C.C.

    1982-10-01

    With the increasing number of pressure-maintenance and waterflood projects throughout the world, seawater is being used more and more as the injection water. The authors have operated one of the oldest seawater injection projects at Bay Marchand, offshore Louisiana, since 1963. Much experience has been gained from this successful project in the areas of corrosion and bacteria control, filter operations, and reservoir effects. More recently, the authors initiated an offshore seawater injection program at the Ninian field, U.K. North Sea. Watertreating requirements inherent to this offshore area have had to be considered in this project. There are similarities between the two projects but also significant differences because of differences in project size, age, and geography.

  16. Pellet injection and toroidal confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of a technical committee meeting on pellet injection and toroidal confinement, held in Gut Ising, Federal Republic of Germany, 24-26 October, 1988, are given in this report. Most of the major fusion experiments are using pellet injectors; these were reported at this meeting. Studies of confinement, which is favorably affected, impurity transport, radiative energy losses, and affects on the ion temperature gradient instability were given. Studies of pellet ablation and effects on plasma profiles were presented. Finally, several papers described present and proposed injection guns. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. On Simple-Injective Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.K. Nicholson; Jae Keol Park; M.F. Yousif

    2002-01-01

    A ring R is called right simple-injective if every R-linear map from a right ideal of R to R with simple image can be extended to R. It is shown that a right simple-injective ring R is quasi-Frobenius if R is right Goldie with essential right socle, or R is left perfect and the right annihilator of k ∈ R is finitely generated whenever kR or Rk is simple. This extends a result of Bjork.

  18. Mastering Ninject for dependency injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baharestani, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection teaches you the most powerful concepts of Ninject in a simple and easy-to-understand format using lots of practical examples, diagrams, and illustrations.Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection is aimed at software developers and architects who wish to create maintainable, extensible, testable, and loosely coupled applications. Since Ninject targets the .NET platform, this book is not suitable for software developers of other platforms. Being familiar with design patterns such as singleton or factory would be beneficial, but no knowledge of depende

  19. On Pseudo Small Injective Mo dules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yu-e; DU Xian-neng

    2013-01-01

    The definition of principally pseu do injectivity motivates us to generalize the notion of injectivity, noted SP pseudo injectivity. The aim of this paper is to investigate characterizations and properties of SP pseudo injective modules. Various results are devel-oped, many extending known results. As applications, we give some characterizations on Noetherian rings, QI rings, quasi-Frobenius rings.

  20. Rat Nerve Growth Factor with Warming Acupuncture Point Injection for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy%穴位注射鼠神经生长因子配合温针灸对糖尿病周围神经病变的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓聪; 周思远

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察鼠神经生长因子穴位注射配合温针灸治疗糖尿病周围神经病变( DPN )的疗效及安全性。方法:将40例糖尿病周围神经病变患者随机分为两组,对照组20例常规给予胰岛素或口服降糖药控制血糖及甲钴胺肌肉注射;治疗组20例在对照组治疗基础上加用温针灸配合鼠神经生长因子穴位注射。两组疗程均为30天。两组均在治疗前后采用可视化视觉模拟评分法( VAS)评定疗效、肌电图测腓总神经( common peroneal nerve )的MNCV 及SNCV。结果:治疗组总有效率显著高于对照组( P <0.05),治疗组各项神经传导速度显著高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:温针灸配合鼠神经生长因子足阳明经穴注射对糖尿病周围神经病变是一种比较安全有效的治疗方法。%Objective:To observe the efficacy and safety of nerve growth factor of rats by warm acupuncture and acupoint injection for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy ( DPN) .Methods:40 patients with diabetes peripheral neuropathy were randomly divided into two groups .20 cases in control group received normal insulin or oral medications to control blood sugar and muscle injection , a cobalt amine 1/d;Treatment group based on the therapy in the control group was given nerve growth factor with warm acupuncture point injection .The course was for 30 d.Visual analogue scale ( VAS) was to evaluate the curative effect and electromyography was to test MNCV and SNCV of common peroneal nerve .Results:The total effective rate in the treatment group was signifi-cantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05), and in the treatment group the nerve conduction veloci-ty was significantly higher than that in the control group ( P<0 .05 ) .Conclusion:Rat nerve growth factor with warming acupuncture point nerve injection for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is safe and effec -tive.

  1. Application of Kinetic Turbidimetric Limulus Test for Nerve Growth Factor for Injection%动态浊度法定量检测注射用神经生长因子中的细菌内毒素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宾漫容; 马丽; 陈焕勇; 曹宜生

    2003-01-01

    @@ 神经生长因子(nerve growth factor,NGF)是神经系统最主要的生物活性物质之一,是交感神经元、感觉神经元和中枢部分胆碱能神经元的营养因子.NGF在临床上已开始应用于各种外伤、术后、缺血性脑梗死、中毒性神经病、老年性痴呆、帕金森氏病、脑发育不全等疾病的治疗.本文采用动态浊度法对其细菌内毒素进行了定量研究.动态浊度法(kinetic turbidimetric limulus test)是浊度法定量测定的一种,其原理系微量的内毒素与鲎试剂中的C因子发生反应,激活凝固酶原、切断凝固蛋白原特定位置的精氨酸肽键,形成凝固蛋白从而产生凝胶过程中的浊度变化,采用适当的光学仪器测量的一种分析方法.

  2. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

    1984-09-01

    The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

  3. Injection quality measurements with diamond based particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Oliver; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    During the re-commissioning phase of the LHC after the long shutdown 1 very high beam losses were observed at the TDI during beam injection. The losses reached up to 90% of the dump threshold. To decrease the through beam losses induced stress on the accelerator components these loss levels need to be reduced. Measurements with diamond based particle detectors (dBLMs), which have nano-second time resolution, revealed that the majority of these losses come from recaptured SPS beam surrounding the nominal bunch train. In this MD the injection loss patterns and loss intensities were investigated in greater detail. Performed calibration shots on the TDI (internal beam absorber for injection) gave a conversion factor from impacting particles intensities to signal in the dBLMs (0.1Vs/109 protons). Using the SPS tune kicker for cleaning the recaptured beam in the SPS and changing the LHC injection kicker settings resulted in a reduction of the injection losses. For 144 bunch injections the loss levels were decreased...

  4. LHC Injection Beam Quality During LHC Run I

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079186; Stapnes, Steinar

    The LHC at CERN was designed to accelerate proton beams from 450 GeV to 7 TeV and collide them in four large experiments. The 450 GeV beam is extracted from the last pre-accelerator, the SPS, and injected into the LHC via two 3 km long transfer lines, TI 2 and TI 8. The injection process is critical in terms of preservation of beam quality and machine protection. During LHC Run I (2009-2013) the LHC was filled with twelve high intensity injections per ring, in batches of up to 144 bunches of 1.7*10^11 protons per bunch. The stored beam energy of such a batch is already an order of magnitude above the damage level of accelerator equipment. Strict quality and machine protection requirements at injection have a significant impact on operational efficiency. During the first years of LHC operation, the injection phase was identified as one of the limiting factors for fast LHC turnaround time. The LHC Injection Quality Check (IQC) software framework was developed as a part of this thesis to monitor the beam quality...

  5. Characterisation of demoulding parameters in micro‑injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C.A.; Tosello, Guido; Dimov, S.S.;

    2015-01-01

    on the process factors that affect parts’ quality. Using a Cyclic Olefin Copolyme (COC) microfluidics demonstrator, the demoulding performance was studied as a function of four process parameters (melt temperature, mould temperature, holding pressure and injection speed), employing the design of experiment...

  6. Epidural Injections for Spinal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Imaging guidance, such as fluoroscopy or computed tomography (CT or "CAT" scan), may be used to help the doctor place the needle in exactly the right location so the patient can receive maximum benefit from the injection. top of page What are ...

  7. XQuery Injection Attack and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭玉森

    2014-01-01

    As a database that allows data to be stored in XML format, XML database suffers from some similar attacks as traditional relational database does. These attacks include injection attack by XQuey function in application software. These include BaseX, eXist and MarkLogic. In order to defeat these attacks, countermeasures are proposed.

  8. Influencing Factors and the Law on Solubility of CaCO3 Scale in Saline Injection Pipe%卤水管道中影响碳酸钙垢溶解度的因素及规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于剑峰; 霍静; 唐仕明; 袁存光

    2011-01-01

    In view of influencing factors (such as temperature, pH, salinity, etc. )and the law on solubility (expressing by Ksp) of CaCO3 scale is studied according to actual production problems in lose halogen pipeline in Salt Chemical Plant of Jianghan Oilfield. Results are the solubility of calcium carbonate with the rise of temperature decreases, and with the pH decreases. The solubility of calcium carbonate is the largest when NaCl concentration of 50 g/L. The brine conveying anti - scaling conditions are determined, and preventive brine pipelines carbonate scaling research methods are established, when theoretical analysis and experiment combination rule according to brine water conditions in Salt Chemical Plant of Jianghan Oilfield. This achievement has successfully solved the enterprise loses brine pipe of calcium carbonate scaling problems.%文章针对江汉油田盐化工总厂的卤水管道结垢的生产实际,系统研究了影响碳酸钙溶解度(用Ksp表征)的因素(温度、pH值及盐浓度)及其规律.碳酸钙的溶解度随着温度升高、pH增大而减小,当盐浓度为50g/L时,碳酸钙的溶解度最大.针对江汉油田盐化工总厂的卤水水质情况,理论分析和实验规律结合,确定了其卤水输送的阻垢条件,建立了预防卤水输送管道的碳酸盐结垢的研究方法,成功解决了碳酸钙类结垢的问题.

  9. Initiation to heroin injecting among heroin users in Sydney, Australia: cross sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Day Carolyn A; Ross Joanne; Dietze Paul; Dolan Kate

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Heroin injection is associated with health and social problems including hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission. Few studies have examined the circumstances surrounding initiation to heroin injecting, especially current users initiating others. The current study aimed to examine the age of first heroin use and injection; administration route of first heroin use; relationship to initiator; the initiation of others among a group of heroin users; and to examine these factors in...

  10. Temporal pore pressure induced stress changes during injection and depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Birgit; Heidbach, Oliver; Schilling, Frank; Fuchs, Karl; Röckel, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Induced seismicity is observed during injection of fluids in oil, gas or geothermal wells as a rather immediate response close to the injection wells due to the often high-rate pressurization. It was recognized even earlier in connection with more moderate rate injection of fluid waste on a longer time frame but higher induced event magnitudes. Today, injection-related induced seismicity significantly increased the number of events with M>3 in the Mid U.S. However, induced seismicity is also observed during production of fluids and gas, even years after the onset of production. E.g. in the Groningen gas field production was required to be reduced due to the increase in felt and damaging seismicity after more than 50 years of exploitation of that field. Thus, injection and production induced seismicity can cause severe impact in terms of hazard but also on economic measures. In order to understand the different onset times of induced seismicity we built a generic model to quantify the role of poro-elasticity processes with special emphasis on the factors time, regional crustal stress conditions and fault parameters for three case studies (injection into a low permeable crystalline rock, hydrothermal circulation and production of fluids). With this approach we consider the spatial and temporal variation of reservoir stress paths, the "early" injection-related induced events during stimulation and the "late" production induced ones. Furthermore, in dependence of the undisturbed in situ stress field conditions the stress tensor can change significantly due to injection and long-term production with changes of the tectonic stress regime in which previously not critically stressed faults could turn to be optimally oriented for fault reactivation.

  11. Computational design of mould sprue for injection moulding thermoplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar Lakkanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To injection mould polymers, designing mould is a key task involving several critical decisions with direct implications to yield quality, productivity and frugality. One prominent decision among them is specifying sprue-bush conduit expansion as it significantly influences overall injection moulding; abstruseness anguish in its design criteria deceives direct determination. Intuitively designers decide it wisely and then exasperate by optimising or manipulating processing parameters. To overwhelm that anomaly this research aims at proposing an ideal design criteria holistically for all polymeric materials also tend as a functional assessment metric towards perfection i.e., criteria to specify sprue conduit size before mould development. Accordingly, a priori analytical criterion was deduced quantitatively as expansion ratio from ubiquitous empirical relationships specifically a.k.a an exclusive expansion angle imperatively configured for injectant properties. Its computational intelligence advantage was leveraged to augment functionality of perfectly injecting into an impression gap, while synchronising both injector capacity and desired moulding features. For comprehensiveness, it was continuously sensitised over infinite scale as an explicit factor dependent on in-situ spatio-temporal injectant state perplexity with discrete slope and altitude for each polymeric character. In which congregant ranges of apparent viscosity and shear thinning index were conceived to characteristically assort most thermoplastics. Thereon results accorded aggressive conduit expansion widening for viscous incrust, while a very aggressive narrowing for shear thinning encrust; among them apparent viscosity had relative dominance. This important rationale would certainly form a priori design basis as well diagnose filling issues causing several defects. Like this the proposed generic design criteria, being simple would immensely benefit mould designers besides serve

  12. Intraperitoneal injection (IP), Intravenous injection (IV) or anal injection (AI)? Best way for mesenchymal stem cells transplantation for colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Liang, Cong; Hu, Hao; Zhou, Lin; Xu, Bing; Wang, Xin; Han, Ying; Nie, Yongzhan; Jia, Shuyun; Liang, Jie; Wu, Kaichun

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation showed promising results in IBD management. However, the therapeutic impacts of cell delivery route that is critical for clinical translation are currently poorly understood. Here, three different MSCs delivery routes: intraperitoneal (IP), intravenous (IV), and anal injection (AI) were compared on DSS-induced colitic mice model. The overall therapeutic factors, MSCs migration and targeting as well as local immunomodulatory cytokines and FoxP3+ cells infiltration were analyzed. Colitis showed varying degrees of alleviation after three ways of MSCs transplantation, and the IP injection showed the highest survival rate of 87.5% and displayed the less weight loss and quick weight gain. The fecal occult blood test on the day 3 also showed nearly complete absence of occult blood in IP group. The fluorescence imaging disclosed higher intensity of engrafted cells in inflamed colon and the corresponding mesentery lymph nodes (MLNs) in IP and AI groups than the IV group. Real time-PCR and ELISA also demonstrate lower TNF-α and higher IL-10, TSG-6 levels in IP group. The immunohistochemistry indicated higher repair proliferation (Ki-67) and more FoxP3+ cells accumulation of IP group. IP showed better colitis recovery and might be the optimum MSCs delivery route for the treatment of DSS-induced colitis. PMID:27488951

  13. Single Performance Optimization of Micro Metal Injection Molding for the Highest Green Strength by Using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.I Ibrahim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Micro metal injection molding is drawing attention recently as one the most cost effective processes in powder metallurgy to produce small-scale intricate part and competitive cost for mass production of micro components where it is greatly influenced by injection parameter. Thus, this paper investigated the optimization of highest green strength which plays an important characteristic in determining the successful of micro MIM. Stainless steel SS 316L was used with composite binder, which consists of PEG and PMMA while SA works as a surfactant. Feedstock with 61.5% with several injection parameters were optimized which highly significant through screening experiment such as injection pressure(A, injection temperature(B, mold temperature(C, injection time(D and holding time(E. Besides that, interaction effects between injection pressure, injection temperature and mold temperature were also considered to optimize in the Taguchi’s orthogonal array. Analysis of variance (ANOVA in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N-larger is better for green strength was also presented in this paper. Result shows that interaction between injection temperature and mold temperature (BxC give highest significant factor followed by interaction between injection pressure and injection temperature (AxB. Single factor that also contributes to significant optimization are mold temperature(C, injection time (D and injection pressure (A. Overall, this study shows that Taguchi method would be among the best method to solve the problem with minimum number of trials.

  14. Dynamics of ionization-induced electron injection in the high density regime of laser wakefield acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of ionization-induced electron injection in high density (∼1.2 × 1019 cm−3) regime of laser wakefield acceleration is investigated by analyzing the betatron X-ray emission. In such high density operation, the laser normalized vector potential exceeds the injection-thresholds of both ionization-injection and self-injection due to self-focusing. In this regime, direct experimental evidence of early on-set of ionization-induced injection into the plasma wave is given by mapping the X-ray emission zone inside the plasma. Particle-In-Cell simulations show that this early on-set of ionization-induced injection, due to its lower trapping threshold, suppresses the trapping of self-injected electrons. A comparative study of the electron and X-ray properties is performed for both self-injection and ionization-induced injection. An increase of X-ray fluence by at least a factor of two is observed in the case of ionization-induced injection due to increased trapped charge compared to self-injection mechanism

  15. Exserohilum Infections Associated with Contaminated Steroid Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Jana M.; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Blau, Dianna M.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Drew, Clifton P.; Batten, Brigid C.; Bartlett, Jeanine H.; Metcalfe, Maureen G.; Pham, Cau D.; Lockhart, Shawn R.; Patel, Mitesh; Liu, Lindy; Jones, Tara L.; Greer, Patricia W.; Montague, Jeltley L.; White, Elizabeth; Rollin, Dominique C.; Seales, Cynthia; Stewart, Donna; Deming, Mark V.; Brandt, Mary E.; Zaki, Sherif R.

    2014-01-01

    September 2012 marked the beginning of the largest reported outbreak of infections associated with epidural and intra-articular injections. Contamination of methylprednisolone acetate with the black mold, Exserohilum rostratum, was the primary cause of the outbreak, with >13,000 persons exposed to the potentially contaminated drug, 741 confirmed drug-related infections, and 55 deaths. Fatal meningitis and localized epidural, paraspinal, and peripheral joint infections occurred. Tissues from 40 laboratory-confirmed cases representing these various clinical entities were evaluated by histopathological analysis, special stains, and IHC to characterize the pathological features and investigate the pathogenesis of infection, and to evaluate methods for detection of Exserohilum in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Fatal cases had necrosuppurative to granulomatous meningitis and vasculitis, with thrombi and abundant angioinvasive fungi, with extensive involvement of the basilar arterial circulation of the brain. IHC was a highly sensitive method for detection of fungus in FFPE tissues, demonstrating both hyphal forms and granular fungal antigens, and PCR identified Exserohilum in FFPE and fresh tissues. Our findings suggest a pathogenesis for meningitis involving fungal penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid at the injection site, with transport through cerebrospinal fluid to the basal cisterns and subsequent invasion of the basilar arteries. Further studies are needed to characterize Exserohilum and investigate the potential effects of underlying host factors and steroid administration on the pathogenesis of infection. PMID:23809916

  16. 77 FR 52717 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for... final decision allows the continued underground injection by Cornerstone, of the specific...

  17. 77 FR 26755 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for... final decision allows the continued underground injection by Diamond Shamrock, of the...

  18. Accuracy of ultrasound-guided injections of thoracolumbar articular process joints in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglbjerg, Vibeke; Nielsen, J.V.; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl;

    2010-01-01

    in the literature. Objectives: To evaluate factors of affecting the accuracy of intra-articular injections of the APJs in the caudal thoracolumbar region. Method: One-hundred-and-fifty-four injections with blue dye were performed on APJs including the T14-L6 region in 12 horses subjected to euthanasia for reasons...

  19. A history of growth hormone injection devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidotti, E

    2001-05-01

    In the early 1960s, growth hormone (GH) deficiency was treated by intramuscular injection of GH extracted from human pituitary glands. Since then, there have been many advances in treatment encompassing the route of administration, the injection product and the injection device. This review considers the advances in injection device that have already taken place and how they have benefited the patient, particularly in terms of reduced pain and improved convenience. In the future, needle-free injection techniques and depot formulations of GH are likely to offer alternatives to daily subcutaneous injections. PMID:11393569

  20. Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunt, Michael J.; Orr, Franklin M.

    1999-05-26

    This report describes research carried out in the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Stanford University from September 1996 - September 1997 under the first year of a three-year Department of Energy grant on the Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs. The research effort is an integrated study of the factors affecting gas injection, from the pore scale to the field scale, and involves theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments and numerical simulation. The original proposal described research in four main areas; (1) Pore scale modeling of three phase flow in porous media; (2) Laboratory experiments and analysis of factors influencing gas injection performance at the core scale with an emphasis on the fundamentals of three phase flow; (3) Benchmark simulations of gas injection at the field scale; and (4) Development of streamline-based reservoir simulator. Each stage of the research is planned to provide input and insight into the next stage, such that at the end we should have an integrated understanding of the key factors affecting field scale displacements.

  1. Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunt, Martin J.; Orr, Franklin M.

    1999-05-17

    This report describes research carried out in the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Stanford University from September 1997 - September 1998 under the second year of a three-year grant from the Department of Energy on the "Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs." The research effort is an integrated study of the factors affecting gas injection, from the pore scale to the field scale, and involves theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulation. The original proposal described research in four areas: (1) Pore scale modeling of three phase flow in porous media; (2) Laboratory experiments and analysis of factors influencing gas injection performance at the core scale with an emphasis on the fundamentals of three phase flow; (3) Benchmark simulations of gas injection at the field scale; and (4) Development of streamline-based reservoir simulator. Each state of the research is planned to provide input and insight into the next stage, such that at the end we should have an integrated understanding of the key factors affecting field scale displacements.

  2. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kleeven, W

    2006-01-01

    The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with internal ion source are considered. The principle of a PIG source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different ways of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. A proposal for a magnetostatic axial inflector is given. Different solutions for beam extraction are treated. These include the internal target, extraction by stripping, resonant extraction using a deflector and self-extraction. The different ways of creating a turn-separation are explained. The purpose of different types of extraction devices such as harmonic coils, deflectors and gradient corrector channels are outlined. Several illustrations are given in the form of photographs and drawings.

  3. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... of 3 InGaAsP QWs on an InP substrate has been chosen for the modeling. In the simulations the main focus is on the electrical and optical properties of the nanolasers i.e. electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current and wallplug efficiency. In the current flow evaluation the lowest...... threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations...

  4. INJECTION BOTULINUM IN PARALYTIC STRABISMUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kishore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection to the antagonist muscle in paralytic strabismus. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of botulinum toxin a injection into the antagonist muscle in cases of paralytic strabismus to alleviate diplopia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a tertiary eye care hospital based prospective interventional study in the department of Orthoptics over a period from October 2011 to October 2013. 36 patients with paralytic strabismus of recent onset within 3 months, with chief complaint of double vision were included. RESULTS: The study data analysis of 36 patients of paralytic strabismus of recent onset (within 3 months with chief complaints of double vision showed a ge wise distribution as 3(8.33% in 0 - 20 years, 16(44.44% in 21 - 40 years, 16(44.44% in 41 - 60 years, 1(2.78% > 60 years. g ender wise 26(72.22% males, 10 (27.28% females, a etiology wise 15(41.67% were diabetic, 4(11.11% were traumatic, 11(30.56% were Id iopathic, 2(5.56% were due to CSOM and 4(11.11% due to Diabetes and Hypertension. All patients were treated with botulinum toxin injection to the antagonist nonoperatic muscle and were followed at an interval of 1 week, 1 month and 3 months. Thorough cli nical examination and Diplopia charting were done before and after treatment. CONCLUSION: Injection botulinum into the antagonist muscle during the first three months after the onset allows the patients to enjoy and appreciate fusion in primary gaze without necessity for head turn, Prevents contracture of antagonist muscle. Thus botulinum toxin is useful in the treatment of acute paretic loss of ocular muscle function when surgical treatment of the ocular muscles is not yet possible but the patient is obviously disturbed by diplopia or forced head posture. The procedure is simple, safe and effective method.

  5. Radial lean direct injection burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  6. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  7. 凝胶法和动态浊度法检测注射用重组人睫状神经营养因子中细菌内毒素含量%Development of bacterial endotoxin test for recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor for injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 应莲芳; 蒋琳; 高雪峰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a method in detection of bacteria endotoxin for recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor for injection with the gel-clot test and the kinetic turbidimetric test for the control of the quality of the drug and pre-vention of pyroten reaction in clinical practice .Methods the experiment was conducted according to BET in China Phar-macopoeia 2010 , third section .Results The protein concentration was 100 μg/mL, the detection limit for acterial endo-toxin as defined 10 EU/mL.With the gel-clot test and the kinetic turbidimetric test , results of the tested samples were vali-dated.Conclusion Both the gel-clot test and the kinetic turbidimetric test are suitable for bacterial endotoxin test of re-combinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor for injection .%目的采用凝胶法和动态浊度法检测注射用重组人睫状神经营养因子( CNTF )中细菌内毒素含量,控制制品质量,消除临床热原反应的发生。方法供试品参照《中华人民共和国药典》(2010年版)三部附录ⅫE细菌内毒素检查法中的凝胶法和动态浊度法要求进行检查。结果注射用重组人睫状神经营养因子溶液在100μg/mL质量浓度下,确定内毒素限值为10 EU/mL。凝胶法和动态浊度法检查后,注射用重组人睫状神经营养因子内毒素含量均符合规定。结论凝胶法和动态浊度法可用于注射用重组人睫状神经营养因子的细菌内毒素检查。

  8. A new route for fibre management in powder injection molded metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of short fibre reinforced metal matrix composites can be enhanced by controlling the directionality of the fibers. In the reported research, the multiple live feed injection moulding technique was successfully used for controlling the orientation of short fibers in powder injection molded metal matrix composites. A range of heavily loaded short fibre reinforced metal matrix compounds were injection molded by both parameters. The level of fibre orientation achieved in injection molded components was assessed by calculation of the orientation factor. One result of this investigation was identification of the moulding composition to achieve the highest level of fibre orientation in a preferred direction. (author)

  9. Evolution of the Global Use of Unsafe Medical Injections, 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépin, Jacques; Abou Chakra, Claire Nour; Pépin, Eric; Nault, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Objective Since 1999, substantial efforts have been made by the international community to reduce the risks associated with unsafe injections, through ministries of health, international donors, the World Health Organization and the Safe Injection Global Network. The present study attempted to measure the progress, or lack thereof, made over the 2000–2010 decade in reducing unsafe injections in ten regions of the world corresponding to developing and transitional economies. Methods Data about the number of injections per person per year and the proportion of re-use of syringes and needles were obtained for 2010, mainly from population surveys, and compared with previous estimates for 2000 which had used various sources of information including injection safety assessments, population surveys and published studies on injection practices. Results From 2000 to 2010, in developing countries and transitional economies, the average number of injections per person per year decreased from 3.40 to 2.88, while the proportion of re-use of injection devices dropped from 39.8% to 5.5%. Combining both factors the number of unsafe injections per person per year decreased from 1.35 to 0.16. Even if substantial progress has been made, the Eastern Mediterranean region remains problematic, with 0.57 unsafe injections per person per year. In sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, people now receive on average only 0.04–0.05 unsafe injections per year. Conclusion Substantial progress has been made in reducing the number of unsafe injections in developing countries and transitional economies, essentially through a reduction in the re-use of injection devices. In some regions, elimination of unsafe injections might become a reasonable goal. PMID:24324650

  10. Evolution of the global use of unsafe medical injections, 2000-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Pépin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Since 1999, substantial efforts have been made by the international community to reduce the risks associated with unsafe injections, through ministries of health, international donors, the World Health Organization and the Safe Injection Global Network. The present study attempted to measure the progress, or lack thereof, made over the 2000-2010 decade in reducing unsafe injections in ten regions of the world corresponding to developing and transitional economies. METHODS: Data about the number of injections per person per year and the proportion of re-use of syringes and needles were obtained for 2010, mainly from population surveys, and compared with previous estimates for 2000 which had used various sources of information including injection safety assessments, population surveys and published studies on injection practices. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2010, in developing countries and transitional economies, the average number of injections per person per year decreased from 3.40 to 2.88, while the proportion of re-use of injection devices dropped from 39.8% to 5.5%. Combining both factors the number of unsafe injections per person per year decreased from 1.35 to 0.16. Even if substantial progress has been made, the Eastern Mediterranean region remains problematic, with 0.57 unsafe injections per person per year. In sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, people now receive on average only 0.04-0.05 unsafe injections per year. CONCLUSION: Substantial progress has been made in reducing the number of unsafe injections in developing countries and transitional economies, essentially through a reduction in the re-use of injection devices. In some regions, elimination of unsafe injections might become a reasonable goal.

  11. Validation of three-dimensional micro injection molding simulation accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Costa, F.S.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    simulation accuracy (i.e. decrease deviations from experimental values): injection speed profile, cavity injection pressure, melt and mold temperatures, three-dimensional mesh parameters, and material rheological characterization. Quality factors investigated for the quantitative comparisons were: short shot...... length, injection pressure profile, molding mass and flow pattern. The importance of calibrated micro molding process monitoring for an accurate implementation strategy of the simulation and its validation has been demonstrated. In fact, inconsistencies and uncertainties in the experimental data must be......Data analysis and simulations on micro-molding experiments have been conducted. Micro molding simulations have been executed taking into account actual processing conditions implementation in the software. Various aspects of the simulation set-up have been considered in order to improve the...

  12. Toxicity of injected radium-226 in immature dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of injected {sup 226}Ra in immature dogs and to compare the results with those from studies of injected {sup 226}Ra in young adult dogs. An historic objective of these studies, initiated at the University of Utah and continued at ITRI, was to compare the results in dogs to the population of dial painters who ingested {sup 226}Ra as young adults. Age at the time of exposure is considered to be an important factor in dosimetry and risk of developing radiation-induced disease, particularly bone cancer. In summary, dogs injected with {sup 226}Ra when immature had increased occurrences of bone tumors in a dose-related fashion.

  13. Side Effects of Injectable Fertility Drugs (Gonadotropins)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually are used during fertility treatments such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). Injections of gonadotropins ... Gestation. When using injectable gonadotropins alone or with IUI, up to 30% of pregnancies are associated with ...

  14. Study on the Determination of Separated Layer Water Injection Based on Grey Correlation Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junting Zhang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available How to determine the separated layer water injection is a problem which reservoir engineers concern in flood development oil field. These various influential factors of dividing coefficient method are analyzed in this study. Grey correlation analysis method is used to determine the dominant influential factors. And the weight of different dominant influential factors is determined, which realizes the quantitative comparison among them in dividing coefficient formula. This method considers the impact of these factors which are consist of the measure transformation coefficient, perforation thickness, injector producer distance, location coefficient and the number of injector and producer. The separated layer water injection formula is determined. The scientific and reasonable injection allocation is realized. The problem which the contradiction exists in the same layer or between the layer and the layer is obvious in the S block through combining with the current water injection development. The separated layer water injection method is proposed necessarily. The formula for water injection is determined by grey correlation analysis method in Block S. These factors considered are more with the actual situation. And the reasonable injection allocation is realized. It is directive and referenced for other oil field or block.

  15. SQL INJECTION ATTACK DETECTION AND PREVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. SUNITHA ABBURU; PERUMALSAMY RAMASAMY

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays SQL injection attacks (SQLIAs) and cross scripting increased in real web applications very much, and the SQL injection attacks damages the databases through web applications. Injection queries are different type of way to attack the databases. This paper address the issue of SQLIA’s and script in an efficient way. The proposed approach detects and prevents all the Injection queries as well as the cross scripting through the Framework and Static analysis and Dynamic analysis. The cont...

  16. A Survey Of Sql Injection Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    R.P Mahapatra; Subi Khan

    2012-01-01

    SQL injection has become a predominant type of attacks that target web applications. It allows attackers to obtain unauthorized access to the back-end database to change the intended application-generated SQL queries. Researchers have proposed various solutions to address SQL injection problems. However, many of them have limitations and often cannot address all kinds of injection problems. What’s more, new types of SQL injection attacks have arisen over the years. To better counter these at...

  17. Wideband-frequency tunable optoelectronic oscillator based on injection locking to an electronic oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleyer, Michael; Sherman, Alexander; Horowitz, Moshe; Namer, Moshe

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a wideband-frequency tunable optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) based on injection locking of the OEO to a tunable electronic oscillator. The OEO cavity does not contain a narrowband filter and its frequency can be tuned over a broad bandwidth of 1 GHz. The injection locking is based on minimizing the injected power by adjusting the frequency of one of the OEO cavity modes to be approximately equal to the frequency of the injected signal. The phase noise that is obtained in the injection-locked OEO is similar to that obtained in a long-cavity self-sustained OEO. Although the cavity length of the OEO was long, the spurious modes were suppressed due to the injection locking without the need to use a narrowband filter. The spurious level was significantly below that obtained in a self-sustained OEO after inserting a narrowband electronic filter with a Q-factor of 720 into the cavity.

  18. An Experimental Study of Intra-nucleus Gelatinosus Injection of Transforming Growth Factor -β1 through Posterior lateral Approach in Prevention of Degeneration of Cartilage Endplate%兔侧后方入路髓核内注射TGF-β1预防软骨终板退变实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骁; 杨学军; 霍洪军; 卡索; 刘成

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of intra-nucleus gelatinosus injection of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) through posterior-lateral approach in prevention of degeneration of cartilage endplate due to intervertebral destabilization.Methods 36 six-month-old oryctolagus cuniculus were chosen and divided into control group and observation group (18 in each).Both groups were rendered to models with L5-6 and L6-7 destabilization by intervertebral destabilization surgery.The observation group received intra-nucleus gelatinosus injection of TGF-β1 through posterior-lateral approach after the surgery in the 3rd and 6th month, cartilage endplates of L5-6 and L6 -7 were excised in 8 oryctolagus cuniculus respectively.Hematoxylin and eosin stain was used to observe the histomorphology of the samples, and Mankin score was used to evaluate the cartilage endplates.Type Ⅱcollagen was determined, and all the results in both groups were compared.Results In the 3rd and 6th month after surgery, the degeneration of cartilage endplates in observation group was slower than that in the control group,Mankin score was significantly lower than that in the control group(P < 0.01 ), and grey scale value of expression of type Ⅱcollagen in cartilage endplates was significantly lower than that in the control group(P <0.01 ).Conclusion: Intra- nucleus gelatinosus injection of TGF-β1 can prevent the degeneration of the cartilage endplate due to intervertebral destabilization.%目的 探讨经侧后方入路髓核内注射转化生长因子-β1(transforming growth factor-β1,TGF-β1)预防椎间失稳后软骨终板退变的作用.方法 选择6月龄日本大耳白兔36只,随机分为对照组和观察组各18只.两组均通过椎间失稳手术制备成腰5~6、腰6~7椎间失稳模型.观察组在术后立即经侧后方入路髓核内注射TGF-β1 25~30 μl.于术后3个月、6个月各取8只动物,分别切取腰5~6、腰6~7椎间盘的软骨终板,对标本

  19. The Three Generations of Flow Injection Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Wang, Jianhua

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of the three generations of flow injection analysis, that is, FIA, sequential injection analysis (SIA), and bead injection-lab-on-valve (BI-LOV), are briefly outlined, their individual advantages and shortcomings are discussed, and selected practical applications are presented....

  20. Comparison of injection molding and injection/compression molding for the replication of microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seokkwan; Hwang, Jeongho; Kang, Jeongjin; Yoon, Kyunghwan

    2015-11-01

    Because of increasing interest in the functional surfaces including micro- or nano-patterns, the mass production of such surfaces has been actively researched. Both conventional injection molding (CIM) and injection/compression molding (ICM) of micro-patterns were investigated in the present study. The molding subject is a multi-scale structure that consists of a macro-scale thin plate and micro-scale patterns formed regularly on its surface. The transcription ratios of micro pattern made by CIM and ICM for different flow length were experimentally measured, and the origin of the obtained results was identified through numerical analysis. It was found that the cavity pressure and polymer temperature are the most important factors for micro-pattern filling; in particular, the polymer temperature is the key factor determining the transcription ratio. It was also found that the difference in CIM and ICM micro-pattern transcription ratios originates from the differences in the cavity pressure history if other molding conditions are the same.

  1. Trajectory Analysis of Fuel Injection into Supersonic Cross Flow Based on Schlieren Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hui; LI Feng; SUN Baigang

    2012-01-01

    Trajectory analysis of fuel injection into supersonic cross flow is studied in this paper.A directly-connected wind tunnel is constructed to provide stable supersonic freestream.Based on the test rig,the schlieren system is established to reveal the fuel injection process visually.Subsequently,the method of quantitative schlieren is adopted to obtain data of both fuel/air interface and bow shock with the aid of Photoshop and Origin.Finally,the mechanism based on two influential factors of fuel injection angle and fuel injection driven pressure,is researched by vector analysis.A dimensionless model is deduced and analyzed.The curve fitting result is achieved.The relationship between the data and the two influential factors is established.The results provide not only the quantitative characteristics of the fuel injection in supersonic cross flow but also the valuable reference for the future computational simulation.

  2. Injecting Drug Users Retention in Needle-Exchange Program and its Determinants in Iran Prisons

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbazi, Mohammad; Farnia, Marzieh; MORADI, Ghobad; Karamati, Mohammadreza; Paknazar, Fatemeh; Mirmohammad'khani, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Participation and to stay in a health program depends on many factors. One of these programs is Needle Exchange Program (NEP) in prisons. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the retention of injecting drug prisoners and find the related factors in Iran. Patients and Methods: This cohort study analyzed data about injecting drug male prisoners who were participated in NEP in three Iranian prisons. Data was collected from October 2009 to June 2010. A proper approach of su...

  3. Stability of succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, C W; Mühlebach, S F

    1991-03-01

    The stability of succinylcholine chloride injection prepared by a hospital pharmacy was studied under a wide variety of conditions. Batches of succinylcholine chloride injection 10 mg/mL containing sodium chloride, methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, hydrochloric acid, and water were prepared. Samples were tested for the effect of initial pH (3.0 and 4.2) and sterilization (steam treatment at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes and 121 degrees C for 20 minutes) on stability after three weeks; long-term stability under refrigeration (12, 17, and 23 months of storage at 4 degrees C); and the effect of storage temperature (4-6 degrees C, 20-26 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 70 degrees C) and light exposure at various intervals up to 12 months. Samples were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Unlike heating at 121 degrees C, heating at 100 degrees C produced no significant loss of succinylcholine chloride, independent of the initial pH. Succinylcholine chloride was hydrolyzed only minimally over 23 months if the solution was stored at 4-6 degrees C. A 10% loss of drug content occurred if solutions were kept at 20-26 degrees C for five months, at 35 degrees C for one month, or at 70 degrees C for one day. Initial degradation was slowed if the solution was protected from light. The assessments by TLC proved to be more sensitive than the HPLC measurements. Succinylcholine chloride injection sterilized at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes can be stored for up to five months at room temperature if protected from light. The preparation is stable for at least two years under refrigeration. PMID:2028996

  4. 局部注射BDNF对压力性尿失禁模型大鼠LPP及EUS内BDNF的影响%The Effect of Local Injection of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor on LPP and BDNF in External Urethral Sphincter in Stress Urinary Incontinence Model Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马翠; 王志莲; 郝敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:探究阴部神经(PN)损伤后局部注入脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)对压力性尿失禁模型大鼠漏尿点压力(LPP)及尿道外括约肌(EUS)脑源性神经营养因子表达的影响。方法:SD大鼠接受模拟分娩损伤和双侧卵巢切除,并建立压力性尿失禁模型。2周后评估模型建立是否成功。造模成功后,大鼠按照随机数字表法分为三组:BDNF组,损伤PN后局部注入BDNF,缝合后标记部位,第4、6、8天分别于标记部位再次注射;生理盐水组,损伤PN后局部注入生理盐水,量及方法同上;假损伤组,分离PN未损伤。2周后再次进行漏尿点压力及喷嚏实验。随后处死大鼠,取EUS行免疫组化,观察BDNF表达变化。结果:PN损伤后,统计学分析显示,生理盐水组LPP明显低于BDNF组和假损伤组,差异均有统计学意义(P0.05);HE染色显示,生理盐水组与假损伤组相比,肌纤维断裂及横纹肌排列致密程度均明显下降;免疫组化结果显示,假损伤组括约肌内BDNF含量低,与BDNF组及生理盐水组比较差异均有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:局部注射脑源性神经营养因子可能通过刺激神经再生从而促进尿道外括约肌的恢复,进而有利于压力性尿失禁大鼠LPP的恢复。%Objective:To investigate the effect of local injection of brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) on LPP and BDNF expression in external urethral sphincter(EUS)in stress urinary incontinence model rats after pudendal nerve(PN)injury.Method:SD rats received simulated birth trauma and bilateral ovariectomy,stress urinary incontinence model was established.After 2 weeks,we assessed the model success or not.After the success of modeling, the rats were randomly divided into three groups:the BDNF group,BDNF was local injected after PN injury,position were marked after suture,4,6,8 days the position were injected again;the saline group

  5. US guided injections in arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zordo, Tobias [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Western Ontario, London Health Science Centre - University Hospital, 339 Windermere Road, London, Ontario, N6A 5A5 (Canada); Mur, Erich; Bellmann-Weiler, Rosa [Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Sailer-Hoeck, Michaela [Department of Pediatrics, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Chhem, Rethy [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Western Ontario, London Health Science Centre - University Hospital, 339 Windermere Road, London, Ontario, N6A 5A5 (Canada); Feuchtner, Gudrun M.; Jaschke, Werner [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Klauser, Andrea S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: andrea.klauser@i-med.ac.at

    2009-08-15

    US guided procedures for diagnosis or treatment of different forms of arthritis are becoming more and more important. This review describes general considerations for fluid aspiration, articular or periarticular injections and biopsies by US guidance according to the recent literature. Guidelines regarding instrumentation, different techniques, pre- and postprocedural care as well as complications are outlined and in Second part a more detailed overview of different interventions in joints, tendons and other periarticular regions (nerves, bursae, etc.) is included. Furthermore, some newer, more sophisticated techniques are briefly discussed.

  6. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction....... For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  7. Effect of injection wells with partially perforated completion on CO2/brine flow distribution and injectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyant, E.; Han, W. S.; Kim, K. Y.; Jung, N. H.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Sequestration is a viable technology to reduce the concentration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. The success of an injection project requires large amounts of dry supercritical CO2 to be injected into brine saturated aquifers within the subsurface. However, solid salt precipitation causes a reduction of permeability, having adverse effects on well injectivity as well as pressure build-up. This study evaluated the accumulation of precipitated salt, brine flux patterns, and pressure build-up for two well constructions, 1) partially completed with 4 injection intervals and 2) fully completed throughout the thickness of the target formation. This study found that when a partially completed well is implemented, precipitation of solid salt experiences a greater radial extent then a fully completed well. Both well designs showed non-localized salt precipitation in low permeability formations (5 and 50 mD) and localized salt precipitation at high permeability (250 and 500 mD). It was also found that two different brine flux patterns occurred; under low-k conditions the brine flux was primarily outward and parallel to the direction of the CO2 migration and salt precipitation became limited. While under high-k conditions there developed back-flow of the brine to the tail of the plume as the plume experienced greater vertical movement, and the counter-flowing brine sustained the precipitation process amplifying salt precipitation. When this process occurred the permeability reduction factor became orders of magnitude less then when non-localized salt precipitation occurred, and formed an impermeable barrier around the injection well. The formation of this barrier was found to have the effect of increasing the pressure build-up near the well in regions of the reservoir in which it occurred. A sensitivity analysis on the anisotropic/isotropic nature of the reservoir and the value of the critical porosity was also conducted. The

  8. Assessment of self-injection experience in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: psychometric validation of the Self-Injection Assessment Questionnaire (SIAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keininger Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subcutaneous self-injection of medication has benefits for the patient and healthcare system, but there are barriers such as dexterity problems and injection anxiety that can prevent self-injection being used effectively. An accurate method of evaluating patients' experiences with self-injection would enable assessment of their success in giving self-injections and the likelihood of them adhering to a self-injection regimen. The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire to measure overall patient experience with subcutaneous self-injection (the Self-Injection Assessment Questionnaire [SIAQ], and to investigate its psychometric properties. Methods The construct validity and reliability of the SIAQ were tested in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who volunteered to inject certolizumab pegol using a standard syringe during an open-label multinational extension trial of the long-term safety and efficacy of this drug. The SIAQ PRE module was self-completed before the first self-injection, and the POST module was self-completed following each of three fortnightly self-injections. Results Ninety-seven patients completed the SIAQ. All items correlated well with their respective domains in confirmatory factor analysis. As predicted, compared with other participants, patients with very low scores (less than 3 out of 10 in PRE causal domains (Feelings about injections and Self-confidence were significantly less satisfied with their first self-injection, as were patients with a very low score in any POST causal domain (Self-confidence, Feelings about injections, Injection-site reactions and Ease of use, demonstrating known-groups validity. Causal domain scores generally correlated most strongly with the Satisfaction with self-injection domain, supporting convergent validity. The SIAQ demonstrated internal consistency and reproducibility; Cronbach's α and the test-retest coefficient were > 0.70 for all domains. Sensitivity and

  9. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-05-31

    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  10. Drug Injection to Sites other than Arm: A Study of Iranian heroin injectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad eKarimi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For almost all injecting drug users (IDUs, the first injection is done to the arm. Years after in their injection career, they shift to using other sites for intravenous access. Although injection to sites other than arm is considered as a risky behavior, literature is poor regarding this behavior. We aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of using intravenous (IV access points other than arm among a national sample of IDUs in Iran. In a secondary analysis of the national drug dependence survey in 2007, we enrolled all 863 IDUs with at least once daily heroin injections. Data on socio-demographics, drug use data and injection related behavior entered to a backward logistic regression to determine the predictors of our main outcome which was injection to any IV access points other than arm. From all participants, 54.8% reported current injection in sites other than arm. Injection sites were femoral venous sinus (17.0%, groin (14.5%, neck (11.5%, other sites (3.0%, or missing (8.8%. Logistic regression revealed that living alone (OR=1.789, 95% CI=1.218 to 2.629, being Sonni (OR=3.475, 95% CI=1.775 to 6.801, Having higher family income (OR=1.002, 95% CI=1.001 to 1.003, higher age at first drug use (OR=1.039, 95% CI=1.009 to 1.069, more injection duration (OR=1.071, 95% CI=1.041 to 1.102, and more injection frequency (OR=1.255, 95% CI=1.072 to 1.471 were associated with higher likelihood of use of IV access points other than arm. Use of the other sites than arm for IV injection shows an attachment to some socio-demographics, drug use data, and injection related characteristics which can be used by policy makers in harm reduction planning.

  11. Acetaminophen injection: a review of clinical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Virginia M

    2011-01-01

    Acetaminophen injection is an antipyretic and analgesic agent recently marketed in the United States as Ofirmev. Five published trials directly compare acetaminophen injection to drugs available in the United States. For management of pain in adults, acetaminophen injection was at least as effective as morphine injection in renal colic, oral ibuprofen after cesarean delivery, and oral acetaminophen after coronary artery bypass surgery. In children (3 to 16 years old), single-dose acetaminophen injection was similar to meperidine intramuscular (i.m.) for pain after tonsillectomy; readiness for discharge from the recovery room was shorter with acetaminophen injection (median 15 minutes) compared with meperidine i.m. (median 25 minutes), P = .005. In children (2 to 5 years old) postoperative adenotonsillectomy or adenoidectomy, the time to rescue analgesia was superior with high-dose acetaminophen rectal suppository (median 10 hours) compared with acetaminophen injection (median 7 hours), P = .01. One published trial demonstrated acetaminophen injection is noninferior to propacetamol injection for fever related to infection in pediatric patients. Dosing adjustments are not required when switching between oral and injectable acetaminophen formulations in adult and adolescent patients. Acetaminophen injection represents another agent for multimodal pain management. PMID:21936636

  12. SQL INJECTION ATTACK DETECTION AND PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. SUNITHA ABBURU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays SQL injection attacks (SQLIAs and cross scripting increased in real web applications very much, and the SQL injection attacks damages the databases through web applications. Injection queries are different type of way to attack the databases. This paper address the issue of SQLIA’s and script in an efficient way. The proposed approach detects and prevents all the Injection queries as well as the cross scripting through the Framework and Static analysis and Dynamic analysis. The contribution is twofold 1. SQL Injection AttackDetection and prevention 2. SQL Injection Reports. These techniques have been implemented in ASP.Net and SQL Server and tested by conducting various experiments and prove that the web applications and database is protected from scripting and SQL injection queries.

  13. FDDI network test adaptor error injection circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrode, Thomas (Inventor); Stauffer, David R. (Inventor); Stempski, Rebecca (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for injecting errors into a FDDI token ring network is disclosed. The error injection scheme operates by fooling a FORMAC into thinking it sent a real frame of data. This is done by using two RAM buffers. The RAM buffer normally accessed by the RBC/DPC becomes a SHADOW RAM during error injection operation. A dummy frame is loaded into the shadow RAM in order to fool the FORMAC. This data is just like the data that would be used if sending a normal frame, with the restriction that it must be shorter than the error injection data. The other buffer, the error injection RAM, contains the error injection frame. The error injection data is sent out to the media by switching a multiplexor. When the FORMAC is done transmitting the data, the multiplexor is switched back to the normal mode. Thus, the FORMAC is unaware of what happened and the token ring remains operational.

  14. The LHC injection kicker magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Ducimetière, Laurent; Barnes, M J; Wait, G D

    2003-01-01

    Proton beams will be injected into LHC at 450 GeV by two kicker magnet systems, producing magnetic field pulses of approximately 900 ns rise time and up to 7.86 s flat top duration. One of the stringent design requirements of these systems is a flat top ripple of less than ± 0.5%. Both injection systems are composed of 4 travelling wave kicker magnets of 2.7 m length each, powered by pulse forming networks (PFN's). To achieve the required kick strength of 1.2 Tm, a low characteristic impedance has been chosen and ceramic plate capacitors are used to obtain 5 Omega. Conductive stripes in the aperture of the magnets limit the beam impedance and screen the ferrite. The electrical circuit has been designed with the help of PSpice computer modelling. A full size magnet prototype has been built and tested up to 60 kV with the magnet under ultra high vacuum (UHV). The pulse shape has been precision measured at a voltage of 15 kV. After reviewing the performance requirements the paper presents the magnet...

  15. Robotic ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhe; Zhang, Xuping; Leung, Clement; Esfandiari, Navid; Casper, Robert F; Sun, Yu

    2011-07-01

    This paper is the first report of robotic intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). ICSI is a clinical procedure performed worldwide in fertility clinics, requiring pick-up of a single sperm and insertion of it into an oocyte (i.e., egg cell). Since its invention 20 years ago, ICSI has been conducted manually by a handful of highly skilled embryologists; however, success rates vary significantly among clinics due to poor reproducibility and inconsistency across operators. We leverage our work in robotic cell injection to realize robotic ICSI and aim ultimately, to standardize how clinical ICSI is performed. This paper presents some of the technical aspects of our robotic ICSI system, including a cell holding device, motion control, and computer vision algorithms. The system performs visual tracking of single sperm, robotic immobilization of sperm, aspiration of sperm with picoliter volume, and insertion of sperm into an oocyte with a high degree of reproducibility. The system requires minimal human involvement (requiring only a few computer mouse clicks), and is human operator skill independent. Using the hamster oocyte-human sperm model in preliminary trials, the robotic system demonstrated a high success rate of 90.0% and survival rate of 90.7% (n=120). PMID:21521663

  16. Two component micro injection moulding for moulded interconnect devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    2008-01-01

    moulding and laser direct structuring process), present a comparative analysis of the two processes and find the factors which are important for successful selective metallization. The demonstrator MID fabricated at the final stage of the project proves that the multidisciplinary knowledge gained from...... untraditional material pairs have been proven successful in the experiments. The experimental results find the factors which can effectively control the adhesion and interface quality between two polymers. Investigations on the selective metallization process, by two different methods (two component injection...... the project about materials, tooling and process optimization can be linked for successful fabrication of the MIDs in precision applications. In conclusion, it can be stated that the main results of the Ph.D. project is the documented knowledge presented in the current thesis about two component injection...

  17. 食管胃底静脉曲张内镜硬化剂治疗并发败血症危险因素分析%Analysis of risk factors of septicemia in esophageal and gastric varices after endoscopic injection of cyanoacrylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘明霞; 张思泉; 刘华锋

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the difference of septicemia incidence between patients with active gastric variceal bleeding and those with gastric varices but no active bleeding who underwent N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate injection,and to analyse the risk factors to provide a basis for clinical therapy. Methods The clinical information in 245 patients with hepatic cirrhosis who were received endoscopic surveillance or treatment from 2005 to 2009 in the Sixth Hospital Affiliated to Zhejiang Chinese Medical University was conducted through a retrospective survey. Patients were categorized into three groups: group Ⅰ , patients with bleeding gastric varices who underwent cyanoacrylate injection for hemostasis ( n = 87); group Ⅱ , patients who underwent elective cyanoacrylate injection for further obliteration of gastric varices (n = 74); and group Ⅲ , patients with cirrhosis who underwent endoscopic surveillance for varices, and patients with gastric varices who presented for a follow-up endoscopy without a requirement for treatment ( n = 84). Blood culture was obtained before and after endoscopy. Results Before procedures, blood cultures were positive in 17 patients ( 19.5% )from group Ⅰ . The number of positive blood cultures in group Ⅰ after the procedure were 5 (5.7%). The identified organisms were E. coli ( n = 10), Klebsiella pneumoniae ( n = 5) and Coryneform bacteria ( n = 2). No case was cultured positive in group Ⅱ . Only one case was Streptococcus epidermidis positive in group Ⅲ. No clinical evidence of infections occurred in any patient. Conclusions Elective cyanoacrylate injection for nonbleeding gastric varices is not associated with significant bacteremia or infection. For this reason, prophylactic antibiotics may not be needed in this patient group. By contrast, prophylactic antibiotics should be needed in patients with bleeding gastric varices who underwent cyanoacrylate injection.%目的 比较食管胃底静脉曲张活动性出血和无活动性出

  18. A Recurrent Neural Network for Warpage Prediction in Injection Molding

    OpenAIRE

    A. Alvarado-Iniesta; D.J. Valles-Rosales; J.L. García-Alcaraz; A. Maldonado-Macias

    2012-01-01

    Injection molding is classified as one of the most flexible and economical manufacturing processes with high volumeof plastic molded parts. Causes of variations in the process are related to the vast number of factors acting during aregular production run, which directly impacts the quality of final products. A common quality trouble in finishedproducts is the presence of warpage. Thus, this study aimed to design a system based on recurrent neural networksto predict warpage defects in product...

  19. Injectable biomaterials: a perspective on the next wave of injectable therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Myron; Lim, Teck Chuan

    2016-02-02

    We are experiencing a new wave of injectable therapeutics (namely/injectable biomaterials) to complement injectable drugs and injectable biologics, and to serve as the basis for injectable combinatorial therapeutics. Injectable biomaterials contribute to the treatment of the fluid-filled defects which often result from disease and injury, by providing the missing physical framework (i.e. the stroma). However, while injectable matrices may be necessary for the successful treatment of certain lesions, they will not likely be sufficient. Chemoattractants for select endogenous cells, or cells themselves, may need to be incorporated into the matrix prior to its injection to ensure the necessary cellular repopulation of the cavitary defect. These agents and others (drugs and biologics) delivered by the matrix represent the new category of injectable combinatorial therapeutics.

  20. 油田热电厂注汽锅炉炉管腐蚀因素分析与控制措施%Corrosion Factors Analysis and Control Measures of Boiler Tubes in Steam In?jection Boiler in the Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周登印

    2016-01-01

    The steam injection boiler furnace tube of Daqing oilfield thermal power plant is in high temperature, high pressure and other harsh environmental conditions. The corrosion types are mainly alkali corrosion,dissolved oxygen corrosion,cavitation erosion,steam wa-ter corrosion and stop furnace corrosion. The corrosion factors produced by the medium mainly include temperature, flow rate and water treatment quality. The dissolved oxygen in the oxygen, and the boiler water in the steam injection boiler furnace, that have accelerated the corrosion rate of the furnace tubes. On the basis of corrosion factors targeted research, from the control of boiler feed water quality, reduce boiler oxygen exposure probability and improve the furnace pipe anti-corrosion properties of the essence, four aspects:the use of science and technology,and puts forward the corresponding control measures,aiming to de-lay and reduce the corrosion of all aspects, to prevent corrosion of the probability of more than 99.9%. By controlling the water quality of boiler and reducing the chance of contact with oxygen,the corrosion of boiler tubes is reduced.%大庆油田热电厂注汽锅炉炉管处于高温、高压的恶劣环境工况,腐蚀严重,其腐蚀类型主要为碱腐蚀、溶解氧腐蚀、气蚀、汽水腐蚀和停炉腐蚀.由介质产生的腐蚀因素主要有温度、流速及水处理质量;注汽锅炉炉管中存在的氧气以及锅炉水中溶解的氧加速了炉管腐蚀速率.为延缓腐蚀并减小腐蚀程度,提出以下对应的控制措施:严把水质源头管控,杜绝出现不达标水质进入锅炉;完善运行参数,防止超温、超压环境出现;将多种除氧方法结合使用,以达到最佳除氧效果.停炉后采用TH901法在炉管表面形成保护膜以隔离氧气,该保护法加药量少,成本低,阻止腐蚀的概率达到99.9%以上.通过控制锅炉给水水质,减少锅炉接触氧几率等措施,减缓了注汽锅炉炉管的腐蚀.

  1. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  2. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eul Sik; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  3. INJECTION CHOICE FOR SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE RING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; BEEBE-WANG,J.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRODOWSKI,J.; FEDOTOV,A.; GARDNER,C.; LEE,Y.Y.; RAPARIA,D.; DANILOV,V.; HOLMES,J.; PRIOR,C.; REES,G.; MACHIDA,S.

    2001-06-18

    Injection is key in the low-loss design of high-intensity proton facilities like the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). During the design of both the accumulator and the rapid-cycling-synchrotron version of the SNS, extensive comparison has been made to select injection scenarios that satisfy SNS's low-loss design criteria. This paper presents issues and considerations pertaining to the final choice of the SNS injection systems.

  4. Polyamide 6 - long glass fiber injection moldings

    OpenAIRE

    Bijsterbosch, H.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The injection molding ability of long glass fiber reinforced polyamide pellets was studied. The injection moldable materials were produced by a melt impregnation process of continuous fiber rovings. The rovings were chopped to pellets of 9 mm length. Chopped pellets with a variation in the degree of impregnation and fiber concentration were studied. The injection molded samples were analyzed for fiber concentration, fiber length, and fiber orientation. Dumbbell-shaped tensile bars were made t...

  5. Paediatric Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Blood-Injection-Injury phobia is a major health issue throughout the life span. It usually starts in early childhood. Avoidance of health care is seen in such individuals. Children with blood injection injury phobia have uncontrollable fear of blood, injury, injections and needles. Because of the intense fear, these children will do everything possible to avoid it. Various physical symptoms including increased heart rate, chest discomfort, trembling movements, feeling of choking and syncope...

  6. Postoperative Systemic Dissemination of Injected Elemental Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Suk-Hyung; Park, Seung Won; Moon, Kyung-Yoon

    2011-01-01

    There were only a few reports of mercury on pulmonary artery. However, there is no data on surgery related mercury dissemination. The objective of the present article is to describe one case of postoperative injected mercury dissemination. A 19-year-old man presented severe neck pain including meningeal irritation sign and abdominal pain after injection of mercury for the purpose of suicide. Radiologic study showed injected mercury in the neck involving high cervical epidural space and subcut...

  7. Injected Water Augments Cooling In Turboshaft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes experiments in which water injected into compressor-bleed cooling air of aircraft turboshaft engine. Injection of water previously suggested as way to provide additional cooling needed to sustain operation at power levels higher than usual. Involves turbine-inlet temperatures high enough to shorten lives of first-stage high-pressure turbine blades. Latent heat of vaporization of injected water serves as additional heat sink to maintain blades at design operating temperatures during high-power operation.

  8. Brachial neuritis following a corticosteroid injection

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Matthew; Fulcher, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a case of brachial neuritis following a subacromial corticosteroid injection. The patient developed an anterior interosseous neuropathy shortly after the injection, with no other trigger being identified. This neuropathy has unfortunately not shown any sign of recovery at 2 years. The authors propose that corticosteroid injection be added to the list of possible triggering events of brachial neuritis and highlight the frequent use of oral corticosteroids in its treatment....

  9. Characteristics of spray pattern on injection conditions using GDI injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.H. [Hanyang University, Graduate School, Seoul (Korea); Lee, K.H.; Lee, C.S. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, J.Y.; Baik, S.K. [Kefico (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    Recently GDI(Gasoline Direct Injection) engine is spotlighted to achieve higher thermal efficiency under partial loads and better performance at full loads. To realize these, it is essential to make both super-lean stratified combustion and homogeneous combustion. When compared to PFI(Port Fuel Injection) engine, GDI engine needs more complicated control and optimal design with piston cavity. In addition, spray pattern must be optimized according to injection timing because ambient pressure in combustion chamber is also varied. Thus spray structure should be analyzed in details to meet various conditions. In this experimental study, system of spray visualization was built for coping with variable ambient pressures in high pressure chamber and the spray characteristics were investigated for a few sample GDI injectors. To make clear spray pattern, the images for vertical and horizontal sections were taken as fuel injection was processed. With an increase at the ambient pressure in chamber, the tip penetration and spray diameter is inclined to decrease due to rising resistance caused by the drag force of the ambient air. These results provide the information on macro spray structure and design factors for developing GDI injector. (author). 4 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Temperature quenching of spontaneous emission in tunnel-injection nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talalaev, V. G., E-mail: vadimtalalaev@yandex.com; Novikov, B. V. [St. Petersburg State University, Fock Institute of Physics (Russian Federation); Cirlin, G. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Academic University, Nanotechnology Center (Russian Federation); Leipner, H. S. [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, ICMS (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    The spontaneous-emission spectra in the near-IR range (0.8–1.3 μm) from inverted tunnel-injection nanostructures are measured. These structures contain an InAs quantum-dot layer and an InGaAs quantum-well layer, separated by GaAs barrier spacer whose thickness varies in the range 3–9 nm. The temperature dependence of this emission in the range 5–295 K is investigated, both for optical excitation (photoluminescence) and for current injection in p–n junction (electroluminescence). At room temperature, current pumping proves more effective for inverted tunnel-injection nanostructures with a thin barrier (<6 nm), when the apexes of the quantum dots connect with the quantum well by narrow InGaAs straps (nanobridges). In that case, the quenching of the electroluminescence by heating from 5 to 295 K is slight. The quenching factor S{sub T} of the integrated intensity I is S{sub T} = I{sub 5}/I{sub 295} ≈ 3. The temperature stability of the emission from inverted tunnel-injection nanostructures is discussed on the basis of extended Arrhenius analysis.

  11. DC injection into low voltage AC networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the impact of levels of injected DC current injections on a low voltage AC distribution network systems in order to recommend acceptable limits of DC from microgeneration. Relevant literature is reviewed, and the impact of DC levels in distribution transformers, transformer modelling, and instrumental transformers are discussed. The impact of DC in residual current devices (RCD) and in domestic electricity watt hour meters is examined along with DC enhanced corrosion, corrosion failure, and the measurement of DC current injection. Sources of DC injection outlined include DC from computer power supplies, network faults, geomagnetic phenomena, lighting circuits/dimmers, and embedded generators.

  12. Injection molding ceramics to high green densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, J. A.; Williams, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The injection molding behavior of a concentrated suspension of Si powder in wax was studied. It was found that the injection molding behavior was a function of the processing techniques used to generate the powder. Dry ball-milled powders had the best molding behavior, while air classified and impact-milled powders demonstrated poorer injection moldability. The relative viscosity of these molding batches was studied as a function of powder properties: distribution shape, surface area, packing density, and particle morphology. The experimental behavior, in all cases, followed existing theories. The relative viscosity of an injection molding composition composed of dry ball-milled powders could be expressed using Farris' relation.

  13. Surface Microstructure Replication in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    2005-01-01

    In recent years polymer components with surface microstructures have been in rising demand for applications such as lab-on-a-chip and optical components. Injection moulding has proven to be a feasible and efficient way to manufacture such components. In injection moulding the mould surface...... moulding of surface microstructures. Emphasis is put on the ability to replicate surface microstructures under normal injection moulding conditions, notably with low cost materials at low mould temperatures. The replication of surface microstructures in injection moulding has been explored...

  14. 42 CFR 130.21 - What documentation is required for petitions filed by living persons with HIV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... by living persons with HIV? 130.21 Section 130.21 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... persons with HIV? The following rules apply to all petitions filed by persons with HIV: (a) All petitions... individual with a blood-clotting disorder and HIV was treated with antihemophilic factor at any time...

  15. Effects of cold water injection on injectivity impairment due to suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedrikovetsky, Pavel; Fonseca, Diogo R. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil); Paiva, Ronaldo O. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents an analytical model to interpret pressure injection data following cold-water injection into a hot-oil reservoir. The injected water contains solid and liquid particles causing permeability decline. The relative permeability characteristics of the porous medium are accounted for, as is the temperature dependence of the fluid mobilities. It is shown that the temperature difference between injected and formation waters and the water-oil mobility variation have significant effects on the pressure data during the impairment of rock by particles from the injected suspension. The matching of field data to type curves generated from analytical solutions provides estimates of the formation damage parameters - filtration and formation damage coefficients, critical porosity ratio and cake permeability. The effect of injected water temperature on well injectivity decline is particularly sounded for cold water injection into heavy oil reservoirs. (author)

  16. INJECTING EQUPMENT SHARING AND PERCEPTION OF HIV AND HEPATITIS RISK AMONG INJECTING DRUG USERS IN BUDAPEST

    OpenAIRE

    Rácz, József; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Neaigus, Alan; Ujhelyi, Eszter

    2007-01-01

    In Central European states, rates of HIV among IDUs have been low although HCV infection is widespread. The goal of our study was to assess HIV infection, risk perceptions and injecting equipment sharing among injection drug users in Budapest, Hungary. Altogether 150 IDUs were interviewed (121 structured between 1999-2000 and 29 ethnographic between 2003-2004). The majority of them injected heroin (52% and 79%) and many injected amphetamines (51% and 35%). One person tested positive for HIV. ...

  17. Novel Injectable Interpenetrating Polymer Network as a Semi-Permanent Injectable Implant for Soft Tissue Augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Joanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Injectable fillers have been widely used for soft tissue augmentation in cosmetic procedures, as well as minimally invasive treatment for medical conditions such as urinary and fecal incontinence, vesicoureteral reflux and vocal cord repair. The market for injectable fillers is a multibillion dollar industry worldwide, and each FDA-approved injectable filler has its own drawbacks, namely, lack of durability for temporary fillers, and difficulty in injection for semi-permanent to permanent...

  18. Observation of the influence factors of prostoperative analgesic effect and complications after epidural injection of morphine-droperidol%硬膜外吗啡-氟哌啶术后镇痛效果及并发症影响因素观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    目的:探讨硬膜外吗啡—氟哌啶术后镇痛效果及并发症影响因素。方法:57例硬膜外阻滞下施术病人,于手术结束时经硬膜外腔导管注入吗啡—氟哌啶混合液。术后随访72h,观察不现年龄、性别、术式、给药部位对24h镇痛率(镇痛时间>24h)、48h肠蠕动恢复率(48h内排气)和恶心呕吐发生率的影响。结果:随年龄增长24h镇痛率增高(P<0.01),48h肠蠕动恢复率低(P<0.05);女性呕吐发生率高于男性(P<0.05);腹部手术48h肠蠕动恢复率低于非腹部手术;中低位硬外组48h肠蠕动恢复率低于高位硬外组。结论:年龄影响吗啡—氟哌啶术后镇痛效果;年龄、术式、给药部位影响肠蠕动恢复;性别影响恶心呕吐发生率。%Objective:To explore the influence factors of analgesic effect and complication after epidural injection of morphine and droperidol.Methods:57 cases administed with epidural anaesthesia received epidural injection of morphine and droperidol after operation.The patients were followed for 72 hours after operation to determine the different influences of age ,sex,operative way,administration place to the 24 hours'analgesic rate (analgesic time >24 hours), 48 hours' intestine wriggle comeback rate (intestine wriggle comeback in 48hours) and the incidence of nausea and vomiting.Results:With age growing,the 24 hours' analgestic rate increased (P<0.01)and the 48 hours'intestine wriggle comeback rate decreased (P< 0.05);The incidence of nausea and vomiting was higher in woman than in man (P< 0.01);The 48 hours'intestine wriggle comback rate of abdomen operation was lower than that of non- abdomen operation.48 hours' intestine wriggle comeback rate was lower in the mid and low epidural group than in the upper group. Conclusion :Age affects the analgesic effect of morphine and and droperidol ;age,operation way and administration place affect the comeback of intestine wriggle;and sex affects the

  19. DV50纳米过滤去除静注人免疫球蛋白中的病毒时流速的影响因素%Influencing factors of velocity during removal of virus in human immunoglobulin for intravenous injection by DV50 nanofiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丰平; 王炳; 郑琪; 吕家成

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the influencing factors of velocity during removal of virus in human immunoglobulin for intra-venous injection(IVIG) by DV50 nanofiltration. Methods The turbidity and concentration of bulk of IVIG were determined by tur-bidimeter and densimeter respectively. Five batches of bulks with similar concentrations and different turbidities, as well as five batches of bulks with similar turbidities and different concentrations, were subjected to nanofiltration by using the filter elements of the same batch, and the mean velocity was calculated. Another five batches of bulks with similar turbidities and concentrations were sub-jected to nanofiltration by using the filter elements of different batches, and the mean velocity was calculated. Results The mean velocity decreased with the increasing turbidity of bulk, while showed no linear relationship to the concentration. The mean velocity of nanofil-tration by using various filter elements showed significant difference. Conclusion The turbidity of product showed a cer-tain influ-ence, while the concentration showed no significant difference,on velocity. However, the filter element showed significant influence on velocity. The study provided a reference to controlling the velocity during removal of virus by nanofiltration and improv-ing the pro-duction procedure of IVIG.%目的 分析DV50纳米过滤去除静注入免疫球蛋白(Human immunoglobulin for intravenous injection,IVIG)病毒时流速的影响因素.方法 分别采用浊度仪、密度仪检测IVIG原液的浊度及浓度,随机选取5批浓度相近、浊度不同的IVIG原液及5批浊度相近、浓度不同的IVIG原液,分别经同一批号纳米滤芯过滤,计算平均流速;随机选取5批浊度、浓度相近的IVIG 原液,经不同批号的纳米滤芯过滤,计算平均流速.结果 随着制品浊度的升高,平均流速逐渐降低;制品浓度与平均流速不呈线性对应关系;不同批号的纳米滤芯,纳米平

  20. A prototype space flight intravenous injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, G. V.

    1985-01-01

    Medical emergencies, especially those resulting from accidents, frequently require the administration of intravenous fluids to replace lost body liquids. The development of a prototype space flight intravenous injection system is presented. The definition of requirements, injectable concentrates development, water polisher, reconstitution hardware development, administration hardware development, and prototype fabrication and testing are discussed.

  1. Surface microstructure replication in injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Uffe Arlø; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, polymer components with surface microstructures have been in rising demand for applications such as lab-on-a-chip and optical components. Injection molding has proven to be a feasible and efficient way to manufacture such components. In injection molding, the mold surface topogra...

  2. Injection system of the minicyclotron accelerator massspectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The existing injection system of the SMCAMS (super-sensitiveminicyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer) is described togetherwith the discussion of its disadvantages exposed after having beenoperating for fiveyears, which provides a basis for consideration ofimprovements to the injectionsystem. An optimized injection system with an analyticalmagnet added prior to theminicyclotron has been proposed and calculated.

  3. Children conceived after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mau, C; Juul, A; Main, K M;

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth.......The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth....

  4. Anxiety and pain during dental injections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Wijk; J. Hoogstraten

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the relationship between anxiety and pain felt during a dental injection in a sample of ‘normal’ patients about to undergo ‘invasive’ dental treatment. Methods: Duration and intensity of pain during a dental injection were measured within a sample of 24

  5. Nanostructuring steel for injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azawi, A.; Smistrup, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    has been produced by injection molding with good structure transfer fidelity. Thus we have demonstrated that by utilizing well-established fabrication techniques, nanostructured steel shims that are used in injection molding, a technique that allows low cost mass fabrication of plastic items...

  6. Injection Molding of High Aspect Ratio Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Larsen, Niels Bent

    We present a process for injection molding of 40 nm wide and >100 nm high pillars (pitch: 200 nm). We explored the effects of mold coatings and injection molding conditions on the replication quality of nanostructures in cyclic olefin copolymer. We found that optimization of molding parameters...

  7. APPLICATION OF INJECTION TECHNOLOGIES IN METALLURGICAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Korneev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of injection technologies shows that the largest prevalence they got d at application on powerful electric arc furnaces and at out-of-furnace processing of big volumes of metal. at the same time theoretical and experimental basis of using of injection technologies is constantly being replenished with new investigations.

  8. 21 CFR 522.1086 - Guaifenesin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guaifenesin injection. 522.1086 Section 522.1086... Guaifenesin injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of guaifenesin and 50 milligrams of dextrose. (b) Sponsor. See Nos. 037990 and 059130 in §...

  9. Polyamide 6 - long glass fiber injection moldings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijsterbosch, H.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The injection molding ability of long glass fiber reinforced polyamide pellets was studied. The injection moldable materials were produced by a melt impregnation process of continuous fiber rovings. The rovings were chopped to pellets of 9 mm length. Chopped pellets with a variation in the degree of

  10. Injection molded self-cleaning surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Emil

    - and microstructured silicon is electroplated with nickel and the resulting nickel shim with inverse polarity is used in an injection molding process. A versatile injection molding process capable of producing different nano- and microstructures on areas larger than 10 cm2 is developed. Variotherm mold heating is used...

  11. Injection Molding of Plastics from Agricultural Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, M.; Ruan, R.

    2001-02-22

    The objective of this research was to conduct a systematic study to relate injection molding parameters to properties of blends of starch and synthetic polymer. From this study, we wished to develop a thorough understanding of the injection molding process and gain significant insight into designing molds and aiding in developing products cheaply and efficiently.

  12. Charge injection across a polymeric heterojunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woudenbergh, T; Wildeman, J; Blom, PWM

    2005-01-01

    The charge injection across a polymeric heterojunction of a poly-p-phenylene vinylene derivative (injecting layer) and poly (9,9-dioctylfluorene) (accepting layer) is investigated. The electric field in the accepting layer is obtained after correcting the applied voltage for the voltage drop across

  13. Two Cases of Accidental Injection of Epinephrine into a Digit Treated with Subcutaneous Phentolamine Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P. Bodkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events.

  14. Two Cases of Accidental Injection of Epinephrine into a Digit Treated with Subcutaneous Phentolamine Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, Ryan P.; Acquisto, Nicole M.; Wiegand, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events. PMID:24024046

  15. Registration of ELF waves in rocket-satellite experiment with plasma injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobeinikov, V. G.; Oraevskii, V. N.; Ruzhin, Iu. Ia.; Sobolev, Ia. P.; Skomarovskii, V. S.; Chmyrev, V. M.; Namazov, C. A.; Pokhunkov, A. A.; Nesmeianov, V. I.

    1992-12-01

    Two rocket KOMBI-SAMA experiments with plasma injection at height 100-240 km were performed in August 1987 in the region of Brazilian magnetic anomaly (L = 1.25). The launching time of the rocket was determined so that plasma injection was at the time when COSMOS 1809 satellite passed as close as possible to magnetic tube of injection. Caesium plasma jet was produced during not less than 300 s by an electric plasma generator separated from the payload. When the satellite passed the geomagnetic tube intersecting the injection region an enhancement of ELF emission at 140 Hz, 450 Hz by a factor of 2 was registered on board the satellite. An enhancement of energetic particle flux by a factor of 4-5 was registered on board the rocket. Observed ELF emission below 100 Hz is interpreted as the generation of oblique electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves due to drift plasma instability at the front of the plasma jet.

  16. A Survey Of Sql Injection Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P.Mahapatra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available SQL injection has become a predominant type of attacks that target web applications. It allows attackers to obtain unauthorized access to the back-end database to change the intended application-generated SQL queries. Researchers have proposed various solutions to address SQL injection problems. However, many of them have limitations and often cannot address all kinds of injection problems. What’s more, new types of SQL injection attacks have arisen over the years. To better counter these attacks, identifying and understanding existing countermeasures are very important. In this research , I had surveyed existing techniques against SQL injection attacks and analyzed their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, I identified techniques for building secure systems and applied them to my applications and database system, and illustrated how they were performed and the effect of them.

  17. Hot carrier injection degradation under dynamic stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xiao-Hua; Cao Yan-Rong; Hao Yue; Zhang Yue

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied hot carrier injection (HCI) under alternant stress. Under different stress modes, different degradations are obtained from the experiment results. The different alternate stresses can reduce or enhance the HC effect, which mainly depends on the latter condition of the stress cycle. In the stress mode A (DC stress with electron injection), the degradation keeps increasing. In the stress modes B (DC stress and then stress with the smallest gate injection) and C (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under Vg=0V and Vd = 1.8 V), recovery appears in the second stress period. And in the stress mode D (DC stress and then stress with hole injection under Vg = -1.8 V and Vd = 1.8 V), as the traps filled in by holes can be smaller or greater than the generated interface states, the continued degradation or recovery in different stress periods can be obtained.

  18. Deuterium pellet injection in the TFR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injecting fresh fuel deep inside the plasma of a thermonuclear reactor appears to be necessary; the only way to do that is to inject fast solid deuterium pellets. The existing theoretical, technical and experimental aspects of this method are presented. The experiments on TFR have confirmed that injecting pellets is technically feasible; a new kind of injector is presented. The injection does not degrade stability nor confinement of the plasma. The study of the transient phenomena occuring during the injection has proved to be an efficient way to investigate particles and energy transport in the discharge; in particular, a fast transport phenomenon, similar to those occuring during disruptions, has been studied in details. Conclusions about disruptions are drawn. (Ref 101)

  19. Bleeding gastric varices: Results of endoscopic injection with cyanoacrylate at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Phadet Noophun; Pradermchai Kongkam; Sutep Gonlachanvit; Rungsun Rerknimitr

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of gastric varices injection with cyanoacrylate in patients with gastric variceal bleeding.METHODS: Twenty-four patients (15 males, 9 females) with gastric variceal bleeding underwent endoscopic treatment with cyanoacrylate injection. Successful hemostasis, rebleeding rate, and complications were retrospectively reviewed. Followed up endoscopy was performed and repeat cyanoacrylate injection was given until gastric varices were obliterated. RESULTS: Seventeen patients achieved definite hemostasis. Of these, 14 patients had primary success after initial endoscopic therapy. Ten patients developed recurrent bleeding. Repeated cyanoacrylate injection stopped rebleeding in three patients. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was performed to control rebleeding in one patient which occured after repeat endoscopic therapy. Six patients died (three from uncontrolled bleeding, two from sepsis, and one from mesenteric vein thrombosis). Minor complications occurred in 11 patients (six epigastric discomfort and five post injection ulcers). Cyanoacrylate embolism developed in two patients. One of these patients died from mesenteric vein thrombosis. The other had pulmonary embolism which resolved spontaneously. Advanced cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were major risk factors for uncontrolled bleeding.CONCLUSION: Endoscopic treatment for bleeding gastric varices with cyanoacrylate injection is effective for immediate hemostasis. Repeat cyanoacrylate injection has a lower success rate than the initial injection.Cyanoacrylate embolism is not a common serious complication.

  20. Abnormal enhancement after contrast injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two factors are involved in the enhancement of pathological processes at CT: the vascular pool and extra-vascular diffusion ot the contrast agent. Enhancement is of considerable use in visualising and delineating these pathologies but is of only limited interest as regards their characterisation. (orig./VJ)

  1. Fabrication of PEGylated fibrinogen: a versatile injectable hydrogel biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironi-Harpaz, Iris; Berdichevski, Alexandra; Seliktar, Dror

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels are one of the most versatile biomaterials in use for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. They are assembled from either natural or synthetic polymers, and their high water content gives these materials practical advantages in numerous biomedical applications. Semisynthetic hydrogels, such as those that combine synthetic and biological building blocks, have the added advantage of controlled bioactivity and material properties. In myocardial regeneration, injectable hydrogels premised on a semisynthetic design are advantageous both as bioactive bulking agents and as a delivery vehicle for controlled release of bioactive factors and/or cardiomyocytes. A new semisynthetic hydrogel based on PEGylated fibrinogen has been developed to address the many requirements of an injectable biomaterial in cardiac restoration. This chapter highlights the fundamental aspects of making this biomimetic hydrogel matrix for cardiac applications. PMID:25070327

  2. Air Flow and Gassing Potential in Micro-injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffithsa, C.A.; Dimova, S.S.; Scholz, S.;

    2011-01-01

    valuable information about the process dynamics and also about the filling of a cavity by a polymer melt. In this paper, a novel experimental set-up is proposed to monitor maximum air flow and air flow work as an integral of the air flow over time by employing a MEMS gas sensor mounted inside the mould....... The influence of four μIM parameters, melt temperature, mould temperature, injection speed, and resistance to air evacuation, on two air flow-related output parameters is investigated by carrying out a design of experiment study. The results provide empirical evidence about the effects of process parameters......Process monitoring of micro injection moulding (μ-IM) is of crucial importance in understanding the effects of different parameter settings on the process, especially on its performance and consistency in regards to parts’ quality. Quality factors related to mould cavity air evacuation can provide...

  3. Some Reflections on Intracytoplasmic Morphologically Selected Sperm Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ebner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Although intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI allows proper fertilization in most cases of male sub fertility, it is one of the most unphysiological techniques in assisted reproductive technologies (ART. Thus, over the last decade, researchers have tried to improve sperm observation with higher-resolution microscopy techniques such as the intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI technique. In order to identify literatures for this review, the PubMed database was searched from 2000 onwards using the terms IMSI, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME and sperm vacuole. Approximately 10 years after the introduction of the MSOME and IMSI procedures, several questions related to the prevalence, origin, location, and clinical consequences of sperm vacuoles have not yet been clarified. It seems that IMSI as a routine application is not state of the art and the only confirmed indications for IMSI are recurrent implantation failure following ICSI and severe male factor.

  4. Primary chemistry response to initial zinc injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of June 2009, fifty-seven pressurized water reactor (PWR) units were adding zinc to their primary coolant systems. This represents about 22% of the world's PWR units. Zinc injection is used in at least six different countries and in essentially all major Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) designs. Plant-specific strategies for injection of zinc are now tailored with respect to concentrations, injection location, injection timing, and monitoring protocols. At least 14 additional plants are expected to begin zinc injection within the next two years and many more plants are investigating options for injecting zinc. A principal concern regarding the plant response to initial injection is that dissolved zinc will interact with ex-core oxide films in a manner that causes a release of nickel to the primary coolant system. It is possible that nickel released by this mechanism could deposit in the core and challenge fuel performance. In this work primary system chemistry data (principally nickel concentrations and radiocobalt activities) were evaluated for the cycles in which zinc was first injected. Assessments included comparisons of concentrations and activities before and after zinc injection as well as comparison of these periods to similar times in previous cycles. The mass of nickel released during shutdown, an imperfect indicator of the mass deposited on the fuel during the cycle, was also assessed. While the analyses presented in this work are not a complete analysis of plant response to zinc injection (for example, direct observations of surface film modification were not included) they represent a significant addition to the understanding of the way in which zinc interacts with the PWR primary system. (author)

  5. Percutaneous spine injection: considerations for improving treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, In Sook; Choi, Jung Ah; Yoon, Chang Jin; Hwang, Sung Il; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Bundang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ja Young; Koh, Young Hwan; Hong, Sung Hwan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    To discuss the causes of treatment failure in percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radiculopathy by analyzing patients who have experienced negative treatment effect on their first visit and a positive treatment effect on their second visit. The authors reviewed the cases of 24 patients who visited the pain intervention outpatient department in our hospital due to back pain or radiculopathy. All patients reviewed experienced a negative treatment effect following their first spine injection, but a positive treatment effect following the second injection. The dates of the cases range from June 2003 to May 2004. Two radiologists analyzed the possible causes of the negative treatment effect following the first injection therapies by considering clinical aspects as well as reviewing radiological images. The most common condition was the presence of the change in the level of the second selective nerve root block (n=13). In seven cases, the methods for administering the injections were changed to facet block (n=2), midline epidural block (n=1), selective nerve root block (n=3) and caudal epidural block (n=1). In four cases, there were no changes in the methods for administering the injections nor were there any changes in the level of the selective nerve root block between first and second visit. In those cases, after reviewing spot radiographs performed during injection, we attributed the causes of failure of injection therapy to an inappropriate distribution of drugs. We can improve the effect of percutaneous spine injections for low back pain or radioculopathy by determining the exact level of perineural root block, trying alternative methods, and insuring a good distribution of the injected drugs.

  6. Micro Engineering: Experiments conducted on the use of polymeric materials in micro injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, Christian; Tosello, Guido; Nestler, Joerg;

    2008-01-01

    To advance micro injection moulding it is necessary to study systematically the factors affecting process and tooling reliability. This paper reviews the main findings of Cardiff Universities 4M and SEMOFS research in this field. In particular, the factors affecting the manufacturability of micro...

  7. Characteristics of hepatitis C infection in injecting drug users in Zadar County, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Medić, Alan; Dželalija, Boris; Sonicki, Zdenko; Zekanović, Dražen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine additional risk factors that could increase the prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) infection among injecting drug users (IDU). The study included 327 heroin addicts registered in Zadar County, Croatia. The participants were divided into two groups according to their HCV status. HCV-positive and HCV-negative study participants were compared. HCV-positive group started injecting heroin at earlier age (median 18.5 years) than HCV-negative group (med...

  8. Women at greatest risk: Reducing injection frequency among young Aboriginal drug users in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Margo Elaine

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates why some young Aboriginal people inject opiates at higher frequency than others and suggests policies to address high frequency opiate injection. Multivariate logistic regression is used to analyze data gathered between 2003-04 in Vancouver and Prince George Independent variables include those shown as significant in relevant literature, demographics factors associated with severe addiction, and HCV imd HIV serostatus. Career injectors, females, those living in Vancouv...

  9. Comparing the Pain Severity Caused by Muscular Injection of Tramadole in Z and Bulb Methods

    OpenAIRE

    SH Najafi Doulatabad; Z Mohebi Nobandegani; J Malekzadeh

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Pain, rather than any other problems, would persuade people to pursue remedy and treatment. Muscular injections are among pain producing factors. This technique of prescription can be followed by some complications from which pain is the most prevalent one. This study was performed to compare the pain severity caused by muscular injection of Tramadole in Z and Bulb methods. Materials & Methods: This is a clinical trial study in which 90 women who re...

  10. Performance indicators for water injections projects; Indicadores de desempenho para projetos de injecao de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastenreiter, Livia; Correa, Antonio C. de F.; Mendes, Roberta A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Currently, the water injection process into oil reservoirs is the method of secondary recovery more important to increase the recovery factor. Thus, it is necessary an efficient project management, with constant data acquisitions and interpretation. This paper aims to present some indicators to evaluate the performance of water injection projects. Each indicator is presented based on a methodology that transforms the data collected in information. The results are expressed in graphical form for better viewing of the indicators measurement. (author)

  11. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Anderson, Howard L., Jr.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2011-06-01

    Injection of CO{sub 2}-laden flue gas can decrease the potential for silica and calcite scale formation in cooling tower blowdown by lowering solution pH to decrease equilibrium calcite solubility and kinetic rates of silica polymerization. Flue gas injection might best inhibit scale formation in power plant cooling towers that use impaired makeup waters - for example, groundwaters that contain relatively high levels of calcium, alkalinity, and silica. Groundwaters brought to the surface for cooling will degas CO{sub 2} and increase their pH by 1-2 units, possibly precipitating calcite in the process. Recarbonation with flue gas can lower the pHs of these fluids back to roughly their initial pH. Flue gas carbonation probably cannot lower pHs to much below pH 6 because the pHs of impaired waters, once outgassed at the surface, are likely to be relatively alkaline. Silica polymerization to form scale occurs most rapidly at pH {approx} 8.3 at 25 C; polymerization is slower at higher and lower pH. pH 7 fluids containing {approx}220 ppm SiO{sub 2} require > 180 hours equilibration to begin forming scale whereas at pH 8.3 scale formation is complete within 36 hours. Flue gas injection that lowers pHs to {approx} 7 should allow substantially higher concentration factors. Periodic cycling to lower recoveries - hence lower silica concentrations - might be required though. Higher concentration factors enabled by flue gas injection should decrease concentrate volumes and disposal costs by roughly half.

  12. Lunelle monthly contraceptive injection (medroxyprogesterone acetate and estradiol cypionate injectable suspension): effects of body weight and injection sites on pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimy, M H; Cromie, M A; Hopkins, N K; Tong, D M

    1999-10-01

    A new contraceptive option, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and estradiol cypionate (E2C) (MPA/E2C, Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection), will soon be available for women in the US. This article reports the results of a US trial that assessed the effects of body weight and injection site on the pharmacokinetics of MPA, the progestin mediating contraceptive efficacy. This assessment was part of a nonrandomized, open-label, multicenter US study in healthy women receiving a monthly injection of MPA/E2C for 60 weeks. A total of 77 women (aged 18-47 years) at four centers participated in the pharmacokinetics assessment during the sixth or the seventh injection. For determination of serum MPA concentration-time profiles, blood samples were collected before the sixth and seventh injections (day 0) and on days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the sixth and seventh monthly administrations. For effects of injection site, MPA pharmacokinetics were compared at injection sites of the arm, hip, and leg. The pharmacokinetics of MPA, determined at the sixth and seventh injection, were not significantly affected by injection sites. The mean area under the curve (AUC0-28), however, was different between the arm and the leg injection sites; the difference was 38, n = 6). There were no significant differences in the pharmacokinetics of MPA among the three BMI categories. The only significant difference (p = 0.0387) was the AUC0-28 between BMI 18-28 and BMI 29-38. Because of the small sample size in the highly obese group, a reanalysis was performed by pooling subjects of the obese and highly obese groups. Results of the pooled statistical analysis remained the same. In summary, these results suggest that minor differences observed in the MPA pharmacokinetics--whether due to injection site or body weight or both--have no impact on the contraceptive efficacy of MPA/E2C, as trough concentrations (Cmin) are well above the threshold levels required to suppress ovulation. No dose adjustment

  13. CMOS Direct-Injection Divide-by-3 Injection-Locked Frequency Dividers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chia-Wei; Chang; Jhin-Fang; Huang; Sheng-Lyang; Jang; Ying-Hsiang; Liao; Miin-Horng; Juang

    2010-01-01

    <正>This paper proposes CMOS LC-tank divide-by-3 injection locked frequency dividers(ILFDs)fabricated in 0.18μn and 90nm CMOS process and describes the circuit design,operation principle and measurement results of the ILFDs.The ILFDs use two injection series-MOSFETs across the LC resonator and a differential injection signal is applied to the gates of injection MOSFETs.The direct-injection divide-by-3 ILFDs are potential for radio-frequency application and can have wide locking range.

  14. Effect of Shengmai injection on extravascular lung water and related factors at early fluid resuscitation stage of septic shock%生脉注射液对脓毒性休克早期液体复苏血管外肺水及相关因素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵滋苗; 陆军; 丁月平; 马丹女

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Shengmai injection on extravacular lung water and related factors at the early fluid resuscitation stage of septic shock. Methods Thirty-eight patients with septic shock were randomly assigned to the treatment group(n=20) and the control group(n=18). Patients received basic treatment combined with fluid resuscitation until the central venous pressure (CVP) reached ≥8mmHg. Patients in treatment group additional y received Shengmai injection. The hemodynamic indices, including extra-vascular lung water index(EVLWI), CVP, cardiac index(CI), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI), intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI) and oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) were monitored at baseline(T0), 6(T6), 12(T12) and 24h(T24) after ending fluid resuscitation, and the 28d mortality was also observed. Results Compared with the control group, CI, GEDVI and PaO2/FiO2 increased significantly at T6,T12 and T24, while EVLWI and 28d mortality was decreased in the treatment group ( P0.05). Conclusion On the basis of the fluid resuscitation and basic treatment Shengmai injection can further improve CI, GEDVI, ITBVI and PaO2/FiO2, decrease EVLWI and 28-d mortality, but showed no effect on CVP or SVRI at the early fluid resuscitation stage of septic shock.%  目的探讨生脉注射液对脓毒性休克早期液体复苏患者血管外肺水及相关因素的影响。方法选取38例感染性休克患者(生脉组20例,对照组18例),两组患者均以液体复苏至患者中心静脉压(CVP)≥8mmHg作为复苏终点,并施以内科基础治疗。生脉组同时加用生脉注射液80ml,用5%葡萄糖注射液250ml稀释,1次/d。通过脉搏轮廓曲线连续心排血量监测技术监测两组患者液体复苏结束后即刻(T0)、6h(T6)、12h(T12)、24h(T24)的血管外肺水指数(EVLWI)、CVP、心排血指数(CI)、外周血管阻力指数(SVRI)、

  15. 玻璃体内注射血管内皮生长因子抑制剂并发症的研究进展%Advance in the study of complication of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor following intravitreal injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟丽珠; 陈松

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of intravitreal injection of anti vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) drug has been recognized for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization(CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration(AMD), central exudative chorioretinopathy and pathological myopia, proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), retinal vein occlusion, retinopathy of prematurity and neovascular glaucoma. The tendency of clinic application of anti-VEGF is increasing. Though the therapeutic effect of anti-VEGF has been confirmed, a variety of complications associated with its usage were reported. This review summared the advancement of the complication in the clinical application of anti-VEGF therapy such as its effect on normal structure and physiological function of eye, intraocular pressure elevation, rips of retinal pigment epithelium(RRPE), retinal detachment(RD), endophthalmitis and systemic side-effects.%玻璃体内注射血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)抑制剂广泛用于年龄相关性黄斑变性(AMD)、中心性渗出性脉络膜视网膜病变及病理性近视引起的脉络膜新生血管(CNV)的治疗,也用于增生型糖尿病视网膜病变(PDR)、视网膜血管阻塞、早产儿视网膜病变及新生血管性青光眼等的治疗,已取得一定的疗效,但玻璃体内注射VEGF抑制剂也出现了很多并发症.就玻璃体内注射VEGF抑制剂对眼正常结构和生理功能的影响以及引起的眼压升高、视网膜色素上皮撕裂(RRPE)、视网膜脱离(RD)、眼内炎、注射相关损伤、全身不良反应等并发症进行综述.

  16. Evaluation of 19 cases of inadvertent globe perforation due to periocular injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadkari Salil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadvertent globe perforation due to periocular injection is a serious iatrogenic complication. Aim: To study risk factors, management, and visual outcome of inadvertent globe perforation during periocular injection, in cases referred to a tertiary eye care center. Design and Setting: Retrospective study at a tertiary referral center with a single investigator. Materials and Methods: Nineteen consecutive cases with a clinical diagnosis of globe perforation were studied (1998-2004. Clinical setting, risk factors, clinical presentation, management, and visual outcome were analyzed. Results: Retrobulbar injections 6 (32%, peribulbar injections 10 (53%, and subconjunctival injections 3 (16% were responsible for inadvertent globe perforation. Anesthetists accounted for 6 (32% injections and 13 (69% were referred from high volume community settings. Anesthetists identified the mishap on the table in 17% (1 out of 6 of cases and the ophthalmologists in 69% (9 out of 13 myopia was present in 10 (53%. Breaks were located inferotemporally in nine eyes. Four underwent laser and cryopexy, 14 (74% underwent vitreous surgery. Visual acuity greater than 20/200 was achieved in 12 patients. Conclusion: Myopia was found to be a significant risk factor. Inferotemporal breaks were common. Anesthetists were more likely to miss this complication when it occurred. In this series, intervention salvaged vision in a significant number of eyes.

  17. Construction of tangential injection NBI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Upgrading of the JT-60, the vacuum vessel has been modified to a larger bore. This larger bore vacuum vessel yields a larger toroidal field ripple in the vicinity of a plasma surface because of closing the toroidal field coils and plasmas. A ripple loss of injected neutral beams, then, estimated to be 30-40% through ripple field in the beam injection with the present NBI system that injects the beam perpendicularly to the plasma. An effective way to decrease the ripple loss in the plasma is to inject the beam tangentially. Meanwhile, it has been determined possible with the JT-60 upgrading to use a horizontal port as a tangential beam injection, because of eliminating a group of outer horizontal poloidal coils which are used as a divertor coil in the former JT-60. The modification from perpendicular beamline to tangential one has been executed in four beamlines out of 14 units. Four tangential beamlines are installed in two beamline tanks which are newly fabricated and positioned co- and counter-injection, respectively. Most of the beamline components are reused except a couple of cancellation coils. The modification to the tangential beamline completed in 1993, and the beam injection experiments with the tangential have been conducted successfully since 1993. (author)

  18. STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS NASAL CARRIAGE AMONG INJECTING AND NON-INJECTING DRUG USERS AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Varshochi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus Aureus (SA is one of the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in human beings. Approximately 20% of healthy persons are persistent carriers and 60% are intermittent carriers of SA. Nasal cavity is one of the most important sites of its colonization. Intravenous (IV drug abuse has been proposed as a risk factor for colonization of SA in the nasal mucosa. The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of SA carriers in nasal cavity among IV and non-IV drug abusers (addicts, as well as to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the positive cases. In a cross-sectional analysis of 300 drug addicts (Group I: 100 non-injecting addicts, Group II: 100 IV injecting drug addicts in rehab, Group III: 100 IV injecting drug addicts not in rehab in the infectious diseases clinics of Tabriz’s Imam Reza and Sina teaching hospitals and the rehabilitation center of Razi hospital, were investigated. Hospitalized addicts, insulin-dependent diabetic cases, HIV positive patients and those on chronic hemodialysis were excluded. The nasal mucosal sample was prepared from each case for SA isolation and its antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated by antibiogram. Eighty-four cases (28% were culture positive for SA, including 26 cases in group one, 32 cases in group two and 26 cases in group three (p = 0.55. There was only one MRSA isolate present in all the cases studied (1.2%. No resistance to linozolid, rifampin and vancomycin was observed. The resistance to erythromycin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, co-trimoxazol and gentamicin were 3.6, 4.8, 2.4, 3.6, 1.2 and 2.4% respectively. No statistically significant differences existed between the three groups in antibacterial susceptibility pattern. Sensitivity to oxacillin using the E-test results and disc diffusion were completely consistent. The percentage of carries of SA in the anterior nasal mucosa among IV and non-IV drug addicts is not considerably higher than the

  19. IAEA technical committee meeting on pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Pellet Injection, May 10-12, 1993, at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka, Ibaraki-ken, Japan, was held to review the latest results on pellet injection and its effects on plasma confinement. In particular, topics included in the meeting include (i) pellet ablation and particle fueling results, (ii) pellet injection effects on confinement, including improved confinement modes, edge effects, magnetohydrodynamic activity and impurity transport, and (iii) injector technology and diagnostics using pellets. About 30 experts attended and 23 papers were presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Self-Injection is a Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonna Gintberg; Høi, Henriette Brahe

    -injection will increase the individual's quality of life. For that reason this project on quality assurance of the 29 citizens current quality of life, if they want training for self-administration in our hospital unit, and follow-up contact about how self-injections are going on. Method for data generation: Data...... it yourself, it works so well." Implications for clinical practice: Encourage training for self-administration when the other comes to annual checks Possibly encourage persons who do self-injections to write 20 lines about why they think it’s going well (this could be dispensed to patients who come to control)...

  1. Dependency injection with AngularJS

    CERN Document Server

    Knol, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on approach to using dependency injection and implementing test-driven development using AngularJS. Dependency Injection with AngularJS is aimed at developers who are aware of AngularJS but need to get started with using it in real life applications. Also, developers who want to get into test-driven development with AngularJS can use this book as practical guide. Even if you know about dependency injection, it can serve as a good reference on how it is used within AngularJS. Readers are expected to have some experience with JavaScript.

  2. Vibration of safety injection pump motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattrelos, D.

    1996-12-01

    This paper covers a fault encountered in the safety injection pump motors of the French 900 MWe unit nuclear power stations. This fault was not revealed either during the low pressure safety injection and containment spray system pump qualification tests under accident conditions or during the special tests on a test bench carried out to attempt to replicate the fault and to identify ways of remedying it. This constitutes a potential common mode of failure of the safety injection system and the containment spray system pumps. The vibration phenomena illustrate the importance of carrying out tests in the plants under conditions as close as possible to those of actual accident situations.

  3. Accidental Intrathecal Injection of Tranexamic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tranexamic acid (TXA is a popular antifibrinolytic drug that is commonly used in patients with bleeding disorder. Major morbidities and mortalities have been reported following inadvertent intrathecal injection of TXA. In this paper, inadvertent intrathecal injection of TXA has resulted from similarities in appearance between TXA and heavy bupivacaine 0.5% ampoules. The patient experienced severe pain in the back and gluteal region upon injection in association with systemic hypertension and tachycardia followed by generalized myoclonic seizures and ventricular fibrillation.

  4. Innovative Drug Injection via Laser Induced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tae-hee; Yoh, Jack J.

    2010-10-01

    A laser based needle-free liquid drug injection device has been developed. A laser beam is focused inside the liquid contained in the rubber chamber of micro scale. The focused laser beam causes explosive bubble growth and the sudden volume increase in a sealed chamber drives a microjet of liquid drug through the micronozzle. The exit diameter of the nozzle is 125 um and the injected microjet reaches an average velocity of 264 m/s. This device adds the time-varying feature of microjet to the current state of liquid injection for drug delivery.

  5. J-regular rings with injectivities

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Liang

    2010-01-01

    A ring $R$ is called a J-regular ring if R/J(R) is von Neumann regular, where J(R) is the Jacobson radical of R. It is proved that if R is J-regular, then (i) R is right n-injective if and only if every homomorphism from an $n$-generated small right ideal of $R$ to $R_{R}$ can be extended to one from $R_{R}$ to $R_{R}$; (ii) R is right FP-injective if and only if R is right (J, R)-FP-injective. Some known results are improved.

  6. Injectables in the Nose: Facts and Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, William Walsh; Bucky, Lou; Friedman, Oren

    2016-08-01

    Nasal injectables and surface treatments alter the appearance of the nose both primarily and following nasal surgery. Fillers such as hyaluronic acids, calcium hydroxyapatite, and fat have a variety of advantages and disadvantages in eliminating small asymmetries postrhinoplasty. All nasal injectables have rare but severe ocular and cerebral ischemic complications. The injection of steroids following nasal reconstruction has a role in preventing supratip swelling and can improve the appearance of grafts to the nose. Resurfacing techniques reduce the appearance of autotransplanted grafts to the nose; there is little controversy about their benefit but surgeon preference for timing is varied. PMID:27400851

  7. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  8. Using brine extraction to isolate the pressure responses from CO2 injection operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandilla, K.; Court, B.; Celia, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Many potential carbon dioxide (CO2) injection sites are in large sedimentary basins, and it seems reasonable to expect that multiple operators will be injecting into the same formation. While the supercritical CO2 plumes are not expected to intersect, the pressure responses will most likely overlap. This will lead to overlapping Areas-of-Review (AoR), leading to complications for both the operators and the regulators. Also, existing injection operations will be impacted by new operations that come online at a later time, and as such existing AoRs will need to be updated to account for the pressure interference. One option to avoid pressure interference is to locate injection operations far from one other. However, this would greatly reduce the overall storage efficiency of the injection formation and increase the regulatory burden by requiring a basin-wide planning process. Active pressure management through brine production is one option to limit the spatial extent of the pressure responses, thereby avoiding pressure interference while also allowing for a greater spatial density of injection operations. For example, each injection operation could be surrounded by a ring of brine production wells, not dissimilar to an enhanced oil recovery operation, thereby limiting the far field impact of the CO2 injection. In this presentation we use a hypothetical model based on a section of the Illinois Basin to show the effectiveness of brine extraction in isolating the pressure responses of multiple injection operations. The model domain contains several injection wells, with the different injection operations brought on-line in a time-staggered fashion. The impact of factors such as brine extraction rates and extraction well spacing on the AoRs is investigated. A vertically integrated approach is used to numerically solve the two-phase flow problem, which greatly reduces the computational cost of the simulations. The results of this study show that brine extraction can be

  9. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Injecting Complications and the Role of the Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries participated in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The first results of this survey are published elsewhere in this issue. Herein we report that the most common complication of injecting insulin is lipohypertrophy (LH), which was self-reported by 29.0% of patients and found by physical examination in 30.8% by health care professionals (HCPs). Patients with LH consumed a mean of 10.1 IU more insulin daily than patients without LH. Glycated hemoglobin levels averaged 0.55% higher in patients with vs without LH. Lipohypertrophy was associated with higher rates of unexplained hypoglycemia and glycemic variability as well as more frequent diabetic ketoacidosis, incorrect rotation of injection sites, use of smaller injection zones, longer duration of insulin use, and reuse of pen needles (each P<.05). Routine inspection of injection sites by the HCP was associated with lower glycated hemoglobin levels, less LH, and more correct injection site rotation. Patients were also more likely to rotate correctly if they received injection instructions from their HCP in the past 6 months. Fewer than 40% of patients claimed to have gotten such instructions in the past 6 months, and 10% said that they have never received training on how to inject correctly despite injecting for a mean of nearly 9 years. Use of these data should stimulate renewed commitment to optimizing insulin injection practices.

  10. The effect of intra-articular injection of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-Fc and compound betamethasone in knee in patients with rheumatoid arthritis%关节腔注射重组人Ⅱ型肿瘤坏死因子受体-抗体融合蛋白联合复方倍他米松治疗类风湿关节炎膝关节炎的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马华; 张红; 邓小虎

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价关节腔注射重组人Ⅱ型肿瘤坏死因子受体-抗体融合蛋白联合复方倍他米松对类风湿关节炎膝关节炎的疗效及安全性。方法:对具有膝关节炎的24例类风湿关节炎患者行膝关节腔穿刺,注入重组人Ⅱ型肿瘤坏死因子受体-抗体融合蛋白25 mg与复方倍他米松7 mg,注射前及注射后4周与8周评估关节病变情况。结果:注射治疗4周与8周后患者关节疼痛评分、肿胀指数、压痛指数均较治疗前明显改善,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗前、治疗后4周及治疗后8周患者膝关节平均滑膜厚度分别为(6.7±2.0)、(5.8±2.2)、(4.2±2.3)mm,膝关节滑膜增厚明显减轻,治疗前与治疗后4周乃至8周比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:关节腔注射重组人Ⅱ型肿瘤坏死因子受体-抗体融合蛋白联合复方倍他米松可减轻关节炎症,安全性较好。%Objective:To evaluate the efifcacy and safety of intra-articular injection of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-Fc and compound betamethasone in patients with knee arthritis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods:A total of 24 patients with knee arthritis of RA were intra-articular injected recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-Fc 25 mg and compound betamethasone 7 mg. Visual analogue scale (VAS), swelling scores, tenderness scores, the thickness of synovium were recorded and analyzed at 4-week as well as 8-week treatment after injection compared with pre-treatment. Results: Compared with that of pre-treatment, the VAS, swelling scores, and tenderness scores signiifcantly improved after treatment for 4 weeks and 8 weeks (P<0.05). The average thickness of synovium in knee at 4-week and 8-week treatment were (5.8 ± 2.2) mm, (4.2 ± 2.3) mm respectively, which showed signiifcant differences compared with that of pre-treatment (6.7 ± 2.0) mm (P<0.05). Conclusion:Intra-articular injection of

  11. Acute anaphylactic reaction to expired chlorpheniramine injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    Chlorpheniramine is a widely used drug for management of allergic reaction.The serious adverse reaction to this drug is extremely rare.In this report, the authors present a case of acute anaphylactic reaction to expired chlorpheniramine injection.

  12. A Multi-Layered Needle Injection Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Shlomi; Kempton, Steve J; Maciolek, Kimberly; Terry, Aliyya; Ray, Rebeca D; Pugh, Carla M; Afifi, Ahmed M

    2016-01-01

    Insuring correct needle location is crucial in many medical procedures. This can be even more challenging for physicians injecting in a new location for the first time. Since they do not necessarily know how the tissue is supposed to feel, finding the correct location and correct depth can be difficult. In this study we designed a simulator for training needle injection. The simulator was fabricated to give a realistic feeling of injecting Botox® in the temporalis and the semispinalis muscles as part of migraine treatment. In addition the simulator provided real-time feedback of correct needle location. Nine residents and medical students evaluated the simulator. They made several errors that were corrected real time using the real time feedback provided. They found the simulator to be very useful and that the training significantly improved their confidence. The methods described in this study can easily be implemented for developing needle injection simulators for other anatomical locations.

  13. Static Stress Analysis of Security Injection Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The static structural analysis of the security injection tank is made to make sure whether the tank can withstand concerned loads or not on all conditions conforming to concerned code prescripts and design requirements. The tanks

  14. Region 6 Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is now a storage and retrieval application. Permit information and enforcement information of Underground Injection Wells are scanned and stored as a part of...

  15. AA injection kicker in its tank

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    For single-turn injection of the antiprotons, a septum at the end of the injection line made the beam parallel to the injection orbit, and a quarter of a betatron-wavelength downstream a fast kicker corrected the angle. Kicker type: lumped delay line. PFN voltage 56 kV. Bending angle 7.5 mrad; kick-strength 0.9 Tm; fall-time 95%-5% in 150 ns. The injection orbit is to the left, the stack orbit to the far right. A fast shutter near the central orbit had to be closed before the kicker fired, so as to protect the stack core from being shaken by the kicker's fringe field. The shutter is shown in closed position.

  16. LHC injection optics measurements at commissioning (2015)

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Ana; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; Garcia-Bonilla, Alba-Carolina; Langner, Andy Sven; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Malina, Lukas; Mcateer, Meghan Jill; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the measurement and correction process followed during the 2015 LHC injection optics commissioning which extended into Machine Developments (MDs). Results have been analyzed and compared to the 2012 measurements.

  17. Brachial neuritis following a corticosteroid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matthew; Fulcher, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a case of brachial neuritis following a subacromial corticosteroid injection. The patient developed an anterior interosseous neuropathy shortly after the injection, with no other trigger being identified. This neuropathy has unfortunately not shown any sign of recovery at 2 years. The authors propose that corticosteroid injection be added to the list of possible triggering events of brachial neuritis and highlight the frequent use of oral corticosteroids in its treatment. (1) The injection of local anaesthetic and corticosteroid should be considered as a potential trigger for brachial neuritis. (2) Brachial neuritis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with severe arm pain and weakness. (3) The nerves originating from the upper trunk of the brachial plexus are most commonly affected. (4) The anterior interosseous nerve is involved in one-third of cases. PMID:24596414

  18. Characteristics of pellet injected discharges in TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finken, K.H. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Assocition Euratom-KFA, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Sato, K.N. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya 464-01 (Japan); Akiyama, H. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860 (Japan); Fuchs, G.; Jaspers, R. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Assocition Euratom-KFA, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Kogoshi, S. [Science University of Tokyo, Noda 278 (Japan); Koslowski, H.R.; Mank, G. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Assocition Euratom-KFA, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Sakakita, H.; Sakamoto, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya 464-01 (Japan); Sander, M.; Soltwisch, H. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Assocition Euratom-KFA, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    Pellets injected into the TEXTOR tokamak lead to a density profile peaking which is strongest at low plasma current and weakest at high current independent of {ital B}{sub {ital T}}. After the injection two types of density oscillations are excited, the first type follows immediately the injection and the second one is excited with a delay of more than ten milliseconds. The oscillations are also observed in runaway discharges; the synchrotron light from the relativistic electrons drops after the pellet injection and is subsequently modulated due to a trapping of the runaways in magnetic islands. First Faraday measurements have been performed indicating that the distribution of the plasma current is not measurably modified by the pellet. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Relevant Aspects in Modeling of Micro-injection Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Chung, Tham; Jüttner, Gábor; Pham, Tung; Mennig, Günter

    2008-07-01

    Growing demands in the manufacturing of micro and precision components in plastics require new concepts for molding machines and micro molds on the one hand. On the other hand, a deeper understanding of the filling and solidification process in a micro mold is indispensable. In this work, the filling process of a micro spiral was analyzed by modeling the compressible flow using pressure dependent viscosity and adjusted heat transfer coefficients. At the same time, experimental filling studies were carried out on an accurately controlled micro-injection molding machine. Based on the relationship between the injection pressure and the filling degree, essential factors for the quality of the simulation can be identified. It can be shown that the flow behavior of the melt in a micro cavity of high aspect ratio is extremely dependent on the melt compressibility in the injection cylinder which needs to be considered in the simulation in order to predict an accurate flow rate. Moreover, the heat transfer coefficients between the melt and the mold wall vary significantly when changing cavity thickness and processing conditions. It is believed that a pressure dependent model for the heat transfer coefficient would be able to improve the quality of the process simulation.

  20. Needle penetration of the globe during retrobulbar and peribulbar injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, A; Flynn, H W; Hoffman, J I; Rivera, A H

    1991-07-01

    The charts of 23 patients with needle penetration of the globe during retrobulbar or peribulbar injections between January 1980 and May 1990 were reviewed. Possible needle penetration risk factors included high myopia, previous scleral buckling procedures, injection by nonophthalmologists, and poor patient cooperation during the injection. Of the 23 cases of ocular penetration, 16 (70%) were from sharp (22-, 23-, and 25-gauge) needles, and 7 (30%) were from blunt (23- and 25-gauge) needles. Management options depended on the severity of the intraocular injury. Retinal breaks without retinal detachment were treated by laser photocoagulation (four cases) or cryopexy (one case) and were observed in three cases. More advanced complications (retinal detachment and vitreous hemorrhage) were usually treated by pars plana vitrectomy with or without a scleral buckle (12 of 14 cases). The final visual acuity was 20/400 or better in only 2 of the 14 retinal detachment cases. In cases without retinal detachment, the final visual acuity was 20/50 or better in 7 of 9 cases. PMID:1891207

  1. Use of indigenous or injected microorganisms for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M.J.; Knapp, R.M.; Chisholm, J.L.; Bhupathiraju, V.K.; Coates, J.D. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) as an economically attractive alternative to conventional oil recovery methods which rely on thermal or chemical processes. Microbial growth occurs at exponential rates. It is therefore possible to produce large amounts of products quickly from inexpensive and renewable resources. MEOR can be grouped into the following three main categories: (1) well bore clean out process which makes use of hydrocarbon-degrading or scale-removing bacteria to remove deposits from the oil well, (2) well stimulation where an oil well close to its economic limit is treated with a mixture of anaerobic bacteria and a fermentable carbohydrate, and (3) microbially enhanced waterflooding processes which involve the injection of nutrients or microorganisms into the reservoir to stimulate microbial activity. Permeability is a limiting factor in oil production. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to show that stimulation of in situ microbial growth by nutrient injection can reduce permeability in sandstone significantly. It was shown that plugging high permeability regions diverts fluid flow to less permeable regions. A field test of this process was conducted at the Southeast Vassar Vertz sandstone reservoir in Oklahoma. The test confirmed that metabolic activity occurred as a consequence of nutrient injection and sulfide production was observed. 18 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  2. A Recurrent Neural Network for Warpage Prediction in Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alvarado-Iniesta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Injection molding is classified as one of the most flexible and economical manufacturing processes with high volumeof plastic molded parts. Causes of variations in the process are related to the vast number of factors acting during aregular production run, which directly impacts the quality of final products. A common quality trouble in finishedproducts is the presence of warpage. Thus, this study aimed to design a system based on recurrent neural networksto predict warpage defects in products manufactured through injection molding. Five process parameters areemployed for being considered to be critical and have a great impact on the warpage of plastic components. Thisstudy used the finite element analysis software Moldflow to simulate the injection molding process to collect data inorder to train and test the recurrent neural network. Recurrent neural networks were used to understand the dynamicsof the process and due to their memorization ability, warpage values might be predicted accurately. Results show thedesigned network works well in prediction tasks, overcoming those predictions generated by feedforward neuralnetworks.

  3. Dimethyl Ether in Diesel Fuel Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, M.; Abata, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates......A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates...

  4. Thermodynamic Interpretation of Cryogenic Injection Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Banuti, Daniel; Hannemann, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a thermodynamic rather than mechanic discussion and interpretation of cryogenic injection of nitrogen in the vicinity of the critical point. There is no concensus in the literature on how to properly interpret and treat injection phenomena at supercritical pressures. While it is clear that the supercritical fluid loses many distinct liquid properties, such as heat of vaporization and surface tension, flows are being treated like they were liquid. Liquid core lengths are b...

  5. Textual Manipulation for SQL Injection Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein AlNabulsi; Izzat Alsmadi; Mohammad Al-Jarrah

    2013-01-01

    SQL injection attacks try to use string or text manipulations to access illegally websites and their databases. This is since using some symbols or characters in SQL statements may trick the authentication system to incorrectly allow such SQL statements to be processed or executed. In this paper, we highlighted several examples of such text manipulations that can be successfully used in SQL injection attacks. We evaluated the usage of those strings on several websites and web pages using SNOR...

  6. Injection currents in thin disordered organic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytic model of barrier-limited injection of charge carriers from metal electrodes into organic film, which was introduced by Arkhipov and co-workers, is modified, considering effects of multiple image charges and injection from both electrodes. Limits of applicability of Arkhipov's model are discussed. Variations from Arkhipov's model are important, if film thickness is comparable with Onsager length

  7. Tissue necrosis following intramuscular diclofenac injection

    OpenAIRE

    Baykan, Halit; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Kapı, Emin; Çelik, Feyzi

    2010-01-01

    Following intramuscular drug injections, livedoid dermatitis (also known as embolia cutis medicamentosa or Nicolau Syndrome), characterized by pain, skin discoloration, and cutaneous necrosis, may rarely be observed. In the present study, we present a 32-year-old male patient who developed Nicolau Syndrome after intramuscular injection of single-dose diclofenac sodium 75 mg due to renal colic pain. The physical examination revealed skin discoloration in his left gluteal region, and a skin nec...

  8. Tissue necrosis following intramuscular diclofenac injection

    OpenAIRE

    Feyzi Çelik; Emin Kapı; Mehmet Bozkurt; Samet Vasfi Kuvat; Halit Baykan

    2010-01-01

    Following intramuscular drug injections, livedoid dermati-tis (also known as embolia cutis medicamentosa or NicolauSyndrome), characterized by pain, skin discoloration,and cutaneous necrosis, may rarely be observed. In thepresent study, we present a 32-year-old male patient whodeveloped Nicolau Syndrome after intramuscular injec-tion of single-dose diclofenac sodium 75 mg due to renalcolic pain. The physical examination revealed skin discol-oration in his left gluteal region, and a skin necro...

  9. Diesel Effect Problem Solving During Injection Moulding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košík Miroslav

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Study describes principles of diesel effect creation during thermoplastic injection moulding as a consequence of wrong injection conditions and poor venting system design. On real example, study shows sequence of all steps to eliminate this sort of material degradation with minimal costs in phase when mould is already made. As a first, process parameters were optimized by CAE simulation to minimize cavity internal gasses creation. Finally the specific mould modifications were suggested to improve the effectiveness of venting system.

  10. Injectable Hydrogel Scaffold from Decellularized Human Lipoaspirate

    OpenAIRE

    Young, D. Adam; Ibrahim, Dina O.; Hu, Diane; Christman, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Soft tissue fillers are rapidly gaining popularity for aesthetic improvements or repair of adipose tissue deficits. Several injectable biopolymers have been investigated for this purpose but often face rapid resorption or limited adipogenesis, and do not mimic the native adipose extracellular matrix (ECM). We have generated an injectable adipose matrix scaffold by efficiently removing both the cellular and lipid contents of human lipoaspirate. The decellularized material retained a complex co...

  11. Injectable Biomaterials for Adipose Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Young, D. Adam; Christman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineering has recently gained significant attention from materials scientists as a result of the exponential growth of soft tissue filler procedures being performed within the clinic. While several injectable materials are currently being marketed for filling subcutaneous voids, they often face limited longevity due to rapid resorption. Their inability to encourage natural adipose formation or ingrowth necessitates repeated injections for a prolonged effect, and thus classifi...

  12. Injectable bone substitute using a hydrophilic polymer.

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Pierre; Gauthier, Olivier; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Grimandi, Gaël; Daculsi, Guy

    1999-01-01

    We studied a new injectable biomaterial for bone and dental surgery consisting of a hydrophilic polymer as matrix and bioactive calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics as fillers. This material is composed of complex fluids whose flow is determined by the laws of rheology. We investigated the macromolecular effects on this composite in a tube. The stability of the polymer and the mixture is essential to the production of a ready-to-use injectable biomaterial. These flow properties are necessary to o...

  13. Progestin-only injectables offer many advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R

    1995-06-01

    Progestin-only injectables are among the most effective and safe of all contraceptives, yet they are not widely used in many countries. This limited use is in part due to a lack of accurate information about health concerns, inadequate counseling for users about managing side effects, and their limited availability. Where they are available, progestin-only injectables rapidly become one of the preferred methods. Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethindrone enanthate (NET-EN) are the two progestin-only injectables in use worldwide. The former drug is sold under the brand name Depo-Provera, and the latter as Noristerat. DMPA is delivered in a water-based, crystalline suspension and absorbed gradually by the body. The normal injection of 150 mg is intended to be administered every three months, but contraceptive protection continues for an additional two weeks to provide a grace period for women who are late receiving their next injection. NET-EN is an oily solution which requires a larger needle than DMPA for injection. A 200 mg injection of NET-EN is usually administered every two months. Both of these safe, highly effective drugs are injected in either the upper arm or buttocks. DMPA and NET-EN can be distributed easily in nonclinical settings where nonphysicians can provide them to clients. The main disadvantage of the method is the disruption of the menstrual cycle, but that is generally not a serious medical problem. Focusing mainly upon DMPA, this article includes discussion of menstrual irregularity, the reduced risk of endometrial cancer among DMPA users, and method availability. PMID:12289828

  14. Mould filling simulations during powder injection moulding

    OpenAIRE

    Bilovol, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    Powder injection moulding (PIM) is a versatile technology capable of producing complex and near net shape parts. Significant help in optimisation of the PIM process can be obtained from the numerical simulation. To obtain realistic numerical results it is necessary to fulfil certain conditions. The material properties should be correctly determined in the conditions close to those during the real powder injection moulding. The process must be described with the appropriate mathematical model....

  15. SQL Injection Test System for Students

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatkovski, Dragi; Suteva, Natasa; Mileva, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    We present a new web application as a vulnerable testing system for SQL injection attacks. Its purpose is to give opportunity to students of Computer security courses, to explore the nature of these modern attacks, to see how hackers exploit them and to learn how to protect their databases from them. Deployment of SQL injection attack on real web applications is illegal and it is subject to prosecution by law. With this software, we protect our students, and in the same time...

  16. Coals characterization for blast furnace tuyeres injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of blast furnace operation with pulverized coal injection (PCI) by tuyeres is determined by the composition and properties of the used coals and by the quality of the ferrous burden and coke. A study in thermo balance of coals to be injected by tuyeres is carried out, and the softening and melting temperatures of coals ash are determined. The coal performance and its influence in the blast furnace operation is estimated. (Author) 7 refs

  17. Intrastromal injection of bevacizumab in patients with corneal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Cabreira Vieira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Corneal neovascularization (NV not only reduces visual acuity, but it also causes loss of the cornea's immune privilege, strongly contributing to a worse prognosis in penetrating keratoplasty. Several mediators participate in corneal angiogenesis, and the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been extensively proven. Anti-VEGF agents have been shown to be effective in slowing the growth of corneal neovessels. Bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF agent, has been successfully used in the treatment of corneal neovascularization. In this paper, we report a series of patients who underwent intracorneal bevacizumab injections to treat corneal vascularization.

  18. PNEUMATIC MICROVALVE FOR ELECTROKINETIC SAMPLE PRECONCENTRATION AND CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS INJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Yongzheng; Rausch, Sarah J.; Geng, Tao; Jambovane, Sachin R.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2014-10-27

    Here we show that a closed pneumatic microvalve on a PDMS chip can serve as a semipermeable membrane under an applied potential, enabling current to pass through while blocking the passage of charged analytes. Enrichment of both anionic and cationic species has been demonstrated, and concentration factors of ~70 have been achieved in just 8 s. Once analytes are concentrated, the valve is briefly opened and the sample is hydrodynamically injected onto an integrated microchip or capillary electrophoresis (CE) column. In contrast to existing preconcentration approaches, the membrane-based method described here enables both rapid analyte concentration as well as high resolution separations.

  19. FROZEN SHOULDER TREATMENT: TRIAMCENALONE OR METHYLPREDNISOLONE INJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of Triamcinolone acetonide [40mg] and Methylprednisolone acetate [40mg] in 210 patients attending the Outpatient Department of Orthopedics of FAAMCH Barpeta with primary and secondary frozen shoulder. METHODS: A total number o f 210 patients with frozen shoulder who attended the Outpatient clinic of Orthopedics at FAAMCH from Jan 2013 to Jan 2015 were enrolled in our study. The diagnosis of frozen shoulder was made using the guidelines for shoulder complain issued by the Dutch C ollege of General Practitioners. Intra - articular injections of Triamcinolone acetonide [40mg] was used in 110 patients [ M ale - 50, female - 60] and 40mg Methylprednisolone was given to 100 patients [M ale - 35, female 65]. Injection was repeated every 3 weeks [ N o t more than 3 injections] by the posterior route. RESULTS: Triamcinolone acetonide was found to be more effective in diabetic patients with frozen shoulder in comparison to Methyprednisolone acetate. Triamcinolone acetonide was found to be more effective i n those patients presenting with severe grades of frozen shoulder and also these patients required lesser number of injections compared to Methylprednisolone acetate. However both Triamcinolone acatonide and Methyprednisolone were equally effective in prim ary frozen shoulder. CONCLUSION: We conclude that Triamcinolone acetonide and Methylprednisolone acetate are effective in the treatment of painful stiff shoulder; however injection Triamcinolone acetonide is a superior alternative in the treatment of diabe tics with frozen shoulder & resistant cases, with less number of injections.

  20. Injection Efficiency Monitor for the Australian Synchrotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassool R. P.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Synchrotron AS is moving towards a continuous injection mode called top-up. During top-up the linac and booster synchrotron injection system will be in continuous operation rather than usedevery eight hours the way they are used at present. In order to monitor the performance of the injection system areal-time injection efficiency monitoring system has been developed. The system consists of several Fast CurrentTransformers [1] and matching digitisers [2] and is designed to count every beam pulse and measure the transmission efficiency through the whole accelerator complex. After calibrating the system using a properly matchedFaraday Cup at the electron gun, a transmission efficiency is then calculated at each stage of transferring the beamfrom 90 keV out of the gun to 3 GeV in the storage ring. The system is used to optimise the injection process inorder to maximise the injection efficiency and as an early warning system when equipment starts to fail and theinjection efficiency decreases.

  1. Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Mi Sook [The Catholic University of Korea, Pucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections.

  2. Magnetic detection of ferrofluid injection zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borglin, S.; Moridis, G.; Becker, A.

    1998-03-01

    Ferrofluids are stable colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles that can be stabilized in various carrier liquids. In this study the authors investigate the potential of ferrofluids to trace the movement and position of liquids injected in the subsurface using geophysical methods. An ability to track and monitor the movement and position of injected liquids is essential in assessing the effectiveness of the delivery system and the success of the process. Ferrofluids can also provide a significant detection and verification tool in containment technologies, where they can be injected with the barrier liquids to provide a strong signature allowing determination of the barrier geometry, extent, continuity and integrity. Finally, ferrofluids may have unique properties as tracers for detecting preferential flow features (such as fractures) in the subsurface, and thus allow the design of more effective remediation systems. In this report the authors review the results of the investigation of the potential of ferrofluids to trace the movement and position of liquids injected in the subsurface using geophysical methods. They demonstrate the feasibility of using conventional magnetometry for detecting subsurface zones of injected ferrofluids used to trace liquids injected for remediation or barrier formation. The geometrical shapes considered were a sphere, a thin disk, a rectangular horizontal slab, and a cylinder. Simple calculations based on the principles of magnetometry are made to determine the detection depths of FTs. Experiments involving spherical, cylindrical and horizontal slabs show a very good agreement between predictions and measurements.

  3. Bevacizumab clearance through the iridocorneal angle following intravitreal injection in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Or, Orly; Dotan, Assaf; Dachbash, Mor; Tal, Kfir; Nisgav, Yael; Weinberger, Dov; Ehrlich, Rita; Livnat, Tami

    2016-04-01

    Antivascular endothelial growth factor (Anti-VEGF) agents have been widely used for a variety of ocular disorders. The etiology of sustained ocular hypertension following intravitreal administration of anti-VEGF agents is yet to be unraveled. Our study investigates and characterizes the presence of intravitreally injected bevacizumab in the aqueous outflow channels of a rat model. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) was induced by diode laser photocoagulation to the right eye of twelve Brown Norway rats. Bevacizumab (25 mg/ml) was injected intravitreally after 3 days. Immediately after bevacizumab injection, and 3, 6, 24 and 48 h later, animals were euthanized for immunofluorescence staining. Donkey anti-human IgG labeled with Alexa Fluor(®) 488 was used for bevacizumab immunoreactivity detection. Anti-CD31 antibody was used as a marker for Schlemm's canal endothelial cells. Untreated eyes were used as negative controls. The intensity of the immunostaining was analyzed qualitatively. Bevacizumab immunoreactivity was found in the aqueous outflow channels including the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal immediately after injection, and declined incrementally within the following hours. Forty-eight hours after the injection, no bevacizumab staining was detected in the aqueous outflow channel structures. Our manuscript demonstrates the presence of bevacizumab in the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal structures after intravitreal injection in a CNV induced rat model. Bevacizumab molecules passed through the aqueous outflow channels within 48 h after intravitreal bevacizumab injection. PMID:26923799

  4. Comparing the Pain Severity Caused by Muscular Injection of Tramadole in Z and Bulb Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Najafi Doulatabad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Pain, rather than any other problems, would persuade people to pursue remedy and treatment. Muscular injections are among pain producing factors. This technique of prescription can be followed by some complications from which pain is the most prevalent one. This study was performed to compare the pain severity caused by muscular injection of Tramadole in Z and Bulb methods. Materials & Methods: This is a clinical trial study in which 90 women who referred to the emergency ward of Shahid Beheshti hospital in Yasooj in 2006 were randomly selected. Data collection instrument was questionnaire. The pain severity was evaluated by visual scale. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistical method, independent T and chi square test using SPSS software. Results: Mean of pain severity in bulb method was 2.84±1.242 and in Z method was 4.56±1.659. The independent T test indicated that the differences in pain severity in two injection methods were statistically significant (p=0.036. No significant differences were found between age, educational level, job, marriatal status, number of previous injections and BMI of samples between two groups. Conclusion: Bulb method injection induces less pain in comparison with Z method therefore it is an ideal method for muscular injections. As such, health care workers, especially nurses, can, through this method, minimize the patients’ pain, which is one of the most important injection complaints.

  5. Tailpipe emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles at both low and high ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rencheng; Hu, Jingnan; Bao, Xiaofeng; He, Liqiang; Lai, Yitu; Zu, Lei; Li, Yufei; Su, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Vehicle emissions are greatly influenced by various factors that are related to engine technology and driving conditions. Only the fuel injection method and ambient temperature are investigated in this research. Regulated gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from two advanced gasoline-fueled vehicles, one with direct fuel injection (GDI) and the other with port fuel injection (PFI), are tested with conventional gasoline and ethanol-blended gasoline (E10) at both -7 °C and 30 °C. The total particle number (PN) concentrations and size distributions are monitored with an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI(+)). The solid PN concentrations are measured with a condensation particle counter (CPC) after removing volatile matters through the particle measurement program (PMP) system. The results indicate that decreasing the ambient temperature from 30 °C to -7 °C significantly increases the fuel consumption and all measured emissions except for NOx. The GDI vehicle exhibits lower fuel consumption than the PFI vehicle but emits more total hydrocarbons (THC), PM mass and solid PN emissions at 30 °C. The adaptability of GDI technology appears to be better than that of PFI technology at low ambient temperature. For example, the CO, THC and PM mass emission factors of the PFI vehicle are higher than those of the GDI vehicle and the solid PN emission factors are comparable in the cold-start tests at -7 °C. Specifically, during start-up the particulate matter emissions of the PFI are much higher than the GDI. In most cases, the geometric mean diameter (GMD) of the accumulation mode particles is 58-86 nm for both vehicles, and the GMD of the nucleation mode particles is 10-20 nm. The results suggest that the gaseous and particulate emissions from the PFI vehicle should not be neglected compared to those from the GDI vehicle especially in a cold environment. PMID:27267738

  6. Tailpipe emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles at both low and high ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rencheng; Hu, Jingnan; Bao, Xiaofeng; He, Liqiang; Lai, Yitu; Zu, Lei; Li, Yufei; Su, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Vehicle emissions are greatly influenced by various factors that are related to engine technology and driving conditions. Only the fuel injection method and ambient temperature are investigated in this research. Regulated gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from two advanced gasoline-fueled vehicles, one with direct fuel injection (GDI) and the other with port fuel injection (PFI), are tested with conventional gasoline and ethanol-blended gasoline (E10) at both -7 °C and 30 °C. The total particle number (PN) concentrations and size distributions are monitored with an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI(+)). The solid PN concentrations are measured with a condensation particle counter (CPC) after removing volatile matters through the particle measurement program (PMP) system. The results indicate that decreasing the ambient temperature from 30 °C to -7 °C significantly increases the fuel consumption and all measured emissions except for NOx. The GDI vehicle exhibits lower fuel consumption than the PFI vehicle but emits more total hydrocarbons (THC), PM mass and solid PN emissions at 30 °C. The adaptability of GDI technology appears to be better than that of PFI technology at low ambient temperature. For example, the CO, THC and PM mass emission factors of the PFI vehicle are higher than those of the GDI vehicle and the solid PN emission factors are comparable in the cold-start tests at -7 °C. Specifically, during start-up the particulate matter emissions of the PFI are much higher than the GDI. In most cases, the geometric mean diameter (GMD) of the accumulation mode particles is 58-86 nm for both vehicles, and the GMD of the nucleation mode particles is 10-20 nm. The results suggest that the gaseous and particulate emissions from the PFI vehicle should not be neglected compared to those from the GDI vehicle especially in a cold environment.

  7. Influence of circulating epinephrine on absorption of subcutaneously injected insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of epinephrine (Epi) infusion on the absorption of subcutaneously injected 125I-labeled soluble human insulin (10 U) from the thigh or the abdomen were studied in 16 healthy subjects and from the thigh in 10 insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients. Epi was infused at 0.3 (high dose) or 0.1 (low dose; healthy subjects) nmol.kg-1.min-1 i.v., resulting in arterial plasma Epi levels of approximately 6 and 2 nM, respectively. Saline was infused on a control day. Insulin absorption was measured as disappearance of radioactivity from the injection site and as appearance of plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI). Adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe clearance technique. First-order disappearance rate constants of 125I from the thigh depot decreased approximately 40-50% during the high dose of Epi compared with control (P less than .001). The corresponding decrease from the abdominal depot was approximately 40% (P less than .001), whereas no significant change was found during the low Epi dose. IRI fell compared with control in all groups at the high Epi dose. The Epi-induced depression of insulin absorption occurred despite unaltered or even slightly increased subcutaneous blood flow. The results indicate that circulating Epi at levels seen during moderate physical stress depresses the absorption of soluble insulin from subcutaneous injection sites to an extent that might be important for glycemic control in IDDM patients. Furthermore, dissociation is found between changes in insulin absorption and subcutaneous blood flow during Epi infusion, suggesting that factors other than blood flow may also influence the absorption of subcutaneously injected insulin

  8. 可注射型纤维蛋白凝胶转化生长因子β1复合骨髓间充质干细胞移植治疗椎间盘退变%Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combined with injectable fibrinous gel transforming growth factor-beta 1 transplantation for treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴健; 杨金华; 杨宗华; 王筱林; 张伟; 沈斐

    2011-01-01

    背景:纤维蛋白凝胶主体胶与催化剂未混合前为液态,具有可注射的优点,注射混合后凝固成凝胶状,与髓核相似,并且凝固时间可控性强,作为间充质干细胞的载体植入到椎间盘内有诸多优点.目的:观察可注射型纤维蛋白凝胶转化生长因子β1复合骨髓间充质干细胞移植抑制椎间盘退变的可行性.方法:将新西兰大白兔随机分为退变模型组、纤维蛋白凝胶组,骨髓干细胞+纤维蛋白凝胶组.3组采用针刺法诱导建立退变模型后,纤维蛋白凝胶组及干细胞+纤维蛋白凝胶组分别移植入纤维蛋白凝胶转化生长因子β1复合物及骨髓间充质干细胞纤维蛋白凝胶转化生长因子β1复合物,于植入后2,6,10周行CR、MRI及病理检查.结果与结论:退变模型组与纤维蛋白凝胶组椎间隙高度下降明显,并与时间呈正相关,干细胞+纤维蛋白凝胶组下降较缓慢(P < 0.01).免疫组织化学及组织学检查显示,退变模型组髓核细胞的数量及Ⅱ型胶原含量进行性减少,细胞凋亡率明显增加,纤维蛋白凝胶组与退变模型组相似,干细胞+纤维蛋白凝胶组髓核细胞数量及Ⅱ型胶原含量较退变模型组及纤维蛋白凝胶组明显增多,细胞凋亡率下降.说明骨髓间充质干细胞联合纤维蛋白凝胶转化生长因子β1能很好抑制椎间盘退变,而单纯纤维蛋白凝胶转化生长因子β1移植不能抑制椎间盘退变.%BACKGROUND: The main part of fibrinous gel is liquid state before mixing with catalytic agent, and it is injectable, solidifying after mixing them, this is similar with nucleus pulposus, the solidify time is strongly controllable, and it is advantageous to implant in nucleus pulposus as a carrier of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of bone marrow MSCs compound injectable fibrinous gel transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) transplantation on inhibiting intervertebral disc

  9. Comparative effectiveness of injection therapies in lateral epicondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Thøger Persson; Bartels, Else Marie; Ellingsen, Torkell Juulsgaad;

    2013-01-01

    Injection therapy with glucocorticoids has been used since the 1950s as a treatment strategy for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). Lately, several novel injection therapies have become available....

  10. Application of Gaseous Sphere Injection Method for Modeling Under-expanded H2 Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitesides, R; Hessel, R P; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M

    2010-12-03

    A methodology for modeling gaseous injection has been refined and applied to recent experimental data from the literature. This approach uses a discrete phase analogy to handle gaseous injection, allowing for addition of gaseous injection to a CFD grid without needing to resolve the injector nozzle. This paper focuses on model testing to provide the basis for simulation of hydrogen direct injected internal combustion engines. The model has been updated to be more applicable to full engine simulations, and shows good agreement with experiments for jet penetration and time-dependent axial mass fraction, while available radial mass fraction data is less well predicted.

  11. Small-Signal Analysis of Performance Characterization of Chaotic Masking Decoding in Injected Semiconductor Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Sen-Lin

    2005-01-01

    @@ Performance characterization of chaotic masking encoding and decoding is studied in synchronization injected semiconductor lasers under condition of injected-feedback. The modulation response function of chaotic masking encoding and its response factor are theoretically deduced and analysed by small-signal analysis. It is numerically demonstrated that there are peak values between 1.52 GHz and 3.18 GHz when the injection coefficient is between0.2 and 0.8. The chaotic synchronization error equation is theoretically deduced and its root is given by smallsignal analysis under condition of chaotic masking encoding. The chaotic decoding formula is also theoretically demonstrated. There are the least dale values of synchronization errors between the modulation frequencies of 0.79GHz and 1.91 GHz when the injection coefficient is between 0.1 and 0.8 in numerical simulation. The numerical result is well consistent with the theoretical demonstration.

  12. Electrokinetic Sample Preconcentration and Hydrodynamic Sample Injection for Microchip Electrophoresis Using a Pneumatic Microvalve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Yongzheng; Katipamula, Shanta; Geng, Tao; Prost, Spencer A.; Tang, Keqi; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2016-02-01

    A microfluidic platform was developed to perform online electrokinetic sample preconcentration and rapid hydrodynamic sample injection for electrophoresis using a single microvalve. The PDMS microchip consists of a separation channel, a side channel for sample introduction, and a control channel which is used as a pneumatic microvalve aligned at the intersection of the two flow channels. The closed microvalve, created by multilayer soft lithography, can serve as a preconcentrator under an applied electric potential, enabling current to pass through while blocking bulk flow. Once analytes are concentrated, the valve is briefly opened and the stacked sample is pressure injected into the separation channel for electrophoretic separation. Fluorescently labeled peptides were enriched by a factor of ~450 in 230 s. The performance of the platform was validated by the online preconcentration, injection and electrophoretic separation of fluorescently labeled peptides. This method enables both rapid analyte concentration and controlled injection volume for high sensitivity, high resolution capillary electrophoresis.

  13. Detection Block Model for SQL Injection Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diksha G. Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of Internet, more and more organizations connect their databases to the Internet for resource sharing. However, due to developers' lack of knowledge of all possible attacks, web applications become vulnerable to multiple attacks. Thus the network databases could face multiple threats. Web applications generally consist of a three tier architecture where database is in the third pole, which is the most valuable asset in any organization. SQL injection is an attack technique in which specially crafted input string is entered in user input field. It is submitted to server and result is returned to the user. In SQL injection vulnerability, the database server is forced to execute malicious operations which may cause the data loss or corruption, denial of access, and unauthentic access to sensitive data by crafting specific inputs. An attacker can directly compromise the database, and that is why this is a most threatening web attack. SQL injection attack occupies first position in top ten vulnerabilities as specified by Open Web Application Security Project. It is probably the most common Website vulnerability today. Current scenarios which provide solutions to SQL injection attack either have limited scope i.e. can’t be implemented across all platforms, or do not cover all types of SQL injection attacks. In this work we implement Message Authentication Code (MAC based solution against SQL injection attacks. The model works both on client and server side. Client side implements a filter function and server side is based on information theory. MAC of static and dynamic queries is compared to detect SQL injection attack.

  14. Ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Khatkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key conditions for achieving the desirable result during botulinum toxin therapy for muscular dystonia, spasticity, and other diseases accompanied by spasm, pain, and autonomic dysfunction (dystonias, spasticity, etc. is the proper administration of the agent into the muscles directly involved in the pathological process. The exact entry of botulinum toxin into the target muscles is essential for successful and safe treatment because its injection into a normal muscle may cause side effects. The most common errors are the incorrect depth and incorrect direction of a needle on insertion. Therefore, the exact injection of the agent particularly into the shallow and deep muscles is a difficult task even for an experienced specialist and requires the use of controlling methods.The European Consensus on Botulinum Toxin Therapy points out that various injection techniques are needed for the better identification of necessary muscles. However, there are currently no reports on the clear advantage of any technique. In our country, injections using palpation and anatomical landmarks have been widely used in routine practice so far; electromyographic monitoring and electrostimulation have been less frequently applied. In recent years, the new method ultrasound-guided injection has continued to grow more popular. This effective, accessible, and easy-to-use method makes it possible to manage a real-time injection process and to ensure the exact entry of the agent into the muscle. This paper is dedicated to a comparative analysis of different injection methods and to a description of the ultrasound-guided technique and its advantages over others. 

  15. Residual stress distribution in injection molded parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Postawa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents the results of the investigations of influence of the amorphous polystyrene (PSprocessing on the diversity of the internal stresses observed in the injection moulded piece.Design/methodology/approach: For the tests, the standardized mould piece designed for the investigations ofthe processing shrinkage of thermoplastics materials has been used. The samples have been prepared using theDesign of Experiment (DoE theory.The state of internal stresses has been analysed by means of photoelastic method (used stress viewer equipmenton the basis of the layout and size of the isochromatics (fields with the same colour, which determine the mouldpiece’s areas where the same value for the difference of main tensions. In the article the results of investigationsof influence of 5 chosen processing parameters such as injection temperature Tw, mould temperature Tf,clamping pressure pd, cooling time tch and the injection speed vw on the changes in isochromatics layout as adeterminant for diversity of internal stresses in injection moulded pieces have been presented.Findings: The performed investigations of the influence of injection conditions on the state of internal stressesreached for injection mould pieces were to determine the parameters of injection at which the achieved state ofthe stresses in the mould piece (described by the difference of main tensions will show the lowest values.Practical implications: Effects of examinations of influence of processing conditions on residual stress ininjection molded parts (presented in the article could find practical application in polymer industry, both smalland large enterprises.Originality/value: New approach to fast estimation of value of residual stresses were present in the paper.

  16. Stratospheric Aerosol Injection for Geoengineering Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, R. P.; Yu, F.

    2008-12-01

    A number of studies have focused on the large-scale aspects of massive stratospheric aerosol injections for the purpose of modifying global climate to counterbalance current and future greenhouse warming effects. However, no descriptions of actual injection schemes have been presented at any level of detail; it is generally assumed that the procedure would be straightforward. Approaches mentioned include direct injection of dispersed microparticles of sulfates or other mineral particles, or the emission of precursor vapors, such as sulfur dioxide or hydrogen sulfide, that lead to particle formation. Using earlier aircraft plume research as a guide, we investigate the fate of injected aerosols/precursors from a stratospheric platform in terms of the chemical and microphysical evolution occurring in a mixing plume. We utilize an advanced microphysics model that treats nucleation, coagulation, condensation and other processes relevant to the injection of particulates at high altitudes, as well as the influence of plume dilution. The requirements of particle size and concentration for producing the desired engineered radiative forcing place significant constraints on the injection system. Here, we focus on the effects of early microphysical processing on the formation of a suitable aerosol layer, and consider strategies to overcome potential hurdles. Among the problems explicitly addressed are: the propensity for emitted particles to coagulate to sizes that are optically inefficient at solar wavelengths, accelerated scavenging by an enhanced background aerosol layer, the evolution of size dispersion leading to significant infrared effects, and total mass injection rates implied by stratospheric residence times. We also investigate variability in aerosol properties owing to uncertain nucleation rates in evolving plumes. In the context of the microphysical simulations, we discuss infrastructure requirements in terms of the scale of the intervention and, hence, the

  17. Effect of capillary number on the oil recovery using oil-water emulsion injection in core flooding experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen Nunez, Victor Raul; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: msn@puc-rio.br; Basante, Vladimir Alvarado [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemical/Petroleum Engineering], E-mail: valvard@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    The Water injection flooding is a common method to improve reservoir sweep and pressure maintenance. The heavy-oil-recovery efficiency is in part limited by the high water-to-oil mobility ratio. Several enhanced oil recovery methods are being developed as more efficient alternatives to water flooding. Dispersion injection, in particular oil-water emulsion injection, has been tried with relative success as an enhanced oil recovery method, but the technique is not fully developed or understood. If emulsion injection proves to be an effective EOR method, its use would bring the added benefit of disposing produced water with small oil content that could be modified to serve as the injected oil-water emulsion. The use of such methods requires a detailed analysis of the different flow regimes of emulsions through the porous space of a reservoir rock. If the drop size of the disperse phase is of the same order of magnitude as the pore size, the drops may agglomerate and partially block water flow through pores. This flow regime may be used to control the mobility of the injected liquid, leading to higher recovery factor. We have shown in recent experiments of oil displacement in a sandstone core that, the oil recovery factor could be raised from approximately 40 %, obtained with water injection only, up to approximately 75 % by alternating water and emulsion injection. Although these results clearly show the improvement in the recovery factor, the mechanisms responsible for the phenomenon have not been clearly elucidated. In this work, two sandstone cores were used to demonstrate the effect of flow rate (capillary number) on the mobility control by emulsion injection. Figure 1 shows a schematic representation of the experiment set-up. The experiments show that raising the flow rate by a factor of 10 (0.03 ml/min to 0.3 ml/min), the oil recovered factor decreases considerably. (author)

  18. Research in manufacturing of micro-structured injection molded polymer parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucyshyn, Thomas; Struklec, Tobias; Burgsteiner, Martin; Graninger, Georg; Holzer, Clemens

    2015-12-01

    An overview of current research results is given for the topic of injection molding of micro-structured polymer parts regarding filling behavior and demolding process of micro-structures as well as the production of micro-structures on curved surfaces. In order to better understand how micro-structures are formed during the filling stage of injection molding, a study was performed on a test part with micro-channels placed parallely and perpendicularly to flow direction. Short shots with a highly fluent Polypropylene grade were injection molded with the melt front stopping in the structure fields. The melt and mold temperature, the injection rate as well as the use of a variotherm heating system were varied in a systematic Design of Experiments. The shape of the flow front was investigated with the optical measurement system Alicona InfiniteFocus. The data gained was analyzed with Matlab scripts and provided the needed distance to completely fill the structures as a reference value. The next topic covers the demolding step, which is a crucial process step in injection molding of micro-structured parts as the successfully replicated structures often get destroyed in the following demolding step. In order to evaluate the influence of the four aspects polymer, mold surface (coatings), structure (geometry and placement) and process settings on the demolding behavior, an injection mold with integrated measurement system was built, which makes it possible to measure the demolding force respectively a demolding energy under process conditions. These values can be used to quantitatively compare the impact of the above mentioned influencing factors on demolding. Finally, a concept to produce micro-structures on curved surfaces with injection molding is shown: A flat metal premaster structure is used to produce an elastomeric polymer (dimethylsiloxane) master in a casting process. This master is fixed in a conventional injection mold and a thermoplastic polymer is replicated

  19. The severe adverse reaction to vitamin k1 injection is anaphylactoid reaction but not anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yan-Ni; Ping, Na-Na; Xiao, Xue; Zhu, Yan-Bing; Liu, Jing; Cao, Yong-Xiao

    2014-01-01

    The severe adverse reaction to vitamin K1 injection is always remarkable and is thought to result from anaphylaxis. Paradoxically, however, some patients administered vitamin K1 injection for the first time have adverse reactions. Using beagle dogs, the present study tested the hypothesis that the response to vitamin K1 is an anaphylactoid reaction. The results showed that serious anaphylaxis-like symptoms appeared in beagle dogs after the administration of vitamin K1 injection for the first time. The plasma histamine concentration increased, and blood pressure decreased sharply. After sensitization, dogs were challenged with vitamin K1 injection and displayed the same degree of symptoms as prior to sensitization. However, when the vitamin K1 injection-sensitized dogs were challenged with a vitamin K1-fat emulsion without solubilizers such asTween-80, the abnormal reactions did not occur. Furthermore, there was no significant change in the plasma immunoglobulin E concentration after vitamin K1 challenge. Following treatment with vitamin K1 injection, the release of histamine and β-hexosaminidase by rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells as well as the rate of apoptosis increased. The Tween-80 group displayed results similar to those observed following vitamin K1 injection in vivo. However, the dogs in the vitamin K1-fat emulsion group did not display any abnormal behavior or significant change in plasma histamine. Additionally, degranulation and apoptosis did not occur in rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells. Our results indicate that the adverse reaction induced by vitamin K1 injection is an anaphylactoid reaction, not anaphylaxis. Vitamin K1 injection induces the release of inflammatory factors via a non-IgE-mediated immune pathway, for which the trigger may be the solubilizer. PMID:24594861

  20. The severe adverse reaction to vitamin k1 injection is anaphylactoid reaction but not anaphylaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ni Mi

    Full Text Available The severe adverse reaction to vitamin K1 injection is always remarkable and is thought to result from anaphylaxis. Paradoxically, however, some patients administered vitamin K1 injection for the first time have adverse reactions. Using beagle dogs, the present study tested the hypothesis that the response to vitamin K1 is an anaphylactoid reaction. The results showed that serious anaphylaxis-like symptoms appeared in beagle dogs after the administration of vitamin K1 injection for the first time. The plasma histamine concentration increased, and blood pressure decreased sharply. After sensitization, dogs were challenged with vitamin K1 injection and displayed the same degree of symptoms as prior to sensitization. However, when the vitamin K1 injection-sensitized dogs were challenged with a vitamin K1-fat emulsion without solubilizers such asTween-80, the abnormal reactions did not occur. Furthermore, there was no significant change in the plasma immunoglobulin E concentration after vitamin K1 challenge. Following treatment with vitamin K1 injection, the release of histamine and β-hexosaminidase by rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells as well as the rate of apoptosis increased. The Tween-80 group displayed results similar to those observed following vitamin K1 injection in vivo. However, the dogs in the vitamin K1-fat emulsion group did not display any abnormal behavior or significant change in plasma histamine. Additionally, degranulation and apoptosis did not occur in rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells. Our results indicate that the adverse reaction induced by vitamin K1 injection is an anaphylactoid reaction, not anaphylaxis. Vitamin K1 injection induces the release of inflammatory factors via a non-IgE-mediated immune pathway, for which the trigger may be the solubilizer.

  1. Practical aspects of steam injection processes: A handbook for independent operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.

    1992-10-01

    More than 80% of the total steam injection process operating costs are for the production of steam and the operation of surface and subsurface equipment. The proper design and operation of the surface equipment is of critical importance to the success of any steam injection operation. However, the published monographs on thermal recovery have attached very little importance to this aspect of thermal oil recovery; hence, a definite need exists for a comprehensive manual that places emphasis on steam injection field practices and problems. This handbook is an attempt to fulfill this need. This handbook explores the concept behind steam injection processes and discusses the information required to evaluate, design, and implement these processes in the field. The emphasis is on operational aspects and those factors that affect the technology and economics of oil recovery by steam. The first four chapters describe the screening criteria, engineering, and economics of steam injection operation as well as discussion of the steam injection fundamentals. The next four chapters begin by considering the treatment of the water used to generate steam and discuss in considerable detail the design, operation and problems of steam generations, distribution and steam quality determination. The subsurface aspects of steamflood operations are addressed in chapters 9 through 12. These include thermal well completion and cementing practices, insulated tubulars, and lifting equipment. The next two chapters are devoted to subsurface operational problems encountered with the use of steam. Briefly described in chapters 15 and 16 are the steam injection process surface production facilities, problems and practices. Chapter 17 discusses the importance of monitoring in a steam injection project. The environmental laws and issues of importance to steam injection operation are outlined in chapter 18.

  2. A critical quality parameter in quantitative fused-core chromatography:The injection volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jente Boonen; Matthias D’hondt; Lieselotte Veryser; Kathelijne Peremans; Christian Burvenich; Bart De Spiegeleer

    2013-01-01

    As part of the method development, the injection volume as a critical quality attribute in fast fused-core chromatography was evaluated. Spilanthol, a pharmaceutically interesting N-alkylamide currently under investigation in our laboratory, was chosen as the model compound. Spilanthol was dissolved in both PBS and MeOH/H2O (70/30, v/v) and subsequently analyzed using a fused-core system hereby selecting five chromatographic characteristics (retention time, area, height, theoretical plates and symmetry factor) as responses. We demonstrated that the injection volume significantly influenced both the qualitative and quantitative performance of fused-core chromatography, a phenomenon which is confounded with the nature of the used sample solvent. From 2 mL up to 100 mL injection volume with PBS as solvent, the symmetry factor decreased favorably by 20%. Moreover, the theoretical plates and the quantitative parameters (area and height) increased up to 30%. On the contrary, in this injection volume range, the theoretical plates for the methanol-based samples decreased by more than 60%, while the symmetry factor increased and the height decreased, both by 30%. The injection volume is thus a critical and often overlooked parameter in fused-core method description and validation.

  3. Hypersensitivity reactions and contrast medium injection: Are they always related?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Ingrid, E-mail: i.boehm@uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany); Alfke, Heiko [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Luedenscheid, Luedenscheid (Germany); Klose, Klaus Jochen [Department of Radiology, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Background: Hypersensitivity (allergic or non-allergic) reactions that occur after contrast medium (CM) injection are usually related to the CM. Recent studies, and case reports lack the analysis of alternate causes that could be also responsible in individual cases. Patients and methods: We investigated the individual relevant factor/causative agent of adult patients with hypersensitivity reactions that occurred in radiological units during CM-enhanced procedures (CT, angiography, urography, or MR-examinations). Both immediate and non-immediate (delayed) reactions were included. To find out the relevant agent a detailed patients' history was carefully analyzed. In addition, the records were retrospectively reviewed, and if indicated and possible laboratory (e.g. basophil activation test) and skin tests (e.g. prick) and/or provocations with CM-injections under routine conditions were performed. Results: 38 patients (men n = 21) suspected for CM-hypersensitivity reactions were identified. These reactions were in most cases mild (n = 21), moderate reactions occurred in 13 cases, and four patients had severe reactions. In 28 patients the reactions were induced by the CM (iodinated CM in 25 cases). Four patients had reactions that were not CM-related (latex allergy, adenosine reaction, vasovagal reaction, unknown cause) and in six cases the reaction was partly CM-related (immunological activation was present due to the patients' diseases). Conclusion: Our data support the hypothesis that in CM-enhanced procedures not only contrast materials but also a broad range of other factors may also induce hypersensitivity reactions. Therefore, the number of CM-induced hypersensitivity is smaller than initially suspected. The knowledge of the cause of a reaction is essential to effectively prevent its recurrence and to improve safety aspects in patients undergoing CM-injection. Larger trials should be performed to more specifically assess alternate causes in patients

  4. Powder Injection Molding of Titanium Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Nyberg, Eric A.; Weil, K. Scott; Miller, Megan R.

    2005-01-01

    Powder injection molding (PIM) is a well-established, cost-effective method of fabricating small-to-moderate size metal components. Derived from plastic injection molding and employing a mixture of metal powder and plastic binder, the process has been used with great success in manufacturing a wide variety of metal products, including those made from stainless steel, nickel-based superalloys, and copper alloys. Less progress has been achieved with titanium and other refractory metal alloys because of problems with alloy impurities that are directly attributable to the injection molding process. Specifically, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are left behind during binder removal and become incorporated into the chemistry and microstructure of the material during densification. Even at low concentration, these impurities can cause severe degradation in the mechanical properties of titanium and its alloys. We have developed a unique blend of PIM constituents where only a small volume fraction of binder (~5 – 10 vol%) is required for injection molding; the remainder of the mixture consists of the metal powder and binder solvent. Because of the nature of decomposition in the binder system and the relatively small amount used, the binder is eliminated almost completely from the pre-sintered component during the initial stage of a two-step heat treatment process. Results will be presented on the first phase of this research, in which the binder, injection molding, de-binding and sintering schedule were developed. Additional data on the mechanical and physical properties of the material produced will be discussed.

  5. Autologus Blood Injection for Recurrent Lateral Epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dehghani, M.D.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Tennis elbow is a common complaint. Several treatment strategies, such as corticosteroid injections and physical terapy and braces have been described with no predictable efficacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prospectively the result of refractory lateral epicondylitis with autologus blood injections.Materials and Methods: Twenty two patients with lateral epicondylitis were injected with 2 mL of autologous blood under the extensor carpi radialis brevis. All patients had failed the two previous non surgical treatments including all or combination of physical therapy, splintinge, non steroidal anti-inflammatory medication and prior steroid injection. The patients were evaluated with patient-rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE.Results: The average fallow-up period was 7.3 months (range, 4-10mo. After autologus blood injection, the average pain score decreased from 43.7 to 9.1 (P-value < 0.001. The average functional score decreased from 42.4 to 10.1 (P-value <0.001.Conclusion: On the basis of this study, this minimally invasive treatment advocates refractory Tennis elbow.

  6. Assistive Device for Efficient Intravitreal Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Franziska; Michels, Stephan; Lehmann, Daniel; Pieters, Roel S; Becker, Matthias; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-08-01

    Intravitreal therapy is the most common treatment for many chronic ophthalmic diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration. Due to the increasing worldwide demand for intravitreal injections, there exists a need to render this medical procedure more time- and cost-efficient while increasing patient safety. The authors propose a medical assistive device that injects medication intravitreally. Compared to the manual intravitreal injection procedure, an automated device has the potential to increase safety for patients, decrease procedure times, allow for integrated data storage and documentation, and reduce costs for medical staff and expensive operating rooms. This work demonstrates the development of an assistive injection system that is coarsely positioned over the patient's head by the human operator, followed by automatic fine positioning and intravitreal injection through the pars plana. Several safety features, such as continuous eye tracking and iris recognition, have been implemented. The functioning system is demonstrated through ex vivo experiments with porcine eyes. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:752-762.]. PMID:27548453

  7. The filter of choice: filtration method preference among injecting drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keijzer Lenneke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug use syringe filters (IDUSF are designed to prevent several complications related to the injection of drugs. Due to their small pore size, their use can reduce the solution's insoluble particle content and thus diminish the prevalence of phlebitis, talcosis.... Their low drug retention discourages from filter reuse and sharing and can thus prevent viral and microbial infections. In France, drug users have access to sterile cotton filters for 15 years and to an IDUSF (the Sterifilt® for 5 years. This study was set up to explore the factors influencing filter preference amongst injecting drug users. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered through 241 questionnaires and the participation of 23 people in focus groups. Results Factors found to significantly influence filter preference were duration and frequency of injecting drug use, the type of drugs injected and subculture. Furthermore, IDU's rationale for the preference of one type of filter over others was explored. It was found that filter preference depends on perceived health benefits (reduced harms, prevention of vein damage, protection of injection sites, drug retention (low retention: better high, protective mechanism against the reuse of filters; high retention: filter reuse as a protective mechanism against withdrawal, technical and practical issues (filter clogging, ease of use, time needed to prepare an injection and believes (the conviction that a clear solution contains less active compound. Conclusion It was concluded that the factors influencing filter preference are in favour of change; a shift towards the use of more efficient filters can be made through increased availability, information and demonstrations.

  8. Transitions to Injecting and Risk of Hepatitis C Transmission among Ethnic Vietnamese Heroin Smokers in Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Higgs

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: To examine factors associated with transition from non-injecting to injecting routes of drug administration and testing antibody positive to hepatitis C virus (HCV among ethnic Vietnamese heroin users in Melbourne, Australia.Methods: In a cross-sectional convenience survey, sample recruited by peer-workers using snowball sampling technique with a finger prick blood collection. Two-hundred ethnic Vietnamese heroin users were recruited and interviews conducted mainly in Footscray, an area of high ethnic Vietnamese residency with a prominent street based drug market. A structured questionnaire was administered. Measures included patterns of drug use, transition from smoking to injecting and vice versa, injection related risk behaviours and HCV sero-status.Results: Ninety-three percent of the sample commenced drug use by non-injecting routes of administration. More than a half had made the transition from smoking to injecting and almost two thirds of participants had ever injected. The factors associated with making this transition included being male and a longer duration of use. Prevalence of exposure to HCV among injectors was over 50%. Factors associated with being HCV positive were longer duration of injecting, sharing injecting equipment and being older.Conclusions: Smoking heroin is a common route of drug administration among heroin users of Vietnamese ethnicity in this study. The transition from smoking to injecting was very common in the sample. The need for targeted harm reduction initiatives is indicated, and these must take into account patterns of heroin use as well as the social context of drug use if we are to work effectively with heroin users of Vietnamese ethnicity.

  9. Brachial Plexus Root Injection in a Human Cadaver Model Injectate Distribution and Effects on the Neuraxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orebaugh, Steven L.; Mukalel, Jessen J.; Krediet, Annalot C.; Weimer, Jonathan; Filip, Patrick; McFadden, Kathryn; Bigeleisen, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The potential for injection into the brachial plexus root at cervical levels must be considered during interscalene block or chronic pain interventions in the neck, but this phenomenon has not been well studied. In this investigation, we performed injections into the brachial plexus root

  10. 77 FR 71006 - Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-1134 Sodium Nitrite Injection and... products containing sodium nitrite labeled for the treatment of cyanide poisoning and unapproved injectable... products containing sodium nitrite or sodium thiosulfate that are labeled for the treatment of...

  11. Sequential injection lab-on-valve: the third generation of flow injection analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2003-01-01

    Termed the third generation of flow injection analysis, sequential injection (SI)-lab-on-valve (LOV) has specific advantages and allows novel, unique applications - not least as a versatile front end to a variety of detection techniques. This review presents snd discusses progress to date of the SI...

  12. Experimental feasibility study of radial injection cooling of three-pad radial air foil bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Suman K.

    Air foil bearings use ambient air as a lubricant allowing environment-friendly operation. When they are designed, installed, and operated properly, air foil bearings are very cost effective and reliable solution to oil-free turbomachinery. Because air is used as a lubricant, there are no mechanical contacts between the rotor and bearings and when the rotor is lifted off the bearing, near frictionless quiet operation is possible. However, due to the high speed operation, thermal management is one of the very important design factors to consider. Most widely accepted practice of the cooling method is axial cooling, which uses cooling air passing through heat exchange channels formed underneath the bearing pad. Advantage is no hardware modification to implement the axial cooling because elastic foundation structure of foil bearing serves as a heat exchange channels. Disadvantage is axial temperature gradient on the journal shaft and bearing. This work presents the experimental feasibility study of alternative cooling method using radial injection of cooling air directly on the rotor shaft. The injection speeds, number of nozzles, location of nozzles, total air flow rate are important factors determining the effectiveness of the radial injection cooling method. Effectiveness of the radial injection cooling was compared with traditional axial cooling method. A previously constructed test rig was modified to accommodate a new motor with higher torque and radial injection cooling. The radial injection cooling utilizes the direct air injection to the inlet region of air film from three locations at 120° from one another with each location having three axially separated holes. In axial cooling, a certain axial pressure gradient is applied across the bearing to induce axial cooling air through bump foil channels. For the comparison of the two methods, the same amount of cooling air flow rate was used for both axial cooling and radial injection. Cooling air flow rate was

  13. Ultrafast and Gigantic Spin Injection in Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiato, M.; Held, K.

    2016-05-01

    The injection of spin currents in semiconductors is one of the big challenges of spintronics. Motivated by the ultrafast demagnetization and spin injection into metals, we propose an alternative femtosecond route based on the laser excitation of superdiffusive spin currents in a ferromagnet such as Ni. Our calculations show that even though only a fraction of the current crosses the Ni-Si interface, the laser-induced creation of strong transient electrical fields at a ferromagnet-semiconductor interface allows for the injection of chargeless spin currents with record spin polarizations of 80%. Beyond that they are pulsed on the time scale of 100 fs which opens the door for new experiments and ultrafast spintronics.

  14. Energy optimization aspects by injection process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulbure, A.; Ciortea, M.; Hutanu, C.; Farcas, V.

    2016-08-01

    In the proposed paper, the authors examine the energy aspects related to the injection moulding process technology in the automotive industry. Theoretical considerations have been validated by experimental measurements on the manufacturing process, for two types of injections moulding machines, hydraulic and electric. Practical measurements have been taken with professional equipment separately on each technological operation: lamination, compression, injection and expansion. For results traceability, the following parameters were, whenever possible, maintained: cycle time, product weight and the relative time. The aim of the investigations was to carry out a professional energy audit with accurate losses identification. Base on technological diagram for each production cycle, at the end of this contribution, some measure to reduce the energy consumption were proposed.

  15. Treatment of lipoma by injection lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Soni

    2011-05-01

    Injection lipolysis or lipodissolve is the practice of injecting phosphatidyl choline/ sodium deoxycholate (PDC/DC) compounds in the subcutaneous fat. Though this practice is being used extensively for nonsurgical contouring of body and dissolving localized collections of excess fat, it's use as a treatment modality for lipomas needs further evaluation. We present a case where this technique was used for treating a lipoma, with no recurrence after 9 months of follow up. Injection lipolysis as a treatment modality for lipomas needs to be evaluated for safety and efficacy in trials on larger population. This could prove to be a very valuable adjunct to the current practice of excision, if done by a trained person in a properly selected patient. Also the side effects and the controversies regarding this procedure have been discussed in detail in the present paper.

  16. Ultrafast and Gigantic Spin Injection in Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiato, M; Held, K

    2016-05-13

    The injection of spin currents in semiconductors is one of the big challenges of spintronics. Motivated by the ultrafast demagnetization and spin injection into metals, we propose an alternative femtosecond route based on the laser excitation of superdiffusive spin currents in a ferromagnet such as Ni. Our calculations show that even though only a fraction of the current crosses the Ni-Si interface, the laser-induced creation of strong transient electrical fields at a ferromagnet-semiconductor interface allows for the injection of chargeless spin currents with record spin polarizations of 80%. Beyond that they are pulsed on the time scale of 100 fs which opens the door for new experiments and ultrafast spintronics. PMID:27232029

  17. Gorenstein flatness and injectivity over Gorenstein rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Let R be a Gorenstein ring.We prove that if I is an ideal of R such that R/I is a semi-simple ring,then the Gorenstein flat dimension of R/I as a right R-module and the Gorenstein injective dimension of R/I as a left R-module are identical.In addition,we prove that if R→S is a homomorphism of rings and SE is an injective cogenerator for the category of left S-modules,then the Gorenstein flat dimension of S as a right R-module and the Gorenstein injective dimension of E as a left R-module are identical.We also give some applications of these results.

  18. Intraurethral Injection of Autologous Minced Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, Søren; Klarskov, Niels; Lose, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Intraurethral injection of in vitro expanded autologous skeletal muscle derived cells is a new regenerative therapy for stress urinary incontinence. We examined the efficacy and safety of a simpler alternative strategy using freshly harvested, minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue with...... its inherent content of regenerative cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 and 15 women with uncomplicated and complicated stress urinary incontinence, respectively, received intraurethral injections of minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue and were followed for 1 year. Efficacy was assessed...... events were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Intraurethral injection of minced autologous muscle tissue is a simple surgical procedure that appears safe and moderately effective in women with uncomplicated stress urinary incontinence. It compares well to a more complicated regenerative strategy using in vitro...

  19. Excipients and their use in injectable products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, S; Washkuhn, R J; Brendel, R J

    1997-01-01

    Formulation of a new drug product with excipients, that have been previously added to an approved injectable product, may save pharmaceutical companies developmental time and cost. The Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR) and Handbook on Injectable Drugs were reviewed, extracting all information on excipients. The information was consolidated into eight tables, categorizing excipients as 1) Solvents and Co-solvents, 2) Solubilizing, Wetting, Suspending, Emulsifying or Thickening agents, 3) Chelating Agents, 4) Antioxidants and Reducing Agents. 5) Antimicrobial Preservatives, 6) Buffers and pH Adjusting Agents, 7) Bulking Agents, Protectants, and Tonicity Adjustors, and 8) Special Additives. Where applicable, tables list frequency of use, concentration, and an example of a commercial product containing the excipient. Excipients which are included in the 1996 FDA 'Inactive Ingredient Guide,' but do not appear in the PDR or Handbook on Injectable Drugs, were included as a separate list.

  20. Single gate optimization for plastic injection mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji-quan; LI De-qun; GUO Zhi-ying; LV Hai-yuan

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with a methodology for single gate location optimization for plastic injection mold. The objective of the gate optimization is to minimize the warpage of injection molded parts, because warpage is a crucial quality issue for most injection molded parts while it is influenced greatly by the gate location. Feature warpage is defined as the ratio of maximum displacement on the feature surface to the projected length of the feature surface to describe part warpage. The optimization is combined with the numerical simulation technology to find the optimal gate location, in which the simulated annealing algorithm is used to search for the optimum. Finally, an example is discussed in the paper and it can be concluded that the proposed method is effective.

  1. Injection moulding for macro and micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    The purpose of the literature survey is to investigate the injection moulding technology in the macro and micro areas from the basic to the state-of-the-art recent technology. Injection moulding is a versatile production process for the manufacturing of plastic parts and the process is extensively...... used for macro products but with the ages it is going deep into the micro areas having machine and process improvements. Extensive research work on injection moulding is going on all over the world. New ideas are flowing into the machines, materials and processes. The technology has made significant...... into micro and macro parts when it requires. It contains separate discussion on multimaterial moulding and two component moulding considering their current applications and possible use in MIDs....

  2. Fault injection system for automatic testing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜文; 洪炳熔

    2003-01-01

    Considering the deficiency of the means for confirming the attribution of fault redundancy in the re-search of Automatic Testing System(ATS) , a fault-injection system has been proposed to study fault redundancyof automatic testing system through compurison. By means of a fault-imbeded environmental simulation, thefaults injected at the input level of the software are under test. These faults may induce inherent failure mode,thus bringing about unexpected output, and the anticipated goal of the test is attained. The fault injection con-sists of voltage signal generator, current signal generator and rear drive circuit which are specially developed,and the ATS can work regularly by means of software simulation. The experimental results indicate that the faultinjection system can find the deficiency of the automatic testing software, and identify the preference of fault re-dundancy. On the other hand, some soft deficiency never exposed before can be identified by analyzing the tes-ting results.

  3. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  4. Demonstration of steady inductive helicity injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial results demonstrating the concept of constant inductive helicity injection are presented. Constant helicity injection is achieved using two oscillating inductive helicity injectors, with the goal of producing a bow tie spheromak. Each injector is a 1800 segment of a reverse field pinch and they are driven 900 out of phase. Approximately 5 MW of power is injected during the 6 ms pulse, and the input power has been maintained at a fairly constant value by directly fuelling the injectors with neutral gas. Motivation for the experiment is given, including beta-limit calculations for the bow tie spheromak. Fuelling the injectors with neutral gas during the discharge is shown to produce injector parameters that are more constant in time. A series of discharges with increasing power input shows a promising increase in toroidal current. Unique construction techniques of the experiment are also described

  5. Effects of local injection of insulin-like growth factor-1 on the expression of integrin αV,β3 in periodontal tissues of orthodontic tooth in rats%胰岛素样生长因子1对大鼠正畸牙牙周膜细胞整合素αV、β3表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁颖; 刘建国; 徐宇红; 苏牧; 黄瑾; 管晓燕; 高海涛; 陈欣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor (rhIGF-I) on integrin αV,β3 in the periodontal tissue of orthodontics tooth in rats.Methods The first maxillary molars of the rats were moved medially by an elastic string which delivered a force of 50 g.Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into six groups,which were injected with 0.1 mL rhIGF-1 of 0 (control group),1,2,4,8,16 μg/mL in the buccal submucosal area of the molar per triduum.Ten days later,all rats were killed and the expressions of integrin αV,β3 in periodontal tissue were deteceted in situ hybridization.Results Integrin αV,β3 of control group expressed lowly in periodontal tissues.The 2 μg/mL and 4 μg/mL groups showed a significantly increasing expression of integrin αV,β3 in the compression sides compared with the control group (P <0.01).At the level of 8 μg/mL and 16 μg/mL,the expressions reduced gradually,but showed significantly differences compared with the control group (P < 0.05).The expressions of integrin αV,β3 in the tension sides increased gradually with the concentrations of rhIGF-1 increased from 2 μg/mL to 8 μg/mL.At the level 16 μg/mL,the expression of integrin αV,β3 decreased slightly,but still significantly higher than that in the control group(P < 0.01).Conclusion Exogenous rhIGF-1 accelerate the periodontal tissue remodeling by enhancing the expression of integrin αV,β3 in periodontal tissue.%目的 研究重组人胰岛素样生长因子1(recombinant human insulin-like growth factor,rhIGF-1)对大鼠正畸牙牙周膜细胞整合素αV、β3表达的影响,探讨胰岛素样生长因子1在正畸牙移动过程中的作用机制.方法 将30只雄性SD大鼠按rhIGF-1注射浓度不同分为6组:对照组(0 μg/mL)、1μg/mL、2μg/nL、4μg/mL、8 μg/mL、16 μg/mL组,每组5只,隔日局部注射不同浓度的rhIGF-1 0.1 mL于正畸牙颊侧牙龈黏膜下,第10天处死大鼠,用原位杂交方法检测整合素αV、β3

  6. Groundwater monitoring for deep-well injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A groundwater monitoring system for detecting waste migration would not only enhance confidence in the long-term containment of injected waste, but would also provide early warnings of contamination for prompt responses to protect underground sources of drinking water (USDWs). Field experiences in Florida have demonstrated monitoring water quality and fluid pressure changes in overlying formations is useful in detecting the upward migration of injected waste. Analytical and numerical solutions indicate changes in these two monitoring parameters can vary on the basis of hydrogeologic characteristics, operation conditions, and the distances from the injection well to the monitoring wells and to the preferential hydrologic conduits. To detect waste migration through defects around the wellbore or the leaky containment interval, groundwater monitoring wells should be placed as close as possible to an injection well. In the vertical direction, a monitoring well completed in a permeable interbed within the containment interval is expected to have the highest potential for detecting upward migration. Another acceptable horizon for groundwater monitoring is the lower portion of the buffer brine aquifer immediately above the containment interval. Monitoring wells in USDWs may be needed when waste has been detected in deeper formations or when leakage out of well casings poses a concern. A monitoring well open to the injection interval is of little value in alleviating the concerns of long-term upward migration. Moreover, the installation of the well could create additional preferential pathways. Complications in groundwater monitoring may arise at existing injection sites, especially with prior releases. It is also important to recognize that monitoring in the vicinity of the wellbore may not be effective for detecting waste migration through unidentified unplugged wells or undetected transmissive fractures

  7. Investigation of mouldability for feedstocks used powder injection moulding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karatas, Cetin [Gazi University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Technology, Teknikokullar, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Soezen, Adnan [Gazi University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Technology, Teknikokullar, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: asozen@gazi.edu.tr; Arcaklioglu, Erol [The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, Tunus Caddesi No. 80 06100 Kavaklidere / Ankara (Turkey); Erguney, Sami [Gazi University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Technology, Teknikokullar, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-10-15

    In this study performed experimental and theoretical analysis of mouldability for feedstocks used powder injection moulding. This study covers two main subjects: (i) The experimental analysis: The barrel temperature, injection pressure and flow rate are factors for powder injection moulding (PIM). Powder-binder mixture using as feedstock as feedstock in PIM requires a little more attention and sensitivity. Obtaining the balance among with pressure, temperature and especially flow rate are the most important in aspect of undesirable conclusions such as powder-binder separation, sink marks and crack in moulded party structure. In this study; available feed stocks using in PIM were injected in three different cavities which consist of zigzag form, constant cross section and stair form (in five different thicknesses) mouldability them are measured. Because of difference between material and binder measured lengths were different. These were measured as 533 mm, 268 mm, 211 mm and 150 mm in advanced materials trade mark Fe-2Ni, BASF firm Catamould AO-F, FN02, 316L stainless steel, respectively. (ii) The theoretical analysis: The use of artificial neural network (ANN) has been proposed to determine the mouldability for feedstocks using in powder injection moulding using results of experimental analysis. In order to train the neural network, limited experimental measurements were used as training and test data. The best fitting training data set was obtained with three and four neurons in the hidden-layer, which made it possible to predict yield length with accuracy at least as good as that of the experimental error, over the whole experimental range. After training, it was found the R{sup 2} values are 0.999463, 0.999445, 0.999574 and 0.999593for Fe-2Ni, BASF firm Catamould AO-F, FN02, 316L stainless steel, respectively. Similarly, these values for testing data are 0.999129, 0.999666, 0.998612 and 0.997512, respectively. As seen from the results of mathematical modeling

  8. Sciatic neuropathy developed after injection during curettage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıntaş, Ayşe; Gündüz, Ayşegül; Kantarcı, Fatih; Gözübatık Çelik, Gökçen; Koçer, Naci; Kızıltan, Meral E

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular injections are likely the most common cause of sciatic nerve injury in developing countries. Less common causes include piriformis syndrome, primary tumors of the sciatic nerve, metastatic tumors invading or compressing the nerve, endometriosis, vascular malformations, and prolonged immobilization or positioning. While the most reliable diagnostic and prognostic methods include nerve conduction studies and electromyography, magnetic resonance imaging has been suggested as an alternative method of determining type of lesion, establishing location, and investigating level of nerve involvement. A case of sciatic neuropathy that developed after intramuscular injection, with patient in prolonged lithotomy position and under sedation, is described. PMID:27225613

  9. Textual Manipulation for SQL Injection Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein AlNabulsi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available SQL injection attacks try to use string or text manipulations to access illegally websites and their databases. This is since using some symbols or characters in SQL statements may trick the authentication system to incorrectly allow such SQL statements to be processed or executed. In this paper, we highlighted several examples of such text manipulations that can be successfully used in SQL injection attacks. We evaluated the usage of those strings on several websites and web pages using SNORT open source. We also conducted an extensive comparison study of some relevant papers.

  10. Parametric injection for monoenergetic electron acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguchi, A; Takano, K; Hotta, E; Nemoto, K [Department of Energy Sciences Tokyo Institute of Technology 4259 Nagatsuta-cho Midori-ku Yokohama 226-8502 Japan (Japan); Zhidkov, A [Central Research Instistute of Electric Power Industry 2-6-1 Nagasaka Yokosuka Kanagawa 240-0196 Japan (Japan); Nakajima, K [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK 1-1 Oho Tsukuba Ibaraki 305-0801 Japan (Japan)], E-mail: blue-ayu@plasma.es.titech.ac.jp

    2008-05-01

    Electrons are accelerated in the laser wakefield (LWFA). This mechanism has been studied by 2D or 3D Particle In Cell simulation. However, how the electrons are injected in the wakefield is not understood. In this paper, we consider about the process of self -injection and propose new scheme. When plasma electron density modulates, parametric resonance of electron momentum is induced. The parametric resonance depends on laser waist modulation. We carried out 2D PIC simulation with the initial condition decided from resonance condition. Moreover, we analyze experimental result that generated 200-250 MeV monoenergetic electron beam with 400TW intense laser in CAEP in China.

  11. Demoulding force in micro-injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C.A.; Dimov, S.S.; Scholz, S.;

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports an experimental study that investigates part demoulding behavior in micro injection moulding (MIM) with a focus on the effects of pressure (P) and temperature (T) on the demoulding forces. Demoulding of a microfluidics part is conducted and the four processing parameters of melt...... temperature (Tb), mould temperature (Tm), holding pressure (Ph) and injection speed (Vi) are analysed. The result using different combinations of process parameters were used to identify the best processing conditions in regards to demoulding forces when moulding micro parts....

  12. Powder injection molding of pure titanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Shibo; DUAN Bohua; HE Xinbo; QU Xuanhui

    2009-01-01

    An improved wax-based binder was developed for powder injection molding of pure titanium. A critical powder loading of 69 vol.% and a pseudo-plastic flow behavior were obtained by the feedstock based on the binder. The injection molding, debinding, and sintering process were studied. An ideal control of carbon and oxygen contents was achieved by thermal debinding in vacuum atmosphere (10-3 Pa). The mechanical properties of as-sintered specimens were less than those of titanium made by the conventional press-sintering process. Good shape retention and ±0.04 mm dimension deviation were achieved.

  13. Analysis of rocket engine injection combustion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A critique is given of the JANNAF sub-critical propellant injection/combustion process analysis computer models and application of the models to correlation of well documented hot fire engine data bases. These programs are the distributed energy release (DER) model for conventional liquid propellants injectors and the coaxial injection combustion model (CICM) for gaseous annulus/liquid core coaxial injectors. The critique identifies model inconsistencies while the computer analyses provide quantitative data on predictive accuracy. The program is comprised of three tasks: (1) computer program review and operations; (2) analysis and data correlations; and (3) documentation.

  14. Injection envelope matching in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shape and size of the transverse phase space injected into a storage ring can be deduced from turn-by-turn measurements of the transient behavior of the beam envelope in the ring. Envelope oscillations at 2 x the β-tron frequency indicate the presence of a β-mismatch, while envelope oscillations at the β-tron frequency are the signature of a dispersion function mismatch. Experiments in injection optimization using synchrotron radiation imaging of the beam and a fast-gated camera at the SLC damping rings are reported

  15. Testing Distributed ABS System with Fault Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawczyński, Dawid; Sosnowski, Janusz; Gawkowski, Piotr

    The paper deals with the problem of adapting software implemented fault injection technique (SWIFI) to evaluate dependability of reactive microcontroller systems. We present an original methodology of disturbing controller operation and analyzing fault effects taking into account reactions of the controlled object and the impact of the system environment. Faults can be injected randomly (in space and time) or targeted at the most sensitive elements of the controller to check it at high stresses. This approach allows identifying rarely encountered problems, usually missed in classical approaches. The developed methodology has been used successfully to verify dependability of ABS system. Experimental results are commented in the paper.

  16. The Third Injection Technique Workshop In Athens (TITAN)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    2010-01-01

    The first Injection Technique workshop brought together endocrinologists and injection experts from around the world in Strasbourg in 1997. From its work came groundbreaking recommendations which advanced best practices in areas such as the use of a skin fold when injecting. The second Injection Tec

  17. Injection method using the third order resonance at TARN II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam was successfully stored in the TARN II ring by an injection method using the third order resonance. Beam intensity obtained by the resonance injection is comparable with that by the multiturn injection. A new stacking method utilizing the resonance injection and the electron cooling is introduced. (author)

  18. An Approach to Injective Acts over Monoids Based on Indecomposability

    OpenAIRE

    Sedaghatjoo, Mojtaba; Naghipoor, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is investigating classes of acts that are injective relative to all embeddings with indecomposable domains or codomains. We give some homological classifications of monoids in light of such kinds of injectivity. Our approach to indecomposable property provides a new characterization of right absolutely injective monoids as ones that all indecomposable acts are injective.

  19. Inapplicability of high pressure spray injection for chelate administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-pressure spray injector was tested for use in injecting chelating agents around radionuclides in wounds. It was difficult to employ because of the force required for proper injection, and it did not improve the effectiveness of the injected chelate in removing intramuscularly injected 238Pu. (U.S.)

  20. The potential for bridging: HIV status awareness and risky sexual behaviour of injection drug users who have non-injecting permanent partners in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyona Mazhnaya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantify potential bridging of HIV transmission between the injection drug using subpopulation to the non-injection drug using population through unprotected heterosexual sex. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. Methods: A sub-sample of participants who reported having a permanent partner who are not injection drug users and have not injected drugs in the past (N=1379 was selected from a survey implemented in 26 Ukrainian cities in 2011. This study evaluates the association between consistent condom use and awareness of HIV status as measured by rapid testing during the study (known/unknown HIV+, known/unknown HIV− and undetermined among a sub-sample of male injection drug users (IDUs who have a non-injecting permanent partner. Poisson regression, with robust variance estimates, was utilized to identify associations while adjusting for other factors. Results: Reported consistent condom use varied between 15.5% (unknown HIV− and 37.5% (known HIV+; average use was 19.3%. In multivariate analysis, males who were aware of their HIV+ status were more likely to report recent consistent condom use compared to those who were unaware of their HIV+ status. This association remains after adjustment for age, region, education level, years of injection, alcohol use, self-reported primary drug use and being an NGO client (prevalence ratio=1.65; 95% CI 1.03–2.64. No such association was found for those who were HIV−. Conclusions: Our results regarding HIV-positive male IDUs reinforce previous findings that HIV testing and counselling may be an effective means of secondary prevention. Further research is needed to understand how to effectively promote safer sex behaviours for IDUs who are currently HIV−.