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Sample records for antigens helminth

  1. Some problems associated with radiolabeling surface antigens on helminth parasites: a brief review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayunga, E.G. (Division of Tropical Public Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Murrell, K.D. (Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD (USA))

    1982-06-01

    Recent developments in technology have facilitated substantial advances in the characterization of surface antigens from a wide variety of both normal and neoplastic cells. However, the immunochemistry of parasites has lagged behind. Efforts to apply conventional radiolabeling methods to helminths have not always been successful. Experimental work with Schistosoma mansoni is reviewed to illustrate common problems encountered in surface labeling studies. These findings should provide insight for the future investigation of other helminth species.

  2. In vitro leukocyte response of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to helminth parasite antigens.

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    Franke, Frederik; Rahn, Anna K; Dittmar, Janine; Erin, Noémie; Rieger, Jennifer K; Haase, David; Samonte-Padilla, Irene E; Lange, Joseph; Jakobsen, Per J; Hermida, Miguel; Fernández, Carlos; Kurtz, Joachim; Bakker, Theo C M; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Kalbe, Martin; Scharsack, Jörn P

    2014-01-01

    Helminth parasites of teleost fish have evolved strategies to evade and manipulate the immune responses of their hosts. Responsiveness of fish host immunity to helminth antigens may therefore vary depending on the degree of host-parasite counter-adaptation. Generalist parasites, infective for a number of host species, might be unable to adapt optimally to the immune system of a certain host species, while specialist parasites might display high levels of adaptation to a particular host species. The degree of adaptations may further differ between sympatric and allopatric host-parasite combinations. Here, we test these hypotheses by in vitro exposure of head kidney leukocytes from three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to antigens from parasites with a broad fish host range (Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, Triaenophorus nodulosus), a specific fish parasite of cyprinids (Ligula intestinalis) and parasites highly specific only to a single fish species as second intermediate host (Schistocephalus pungitii, which does not infect G. aculeatus, and Schistocephalus solidus, infecting G. aculeatus). In vitro responses of stickleback leukocytes to S. solidus antigens from six European populations, with S. solidus prevalence from parasites and among specialists, from parasites that do not infect G. aculeatus to a G. aculeatus-infecting species. Generalist parasites seem to maintain their ability to infect different host species at the costs of relatively higher immunogenicity compared to specialist parasites. In a comparison of sympatric and allopatric combinations of stickleback leukocytes and antigens from S. solidus, magnitudes of in vitro responses were dependent on the prevalence of the parasite in the population of origin, rather than on sympatry. Antigens from Norwegian (prevalence 30-50%) and Spanish (40-66%) S. solidus induced generally higher in vitro responses compared to S. solidus from two German (<1%) populations. Likewise, leukocytes from

  3. Clustering and artificial neural networks: classification of variable lengths of Helminth antigens in set of domains

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    Thiago de Souza Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new scheme for representing proteins of different lengths in number of amino acids that can be presented to a fixed number of inputs Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs speel-out classification is described. K-Means's clustering of the new vectors with subsequent classification was then possible with the dimension reduction technique Principal Component Analysis applied previously. The new representation scheme was applied to a set of 112 antigens sequences from several parasitic helminths, selected in the National Center for Biotechnology Information and classified into fourth different groups. This bioinformatic tool permitted the establishment of a good correlation with domains that are already well characterized, regardless of the differences between the sequences that were confirmed by the PFAM database. Additionally, sequences were grouped according to their similarity, confirmed by hierarchical clustering using ClustalW.

  4. Adoptive transfer of helminth antigen-pulsed dendritic cells protects against the development of experimental colitis in mice.

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    Matisz, Chelsea E; Leung, Gabriella; Reyes, Jose Luis; Wang, Arthur; Sharkey, Keith A; McKay, Derek M

    2015-11-01

    Infection with helminth parasites and treatment with worm extracts can suppress inflammatory disease, including colitis. Postulating that dendritic cells (DCs) participated in the suppression of inflammation and seeking to move beyond the use of helminths per se, we tested the ability of Hymenolepis diminuta antigen-pulsed DCs to suppress colitis as a novel cell-based immunotherapy. Bone marrow derived DCs pulsed with H. diminuta antigen (HD-DCs), or PBS-, BSA-, or LPS-DCs as controls, were transferred into wild-type (WT), interleukin-10 (IL-10) knock-out (KO), and RAG-1 KO mice, and the impact on dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis and splenic cytokine production assessed 72 h later. Mice receiving HD-DCs were significantly protected from DNBS-induced colitis and of the experimental groups only these mice displayed increased Th2 cytokines and IL-10 production. Adoptive transfer of HD-DCs protected neither RAG-1 nor IL-10 KO mice from DNBS-colitis. Furthermore, the transfer of CD4(+) splenocytes from recipients of HD-DCs protected naïve mice against DNBS-colitis, in an IL-10 dependent manner. Thus, HD-DCs are a novel anti-colitic immunotherapy that can educate anti-colitic CD4(+) T cells: mechanistically, the anti-colitic effect of HD-DCs requires that the host has an adaptive immune response and the ability to mobilize IL-10.

  5. Fluorescent imaging of antigen released by a skin-invading helminth reveals differential uptake and activation profiles by antigen presenting cells.

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    Ross A Paveley

    Full Text Available Infection of the mammalian host by the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni is accompanied by the release of excretory/secretory molecules (ES from cercariae which aid penetration of the skin. These ES molecules are potent stimulants of innate immune cells leading to activation of acquired immunity. At present however, it is not known which cells take up parasite antigen, nor its intracellular fate. Here, we develop a technique to label live infectious cercariae which permits the imaging of released antigens into macrophages (MPhi and dendritic cells (DCs both in vitro and in vivo. The amine reactive tracer CFDA-SE was used to efficiently label the acetabular gland contents of cercariae which are released upon skin penetration. These ES products, termed '0-3hRP', were phagocytosed by MHC-II(+ cells in a Ca(+ and actin-dependent manner. Imaging of a labelled cercaria as it penetrates the host skin over 2 hours reveals the progressive release of ES material. Recovery of cells from the skin shows that CFDA-SE labelled ES was initially (3 hrs taken up by Gr1(+MHC-II(- neutrophils, followed (24 hrs by skin-derived F4/80(+MHC-II(lo MPhi and CD11c(+ MHC-II(hi DC. Subsequently (48 hrs, MPhi and DC positive for CFDA-SE were detected in the skin-draining lymph nodes reflecting the time taken for antigen-laden cells to reach sites of immune priming. Comparison of in vitro-derived MPhi and DC revealed that MPhi were slower to process 0-3hRP, released higher quantities of IL-10, and expressed a greater quantity of arginase-1 transcript. Combined, our observations on differential uptake of cercarial ES by MPhi and DC suggest the development of a dynamic but ultimately balanced response that can be potentially pushed towards immune priming (via DC or immune regulation (via MPhi.

  6. Helminth Excreted/Secreted Antigens Repress Expression of LPS-Induced Let-7i but Not miR-146a and miR-155 in Human Dendritic Cells

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    Luis I. Terrazas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have emerged as key regulators of immune responses. They influence immune cells' function and probably the outcome of several infections. Currently, it is largely unknown if helminth parasites and their antigens modify host microRNAs expression. The aim of this study was to explore if excreted/secreted antigens of Taenia crassiceps regulate LPS-induced miRNAs expression in human Dendritic Cells. We found that these antigens repressed LPS-let-7i induction but not mir-146a or mir-155 and this correlates with a diminished inflammatory response. This let-7i downregulation in Dendritic Cells constitutes a novel feature of the modulatory activity that helminth-derived antigens exert on their host.

  7. Harnessing the Helminth Secretome for Therapeutic Immunomodulators

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    Dana Ditgen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminths are the largest and most complex pathogens to invade and live within the human body. Since they are not able to outpace the immune system by rapid antigen variation or faster cell division or retreat into protective niches not accessible to immune effector mechanisms, their long-term survival depends on influencing and regulating the immune responses away from the mode of action most damaging to them. Immunologists have focused on the excretory and secretory products that are released by the helminths, since they can change the host environment by modulating the immune system. Here we give a brief overview of the helminth-associated immune response and the currently available helminth secretome data. We introduce some major secretome-derived immunomodulatory molecules and describe their potential mode of action. Finally, the applicability of helminth-derived therapeutic proteins in the treatment of allergic and autoimmune inflammatory disease is discussed.

  8. Does treatment of intestinal helminth infections influence malaria? Background and methodology of a longitudinal study of clinical, parasitological and immunological parameters in Nangapanda, Flores, Indonesia (ImmunoSPIN Study).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiria, A.E.; Prasetyani, M.A.; Hamid, F.; Wammes, L.J.; Lell, B.; Ariawan, I.; Uh, H.W.; Wibowo, H.; Djuardi, Y.; Wahyuni, S.; Sutanto, I.; May, L.; Luty, A.J.F.; Verweij, J.J.; Sartono, E.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Supali, T.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Given that helminth infections are thought to have strong immunomodulatory activity, the question whether helminth infections might affect responses to malaria antigens needs to be addressed. Different cross-sectional studies using diverse methodologies have reported that helminth infect

  9. Effect of deworming on human T cell responses to mycobacterial antigens in helminth-exposed individuals before and after bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, D; Wolday, D; Akuffo, H;

    2001-01-01

    -vaccinated humans. The study population was assessed for helminthic infection and those found to be positive were randomly assigned to either an albendazole treatment group or a control group who received a placebo. The immune response to PPD was compared between the two groups. In addition, subjects who were...... tuberculin skin test-negative in both groups were BCG vaccinated and later on tested for PPD-specific responses. Albendazole induced elimination/or reduction in intestinal worms resulting in a significant improvement in T cell proliferation and in interferon-gamma production by peripheral blood mononuclear...

  10. Vaccination against schistosomiasis and fascioliasis with the new recombinant antigen Sm14: potential basis of a multi-valent anti-helminth vaccine?

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    Miriam Tendler

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Molecular cloning of components of protective antigenic preparations have suggested that related parasite fatty acid binding proteins could form the basis of the well documented protective, immune cross reactivity between the parasitic trematode worms Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma mansoni. We have now confirmed the cross protective potential of parasite fatty acid binding proteins and suggest that it may be possible to produce a single vaccine that would be effective against at least two parasites, F. hepatica and S. mansoni of veterinary and human importance respectively.

  11. Helminths and malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennervald, Birgitte J; Polman, K.

    2009-01-01

    -malignant change has taken place. Three helminth infections have been classified as definitely carcinogenic to humans (group 1 carcinogens), namely Schistosoma haematobium, which is associated with cancer of the urinary bladder and the food-borne liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini...... associated with cholangiocarcinoma of the liver. Reducing the level of infection and the risk of getting (re)infected will reduce the risk of cancer development later in life. Helminth infections are thus a preventable cause of cancer, emphasizing the need for sustainable helminth control in endemic areas...

  12. Acquired immune heterogeneity and its sources in human helminth infection.

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    Bourke, C D; Maizels, R M; Mutapi, F

    2011-02-01

    Similarities in the immunobiology of different parasitic worm infections indicate that co-evolution of humans and helminths has shaped a common anti-helminth immune response. However, recent in vitro and immuno-epidemiological studies highlight fundamental differences and plasticity within host-helminth interactions. The 'trade-off' between immunity and immunopathology inherent in host immune responses occurs on a background of genetic polymorphism, variable exposure patterns and infection history. For the parasite, variation in life-cycle and antigen expression can influence the effector responses directed against them. This is particularly apparent when comparing gastrointestinal and tissue-dwelling helminths. Furthermore, insights into the impact of anti-helminthic treatment and co-infection on acquired immunity suggest that immune heterogeneity arises not from hosts and parasites in isolation, but also from the environment in which immune responses develop. Large-scale differences observed in the epidemiology of human helminthiases are a product of complex host-parasite-environment interactions which, given potential for exposure to parasite antigens in utero, can arise even before a parasite interacts with its human host. This review summarizes key differences identified in human acquired immune responses to nematode and trematode infections of public health importance and explores the factors contributing to these variations.

  13. Helminth infections and intestinal inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jian Wang; Yue Cao; Hai Ning Shi

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiological studies indicates an inverse correlation between the incidence of certain immune-mediated diseases,including inflammatory bowel diseases(IBD),and exposure to helminths.Helminth parasites are the classic inducers of Th2 responses.The Th2-polarized T cell response driven by helminth infection has been linked to the attenuation of some damaging Th1 driven inflammatory responses,preventing some Th1-mediated autoimmune diseases in the host,including experimentally induced colitis.Helminth parasites(the porcine whipworm,Trichurissuis)have been tested for treating IBD patients,resulting in clinical amelioration of the disease.As a result,there is a great deal of interest in the research community in exploring the therapeutic use of helminth parasites for the control of immune-mediated diseases,including IBD.However,recent studies have provided evidence indicating the exacerbating effects of helminths on bacterial as well as non-infectious colitis in animal models.Therefore,a better understanding of mechanisms by which helminths modulate host immune responses in the gut may reveal novel,more effective and safer approaches to helminth-based therapy of IBD.(C)2008 The WJG Press.All rights reserved.

  14. Necator americanus and helminth co-infections: further down-modulation of hookworm-specific type 1 immune responses.

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    Stefan Michael Geiger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth co-infection in humans is common in tropical regions of the world where transmission of soil-transmitted helminths such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale as well as other helminths such as Schistosoma mansoni often occur simultaneously. METHODOLOGY: We investigated whether co-infection with another helminth(s altered the human immune response to crude antigen extracts from either different stages of N. americanus infection (infective third stage or adult or different crude antigen extract preparations (adult somatic and adult excretory/secretory. Using these antigens, we compared the cellular and humoral immune responses of individuals mono-infected with hookworm (N. americanus and individuals co-infected with hookworm and other helminth infections, namely co-infection with either A. lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, or both. Immunological variables were compared between hookworm infection group (mono- versus co-infected by bootstrap, and principal component analysis (PCA was used as a data reduction method. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to several animal studies of helminth co-infection, we found that co-infected individuals had a further downmodulated Th1 cytokine response (e.g., reduced INF-γ, accompanied by a significant increase in the hookworm-specific humoral immune response (e.g. higher levels of IgE or IgG4 to crude antigen extracts compared with mono- infected individuals. Neither of these changes was associated with a reduction of hookworm infection intensity in helminth co-infected individuals. From the standpoint of hookworm vaccine development, these results are relevant; i.e., the specific immune response to hookworm vaccine antigens might be altered by infection with another helminth.

  15. Neuropeptide physiology in helminths.

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    Mousley, Angela; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic worms come from two distinct, distant phyla, Nematoda (roundworms) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The nervous systems of worms from both phyla are replete with neuropeptides and there is ample physiological evidence that these neuropeptides control vital aspects of worm biology. In each phyla, the physiological evidence for critical roles for helminth neuropeptides is derived from both parasitic and free-living members. In the nematodes, the intestinal parasite Ascaris suum and the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans have yielded most of the data; in the platyhelminths, the most physiological data has come from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) have many varied effects (excitation, relaxation, or a combination) on somatic musculature, reproductive musculature, the pharynx and motor neurons in nematodes. Insulin-like peptides (INSs) play an essential role in nematode dauer formation and other developmental processes. There is also some evidence for a role in somatic muscle control for the somewhat heterogeneous grouping ofpeptides known as neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs). In platyhelminths, as in nematodes, FLPs have a central role in somatic muscle function. Reports of FLP physiological action in platyhelminths are limited to a potent excitation of the somatic musculature. Platyhelminths are also abundantly endowed with neuropeptide Fs (NPFs), which appear absent from nematodes. There is not yet any data linking platyhelminth NPF to any particular physiological outcome, but this neuropeptide does potently and specifically inhibit cAMP accumulation in schistosomes. In nematodes and platyhelminths, there is an abundance of physiological evidence demonstrating that neuropeptides play critical roles in the biology of both free-living and parasitic helminths. While it is certainly true that there remains a great deal to learn about the biology of neuropeptides in both phyla, physiological evidence presently available points

  16. Helminth allergens, parasite-specific IgE and its protective role in human immunity

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    Colin Matthew Fitzsimmons

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths. Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g. EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins.During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However some infections (especially Ascaris are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins and highly similar molecules in dust mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s3 and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin.In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy.

  17. Helminth Allergens, Parasite-Specific IgE, and Its Protective Role in Human Immunity.

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    Fitzsimmons, Colin Matthew; Falcone, Franco Harald; Dunne, David William

    2014-01-01

    The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths). Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens) are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g., EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins). During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However, some infections (especially Ascaris) are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins) and highly similar molecules in dust-mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s 3) and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin. In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE-antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy.

  18. Gastrointestinal helminths in migratory Camel

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    S G Rewatkar

    Full Text Available Survey of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in camel migrated from U.P., M.P., and Rajasthan at Nagpur region was carried out in early summer, 2008. Total 28 samples (12 males and 16 females were collected from different places of Nagpur region. They revealed parasites as Trichuris sp.(50%, Strongyloides sp.(32.14%, Trichostrongylus sp.(10.71%, Nematodirus sp.(10.71%, Haemonchus sp.(14.28%, Eurytrema sp.(21.42% ,Eimeria sp.(25%, Entamoeba sp.(17.85% and Balantidium sp.(7.14%.All were found positive for mixed helminthic infection. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 258-258

  19. [Helminths in chickens in Sudan].

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    el-Khawad; el-Badawi; Eisa, A M

    1977-09-01

    The identification of the helminthic parasites of the poultry in Khartoum province, during the months of October and November, 1969, 230 hens, 6--12 months old, were examined in the laboratory; 87% of the hens exhibited mono- and polyinfections. The following species were found: Subulura brumpti, Raillietina tetragona, Tetrameres americana, Gongylonema ingluvicola and Dispharynx spiralis, mostly as polyinfections.

  20. A late IL-33 response after exposure to Schistosoma haematobium antigen is associated with an up-regulation of IL-13 in human eosinophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, S.; Jones, F. M.; Fofana, H. K. M.;

    2013-01-01

    IL-33, a proposed alarmin, stimulates innate immune cells and Th2 cells to produce IL-13 and is rapidly upregulated upon antigen exposure in murine helminth infection. The human IL-33 response to helminth antigen was analysed in Malians infected with Schistosoma haematobium by disrupting parasite...

  1. Toll-like receptor activation by helminths or helminth products to alleviate inflammatory bowel disease

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    Song YanXia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helminth infection may modulate the expression of Toll like receptors (TLR in dendritic cells (DCs and modify the responsiveness of DCs to TLR ligands. This may regulate aberrant intestinal inflammation in humans with helminthes and may thus help alleviate inflammation associated with human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Epidemiological and experimental data provide further evidence that reducing helminth infections increases the incidence rate of such autoimmune diseases. Fine control of inflammation in the TLR pathway is highly desirable for effective host defense. Thus, the use of antagonists of TLR-signaling and agonists of their negative regulators from helminths or helminth products should be considered for the treatment of IBD.

  2. Helminth infections and allergies in Ghana

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    Amoah, Abena Serwaa

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that there is a global rise in the prevalence of asthma and other allergic disorders. Several epidemiological studies conducted in countries endemic for parasitic worms (helminths) have reported an inverse association between the presence of helminth infections and allergic d

  3. Migratory CD103+ dendritic cells suppress Helminth-driven Type 2 immunity through constitutive expression of IL-12

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    Batf3-dependent CD103+ and CD8alpha+ dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in the development of type 1 immune responses. However, their role in type 2 immunity remains unclear. We found that Th2 cell responses were enhanced in Batf3-/- mice responding to helminth parasite antigens (Ag). As a r...

  4. Parasitic Helminths: New Weapons against Immunological Disorders

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    Yoshio Osada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of allergic and autoimmune diseases is increasing in developed countries, possibly due to reduced exposure to microorganisms in childhood (hygiene hypothesis. Epidemiological and experimental evidence in support of this hypothesis is accumulating. In this context, parasitic helminths are now important candidates for antiallergic/anti-inflammatory agents. Here we summarize antiallergic/anti-inflammatory effects of helminths together along with our own study of the effects of Schistosoma mansoni on Th17-dependent experimental arthritis. We also discuss possible mechanisms of helminth-induced suppression according to the recent advances of immunology.

  5. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer...... a reduction in size, caused by crowding, virtually nothing is known about longer-lasting effects after transmission to the definitive host. This study is the first to use in vitro cultivation with feeding of adult trematodes to investigate how numbers of parasites in the intermediate host affect the size...... and fecundity of adult parasites. For this purpose, we examined two different infracommunities of parasites in crustacean hosts. Firstly, we used experimental infections of Maritrema novaezealandensis in the amphipod, Paracalliope novizealandiae, to investigate potential density-dependent effects in single...

  6. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

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    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  7. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

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    T. V. Moskvina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed.

  8. Prevalence and clinical relevance of helminth co-infections among tuberculosis patients in urban Tanzania

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    Hella, Jerry; Said, Khadija; Kamwela, Lujeko; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Maroa, Thomas; Chiryamkubi, Magreth; Mhalu, Grace; Schindler, Christian; Reither, Klaus; Knopp, Stefanie; Utzinger, Jürg; Gagneux, Sébastien; Fenner, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Background Helminth infections can negatively affect the immunologic host control, which may increase the risk of progression from latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to tuberculosis (TB) disease and alter the clinical presentation of TB. We assessed the prevalence and determined the clinical relevance of helminth co-infection among TB patients and household contact controls in urban Tanzania. Methodology Between November 2013 and October 2015, we enrolled adult (≥18 years) sputum smear-positive TB patients and household contact controls without TB during an ongoing TB cohort study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We used Baermann, FLOTAC, Kato-Katz, point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen, and urine filtration to diagnose helminth infections. Multivariable logistic regression models with and without random effects for households were used to assess for associations between helminth infection and TB. Principal findings A total of 597 TB patients and 375 household contact controls were included. The median age was 33 years and 60.2% (585/972) were men. The prevalence of any helminth infection among TB patients was 31.8% (190/597) and 25.9% (97/375) among controls. Strongyloides stercoralis was the predominant helminth species (16.6%, 161), followed by hookworm (9.0%, 87) and Schistosoma mansoni (5.7%, 55). An infection with any helminth was not associated with TB (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–1.80, p = 0.22), but S. mansoni infection was (aOR 2.15, 95% CI: 1.03–4.45, p = 0.040). Moreover, S. mansoni infection was associated with lower sputum bacterial load (aOR 2.63, 95% CI: 1.38–5.26, p = 0.004) and tended to have fewer lung cavitations (aOR 0.41, 95% CI: 0.12–1.16, p = 0.088). Conclusions/Significance S. mansoni infection was an independent risk factor for active TB and altered the clinical presentation in TB patients. These findings suggest a role for schistosomiasis in modulating the pathogenesis of human TB

  9. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic

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    David Gibson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region, and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Helminths parasitic in animals represent a large assemblage of worms, representing three phyla, with more than 200 families and almost 4,000 species of parasites from all major vertebrate and many invertebrate groups. A general introduction is given for each of the major groups of parasitic worms, i.e. the Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda (Aspidogastrea and Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda. Basic information for each group includes its size, host-range, distribution, morphological features, life-cycle, classification, identification and recent key-works. Tabulations include a complete list of families dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition, a list of additional specialists who helped with particular groups, and a list of higher taxa dealt with down to the family level. A compilation of useful references is appended.

  10. Considering RNAi experimental design in parasitic helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Johnathan J; Warnock, Neil D; McVeigh, Paul; Marks, Nikki J; Mousley, Angela; Atkinson, Louise; Maule, Aaron G

    2012-04-01

    Almost a decade has passed since the first report of RNA interference (RNAi) in a parasitic helminth. Whilst much progress has been made with RNAi informing gene function studies in disparate nematode and flatworm parasites, substantial and seemingly prohibitive difficulties have been encountered in some species, hindering progress. An appraisal of current practices, trends and ideals of RNAi experimental design in parasitic helminths is both timely and necessary for a number of reasons: firstly, the increasing availability of parasitic helminth genome/transcriptome resources means there is a growing need for gene function tools such as RNAi; secondly, fundamental differences and unique challenges exist for parasite species which do not apply to model organisms; thirdly, the inherent variation in experimental design, and reported difficulties with reproducibility undermine confidence. Ideally, RNAi studies of gene function should adopt standardised experimental design to aid reproducibility, interpretation and comparative analyses. Although the huge variations in parasite biology and experimental endpoints make RNAi experimental design standardization difficult or impractical, we must strive to validate RNAi experimentation in helminth parasites. To aid this process we identify multiple approaches to RNAi experimental validation and highlight those which we deem to be critical for gene function studies in helminth parasites.

  11. The Hygiene Hypothesis and Its Inconvenient Truths about Helminth Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Neima; Weatherhead, Jill; Sastry, K Jagannadha; Hotez, Peter J

    2016-09-01

    Current iterations of the hygiene hypothesis suggest an adaptive role for helminth parasites in shaping the proper maturation of the immune system. However, aspects of this hypothesis are based on assumptions that may not fully account for realities about human helminth infections. Such realities include evidence of causal associations between helminth infections and asthma or inflammatory bowel disease as well as the fact that helminth infections remain widespread in the United States, especially among populations at greatest risk for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  12. Analysis of the Crude Antigen of Hymenolepis nana from Mice by SDS-PAGE and the Determination of Specific Antigens in Protein Structure by Western Blotting

    OpenAIRE

    GÖNENÇ, Bahadır

    2002-01-01

    Protein bands of crude antigens of Hymenolepis nana were determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Thirty Swiss albino mice were allotted into two groups of 15 each as positive (infected with H. nana) and negative (non-infected with H. nana) groups. The natural infections of H. nana and other helminths were determined by centrifugal flotation of faeces. After bleeding, the mice were necropsied and their guts were examined for H. nana and other intestinal helminths. Sera from mice were test...

  13. Check list of the helminths of equines in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürler, Ali Tümay; Bölükbaş, Cenk Soner; Açici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi

    2010-01-01

    Helminths of equines are one of the most important agents of parasitic diseases. Therefore, many studies have been conducted on helminths of equines in Turkey. In this article, a check list and prevalence rates of helminths of equines in Turkey have been given.

  14. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Pino, Livia; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Sethi, Aisha; Klaus, Sidney; Sangueza, Omar P; Fuller, Claire; Mendoza, Natalia; Ladizinski, Barry; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased globalization through international travel for business, medical volunteerism, pleasure, and immigration/refugees into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections and is divided into 2 parts: part I focuses on nematode infections, and part II focuses on trematode and cestode infections. This review highlights the clinical manifestations, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of helminth infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus.

  15. Helminth infections coincident with active pulmonary tuberculosis inhibit mono- and multifunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in a process dependent on IL-10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parakkal Jovvian George

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tissue invasive helminth infections and tuberculosis (TB are co-endemic in many parts of the world and can trigger immune responses that might antagonize each other. We have previously shown that helminth infections modulate the Th1 and Th17 responses to mycobacterial-antigens in latent TB. To determine whether helminth infections modulate antigen-specific and non-specific immune responses in active pulmonary TB, we examined CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell responses as well as the systemic (plasma cytokine levels in individuals with pulmonary TB with or without two distinct helminth infections-Wuchereria bancrofti and Strongyloides stercoralis infection. By analyzing the frequencies of Th1 and Th17 CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells and their component subsets (including multifunctional cells, we report a significant diminution in the mycobacterial-specific frequencies of mono- and multi-functional CD4(+ Th1 and (to a lesser extent Th17 cells when concomitant filarial or Strongyloides infection occurs. The impairment in CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell cytokine responses was antigen-specific as polyclonal activated T cell frequencies were equivalent irrespective of helminth infection status. This diminution in T cell responses was also reflected in diminished circulating levels of Th1 (IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2- and Th17 (IL-17A and IL-17F-associated cytokines. Finally, we demonstrate that for the filarial co-infections at least, this diminished frequency of multifunctional CD4(+ T cell responses was partially dependent on IL-10 as IL-10 blockade significantly increased the frequencies of CD4(+ Th1 cells. Thus, co-existent helminth infection is associated with an IL-10 mediated (for filarial infection profound inhibition of antigen-specific CD4(+ T cell responses as well as protective systemic cytokine responses in active pulmonary TB.

  16. [Helminth fauna of Bufo raddei in Transbaikalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchepina, N A; Baldanova, D R

    2010-01-01

    Helminth fauna of Bufo raddei from Transbaikalia has been studied in 2003-2007. Eleven species of parasites Nematoda were found in this host, namely Rhabdias bufonis (Schrank, 1788), Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782), Oswaldocruzia yezoensis Morishita, 1926, Contracaecum osculatum (Rudolphi, 1802), Raphidascaris acus, larvae, Aplectana acuminata (Schrank, 1788), Aplectana multipapillosa Ivanitzky, 1940, Cosmocerca commutata (Diesing, 1851), Cosmocerca ornata (Dujardin, 1845), Cosmocercoids pulcher (Wilkie, 1930), and Spiroxis contortus (Rudolphi, 1819). Morhometric characters of the helminthes are given. Parasites belonging to Monogenea, Cestoda, Trematoda, and Acanthocephala were not found in 382 examined specimens of Bufo raddei.

  17. Checklist of Helminth parasites of Amphibians from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campião, Karla Magalhães; Morais, Drausio Honorio; Dias, Olívia Tavares; Aguiar, Aline; Toledo, Gislayne De Melo; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2014-07-30

    Parasitological studies on helminths of amphibians in South America have increased in the past few years. Here, we present a list with summarized data published on helminths of South American amphibians from 1925 to 2012, including a list of helminth parasites, host species, and geographic records. We found 194 reports of helminths parasitizing 185 amphibian species from eleven countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Equador, French Guyana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Helminth biodiversity includes 278 parasite species of the groups Acanthocephala, Nematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Trematoda. A list of helminth parasite species per host, and references are also presented. This contribution aims to document the biodiversity of helminth parasites in South American amphibians, as well as identify gaps in our knowledge, which in turn may guide subsequent studies. 

  18. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Plays a Critical Role in Mediating Protection against the Helminth Parasite Taenia crassiceps

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Rosas, Lucia E.; David, John R; Bojalil, Rafael; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the role of endogenous migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in regulation of immune response during murine cysticercosis caused by the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps, we analyzed the course of T. crassiceps infection in MIF−/− BALB/c mice. MIF−/− mice were highly susceptible to T. crassiceps and developed significantly higher parasite loads compared to similarly infected MIF+/+ mice. Throughout the course of infection, Taenia crassiceps soluble antigen-stimulated spleen cells f...

  19. Cardiopulmonary helminths in foxes from the Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Castañé, Ignasi; Ortuño, Anna; Marco, Ignasi; Castellà, Joaquim

    2015-12-01

    The present survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of cardiopulmonary helminths in red foxes in Pyrenees area and to evaluate the role of foxes in the eco-epidemiology of these nematodes. Hearts and entire respiratory tracts were obtained from 87 foxes from Vall d'Aran region, Pyrenees, Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. The cardiopulmonary tracts were dissected, flushed and examined for nematodes using sedimented flushing water. Of the 87 examined foxes, 53 (61%) were positive for cardiopulmonary helminths. The identified nematodes were Crenosoma vulpis (44.8%), Eucoleus aerophilus (29.9%) and Angiostrongylus vasorum (3.4%). Statistical differences were observed only on comparing age and C.vulpis prevalence, with young foxes being more infected than adults. The high prevalence of cardiopulmonary nematodes suggested that red foxes may play an important role in their transmission and maintenance in the studied area.

  20. Molecular Diagnostics for Soil-Transmitted Helminths

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Elise M.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) (e.g., Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Ascaris lumbricoides) has relied on often-insensitive microscopy techniques. Over the past several years, there has been an effort to use molecular diagnostics, particularly quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to detect intestinal pathogens. While some platforms have been approved by regulatory bodies (e.g., Food and ...

  1. Helminth genomics: The implications for human health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Brindley

    Full Text Available More than two billion people (one-third of humanity are infected with parasitic roundworms or flatworms, collectively known as helminth parasites. These infections cause diseases that are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality, delays in the physical development of children, loss of productivity among the workforce, and maintenance of poverty. Genomes of the major helminth species that affect humans, and many others of agricultural and veterinary significance, are now the subject of intensive genome sequencing and annotation. Draft genome sequences of the filarial worm Brugia malayi and two of the human schistosomes, Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni, are now available, among others. These genome data will provide the basis for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in helminth nutrition and metabolism, host-dependent development and maturation, immune evasion, and evolution. They are likely also to predict new potential vaccine candidates and drug targets. In this review, we present an overview of these efforts and emphasize the potential impact and importance of these new findings.

  2. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, I.; Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Monrad, J.

    2006-01-01

    An epidemiological study of helminths in 1040 red foxes collected from various localities in Denmark during 1997-2002, revealed 21 helminth species at autopsy, including nine nematode species: Capillaria plica (prevalence 80.5%), Capillaria aerophila (74.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (17...

  3. Epidemiological survey on gastro-intestinal and blood-borne helminths of dogs in north-east Gabon : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Davoust

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of helminth parasites was carried out on 198 dogs living in almost complete liberty in villages in the northeast of Gabon. Faeces and blood samples were collected and analysed. Dirofilariaimmitis antigen was detected in 13.6 % of dogs using the SNAP 3Dx® test, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Faecal examination revealed that 91.4 % of dogs were infected by intestinal helminths. Ascarids were found in 58.5 % of the samples. Trichuris vulpis was observed in 49.5 % of cases, and Uncinaria spp. and Ancylostoma spp. in 34.8 %, Spirocerca lupi in 25.3 % and Capillaria spp. in 10.6 %. Cestode embryophores were found in 8.6 % of the samples.

  4. Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Tamayo, Marilyne A; Beheim, Bret; Trumble, Benjamin C; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2015-11-20

    Infection with intestinal helminths results in immunological changes that influence co-infections, and might influence fecundity by inducing immunological states affecting conception and pregnancy. We investigated associations between intestinal helminths and fertility in women, using 9 years of longitudinal data from 986 Bolivian forager-horticulturalists, experiencing natural fertility and 70% helminth prevalence. We found that different species of helminth are associated with contrasting effects on fecundity. Infection with roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) is associated with earlier first births and shortened interbirth intervals, whereas infection with hookworm is associated with delayed first pregnancy and extended interbirth intervals. Thus, helminths may have important effects on human fertility that reflect physiological and immunological consequences of infection.

  5. Helminths parasites of whales in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís C. Muniz-Pereira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of whale Balaenoptera borealis Lesson, 1828, B. physalus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 1758 captured in the Brazilian coast were necropsied for helminths. Balaenoptera borealis and B. physalus were infected by Crassicauda crassicauda (Nematoda, Tetrameridae and Ogmogaster antarcticus (Digenea: Notocotylidae, which are referred for the first time in Brazil. Balaenoptera borealis was also infected by Lecithodesmus goliath (Digenea, Campulidae and Bolbosoma turbinella (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae. Physeter catodon was infected by Anisakis physeteris (Nematoda, Anisakidae, which is a new record to this host in Brazilian waters.

  6. Helminth parasites of conventionally mantained laboratory mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of intestinal parasites present in the SwissWebster, C57B1/6 and DBA/2 mice strains from different animal houses was identified and prevalences compared. Three parasites were observed during the course ofthis study, namely the cestode. Vampirolepis nana (Siebold, 1852 Spasskii, 1954(=Hymenolepis nana and the nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera (Nitzsch, 1821 Schulz, 1924 and Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916. The scope of thisinvestigation has been widened to also include morphometric data on the parasites, to further simplify their identification, since the presence of helminths in laboratory animals is regarded as a restricting factor for the proper attainment of experimental protocols.

  7. [Modulation of inflammatory cells in helminth infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, F

    1997-01-01

    In this review, different mechanisms by which helminthic parasites modulate the activities of inflammatory cells are considered. Examples are presented of parasitic products interfering with lymphocytes and their products such as antibodies, then modifying both regulation and effector response of the immune system. Furthermore, examples of interference on the complement system are illustrated. Parasites such as Ancylostoma caninum produce factors such as the neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) capable of inhibiting the neutrophil-endothelium adhesion, whereas Trichinella spiralis produces a glycoprotein, the 45gp, which inhibits different neutrophil functions. Parasites are also able to modulate the function of the monocytes-macrophages which in some infections play a crucial role; the modulation of NO synthesis is also relevant to the host-parasite relationship. Finally, the different anti-oxidant systems of helminthic parasites are described. The comprehension of such evasion mechanisms of the immune response is necessary to develop vaccines and new drugs, but it is also useful to clarify the contribution of parasites to immune system evolution.

  8. Interactions between the intestinal microbiome and helminth parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiss, M M; Harris, N L

    2016-01-01

    Throughout evolution, both helminths and bacteria have inhabited our intestines. As intestinal helminths and bacteria inhabit the same environmental niche, it is likely that these organisms interact with, and impact on, each other. In addition, intestinal helminths are well known to alter intestinal physiology, permeability, mucous secretion and the production of antimicrobial peptides - all of which may impact on bacterial survival and spatial organization. Yet despite rapid advances in our understanding of host-intestinal bacteria interactions, the impact of helminths on this relationship has remained largely unexplored. Moreover, although intestinal helminths are generally accepted to possess potent immuno-modulatory activity, it is unknown whether this capacity requires interactions with intestinal bacteria. We propose that this 'ménage à trois' situation is likely to have exerted a strong selective pressure on the development of our metabolic and immune systems. Whilst such pressures remain in developing countries, the eradication of helminths in industrialized countries has shifted this evolutionary balance, possibly underlying the increased development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Thus, helminth-bacteria interactions may represent a key determinant of healthy homoeostasis.

  9. Serological studies of neurologic helminthic infections in rural areas of southwest cameroon: toxocariasis, cysticercosis and paragonimiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Nkouawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both epilepsy and paragonimiasis had been known to be endemic in Southwest Cameroon. A total of 188 people (168 and 20 with and without symptoms confirmed by clinicians, respectively, 84.6% under 20 years old were selected on a voluntary basis. Among 14 people (8.3% with history of epilepsy, only one suffered from paragonimiasis. Therefore, we challenged to check antibody responses to highly specific diagnostic recombinant antigens for two other helminthic diseases, cysticercosis and toxocariasis, expected to be involved in neurological diseases. Soil-transmitted helminthic infections were also examined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fecal samples were collected exclusively from the 168 people. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms were found from 56 (33.3%, 72 (42.8%, and 19 (11.3% persons, respectively. Serology revealed that 61 (36.3%, 25 (14.9% and 2 (1.2% of 168 persons showed specific antibody responses to toxocariasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis, respectively. By contrast, 20 people without any symptoms as well as additional 20 people from Japan showed no antibody responses. Among the 14 persons with epilepsy, 5 persons were seropositive to the antigen specific to Toxocara, and one of them was simultaneously positive to the antigens of Paragonimus. The fact that 2 children with no history of epilepsy were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis strongly suggests that serological survey for cysticercosis in children is expected to be useful for early detection of asymptomatic cysticercosis in endemic areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Among persons surveyed, toxocariasis was more common than paragonimiasis, but cysticercosis was very rare. However, the fact that 2 children were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis was very important, since it strongly suggests that serology for cysticercosis is useful and feasible for detection of asymptomatic cysticercotic children in endemic

  10. Vaccination of mice with liposome-entrapped adult antigens of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhalem, A; Bourdieu, C; Luffau, G; Pery, P

    1988-01-01

    An immunization procedure was developed to induce protection of mice against the gastrointestinal helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Mice immunized by the oral route with antigens which were released by adult worms during their in vitro survival in a detergent-containing medium and which were entrapped in liposomes were protected against a challenge infection.

  11. Northeast India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID): Knowledge Base for Helminth Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Devendra Kumar; Debnath, Manish; Kharumnuid, Graciously; Thongnibah, Welfrank; Tandon, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Most metazoan parasites that invade vertebrate hosts belong to three phyla: Platyhelminthes, Nematoda and Acanthocephala. Many of the parasitic members of these phyla are collectively known as helminths and are causative agents of many debilitating, deforming and lethal diseases of humans and animals. The North-East India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID) project aimed to document and characterise the spectrum of helminth parasites in the north-eastern region of India, providing host, geographical distribution, diagnostic characters and image data. The morphology-based taxonomic data are supplemented with information on DNA sequences of nuclear, ribosomal and mitochondrial gene marker regions that aid in parasite identification. In addition, the database contains raw next generation sequencing (NGS) data for 3 foodborne trematode parasites, with more to follow. The database will also provide study material for students interested in parasite biology. Users can search the database at various taxonomic levels (phylum, class, order, superfamily, family, genus, and species), or by host, habitat and geographical location. Specimen collection locations are noted as co-ordinates in a MySQL database and can be viewed on Google maps, using Google Maps JavaScript API v3. The NEIHPID database has been made freely available at http://nepiac.nehu.ac.in/index.php.

  12. Baylisascaris procyonis: An Emerging Helminthic Zoonosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Lawrence R.; Berlin, O.G.W.; Yatabe, JoAnne; Degiorgio, Chris; Morse, Stephen A.

    2002-01-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis, a roundworm infection of raccoons, is emerging as an important helminthic zoonosis, principally affecting young children. Raccoons have increasingly become peridomestic animals living in close proximity to human residences. When B. procyonis eggs are ingested by a host other than a raccoon, migration of larvae through tissue, termed larval migrans, ensues. This larval infection can invade the brain and eye, causing severe disease and death. The prevalence of B. procyonis infection in raccoons is often high, and infected animals can shed enormous numbers of eggs in their feces. These eggs can survive in the environment for extended periods of time, and the infectious dose of B. procyonis is relatively low. Therefore, the risk for human exposure and infection may be greater than is currently recognized. PMID:11971766

  13. Helminthes and insects: maladies or therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, Nora L

    2015-02-01

    By definition, parasites cause harm to their hosts. But, considerable evidence from ancient traditional medicine has supported the theory of using parasites and their products in treating many diseases. Maggots have been used successfully to treat chronic, long-standing, infected wounds which failed to respond to conventional treatment by many beneficial effects on the wound including debridement, disinfection, and healing enhancement. Maggots are also applied in forensic medicine to estimate time between the death and discovery of a corpse and in entomotoxicology involving the potential use of insects as alternative samples for detecting drugs and toxins in death investigations. Leeches are segmented invertebrates, famous by their blood-feeding habits and used in phlebotomy to treat various ailments since ancient times. Leech therapy is experiencing resurgence nowadays in health care principally in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Earthworms provide a source of medicinally useful products with potential antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer properties. Lumbrokinases are a group of fibrinolytic enzymes isolated and purified from earthworms capable of degrading plasminogen-rich and plasminogen-free fibrin and so can be used to treat various conditions associated with thrombotic diseases. Helminth infection has been proved to have therapeutic effects in both animal and human clinical trials with promising evidence in treating many allergic diseases and can block the induction of or reduce the severity of some autoimmune disorders as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. What is more, venomous arthropods such as scorpions, bees, wasps, spiders, ants, centipedes, snail, beetles, and caterpillars. The venoms and toxins from these arthropods provide a promising source of natural bioactive compounds which can be employed in the development of new drugs to treat diseases as cancer. The possibility of using these active molecules in biotechnological processes can

  14. Blunting the knife: development of vaccines targeting digestive proteases of blood-feeding helminth parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark S; Ranjit, Najju; Loukas, Alex

    2010-08-01

    Proteases are pivotal to parasitism, mediating biological processes crucial to worm survival including larval migration through tissue, immune evasion/modulation and nutrient acquisition by the adult parasite. In haematophagous parasites, many of these proteolytic enzymes are secreted from the intestine (nematodes) or gastrodermis (trematodes) where they act to degrade host haemoglobin and serum proteins as part of the feeding process. These proteases are exposed to components of the immune system of the host when the worms ingest blood, and therefore present targets for the development of anti-helminth vaccines. The protective effects of current vaccine antigens against nematodes that infect humans (hookworm) and livestock (barber's pole worm) are based on haemoglobin-degrading intestinal proteases and act largely as a result of the neutralisation of these proteases by antibodies that are ingested with the blood-meal. In this review, we survey the current status of helminth proteases that show promise as vaccines and describe their vital contribution to a parasitic existence.

  15. Role of Macrophages in the Repair Process during the Tissue Migrating and Resident Helminth Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faz-López, Berenice

    2016-01-01

    The Th1/Th2/Th17 balance is a fundamental feature in the regulation of the inflammatory microenvironment during helminth infections, and an imbalance in this paradigm greatly contributes to inflammatory disorders. In some cases of helminthiasis, an initial Th1 response could occur during the early phases of infection (acute), followed by a Th2 response that prevails in chronic infections. During the late phase of infection, alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) are important to counteract the inflammation caused by the Th1/Th17 response and larval migration, limiting damage and repairing the tissue affected. Macrophages are the archetype of phagocytic cells, with the primary role of pathogen destruction and antigen presentation. Nevertheless, other subtypes of macrophages have been described with important roles in tissue repair and immune regulation. These types of macrophages challenge the classical view of macrophages activated by an inflammatory response. The role of these subtypes of macrophages during helminthiasis is a controversial topic in immunoparasitology. Here, we analyze some of the studies regarding the role of AAMs in tissue repair during the tissue migration of helminths. PMID:27648452

  16. An overview of the Helminth fauna of Anserini

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Presents a listing of helminthes from Anserini based on numerous studies. Provides a description of parasite locations within reported hosts. Provides a way to...

  17. Molecular cloning of cDNA for the human tumor-associated antigen CO-029 and identification of related transmembrane antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szala, S.; Kasai, Yasushi; Steplewski, Z.; Rodeck, U.; Koprowski, H.; Linnenbach, A.J. (Wistar Inst. of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The human tumor-associated antigen CO-029 is a monoclonal antibody-defined cell surface glycoprotein of 27-34 kDa. By using the high-efficiency COS cell expression system, a full-length cDNA clone for CO-029 was isolated. When transiently expressed in COS cells, the cDNA clone directed the synthesis of an antigen reactive to monoclonal antibody CO-029 in mixed hemadsorption and immunoblot assays. Sequence analysis revealed that CO-029 belongs to a family of cell surface antigens that includes the melanoma-associated antigen ME491, the leukocyte cell surface antigen CD37, and the Sm23 antigen of the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni. CO-029 and ME491 antigen expression and the effect of their corresponding monoclonal antibodies on cell growth were compared in human tumor cell lines of various histologic origins.

  18. Intestinal helminths of capybaras, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Salas

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative parameters of intestinal helminth species and their potential relations to host characteristics in a population of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris from Venezuela are reported for the first time. The intestines of 40 capybaras were collected during the 1992-annual harvest at Hato El Cedral. Six helminth species were found: 2 cestodes (Monoecocestus macrobursatum, M. hagmanni, 2 nematodes (Viannella hydrochoeri, Protozoophaga obesa, and 2 trematodes (Hippocrepis hippocrepis, Taxorchis schistocotyle. This is the first report for M. macrobursatum in Venezuela. Helminth abundance did not differ between sexes or age classes. Although patterns of distribution for all helminth species were overdispersed, the high prevalence found for all species (over 70% and the high abundance observed for nematodes made it difficult to assess the effect that these helminths may produce on capybaras. Nevertheless, the negative associations found between the body condition of capybaras and helminth intensity for M. macrobursatum and V. hydrochoeri, might be pointing out potential host population regulatory role for these parasites which require further research.

  19. Immunoregulation by Taenia crassiceps and Its Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto N. Peón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite of rodents (in its larval stage and canids (in its adult stage that can also parasitize immunocompromised humans. We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. We also have utilized the immunoregulatory capabilities of this helminth to successfully modulate autoimmune responses and the outcome of other infectious diseases. In the present paper, we review the work of others and ourselves with regard to the immune response induced by T. crassiceps and its antigens, and we compare the advances in our understanding of this parasitic infection model with the knowledge that has been obtained from other selected models.

  20. Role of T cell TGF beta signaling in intestinal cytokine responses and helminthic immune modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonization with helminthic parasites down-regulates inflammation in murine colitis and improves activity scores in human inflammatory bowel disease. Helminths induce mucosal regulatory T cells, which are important for intestinal immunologic homeostasis. Regulatory T cell function involves cytoki...

  1. Molecular Diagnostics for Soil-Transmitted Helminths

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Elise M.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) (e.g., Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Ascaris lumbricoides) has relied on often-insensitive microscopy techniques. Over the past several years, there has been an effort to use molecular diagnostics, particularly quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to detect intestinal pathogens. While some platforms have been approved by regulatory bodies (e.g., Food and Drug Administration) to detect intestinal bacteria, viruses, and protozoa, there are no approved tests currently available for STH. Although studies comparing qPCR to microscopy methods for STH are imperfect, due in large part to a lack of a sufficient gold standard, they do show a significant increase in sensitivity and specificity of qPCR compared with microscopic techniques. These studies, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of using qPCR for STH diagnosis, are discussed. Guidelines for those designing future studies utilizing qPCR are proposed for optimizing results, as is the proposition for using standardized molecular diagnostics routinely for STH in clinical laboratories and for field-based studies when possible. PMID:27481053

  2. Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Mark L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowaday, zoonoses are an important cause of human parasitic diseases worldwide and a major threat to the socio-economic development, mainly in developing countries. Importantly, zoonotic helminths that affect human eyes (HIE may cause blindness with severe socio-economic consequences to human communities. These infections include nematodes, cestodes and trematodes, which may be transmitted by vectors (dirofilariasis, onchocerciasis, thelaziasis, food consumption (sparganosis, trichinellosis and those acquired indirectly from the environment (ascariasis, echinococcosis, fascioliasis. Adult and/or larval stages of HIE may localize into human ocular tissues externally (i.e., lachrymal glands, eyelids, conjunctival sacs or into the ocular globe (i.e., intravitreous retina, anterior and or posterior chamber causing symptoms due to the parasitic localization in the eyes or to the immune reaction they elicit in the host. Unfortunately, data on HIE are scant and mostly limited to case reports from different countries. The biology and epidemiology of the most frequently reported HIE are discussed as well as clinical description of the diseases, diagnostic considerations and video clips on their presentation and surgical treatment. Homines amplius oculis, quam auribus credunt Seneca Ep 6,5 Men believe their eyes more than their ears

  3. Prevention of soil-transmitted helminth infection

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    Luciene Mascarini-Serra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs form one of the most important groups of infectious agents and are the cause of serious global health problems. The most important STHs are roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides, whipworms (Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus or Ancylostoma duodenale; on a global level, more than a billion people have been infected by at least one species of this group of pathogens. This review explores the general concepts of transmission dynamics and the environment and intensity of infection and morbidity of STHs. The global strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis is based on (i regular anthelminthic treatment, (ii health education, (iii sanitation and personal hygiene and (iv other means of prevention with vaccines and remote sensoring. The reasons for the development of a control strategy based on population intervention rather than on individual treatment are discussed, as well as the costs of the prevention of STHs, although these cannot always be calculated because interventions in health education are difficult to measure. An efficient sanitation infrastructure can reduce the morbidity of STHs and eliminates the underlying cause of most poverty-related diseases and thus supports the economic development of a country.

  4. Deglycosylation of Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens improves the specificity of the serodiagnosis for human toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, W H; Elefant, G R; Ferreira, A W

    2015-11-01

    Serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis is difficult in tropical areas where other helminthiasis are endemic. Many studies have shown that glycans from helminths may be the responsible for cross-reactions in the immunoassays. In this study, we have evaluated the deglycosylation of the Toxocara canis excretory-secretory (TES) antigens for the detection of IgG antibodies using a panel of 228 serum samples (58 patients with toxocariasis, 75 patients with other helminth infections and 95 healthy individuals) by ELISA and Western blot assays. Our results showed that the deglycosylation of TES antigens resulted in a single fraction of 26 kDa (dTES) and was able to detect IgG antibodies with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% in both above-mentioned assays. The rate of cross-reactions, observed in ELISA with TES (13·3%), was significantly reduced (5·3%) when the dTES antigens were used. Likewise, the cross-reactivity observed with the fractions of 32, 55 and 70 kDa of the TES antigens was totally eliminated when the dTES were used in the Western blot. All these results showed that the deglycosylation of the TES antigens really improves the specificity of the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis in endemic areas for helminth infections.

  5. Helminths of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) in western Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, R A; Shoop, W L

    1987-08-01

    Seventy raccoons (Procyon lotor) from western Kentucky were examined for helminths from December 1985 through May 1986. Twenty-three species of helminths were collected including 10 species of Trematoda (Brachylaima virginiana, Euryhelmis squamula, Eurytrema procyonis, Fibricola cratera, Gyrosoma singulare, Maritreminoides nettae, Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Metagonimoides oregonensis, Paragonimus kellicotti, Pharyngostomoides procyonis), 2 species of Cestoda (Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides variabilis), 10 species of Nematoda (Arthrocephalus lotoris, Baylisascaris procyonis, Capillaria putorii, C. plica, Crenosoma goblei, Dracunculus insignis, Gnathostoma procyonis, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera rara, Trichinella spiralis), and 1 species of Acanthocephala (Macracanthorhynchus ingens). A mean of 6.4 (3-11) helminth species per host was recorded. Fibricola cratera, Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides variabilis, Arthrocephalus lotoris, Capillaria plica, Dracunculus insignis, Molineus barbatus, and Physaloptera rara were ubiquitous parasites of the raccoon, whereas specific nidi were observed for Eurytrema procyonis, Gyrosoma singulare, Paragonimus kellicotti, Baylisascaris procyonis, Trichinella spiralis, and Macracanthorhyncus ingens. With an overall prevalence of 10% or higher, 15 of the 23 helminth species were considered common parasites of the raccoon in western Kentucky. When the 10% prevalence rate was applied within geographical quadrants to correct for the presence of nidi it was found that 18 of the 23 helminth species were common and 5 were regarded as rare parasites of the raccoon. Two species of nematodes, T. spiralis and B. procyonis, displayed a markedly higher prevalence in male raccoons.

  6. Granulocytes in helminth infection -- who is calling the shots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makepeace, B L; Martin, C; Turner, J D; Specht, S

    2012-01-01

    Helminths are parasitic organisms that can be broadly described as "worms" due to their elongated body plan, but which otherwise differ in shape, development, migratory routes and the predilection site of the adults and larvae. They are divided into three major groups: trematodes (flukes), which are leaf-shaped, hermaphroditic (except for blood flukes) flatworms with oral and ventral suckers; cestodes (tapeworms), which are segmented, hermaphroditic flatworms that inhabit the intestinal lumen; and nematodes (roundworms), which are dioecious, cylindrical parasites that inhabit intestinal and peripheral tissue sites. Helminths exhibit a sublime co-evolution with the host's immune system that has enabled them to successfully colonize almost all multicellular species present in every geographical environment, including over two billion humans. In the face of this challenge, the host immune system has evolved to strike a delicate balance between attempts to neutralize the infectious assault versus limitation of damage to host tissues. Among the most important cell types during helminthic invasion are granulocytes: eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils. Depending on the specific context, these leukocytes may have pivotal roles in host protection, immunopathology, or facilitation of helminth establishment. This review provides an overview of the function of granulocytes in helminthic infections.

  7. Helminth Parasites and the Modulation of Joint Inflammation

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    Chelsea E. Matisz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to develop better therapeutics for autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases, of which musculoskeletal disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis are particularly prevalent and debilitating. Helminth parasites are accomplished masters at modifying their hosts' immune activity, and so attention has focused on rodent-helminth model systems to uncover the workings of the mammalian immune response to metazoan parasites, with the hope of revealing molecules and/or mechanisms that can be translated into better treatments for human autoimmune and idiopathic disorders. Substantial proof-of-principal data supporting the concept that infection with helminth parasites can reduce the severity of concomitant disease has been amassed from models of mucosal inflammation. Indeed, infection with helminth parasites has been tried as a therapy in inflammatory bowel disease, and there are case reports relating to other conditions (e.g., autism; however, the impact of infection with parasitic helminths on musculoskeletal diseases has not been extensively studied. Here, we present the view that such a strategy should be applied to the amelioration of joint inflammation and review the literature that supports this contention.

  8. [Helminth fauna of amphibians (Vertebrata: Amphibia) in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2009-01-01

    Historical review of the investigations of helminth fauna in amphibians from Belarus is presented. In 12 amphibian species examined by different authors 46 helminth species were found, including 29 Trematoda, 13 Nematoda, 1 Monogenea, 2 Cestoda, and 1 Acanthocephala. Original data on helminths parasitizing Amphibia in Byelorussian Polesie, by the results of long-term investigations in 1986-2004 are given. Distribution of 40 helminth species by hosts and respective infestation rates are reported.

  9. [Check list of the helminths in the respiratory system of domesticated animals in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürler, Ali Tümay

    2006-01-01

    Helminths of the respiratory system make up an important part of the parasitic diseases found in domestic animals. Therefore, many studies have been carried out on these helminths in Turkey. In this article, a check list and the prevalence rates of helminths of respiratory system found in domestic animals in Turkey has been given.

  10. Helminth parasites of small mammals in Kerman province, southeastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Madjdzadeh, Seyed Massoud; Ahmadinejad, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-one specimens of small mammals were collected from different locations of Kerman province, southeastern Iran during 2007 and 2009. They constitute six species of rodents (Meriones persicus, Meriones libycus, Tatera indica, Dryomys nitedula and Mus musculus), one species of Erinaceomorpha (Paraechinus hypomelas) and one species of hare (Lepus europeus). The rate of helminthic infection was 45.1 % among all trapped specimens. In 28 out of 51 hunted specimens no intestinal helminth parasite was found. Of all mammals examined, 15 (29.4 %) had nematodes, 5 (9.8 %) had cestodes, and 3 (5.9 %) were infected with Acanthocephala. Five different species of parasites were isolated: Trichuris muris, Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Mastophorus muris. Results of the present study indicate the potential of small mammals in the transmission of zoonotic helminthic infection.

  11. Multivariate spatially-structured variability of ovine helminth infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annibale Biggeri

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was carried out on 2004-2005 in the Campania region, southern Italy, to study the multivariate geographical distribution of four different sheep helminths, i.e. Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke, Calicophoron (Paramphistomum daubneyi (rumen fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum (lancet fluke, and the gastrointestinal strongyle Haemonchus contortus. A series of multivariate Bayesian hierarchical models based on square root transformation of faecal egg counts were performed. The results were consistent with theoretical knowledge of the biology and epidemiology of the four studied helminths. In particular, the impact of common intermediate hosts (F. hepatica and C. daubneyi share the same intermediate host species was quantified and evidence of previously unknown ecological components was given. D. dendriticum was correlated to F. hepatica and H. contortus was found not to be spatially associated with the previously mentioned helminths.

  12. Are intestinal helminths risk factors for developing active tuberculosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Daniel; Mengistu, Getahun; Akuffo, Hannah;

    2006-01-01

    were also tested for HIV by commercial sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 230 smear-positive TB patients and 510 healthy household contacts. The prevalence of intestinal helminths was 71% in patients and 36% in controls. HIV seroprevalence...... was significantly higher in patients than in controls (46.7%vs. 11.6%, P logistic regression analysis showed a strong association between TB and intestinal helminth infection (OR = 4.2, 95% CI 2.7-5.9, P

  13. [Helminth findings in indigenous raccoon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray, 1843)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiess, A; Schuster, R; Nöckler, K; Mix, H

    2001-01-01

    Internal organs of 74 racoon dogs originating from the eastern districts of the Federal Land Brandenburg were subjected to a complete helminthological dissection. In addition, samples of diaphragma muscles from 46 further animals were examined for Trichinella larvae. Altogether 3 trematode- (Alaria alata, Isthmiophora melis, Metorchis bilis), 3 cestode- (Mesocestoides sp., Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia polyacantha) and 7 nematode species (Capillaria aerophila, C. plica, Trichinella spiralis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Molineus patens, Crenosoma vulpis, Toxocara canis) could be identified. Thereby, the racoon dog has a comparable helminth spectrum as well known in red foxes. Differences in the frequency of the occurrence of helminths in both hosts can be explained by different food preferences.

  14. Helminth parasites (Cestoidea: Nematoda) of select herpetofauna from Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R; Freed, Paul S

    2010-02-01

    Thirty-four amphibians (6 families, 12 species) and 28 reptiles (5 families, 16 species) from Paraguay were examined for helminths. Fifteen (44%) amphibians and 6 (21%) reptiles were found to harbor at least 1 species of helminth; 4 (12%) amphibians and 2 (7%) reptiles harbored multiple infections. Three species of Cestoidea and 17 species of Nematoda were found in the herptiles surveyed. Fourteen new host and 12 new locality records are documented, including the first report of the filaroid nematode, Macdonaldius grassi (Caballero, 1954) Chabaud and Frank, 1961, from South America.

  15. Helminthic infestation in children of Kupwara district: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the investigation of the frequency of intestinal helminth parasites in children of Kupwara, Kashmir, India. Three hundred and twelve children in the age group of 4-15 years were examined for different intestinal helminths in three schools located in rural areas. Two hundred and twenty two of 312 (71.15% tested positive for various intestinal helminths. The various helminth parasites included Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichiura , Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia saginata . By far, the highest frequency of 69.23% (216/312 was noted for Ascaris lumbricoides followed by Trichuris trichiura 30.76% (96/312, Enterobius vermicularis 7.69% (24/312 and Taenia saginata 7.69% (24/312. Single infection was found in 33.65% (105/312 and mixed infection was seen in 37.5% (117/312 children. This study emphasizes the need for improved environmental conditions, i.e., clean water supplies, enhanced sanitation and chemotherapy of school-age children in rural areas.

  16. Does host immunity influence helminth egg hatchability in the environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, K A; Pathak, A K; Cattadori, I M

    2015-07-01

    Transmission success for helminths with free-living stages depends on the ability of eggs and larvae to develop and survive once in the environment. While environmental conditions are often suggested to influence egg phenology and hatching rate, immunity against parasite eggs might also play a role. We examined this hypothesis using the gastrointestinal helminths Trichostrongylus retortaeformis and Graphidium strigosum, two common infections of the European rabbit. Changes in egg hatching rate and volume were examined in relation to specific antibodies in the serum and bound to eggshells, using eggs shed in host faeces over a 15-week period. Hatching rate was consistently higher for T. retortaeformis than G. strigosum and no changes were observed between weeks. Egg volume increased for G. strigosum but decreased for T. retortaeformis. We did find evidence of egg-specific antibody responses and fewer antibodies were bound to eggs of T. retortaeformis compared to G. strigosum. Little to no association was found between antibodies and hatchability, or volume, for both helminths. We suggest that host antibodies play a relatively minor role in the egg hatching rate of these gastrointestinal helminths.

  17. Current status of soil-transmitted helminths in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; De, Nguyen Van; Konradsen, Flemming;

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a review of surveys on soil-transmitted helminths that were done in Vietnam between 1990 and 2001. Prevalence estimates could be obtained for 29 of the 61 provinces. Extrapolating from this, it is estimated that 33.9 million people in Vietnam are infected with Ascaris......, and human behavioral factors in the transmission of intestinal nematode infections in Vietnam....

  18. Helminth Egg Removal Capacity of UASB Reactors under Subtropical Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaya-Beas, R.E.; Ayala-Limaylla, C.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Van Lier, J.B.; Zeeman, G.

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the anaerobic sludge filtration capacity regarding helminth egg removal in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. Two 25 L lab-scale UASB reactors were operated at an ambient temperature which varied between 17.1 and 28.6 °C. Ascaris suum egg was select

  19. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, I; Maddox-Hyttel, C; Monrad, J; Kapel, C M O

    2006-06-30

    An epidemiological study of helminths in 1040 red foxes collected from various localities in Denmark during 1997-2002, revealed 21 helminth species at autopsy, including nine nematode species: Capillaria plica (prevalence 80.5%), Capillaria aerophila (74.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (17.4%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (48.6% from Northern Zealand (endemic area)), Toxocara canis (59.4%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (68.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (0.6%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.5%); seven cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. (35.6%), a number of Taeniid species (Taenia pisiformis, T. hydatigena, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and unidentified Taenia spp.) (22.8%), and Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%); four trematodes: Alaria alata (15.4%), Cryptocotyle lingua (23.8%), Pseudamphystomum truncatum (3.6% from Northern Zealand), and Echinochasmus perfoliatus (2.4% from Northern Zealand); one acanthocephalan: Polymorphus sp. (1.2%). Significant difference in prevalence was found for T. canis and A. vasorum according to host sex, and for T. canis, U. stenocephala, Mesocestoides sp., Taenia spp., A. alata, A. vasorum, and Capillaria spp. according to age groups (adult, young or cub). Prevalence and average worm intensity for each helminth species varied considerably according to geographical locality, season, and year. Aggregated distribution was found for several helminth species. The two species E. multilocularis and E. perfoliatus are first records for Denmark.

  20. Parasitic helminths of small mammals in Elba Island

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    Alexis Ribas

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the helminth fauna of small mammals (Rodentia and Insectivora in the mediterranean island of Elba (Italy. We first performed a survey of the parasitic helminths of Rattus rattus (L., 1758, Mus domesticus (Schwarz & Schwarz, 1943 (Rodentia, Murinae, Crocidura suaveolens (Pallas, 1811 (Insectivora, Soricidae and Erinaceus europaeus L., 1758 (Insectivora, Erinaceidae. An expedition was undertaken in January 2002 making an helminth faunistic study of: 14 R. rattus; 11 M. domesticus; 2 C. suaveolens and 1 E. europaeus. A total of 28 animals were trapped at seven stations and nine helminth species were detected: Corrigia vitta Dujardin, 1845 (Dicrocoelidae, Brachylaima erinacei Blanchard, 1847 (Brachylaimidae [Digenea]; Hymenolepis diminuta (Rudolphi, 1819; H. tiara (Dujardin, 1845 (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae; Aonchotheca erinacei Rudolphi, 1819; Capillaria hepatica Bancroft, 1893 (Trichuridae; Mastophorus muris (Gmelin, 1790 (Spirocercidae; Paracrenosoma kontrimavinchusi Guenov, 1978 (Metastrongylidae; Syphacia muris (Yamaguti, 1935 (Oxyuridae [Nematoda]. The house mice were not infected by helminths. In the black rat, five species were detected: C. vitta, H. diminuta, C. hepaticum, M. muris and S. muris. Insectivores hosts were parasitised by B. erinacei, A. erinacei (E. europaeus, H. tiara and P. kontrimavinchusi (C. suaveolens. All species were identified by morphological characteristics and in the cases of H. diminuta and M. muris isozyme electrophoresis were used to compare with continental and insular samples. Helminths found in these hosts in Elba Island (apart of P. kontrimavinchusi are the best colonisers of mediterranean islands. These species were

  1. Helminth parasites of the bufflehead duck, Bucephala albeola, wintering in the Chihuahua Desert with a checklist of helminth parasites reported from this host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, Beverly W; Canaris, A G

    2009-02-01

    The bufflehead duck (Bucephala albeola) (Mergini) ranges from Alaska and Canada to the United States and Mexico. Buffleheads ingest invertebrates as a major component of their food throughout life. Puddle ducks (Anatinae) change mainly to vegetable foods at an early age. Loss of helminth parasite species and abundance in the fall migration has been reported for puddle ducks. This change in food has been hypothesized to cause some of the parasite loss. Nothing was known about helminth community dynamics in wintering buffleheads, including possible loss of helminths evident in puddle ducks. Helminth communities of the buffleheads were compared between wintering localities in the Chihuahua Desert of Texas and Mexico and to results from a nesting locality in Manitoba, Canada. There were no significant differences for average helminth species richness, prevalence, or abundance between the nesting and wintering grounds. Replenishment of helminths occurred in wintering buffleheads, and abundance of some helminth species increased significantly over time. The majority of helminth life cycles were indirect. These results were mostly related to the bufflehead's continued ingestion of invertebrate foods. Seven of the 41 helminth species present in buffleheads were in common to the 3 localities. Helminth community similarities between Manitoba and Texas and Manitoba and Mexico were much lower than similarity between Texas and Mexico. The dissimilarities were mostly attributable to differences in habitats but may also indicate loss of helminth species with subsequent infections with other species. The component community of the bufflehead from the Chihuahua Desert in Texas (n = 41) consisted of 23 species of helminths (10 species of cestodes, 7 trematodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans) for a total of 4,008 individual specimens. Cestodes accounted for 69% of the total abundance. The component community of B. albeola from the Chihuahua Desert in Mexico (n = 26) consisted

  2. Down regulation of the TCR complex CD3 ζ-chain on CD3+ T cells: a potential mechanism for helminth mediated immune modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jane Appleby

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The CD3ζ forms part of the T cell receptor (TCR where it plays an important role in coupling antigen recognition to several intracellular signal-transduction pathways leading to T cell effector functions. Down regulation of CD3ζ leads to impairment of immune responses including reduced cell proliferation and cytokine production. In experimental models helminth parasites have been shown to modulate immune responses directed against them and unrelated antigens, so called bystander antigens, but there is a lack of studies validating these observations in humans. This study focused on investigated the relationship between expression levels of the TCR CD3ζ chain with lymphocyte cell proliferation during human infection with the helminth parasite, Schistosoma haematobium which causes uro-genital schistosomiasis. Using flow cytometry, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from individuals naturally exposed to S. haematobium in rural Zimbabwe were phenotyped, and expression levels of CD3ζ on T cells were related to intensity of infection. In this population, parasite infection intensity was inversely related to CD3ζ expression levels (p<0.05, consistent with down-regulation of CD3ζ expression during helminth infection. Furthermore, PBMC proliferation was positively related to expression levels of CD3ζ (p<0.05 after allowing for confounding variables (host age, sex, infection level. CD3ζ expression levels had a differing relationship between immune correlates of susceptibility and immunity, measured by antibody responses, indicating a complex relationship between immune activation status and immunity. The relationships between the CD3ζ chain of the TCR and schistosome infection, PBMC proliferation and schistosome-specific antibody responses have not previously been reported, and these results may indicate a mechanism for the impaired T cell proliferative responses observed during human schistosome infection.

  3. Excretory-secretory and somatic antigens in the diagnosis of human filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, N A; Hussain, R; Ottesen, E A

    1984-06-01

    In order to compare the immunodiagnostic value of excretory-secretory (E-S) antigens derived from adult Brugia malayi worms with somatic antigens derived from adults, microfilariae (Mf) and infective larvae (L3) of these parasites, well defined serum pools from patients with filarial (brugia, bancrofti, loa and perstans) and non-filarial (ascaris, stronglyoides, toxocara, echinococcus, cysticercus and schistosoma) helminth infections were tested against antigens derived from these different life cycle stages of B. malayi in a Staphylococcus aureus radioimmunoprecipitation assay (S. aureus RIA). The adult brugia antigens proved significantly more discriminatory than those of the other parasite stages, with the homologous brugia serum pool also showing greater reactivity to adult than to L3 and Mf antigens. Similar results were obtained when individual sera from patients (rather than serum pools) were tested in the same assay. The most surprising finding was the minimal reactivity seen between the adult filarial antigens and the non-filarial serum pools despite the presence in these pools of strong antibody reactivity with their homologous antigens. The reasons underlying the unexpected specificity of this S. aureus RIA for discriminating among sera from filarial and non-filarial infections were analysed qualitatively by immunoprecipitation techniques. It was found that use of the chloramine-T method for radioiodination resulted in preferential labelling of the low molecular weight (mol. wt) proteins (10-70,000 daltons) in the B. malayi adult somatic antigen and that these antigens were bound primarily by the filarial and not the non-filarial serum pools. These findings suggest that lower mol. wt helminth antigens may show greater species specificity than those with higher mol. wt, and those with higher mol. wt, greater cross-reactivity. If substantiated by further analysis, such results would have important implications for the subsequent isolation of diagnostically

  4. Immune-Regulatory Mechanisms of Classical and Experimental Multiple Sclerosis Drugs: A Special Focus on Helminth-Derived Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peón, Alberto N; Terrazas, Luis I

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Its pathophysiology is centered on neuron myelin sheath destruction in a manner largely dependent upon CD4+/CD8+ T-cell autoreactivity against myelin antigens, inducing Th1/Th17 pathogenic responses with the resulting production of free radicals and soluble mediators that exhibit the effector mechanisms of neurodegeneration. The immune response responsible for this disease is complex and challenges modern medicine. Consequently, many experimental therapies have been proposed in addition to the classical array of immunoregulatory/ immunosuppressive drugs that are normally used to treat MS. In this review, we will describe the effects and mechanisms of action of widely used disease-modifying MS drugs as well as those of select treatments that are currently in the experimental phase. Special emphasis is placed on helminth-derived immunoregulators, as some of them have shown promising results. Additionally, we will compare the mechanisms of action of both the MS drugs and the helminth-derived treatments to discuss the potential importance of some signaling pathways in the control of MS.

  5. The effects of Ostertagia occidentalis somatic antigens on ovine TLR2 and TLR4 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BORJI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recognition of helminth-derived pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, including toll like recep­tors (TLRs is the first step towards initiating anti–helminth immune re­sponses.Methods: Using somatic antigens of Ostertagia occidentalis, an important abomasal parasite of ruminants, the expression of ovine TLR2 and TLR4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was analyzed by real-time quatitative reverse-transcrip­tion polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis were prepared to stimulate ovine PBMCs in a time and dose dependent manner.Results: A high expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was observed in PBMCs cultured with somatic antigens of the parasites specially when PBMCs were cultured with 100 µg/ml of somatic antigens and incubated for 2h. Up-regulation of TLR2 expres­sion was more pronounced and evident in our study.Conclsusion: Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis have immunostimulatory and domi­nant role on peripheral immune cells. This study provide for the first time evidence of induction of TLRs in ovine PBMCs by somatic antigen of O. occidentalis

  6. The helminth fauna of the barbary partridge Alectoris barbara in Tenerife, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, P; Casanova, J C; Figueruelo, E; Abreu, N; Feliu, C

    2005-06-01

    The helminth fauna of the barbary partridge (Alectoris barbara) in Tenerife Island (Canary Archipelago) was studied from 2001 to 2002, as there were no records of helminths from this host in the Canary Islands. Seven helminth species were identified: two cestodes Choanotaenia infundibulum and Lyruterina nigropunctata, and five nematodes Aonchotheca caudinflata, Baruscapillaria obsignata, Eucoleus annulatus, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum. Lyruterina nigropunctata, A. galli and E. annulatus are recorded for first time in A. barbara. An analysis of available data on Alectoris spp. reveals the importance of intermediate hosts such as arthropods and earthworms in the diet of partridges. Terrestrial helminths are dominant species, with monoxenous and heteroxenous species being present in similar numbers in different Alectoris species along their geographical distribution. Helminth species found in Tenerife from A. barbara are poor indicators of the host colonization from North Africa because these helminths are species that are commonly found in fowl with a cosmopolitan distribution.

  7. Helminth fauna of Talpa spp. in the Palaearctic Realm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, A; Casanova, J C

    2006-03-01

    The helminth fauna of the genus Talpa in the Palaearctic Realm is reviewed. Several helminth species reported in Talpa spp. by a number of authors are discussed, with reference to host specificity, parasite biology, and host ethology, ecology and phylogeny. Twelve species of cestodes were found, two of which exhibit stenoxenous specificity (Staphylocystis bacillaris and Multitesticulata filamentosa). Only three species of trematodes, Ityogonimus lorum, Ityogonimus ocreatus and Combesia macrobursata, are exclusive parasites of Talpa spp. The largest group are nematodes, with 37 species. Species of Tricholinstowia are parasites of holarctic talpids and several species of distinct genera, such as Capillaria, Soboliphyme and Trichuris, are found only in Talpa spp. Only acanthocephalans of the genus Moniliformis have been reported in moles of the genus Talpa. On the basis of these helminthological findings, the close phylogenetic relationship between moles (Talpidae) and shrews (Soricidae) supports the separation of the ordinal levels Soricomorpha and Erinaceomorpha.

  8. Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Helminths of Native Turkeys in Amol, Iran

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    RanjbarBahadory Sh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Native turkeys are kept as domestic bird in rural environments and can be infected with bacterial, viral and parasitic agents. Capillaria and Ascaridia are nematodes of small intestines of domestic birds such as turkey. Small intestine trematod of birds like echinostomiasis need intermediate hosts for evolution. Raillietina tetragona and Raillietina echinobothrida are parasites in small intestines of birds. These parasites can cause economic loss and create problems for turkey. The purpose of this study was to determine the genus and species, frequency and severity of gastrointestinal helminth parasites. Gastrointestinal of 60 slaughtered turkeys of Amol city were necropsied and examined. 25% of the samples were not contaminated and 75% of samples were infected with nematode, cestode and trematode. Prevalence and parasite species, including: 20% Capillaria, 51% A. gali, 8% R. tetragona, 8% R. echinobothrida and 11% Echinostoma. The results indicated that the highest prevalence of helminth parasites in turkeys of Amol and north of Iran was nematode.

  9. Helminth-induced Ly6Chi monocyte-derived alternatively activated macrophages suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Terrazas, Cesar; de Dios Ruiz-Rosado, Juan; Stephanie A. Amici; Jablonski, Kyle A.; Martinez-Saucedo, Diana; Lindsay M Webb; Cortado, Hanna; Robledo-Avila, Frank; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis I.; Guerau-de-Arellano, Mireia; Partida-Sánchez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Helminths cause chronic infections and affect the immune response to unrelated inflammatory diseases. Although helminths have been used therapeutically to ameliorate inflammatory conditions, their anti-inflammatory properties are poorly understood. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMϕs) have been suggested as the anti-inflammatory effector cells during helminth infections. Here, we define the origin of AAMϕs during infection with Taenia crassiceps, and their disease-modulating activity o...

  10. Intestinal helminths of four species of skinks (Mabuya) (Sauria: Scincidae) from southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, S R; Bursey, C R

    2001-06-01

    Intestinal helminths are reported from four species of scincid lizards from southern Africa: Mabuya occidentalis, Mabuya spilogaster, Mabuya striata and Mabuya variegata. The helminth fauna consisted of one species of Cestoda, Oochoristica truncata and five species of Nematoda, Abbreviata paradoxa, Maxvachonia dimorpha, Parapharyngodon rotundatus, Spauligodon petersi and Thubunaea fitzsimonsi. All findings represent new host records. Ascarid larvae were also found. It appears that Mabuya is infected by generalist helminths that occur in other species of African lizards.

  11. Granulocytes in Helminth Infection - Who is Calling the Shots?

    OpenAIRE

    L. Makepeace, B.; Martin, C; D. Turner, J.; Specht, S.

    2012-01-01

    Helminths are parasitic organisms that can be broadly described as “worms” due to their elongated body plan, but which otherwise differ in shape, development, migratory routes and the predilection site of the adults and larvae. They are divided into three major groups: trematodes (flukes), which are leaf-shaped, hermaphroditic (except for blood flukes) flatworms with oral and ventral suckers; cestodes (tapeworms), which are segmented, hermaphroditic flatworms that inhabit the intestinal lumen...

  12. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively.

  13. Gastrointestinal helminths of arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from different bioclimatological regions in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O; Nansen, P.

    1996-01-01

    Nine species of gastrointestinal helminths were recovered from 254 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from 8 different localities in Greenland. Prevalences of infection with the helminth species differed from area to area: Toxascaris leonina (3968%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0-14%), Mesocestoides...... of Greenland. In general, the composition of the helminth fauna of arctic foxes in Greenland showed distinct differences geographically. Thus, the diversity of helminth species in foxes caught in the northern districts of Greenland seems lower than in the southern districts; only nematode species with direct...

  14. Effects of conspecifics and heterospecifics on individual worm mass in four helminth species parasitic in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, R; Giari, L; Simoni, E; Dezfuli, B S

    2003-06-01

    Intraspecific and interspecific effects on the growth and body size of helminths are rarely studied in natural situations, yet knowing what determines helminth sizes and thus fecundity is crucial to our understanding of helminth ecology and epidemiology. The determinants of average individual worm mass were investigated in four common species of helminths parasitic in trout, Salmo trutta. In the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus truttae, there was a negative relationship between the intensity of infection by conspecifics and average individual worm size. However, in the acanthocephalans Pomphorhynchus laevis and Acanthocephalus anguillae and in the cestode Cyathocephalus truncatus, the relationship was positive: individual worms were larger on average when co-occurring with many conspecifics than when co-occurring with very few. In addition, the average mass of individual C. truncatus in a host decreased as the total mass of other helminth species in the same host increased. This interspecific effect involves the whole helminth community, as the combined effect of all other helminth species is a better predictor of reduced mass in C. truncatus than the mass of any other species taken on its own. These results illustrate the importance of considering helminth interactions and helminth growth in a natural setting.

  15. Intestinal helminthes of schoolchildren of Chorrillos and Pachacamac, Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannacone, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Peru, intestinal helminthiases have been widely studied, because they are a very frequent problem in Public Health. The aim of current research was to determinate prevalence of infection of enteroparasites in primary schoolchildren of two national schools, both of rural zones from Pachacamac and Chorrillos district, Lima, Peru during 1999. A coproparasitological survey to 162 childrens (3 per child on consecutive days in stool samples fixed in 10 % formaline, previous homogenization employing conventional exams by direct microscopy dyed with lugol, and by spontaneous Tube Sedimentation technique were performed. In addition, the occurrence of eggs of Enterobius vermicularis was examined by adhesive cellotape anal swap method. Eight helminthes were diagnosed to Chorrillos (n=72 and Pachacamac (n=90: Diphyllobothrium pacificum (1.3%; 0%, Taenia sp. (0%; 1.1%, Hymenolepis nana (37.5%; 8.8%, Hymenolepis diminuta (8.3%; 0%, Ancylostoma duodenale Necator americanus (0%; 2.2%, Trichuris trichiura (9.7%; 6.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides(15.3%; 35.5%, y E. vermicularis (31.9%; 45.5%. Total prevalence of infection was 72.2% and 72.2% and polyparasitism was 25% and 22.2%, respectively. Jaccard index showed a 50 % and Sörensen index a 66.7% of similarity between helminthes of both districts. Programs of sanitary and environmental education and control campaigns of intestinal helminthes should be improved and implemented in Lima, Peru.

  16. Helminth parasites of the wolf Canis lupus from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrade, G; Kirjusina, M; Vismanis, K; Ozoliņs, J

    2009-03-01

    Thirty-four wolves were collected between 2003 and 2008 from throughout Latvia and examined for helminths. A total of 17 helminth species were recorded: the trematode Alaria alata (85.3%); the cestodes Diphyllobothrium latum (2.9%), Echinococcus granulosus (2.9%), Echinococcus multilocularis (5.9%), Mesocestoides lineatus (5.9%), Taenia crassiceps (8.8%), Taenia hydatigena (41.2%), Taenia (ovis) krabbei (8.8%), Taenia multiceps (47.1%), Taenia pisiformis (20.6%), Taenia polyacantha (11.8%), Taenia spp. (8.8%); and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (2.9%), Crenosoma vulpis (9.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (36.4%), Pearsonema plica (41.4%), Trichinella spp. (69.7%), Toxocara canis (5.8%), and Uncinaria stenocephala (41.2%). Alaria alata presented the highest mean intensity (403.8). All animals were infected with at least one species of parasite, while the maximum recorded in one specimen was eight. No differences in the intensity or prevalence of any helminth species were found among the host based on age and gender, except for T. multiceps which was more prevalent in adults than in juveniles.

  17. REVIEW ON IMPORTANT HELMINTHIC DISEASES IN ANIMAL IN INDONESIA

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    I.G. P. Suweta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Helminthic diseases are widely spread throughout the world. In Indonesia, the cases in animals are primarily associated with the condition of the field, although the intensity of the infestations are also affected by various factors inside the body of the host. In general, the tropical and humid conditions in Indonesia, optimally support the development and spreading of the parasites, so that the prevalence of the infestations are usually high except in the very dry areas. In Indonesia, important helminthic diseases found in livestock are mostly caused by nematodes and trematodes, and there is a lack of information regarding cestode infestations, except infestation by immature stages of the worm such as cysticercosis in ruminants and swine. On the other hand, dogs and cats are usually infested by cestodes and nematodes. Here, the negative influence of helminthic infestation on live stock is mostiy shown by failure of growth, decrease of body weight and body resistance, damage of organs infested by the parasites, but it is not rare that the disease cause death of the infested animals such as haemonchiasis in sheep, ascariasis in young swine and calves, etc. The integrated system of farming combined with periodic anthelminthic treatments were favourable in the effort of controlling the disease.

  18. Checklist of helminths found in Patagonian wild mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugassa, Martin H

    2015-09-03

    Using available reports, a checklist of the recorded helminth parasites of wild mammals from Patagonia was generated. Records of parasites found in Patagonia were included, together with records from mammals in áreas outside of Patagonia but whose range extends into Patagonia. Information about the host, localities, and references were also included. A total of 1323 records (224 Cestoda, 167 Trematoda, 894 Nematoda, 34 Acanthocephala, and 4 Pentastomida) belonging to 452 helminth species (77 Cestoda, 76 Trematoda, 277 Nematoda, 21 Acanthocephala, and 1 Pentastomida) found in 57 native mammals (22 Rodentia, 4 Didelphimorphia 1 Microbiotheria, 7 Chiroptera, 5 Cingulata, and 13 Carnivora) were listed. However, only 10.6 % of the reports were conducted on samples from Patagonia and corresponded to 25% of mammals in the region. In addition, many studies were made on a few species and, for example, 52% corresponded to studies made on Lama guanicoe. This suggests the need to increase efforts to know the parasitic fauna in a peculiar region as is the Patagonia. This is the first compilation of the helminth parasites of mammals in Argentine Patagonia and is important for parasitological and paleoparasitological studies.

  19. Does treatment of intestinal helminth infections influence malaria? Background and methodology of a longitudinal study of clinical, parasitological and immunological parameters in Nangapanda, Flores, Indonesia (ImmunoSPIN Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto Inge

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that helminth infections are thought to have strong immunomodulatory activity, the question whether helminth infections might affect responses to malaria antigens needs to be addressed. Different cross-sectional studies using diverse methodologies have reported that helminth infections might either exacerbate or reduce the severity of malaria attacks. The same discrepancies have been reported for parasitemia. Methods/Design To determine the effect of geohelminth infections and their treatment on malaria infection and disease outcome, as well as on immunological parameters, the area of Nangapanda on Flores Island, Indonesia, where malaria and helminth parasites are co-endemic was selected for a longitudinal study. Here a Double-blind randomized trial will be performed, incorporating repeated treatment with albendazole (400 mg or placebo at three monthly intervals. Household characteristic data, anthropometry, the presence of intestinal helminth and Plasmodium spp infections, and the incidence of malaria episodes are recorded. In vitro cultures of whole blood, stimulated with a number of antigens, mitogens and toll like receptor ligands provide relevant immunological parameters at baseline and following 1 and 2 years of treatment rounds. The primary outcome of the study is the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infection. The secondary outcome will be incidence and severity of malaria episodes detected via both passive and active follow-up. The tertiary outcome is the inflammatory cytokine profile in response to parasite antigens. The project also facilitates the transfer of state of the art methodologies and technologies, molecular diagnosis of parasitic diseases, immunology and epidemiology from Europe to Indonesia. Discussion The study will provide data on the effect of helminth infections on malaria. It will also give information on anthelminthic treatment efficacy and effectiveness and could help

  20. Immunization of rabbits with nematode Ascaris lumbricoides antigens induces antibodies cross-reactive to house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takuya; Khan, Al Fazal; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Akemi; Fukutomi, Yuma; Takai, Toshiro; Zaman, Khalequz; Yunus, Md; Takeuchi, Haruko; Iwata, Tsutomu; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    There are controversial reports on the relationship between helminthic infection and allergic diseases. Although IgE cross-reactivity between nematode Ascaris antigens and house dust-mite allergens in allergic patients have been reported, whether Ascaris or the mite is the primary sensitizer remains unknown. Here we found that immunization of naïve animals with Ascaris lumbricoides (Al) antigens induced production of antibodies cross-reactive to mite antigens from Dermatophagoides farinae (Df). Sera from Bangladeshi children showed IgE reactivity to Ascaris and mite extracts. IgG from rabbits immunized with Al extract exhibited reactivity to Df antigens. Treatment of the anti-Al antibody with Df antigen-coupled beads eliminated the reactivity to Df antigens. In immunoblot analysis, an approximately 100-kDa Df band was the most reactive to anti-Al IgG. The present study is the first step towards the establishment of animal models to study the relationship between Ascaris infection and mite-induced allergic diseases.

  1. Detection of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica common and uncommon antigens, using rabbit hyper immune serum raised against their excretory-secretory and somatic antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolahi Khabisi, S; Sarkari, B

    2016-12-01

    Fasciolosis is an important neglected helminth disease caused by two liver flukes, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The two species of Fasciola are usually different in their morphological and molecular features. They have also common and uncommon antigens in both their somatic and excretory secretory metabolites. In this study, we compared somatic and excretory-secretory (ES) antigens of F. hepatica and F. gigantica, by using rabbit hyper immune serum raised against these antigens. Adult worms were collected from bile ducts of infected animals and species of the fluke was confirmed by RFLP-PCR. ES and somatic antigens of both species were prepared. Rabbits were subcutaneously immunized with either ES or somatic antigens to produce antibodies against these antigens. SDS-PAGE pattern of F. hepatica and F. gigantica somatic antigens was similar and both of them revealed 30 protein bands, ranging from 18 to 180 kDa. In contrast, SDS-PAGE pattern of ES antigen of the two species was different. While protein bands with molecular weight of 18, 27, 29, 48, and 62 kDa were common in both species, bands of 19, 45, 55 and 58 kDa were only noticed in F. hepatica ES antigen. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies, raised against F. hepatica and F. gigantica ES antigen, reacted with main five protein bands, 25, 27, 29, 62 and 67 kDa and polyclonal antibodies raised against somatic antigens of both species reacted with three protein bands, 25, 27 and 72 kDa. Thus, the 25, 27 and 29 kDa protein bands may serve as immunodominant antigens, which might be considered for serodiagnosis of fasciolosis. Moreover, bands of 62 and 67 kDa in ES antigen and 72 kDa in somatic antigens of both species were immunodominant and might be suitable candidate for development of serological assays for diagnosis of fasciolosis.

  2. Studies on the parasitic helminths of slaughtered animals in Iraq. I. Parasitic helminths of the liver of herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajdi, N; Nassir, J K

    1983-12-01

    The livers and lungs of 580 sheep, 160 goats, 418 cattle, 50 camels and 48 buffaloes slaughtered in Baghdad in April-July, 1981 were examined for helminth parasites; 14.3% of the sheep, 0.6% of the goats, 18.2% of the cattle, 72.0% of the camels and 8.3% of the buffaloes were infected with trematodes and cestodes. Dicrocoelium dendriticum is reported from the livers of sheep in Iraq for the first time.

  3. Helminth community composition, structure, and pattern in six dove species (Columbiformes: Columbidae) of South Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Autumn J; Fedynich, Alan M

    2012-02-01

    The helminth community composition and structure of 6 species of columbids residing in south Texas are reported and compared herein. Sixty individuals of the following species, rock pigeons (Columba livia [RP]), mourning doves (Zenaida macroura [MD]), Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto [ECD]), white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica [WWD]), and common ground doves (Columbina passerina [CGD]), and 48 Inca doves (Columbina inca [ID]) were collected during the summer of 2006 and examined for helminths. Twelve helminth species were found (9 nematodes and 3 cestodes), representing 486 individuals. Nematodes numerically dominated the component community in all host species. Overall, helminth prevalence was similar among host sex within all dove species. However, prevalence of Skrjabinia bonini and Hymenolepis sp. in RPs was significantly different among host age groups (P = 0.01, P = 0.0002, respectively). Likewise, prevalence of Killigrewia delafondi was higher (P = 0.0001) in adult WWDs. Based on percent similarity and Jaccard's coefficient of community indices, helminth component communities were dissimilar, and the number of shared helminth species varied among host species. Data from this study suggest that the environment surrounding preferred host habitat and foraging strategies of each host species is the driving force behind helminth component communities. This study emphasizes the importance of examining co-occurring hosts at both local and regional scales to elucidate helminth community structure and patterns.

  4. Epidemiological study of the association between malaria and helminth infections in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efunshile, Akinwale Michael; Olawale, Temitope; Stensvold, Christen Rune;

    2015-01-01

    period. At the end, all pupils submitted a stool sample for microscopic investigation for helminth eggs. We used an unmatched case-control design to calculate the odds ratios for helminth infection in children with at least one attack of malaria (cases) and children with no malaria episodes during...

  5. Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths Is Associated with Increased Insulin Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiria, A.E.; Hamid, F.; Wammes, L.J.; Prasetyani, M.A.; Dekkers, O.M.; May, L.; Kaisar, M.M.; Verweij, J.J.; Guigas, B.; Partono, F.; Sartono, E.; Supali, T.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Smit, J.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Given that helminth infections have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies, which may be explained by beneficial effects on energy balance or by a shift in the immune system to an anti-inflammatory profile, we investigated whether soil-transmitted helminth (STH)-infec

  6. Relationship between carotid intima media thickness and helminth infections on Flores Island, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiria, A.E.; Wammes, L.J.; Hamid, F.; Dekkers, O.M.; Prasetyani, M.A.; May, L.; Kaisar, M.M.; Verweij, J.J.; Tamsma, J.T.; Partono, F.; Sartono, E.; Supali, T.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Smit, J.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between helminth infections and atherosclerosis. BACKGROUND: Chronic helminth infection, which can lead to poor nutritional status and anti-inflammatory response, might protect against the development of atherosclerosis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was perf

  7. Helminths and malaria co-infections are associated with elevated serum IgE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulu, Andargachew; Kassu, Afework; Legesse, Mengistu;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both helminth and malaria infections result in a highly polarized immune response characterized by IgE production. This study aimed to investigate the total serum IgE profile in vivo as a measure of Th2 immune response in malaria patients with and without helminth co-infection. METHOD...

  8. Helminthes could influence the outcome of vaccines against TB in the tropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, D; Akuffo, H; Britton, S

    2006-01-01

    Helminthes, infections widespread in the tropics, are known to elicit a wide range of immunomodulation characterized by dominant Th2 type immune responses, chronic immune activation as well as up-regulated regulatory T cell activity. Such a wide range of immunomodulation caused by helminthes may ...

  9. Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women

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    AO Egwunyenga

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Hospital based studies were conducted to investigate the occurrence of Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women, and their effects on birthweights, anaemia and spleen size. From 2,104 near-term pregnant women examined, 816 (38.8% were found to be infected with malaria parasites. Among the 816 parasitaemic subjects, 394 (48.3% were also infected with intestinal helminths, 102 (12.5% having mixed helminth infections. The prevalence of the helminth species found in stool samples of parasitaemic subjects examined was, Ascaris lumbricoides (19.1%, hookworm (14.2%, Trichuris trichiura (7% Schistosoma mansoni (3.4%, Enterobius vermicularis (2%, Hymenolepis sp. (1.6% and Taenia sp. (1%. Mothers with Plasmodium infection but without intestinal helminth infection had neonates of higher mean birthweights than those presenting both Plasmodium and intestinal helminth infections and this effect was more pronounced in primigravids. The mean haemoglobin values of malarial mothers with intestinal helminth infections were lower than those with Plasmodium infection but without intestinal helminth infections but these were not statistically significant. Severe splenomegaly was predominant among parasitaemic gravidae who also harboured S. mansoni infection in two of the hospitals studied.

  10. Polyclonal and Specific Antibodies Mediate Protective Immunity against Enteric Helminth Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCoy, Kathy D.; Stoel, Maaike; Stettler, Rebecca; Merky, Patrick; Fink, Katja; Senn, Beatrice M.; Schaer, Corinne; Massacand, Joanna; Oderrnatt, Bernhard; Oettgen, Hans C.; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.; Bos, Nicolaas A.; Hengartner, Hans; Macpherson, Andrew J.; Harris, Nicola L.

    2008-01-01

    Anti-helminth immunity involves CD4(+) T cells, yet the precise effector mechanisms responsible for parasite killing or expulsion remain elusive. We now report an essential role for antibodies in mediating immunity against the enteric helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Hp), a natural murine parasit

  11. Comparison of the thick smear and Kato-Katz techniques for diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections

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    Santos Fred Luciano Neves

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the efficiency of Kato-Katz thick smear and thick smear techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths. The sensitivity of the thick smear technique was higher than that of the Kato-Katz method for the diagnosis of all helminths except Schistosoma mansoni.

  12. Epidemiology of Plasmodium and Helminth Coinfection and Possible Reasons for Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erko, Berhanu

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the impact of helminth infections on clinical malaria is useful for designing effective malaria control strategies. Plenty of epidemiological studies have been conducted to unravel the nature of interactions between Plasmodium and helminth infection. Careful broad summarization of the existing literature suggests that Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infections may increase the risk of clinical malaria and associated morbidities, but Trichuris trichiura infection is not associated with the occurrence of clinical malaria and related outcomes. However, findings about effect of Ascaris lumbricoides and Schistosoma haematobium infection on clinical malaria are contradictory. Furthermore, the nature of relationship of helminth infection with severe malaria has also not been determined with certainty. This review summarizes the findings of epidemiological studies of Plasmodium and helminth coinfection, placing greater emphasis on the impact of the coinfection on malaria. Possible reasons for the heterogeneity of the findings on malaria and helminth coinfections are also discussed. PMID:27092310

  13. Epidemiology of Plasmodium and Helminth Coinfection and Possible Reasons for Heterogeneity

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    Abraham Degarege

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of helminth infections on clinical malaria is useful for designing effective malaria control strategies. Plenty of epidemiological studies have been conducted to unravel the nature of interactions between Plasmodium and helminth infection. Careful broad summarization of the existing literature suggests that Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infections may increase the risk of clinical malaria and associated morbidities, but Trichuris trichiura infection is not associated with the occurrence of clinical malaria and related outcomes. However, findings about effect of Ascaris lumbricoides and Schistosoma haematobium infection on clinical malaria are contradictory. Furthermore, the nature of relationship of helminth infection with severe malaria has also not been determined with certainty. This review summarizes the findings of epidemiological studies of Plasmodium and helminth coinfection, placing greater emphasis on the impact of the coinfection on malaria. Possible reasons for the heterogeneity of the findings on malaria and helminth coinfections are also discussed.

  14. Heavy metal bioabsorption capacity of intestinal helminths in urban rats.

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    Salma Teimoori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capability of helminths to absorb heavy metals in comparison with that of the host tissues.We compared the concentration of cadmium (Cd and chromium (Cr in urban rats and in their harboring helminthes -Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta and larval stage of Taenia taenaeiformis (Cysticercus fasciolaris. The heavy metal absorption was evaluated in 1g wet weight of parasites and tissues digested in nitric acid, using Inductivity Coupled Plasma (ICP_OES.A higher concentration of heavy metals was revealed in the helminths than in the host tissues. Bioconcentration factor (BF= C in parasite/C in tissue for both Cd and Cr absorption was more than 10-fold higher in M. moniliformis than in the three compared host tissues. The BF of Cd in M. moniliformis compared to the liver, kidney and muscle of the host was 9.16, 14.14 and 17.09, respectively. BF in Cr in the same parasite and the same host tissues ranged from 10.67, 7.06 and 4.6. High level of absorption in H. diminuta was significantly likewise; the individual BF of Cd and Cr in H. diminuta compared to the liver, kidney and muscle of the hosts was 4.95, 5.94 and 4.67 vs. 2.67, 11.56 and 5.59. The mean concentration of Cd and Cr in C. fasciolaris was also significantly higher than that in the rat livers (P<0.007 and P<0.004, respectively.This study claims that parasites of terrestrial animals exposed to heavy metals can be more accurate indicators than the host tissues as new environmental monitoring agents.

  15. Heavy Metal Bioabsorption Capacity of Intestinal Helminths in Urban Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    TEIMOORI, Salma; SABOUR YARAGHI, Aliakbar; MAKKI, Mahsa Sadat; SHAHBAZI, Farideh; NAZMARA, Shahrokh; ROKNI, Mohhamad Bagher; MESDAGHINIA, Alireza; SALAHI MOGHADDAM, Abdoreza; HOSSEINI, Mostafa; RAKHSHANPOUR, Arash; MOWLAVI, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capability of helminths to absorb heavy metals in comparison with that of the host tissues. Methods We compared the concentration of cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) in urban rats and in their harboring helminthes —Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta and larval stage of Taenia taenaeiformis (Cysticercus fasciolaris). The heavy metal absorption was evaluated in 1g wet weight of parasites and tissues digested in nitric acid, using Inductivity Coupled Plasma (ICP_OES). Results A higher concentration of heavy metals was revealed in the helminths than in the host tissues. Bioconcentration factor (BF= C in parasite/C in tissue) for both Cd and Cr absorption was more than 10-fold higher in M. moniliformis than in the three compared host tissues. The BF of Cd in M. moniliformis compared to the liver, kidney and muscle of the host was 9.16, 14.14 and 17.09, respectively. BF in Cr in the same parasite and the same host tissues ranged from 10.67, 7.06 and 4.6. High level of absorption in H. diminuta was significantly likewise; the individual BF of Cd and Cr in H. diminuta compared to the liver, kidney and muscle of the hosts was 4.95, 5.94 and 4.67 vs. 2.67, 11.56 and 5.59. The mean concentration of Cd and Cr in C. fasciolaris was also significantly higher than that in the rat livers (P<0.007 and P<0.004, respectively). Conclusion This study claims that parasites of terrestrial animals exposed to heavy metals can be more accurate indicators than the host tissues as new environmental monitoring agents. PMID:25988090

  16. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Proportions Are Diminished in Young Helminth Infected Children and Restored by Curative Anti-helminthic Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Norman Nausch; Appleby, Laura J.; Sparks, Alexandra M.; Nicholas Midzi; Takafira Mduluza; Francisca Mutapi

    2015-01-01

    Author Summary Understanding how immune responses are generated is critical for vaccine development. There are comparatively few studies on the interface between the innate and adaptive immune system in generating protective immune responses. Infections with helminth parasites, a cause of neglected tropical diseases, have a huge collective impact on public health in affected developing countries. Helminths are associated with a complex type 2 immune response mediated by cytokines characterist...

  17. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim;

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data...... on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...

  18. Neglected zoonotic helminths: Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C A

    2015-05-01

    The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control.

  19. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, although the clinically related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in a helminth-infected population, we performed ImmunoCAP tests in filarial-infected and noninfected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins as well as IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologs. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and nonhomologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of ImmunoCAP-identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologs in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologs in helminths. Mice infected with the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologs in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications, altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and bringing a new perspective to the "hygiene hypothesis."

  20. Helminth parasites of finfish commercial aquaculture in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Jiménez, L C; Paredes-Trujillo, A I; Vidal-Martínez, V M

    2017-03-01

    Latin America has tripled production by aquaculture up to 78 million tonnes in the past 20 years. However, one of the problems that aquaculture is facing is the presence of helminth parasites and the diseases caused by them in the region. In this review we have collected all the available information on helminths affecting commercial aquaculture in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), emphasizing those causing serious economic losses. Monogeneans are by far the most common and aggressive parasites affecting farmed fish in LAC. They have been recognized as serious pathogens in intensive fish culture because they reach high levels of infection rapidly, and can infect other phylogenetically related fish species. The next most important group comprises the larval stages of digeneans (metacercariae) such as Diplostomum sp. and Centrocestus formosanus, which cause serious damage to farmed fish. Since LAC aquaculture has been based mainly on exotic species (tilapia, salmon, trout and carp), most of their parasites have been brought into the region together with the fish for aquaculture. Recently, one of us (A.I.P.-T.) has suggested that monogeneans, which have generally been considered to be harmless, can produce serious effects on the growth of cultured Nile tilapia. Therefore, the introduction of fish together with their 'harmless' parasites into new sites, regions or countries in LAC should be considered a breakdown of biosecurity in those countries involved. Therefore, the application of quarantine procedures and preventive therapeutic treatments should be considered before allowing these introductions into a country.

  1. Chronic helminth infection does not exacerbate Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

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    Marc P Hübner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic helminth infections induce a Th2 immune shift and establish an immunoregulatory milieu. As both of these responses can suppress Th1 immunity, which is necessary for control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB infection, we hypothesized that chronic helminth infections may exacerbate the course of MTB. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Co-infection studies were conducted in cotton rats as they are the natural host for the filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis and are an excellent model for human MTB. Immunogical responses, histological studies, and quantitative mycobacterial cultures were assessed two months after MTB challenge in cotton rats with and without chronic L. sigmodontis infection. Spleen cell proliferation and interferon gamma production in response to purified protein derivative were similar between co-infected and MTB-only infected animals. In contrast to our hypothesis, MTB loads and occurrence and size of lung granulomas were not increased in co-infected animals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that chronic filaria infections do not exacerbate MTB infection in the cotton rat model. While these results suggest that filaria eradication programs may not facilitate MTB control, they indicate that it may be possible to develop worm-derived therapies for autoimmune diseases that do not substantially increase the risk for infections.

  2. ECENT ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE OF SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS

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    Paul C. Beaver

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available New observations in recent years have accented differences between the two common hookworms, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus,"nwith respect to modes of transmision and pathogenicity, and have established Ancylostoma ceylanicum as a species distinct from A. braziliense. Transmammary and paratenic transmission are now considered to be natural modes of infection in Ancylostoma caninum and possibly 111 other Ancylostoma species including A. duodenale, but not in Necator. The question of relative blood losses from laceration hemorrhage and blood-sucking in hookworm anemia is unresolved. The prevalence of Loeffler's syndrome in pulmonary ascariasis appears to be greatest in areas where transmission is sharply seasonal. Recent studies have failed to confirm reports of blood-sucking by Trichuris. Milk-borne transmission from mother to the newborn has been demonstrated for numberous species of Strongyloides not including S. stercoralis. Zoonotic soil-transmitted helminths 0; dogs and cats have become recognized as frequently causing visceral larva migrans and occasionally blindness in most parts of the world. Two major advances were made in diagnostic techniques - the Harada-Mori test-tube hookworm culture for species diagnosis and the Kato cellophane-covered thick fecal film ror ranid and quantitative diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections.

  3. Helminth parasites found in hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirak, Veli Y; Senlik, Bayram; Aydogdu, Ali; Selver, Melih; Akyol, Volkan

    2010-10-01

    Hedgehog diseases are becoming important issues for veterinary surgeons due to growing interest in this animal species among pet owners and an increase in cases of rescued hedgehogs requiring veterinary care. A parasitological study was carried out on hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in the Bursa province of Turkey, found dead mainly due to road casualties, to determine their helminth parasite burden. The detected helminths and their prevalences were as follows: Physaloptera clausa (72.2%), Crenosoma striatum (55.5%), Aonchotheca erinacei (55.5%), Hymenolepis erinacei (55.5%), Nephridiorhynchus major (50%) and Eucoleus aerophilus (22.2%). The number of parasites in infected animals varied from 1 to 203. The highest mean intensity of infection was observed with C. striatum, and the lowest was observed with N. major. The mean abundance of different species varied from 0.7 to 41.8, where E. aerophilus and C. striatum had the lowest and highest abundance, respectively. This study represents the first time N. major and E. aerophilus have been reported in hedgehogs in Turkey. The presence of E. aerophilus and its potential role as a zoonotic agent are discussed.

  4. Helminths of guineafowls in Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    K. Junker

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Between July 2005 and November 2006 the gastro-intestinal helminths of 15 Helmeted guineafowls and a single Crested guineafowl from Musina, Limpopo Province were examined, and in July and August 2005 helminths were collected from five Helmeted guineafowls from Mokopane in the same province. The acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus gallinarum, the cestodes Abuladzugnia gutterae, Davainea nana, Hymenolepis cantaniana, Numidella numida, Octopetalum numida, Ortleppolepis multiuncinata, Porogynia paronai, Raillietina angusta, Raillietina pintneri, Raillietina steinhardti and Raillietina sp. and the nematodes Ascaridia numidae, Cyrnea parroti, Gongylonema congolense, Hadjelia truncata, Sicarius caudatus, Subulura dentigera, Subulura suctoria, Subulura sp., Tetrameres numida and an unidentified subulurid were recovered. A single trematode species, Dicrocoelium macrostomum, was present in the liver. Mediorhynchus gallinarum, A. gutterae, O. multiuncinata, H. truncata and S. caudatus are recorded for the first time from Helmeted guineafowls, as well as from South Africa. South Africa is a new geographic record for D. macrostomum, G. congolense and D. nana. Subulura suctoria, G. congolense and H. truncata from the Crested guineafowl constitute new host-parasite associations.

  5. Vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in Europe

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    Otranto Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Presently, 45% of the total human population of Europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (VBH causing diseases. A plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. Although canine dirofilarioses by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of VBH spreading into non-endemic areas, another example is represented by Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm, an emergent pathogen of dogs, cats and humans in several regions of Europe. The recent finding of Onchocerca lupi causing canine and human infestation in Europe and overseas renders the picture of VBH even more complicated. Similarly, tick-transmitted filarioids of the genus Cercopithifilaria infesting the skin of dogs were recently shown to be widespread in Europe. Although for most of the VBH above there is an increasing accumulation of research data on their distribution at national level, the overall impact of the diseases they cause in dogs and humans is not fully recognised in many aspects. This review investigates the reasons underlying the increasing trend in distribution of VBH in Europe and discusses the diagnostic and control strategies currently available. In addition, this article provides the authors’ opinion on some topics related to VBH that would deserve further scientific investigation.

  6. Repurposing drugs for the treatment and control of helminth infections

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    Gordana Panic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are responsible for a considerable public health burden, yet the current drug armamentarium is small. Given the high cost of drug discovery and development, the high failure rates and the long duration to develop novel treatments, drug repurposing circumvents these obstacles by finding new uses for compounds other than those they were initially intended to treat. In the present review, we summarize in vivo and clinical trial findings testing clinical candidates and marketed drugs against schistosomes, food-borne trematodes, soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, the major human filariases lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and echinococcosis. While expanding the applications of broad-spectrum or veterinary anthelmintics continues to fuel alternative treatment options, antimalarials, antibiotics, antiprotozoals and anticancer agents appear to be producing fruitful results as well. The trematodes and nematodes continue to be most investigated, while cestodal drug discovery will need to be accelerated. The most clinically advanced drug candidates include the artemisinins and mefloquine against schistosomiasis, tribendimidine against liver flukes, oxantel pamoate against trichuriasis, and doxycycline against filariasis. Preclinical studies indicate a handful of promising future candidates, and are beginning to elucidate the broad-spectrum activity of some currently used anthelmintics. Challenges and opportunities are further discussed.

  7. Gastrointestinal Helminths in Slaughtered Cattle in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria

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    Olubukola Deborah Adedipe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of an ongoing project to investigate the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminths of cattle in Nigeria, we carried out a systematic random sampling of cattle slaughtered in a major abattoir in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. Using sedimentation and floatation methods, we analyzed fecal samples from 397 animals between March and May 2013. Overall, 163 (41.6% of the animals had at least one gastrointestinal helminth egg, comprising a total of eight helminths from different genera (i.e., four nematodes, three trematodes, and one cestode, with nematode infection being the highest (71.54%. In addition, eggs of four helminths of zoonotic importance were also obtained. Among the cattle examined, the Bunaji breed was the most infected (46%; 69/150. Furthermore, female animals (OR=1.1; 95% CI: 0.60–1.84 and animals with moderate body condition (OR=1.2; 95% CI: 0.80–1.79 are more likely to be positive to helminth infection. Our findings reveal that there were helminth infections of both zoonotic and socioeconomic importance among the cattle screened. Considering the impact of the infections on animal production and public health, we advocate that effective prophylactic measures be adopted as a first step to curtail helminth infections of cattle in Nigeria.

  8. Patterns and processes influencing helminth parasites of Arctic coastal communities during climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaktionov, K V

    2017-03-22

    This review analyses the scarce available data on biodiversity and transmission of helminths in Arctic coastal ecosystems and the potential impact of climate changes on them. The focus is on the helminths of seabirds, dominant parasites in coastal ecosystems. Their fauna in the Arctic is depauperate because of the lack of suitable intermediate hosts and unfavourable conditions for species with free-living larvae. An increasing proportion of crustaceans in the diet of Arctic seabirds would result in a higher infection intensity of cestodes and acanthocephalans, and may also promote the infection of seabirds with non-specific helminths. In this way, the latter may find favourable conditions for colonization of new hosts. Climate changes may alter the composition of the helminth fauna, their infection levels in hosts and ways of transmission in coastal communities. Immigration of boreal invertebrates and fish into Arctic seas may allow the circulation of helminths using them as intermediate hosts. Changing migratory routes of animals would alter the distribution of their parasites, facilitating, in particular, their trans-Arctic transfer. Prolongation of the seasonal 'transmission window' may increase the parasitic load on host populations. Changes in Arctic marine food webs would have an overriding influence on the helminths' circulation. This process may be influenced by the predicted decreased of salinity in Arctic seas, increased storm activity, coastal erosion, ocean acidification, decline of Arctic ice, etc. Greater parasitological research efforts are needed to assess the influence of factors related to Arctic climate change on the transmission of helminths.

  9. A survey of gastrointestinal helminth of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeastern of Iran

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    Geraili, A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canids are reservoir for some zoonoses helminthic disease. They are one of main public health problem. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of gastrointestinal helminthic infection of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeaster of Iran. In this descriptive study, 30 stray dogs were euthanized, intestine was removed by necropsy. Then, the intestines was opened by scalpel and their contents passed through mesh sieve. The helminth were collected. The nematodes were preserved in 70% ethanol with 5% glycerin and cestodes were preserved in 70% ethanol. The cestodes were stained by acetocarmine. The nematodes were cleared by lactophenol. The genus and species of helminth were identified by identification keys. Twenty two (73.3% of stray dogs had at least one intestinal helminthic infection. Recovered helminth from stray dogs include: Taenia hydatigena (53.3%, Taenia ovis (20%, Taenia multiceps (6.6%, Mesocestoides spp (10%, Toxocara canis (23.3%, Toxocara cati (3.3%. Data showed that the stray dogs in Zabol city harbor some important zoonoses helminth parasite like Toxocara.

  10. Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs from Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran

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    A Eslami

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Sem­nan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production.Methods: During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid.Results: Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80% harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80% followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%, Toxocara canis (22%, Mesocestoides lineatus (12%, Taenia multiceps (10% and Dipylidium caninum (4%. The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1-3 ex­cept for that of E. granulosus (645. No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001 as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001.Conclusion: Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths re­ported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes.

  11. Patterns of distribution of the helminth parasites of freshwater fishes of Mexico.

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    Benjamín Quiroz-Martínez

    Full Text Available In order to draw patterns in helminth parasite composition and species richness in Mexican freshwater fishes we analyse a presence-absence matrix representing every species of adult helminth parasites of freshwater fishes from 23 Mexican hydrological basins. We examine the distributional patterns of the helminth parasites with regard to the main hydrological basins of the country, and in doing so we identify areas of high diversity and point out the biotic similarities and differences among drainage basins. Our dataset allows us to evaluate the relationships among drainage basins in terms of helminth diversity. This paper shows that the helminth fauna of freshwater fishes of Mexico can characterise hydrological basins the same way as fish families do, and that the basins of south-eastern Mexico are home to a rich, predominantly Neotropical, helminth fauna whereas the basins of the Mexican Highland Plateau and the Nearctic area of Mexico harbour a less diverse Nearctic fauna, following the same pattern of distribution of their fish host families. The composition of the helminth fauna of each particular basin depends on the structure of the fish community rather than on the limnological characteristics and geographical position of the basin itself. This work shows distance decay of similarity and a clear linkage between host and parasite distributions.

  12. Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Osogbo, Nigeria

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    Olusola Ojurongbe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria and intestinal helminths are parasitic diseases causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favor their prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible impact of falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Kajola, Osun state, Nigeria. Methods: Fresh stool and blood samples were collected from 117 primary school children age range 4-15 years. The stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood was collected by finger prick to determine malaria parasitemia using thick film method; and packed cell volume (PCV was determined by hematocrit. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, intestinal helminth infections, and co-infection of malaria and helminth in the study were 25.6%, 40.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Five species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were Ascaris lumbricoides (34.2%, hookworm (5.1%, Trichuris trichiura (2.6%, Diphyllobothrium latum (0.9% and Trichostrongylus species (0.9%. For the co-infection of both malaria and intestinal helminths, females (5.9% were more infected than males (2.0% but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3978. Children who were infected with helminths were equally likely to be infected with malaria as children without intestinal helminths [Risk Ratio (RR = 0.7295]. Children with A. lumbricoides (RR = 1.359 were also likely to be infected with P. falciparum as compared with uninfected children. Conclusions: Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminth infections do co-exist without clinical symp-toms in school children in Nigeria.

  13. Identification of Schistosoma mansoni candidate antigens for diagnosis of schistosomiasis

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    Gardenia Braz Figueiredo Carvalho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of a more sensitive diagnostic test for schistosomiasis is needed to overcome the limitations of the use of stool examination in low endemic areas. Using parasite antigens in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay is a promising strategy, however a more rational selection of parasite antigens is necessary. In this study we performed in silico analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni genome, using SchistoDB database and bioinformatic tools for screening immunogenic antigens. Based on evidence of expression in all parasite life stage within the definitive host, extracellular or plasmatic membrane localization, low similarity to human and other helminthic proteins and presence of predicted B cell epitopes, six candidates were selected: a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored 200 kDa protein, two putative cytochrome oxidase subunits, two expressed proteins and one hypothetical protein. The recognition in unidimensional and bidimensional Western blot of protein with similar molecular weight and isoelectric point to the selected antigens by sera from S. mansoni infected mice indicate a good correlation between these two approaches in selecting immunogenic proteins.

  14. IgE, allergies and helminth parasites: a new perspective on an old conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R G

    1996-08-01

    This paper analyses the association between infection with helminth parasites, the elevated production of IgE and the expression of allergies. Interpretations of this interaction have taken place in a scientific environment whose most secure element is the immunochemistry of allergic reactions resulting in a substantial body of literature that has sought a biological role for allergic reactivity in protective immunity directed against helminth parasites. While the association between helminth infections and elevated levels of IgE, mast cells and eosinophils is well established, a functional role for allergic reactions in protection against helminths has eluded experimental proof. Instead of this hypothesis, it is proposed that allergic reactivity is rarely present in helminth-infected individuals because allergic reactions do not function to regulate helminth infections. Data from many sources are used to establish that the 'normal' state of all mammals is to be infected with helminth parasites from shortly after birth until well into adulthood. Only in the last 100 years or so have people living in areas of high development with sophisticated water and sewage systems been able to escape helminth infection. Allergies are as conspicuously present in these human populations as they are absent in populations that are still regularly exposed to helminths. Furthermore, in populations with endemic helminthoses there is little overt expression of allergic pathology that could be connected to the acquisition or elimination of helminth parasites. Based on these observations, it is suggested that endemic helminthoses activate the Th2 system, particularly at mucosal surfaces, to provide a different level of immunological homeostasis than currently occurs in developed societies. Under these conditions, mast cells, eosinophils and IgE rarely participate in reactions that we would recognize as 'allergic', although their participation in the control of helminth infections is

  15. SOME EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHES IN ISFAHAN

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    E.Ghadirian

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of soil transmitted helminthes were studied in six villages in Isfahan area. The mean overall prevalence of ascariasis and trichostrongyliasis were 91.5% and 70.9% respectively with higher infection rate among females. Mean prevalence of Trichuris and Hymenolepis nana were 73.8% and 5.4% respectively. Prevalences of Ascaris and Trichuris did not fluctuate very much in various ages but for Trichostrongylus, infected was lower in 0-4 age group and H.nana was mostly found in lower age groups. In some villages 100% of both sexes were infected with one or more helminth parasites, and overall prevalence of infection was 97.3%. In all villages, it was found that a small proportion of inhabitants (12.5% excrete a large proportion (43.3% of total eggs of Ascaris. Prevalence and intensity of ascariasis established four years after therapy have shown that the group of population who had the highest prevalence before therapy, had the highest prevalence and intensity. The high proportion of infected cases with Ascaris had less than 25000 eggs/gr of faeces and less than 50 worms. Results of this study indicate once again the importance of intestinal helminthiasis in Isfahan and also the possibility of reducing the transmission force by regular mass-chemotherapy of a small proportion of the inhabitants. More than 100 persons from each village who were infected with Ascaris and some infected with other helminthes simultaneously, were treated a few days after examination, using pyrantel pamoate with a single dose of 10 mg/kg. body weight. Tablets given to adults and suspension for children were taken in the presence of authors. A saline purge has also been administered to the patients treated who had constipation. A plastic pan containing 10% formaline solution and labeled with the name of the patient was also given to each patient after the drug was taken, in which all stools passed, up to 48 hours after treatment, were collected and

  16. Immunity to helminths: resistance, regulation, and susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grencis, Richard K

    2015-01-01

    Helminth parasites are a highly successful group of pathogens that challenge the immune system in a manner distinct from rapidly replicating infectious agents. Of this group, roundworms (nematodes) that dwell in the intestines of humans and other animals are prevalent worldwide. Currently, more than one billion people are infected by at least one species, often for extended periods of time. Thus, host-protective immunity is rarely complete. The reasons for this are complex, but laboratory investigation of tractable model systems in which protective immunity is effective has provided a mechanistic understanding of resistance that is characterized almost universally by a type 2/T helper 2 response. Greater understanding of the mechanisms of susceptibility has also provided the basis for defining host immunoregulation and parasite-evasion strategies, helping place in context the changing patterns of immunological disease observed worldwide.

  17. [EXPERIENCE IN TREATING HELMINTHISM WITH MICRONIZED ALBENDAZOLE (GELMODOL)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoikin, V D; Tumolskaya, N I; Mazmanyan, M V; Zelya, O P; Tikhonova, D V

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives the results of treatment with micronized albendazole (Gelmodol-BM, World Medicine, UK) in 87 patients of the Department of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Diseases, Clinical and Diagnostic Center, Clinical Center, I.M.Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University. Thirty-two patients with echinococcosis 8 with alveococcosis (including 4 inoperable patients), 10 with ascariasis, 10 with toxocariasis, 15 with enterobiasis, and 12 people diagnosed with larva migrans were treated in 2013-2014. The drug's routine doses and dosage regimens were used. Albendazole (Gelmodol, World Medicine, UK) showed a high efficacy with good tolerability, which is highly competitive with that of the drugs manufactured by IPCA Laboratories Ltd., India (such as nemozole). Both medicaments above-mentioned may be successfully used in the treatment of many helminthisms.

  18. [Helminth fauna and steroid hormones concentration of wild rodents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuliś, Karolina; Bajer, Anna; Siński, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Fragmentation of the environment by natural barriers (lakes, mountain ranges) and human activities (towns, major roads, agriculture) can lead to isolate subpopulations of hosts. The study was based in Mazury lake district in north-eastern Poland, the region rich in forests, lakes, rivers and canals, which can create impassable barriers. Population of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus)--dominant woodland rodent--showed local differences in helminth communities in fragmented forest habitat. The sites were chosen on the basis of the similarity of their habitat structure and type, and isolation from one another. There are evidences that steroids hormones associated with stress and reproduction may mediate trade-offs between physiology and immune function.

  19. Helminths of the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, in Brazil

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    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Worm burdens were evaluated and compared in two groups of the guinea pig, Cavia poreellus (Linnaeus, 1758: animals of the first group were conventionally maintained in an institutional animal house and those of the second group were openly kept in pet shops in Brazil. Animals from both sources were infected only with the nematode Paraspidodera uncinata (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1914 (10% of prevalence in guinea pigs from lhe institutional facility and 40% in those animals from the pet shop. Other helminth samples recovered from Brazilian guinea pigs during 52 years and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CHIOC were also analyzed. Paraspidodera uncinata and the cestode Monoecocestus parcitesticulatus Rêgo, 1960 were identified in these samples.

  20. Environmental pollution with soil-transmitted helminths in Sanliurfa, Turkey

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    Ulukanligil Mustafa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil transmitted helminth (STH infection are endemic in developing countries. A study was carried out of sewage farms, streams and vegetables to determine the sources and routes of STH infection in Sanliurfa, Turkey. Stool samples from farmhouse inhabitants as well as soil and vegetable samples from the gardens were collected and examined. In addition, water samples from streams and vegetable samples from the city market were collected and examined. One hundred and eighty-seven (59.5% of a total of 314 samples, including 88.4% of the stool samples, 60.8% of the water samples, 84.4% of the soil samples and 14% of the vegetable samples, were found to be positive for STH eggs. These results indicate that the water, soil and vegetables are heavily contaminated, and suggest a vicious circle between humans and the environment. Improving environmental sanitation is imperative for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sanliurfa.

  1. Helminths parasitizing Columbina picui (Columbiformes: Columbidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, Marco A A; Mascarenhas, Carolina S; Krüger, Cristiane; Muller, Gertrud

    2009-08-01

    Columbina picui (picui ground-dove) is a small, diurnal columbid bird that lives, in couples or flocks, in open areas in the countryside and urban centers. The species occurs in Brazil and other countries in South America. The aim of this study was to identify the helminths that parasitize C. picui in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Thirty-four specimens were necropsied; in each case, the organs were isolated and examined separately. The nematodes and their prevalences were: Ascaridia columbae (26.5%) and Ornithostrongylus iheringi (11.8%) in the small intestine; Dispharynx nasuta in the proventriculus (5.9%) and gizzard (2.9%); and a Dispharynx sp. (2.9%) in the proventriculus. This is the first report of D. nasuta parasitizing C. picui in Brazil and the first record of A. columbae and O. iheringi infecting C. picui in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  2. Poly-helminth infection in east guatemalan school children

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    William C Sorensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil transmitted helminths (STH remain a global public health concern in spite of occasional dosing campaigns. Aims: To determine baseline prevalence and intensity of STH infection in east Guatemalan school children, and describe the associated epidemiology of anemia, stunting, and wasting in this population. Setting and design: Ten schools in Izabal province (eastern Guatemala were identified, and 1,001 school children were selected for this study. Half of the schools were used as clinical testing sites (blood and stool. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measures were collected from all children. Over 300 children were tested for anemia and 229 for helminth infection. Ova and parasite specimens were examined via Direct, Kato Katz, and McMaster techniques. Hemoglobin was measured from venipuncture following the hemacue system. Statistical analysis: Correlation between infection intensities and growth indicators were examined. Chi Square or t tests were used for bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression was performed on significant variables from bivariate techniques. Results: Over two-thirds of school children were positive for infection by any STH. Prevalence of Hookworm was 30%; Ascaris, 52%; and Trichuris, 39%, most as low-intensity infection. Over half of the children were co-infected. In bivariate analysis, anemia was significantly associated with polyparasitism. Conclusions: For a Guatemalan child who experiences a unit decrease in hemoglobin, one expects to see a 24% increase in the odds of being infected with STH, controlling for age, sex, lake proximity, and growth characteristics. Infection with more than one STH, despite low intensity, led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin.

  3. Levels of helminth infection in the flat lizard Tropidurus semitaeniatus from north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, C H; Ávila, R W; Passos, D C; Zanchi-Silva, D; Galdino, C A B

    2016-11-01

    Parasites represent a great, unknown component of animal biodiversity. Recent efforts have begun to uncover patterns of infection by helminth parasites in several Neotropical lizards. The present study reports, for the first time, levels of helminth infection in a population of the flat lizard Tropidurus semitaeniatus. One hundred and thirty-nine lizards were examined and evidence of five intestinal helminth species was found, comprising four species of nematodes, one species of cestode and an unidentified encysted larval nematode. The most frequently occurring species was the intestinal nematode Parapharyngodon alvarengai, which did not exhibit differences in prevalence and intensity of infection relative to host sex or age/body size. Furthermore, helminth species richness was not related to host body size.

  4. Immunity against Helminths: Interactions with the Host and the Intercurrent Infections

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    Emmanuelle Moreau

    2010-01-01

    mechanisms against tissue-dwelling helminths and helminths localized in the lumen of organs, and their regulation, are reviewed. Helminth infections are characterized by an association of Th2-like and Treg responses. Worms are able to persist in the host and are mainly responsible for chronic infection despite a strong immune response developed by the parasitized host. Two types of protection against the parasite, namely, premune and partial immunities, have been described. Immune responses against helminths can also participate in pathogenesis. Th2/Treg-like immunomodulation allows the survival of both host and parasite by controlling immunopathologic disorders and parasite persistence. Consequences of the modified Th2-like responses on co-infection, vaccination, and inflammatory diseases are discussed.

  5. Helminths of the exotic lizard Hemidactylus mabouia from a rock outcrop area in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, L A; Rocha, C F D; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J

    2005-12-01

    The helminth fauna of 291 Hemidactylus mabouia (Lacertilia: Gekkonidae) from a rock outcrop area in the state of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, was studied. Five species were recovered, namely one unidentified species of centrorhynchid acanthocephalan (present only as cystacanths) and the nematodes Parapharyngodon sceleratus, P. largitor (Oxyuroidea: Pharingodonidae), Physaloptera sp. (Spiruroidea: Physalopteridae) and one indeterminate species of Acuariidae (Acuaroidea), with the latter two forms present only as larvae. Infection rates tended to increase with host size, but appeared to be unaffected by season. Hemidactylus mabouia shared most of its helminth fauna with two other sympatric lizard hosts, Mabuya frenata and Tropidurus itambere. The helminth assemblage of the H. mabouia population appears to have been entirely acquired by this exotic gecko from the local helminth species pool, rather than possessing any species from the parasite faunas of the original African populations.

  6. Cohabitation in the Intestine: Interactions among Helminth Parasites, Bacterial Microbiota, and Host Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Finlay, B Brett; Maizels, Rick M

    2015-11-01

    Both intestinal helminth parasites and certain bacterial microbiota species have been credited with strong immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies reported that the presence of helminth infection alters the composition of the bacterial intestinal microbiota and, conversely, that the presence and composition of the bacterial microbiota affect helminth colonization and persistence within mammalian hosts. This article reviews recent findings on these reciprocal relationships, in both human populations and mouse models, at the level of potential mechanistic pathways and the implications these bear for immunomodulatory effects on allergic and autoimmune disorders. Understanding the multidirectional complex interactions among intestinal microbes, helminth parasites, and the host immune system allows for a more holistic approach when using probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and anthelmintics, as well as when designing treatments for autoimmune and allergic conditions.

  7. The helminth community of Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia, Muridae in the Sierra de Gredos (Spain

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    Fuentes, M. V.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish mountain range of Gredos was included in the studies conducted on the Iberian peninsula to investigate helminth fauna of small mammals. The helminth community of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia, Muridae, was analysed. Qualitatively, 13 helminth species were detected: Plagiorchis sp. I and Plagiorchis sp. II (Trematoda; Taenia parva larvae, T. martis larvae, T. taeniaeformis larvae, Rodentolepis straminea and R. fraterna (Cestoda; and Trichuris muris, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia stroma, S. frederici, Aspiculuris tetraptera and Rictularia proni (Nematoda. Quantitatively, the highest prevalence (65.0% and the mean abundance (36.9% of H. polygyrus stand out. In comparison with the other mountain ranges studied, analysis of the global results demonstrates that the helminth fauna of the host species studied is diverse despite the adverse climatic conditions. This could be related to both the particular ecological characteristics and the appropriate state of preservation of this ecosystem.

  8. The Hamster Model for Identification of Specific Antigens of Taenia solium Tapeworms

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    Alicia Ochoa-Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans acquire taeniasis by ingesting pork meat infected with Taenia solium cysticerci, which are the only definitive hosts of the adult stage (tapeworm and responsible for transmitting the human and porcine cysticercosis. Hence, detection of human tapeworm carriers is a key element in the development of viable strategies to control the disease. This paper presents the identification of specific antigens using sera from hamsters infected with T. solium tapeworms analyzed by western blot assay with crude extracts (CEs and excretion-secretion antigens (E/S Ag obtained from T. solium cysticerci and tapeworms and extracts from other helminthes as controls. The hamster sera infected with T. solium tapeworms recognized specific bands of 72, 48, 36, and 24 kDa, in percentages of 81, 81, 90, and 88%, respectively, using the T. solium tapeworms E/S Ag. The antigens recognized by these hamster sera could be candidates to improve diagnosis of human T. solium taeniasis.

  9. Richness and diversity of helminth communities in tropical freshwater fishes: Empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, A.; Dick, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Aim: Published information on the richness and diversity of helminth parasite communities in tropical freshwater fishes is reviewed in response to expectations of species-rich parasite communities in tropical regions. Location: Areas covered include the tropics and some subtropical areas. In addition, the north temperate area of the nearctic zone is included for comparison. Methods: Data from 159 communities in 118 species of tropical freshwater fish, summarized from 46 published studies, were used for this review. Parasite community descriptors used in the analyses included component community richness and calculated mean species richness. Data from 130 communities in 47 species of nearctic north temperate freshwater fish were summarized from 31 studies and used for comparison. Results: The component helminth communities of many tropical freshwater fish are species-poor, and considerable proportions of fish from certain parts of the tropics, e.g. West African drainages, are uninfected or lightly infected. Mean helminth species richness was low and equaled or exceeded 2.0 in only 22 of 114 communities. No single group of helminths was identified as a dominant component of the fauna and species composition was variable among and within broader geographical areas. The richest enteric helminth assemblages were found in mochokid and clariid catfish with a mixed carnivorous diet, whereas algal feeders, herbivores and detritivores generally had species-poor gut helminth communities. Comparisons indicated that certain areas in the north temperate region had higher helminth species richness in fishes than areas in the tropics. Main conclusions: Expectations of high species richness in helminth communities of tropical freshwater fishes are not fulfilled by the data. Direct comparisons of infracommunities and component communities in host species across widely separated phylogenetic and geographical lines are inappropriate. Examination of latitudinal differences in richness

  10. [HELMINTH FAUNA OF WILD BOARS (SUS SCROFA L.1758) IN AZERBAIJAN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fataliev, Q H

    2015-01-01

    A total of 41 wild boar specimens, including 19, 10, 10, and 2 specimens from the Lesser-Caucasus, the Greater Caucasus, the Kura-Araks lowland, and Lankaran natural region were studied. On the whole, 16 helminth species were revealed, including 2, 2, 1, and 11 species of trematodes, cestodes, acanthocephalans, and nematodes. The distribution of helminths in landscape-ecological zones of Azerbaijan is analyzed.

  11. Malaria and helminth co-infections in school and preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M; Magnussen, Pascal; Kaatano, Godfrey M

    2014-01-01

    Malaria, schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) are important parasitic infections in Sub-Saharan Africa where a significant proportion of people are exposed to co-infections of more than one parasite. In Tanzania, these infections are a major public health problem...... particularly in school and pre-school children. The current study investigated malaria and helminth co-infections and anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania....

  12. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Pullan, RL; Smith, JL; Jasrasaria, R; Brooker, SJ

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantifying the burden of parasitic diseases in relation to other diseases and injuries requires reliable estimates of prevalence for each disease and an analytic framework within which to estimate attributable morbidity and mortality. Here we use data included in the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection to derive new global estimates of numbers infected with intestinal nematodes (soil-transmitted helminths, STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms) and use di...

  13. Prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthes in vegetables sold in Bali markets, Taraba State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ukwubile, Cletus A.; Yohanna, Emohseh

    2015-01-01

    In Nigeria, leafy vegetables form essential part of dietary foods especially in the South-eastern part. This is because of enormous supplements derived from them that affect human health positively. These benefits derived were however reduced drastically by incidence of soil-transmitted helminthes associated ailments in humans who consumed these vegetables on daily basis. This present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of soil transmitted helminthes in vegetables sold in Bali m...

  14. Global Change and Helminth Infections in Grazing Ruminants in Europe: Impacts, Trends and Sustainable Solutions

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    Hubertus Hertzberg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Infections with parasitic helminths (nematodes and trematodes represent a significant economic and welfare burden to the global ruminant livestock industry. The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistance means that current control programmes are costly and unsustainable in the long term. Recent changes in the epidemiology, seasonality and geographic distribution of helminth infections have been attributed to climate change. However, other changes in environment (e.g., land use and in livestock farming, such as intensification and altered management practices, will also have an impact on helminth infections. Sustainable control of helminth infections in a changing world requires detailed knowledge of these interactions. In particular, there is a need to devise new, sustainable strategies for the effective control of ruminant helminthoses in the face of global change. In this paper, we consider the impact of helminth infections in grazing ruminants, taking a European perspective, and identify scientific and applied priorities to mitigate these impacts. These include the development and deployment of efficient, high-throughput diagnostic tests to support targeted intervention, modelling of geographic and seasonal trends in infection, more thorough economic data and analysis of the impact of helminth infections and greater translation and involvement of end-users in devising and disseminating best practices. Complex changes in helminth epidemiology will require innovative solutions. By developing and using new technologies and models, the use of anthelmintics can be optimised to limit the development and spread of drug resistance and to reduce the overall economic impact of helminth infections. This will be essential to the continued productivity and profitability of livestock farming in Europe and its contribution to regional and global food security.

  15. Use of Moringa oleifera seed extracts to reduce helminth egg numbers and turbidity in irrigation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Mita E; Keraita, Bernard; Olsen, Annette; Boateng, Osei K; Thamsborg, Stig M; Pálsdóttir, Guðný R; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-07-01

    Water from wastewater-polluted streams and dug-outs is the most commonly used water source for irrigation in urban farming in Ghana, but helminth parasite eggs in the water represent health risks when used for crop production. Conventional water treatment is expensive, requires advanced technology and often breaks down in less developed countries so low cost interventions are needed. Field and laboratory based trials were carried out in order to investigate the effect of the natural coagulant Moringa oleifera (MO) seed extracts in reducing helminh eggs and turbidity in irrigation water, turbid water, wastewater and tap water. In medium to high turbid water MO extracts were effective in reducing the number of helminth eggs by 94-99.5% to 1-2 eggs per litre and the turbidity to 7-11 NTU which is an 85-96% reduction. MO is readily available in many tropical countries and can be used by farmers to treat high turbid water for irrigation, however, additional improvements of water quality, e.g. by sand filtration, is suggested to meet the guideline value of ≤ 1 helminth egg per litre and a turbidity of ≤ 2 NTU as recommended by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water intended for irrigation. A positive correlation was established between reduction in turbidity and helminth eggs in irrigation water, turbid water and wastewater treated with MO. This indicates that helminth eggs attach to suspended particles and/or flocs facilitated by MO in the water, and that turbidity and helminth eggs are reduced with the settling flocs. However, more experiments with water samples containing naturally occurring helminth eggs are needed to establish whether turbidity can be used as a proxy for helminth eggs.

  16. Correlates of helminth community in the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa L.) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Lucientes, J; Estrada, A; Telletxea, I

    2003-06-01

    Between 1992 and 1996, 587 wild red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) from 16 Spanish provinces were examined to study the variations of helminth communities in this game species across a broad geographical area. The survey revealed 13 species of helminth parasites. Dicrocoelium sp.. Rhabdometra nigropunctata, and Cheilospirura gruweli were the most common species, whereas Raillietina bolivari, Choanotaenia infundibulum, Tetrameres sp., and Capillaria anatis were the most rare. Subulura suctoria, Heterakis gallinarum, Heterakis tenuicaudata, Capillaria contorta, Trichostrongylus tenuis, and Raillietina tetragona occurred with intermediate frequencies. The abundance of C. gruweli, S. suctoria, H. tenuicaudata, T. tenuis, and R. tetragona was inversely correlated to latitude and directly correlated to yearly mean temperature, whereas the abundance of Dicrocoelium sp. was directly correlated to latitude and inversely correlated to yearly mean temperature. The abundance of R. tetragona was inversely correlated to latitude and yearly mean humidity. The number of helminths per partridge and the number of helminth species per partridge were lower in young birds than in adults. Partridge body condition was inversely correlated to abundance of C. contorta. Richer infracommunities were linked to richer component communities. At the infracommunity level, total number of helminths per partridge and number of helminth species per partridge were inversely correlated to latitude and directly correlated to yearly mean temperature. At the component community level, both species richness and diversity (Simpson's index) were inversely correlated to latitude and directly correlated to mean temperature. Across the broad geographical range of the study area, the helminth parasite communities of red-legged partridges had marked geographical variation in their structure. Our results suggest that this variation is determined by the distribution of both intermediate and definitive hosts

  17. Taxonomic distinctness and richness of helminth parasite assemblages of freshwater fishes in Mexican hydrological basins.

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    Benjamín Quiroz-Martínez

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the distributional patterns of adult helminth parasites of freshwater fishes with respect to the main hydrological basins of Mexico. We use the taxonomic distinctness and the variation in taxonomic distinctness to explore patterns of parasite diversity and how these patterns change between zoogeographical regions. We address questions about the factors that determine the variation of observed diversity of helminths between basins. We also investigate patterns of richness, taxonomic distinctness and distance decay of similarity amongst basins. Our analyses suggest that the evolution of the fauna of helminth parasites in Mexico is mostly dominated by independent host colonization events and that intra--host speciation could be a minor factor explaining the origin of this diversity. This paper points out a clear separation between the helminth faunas of northern--nearctic and southern--neotropical components in Mexican continental waters, suggesting the availability of two distinct taxonomic pools of parasites in Mexican drainage basins. Data identifies Mexican drainage basins as unities inhabited by freshwater fishes, hosting a mixture of neotropical and nearctic species, in addition, data confirms neotropical and neartic basins/helminth faunas. The neotropical basins of Mexico are host to a richest and more diversified helminth fauna, including more families, genera and species, compared to the less rich and less diverse helminth fauna in the nearctic basins. The present analysis confirms distance--decay as one of the important factors contributing to the patterns of diversity observed. The hypothesis that helminth diversity could be explained by the ichthyological diversity of the basin received no support from present analysis.

  18. The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), as a reservoir for helminth parasites in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Naem, Soraya; Pourreza, Behzad; Gorgani-Firouzjaee, Tahmineh

    2015-01-01

    From April 2009 to December 2011, 44 dead hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) were collected incidentally from areas of Urmia, Iran. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 95.0%. Specific parasites and their prevalences were: Physaloptera clausa (93.0%), Crenosoma striatum (61.0%), Capillaria aerophila (9.0%), Capillarias spp. (4.0%), Brachylaemus erinacei (2.0%) and Hymenolepis erinacei (16.0%). There were no significant differences in helminth occurrence between hedgehog sexes, eithe...

  19. Identification of helminth eggs in wastewater; Identificaciond e huevos por hemintos en aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabeu Adrian, A.; Geovanny Perez Ortiz, O.; Gomez Vera, D.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Amores Blasco, S.; Bernacer Bonora, I.; Esteban Sanchis, J. G.

    2002-07-01

    The identification of helminth eggs in wastewater is essential for complying with microbiological water quality guidelines. Identification is based on morphological and morphometric criteria; in this sense, experience in parasitology is required, since identification is sometimes so complex that only a tentative diagnosis can be made. The present study details the criteria used for the taxonomic ascription of the helminth eggs detected in the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Alboraia (Valencia, Spain). (Author)

  20. Helminth parasites of Girardinichthys multiradiatus (Pisces: Goodeidae) in the upper Lerma River sub-basin, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Nava, Petra; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Soto-Galera, Eduardo; Cruz, Blanca Jaimes

    2004-08-01

    Thirteen helminth species were recorded during a helminthological examination of 754 Girardinichthys multiradiatus (Meek) (Pisces: Goodeidae) collected from 20 localities in the upper Lerma River sub-basin on the highland plateau of Mexico. The study constitutes a complete and extensive inventory of the helminth parasites of this freshwater fish species across its entire current geographic distribution. The collected species included one adult trematode, three metacercariae, one monogenean, one adult cestode, three metacestodes, three nematode larvae and one cystacanth. The records of the metacercariae of Tylodelphys sp. and Ochetosoma brevicaecum, the larvae of the nematodes Contracaecum sp. and Falcaustra sp. and the cystacanth of Polymorphus brevis are all new records for G. multiradiatus. The metacercariae of Tylodelphys sp. were the most widespread and prevalent species in the sample, being collected from 15 of the 20 sampling localities, with a prevalence of 3.2-72.2%. The data indicate the helminth parasite community of G. multiradiatus to be relatively poor when compared with the helminth communities of freshwater fish from other parts of Mexico. This community is subject to colonization by generalist helminth species, mostly transported by birds. A further component of this community consists of helminth species that have been introduced anthropogenically.

  1. ANTI-HELMINTHIC POTENTIAL OF SO LVENT EXTRACTS OF INDIGENOUS BOTANICALS

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    Rashmi Jain

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethno botanical studies reveal that the indigenous knowledge of a community is a key player in the identification of medicinal plants and such plants have beenoften tested by generations of indigenous people. In the present investigation, the hydro-alcoholic extracts of leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neemand Swertia chirayta(Chirayta were assessed for anti-helminthic potential against helminths (earthworms were used as model at 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml. No anti-helminthic potential was observed at 10 mg/ml of dose of the hydro-alcoholic extracts of Swertia chirayta. The hydro-alcoholic extracts of both the plants showed significant anti-helminthicactivity on selected worms at higher doses. Hydro-alcoholic leaves extracts of Azadirachta indica (Neemwasfound to be more active as compared tohydro-alcoholic whole plant extracts of Swertia chirayta(Chirayta at concentration of 100 mg/ml. It was observed that with the variation in dose, the death time and paralysis time of the worms’ decreases. The results indicated that extracts possessed dose dependent anti-helminthic activity. The results were compared toPiperazine citrate and Albendazole (15 mg/ml. The hydro-alcoholic extracts demonstrated paralysis as well as death ofworms in a less time in comparison to the standard drugs. The anti-helminthic activity of the extracts indicates the presence of active principle responsible for anti-helminthic activity.

  2. Characterization of excretory-secretory antigens of adult Toxocara canis by western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, N R; Samanta, S; Sahu, Shivani; Raina, O K; Gupta, S C; Goswami, T K; Lokesh, K M; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-06-01

    Toxocara canis is one of the most common helminth worm of dogs which continues to stimulate both public health concern alongside the higher scientific interest. It may cause visceral and ocular damage in humans especially in children. The identification of specific antigens of T. canis is important so as to develop better diagnostic techniques. Excretory-secretory (ES) antigens were prepared by culturing the adult T. canis worms in RPMI 1640 medium without serum supplementation followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation. These antigens were separated using sodium dodecyl sulphate-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Recovered proteins ranged from 30 to 384 kDa. The specific reactivity of the T. canis excretory-secretory (TC-ES) proteins was checked by western blotting. The immuno-reactivity of the naturally infected dog sera with the TC-ES antigens showed five bands at 43, 57,105, 139 and 175 kDa. The immuno-reactivity of the hyper immune serum raised in rabbits against TC-ES antigens was observed with ten polypeptides of 21, 25, 30, 37, 45, 50, 57, 69, 77 and 105 kDa. Common antigens band were observed at 57 and 105 KDa. These antigens merit further evaluation as candidate for use in diagnosis of toxocariasis in humans and adult dogs.

  3. Temporal occurrence and community structure of helminth parasites in southern leopard frogs, Rana sphenocephala, from north central Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vhora, M Suhail; Bolek, Matthew G

    2015-03-01

    Currently, little information is available about the temporal recruitment of helminth communities in amphibian hosts. We examined the helminth community structure and temporal recruitment of helminth parasites in southern leopard frogs, Rana sphenocephala. Specifically, we were interested in how host life history such as habitat, age and/or size, diet, sex, and temporal variation in abiotic factors (precipitation and temperature) were important in determining monthly infection patterns of helminth populations and communities in southern leopard frogs. From May to September 2011, 74 southern leopard frogs were collected from Teal Ridge in Stillwater Payne County, OK, USA. Sixty-nine (93 %) of 74 frogs were infected with 1 or more helminth species. During our collecting period, the average monthly temperature was lowest in May and highest in July, and monthly precipitation was highest in May and lowest during the first week of September. The component community consisted of 11 species of helminth, including 1 larval and 1 adult cestode, 2 larval and 3 adult trematodes, and 1 juvenile and 3 adult nematodes. Of the 1790 helminths recovered, 51 % (911) were nematodes, 47 % (842) were cestodes, and 2 % (37) were trematodes. There were significant differences in the total abundance and mean species richness of helminths acquired by skin contact or through frog diet in monthly component communities of southern leopard frogs. A positive correlation existed for percentage of all helminths acquired by skin contact and monthly precipitation (r = 0.94, P < 0.01). Conversely, a negative correlation existed for monthly precipitation and percentage of helminths acquired by diet (r = -0.94, P < 0.01). Our results indicate that abiotic conditions such as precipitation have a major influence on the avenues for and constraints on the transmission of helminths with life cycles associated with water/moisture or terrestrial intermediate/paratenic hosts and are important in structuring

  4. Risk factors for helminth, malaria, and HIV infection in pregnancy in Entebbe, Uganda.

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    Patrick William Woodburn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infections during pregnancy may have serious consequences for both mother and baby. Assessment of risk factors for infections informs planning of interventions and analysis of the impact of infections on health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To describe risk factors for helminths, malaria and HIV in pregnant Ugandan women before intervention in a trial of de-worming in pregnancy. METHODS: The trial recruited 2,507 pregnant women between April 2003 and November 2005. Participants were interviewed and blood and stool samples obtained; location of residence at enrolment was mapped. Demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral and other risk factors were modelled using logistic regression. RESULTS: There was a high prevalence of helminth, malaria and HIV infection, as previously reported. All helminths and malaria parasitemia were more common in younger women, and education was protective against every infection. Place of birth and/or tribe affected all helminths in a pattern consistent with the geographical distribution of helminth infections in Uganda. Four different geohelminths (hookworm, Trichuris, Ascaris and Trichostrongylus showed a downwards trend in prevalence during the enrolment period. There was a negative association between hookworm and HIV, and between hookworm and low CD4 count among HIV-positive women. Locally, high prevalence of schistosomiasis and HIV occurred in lakeshore communities. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions for helminths, malaria and HIV need to target young women both in and out of school. Antenatal interventions for malaria and HIV infection must continue to be promoted. Women originating from a high risk area for a helminth infection remain at high risk after migration to a lower-risk area, and vice versa, but overall, geohelminths seem to be becoming less common in this population. High risk populations, such as fishing communities, require directed effort against schistosomiasis and HIV infection.

  5. Progress in research, control and elimination of helminth infections in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, Jürg; Brattig, Norbert W; Leonardo, Lydia; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Bergquist, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Global health has substantially improved over the past 20 years. In low- and middle-income countries, in particular, great strives have been made in the control of communicable diseases, including helminth infections. Nevertheless, the most marginalised communities still suffer from infectious diseases that are intimately connected with poverty and lack of access to essential commodities and services, such as clean water, improved sanitation and sufficient food. A two-pronged approach is thus necessary: (i) intensifying control in remaining high-endemicity areas and pockets of high transmission; and (ii) moving from morbidity control to interruption of disease transmission in low-endemicity areas with the goal of local elimination. The latter will require new tools and strategies, going hand-in-hand with strong partnerships and new strategic alliances. In this special issue of Acta Tropica, 35 articles are featured that, together, provide an up-to-date overview of the latest progress made in research, control and elimination of helminth infections in East and Southeast Asia. The first 12 articles expound tools and approaches for improved detection, surveillance and monitoring of helminth infections. Control and elimination approaches for the most important helminth infections are revisited in the next 20 articles. The three remaining articles are cross-cutting pieces examining the interface of agriculture, environment and helminth infections and providing a rationale for integrated, multi-sectorial control approaches that are necessary for sustaining helminthiasis control and progressively moving towards elimination. An interesting aspect revealed through an in-depth analysis of the provenance of the 35 contributions is that the People's Republic of China emerges as a key player in global health, which is documented through its prominent role in research and control of helminth infection and networking throughout Asia. Policy implications are discussed and will

  6. Identification and quantification of pathogenic helminth eggs using a digital image system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, B; Maya, C; Velásquez, G; Torner, F; Arambula, F; Barrios, J A; Velasco, M

    2016-07-01

    A system was developed to identify and quantify up to seven species of helminth eggs (Ascaris lumbricoides -fertile and unfertile eggs-, Trichuris trichiura, Toxocara canis, Taenia saginata, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta, and Schistosoma mansoni) in wastewater using different image processing tools and pattern recognition algorithms. The system was developed in three stages. Version one was used to explore the viability of the concept of identifying helminth eggs through an image processing system, while versions 2 and 3 were used to improve its efficiency. The system development was based on the analysis of different properties of helminth eggs in order to discriminate them from other objects in samples processed using the conventional United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) technique to quantify helminth eggs. The system was tested, in its three stages, considering two parameters: specificity (capacity to discriminate between species of helminth eggs and other objects) and sensitivity (capacity to correctly classify and identify the different species of helminth eggs). The final version showed a specificity of 99% while the sensitivity varied between 80 and 90%, depending on the total suspended solids content of the wastewater samples. To achieve such values in samples with total suspended solids (TSS) above 150 mg/L, it is recommended to dilute the concentrated sediment just before taking the images under the microscope. The system allows the helminth eggs most commonly found in wastewater to be reliably and uniformly detected and quantified. In addition, it provides the total number of eggs as well as the individual number by species, and for Ascaris lumbricoides it differentiates whether or not the egg is fertile. The system only requires basically trained technicians to prepare the samples, as for visual identification there is no need for highly trained personnel. The time required to analyze each image is less than a minute. This

  7. Eosinofil Sel Penyaji Antigen

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    Safari Wahyu Jatmiko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sel eosinofil merupakan jenis sel lekosit yang terlibat dalam berbagai patogenesis penyakit. Sel eosinofil pada awalnya dikenal sebagai sel efektor  dari sistem imunitas alamiah. Akan tetapi, kemampuan sel eosinofil dalam memfagositosis patogen menimbulkan dugaan bahwa sel eosinofil ikut berperan sebagai sel penyaji antigen. Hal ini dianalogikan dengan sel makrofag dan sel dendritik yang bisa memfagositosis dan menyajikan antigen sebagai hasil dari degradasi patogen yang difagositosis. Untuk menjawab permasalahan ini, penulis melakukan penelusuran artikel tentang eosinofil sebagai sel penyaji antigen melalui US National Library of Medicine National Institute of Healthdengan kata kunci eoshinophil dan antigen presenting cell. Hasil penelusuran adalah ditemukannya 10 artikel yang relevan dengan topik. Hasil dari sintesis kesepuluh jurnal tersebut adalah sel eosinofil mampu berperan sebagai sel penyaji antigen yang profesional (professionalantigenpresentng cell

  8. Multiple helminth infection of the skin causes lymphocyte hypo-responsiveness mediated by Th2 conditioning of dermal myeloid cells.

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    Peter C Cook

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the mammalian host by schistosome larvae occurs via the skin, although nothing is known about the development of immune responses to multiple exposures of schistosome larvae, and/or their excretory/secretory (E/S products. Here, we show that multiple (4x exposures, prior to the onset of egg laying by adult worms, modulate the skin immune response and induce CD4(+ cell hypo-responsiveness in the draining lymph node, and even modulate the formation of hepatic egg-induced granulomas. Compared to mice exposed to a single infection (1x, dermal cells from multiply infected mice (4x, were less able to support lymph node cell proliferation. Analysis of dermal cells showed that the most abundant in 4x mice were eosinophils (F4/80(+MHC-II(-, but they did not impact the ability of antigen presenting cells (APC to support lymphocyte proliferation to parasite antigen in vitro. However, two other cell populations from the dermal site of infection appear to have a critical role. The first comprises arginase-1(+, Ym-1(+ alternatively activated macrophage-like cells, and the second are functionally compromised MHC-II(hi cells. Through the administration of exogenous IL-12 to multiply infected mice, we show that these suppressive myeloid cell phenotypes form as a consequence of events in the skin, most notably an enrichment of IL-4 and IL-13, likely resulting from an influx of RELMα-expressing eosinophils. We further illustrate that the development of these suppressive dermal cells is dependent upon IL-4Rα signalling. The development of immune hypo-responsiveness to schistosome larvae and their effect on the subsequent response to the immunopathogenic egg is important in appreciating how immune responses to helminth infections are modulated by repeated exposure to the infective early stages of development.

  9. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh

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    S. Biswas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI parasites in Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Approximately, 10 g of feces was collected from recently voided feces in airtight fecal collection vials (HiMedia, India. Fecal samples were subjected to the direct method and centrifuge flotation method for finding out parasitic ova. The ova were identified on the basis of morphological characters described by Soulsby, 1982. Result: A total of 78 fecal samples were collected. Of 78, 44 (56.41% samples were found positive. Most of the positive fecal sample showed mixed infection of different helminths parasites egg. Fasciola spp. and Amphistome spp. were the two predominant parasites among the flukes. In nematodes infection, Toxocara vitulorum was the least prevalent GI nematodes. In the case of cestodes Moniezia expansa was little higher (14% in semi-intensive. Conclusion: The present study reveals that Mithun is infected by several GI parasites. Among trematodes, Fasciola, and Amphistomes are predominantly spp. whereas, Strongyle and Trichuris are more prevalent spp. among nematodes and Moniezia among cestodes parasites.

  10. Degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms and helminths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingthom Chung; Stevens, S.E. Jr. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Dept. of Biology)

    1993-11-01

    The degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms, fungi, and helminths is reviewed. Azo dyes are used in a wide variety of products and can be found in the effluent of most sewage treatment facilities. Substantial quantities of these dyes have been deposited in the environment, particularly in streams and rivers. Azo dyes were shown to affect microbial activities and microbial population sizes in the sediments and in the water columns of aquatic habitats. Only a few aerobic bacteria have been found to reduce azo dyes under aerobic conditions, and little is known about the process. A substantial number of anaerobic bacteria capable of azo dye reduction have been reported. The enzyme responsible for azo dye reduction has been partially purified, and characterization of the enzyme is proceeding. The nematode Ascaris lumbricoides and the cestode Moniezia expanza have been reported to reduce azo dyes anaerobically. Recently the fungus Phanerochaete chrysoporium was reported to mineralize azo dyes via a peroxidation-mediated pathway. A possible degradation pathway for the mineralization of azo dye is proposed and future research needs are discussed.

  11. Effects of Azadirachta indica on Sheep Infected Naturally with Helminthes

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    F. R. Macedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica on natural helminthes infection in lambs. Forty, four-month-old entire Santa Ines lambs were grazed on pasture, over a 20 week period. They were divided into 4 treatments: Without drenching (ND, 3 g A. indica/animal (A3, 6 g A. indica/animal (A6 and 9 g A. indica/animal (A9 over 5 consecutive days, with an interval of 25 days between drenchings. Faeces were collected weekly and lamb weight and blood collection were carried out fortnightly. Four weeks after the last drenching all lambs were slaughtered, and worm burdens calculated. No significant differences were observed for lamb performance between treatments. Blood parameters highlighted the progress of the worm infections, with sheep on treatments A6 and A9 ending the experiment showing anemia. There was an increase in the total number of worms associated with increasing levels of neem, especially due to the increase in number of H. contortus in detriment to the number of T. colubriformis for highest levels of neem (A6 and A9. The increasing doses of neem did not improve the control of endoparasites in sheep naturally infected.

  12. Sustainable helminth control of ruminants in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, P J

    1997-07-31

    Widespread anthelmintic resistance, at least amongst the important nematode parasites of small ruminants, threatens the sustainability of these livestock industries throughout both the developed and developing world. The exacerbation of this problem over the last decade or so, has provided the impetus for research into non-chemotherapeutic parasite control alternatives, such as host genetic resistance, grazing management, worm vaccines and biological control. Although some of these options provide practical benefits if currently adopted, or exciting prospects for the future, collectively they are unlikely to dispense with the need for the timely intervention of effective anthelmintic treatment. The issue of sustainability of helminth control practices therefore rests with the preservation of anthelmintic effectiveness through the implementation of principles of integrated pest management. Herein lies the difficulty-putting the principles into practice. Much of the research into sustainable nematode parasite control of ruminants has been done in the developed rather than the developing world, and the efforts to transfer this information to livestock owners has also been commensurately greater in the former. However the need for research and technology transfer is much more urgent in the developing world because of the lack of scientific and financial resources, the greater dependence on livestock industries and the much greater severity of the problem of anthelmintic resistance. This will require a major philosophical change in the affluent western world to the funding of national and international aid organisations who are largely responsible for these activities.

  13. INFECTION RATE AND CHEMOTHERAPY OF VARIOUS HELMINTHS IN GOATS IN AND AROUND LAHORE

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    M. IJAZ, M. S. KHAN, M. AVAIS, K. ASHRAF1, M. M. ALI AND SAIMA2

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to find out the infection rate of gastrointestinal tract (GIT helminths and its association with diarrhoea in goats in Lahore, Pakistan. For this purpose, 300 faecal samples from goats suffering from diarrhoea presented at the Outdoor Hospital, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, UVAS Lahore and various private as well as government hospitals located in Lahore were examined coprologically for the presence of helminths. The result revealed that an overall infection rate of GIT helminths was 63.33% in goats. When compared the class wise infection rate, highest infection rate of nematodes (42.67% was observed, followed by trematodes (16.67% and cestodes (4%. The efficacy of Ricobendazole was observed to be 62, 96 and 98% at day 3, 7 and 14 of treatment, respectively. The efficacy of Ricobendazole was higher than Albendazole (46, 83 and 94% at day 3, 7 and 14, respectively. Lowest efficacy of garlic powder against helminth parasites was observed (13, 28 and 34% at day 3, 7 and 14, respectively. It was concluded that Ricobendazole is the most effective drugs against helminths in goats.

  14. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    PUMIDONMING, Wilawan; SALMAN, Doaa; GRONSANG, Dulyatad; ABDELBASET, Abdelbaset E.; SANGKAEO, Khamphon; KAWAZU, Shin-ichiro; IGARASHI, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal zoonotic helminths of dogs and cats have a public health concern worldwide. We investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand and utilized molecular tools for species identification of hookworms and Opisthorchis viverrini. Fecal samples of 197 dogs and 180 cats were collected. Overall prevalence of infection using microscopy was 40.1% in dogs and 33.9% in cats. Helminth infection found in both dogs and cats included hookworms, Spirometra spp., Taenia spp., Toxocara spp., O. viverrini, Strongyloides spp. and Trichuris spp. Hookworms were the most common helminth in dogs, while Spirometra spp. were the most prevalent in cats. Among hookworm infection in dogs and cats, Ancylostoma ceylanicum was the most prevalent hookworm, being 82.1% in hookworm infected dogs and 95.8% in hookworm infected cats. Mixed-infection due to hookworms and Spirometra spp. was the most dominant in both dogs and cats. Our finding showed that zoonotic helminth infection is highly prevalent in dogs and cats in the lower Northern area of Thailand. PMID:27570099

  15. Helminth Parasites of Eastern European Hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor in Northern Iran.

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    Mohammad Reza Youssefi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently there is a high tendency among exotic pet owners for keeping hedgehogs. This mammal can transfer some significant zoonotic pathogens to human. Hence, the present study was conducted for the first time to prepare a list of helminth parasites of hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor in North of Iran.Ten (four males and six females road killed hedgehogs were collected during April to January 2011 in rural areas of Babol city, Mazandaran province, Iran. All of internal organs were scrutinized for helminth burden. The extracted specimens were fixed and preserved in 70% ethanol and then cleared in Lacto-phenol solution. Helminth identification was carried out according to available systematic keys.All the examined hedgehogs (100% were infected with parasitic helminth as following: two hedgehogs (20% were infected with Crenosoma striatum, four hedgehogs (40% harbored Physaloptera clausa, one (10% host had Hymenolepis erinacei and three (30% of them were infected with Nephridiacanthus major.This is noteworthy that the current survey is the first report of helminth parasites fauna of Eastern European Hedgehog in Iran. Since, this is the first such investigation in our country, more researches are required to perform on unexplored areas of Iran in order to increase our knowledge regarding hedgehog parasitic diseases.

  16. Symbiotic bacteria of helminths: what role may they play in ecosystems under anthropogenic stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, N J

    2016-11-01

    Symbiotic bacteria are a common feature of many animals, particularly invertebrates, from both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. These bacteria have increasingly been recognized as performing an important role in maintaining invertebrate health. Both ecto- and endoparasitic helminths have also been found to harbour a range of bacterial species which provide a similar function. The part symbiotic bacteria play in sustaining homeostasis of free-living invertebrates exposed to anthropogenic pressure (climate change, pollution), and the consequences to invertebrate populations when their symbionts succumb to poor environmental conditions, are increasingly important areas of research. Helminths are also susceptible to environmental stress and their symbiotic bacteria may be a key aspect of their responses to deteriorating conditions. This article summarizes the ecophysiological relationship helminths have with symbiotic bacteria and the role they play in maintaining a healthy parasite and the relevance of specific changes that occur in free-living invertebrate-bacteria interactions under anthropogenic pressure to helminths and their bacterial communities. It also discusses the importance of understanding the mechanistic sensitivity of helminth-bacteria relationships to environmental stress for comprehending the responses of parasites to challenging conditions.

  17. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthic infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Tilili town, northwest Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alamneh Abera; Endalkachew Nibret

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes and associated risk factors among schoolchildren inTilili town, northwestEthiopia.Methods:A cross-sectional study involving385 schoolchildren was conducted betweenNovember2011 toFebruary2012.Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method.Questionnaire and observation were used to identify socio-demographic and associated risk factors.Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration technique.Data were analyzed usingSPSS16.0 statistical software.Results:Four species of intestinal helminthes were identified with an overall prevalence of44.2%(170 of385 schoolchildren).The predominant parasites wereAscaris lumbricoides(A. lumbricoides)153(39.7%) andTrichuris trichiura(T. trichiura)30(7.8%).One hundred thirty five(35.1%) had single infectionsand35(9.2%) were infected with more than one helminthic parasites in which32(8.4%) were double infections and3(0.8%) were triple infections. Significant associations were observed between intestinal helminth infection and those of age, grade level, and school variables.Prevalence of hookworm infection was significant in children who did not wear shoes regularly(P<0.05).Conclusions: intervention programs and education on personal and environmental hygiene should be implemented for the prevention and control of helminthic infections in the study area.

  18. REMOVAL OF HELMINTH PARASITIC EGGS FROM WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS AT SHIMOGA

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    M. SHANTHALA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminth ova removal rates from waste stabilization pond effluents under tropical conditions ofShimoga using both laboratory and field modal ponds was undertaken. The helminthes were removedto the tune of 100% from laboratory model batch system ponds within 15 days of detention timeand it was only 65% in case of laboratory model continuos flow system ponds. The observation infield model ponds revealed an average 90% removal with 10 days retention time. A 100% removalcan not be expected both in continuous flow system laboratory model and field pond systems asthese receive daily fresh load of helminth eggs through influent sewage. The helminth ova are usallyremoved from waste stabilization ponds systems through sedimentation process. It is because thehelminth eggs attached to the suspended solids and when these solids settle to the bottom, the eggsare also removed from pelagic water. In the present study eggs of 4 helminth species viz. Ascarislumbricoides, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana and Enterobius vermicularis wereencountered. Their rate of ova removal in batch system ponds was 99%, 97.4%, 94.9% and 98.8%for respective species. Presence of these ova in the sewage water indicates the prevalence of infectionin city population.

  19. Spatiotemporal distributions of intestinal helminths in female lesser scaup Aythya affinis during spring migration from the upper Midwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J. C.; Levengood, J.M.; Osborn, J. M.; Yetter, A. P.; Kinsella, J.M.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Cory D. Suski,; Hagy, Heath M.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations between intestinal helminth infracommunity structure and infection parameters and the age, size, and year and region of collection of 130 female lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) during their 2014–2015 spring migrations through the upper Midwest, USA. We identified a total of 647,174 individual helminths from 40 taxa, including 20 trematodes, 14 cestodes, 4 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans parasitizing lesser scaup within the study area. Lesser scaup were each infected with 2–23 helminth taxa. One digenean, Plenosoma minimum, is reported for the first time in lesser scaup and in the Midwest. Mean trematode abundance and total helminth abundance was significantly less in 2015 than 2014, and we suspect that colder weather late in 2015 impacted the intermediate host fauna and caused the observed differences. Brillouin's species diversity of helminths was greatest in the northernmost region of the study area, which coincides with the range of a non-indigenous snail that indirectly causes annual mortality events of lesser scaup. While host age and size were not determined to be influential factors of helminth infracommunity structure, non-parametric ordination and permutational analysis of co-variance revealed that year and region of collection explained differences in helminth infracommunities. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal variations play an important role in the structure of intestinal helminth infracommunities found in migrating lesser scaup hosts, and may therefore impact host ability to build endogenous reserves at certain stopover locations in the Midwest.

  20. Helminth parasites of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) from southern Indiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga, P; Kinsella, J M; Sepúlveda, M S

    2012-03-01

    Very little is known about parasitic diseases of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). The objective of this study was to examine the parasitic fauna of eastern box turtles collected from southern Indiana, USA. Turtles (n = 40) were salvaged mostly as road kills from southern Indiana between May and October 2009. Seven species of helminths in total were found parasitizing the gastrointestinal tract, including two digenean trematodes (Brachycoelium salamandrae and Telorchis robustus) and five nematodes (Oswaldocruzia pipiens, Cosmocercoides dukae, Falcaustra affinis, F. chelydrae and Serpinema trispinosus). We report prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of infection for all helminths. Helminths were not found in any other organs examined (heart, gonads, liver, heart, kidney and urinary bladder) and no ectoparasites were found. Overall, mean intensity of infections was low (1-14 parasites/host), suggesting that these parasites are unlikely to be associated with negative health impacts. This constitutes the first study of this kind for Indiana.

  1. Prevalence and magnitude of helminth infections in organic laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena K; Brenninkmeyer, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify management...... and EPG) and the management factors were analysed by multivariate models. Results showed that A. galli was highly prevalent across Europe with an overall mean prevalence of 69.5% and mean worm burden of 10 worms per hen. The overall mean prevalence and worm burden for Heterakis spp. were 29.0% and 16...... access time had a significant negative association with A. galli worm burden which was in contrast to the general belief that outdoor access may increase the risk of helminth infections in production animals. In conclusion, the complexity of on-farm transmission dynamics is thus a challenge when...

  2. [The co-occurence of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia spp. and helminth infections in small rodent populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Kuliś, Karolina; Siński, Edward

    2004-01-01

    During long-term (1998-2000) studies on rodent parasite populations in Mazury lake district there were collected and analyzed data on co-occurrence of intestinal protozoa (Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia spp.) and helminths. There were performed 178 autopsies of common vole Microtus arvalis, 85 autopsies of yellow-necked mouse Apodemus flavicollis and 386 autopsies of bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus. Positive effect of helminth infections was found in C. glareolus. Voles infected with nematode Heligmosomum mixtum showed higher prevalence of C. parvum and Giardia spp. than voles infected with Heligmosomoides glareoli. The host age took part in these interactions and positive effect of co-occurrence was mainly observed in voles older than 3 months. The other intrinsic (host sex) or extrinsic (season and year of study) factors influenced interactions between parasites. Presented results revealed that helminth infections may facilitate chronic infections of intestinal protozoa in rodent populations.

  3. Cross-sectional survey on helminth infections of chickens in the Samsun region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, M; Acici, M

    2008-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to determine the prevalence and intensity of helminth infections in 185 chickens from nine districts in the Samsun region, northern Turkey between July 1999 and June 2000. In total, 88% of 83 scavenging chickens and 4% of 52 layers from laying batteries were infected, but none of the 50 broilers harboured helminths in the alimentary tract or trachea. The difference in prevalence was statistically significant among broilers, layers from laying batteries and scavenging chickens. A total of 16 different species were detected. The helminth species found were: Davainea proglottina (23%), Raillietina echinobothrida (13%), Raillietina cesticillus (12%), Hymenolepis carioca (10%), Raillietina tetragona (6%), Choanotaenia. infundibulum (2%), Amoebotaenia cuneata (2%), Echinoparyhium recurvatum (1%), Echinostoma revolutum (1%), Heterakis gallinarum (29%), Ascaridia galli (16%), Capillaria caudinflata (12%), Capillaria retusa (6%), Capillaria bursata (4%), Capillaria annulata (1%) and Syngamus trachea (2%).

  4. Helminths infecting the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo in a restinga habitat of Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J; Dutra, G F; Rocha, C F D

    2004-12-01

    A sample of 101 specimens of the unisexual whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo (Squamata; Teiidae) from a coastal site in Bahia State, Brazil were examined for the presence of endoparasites. Of these, 35 (34.7%) harboured helminths. Six helminth species were recovered from C. nativo, including five nematodes (Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, Subulura lacertilia, Skrjabinelazia intermedia and Parapharyngodon sp., and one cestode (Oochoristica ameivae), all representing new host records. Most lizards were infected by a single species of helminth and none by more than three. Infection rates were neither significantly influenced by host body size nor by environmental factors. The results are compared with data from studies on other whiptail species in both South and North America.

  5. Prevalence of Helminth Infections in Dairy Animals of Nestle Milk Collection Areas of Punjab (Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Khan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current research project was to document the prevalent helminths of dairy animals of Nestle milk collection areas of Punjab (Pakistan. For this purpose, seven high milk-producing areas of Punjab province including Farooqa, Kot Adu, Dunya Pur, Layyah, Mor Mandi, Shorkot and Jalapur were selected. The animals were randomly selected and screened for parasitic eggs through standard coprological examination procedures. The helminth species found prevalent in the study areas included; Ascaris vitulorum, Fasciola hepatica, Haemonchus contortus, Bunostomum phlebotomum, Ostertagia circumcinta, Oesophagostomum radiatum, and Trichostrongylus spp. The possible determinants associated with the prevalence of these parasites were also studied in this project. The results of this study provided a basic epidemiological data for planning a wide scaled helminth control program in the above-mentioned high producing areas of Pakistan.

  6. Helminth Parasites of Juvenile Green Turtles Chelonia mydas (Testudines: Cheloniidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, M R; Silva, R J

    2015-12-01

    The present study offers a parasitological analysis of juvenile individuals of the green turtle ( Chelonia mydas ) found on the Brazilian coast between 2004 and 2011. Helminths were found in 90 out of 136 individuals (66.2%, CI = 57.7-74.0). In total, 29,411 helminths were collected, belonging to the families Brachycoeliidae, Cladorchiidae, Microscaphidiidae, Pronocephalidae, Rhytidodidae, and Spirorchiidae. Mean species richness was 4.74 (CI = 4.03-5.46), the mean intensity was 327 (CI = 223-489), and the mean abundance was 216 (CI = 146-339). This study also reports new geographical records for: Angiodictyum longum, Angiodictyum parallelum, Rameshwarotrema uterocrescens, Pyelosomum cochlear, Schizamphistomum scleroporum, Cymatocarpus solearis, and Neospirorchis sp. This is the first analysis of helminth composition in juveniles of green turtles.

  7. The helminth parasites of the wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and their effect on host condition in Dunas de Mira, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eira, C; Torres, J; Miquel, J; Vingada, J

    2007-09-01

    The present study focuses on the helminth parasite community of the wild rabbit in a sand dune area in Portugal over a 5-year period. The influence of host sex and year on the composition of the helminth community is assessed, along with the potential effect of the detected helminths on host body condition. The basic structure of the helminth community comprises Mosgovoyia ctenoides, Graphidium strigosum, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis, Nematodiroides zembrae and Passalurus ambiguus. Mean intensities of G. strigosum varied between years. General G. strigosum intensities were also found to vary according to both year and host sex, but not according to the interaction of both factors. When assessing the effect of helminths on rabbit body condition (expressed by the kidney fat index), higher burdens of M. ctenoides, a cestode that presents a relatively large body mass, were found to induce a reduction in rabbit condition.

  8. Helminth communities of two green frogs (Rana perezi and Rana saharica from both shores of the Alboran Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The helminth communities of two populations of green frogs from both shores of the Alborán Sea (Western Mediterranean were studied. Of the 79 frogs examined for helminths, 39 individuals of the species Rana saharica were collected from Bab-Taza (Morocco, and 40 of the species Rana perezi were collected from the Natural Park of the Sierra de Grazalema (Spain. Although the species richness of helminths was identical in the two sampled areas, the differences observed in the structure of the helminth infracommunities were quite important. Statistically, significant differences were found between the species richness and the diversity of the infracommunities of R. perezi female population and the other three studied statistical populations. The helminth component communities of these two green frogs can be considered as depauperate, although their infracommunities present interactive features.

  9. Helminth Parasites of Wild Boars, Sus scrofa, in Bushehr Prov-ince, Southwestern Iran

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    Majid MANSOURI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, of wide distribution considered as a potential source of zoonotic parasites. The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of helminth infections in wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area (Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran.Methods: Twenty-five wild boars, including 11 males and 14 females, were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in the Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran in 2013. The specimen were immediately dissected and carefully searched for the parasites. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any helminthic agents. Tissue samples were taken from each organ. Moreover, samples were taken from the content of digestive system. Blood samples were also collected from each boar. All the samples were evaluated for helminth infections by parasitological methods.Results: Twenty-two (88% of the wild boars were infected with at least one helminth. Out of 25 wild boars, 1 (4% were infected with Cysticercus tenuicollis, the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena, 13 (52% with Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, 17 (68% with Metastrongylus spp, and 20 (80% with Ascarops spp. Hydatid cyst was detected in the lung of one of the wild boars. No Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in any of the tissues of the animals when evaluated by artificial digestion method. In addition, no contamination with microfilaria was detected in any of animals when the blood samples were tested with Knott’s method.Conclusion: Wild boars are contaminated by some helminthes including zoonotic ones. These animals could be involved in the epidemiology of zoonotic helminth by acting as reservoir hosts. This in turn may bring potential risk for locals and residents of the Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran.

  10. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: the problem of helminthiases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lustigman

    Full Text Available A disproportionate burden of helminthiases in human populations occurs in marginalised, low-income, and resource-constrained regions of the world, with over 1 billion people in developing areas of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas infected with one or more helminth species. The morbidity caused by such infections imposes a substantial burden of disease, contributing to a vicious circle of infection, poverty, decreased productivity, and inadequate socioeconomic development. Furthermore, helminth infection accentuates the morbidity of malaria and HIV/AIDS, and impairs vaccine efficacy. Polyparasitism is the norm in these populations, and infections tend to be persistent. Hence, there is a great need to reduce morbidity caused by helminth infections. However, major deficiencies exist in diagnostics and interventions, including vector control, drugs, and vaccines. Overcoming these deficiencies is hampered by major gaps in knowledge of helminth biology and transmission dynamics, platforms from which to help develop such tools. The Disease Reference Group on Helminths Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. In this review, we provide an overview of the forces driving the persistence of helminthiases as a public health problem despite the many control initiatives that have been put in place; identify the main obstacles that impede progress towards their control and elimination; and discuss recent advances, opportunities, and challenges for the understanding of the biology, epidemiology, and control of these infections. The helminth infections that will be discussed include: onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis/cysticercosis.

  11. Enteric helminths of juvenile and adult wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in eastern Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJunkin, Jared W; Applegate, Roger D; Zelmer, Derek A

    2003-01-01

    Viscera of 49 wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) collected in the spring of 2001 and 23 wild turkeys collected in the fall and winter of 2001-02 from 12 counties in eastern Kansas were examined for enteric helminths. Four cestode species, two trematode species, one nematode species, and one acanthocephalan species were identified. Two cestode and two trematode species present in the spring sample also were present in the fall and winter sample. Parasite prevalence was similar to previous studies of enteric helminths of wild turkeys except for the low numbers of nematode species and individuals recovered in the present study.

  12. The Increase of Exotic Zoonotic Helminth Infections: The Impact of Urbanization, Climate Change and Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Catherine A; McManus, Donald P; Jones, Malcolm K; Gray, Darren J; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic parasitic diseases are increasingly impacting human populations due to the effects of globalization, urbanization and climate change. Here we review the recent literature on the most important helminth zoonoses, including reports of incidence and prevalence. We discuss those helminth diseases which are increasing in endemic areas and consider their geographical spread into new regions within the framework of globalization, urbanization and climate change to determine the effect these variables are having on disease incidence, transmission and the associated challenges presented for public health initiatives, including control and elimination.

  13. [Helminths of wolves (Canis lupus) from south Mazurian Lakeland, a coprological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloch, Agnieszka; Bajer, Anna

    2003-01-01

    52 wolf scats collected during winter 2001/2002 in Puszcza Piska and Napiwodzko-Ramuckic forests were examined using Fulleborn's method. The overall helminth prevalence was 28.8%. Six helminth species were recorded, the most frequent species were Uncinaria stenocepmhala/Ancylostoma caninmu (treated together; found in 6 samples), Toxocara canis and Trichuris vulpis (both identified in 4 samples). The mean intensity of egg expulsion was 2.0 eggs/g feces, the most intense infection was this with Toxocara canis (average 23.0 eggs/g feces). There were observed differences in prevalence of parasite' species between packs. Present paper is first such an investigation in northeastern Poland.

  14. Geostatistical modelling of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Cambodia: do socioeconomic factors improve predictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Odermatt, Peter; Biedermann, Patricia; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Muth, Sinuon; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections are intimately connected with poverty. Yet, there is a paucity of using socioeconomic proxies in spatially explicit risk profiling. We compiled household-level socioeconomic data pertaining to sanitation, drinking-water, education and nutrition from readily available Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and World Health Surveys for Cambodia and aggregated the data at village level. We conducted a systematic review to identify parasitological surveys and made every effort possible to extract, georeference and upload the data in the open source Global Neglected Tropical Diseases database. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed to spatially align the village-aggregated socioeconomic predictors with the soil-transmitted helminth infection data. The risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection was predicted at a grid of 1×1km covering Cambodia. Additionally, two separate individual-level spatial analyses were carried out, for Takeo and Preah Vihear provinces, to assess and quantify the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and socioeconomic indicators at an individual level. Overall, we obtained socioeconomic proxies from 1624 locations across the country. Surveys focussing on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from 16 sources reporting data from 238 unique locations. We found that the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection from 2000 onwards was considerably lower than in surveys conducted earlier. Population-adjusted prevalences for school-aged children from 2000 onwards were 28.7% for hookworm, 1.5% for Ascaris lumbricoides and 0.9% for Trichuris trichiura. Surprisingly, at the country-wide analyses, we did not find any significant association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and village-aggregated socioeconomic proxies. Based also on the individual-level analyses we conclude that socioeconomic proxies might not be good predictors at an

  15. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Proportions Are Diminished in Young Helminth Infected Children and Restored by Curative Anti-helminthic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nausch, Norman; Appleby, Laura J.; Sparks, Alexandra M.; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Mutapi, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Background Group 2 Innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are innate cells that produce the TH2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. The importance of these cells has recently been demonstrated in experimental models of parasitic diseases but there is a paucity of data on ILC2s in the context of human parasitic infections and in particular of the blood dwelling parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Methodology/Principal Findings In this case-control study human peripheral blood ILC2s were analysed in relation to infection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 36 S. haematobium infected and 36 age and sex matched uninfected children were analysed for frequencies of ILC2s identified as Lin-CD45+CD127+CD294+CD161+. ILC2s were significantly lower particularly in infected children aged 6–9 years compared to healthy participants. Curative anti-helminthic treatment resulted in an increase in levels of the activating factor TSLP and restoration of ILC2 levels. Conclusion This study demonstrates that ILC2s are diminished in young helminth infected children and restored by removal of the parasites by treatment, indicating a previously undescribed association between a human parasitic infection and ILC2s and suggesting a role of ILC2s before the establishment of protective acquired immunity in human schistosomiasis. PMID:25799270

  16. Group 2 innate lymphoid cell proportions are diminished in young helminth infected children and restored by curative anti-helminthic treatment.

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    Norman Nausch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Group 2 Innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s are innate cells that produce the TH2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. The importance of these cells has recently been demonstrated in experimental models of parasitic diseases but there is a paucity of data on ILC2s in the context of human parasitic infections and in particular of the blood dwelling parasite Schistosoma haematobium.In this case-control study human peripheral blood ILC2s were analysed in relation to infection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 36 S. haematobium infected and 36 age and sex matched uninfected children were analysed for frequencies of ILC2s identified as Lin-CD45+CD127+CD294+CD161+. ILC2s were significantly lower particularly in infected children aged 6-9 years compared to healthy participants. Curative anti-helminthic treatment resulted in an increase in levels of the activating factor TSLP and restoration of ILC2 levels.This study demonstrates that ILC2s are diminished in young helminth infected children and restored by removal of the parasites by treatment, indicating a previously undescribed association between a human parasitic infection and ILC2s and suggesting a role of ILC2s before the establishment of protective acquired immunity in human schistosomiasis.

  17. Immune antibodies and helminth products drive CXCR2-dependent macrophage-myofibroblast crosstalk to promote intestinal repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser-von Bieren, Julia; Volpe, Beatrice; Sutherland, Duncan B; Bürgi, Jérôme; Verbeek, J Sjef; Marsland, Benjamin J; Urban, Joseph F; Harris, Nicola L

    2015-03-01

    Helminth parasites can cause considerable damage when migrating through host tissues, thus making rapid tissue repair imperative to prevent bleeding and bacterial dissemination particularly during enteric infection. However, how protective type 2 responses targeted against these tissue-disruptive multicellular parasites might contribute to homeostatic wound healing in the intestine has remained unclear. Here, we observed that mice lacking antibodies (Aid-/-) or activating Fc receptors (Fcrg-/-) displayed impaired intestinal repair following infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb), whilst transfer of immune serum could partially restore chemokine production and rescue wound healing in Aid-/- mice. Impaired healing was associated with a reduced expression of CXCR2 ligands (CXCL2/3) by macrophages (MΦ) and myofibroblasts (MF) within intestinal lesions. Whilst antibodies and helminths together triggered CXCL2 production by MΦ in vitro via surface FcR engagement, chemokine secretion by intestinal MF was elicited by helminths directly via Fcrg-chain/dectin2 signaling. Blockade of CXCR2 during Hpb challenge infection reproduced the delayed wound repair observed in helminth infected Aid-/- and Fcrg-/- mice. Finally, conditioned media from human MΦ stimulated with infective larvae of the helminth Ascaris suum together with immune serum, promoted CXCR2-dependent scratch wound closure by human MF in vitro. Collectively our findings suggest that helminths and antibodies instruct a chemokine driven MΦ-MF crosstalk to promote intestinal repair, a capacity that may be harnessed in clinical settings of impaired wound healing.

  18. Prevalence and Distribution of Soil Transmitted Helminths (STH among Asymptomatic School Going Children in South Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

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    N Anbumani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil transmitted helminth (STH infections represent a major health problem in poor and developing countries. We conducted a pilot study to determine the prevalence of STH among school going children of Kancheepuram district. Three hundred and fifty eight children in the age group of 5-10 years were examined for STH. One hundred and fourteen of the 358 (40% were tested positive for various intestinal helminths. The various intestinal helminths are Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Taenia species. At least one intestinal helminth was detected in 25.13% (90/358 children and multiple helminth infestation was recorded in 15.08% (54/358. The most common parasitic helminth was A. lumbricoides 60% (84/144 followed by T. trichiura 4.17% (6/144. A. lumbricoides was found as single type infection as well as in association with other helminths in mixed type infection. This study emphasizes the need for improved sanitation and better living conditions for the school-age children in rural areas.

  19. Immune antibodies and helminth products drive CXCR2-dependent macrophage-myofibroblast crosstalk to promote intestinal repair.

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    Julia Esser-von Bieren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Helminth parasites can cause considerable damage when migrating through host tissues, thus making rapid tissue repair imperative to prevent bleeding and bacterial dissemination particularly during enteric infection. However, how protective type 2 responses targeted against these tissue-disruptive multicellular parasites might contribute to homeostatic wound healing in the intestine has remained unclear. Here, we observed that mice lacking antibodies (Aid-/- or activating Fc receptors (Fcrg-/- displayed impaired intestinal repair following infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb, whilst transfer of immune serum could partially restore chemokine production and rescue wound healing in Aid-/- mice. Impaired healing was associated with a reduced expression of CXCR2 ligands (CXCL2/3 by macrophages (MΦ and myofibroblasts (MF within intestinal lesions. Whilst antibodies and helminths together triggered CXCL2 production by MΦ in vitro via surface FcR engagement, chemokine secretion by intestinal MF was elicited by helminths directly via Fcrg-chain/dectin2 signaling. Blockade of CXCR2 during Hpb challenge infection reproduced the delayed wound repair observed in helminth infected Aid-/- and Fcrg-/- mice. Finally, conditioned media from human MΦ stimulated with infective larvae of the helminth Ascaris suum together with immune serum, promoted CXCR2-dependent scratch wound closure by human MF in vitro. Collectively our findings suggest that helminths and antibodies instruct a chemokine driven MΦ-MF crosstalk to promote intestinal repair, a capacity that may be harnessed in clinical settings of impaired wound healing.

  20. Helminth communities of two sympatric skinks (Mabuya agilis and Mabuya macrorhyncha) from two "restinga" habitats in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrcibradic, D; Rocha, C F D; Bursey, C R; Vicente, J J

    2002-12-01

    The helminth fauna of two sympatric congeneric skinks (Mabuya agilis and M. macrorhyncha) from two distinct "restinga" habitats (Praia das Neves and Grussaí) in southeastern Brazil were studied, totalling four data sets (sample sizes ranging from 11 to 28). A total of ten helminth species were associated with the skinks: Raillietiella sp., Paradistomum parvissimum, Pulchrosomoides elegans, Oochoristica ameivae, Hexametra boddaertii, Parapharyngodon sceleratus, Physalopteroides venancioi, Physaloptera sp., an unidentified acuariid nematode and an unidentified centrorhynchid acanthocephalan. Except for Hexametra boddaertii (found only in Grussaí) and Pulchrosomoides elegans (found only in Praia das Neves), all helminth species were present at both localities. Half of the helminth species were present only as larvae and, in most cases, appear to represent paratenic parasitism. Overall prevalences of infection were high for both host species in both localities. Mabuya agilis tended to have richer and more diverse infracommunities than M. macrorhyncha. Some parameters of infection by individual helminth species seem to be related to the ecology of each Mabuya species. The parasite faunas were qualitatively very similar among species and/or localities, but quantitative similarities were more varied, due to differential representativeness of individual helminth species among host populations. The helminth communities of both skink species can be classified as non-interactive, being composed of site-specialists and immature stages of non-lizard parasites.

  1. Helminth infections predispose mice to pneumococcal pneumonia but not to other pneumonic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apiwattanakul, Nopporn; Thomas, Paul G; Kuhn, Raymond E; Herbert, De'Broski R; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2014-10-01

    Pneumonia is the leading killer of children worldwide. Here, we report that helminth-infected mice develop fatal pneumonia when challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mice were chronically infected with either the flatworm Taenia crassiceps or the roundworm Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Upon challenge with a pneumonic type 3 strain of S. pneumoniae (A66.1), the worm-infected mice developed pneumonia at a rate and to a degree higher than age-matched control mice as measured by bioluminescent imaging and lung titers. This predisposition to pneumonia appears to be specific to S. pneumoniae, as worm-infected mice did not show evidence of increased morbidity when challenged with a lethal dose of influenza virus or sublethal doses of Staphylococcus aureus or Listeria monocytogenes. The defect was also present when worm-infected mice were challenged with a type 2 sepsis-causing strain (D39); an increased rate of pneumonia, decreased survival, and increased lung and blood titers were found. Pneumococcal colonization and immunity against acute otitis media were unaffected. Anti-helminthic treatment in the H. polygyrus model reversed this susceptibility. We conclude that helminth coinfection predisposes mice to fatal pneumococcal pneumonia by promoting increased outgrowth of bacteria in the lungs and blood. These data have broad implications for the prevention and treatment for pneumonia in the developing world, where helminth infections are endemic and pneumococcal pneumonia is common.

  2. Evaluation of Allergy Effector Cell Function: Suppression of Basophils in Chronic Helminth Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    basophils are probably best known for their participation in the effector phase of immediate hypersensitivity reactions, some studies have suggested...had Schistosoma mansoni infections were then sensitized to Penicillin V. When mice in these groups were challenged with Pen V, body temperature was... hypersensitivity reactions, reduced basophil functionality could be one way helminth infection protects against allergic disease. 2. Determine the

  3. Helminth parasites of Caspian kilka (genus Clupeonella) as bioindicators of heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Ghayoumi, Razieh

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, intestinal helminth parasite fauna of 398 specimens of three species of kilkas, C. engrauliformis (N= 92), C. grimmi (N= 136) and C. cultriventris (N= 170) from Babolsar harbor were investigated. Five parasite species were found including: Corynosoma strumosum (Acanthocephala), Pronoprymna ventricosa (Trematoda), Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda), Raphidascaris sp. (Nematoda) and Anisakis sp. (Nematoda). The highest prevalence and abundance were observed...

  4. Increase in number of helminth species from Dutch red foxes over a 35-year period.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Frits; Nijsse, Rolf; Mulder, Jaap; Cremers, Herman J W M; Dam, Cecile; Takumi, Katsuhisa; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-01-01

    Background The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is host to a community of zoonotic and other helminth species. Tracking their community structure and dynamics over decades is one way to monitor the long term risk of parasitic infectious diseases relevant to public and veterinary health. Methods We identified

  5. Schistosome and liver fluke derived catechol-estrogens and helminth associated cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Correia da Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection with helminth parasites remains a persistent public health problem in developing countries. Three of these pathogens, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium, are of particular concern due to their classification as Group 1 carcinogens: infection with these worms is carcinogenic. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS approaches, we identified steroid hormone like (e.g. oxysterol-like, catechol estrogen quinone-like, etc. metabolites and related DNA-adducts, apparently of parasite origin, in developmental stages including eggs of S. haematobium, in urine of people with urogenital schistosomiasis, and in the adult stage of Opisthorchis viverrini. Since these kinds of sterol derivatives are metabolized to active quinones that can modify DNA, which in other contexts can lead to breast and other cancers, helminth parasite associated sterols might induce tumor-like phenotypes in the target cells susceptible to helminth parasite associated cancers, i.e. urothelial cells of the bladder in the case of urogenital schistosomiasis and the bile duct epithelia or cholangiocytes, in the case of O. viverrini and C. sinensis. Indeed we postulate that helminth induced cancers originate from parasite estrogen-host epithelial/urothelial cell chromosomal DNA adducts, and here we review recent findings that support this conjecture.

  6. Helminth parasites of the leopard frog Lithobates sp. Colima (Amphibia: Ranidae) from Colima, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Garrido-Olvera, Lorena; León-Règagnon, Virginia

    2010-08-01

    The helminth fauna inhabiting Lithobates sp. Colima from Ticuizitán, Colima, Mexico, comprises 10 species: 4 digeneans ( Clinostomum sp., Glypthelmins quieta , Haematoloechus sp., and Langeronia macrocirra ), 5 nematodes ( Aplectana itzocanensis , Cosmocerca podicipinus , Foleyellides striatus , Oswaldocruzia subauricularis , and Rhabdias sp.), and 1 cestode (Cyclophyllidea). Glypthelmins quieta , L. macrocirra , and A. itzocanensis represent new host records. These observations, added to previous records from Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico, indicate that the helminth fauna of Lithobates sp. from Colima comprises 25 taxa. Frogs are being parasitized by 3 infection routes: ingestion of intermediate host, skin penetration by larval forms, and transmission by vectors. Species of Aplectana , Cosmocerca , Foleyellides , and Oswaldocruzia occurred in high prevalence in Colima, similar to a previous study on the same frog species from Guerrero. In Colima, Glypthelmins , Haematoloechus , and Rhabdias also occurred in high prevalence. Haematoloechus species reached the highest mean intensity in both localities. The semiaquatic habits of this species of frog and the availability of particular feeding resources appear to determine the helminth composition and infection levels; however, co-speciation events also play an important role structuring these helminth communities.

  7. Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted Helminths in Tana Delta District of Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njaanake, Kariuki H.; Vennervald, Birgitte J.; Simonsen, Paul E.;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) (hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides) are widely distributed in developing countries where they infect over 230 million and 1.5 billion people, respectively. The parasites are frequently co-endemic and many individuals...

  8. Coccidial and helminth infections in goats kept indoors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Dercksen, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on coccidial and helminth infections in goats kept indoors on five farms in the Netherlands. The goats were individually sampled. Coccidial oocysts were identified and nematode eggs counted. Larval cultures were made and infective larvae identified to the generic or

  9. Helminth infections on Flores Island, Indonesia : associations with communicable and non-communicable diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiria, Aprilianto Eddy

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we reported our investigations of the relationship between soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and a number of outcomes, in particular malaria, insulin resistance (a marker for type-2 diabetes (T2D)) and atherosclerosis (a marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVD)) on Flores island, Indon

  10. Helminthic Parasites of Chickens (Gallus Domesticus in Different Regions of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    GS da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian poultry industry is an outstanding national and international agribusiness sector. Among the Brazilian states, São Paulo is the largest producer of commercial eggs and the fourth largest producer and exporter of chicken meat. Alternatively, semi-intensive and/or organic poultry production have also obtained a significant share of the domestic market as a result of consumer demand. Helminths affect the performance of the birds, causing significant direct or indirect losses. The objective of the present study was to identify the main helminth species present in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo. In total, 359 adult birds were investigated. The birds were reared in different housing systems and were obtained from 69 farms in the selected regions. The birds were submitted to procedures for the detection and identification of helminth parasites, following international standards. The evaluation of the small intestine employed the Mello-Campos method (Mello & Campos, 1974, which allows better recovery of cestode scolices attached to the intestinal mucosa. Stereomicroscopy was used to evaluate the collected materials, and light microscopy was used to identify the species based on their morphological characteristics. The following helminth species were diagnosed in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo: nematodes (Ascaridia galli, Capillaria sp., Cheilospirura hamulosa, Heterakis gallinarum, Oxyspirura mansoni, and Strongyloides sp., cestodes (Amoebotaenia cuneata, Choanotaenia infundibulum, Hymenolepis sp., Raillietina cesticillus, Raillietina echinobothrida, and Raillietina tetragona, and trematodes (Zygocotyle lunata and Postharmostomum commutatum.

  11. Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of local chickens from selected communities in Nsukka region of south eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idika, I K; Obi, C F; Ezeh, I O; Iheagwam, C N; Njoku, I N; Nwosu, C O

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of local chickens in Nsukka region of Southeastern Nigeria was studied using 125 free range local birds purchased from four communities in Nsukka zone namely, Obollo-afor, Orba, Nsukka urban and Owerre Eze-orba. The birds were sacrificed humanely and their oesophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine and caecum examined for the presence of gastrointestinal helminths. Worms when present were isolated and identified using standard parasitological procedures. The study identified four species of cestodes namely Raillietina echinobothridia, R. tetragona, R. cesticillus and Choanotaenia infundibulum and two species of nematodes namely, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum. Results obtained showed 96.8 % prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in the birds with cestodes being the more prevalent class (70.4 %). Raillietina spp was the most prevalent cestode encountered and A. galli the most prevalent nematode. Prevalence rates of infections recorded 14.4 % for nematode species, 26.4 % for cestodes and 56 % for mixed infections of nematodes and cestodes. It was concluded that local chickens are common in the area and could serve as a potential source of helminth infections to intensively managed birds in the study area.

  12. Helminth parasites of fish and shellfish from the Santa Gilla Lagoon in southern Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culurgioni, J; Sabatini, A; De Murtas, R; Mattiucci, S; Figus, V

    2014-12-01

    An extensive survey of helminth parasites in fish and shellfish species from Santa Gilla, a brackish water lagoon in southern Sardinia (western Mediterranean), resulted in the identification of 69 helminth parasite taxa and/or species from 13 fish species (n= 515) and seven bivalve species (n= 2322) examined between September 2001 and July 2011. The list summarizes information on the helminth parasites harboured by fish and molluscs contained in the available literature. Digenea species (37), both adults and larvae, dominated the parasite fauna, whereas Cestoda were the least represented class (three species). Monogenea, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were present with 17, 6 and 6 species, respectively, which were mainly adults. The most widespread parasite species was the generalist Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda). Other species, such as the Haploporidae and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. 1 and 2 (Digenea), showed a high family specificity in Mugilidae. Importantly, the study recorded the occurrence of potential zoonotic agents, such as Heterophyes heterophyes, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. and C. rudolphii A, the latter two reaching the highest indices of infection in the highly marketed fish grey mullet and sea bass, respectively. The highest parasite richness was detected in Dicentrarchus labrax, which harboured 17 helminth species, whereas the lowest value was observed in Atherina boyeri, infected by only three species. The list includes the first geographical record in Italian coastal waters of Robinia aurata and Stictodora sawakinensis, and 30 reports of new host-parasite complexes, including the larval stages of Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) sp. and Southwellina hispida in D. labrax.

  13. Prevalence of intestinal helminthes in owned dogs in Kerman city, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Mirzaei; Majid Fooladi

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To survey the prevalence of canine gastrointestinal helminthes in dogs presented to theVeterinary faculty of theUniversity ofKerman betweenMay andNovember2011.Methods:A total of70 fecal samples were evaluated by the fecal sedimentation method.Results:The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes was7.14%.The parasites most frequently detected were Toxocara canis (T. canis)(4.3%);Toxascaris leonina (T. leonina)(1.4%) andTeania spp.(1.4%). The age distribution of intestinal parasites in dogs showed that the dog less than1 year old had a higher overall prevalence than those dogs over12 months of age but there was not significant (P>0.05).Also there was no significant difference in the prevalence between male(7.7%) and female(6.5%) dogs(P>0.05).Conclusions:It is thought that the reduction in the frequency of the dogs with those helminthes may be mainly a result of the improvement in breeding environment and the routine use of antihelmintics.The significance of zoonotic diseases caused by intestinal helminthes makes it necessary for us to know the infection status of domestic dogs and to take measures for further control.It is concluded that veterinarians have an important role in educating dog owners of these potential risks and means forpreventing or minimizing zoonotic transmission.

  14. New Method to Disaggregate and Analyze Single Isolated Helminthes Cells Using Flow Cytometry: Proof of Concept

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    Karen Nava-Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In parasitology, particularly in helminthes studies, several methods have been used to look for the expression of specific molecules, such as RT-PCR, western blot, 2D-electrophoresis, and microscopy, among others. However, these methods require homogenization of the whole helminth parasite, preventing evaluation of individual cells or specific cell types in a given parasite tissue or organ. Also, the extremely high interaction between helminthes and host cells (particularly immune cells is an important point to be considered. It is really hard to obtain fresh parasites without host cell contamination. Then, it becomes crucial to determine that the analyzed proteins are exclusively from parasitic origin, and not a consequence of host cell contamination. Flow cytometry is a fluorescence-based technique used to evaluate the expression of extra-and intracellular proteins in different type cells, including protozoan parasites. It also allows the isolation and recovery of single-cell populations. Here, we describe a method to isolate and obtain purified helminthes cells.

  15. Livestock Helminths in a Changing Climate: Approaches and Restrictions to Meaningful Predictions

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    Ross S. Davidson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a driving force for livestock parasite risk. This is especially true for helminths including the nematodes Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Nematodirus battus, and the trematode Fasciola hepatica, since survival and development of free-living stages is chiefly affected by temperature and moisture. The paucity of long term predictions of helminth risk under climate change has driven us to explore optimal modelling approaches and identify current bottlenecks to generating meaningful predictions. We classify approaches as correlative or mechanistic, exploring their strengths and limitations. Climate is one aspect of a complex system and, at the farm level, husbandry has a dominant influence on helminth transmission. Continuing environmental change will necessitate the adoption of mitigation and adaptation strategies in husbandry. Long term predictive models need to have the architecture to incorporate these changes. Ultimately, an optimal modelling approach is likely to combine mechanistic processes and physiological thresholds with correlative bioclimatic modelling, incorporating changes in livestock husbandry and disease control. Irrespective of approach, the principal limitation to parasite predictions is the availability of active surveillance data and empirical data on physiological responses to climate variables. By combining improved empirical data and refined models with a broad view of the livestock system, robust projections of helminth risk can be developed.

  16. Epidemiological study of gastrointestinal helminthes of canids in chaharmahal and bakhtiari province of iran.

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    Reza Nabavi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to describe the epidemiological aspects of gastrointestinal helminthic infections of canids in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, the central western part of Iran.Forty nine canid species including, dogs, jackals, foxes and wolves were included in this study. The contents of their alimentary canal were inspected in order to isolate and identify the parasitic helminthes of this system. To identify the worms, the Soulsbey and Anderson identification key and light microscopy were used.Based on necropsy findings, 35 (71.4% of examined animals were infected with at least one helminth. The prevalence of identified worms was as follows: Mesocestoides lineatus (55.1%, Joyeuxiella echinorinchoides (26.5%, Taenia hydatigena (12.2%, T. multiceps (8.2%, T. ovis (2%, Dipylidium caninum (2% and Spirura spp. (2%. No significant difference was noticed between the sampling areas, age and helminth infection. Only a significant difference was observed for prevalence of T. multiceps in wolf (25%, dog (21.4%, jackal and fox (0%, respectively (P < 0.05.The canids in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari harbor several parasites that some kind of them have zoonotic importance and may pose a threat to community health specially in rural areas.

  17. Helminth parasites of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) from north-central Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D J; Owen, W B; Snyder, D E

    1992-02-01

    Twenty-three species of helminths (4 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 14 nematodes, and 3 acanthocephalans) were found in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, pancreas, tongue, urinary bladder, and subcutaneous tissues of 30 live-trapped or hunter-shot raccoons from north-central Arkansas between November 1989 and April 1990. Helminths were not detected in the brain, diaphragm, gallbladder, heart, liver, reproductive system, or trachea. Each raccoon examined was infected with 3 or more of the following helminths: Brachylaima virginiana, Eurytrema procyonis, Fibricola cratera, Pharyngostomoides procyonis, Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides spp., Arthrocephalus lotoris, Capillaria aerophila, Capillaria plica, Capillaria procyonis, Capillaria putorii, Crenosoma goblei, Cruzia americana, Dirofilaria tenuis, Dracunculus insignis, Enterobius sp., Gnathostoma procyonis, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera rara, Trichinella spiralis, Centrorhynchus wardae, Macracanthorhynchus ingens, and Oligacanthorhynchus tortuosa. All helminths collected with the exception of D. insignis constitute new geographic distribution records. Occurrences of C. aerophila, C. wardae, and O. tortuosa are new host records. One nymphal pentastome, Porocephalus crotali, was found in the liver of 1 raccoon, constituting a new host record.

  18. Gastrointestinal helminth community of loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta in the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gračan, Romana; Buršić, Moira; Mladineo, Ivona; Kučinić, Mladen; Lazar, Bojan; Lacković, Gordana

    2012-07-25

    We analysed the intestinal helminth community of 70 loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta with a curved carapace length ranging from 25 to 85.4 cm, recovered dead in neritic foraging habitats in the Adriatic Sea in 1995 to 2004. The overall prevalence of infection was high (70.0%), with a mean abundance of 36.8 helminth parasites per turtle. Helminth fauna comprised 5 trematodes (Calycodes anthos, Enodiotrema megachondrus, Orchidasma amphiorchis, Pachypsolus irroratus, Rhytidodes gelatinosus) and 3 nematodes (Sulcascaris sulcata, Anisakis spp., Hysterothylacium sp.), with 6 taxa specific for marine turtles. In terms of infection intensity and parasite abundance, O. amphiorchis was the dominant species (mean intensity: 49.8; mean abundance: 12.8), followed by R. gelatinosus (30.5 and 8.3, respectively) and P. irroratus (23.5 and 7.0, respectively), while larval Anisakis spp. exhibited the highest prevalence (34.3%). The intensity of helminth infection ranged from 1 to 302 (mean: 52.6 ± 69.1) and was not correlated with the size of turtles; this relationship held for all species, except R. gelatinosus (rS = 0.556, p sea turtles in recruited neritic grounds and the diversity of their benthic prey.

  19. Infection levels of intestinal helminths in two commensal rodent species from rural households in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, J A; Hernández-Betancourt, S F; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Robles, M R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to calculate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) trapped in rural households of Yucatan, Mexico. Sampling was conducted during the rainy season from October to December 2011 and the dry season from January to March 2012. A total of 154 M. musculus and 46 R. rattus were examined, with 84.2% of M. musculus being infected with helminths compared with a significantly lower prevalence of 52.2% in R. rattus (Pmice compared to subadults (Pmice. This is the first report of N. brasiliensis, S. muris and T. muris in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as the first to report the presence of N. brasiliensis in M. musculus from Mexico. The helminth fauna of commensal rodents present in households appears to constitute a low potential health risk to local inhabitants; however, it would be advisable to conduct further studies to better understand the public health risk posed by these rodent intestinal helminths.

  20. Infections with helminths and/or protozoa in cats in animal shelters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, S.R.; Nobel, le W.E.; Dopfer, D.D.V.; Hendrikx, W.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Fransen, F.; Eysker, M.

    2004-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of infections with helminths and protozoa in cats in animal shelters, faecal samples from 305 cats from 22 animal shelters in the Netherlands were examined, using a centrifugation-sedimentation-flotation-technique. The association between potential risk factors and the oc

  1. Intestinal Helminth Infections in Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kitale District Hospital, Kenya

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    A. W. Wekesa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal helminth infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes including low birth weight and prenatal mortality. The infections are a major public health problem in developing countries. A hospital based survey was undertaken for six months to determine the infection prevalence, intensity, and risk factors. The study involved expectant women attending antenatal clinic. Stool samples were screened microscopically for helminth ova using Kato Katz technique. Information on risk factors was collected using semistructured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Epidemiological data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of infection was 21 (13.8%. Ascariasis was the most prevalent 10 (6.5%, hookworm infection was 6 (3.9%, and trichuriasis was 2 (1.3%. Pregnant women aged below 29 years (OR = 3.63, CI = 0.87–11.75 and those with primary level of education (OR = 3.21, CI = 0.88–11.75 were at a higher risk of infection compared to those aged ≥ 29 years with secondary level of education. Hand washing was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of infection (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57. It was concluded that intestinal helminth infections were prevalent among pregnant women. We recommended that all expectant women visiting antenatal clinics be screened for intestinal helminth infections and positive cases be advised to seek treatment.

  2. Gastrointestinal Helminthic Parasites in Stray Cats (Felis catus from North of Iran

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    A Rezaei-Doust

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats play a crucial role in the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthic parasites and also play a major role in transmitting of these parasites through faecal contamination of soil, food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the species of gastrointestinal helminthes parasites in stray cats from a rural area of Bandar-e-Anzali, Iran.Method: Gastrointestinal helminthes were collected from 50 necropsied stray cats (Felis catus after capturing them by trapping from different regions of the city and humanely euthanatized in Bandar-e-Anzali, a port in the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, from March to November 2003. Results: The prevalence of infection was 90%, with those of individual parasites being Diplopylidium nolleri 54%, Phy­saloptera praeputialis 32%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme 20%, Joyeuxiella pasqualei 10%, Toxocara cati 8%, Pterygoderma­tites affinis 6%, Ancylostoma caninum 4%, and Taenia taeniaeformis 2%. Concurrent infections with two or more parasites were recorded in 34% of the individuals. In relation to the sex, the differences were not significant. Conclusion: P. praeputialis, T. cati, D. nolleri and sometime J. pasqualei are the commonest Helminthes in cats. This is the first reported isolation of P. affinis and A. caninum infections from cats in Iran.

  3. Chronic helminth infections may negatively influence immunity against tuberculosis and other diseases of public health importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Daniel; Britton, Sven; Kassu, Afework

    2007-01-01

    , studies conducted in animals and humans living in worm-endemic areas have shown that helminths impair resistance against a number of infections of major public health importance, including TB, malaria and HIV/AIDS. Understanding such interactions could assist in the design of vaccines against...

  4. Some helminth parasites of Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae) from the peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moravec, F.; Vidal-Martínez, V.M.; Aguirre-Macedo, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Moravec, F., V.M. Vidal-Martinez & M.L. Aguirre-Macedo, 1995. Some helminth parasites of Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae) from the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 72: 55-68. One nematode species, Hysterothylacium eurycheilum, the acanthocephalan Gorgorhynchus

  5. A gastropod scavenger serving as paratenic host for larval helminth communities in shore crabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latham, A D M; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; McFarland, L H;

    2003-01-01

    The whelk Cominella glandiformis is an important predator-scavenger of New Zealand intertidal ecosystems; a few whelks can quickly eat all the soft tissues of recently dead crabs. In this study, we demonstrate that whelks can also ingest and act as paratenic hosts for at least 4 helminth species ...

  6. Preliminary study of the presence of antibodies against excretory-secretory antigens from protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs with intestinal echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmena, David; Benito, Aitziber; Martínez, Jorge; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the antibody response against excretory-secretory antigens (ES-Ag) from Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces, using sera from dogs infected with E. granulosus and other helminths. ES-Ag were obtained from the first 50 h maintenance of protoscoleces in vitro. Immunochemical characterization was performed by immunoblotting with sera from dogs naturally infected with E. granulosus (n = 12), sera from dogs infected with helminths other than E. granulosus (n = 30), and helminth-free dog sera (n = 20). These findings were compared to those obtained from a somatic extract of protoscoleces (S-Ag). ES-Ag only showed four cross-reacting proteins of 65, 61, 54, and 45-46 kDa. Antigens with apparent masses of 89 and 50 kDa in ES-Ag and of 130 and 67 kDa in S-Ag were identified by sera of dogs infected with E. granulosus only, whereas a protein of 41-43 kDa was recognised by the majority of the sera from dogs with non-echinococcal infection. Employing ELISA to study the same sera, S-Ag revealed higher immunoreactivity than ES-Ag, but also showed higher cross-reactivity levels when sera from dogs with non-echinococcal infection were assayed in immunoblotting.

  7. Preliminary study of the presence of antibodies against excretory-secretory antigens from protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs with intestinal echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carmena

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyze the antibody response against excretory-secretory antigens (ES-Ag from Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces, using sera from dogs infected with E. granulosus and other helminths. ES-Ag were obtained from the first 50 h maintenance of protoscoleces in vitro. Immunochemical characterization was performed by immunoblotting with sera from dogs naturally infected with E. granulosus (n = 12, sera from dogs infected with helminths other than E. granulosus (n = 30, and helminth-free dog sera (n = 20. These findings were compared to those obtained from a somatic extract of protoscoleces (S-Ag. ES-Ag only showed four cross-reacting proteins of 65, 61, 54, and 45-46 kDa. Antigens with apparent masses of 89 and 50 kDa in ES-Ag and of 130 and 67 kDa in S-Ag were identified by sera of dogs infected with E. granulosus only, whereas a protein of 41-43 kDa was recognised by the majority of the sera from dogs with non-echinococcal infection. Employing ELISA to study the same sera, S-Ag revealed higher immunoreactivity than ES-Ag, but also showed higher cross-reactivity levels when sera from dogs with non-echinococcal infection were assayed in immunoblotting.

  8. An updated atlas of human helminth infections: the example of East Africa

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    Karanja Peris

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable and updated maps of helminth (worm infection distributions are essential to target control strategies to those populations in greatest need. Although many surveys have been conducted in endemic countries, the data are rarely available in a form that is accessible to policy makers and the managers of public health programmes. This is especially true in sub-Saharan Africa, where empirical data are seldom in the public domain. In an attempt to address the paucity of geographical information on helminth risk, this article describes the development of an updated global atlas of human helminth infection, showing the example of East Africa. Methods Empirical, cross-sectional estimates of infection prevalence conducted since 1980 were identified using electronic and manual search strategies of published and unpublished sources. A number of inclusion criteria were imposed for identified information, which was extracted into a standardized database. Details of survey population, diagnostic methods, sample size and numbers infected with schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths were recorded. A unique identifier linked each record to an electronic copy of the source document, in portable document format. An attempt was made to identify the geographical location of each record using standardized geolocation procedures and the assembled data were incorporated into a geographical information system. Results At the time of writing, over 2,748 prevalence surveys were identified through multiple search strategies. Of these, 2,612 were able to be geolocated and mapped. More than half (58% of included surveys were from grey literature or unpublished sources, underlining the importance of reviewing in-country sources. 66% of all surveys were conducted since 2000. Comprehensive, countrywide data are available for Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda. In contrast, information for Kenya and Tanzania is typically clustered in specific regions of

  9. Immunological reactions caused by helminthes and diagnosis of parasites using different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEDIA VASJARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Helminthes are one of the causer agents of the type I reactions of hypersensitivity. In this article will review the findings of recent human studies of the association between helminth parasite infections and allergy and discuss their potential relevance to public health. The parasitic worms are an important risk factor for anaphylaxy reaction, but this could be explained by an enhanced ability of atopics to produce IgE. The human immune response to helminth infections is associated with elevated levels of IgE, tissue eosinophilia and mastocytosis. The involvement of immunologic mechanisms in the pathogenesis which are caused by worms in the gastro-intestinal tract are associated with anaphylaxy response. For this study, faeces were collected primary in children aged 1-15 years old, because the worms are most frequent in these ages. Through the coproscopic method were analyzed as biological materials, the feces of 300 children for the presence of protozoa’s eggs, helminthes larva, trophosoids, cists, etc. We have taken the photo of the positive cases. The analysis have been done in the Parasitological Laboratory of the Institute of Public Health, Tirana through the method of concentration with floatation in sulphat zinc; the permanent color as Ziehln-Neelsen stain, Giemsa stain, Blu-metilen, etc. We have used the color methods and blood striche to diagnose the eosiniphilia presence. To determine the IgE are used the EIA kits. The level of the eosinophyle and IgE in the blood is performed in 152 individes who had been positive cases by helminths.

  10. Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in zarima town, northwest Ethiopia

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    Birhan Wubet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value Results Out of 319 study subjects, 263 (82.4% of the study participants infected with one or more parasites. From soil transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22% followed by Hookworms (19% and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%. Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible.

  11. Helminth Infections in Rattus ratus and Rattus norvigicus in Tehran, Iran.

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    Meral Meshkekar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine intestinal and liver helminth infections in Rattus rodents in Tehran Iran.Overall, 306 traps were put in 39 different regions in Tehran from 2009 to 2010. Rodents, including R. rattus and R. norvegicus were caught by live-traps. They become unconscious and the spinal cords were cut, afterwards the body was dissected and the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, and cecum were studied separately. The dominant type and the prevalence rate of parasites in the rodents were determined based on the infected parts of their body.After recognition of the helminthes' types, among the 120 total number of rodents, 39 belonged to males, while among the infected rodents, 57(47.5% were female and 18(15% were male. The prevalence of infection in Tehran was 62.5%. Seventy cases (58.33% of helminth infections were observed in R. rattus and 5 cases (4.16% were observed in R. norvegicus. The maximum prevalence (15.5% was seen in the center and east part of Tehran, while the minimum (9.16% was in the north part of the city. The helminthes types and the corresponding percentages were Hymenolepis nana fraterna (35.8%, Heterakis spumosa (17.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (7.5% and Capillaria annulosa (1.6%. The dominant rodent was Rattus rattus and among the identified helminthes, Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana fraterna are zoonotic ones.The information presented here improves our understanding of the major parasitic infections that rodents harbor and can transmit to human and animal populations in Iran. To prevent infectivity of human, the hazard of the identified zoonotic species needs to be contemplated.

  12. Intestinal epithelial tuft cells initiate type 2 mucosal immunity to helminth parasites.

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    Gerbe, François; Sidot, Emmanuelle; Smyth, Danielle J; Ohmoto, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Dardalhon, Valérie; Cesses, Pierre; Garnier, Laure; Pouzolles, Marie; Brulin, Bénédicte; Bruschi, Marco; Harcus, Yvonne; Zimmermann, Valérie S; Taylor, Naomi; Maizels, Rick M; Jay, Philippe

    2016-01-14

    Helminth parasitic infections are a major global health and social burden. The host defence against helminths such as Nippostrongylus brasiliensis is orchestrated by type 2 cell-mediated immunity. Induction of type 2 cytokines, including interleukins (IL) IL-4 and IL-13, induce goblet cell hyperplasia with mucus production, ultimately resulting in worm expulsion. However, the mechanisms underlying the initiation of type 2 responses remain incompletely understood. Here we show that tuft cells, a rare epithelial cell type in the steady-state intestinal epithelium, are responsible for initiating type 2 responses to parasites by a cytokine-mediated cellular relay. Tuft cells have a Th2-related gene expression signature and we demonstrate that they undergo a rapid and extensive IL-4Rα-dependent amplification following infection with helminth parasites, owing to direct differentiation of epithelial crypt progenitor cells. We find that the Pou2f3 gene is essential for tuft cell specification. Pou2f3(-/-) mice lack intestinal tuft cells and have defective mucosal type 2 responses to helminth infection; goblet cell hyperplasia is abrogated and worm expulsion is compromised. Notably, IL-4Rα signalling is sufficient to induce expansion of the tuft cell lineage, and ectopic stimulation of this signalling cascade obviates the need for tuft cells in the epithelial cell remodelling of the intestine. Moreover, tuft cells secrete IL-25, thereby regulating type 2 immune responses. Our data reveal a novel function of intestinal epithelial tuft cells and demonstrate a cellular relay required for initiating mucosal type 2 immunity to helminth infection.

  13. Prevalence and magnitude of helminth infections in organic laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) across Europe.

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    Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena K; Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Heerkens, Jasper L T; Verwer, Cynthia; Niebuhr, Knut; Willett, Alice; Grilli, Guido; Thamsborg, Stig M; Sørensen, Jan T; Mejer, Helena

    2015-11-30

    Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify management factors that might be associated with helminth infections, with emphasis on Ascaridia galli. Data on flock-level management factors (e.g. nutritional factors, litter quality, housing system, opening- and closing hours of popholes, pasture rotation and provision of occupational materials) were collected during a farm visit when the hens were on average 62 weeks old. Worm counts were performed for 892 hens from 55 flocks and the number of ascarid (presumably primarily A. galli) eggs per g faeces (EPG) for 881 hens from 54 flocks. The association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, worm burden and EPG) and the management factors were analysed by multivariate models. Results showed that A. galli was highly prevalent across Europe with an overall mean prevalence of 69.5% and mean worm burden of 10 worms per hen. The overall mean prevalence and worm burden for Heterakis spp. were 29.0% and 16 worms per hen, respectively, with a large variation between countries. On average, the hens excreted 576 ascarid EPG. The mean prevalence of Raillietina spp. was 13.6%. A positive correlation was found between mean A. galli worm burden and ascarid EPG. Of the analysed management factors, only pasture access time had a significant negative association with A. galli worm burden which was in contrast to the general belief that outdoor access may increase the risk of helminth infections in production animals. In conclusion, the complexity of on-farm transmission dynamics is thus a challenge when evaluating the relative importance of management factors in relation to helminth infections.

  14. Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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    Mohd Zain Siti N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%, H. spumosum (29.8% and H. nana (28.4%. Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site and intrinsic (species, sex and age factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential

  15. Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis), three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis) and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis) were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%), H. spumosum (29.8%) and H. nana (28.4%). Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site) and intrinsic (species, sex and age) factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection) and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential to infect humans

  16. The Mannose Receptor (CD206) is an important pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in the detection of the infective stage of the helminth Schistosoma mansoni and modulates IFNγ production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paveley, Ross A; Aynsley, Sarah A; Turner, Joseph D; Bourke, Claire D; Jenkins, Stephen J; Cook, Peter C; Martinez-Pomares, Luisa; Mountford, Adrian P

    2011-11-01

    In this study, infective larvae of the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni were shown to contain a large number of glycosylated components specific for the Mannose Receptor (MR; CD206), which is an important pattern recognition receptor (PRR) of the innate immune system. MR ligands were particularly rich in excretory/secretory (E/S) material released during transformation of cercariae into schistosomula, a process critical for infection of the host. E/S material from carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA-SE)-labelled cercariae showed enhanced binding by cells lines that over-express the MR. Conversely, uptake was significantly lower by bone marrow-derived macrophages (MΦ) from MR(-/-) mice, although they were more active as judged by enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and CD40 expression. After natural percutaneous infection of MR(-/-) mice with CFDA-SE-labelled parasites, there were fewer cells in the skin and draining lymph nodes that were CFDA-SE(+) compared with wild-type mice, implying reduced uptake and presentation of larval parasite antigen. However, antigen-specific proliferation of skin draining lymph node cells was significantly enhanced and they secreted markedly elevated levels of IFNγ but decreased levels of IL-4. In conclusion, we show that the MR on mononuclear phagocytic cells, which are plentiful in the skin, plays a significant role in internalising E/S material released by the invasive stages of the parasite which in turn modulates their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the absence of the MR, antigen-specific CD4(+) cells are Th1 biased, suggesting that ligation of the MR by glycosylated E/S material released by schistosome larvae modulates the production of CD4(+) cell specific IFNγ.

  17. The helminth parasite proteome at the host-parasite interface - Informing diagnosis and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ree, Anna M; Mutapi, Francisca

    2015-10-01

    Helminth parasites are a significant health burden for humans in the developing world and also cause substantial economic losses in livestock production across the world. The combined lack of vaccines for the major human and veterinary helminth parasites in addition to the development of drug resistance to anthelmintics in sheep and cattle mean that controlling helminth infection and pathology remains a challenge. However, recent high throughput technological advances mean that screening for potential drug and vaccine candidates is now easier than in previous decades. A better understanding of the host-parasite interactions occurring during infection and pathology and identifying pathways that can be therapeutically targeted for more effective and 'evolution proof' interventions is now required. This review highlights some of the advances that have been made in understanding the host-parasite interface in helminth infections using studies of the temporal expression of parasite proteins, i.e. the parasite proteome, and discuss areas for potential future research and translation.

  18. Epidemiological studies on intestinal helminth parasites of the patagonian grey fox (Pseudalopex griseus) in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina.

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    Zanini, Fabián; Laferrara, Miguel; Bitsch, Matías; Pérez, Héctor; Elissondo, Maria Celina

    2006-03-31

    The present work was performed to study the intestinal helminths of the patagonian grey fox (Pseudalopex griseus) and to obtain information about its possible role in the sylvatic life cycle of Echinococcu granulosus in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina. Eighty-one foxes were captured and subject to post-mortem analysis. Thirty-one foxes (38.3%) harboured helminths. A total of six helminth species were recovered. Only one adult of E. granulosus was found in the studied samples. The current study is the first report of the intestinal helminths of the patagonian grey fox in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina and showed that this specie is probably not an important reservoir host for E. granulosus.

  19. Comparison of Diagnostic Value of Antigen B and Protoscoleces Antigen in Diagnosis of Hydatid Cyst by Blotting Method

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    F. Oreizi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : Hydatidosis, a disease caused by the cestod helminth echinococcus granulosus, is one of the most important parasitic zoonosis in man and a variety of animals. Sensitive and reliable serologic methods are necessary to confirm the diagnosis. In this study, Ag B and Psc Ag were purified as two specific parasitic antigens and evaluated by Dot blotting used on the serum of hydatidosis patients and control group in order to identify the most sensitive and specific subunits.Materials and Methods: In an analytic and comparative study, serum samples collected from 22 patients under operation of hydatid cyst. As a control group, 4 patients with acute toxoplasmosis, 4 patients with leishmaniasis, 4 patients infected by non-hydatid cestods(Tenia saginata and H.nana and 4 normal subjects were included in this investigation. Infected sheep’s liver and lung were used for the preparation of antigen. Cyst fluid containing protoscoleces was extracted and then partially purified with a protein A column. AgB and Psc Ags were interacted with hydatid and control sera, with Dot blot method and sensitivity and specificity of these antigens were evaluated. Results: Sensitivity and specificity were estimated 95.9% and 81% respectively, for AgB and 100% and 63% respectively, for Psc Ag in Dot blot Method. Conclusion: Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of AgB and Psc Ag using Dot blotting revealed that AgB has high value for diagnosis of hydatidosis. and presumably can help physicians to diagnose hydatid cyst easier than other routine tests.

  20. Helminthic Infections Rates and Malaria in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women on Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Rwanda

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    Ivan, Emil; Crowther, Nigel J.; Mutimura, Eugene; Osuwat, Lawrence Obado; Janssen, Saskia; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Within sub-Saharan Africa, helminth and malaria infections cause considerable morbidity in HIV-positive pregnant women and their offspring. Helminth infections are also associated with a higher risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and the protective and risk factors for helminth and malaria infections in pregnant HIV-positive Rwandan women receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Methodology and principle findings Pregnant females (n = 980) were recruited from health centres in rural and peri-urban locations in the central and eastern provinces of Rwanda. Helminth infection was diagnosed using the Kato Katz method whilst the presence of Plasmodium falciparum was identified from blood smears. The prevalence of helminth infections was 34.3%; of malaria 13.3%, and of co-infections 6.6%. Helminth infections were more common in rural (43.1%) than peri-urban (18.0%; p<0.0005) sites. A CD4 count ≤350 cells/mm3 was associated with a higher risk of helminth infections (odds ratio, 3.39; 95% CIs, 2.16–5.33; p<0.0005) and malaria (3.37 [2.11–5.38]; p<0.0005) whilst helminth infection was a risk factor for malaria infection and vice versa. Education and employment reduced the risk of all types of infection whilst hand washing protected against helminth infection (0.29 [0.19–0.46]; p<0.0005);). The TDF-3TC-NVP (3.47 [2.21–5.45]; p<0.0005), D4T-3TC-NVP (2.47 [1.27–4.80]; p<0.05) and AZT-NVP (2.60 [1.33–5.08]; p<0.05) regimens each yielded higher helminth infection rates than the AZT-3TC-NVP regimen. Anti-retroviral therapy had no effect on the risk of malaria. Conclusion/significance HIV-positive pregnant women would benefit from the scaling up of de-worming programs alongside health education and hygiene interventions. The differential effect of certain ART combinations (as observed here most strongly with AZT-3TC-NVP) possibly protecting against helminth infection warrants further

  1. Prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal helminths in wild and domestic guineafowls (Numida meleagris) in the Southern Province of Zambia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    King; Shimumbo; Nalubamba; Eugene; Chisela; Bwalya; Ntombi; Basimbi; Mudenda; Hetron; Mweemba; Munangandu; Musso; Munyeme; David; Squarre

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the gastrointestinal tract helminthic fauna in domestic and wild guineafowl in Zambia.Methods: Post-mortem and laboratory parasitological examinations for helminth identification and enumeration were conducted on 198 guineafowls(148 domestic and 50 wild) from November 2010 to October 2011.Results: All guineafowls were infested with one or more helminths. Eleven helminth species, namely, Raillietina echinobothrida, Raillietina tetragona, Raillietina cesticillus, Ascaridia galli, Allodapa suctoria, Gongylonema ingluvicola, Tetrameres spp., Heterakis spp., Acuaria spiralis, Syngamus trachea, and Streptocara pectinifera were identified with no trematodes recorded. Mean nematode burden between domestic and wild fowl showed no differences having 113.7 [confidence interval(CI) 98.9-128.6] and 108(CI 76.6-139.5) nematodes respectively. In contrast, female guineafowls had a mean of 151.9(CI 128.4-177.8) nematodes per host which was significantly more than the males that had a mean of 79.6(CI 66.8-94.4). However, there were differences in helminth species richness between domestic and wild guineafowls with domestic guineafowls having more species present at a mean of 4.2(CI 3.91-4.44) than the wild ones at a mean of 3.4(CI 2.92-3.88) but there were no sex differences. Eight of the eleven helminth species co-occurred in domestic and wild fowl and five of the helminth species had higher prevalence in domestic guineafowls.Conclusions: Syngamus trachea, Streptocara pectinifera and Acuaria spiralis are reported for the first time in domestic poultry in Zambia. This study represents the first comparative study of helminths in domestic and wild guineafowls at an interface area and adds to the knowledge base in a discipline where a dearth currently exists.

  2. Occurrence and HAT-RAPD analysis of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Phayao province, northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Preeyaporn Butboonchoo; Chalobol Wongsawad

    2015-01-01

    The present study determined the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) between November 2012 and August 2013. One hundred and twenty domestic chickens were purchased from villages in four districts of Phayao province; Mae Chai, Dok Khamtai, Chun and Chiang Kham. Morphological differences were used to identify the helminth species, and HAT-RAPD technique was used to differentiate among closely related species. The results reve...

  3. Impact of Helminth Infection on the Clinical and Microbiological Presentation of Chagas Diseases in Chronically Infected Patients.

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    Fernando Salvador

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are highly prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, coexisting in Chagas disease endemic areas. Helminth infections in humans may modulate the host immune system, changing the Th1/Th2 polarization. This immunological disturbance could modify the immune response to other infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinical, microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of Chagas disease patients, with the presence of helminth infection.A prospective observational study was conducted at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain. Inclusion criteria were: age over 18 years, diagnosis of Chagas disease, and not having received specific treatment for Chagas disease previously to the inclusion. The study protocol included Chagas disease assessment (cardiac and digestive evaluation, detection of T. cruzi DNA measured by PCR in peripheral blood, and helminth infection diagnosis (detection of IgG anti-Strongyloides stercoralis by ELISA, microscopic examination of stool samples from three different days, and specific faecal culture for S. stercoralis larvae.Overall, 65 patients were included, median age was 38 years, 75.4% were women and most of them came from Bolivia. Cardiac and digestive involvement was present in 18.5% and 27.7% of patients respectively. T. cruzi PCR was positive in 28 (43.1% patients. Helminth infection was diagnosed in 12 (18.5% patients. No differences were observed in clinical and epidemiological characteristics between patients with and without helminth infection. Nevertheless, the proportion of patients with positive T. cruzi PCR was higher among patients with helminth infection compared with patients without helminth infection (75% vs 35.8%, p = 0.021.We observed a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection among chronic Chagas disease patients attended in our tropical medicine unit. Strongyloidiasis was associated with significantly higher proportion of

  4. Heavy metal pollution across sites affecting the intestinal helminth communities of the Egyptian lizard, Chalcides ocellatus (Forskal, 1775).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, M F M

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possible effects of heavy metal pollution across sites and some biological factors on helminth communities infecting the lizard, Chalcides ocellatus. The possibility of heavy metal accumulation by such helminths was also investigated. A total of 202 C. ocellatus were collected from three different sites (industrial, rural, and urban systems) in Ismailia governorate, Egypt, during summer 2009. The lizards were classified according to their sex and size and were examined for the intestinal helminths. Heavy metal levels were detected in the intestinal tissue of the lizards and the recovered helminths. Species richness was 6, 5, and 3 in rural, urban, and industrial systems, respectively. Significant site variations regarding infection prevalence, intensity, and abundance were encountered at different levels. Some noticeable effects of the host size were found. The significant differences found between the metal levels of the intestinal tissues and the recovered helminths and the other relations found in this study may be indications for a possible metals accumulation capacity by helminths. The cestode Oochoristica tuberculata could be a promising biomonitor for Cu and Pb, while the intestinal nematodes were less sensitive to the pollution. Differences in the accumulation capacity may be attributed to the intensity of infection, parasite species, and metal. The observed patterns of distribution and occurrence of helminths and the metals accumulation capacity reflect the need for more studies since this study proposes the model intestinal helminth/C. ocellatus as another promising bioindication system in the terrestrial habitat, especially in areas where the lizard C. ocellatus are available.

  5. Serological diagnosis of North American Paragonimiasis by Western blot using Paragonimus kellicotti adult worm antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter U; Curtis, Kurt C; Folk, Scott M; Wilkins, Patricia P; Marcos, Luis A; Weil, Gary J

    2013-06-01

    Abstract. We studied the value of an IgG Western blot (WB) with Paragonimus kellicotti (Pk) antigen for diagnosis of North American paragonimiasis. The test was evaluated with sera from patients with Pk and Paragonimus westermani infections, with control sera from patients with other helminth infections, and sera from healthy Americans. All 11 proven Pk infection sera and two samples from suspected cases that were negative by P. westermani WB at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) contained antibodies to antigens at 34 kDa and at 21/23 kDa. Seven of 7 P. westermani sera contained antibodies to the 34 kDa antigen, but only 2 recognized the 21/23 kDa doublet. No control samples were reactive with these antigens. Antibody reactivity declined after praziquantel treatment. Thus, the P. kellicotti WB appears to be superior to P. westermani WB for diagnosing Pk infections, and it may be useful for assessing responses to treatment.

  6. Helminth parasites in pigs: new challenges in pig production and current research highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, A; Mejer, H; Nejsum, P; Thamsborg, S M

    2011-08-04

    Helminths in pigs have generally received little attention from veterinary parasitologists, despite Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis, and Oesophagostomum sp. being common worldwide. The present paper presents challenges and current research highlights connected with these parasites. In Danish swine herds, new indoor production systems may favour helminth transmission and growing knowledge on pasture survival and infectivity of A. suum and T. suis eggs indicates that they may constitute a serious threat to outdoor pig production. Furthermore, it is now evident that A. suum is zoonotic and the same may be true for T. suis. With these 'new' challenges and the economic impact of the infections, further research is warranted. Better understanding of host-parasite relationships and A. suum and T. suis egg ecology may also improve the understanding and control of human A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections. The population dynamics of the three parasites are well documented and may be used to study phenomena, such as predisposition and worm aggregation. Furthermore, better methods to recover larvae have provided tools for quantifying parasite transmission. Thus, an on-going study using helminth naïve tracer pigs has surprisingly demonstrated that soil infectivity with A. suum and T. suis increases during the first 2-3 years after pasture contamination. Though all three helminth species stimulate the Th2 arm of the immune system, Oesophagostomum seems weakly immunogenic, perhaps via specific modulation of the host immune system. A. suum and T. suis potently modulate the host immune response, up-regulating Th2 and down-regulating Th1. As a consequence, A. suum may compromise the efficacy of certain bacterial vaccines, whereas T. suis, which establish only short-term in humans, is a favourite candidate for down-regulating autoimmune Th1-related diseases in man. Some basic research findings have offered new possibilities for future sustainable control measures. For example

  7. Human helminth co-infection: analysis of spatial patterns and risk factors in a Brazilian community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Pullan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals living in areas endemic for helminths are commonly infected with multiple species. Despite increasing emphasis given to the potential health impacts of polyparasitism, few studies have investigated the relative importance of household and environmental factors on the risk of helminth co-infection. Here, we present an investigation of exposure-related risk factors as sources of heterogeneity in the distribution of co-infection with Necator americanus and Schistosoma mansoni in a region of southeastern Brazil. METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional parasitological and socio-economic data from a community-based household survey were combined with remotely sensed environmental data using a geographical information system. Geo-statistical methods were used to explore patterns of mono- and co-infection with N. americanus and S. mansoni in the region. Bayesian hierarchical models were then developed to identify risk factors for mono- and co-infection in relation to community-based survey data to assess their roles in explaining observed heterogeneity in mono and co-infection with these two helminth species. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The majority of individuals had N. americanus (71.1% and/or S. mansoni (50.3% infection; 41.0% of individuals were co-infected with both helminths. Prevalence of co-infection with these two species varied substantially across the study area, and there was strong evidence of household clustering. Hierarchical multinomial models demonstrated that relative socio-economic status, household crowding, living in the eastern watershed and high Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI were significantly associated with N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection. These risk factors could, however, only account for an estimated 32% of variability between households. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that variability in risk of N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection between households cannot be entirely explained by

  8. HelmCoP: an online resource for helminth functional genomics and drug and vaccine targets prioritization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Abubucker

    Full Text Available A vast majority of the burden from neglected tropical diseases result from helminth infections (nematodes and platyhelminthes. Parasitic helminthes infect over 2 billion, exerting a high collective burden that rivals high-mortality conditions such as AIDS or malaria, and cause devastation to crops and livestock. The challenges to improve control of parasitic helminth infections are multi-fold and no single category of approaches will meet them all. New information such as helminth genomics, functional genomics and proteomics coupled with innovative bioinformatic approaches provide fundamental molecular information about these parasites, accelerating both basic research as well as development of effective diagnostics, vaccines and new drugs. To facilitate such studies we have developed an online resource, HelmCoP (Helminth Control and Prevention, built by integrating functional, structural and comparative genomic data from plant, animal and human helminthes, to enable researchers to develop strategies for drug, vaccine and pesticide prioritization, while also providing a useful comparative genomics platform. HelmCoP encompasses genomic data from several hosts, including model organisms, along with a comprehensive suite of structural and functional annotations, to assist in comparative analyses and to study host-parasite interactions. The HelmCoP interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, allows users to search for multi-factorial combinations of properties and serves readily accessible information that will assist in the identification of various genes of interest. HelmCoP is publicly available at: http://www.nematode.net/helmcop.html.

  9. Fine structure and cellular responses at the host-parasite interface in a range of fish-helminth systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, B S; Bo, T; Lorenzoni, M; Shinn, A P; Giari, L

    2015-03-15

    A series of ultrastructural-based studies were conducted on the interface region in different fish-helminth systems: (a) an intestinal infection of the cestode Monobothrium wageneri in tench, Tinca tinca; (b) an extensive intestinal submucosa and mucosal infection in tench by metacercariae of an unidentified digenean trematode; (c) an intestinal infection in brown trout, Salmo trutta, by the acanthocephalan Dentitruncus truttae; (d) an extraintestinal infection by larvae of the acanthocephalan, Pomphorhynchus laevis in three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus; and (e) an infection in the livers of Eurasian minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus, by larvae of the nematode Raphidascaris acus. Endoparasitic helminths frequently cause inflammation of the digestive tract and associated organs, inducing the recruitment of various immune cells to the site of infection. In each of the fish-helminth systems that were studied, a massive hyperplastic granulocyte response involving mast cells (MCs) and neutrophils in close proximity to the helminths was documented. The current study presents data on the interface region in each fish-helminth system and documents the penetration of mast cells granules within the tegument of P. laevis larvae. No extracellular vesicles containing tegumental secretions from any of the four different taxa of endoparasitic helminths species at the host-parasite interface region were seen.

  10. Gastrointestinal helminths in indigenous and exotic chickens in Vietnam: association of the intensity of infection with the Major Histocompatibility Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, T W; Permin, A; Juul-Madsen, H R; Sørensen, P; Labouriau, R; Nguyên, T L H; Fink, M; Pham, S L

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the prevalence and intensity of infections of helminths in 2 chicken breeds in Vietnam, the indigenous Ri and the exotic Luong Phuong. Also, possible correlations with the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) were tested. The most prevalent helminths were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis beramporia, Tetrameres mothedai, Capillaria obsignata, Raillietina echinobothrida and Raillietina tetragona. Differences in prevalence and intensity of infection were found between the 2 breeds. Comparing the 2 groups of adult birds, Ri chickens were observed to have higher prevalence and infection intensities of several species of helminths, as well as a higher mean number of helminth species. In contrast, A. galli and C. obsignata were shown to be more prevalent in Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, an age-dependent difference was indicated in the group of Ri chickens in which the prevalence and the intensity of infection was higher for the adult than the young chickens for most helminths. The most notable exception was the significantly lower prevalence and intensities of A. galli in the group of adult chickens. In contrast, the prevalence and intensity were very similar in both age groups of Luong Phuong chickens. Using a genetic marker located in the MHC, a statistically significant correlation between several MHC haplotypes and the infection intensity of different helminth species was inferred. This is the first report of an association of MHC haplotype with the intensity of parasite infections in chickens.

  11. Host specificity and the structure of helminth parasite communities of fishes in a Neotropical river in Mexico

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    Salgado-Maldonado Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a tropical locality of Río La Antigua, Veracruz, Mexico, 11 fish species, represented by 244 individual fish from six freshwater fish families living sympatrically and synchronically, were examined for helminth parasites. A total of 36 taxa of helminths were recorded, 24 autogenic and 12 allogenic forms, including 6 monogeneans, 14 trematodes, 1 cestode, and 15 nematodes. Most helminth taxa were recovered for 10/11 of the component communities we analyzed. The results contribute empirical evidence that host specificity is an important force in the development of helminth communities of freshwater fishes. Each fish family has their own set of parasites, host species belonging to the same taxon share parasite species. High component community similarity among related host species was recorded, demonstrated by high prevalence and abundance, as well as dominance, of autogenic specialist species in each component community. Most autogenic helminth species are numerically and reproductively successful in relatively few host species. Autogenic helminths common in one host species are not common in others. Our findings give empirical support to the idea that low levels of sharing of parasites favor animal coexistence and high species richness, because large phylogenetic differences allow potentially competing animals to consume the same resources without being sensitive of another’s parasites.

  12. The influence of habitat fragmentation on helminth communities in rodent populations from a Brazilian Mountain Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, T S; Simões, R O; Luque, J L F; Maldonado, A; Gentile, R

    2016-07-01

    The influence of habitat structure on helminth communities of three sigomdontinae rodent species (Akodon cursor, A. montensis and Oligoryzomys nigripes) was investigated in forest fragments within an agricultural landscape in south-eastern Brazil. This is a pionner study correlating the occurrence of helminth species of rodent hosts with microhabitat characteristics. Rodents were collected from 12 fragments and in a continuous conserved area. Up to 13 nematode, three cestode and two trematode species were identified, and habitat fragmentation was found to have more influence on the helminth composition of O. nigripes compared to the other two rodent species. Fragmentation appeared to limit the development of some helminths' life cycles, e.g. with some species such as Trichofreitasia lenti, Protospirura numidica, Cysticercus fasciolaris and Avellaria sp., occurring mostly in areas with less anthropic impact. However, fragmentation did not seem to affect the life cycles of other dominant helminths, such as the trematode Canaania obesa, the nematodes Stilestrongylus lanfrediae, S. eta and S. aculeata, and the cestode Rodentolepis akodontis. The helminth community structure followed a nested pattern of distribution in A. montensis and O. nigripes. Stilestrongylus lanfrediae seemed to be more associated with dense understorey, C. obesa with open canopy and dense understorey, and Guerrerostrongylus zetta with organic matter on the ground. Their presence in each area may be explained by aspects of their life cycles that take place in the external environment outside the host.

  13. Intestinal helminth fauna of bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus and common dolphin Delphinus delphis from the western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Ruth; Giovannini, Anna; Raga, J Antonio; Fernández, Mercedes

    2013-06-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 15 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus and 6 short-beaked common dolphins Delphinus delphis from the western Mediterranean. Eight helminth species were found in bottlenose dolphin, i.e., the digeneans Synthesium tursionis, Brachycladium atlanticum, and Pholeter gastrophilus, the nematode Anisakis sp., and the cestodes Tetrabothrius forsteri, Diphyllobothrium sp., Strobilocephalus triangularis, and tetraphyllidean plerocercoids. Brachycladium atlanticum, S. triangularis , and tetraphyllidean plerocercoids are new host records. No T. forsteri had previously been reported in Mediterranean bottlenose dolphins. Three species of helminths were recorded in the common dolphin, i.e., the digenean Synthesium delamurei (which was a new host record), and the cestodes T. forsteri and tetraphyllidean plerocercoids. The intestinal helminth communities of bottlenose and common dolphins are depauperate, similar to that of other cetacean species, but those from bottlenose dolphins harbored a higher number of helminth species. This study supports the notion that oceanic cetaceans, such as common dolphins, have a comparatively poorer helminth fauna than that of neritic species, such as bottlenose dolphins, because the likelihood of parasite recruitment is decreased.

  14. Host specificity and the structure of helminth parasite communities of fishes in a Neotropical river in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Novelo-Turcotte, María Teresa; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Vazquez-Hurtado, Gabriela; Quiroz-Martínez, Benjamin; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Favila, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In a tropical locality of Río La Antigua, Veracruz, Mexico, 11 fish species, represented by 244 individual fish from six freshwater fish families living sympatrically and synchronically, were examined for helminth parasites. A total of 36 taxa of helminths were recorded, 24 autogenic and 12 allogenic forms, including 6 monogeneans, 14 trematodes, 1 cestode, and 15 nematodes. Most helminth taxa were recovered for 10/11 of the component communities we analyzed. The results contribute empirical evidence that host specificity is an important force in the development of helminth communities of freshwater fishes. Each fish family has their own set of parasites, host species belonging to the same taxon share parasite species. High component community similarity among related host species was recorded, demonstrated by high prevalence and abundance, as well as dominance, of autogenic specialist species in each component community. Most autogenic helminth species are numerically and reproductively successful in relatively few host species. Autogenic helminths common in one host species are not common in others. Our findings give empirical support to the idea that low levels of sharing of parasites favor animal coexistence and high species richness, because large phylogenetic differences allow potentially competing animals to consume the same resources without being sensitive of another’s parasites. PMID:28004635

  15. Effects of oil spill related chemical pollution on helminth parasites in Mexican flounder Cyclopsetta chittendeni from the Campeche Sound, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno-Chalé, Oscar Arturo; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel

    2015-09-01

    During an environmental impact study of an accidental oil spill in the Campeche Sound in October 2007, we examined the helminth parasites of the benthic flatfish Cyclopsetta chittendeni as well as the concentrations of hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the sediment. The aim of this study was to determine the potential effects of these contaminants on the helminth communities of the flatfish. A total of 427 hosts were examined, and 16,895 helminths, representing 17 species, were obtained from two surveys (March and July, 2008). Statistically significant negative associations were observed between the hydrocarbons and helminth parasite abundances using multivariate methods. The results suggest that in October 2007, the oil spill had a strong negative effect on these helminth communities. However, after five months, the impacted stations were re-populated by both the flatfish and helminths. The most likely explanation for this rapid recovery is the rescue effect from non-impacted habitats to impacted stations.

  16. Checklist of helminths from lizards and amphisbaenians (Reptilia, Squamata of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Ávila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive and up to date summary of the literature on the helminth parasites of lizards and amphisbaenians from South America is herein presented. One-hundred eighteen lizard species from twelve countries were reported in the literature harboring a total of 155 helminth species, being none acanthocephalans, 15 cestodes, 20 trematodes and 111 nematodes. Of these, one record was from Chile and French Guiana, three from Colombia, three from Uruguay, eight from Bolivia, nine from Surinam, 13 from Paraguay, 12 from Venezuela, 27 from Ecuador, 17 from Argentina, 39 from Peru and 103 from Brazil. The present list provides host, geographical distribution (with the respective biome, when possible, site of infection and references from the parasites. A systematic parasite-host list is also provided.

  17. Helminth parasites of the blue-footed booby on Isla Isabel, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Godoy, Miguel; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; Carmona-Isunza, María Cristina; la Mora, Alejandra Núñez-de; Drummond, Hugh

    2011-08-01

    A survey of the helminth fauna of the blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, on Isla Isabel, off the Pacific coast of México, is presented. Eight parasite species were found: 4 digeneans (Galactosomum puffini , Mesostephanus microbursa, Opisthometra planicollis, and Renicola thapari), 3 nematodes (Contracaecum sp., Porrocaecum sp., and Tetrameres sp.), and 1 cestode (Tetrabothrius sp). All these species are reported for the first time in the blue-footed booby, and they represent 8 new locality records as well. Species accumulation curves suggest these 8 parasite species comprise the total helminth fauna of this population of boobies. The most frequent and abundant parasite was R. thapari, inhabiting the kidney of its host. In male boobies, a significant negative correlation was found between abundance of R. thapari and host body condition.

  18. Helminth-bacteria interaction in the gut of domestic pigeon Columba livia domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Debraj; Nandi, Anadi Prasad; Chatterjee, Soumendranath

    2016-03-01

    The present paper is an attempt to study the interaction between the helminth parasite and bacteria residing in the gut of domestic pigeon, Columba livia domestica. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the gut bacterial isolate were done and the isolate was identified as Staphylococcus sp. DB1 (JX442510). The interaction of Staphylococcus sp. with Cotugnia cuneata, an intestinal helminth parasite of domestic pigeon was studied on the basis of the difference between 'mean worm burden' of antibiotic treated infected pigeons and infected pigeons without any antibiotic treatment. The ANOVA and Tukey tests of the data obtained showed that antibiotic treatment reduced the mean worm burden significantly. The biochemical properties of Staphylococcus sp. DB1 (JX442510) also showed a mutualistic relationship with the physiology of C. cuneata.

  19. Associations between maternal helminth and malaria infections in pregnancy, and clinical malaria in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L; Lule, Swaib

    2013-01-01

    Background. Helminth and malaria coinfections are common in the tropics. We investigated the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to these parasites might influence susceptibility to infections such as malaria in childhood.Methods. In a birth cohort of 2,345 mother-child pairs in Uganda, maternal...... helminth and malaria infection status was determined during pregnancy, and childhood malaria episodes recorded from birth to age five years. We examined associations between maternal infections and malaria in the offspring.Results. Common maternal infections were hookworm (45%), Mansonella perstans (21......%), Schistosoma mansoni (18%), and Plasmodium falciparum (11%). At age 5 years, 69% of the children were still under follow-up. The incidence of malaria was 34 episodes per 100 child-years, and the mean prevalence of asymptomatic malaria at annual visits was 5.4%. Maternal hookworm and M. perstans infections were...

  20. Mapping and modelling helminth infections in ruminants in Europe: experience from GLOWORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rinaldi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mapping and modelling helminth infections in cattle and sheep in Europe through advanced geospatial research was one of the main task of GLOWORM, a three year project (2012-2014 funded under the European Commission’s (EC seventh framework programme (FP7. Liver flukes as Fasciola hepatica and gastrointestinal nematodes, such as Haemonchus contortus were chosen for the project since these parasites constitute a major cause of lost productivity in small and large ruminants. The output of the GLOWORM project delivered guidelines for standardized and harmonized cross-sectional surveys of helminth parasites in ruminants allowing the development of updated prevalence maps and multi-scale, spatial models for the European area.

  1. A check list of the helminths of guineafowls (Numididae) and a host list of these parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, K; Boomker, J

    2007-12-01

    Published and personal records have been compiled into a reference list of the helminth parasites of guineafowls. Where data on other avian hosts was available these have been included for completeness' sake and to give an indication of host range. The parasite list for the Helmeted guineafowls, Numida meleagris, includes five species of acanthocephalans, all belonging to a single genus, three trematodes belonging to three different genera, 34 cestodes representing 15 genera, and 35 nematodes belonging to 17 genera. The list for the Crested guineafowls, Guttera edouardi, contains a single acanthocephalan together with 10 cestode species belonging to seven genera, and three nematode species belonging to three different genera. Records for two cestode species from genera and two nematode species belonging to a single genus have been found for the guineafowl genus Acryllium. Of the 70 helminths listed for N. meleagris, 29 have been recorded from domestic chickens.

  2. THE IMPORTANCE AND INCIDENCE OF FOOD BORN HELMINTH INFECTIONS IN MAN, IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Neshat

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of helminth parasite, which is quite prevalent in Iran, can infect man by the oral route. The main sources of infections are meat, vegetables and water. Some of these parasites, e.g. Cysticercus bovis, C. cellulose, Trichinella spairalis and Anisakis larvae, are present in the tissue of food animal. Human infection establish by consuming raw or inadequately cooked pork, beef or fish. The infective stages of some helminths, e.g. Trichostrongylus spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichura, Fasciola spp. Dicrocelium dendriticum and Dracuncwlus medinensis may infect man through vegetable and drinking water. Using human and animal manure as fertilizer of the soil, facilitate the transmission of these parasites to man. Contaminated food materials can pay also a role in, human hydatidosis. Hygiene is a key factor in the control of all conditions and both medical and veterinary professions have an important function in this field.

  3. The impact of iron supplementation on reinfection with intestinal helminths and Schistosoma mansoni in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annette; Nawiri, J; Friis, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    higher reinfection rate of hookworm at the 4-month examination (11.1% vs 0%, P = 0.009), but the difference was not significant at 8- and 12-month follow-up examinations. Iron supplementation had no effect on reinfection intensities in adults. Surprisingly, iron supplementation had no effect on either...... immune function or to unfavourable host gut conditions caused by an increased oxidative stress. In each case, the lack of effect in children remains to be explained. In contrast, iron supplementation apparently was short-lived in favour of hookworm infection, an effect that needs further clarification....... The findings suggest that iron supplementation has a role to play in helminth control programmes and that intraluminal factors may contribute to the regulation of some helminth infections....

  4. Studies on the interaction between Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium and intestinal helminths in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenhard, N.R.; Roepstorff, A.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2006-01-01

    trickle infected with low or moderate dose levels of Oesophagostomum spp. and challenge infected with S. Typhimurium. In another experiment, pigs were inoculated with S. Typhimurium followed by a challenge exposure to either Oesophagostomum, Trichuris or Ascaris. Enhancement of the Salmonella infection......Concomitant infections with helminths and bacteria may affect the course and the resulting disease outcome of the individual infections. Salmonella, Oesophagostomum, Trichuris and Ascaris coexist naturally in pig herds in Denmark, and possible interactions were studied. Pigs in one experiment were...... was not demonstrated in either experiment. The helminth effect on the pigs was modest and may explain the lack of influence on the Salmonella infection. A previous experiment with a larger Oesophagostomum infection level resulted in enhancement of the S. Typhimurium infection. A dose dependency of the interaction...

  5. Gastrointestinal helminths of Cuvier's beaked whales, Ziphius cavirostris, from the western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Mercedes; Aznar, F Javier; Montero, Francisco E; Georgiev, Boyko B; Raga, Juan A

    2004-04-01

    We examined the gastrointestinal helminth fauna of 2 Cuvier's beaked whales, Ziphius cavirostris, stranded on the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Information regarding intestinal parasites of this species is provided for the first time. Six helminth taxa were identified. Thirty type II larvae of the nematode Anisakis sp. were found in the stomach and the intestine of both hosts; 2 type I larvae of Anisakis sp. were found in the intestine of 1 host. One juvenile of the acanthocephalan Bolbosoma vasculosum was found in the intestine; the metacestode Scolex pleuronectis was found mainly in the terminal colon and the anal crypts of both hosts; adult cestodes of Tetrabothrius sp., which may represent a new species, were collected from the duodenum of 1 host. Composition of the intestinal parasitic community is similar to that of other oceanic cetaceans, which mostly include species of Bolbosoma and tetrabothriids (Cestoda).

  6. The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), as a reservoir for helminth parasites in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naem, Soraya; Pourreza, Behzad; Gorgani-Firouzjaee, Tahmineh

    2015-01-01

    From April 2009 to December 2011, 44 dead hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) were collected incidentally from areas of Urmia, Iran. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 95.0%. Specific parasites and their prevalences were: Physaloptera clausa (93.0%), Crenosoma striatum (61.0%), Capillaria aerophila (9.0%), Capillarias spp. (4.0%), Brachylaemus erinacei (2.0%) and Hymenolepis erinacei (16.0%). There were no significant differences in helminth occurrence between hedgehog sexes, either in single or in mixed infections (p > 0.05). The mixed infection involving Crenosoma striatum and P. clausa occurred significantly more frequently than other mixed infection (p < 0.05). There were significant differences in prevalence among seasons, with the highest prevalence in summer and spring especially among P. clausa and C. striatum (p < 0.05).

  7. Helminth parasites of the eurasian badger (Meles meles L.) in Spain: a biogeographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J; Miquel, J; Motjé, M

    2001-04-01

    Eighty-five Eurasian badgers, Meles meles (Linnaeus, 1758), from four mainland biogeographic Spanish areas were analysed for helminths. Seventeen helminth species were found: Brachylaima sp., Euparyphium melis and Euryhelmis squamula (Trematoda), Atriotaenia incisa and Mesocestoides sp. (Cestoda) and Aelurostrongylus pridhami, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Aonchotheca putorii, Crenosoma melesi, Mastophorus muris, Molineus patens, Pearsonema plica, Physaloptera sibirica, Strongyloides sp., Trichinella sp., Uncinaria criniformis and Vigisospirura potekhina hugoti (Nematoda). In the Mediterranean area, Aonchotheca putorii, M. patens, Strongyloides sp., and U. criniformis were more prevalent in the occidental part, whereas Atriotaenia incisa and Mesocestoides sp. cestodes showed higher values on the continental slope. Metastrongyloid species (Aelurostrongylus pridhami, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma melesi) were only detected in the occidental Mediterranean area. In contrast, spirurid species (Mastophorus muris and Vigisospirura potekhina hugoti) were almost restricted to the continental Mediterranean area. Helminthological differences between areas may result from the badger diet, abiotic factors and biocenosis present in each biogeographic area.

  8. Defense peptides secreted by helminth pathogens: antimicrobial and/or immunomodulator molecules?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eCotton

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response found in all living species. They possess antimicrobial activities against a broad range of organisms including bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses. HDPs also have the ability to enhance immune responses by acting as immunomodulators. We discovered a new family of HDPs derived from pathogenic helminthes (worms that cause enormous disease in animals and humans worldwide. The discovery of these peptides was based on their similar biochemical and functional characteristics to the human defense peptide LL-37. We propose that these new peptides modulate the immune response via molecular mimicry of mammalian HDPs thus providing a mechanism behind the anti-inflammatory properties of helminth infections.

  9. The global limits and population at risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Pullan Rachel L; Brooker Simon J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding the global limits of transmission of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) species is essential for quantifying the population at-risk and the burden of disease. This paper aims to define these limits on the basis of environmental and socioeconomic factors, and additionally seeks to investigate the effects of urbanisation and economic development on STH transmission, and estimate numbers at-risk of infection with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookwo...

  10. Intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of children attending primary schools in Wakiso District, Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwanga, Francis; Francis, Lwanga; Kirunda, Barbara Eva; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2012-08-01

    A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of primary school children was conducted in the Wakiso district in Central Uganda. A total of 432 primary school children aged 6-14 years were randomly selected from 23 schools. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height, MUAC were undertaken and analyzed using AnthroPlus software. Stool samples were examined using a Kato-Katz method. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) was 22.5%, 5.3% and 18.5% respectively. Males had a threefold risk of being underweight (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.17-9.4, p = 0.011) and 2 fold risk of suffering from MAM (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.21-3.48, p = 0.004). Children aged 10-14 years had a 2.9 fold risk of stunting (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.37-6.16, p = 0.002) and 1.9 risk of MAM (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.07-3.44, p = 0.019). Attending urban slum schools had 1.7 fold risk of stunting (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.03-2.75, p = 0.027). Rural schools presented a twofold risk of helminth infection (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.12-3.32, p = 0.012). The prevalence of helminth infections was (10.9%), (3.1%), (1.9%), (0.2%) for hookworm, Trichuriatrichiura, Schistosomamansoni and Ascarislumbricoides, respectively. The study revealed that 26.6%, 46% and 10.3% of incidences of stunting, underweight and MAM respectively were attributable to helminth infections.

  11. Spatial distribution of soil-transmitted helminths, including Strongyloides stercoralis, among children in Zanzibar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Knopp

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A programme periodically distributing anthelminthic drugs to school-aged children for the control of soiltransmitted helminthiasis was launched in Zanzibar in the early 1990s. We investigated the spatial distribution of soiltransmitted helminth infections, including Strongyloides stercoralis, in 336 children from six districts in Unguja, Zanzibar, in 2007. One stool sample per child was examined with the Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate and Baermann methods. The point prevalence of the different helminth infections was compared to the geological characteristics of the study sites. The observed prevalences for Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and S. stercoralis were 35.5%, 12.2%, 11.9% and 2.2%, respectively, with considerable spatial heterogeneity. Whilst T. trichiura and hookworm infections were found in all six districts, no A. lumbricoides infections were recorded in the urban setting and only a low prevalence (2.2% was observed in the South district. S. stercoralis infections were found in four districts with the highest prevalence (4.0% in the West district. The prevalence of infection with any soil-transmitted helminth was highest in the North A district (69.6% and lowest in the urban setting (22.4%. A. lumbricoides, hookworm and, with the exception of the North B district, S. stercoralis infections were observed to be more prevalent in the settings north of Zanzibar Town, which are characterized by alluvial clayey soils, moist forest regions and a higher precipitation. After a decade of large-scale administration of anthelminthic drugs, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections across Unguja is still considerable. Hence, additional measures, such as improving access to adequate sanitation and clean water and continued health education, are warranted to successfully control soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Zanzibar.

  12. Helminth and intestinal protozoa infections, multiparasitism and risk factors in Champasack province, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

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    Somphou Sayasone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Detailed investigations of multiparasitism are scarce in the Mekong River basin. We assessed helminth (trematode, nematode, and cestode, and intestinal protozoa infections, and multiparasitism in random population samples from three different eco-epidemiological settings in Champasack province, southern Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, and determined underlying risk factors. METHODOLOGY: Two stool samples were collected from 669 individuals aged ≥ 6 months over consecutive days and examined for helminth infections using the Kato-Katz method. Additionally, one stool sample per person was subjected to a formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique for diagnosis of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections. Questionnaires were administered to obtain individual and household-level data pertaining to behavior, demography and socioeconomic status. Risk factors for hepato-biliary and intestinal parasitic infections and multiparasitism were determined using multiple logistic regressions analyses. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MULTIPLE SPECIES INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS WERE COMMON: 86.6% of the study participants harbored at least two and up to seven different parasites concurrently. Regarding nematode infections, hookworm was the most prevalent species (76.8%, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (31.7% and Trichuris trichiura (25.0%. Regarding trematodes, Opisthorchis viverrini and Schistosoma mekongi infections were found in 64.3% and 24.2% of the participants, respectively. Infections with intestinal protozoa were rare. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a pressing need to intensify and sustain helminth control interventions in the southern part of Lao PDR. Given the high prevalence with nematode and trematode infections and the extent of multiparasitism, preventive chemotherapy is warranted. This intervention should be coupled with health education and improved access to clean water and adequate sanitation to consolidate morbidity

  13. Intestinal helminths of spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus dimidiatus) from St Katherine's Protectorate in the Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, J M; Barnard, C J; Mason, N; Harris, P D; Sherif, N E; Zalat, S; Gilbert, F S

    2000-03-01

    Spiny mice, Acomys cahirinus dimidiatus, inhabiting the wadis close to St Katherine in the mountains of the Sinai peninsula, were trapped and their helminth parasites were studied. Sixty one mice provided faeces for analysis and 27 were killed and autopsied. Six species of helminths were recorded (the spirurid nematodes, Protospirura muricola (74.1%) and Mastophorus muris (11.1%), the oxyuroid nematodes, Dentostomella kuntzi (59.3%), Aspiculuris africana (3.7%), and Syphacia minuta (3.7%) and the hymenolepidid cestode Rodentolepis negevi (18.5%)). The spirurids were the dominant species present, accounting for up to 0.87% of total host body weight. Analysis of worm weights and lengths suggested that transmission had been taking place in the months preceding our study. No sex difference in the prevalence or abundance of spirurids was detected. Significant differences were identified in the abundance of total nematode burdens and the mean helminth species richness between the three wadis which provided multiple captures of mice. There was also a marked effect of host age on both parameters. A highly significant positive correlation between spirurid egg counts and total worm biomass indicated that non-invasive techniques based on egg counts could be used to quantify worm burdens and when this technique was applied to a larger sample size (n = 61), a significant difference between sites but no host sex or age effects were detected for spirurid faecal egg counts. The data suggest that there are differences between helminth component communities infecting spiny mice in different neighbouring wadis, a hypothesis which will be explored further through our continuing studies in the Sinai.

  14. Larval helminths in the invasive American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana throughout its annual cycle.

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    Georgiev, Boyko B; Angelov, Aleksandar; Vasileva, Gergana P; Sánchez, Marta I; Hortas, Francisco; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Pankov, Plamen; Green, Andy J

    2014-09-01

    One of the best examples of rapid displacement of native species by an invader is the eradication of native Artemia salina and A. parthenogenetica in the Mediterranean by the introduced American A. franciscana. Previous studies based on sampling from limited time periods suggest that the success of the American species as a competitor may be due partly to different parasite burden, since native Artemia spp. have high cestode infection rates regulating their density. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that the helminth infection in A. franciscana in its invasive range is low throughout its annual life cycle. Samples of A. franciscana were collected every second month from La Tapa saltern (Andalusia) during one year. Five helminth species were recorded: cestodes Flamingolepis liguloides, F. flamingo, Gynandrotaenia stammeri (all flamingo parasites), Eurycestus avoceti (a shorebird parasite) and larval spirurids of the Acuariinae (the first record of nematodes in Artemia). The overall infection rate was low, with total prevalence 5.9% and prevalence of individual parasite species between 0.2 and 3.2%. The mean abundance of helminths was 0.005-0.155 (av. 0.068), 5-13 times lower than in native congeners. Waterbird counts indicate that the low infection rates cannot be explained by lack of definitive hosts. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that helminths have no regulating effect on the invasive brine shrimp in the Mediterranean. The replacement of the native populations by the invader can be partially explained by a competition mediated by parasites/predators through a differential impact on host fitness.

  15. The effects of local medicinal knowledge and hygiene on helminth infections in an Amazonian society.

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    Tanner, Susan; Chuquimia-Choque, Maria E; Huanca, Tomás; McDade, Thomas W; Leonard, William R; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Social science has long recognized the importance of understanding how interactions between culture and behavior shape disease patterns, especially in resource-poor areas where individuals draw on multiple medical treatments to maintain health. While global health programs aimed at controlling high infection rates of soil-transmitted helminthes among indigenous groups often acknowledge the value of local culture, little research has been able to examine this value. This study investigates the association between parental ethnomedical knowledge, parental biomedical knowledge, and household sanitation behavior and childhood soil-transmitted helminth infections among a group of foragers-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon (Tsimane'). During 2007, a parasitological survey was completed for 329 children (≤ 16 years of age) from 109 households in combination with a comprehensive survey of both of the child's parents to assess biomedical and ethnomedical knowledge and household sanitary environment. Soil-transmitted helminthes were found to be common with 67% of sample positive for hookworm species. Indices that capture a household's relative state of risky and preventive hygienic behavior were significantly associated with risk of hookworm infection. Mother's but not father's ethnomedical knowledge was also negatively associated with a child's probability of being positive for hookworm infection. The effect was stronger for young children and boys. Like many rural populations, Tsimane' actively draw upon multiple medical systems to respond to health challenges. Integration into markets and national societies is likely to affect local medical systems by increasing the use of biomedicine as formal education prioritizes biomedical over ethnomedical systems. This study underscores the value of considering both ethnomedical knowledge systems and household hygiene in public health campaigns to treat and control soil-transmitted helminths. There is no question that providing

  16. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania.

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    Bružinskaitė-Schmidhalter, Rasa; Šarkūnas, Mindaugas; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Mathis, Alexander; Torgerson, Paul R; Deplazes, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Red foxes and raccoon dogs are hosts for a wide range of parasites including important zoonotic helminths. The raccoon dog has recently invaded into Europe from the east. The contribution of this exotic species to the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, particularly parasitic zoonoses is unknown. The helminth fauna and the abundance of helminth infections were determined in 310 carcasses of hunted red foxes and 99 of raccoon dogs from Lithuania. Both species were highly infected with Alaria alata (94·8% and 96·5% respectively) and Trichinella spp. (46·6% and 29·3%). High and significantly different prevalences in foxes and raccoon dogs were found for Eucoleus aerophilus (97·1% and 30·2% respectively), Crenosoma vulpis (53·8% and 15·1%), Capillaria plica (93·3% and 11·3%), C. putorii (29·4% and 51·5%), Toxocara canis (40·5% and 17·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (76·9% and 98·8%). The prevalences of the rodent-transmitted cestodes Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia polyacantha, T. crassiceps and Mesocestoides spp. were significantly higher in foxes than in raccoon dogs. The abundances of E. multilocularis, Mesocestoides, Taenia, C. plica and E. aerophilus were higher in foxes than those in raccoon dogs. A. alata, U. stenocephala, C. putorii and Echinostomatidae had higher abundances in raccoon dogs. The difference in prevalence and abundance of helminths in both animals may reflect differences in host ecology and susceptibility. The data are consistent with red foxes playing a more important role than raccoon dogs in the transmission of E. multilocularis in Lithuania.

  17. The Seasonal Distribution of Rudd Fish (Scardinus erythrophthalmus L. 1758)Helminthes Parasites Living in Terkos Lake

    OpenAIRE

    DEMIRTAS, Murat; ALTINDAG, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study that was carried out from September, 2009 to August, 2010 was to determine the seasonal distribution of rudd fish (Scardinus erythrophthalmus L. 1758) helminthes inhabiting the Terkos lake. During the study examined 166 fish rudd, Dactylogyrus difformis from Monogenia, Ligula intestinalis plerocercoid from Cestoda, Asymphylodora markesvitschi Diplostomulum spathaceum metacerceria from Digenia, Piscicola geometra from Hirudinea were parasited.87% with 137 fish recorded th...

  18. Important helminth infections in Southeast Asia diversity, potential for control and prospects for elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, Jürg; Bergquist, Robert; Olveda, Remigio; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-01-01

    Besides the 'big three'-HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis-there are a host of diseases that, by comparison, are truly neglected. These so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), many of which caused by helminths, are intimately linked with poverty and are rampant where housing is poor; access to clean water and adequate sanitation is lacking; hygiene and nutrition is substandard and populations are marginalized and vulnerable. More than a billion people are affected by NTDs, mainly in remote rural and deprived urban settings of the developing world. An overview of papers published in two special thematic volumes of the Advances in Parasitology is provided here under the umbrella of current status of research and control of important helminth infections. A total of 25 comprehensive reviews are presented, which summarise the latest available data pertaining to the diagnosis, epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, treatment, control and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and neighbourhood countries. The focus of the first volume provides the current regional status of schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, food-borne trematodiases, echinococcosis and cysticercosis/taeniasis, less common parasitic diseases that can cause epidemic outbreaks and helminth infections affecting the central nervous system. The second volume deals with the tools and strategies for control, including diagnostics, drugs, vaccines and cutting-edge basic research (e.g. the '-omics' sciences). Moreover, cross-cutting themes such as multiparasitism, social sciences, capacity strengthening, geospatial health technologies, health metrics and modelling the potential impact of climate change on helminthic diseases are discussed. Hopefully, these two volumes will become useful for researchers and, most importantly, disease control managers for integrated and sustainable control, rigorous monitoring and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and elsewhere.

  19. Cestode Antigens Induce a Tolerogenic-Like Phenotype and Inhibit LPS Inflammatory Responses in Human Dendritic Cells

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    César A. Terrazas, Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz, Ana M. Mejía-Domínguez, Luis M. Amezcua-Guerra, Luis I. Terrazas, Rafael Bojalil, Lorena Gómez-García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens have developed strategies to modify Dendritic Cells (DCs phenotypes and impair their functions in order to create a safer environment for their survival. DCs responses to helminths and their derivatives vary among different studies. Here we show that excretory/secretory products of the cestode Taenia crassiceps (TcES do not induce the maturation of human DCs judged by a lack of increment in the expression of CD83, HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86 molecules but enhanced the production of IL-10 and positively modulated the expression of the C-type lectin receptor MGL and negatively modulated the expression of DC-SIGN. Additionally, these antigens were capable of down-modulating the inflammatory response induced by LPS in these cells by reducing the expression of the maturation markers and the production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF, IL-12 and IL-6. The effects of TcES upon the DCs responses to LPS were stronger if cells were exposed during their differentiation to the helminth antigens. All together, these findings suggest the ability of TcES to induce the differentiation of human DCs into a tolerogenic-like phenotype and to inhibit the effects of inflammatory stimuli.

  20. Concomitant influence of helminth infection and landscape on the distribution of Puumala hantavirus in its reservoir, Myodes glareolus

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    Henttonen Heikki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puumala virus, the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE, is the most prevalent hantavirus in Europe. The risk for human infection seems to be strongly correlated with the prevalence of Puumala virus (PUUV in populations of its reservoir host species, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. In humans, the infection risks of major viral diseases are affected by the presence of helminth infections. We therefore proposed to analyse the influence of both helminth community and landscape on the prevalence of PUUV among bank vole populations in the Ardennes, a PUUV endemic area in France. Results Among the 313 voles analysed, 37 had anti-PUUV antibodies. Twelve gastro-intestinal helminth species were recorded among all voles sampled. We showed that PUUV seroprevalence strongly increased with age or sexual maturity, especially in the northern forests (massif des Ardennes. The helminth community structure significantly differed between this part and the woods or hedgerows of the southern cretes pre-ardennaises. Using PUUV RNA quantification, we identified significant coinfections between PUUV and gastro-intestinal helminths in the northern forests only. More specifically, PUUV infection was positively associated with the presence of Heligmosomum mixtum, and in a lesser extent, Aonchotheca muris-sylvatici. The viral load of PUUV infected individuals tended to be higher in voles coinfected with H. mixtum. It was significantly lower in voles coinfected with A. muris-sylvatici, reflecting the influence of age on these latter infections. Conclusions This is the first study to emphasize hantavirus - helminth coinfections in natural populations. It also highlights the importance to consider landscape when searching for such associations. We have shown that landscape characteristics strongly influence helminth community structure as well as PUUV distribution. False associations might therefore be evidenced if geographic patterns of helminths or PUUV

  1. microRNAs of parasitic helminths - Identification, characterization and potential as drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Collette; Winter, Alan D; Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

    2014-08-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. They were first identified in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where the miRNAs lin-4 and let-7 were shown to be essential for regulating correct developmental progression. The sequence of let-7 was subsequently found to be conserved in higher organisms and changes in expression of let-7, as well as other miRNAs, are associated with certain cancers, indicating important regulatory roles. Some miRNAs have been shown to have essential functions, but the roles of many are currently unknown. With the increasing availability of genome sequence data, miRNAs have now been identified from a number of parasitic helminths, by deep sequencing of small RNA libraries and bioinformatic approaches. While some miRNAs are widely conserved in a range of organisms, others are helminth-specific and many are novel to each species. Here we review the potential roles of miRNAs in regulating helminth development, in interacting with the host environment and in development of drug resistance. Use of fluorescently-labeled small RNAs demonstrates uptake by parasites, at least in vitro. Therefore delivery of miRNA inhibitors or mimics has potential to alter miRNA activity, providing a useful tool for probing the roles of miRNAs and suggesting novel routes to therapeutics for parasite control.

  2. High prevalence of helminth parasites in feral cats in Majorca Island (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Javier; Casanova, Joan Carles

    2009-12-01

    Feral cats are widespread in the countryside of Majorca (Balearic Islands, Spain). Since they are not subject of sanitary control, they can act as reservoir of parasites of veterinary and zoonotic interest. The main organs of 58 wild-trapped cats in 16 different areas from Majorca were analyzed by helminths. All the cats were parasitized, and eight species of helminths were retrieved (mean = 3.4 species per cat, with 74% of the cats harboring three or more species). Seven of them presented a prevalence >20%: Joyeuxiella pasqualei (76%), Diplopylidium acanthotetra (60%), Dipylidium carracidoi (33%), Taenia taeniaeformis (22%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (91%), and Toxocara cati (35%) in the gastrointestinal tract, and Oslerus rostratus (24%) in lungs. The A. tubaeforme prevalence and intensity (mean = 30, up to 396) is the highest recorded for a population of cats. Prevalence and abundance of J. pasqualei and D. acanthotetra were strongly associated, secondary to the use of the same intermediary host (geckos). Other positive associations found are probably related to host susceptibility. Abundance of D. acanthotetra, T. cati, and A. tubaeforme and the number of species per host were negatively correlated with cat body condition (assessed by the kidney fat index). Females were more frequently parasitized by A. tubaeforme than males, and adult females were more heavily infested by J. pasqualei and D. acanthotetra than cats from other groups. These and other findings are discussed in relation with host ecology. Feral cats serve as reservoirs of helminths in the countryside of Majorca and their populations should be controlled.

  3. [Helminth fauna of the bank vole myodes glareolus (Schreber, 1780) in the Kizhi Archipelago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugmyrin, S V; Korosov, A V; Bespyatova, L A; Ieshko, E P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the specific features of the helminth fauna in insular populations of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) in the north of the species range. The material was collected in and nearby the Kizhi Archipelago (Lake Onega, 62°1' N 35°12' E) during August 1997, 2005-2007, 2012 and 2013. Small mammals were trapped on 23 islands (varying from 2 to 15,000 ha) and on the mainland. Helminthological met- hods were applied to examine 301 specimens of M glareolus. Fourteen helminth species were found: trematodes--Skrjabinoplagiorchis vigisi; cestodes--Paranoplocephala omphalodes, P. gracilis, Catenotaenia henttoneni, Taenia mustelae, Cladotaenia globife- ra, Spirometra erinacei; nematodes--Trichocephalus muris, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Hepaticola hepatica, Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli, Longistriata minuta, Syphacia petrusewiczi. The parasites S. vigisi, S. erinaci, H. hepatica and T. muris were identified in the bank vole in Karelia for the first time. Significant differences were detected between the helminth faunas of local insular populations of the bank vole. A distinctive feature of all small islands was that samples from them lacked the widespread pa- rasitic nematode Heligmosomum mixtum. The studies have confirmed the general trends observed in the parasite fauna of most isolated populations of small mammals: a poorer species diversity and high infestation rates with certain species of parasites. The Kizhi Archipelago is characterized by the specific high abundance of regionally rare parasite species (H hepatica, A. murissylvatici), and by the absence of common parasites (H. mixtum, H. glareoli).

  4. Helminths of wild hybrid marmosets (Callithrix sp. living in an environment with high human activity

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    Alexandre de Oliveira Tavela

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the helminth fauna in hybrid, non-native marmosets, through analysis of fecal samples. The study involved 51 marmosets (genus Callithrix from five groups living in places with levels of human impact in Viçosa-MG. The marmosets were caught using a multiple-entrance trap and were anaesthetized. Feces were collected, refrigerated and analyzed by means of the sedimentation technique (Hoffmann-Pons-Janner. Eggs and parasites were identified, but not counted. Most of the marmosets (86% were parasitized by at least one genus of helminths. Among the infected marmosets, 37% presented co-infection. The intestinal helminths comprised four different taxa: Primasubulura jacchi, Ancylostomatidae, Prosthenorchis sp. and Dilepididae.P. jacchi and Ancylostomatidae had higher prevalences (> 80% and > 40%, respectively and were found in all marmoset groups. Dilepididae species were found in almost all the groups, but only accounted for around 30% of the marmosets. Prosthenorchis sp. showed a relatively low prevalence (< 10% and was only found in one group. Although two parasites are commonly found in marmosets and other primates (P. jacchi and Prosthenorchis sp., our study is the first record for Ancylostomatidae and Dilepididae. Factors like marmosets' feeding behavior and their contact with humans and other species of nonhuman primates seem to be determinants of infection among marmosets.

  5. Mixed Production of Filamentous Fungal Spores for Preventing Soil-Transmitted Helminth Zoonoses: A Preliminary Analysis

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    M. S. Arias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminth zoonoses are parasitic infections shared by humans and animals, being the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs mainly caused by roundworms (ascarids and hookworms. This study was aimed to assess the individual and/or mixed production of two helminth-antagonistic fungi, one ovicide (Mucor circinelloides and other predator (Duddingtonia flagrans. Fungi were grown both in Petri plates and in a submerged culture (composed by water, NaCl, Na2HPO4 · 12 H2O, and wheat (Triticum aestivum. A Fasciola hepatica recombinant protein (FhrAPS was incorporated to the cultures to improve fungal production. All the cultured plates showed fungal growth, without difference in the development of the fungi when grown alone or mixed. High counts of Mucor spores were produced in liquid media cultures, and no significant differences were achieved regarding single or mixed cultures, or the incorporation of the FhrAPS. A significantly higher production of Duddingtonia spores after the incorporation of the FhrAPS was observed. When analyzing the parasiticide efficacy of the fungal mixture, viability of T. canis eggs reduced to 51%, and the numbers of third stage cyathostomin larvae reduced to 4%. It is concluded, the capability of a fungal mixture containing an ovicide (Mucor and a predator species (Duddingtonia for growing together in a submerged medium containing the FhrAPS offers a very interesting tool for preventing STHs.

  6. Survival of model helminth eggs and larvae (Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum sp.) in the ensilaging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juris, P; Rataj, D; Ilavská, I; Ziláková, J; Knotek, S; Vasilková, Z

    1997-06-01

    Ascaris suum nonembryonated eggs remained viable for the most part even after 42 days of ensilaging. At the end of the anaerobic fermentation, mean of damaged eggs was 15.2 +/- 4.02 (min. 11, max. 21), 32.9%. Conversely, the viability of Oesophagostomum sp. nonembryonated eggs and infective L3 larvae was reduced-eggs: mean number 23.6 +/- 3.64 (min. 20. max. 28) specimens (93.3%), L3 larvae: mean number 24.2 +/- 4.38 (min. 19, max. 28) specimens (96.7%), during the period of study (42 days). Control group of the same helminth propagative stages, was kept under optimum aerobic conditions. After 42 days of exposition, 9.0 +/- 3.46 (min. 5, max. 11) nonembryonated Ascaris suum eggs (12.9%), 17.33 +/- 2.51 (min. 15, max. 20) Oesophagostomum sp. eggs (36.4%) and 3.66 +/- 1.15 (min. 3, max. 5) Oesophagostomum sp. larvae L3 (6.3%) were damaged on average. Helminth eggs, thick-walled and more resistant to the environment in particular, are able to survive the anaerobic process of ensilaging. To protect animals against parasitic diseases, it is necessary to consider the epidemiological hazard of silages and silage juices, which are potentially contaminated by helminth propagative stages. Silages and silage juices under certain conditions may become harmful to polygastric animals.

  7. Gastrointestinal helminths of Commerson's dolphins Cephalorhynchus commersonii from central Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berón-Vera, B; Pedraza, S N; Raga, J A; Gil de Pertierra, A; Crespo, E A; Alonso, M K; Goodall RNP

    2001-12-05

    The stomachs and intestines of 9 Commerson's dolphins incidentally caught in trawl nets in central Patagonia and 23 stranded on beaches in Tierra del Fuego were surveyed for helminth parasites. A total of 267 individuals belonging to 4 species of parasites (1 nematode, 3 digeneans) were found in the dolphins from the first area: Anisakis sp. (larvae type 1 = A. simplex), Braunina cordiformis, Hadwenius sp. and Pholeter gastrophilus. In the Tierra del Fuego dolphins, 142 specimens belonging to 3 species (2 nematodes, 1 digenean, 1 cestode) were found: A. simplex, Hadwenius sp. and Strobilocephalus triangularis. Only 2 of the helminth species were shared in the 2 study areas, A. simplex and Hadwenius sp., and both were more common in central Patagonia. Among the species, A. simplex was most prevalent and abundant in both study areas. In Tierra del Fuego, adults of A. simplex appeared in only 1 host. Hadwenius sp., P. gastrophilus and S. triangularis are new host records for Commerson's dolphin. Species diversity and species richness were low in both study areas. Helminth communities were more diverse in central Patagonia (t = 1.97, df = 258, p Fuego. The results may suggest some differences in habitat use, diet and sex between Commerson's dolphin populations in the 2 study areas.

  8. The applications of model-based geostatistics in helminth epidemiology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Ricardo J Soares; Clements, Archie C A; Patil, Anand P; Gething, Peter W; Brooker, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Funding agencies are dedicating substantial resources to tackle helminth infections. Reliable maps of the distribution of helminth infection can assist these efforts by targeting control resources to areas of greatest need. The ability to define the distribution of infection at regional, national and subnational levels has been enhanced greatly by the increased availability of good quality survey data and the use of model-based geostatistics (MBG), enabling spatial prediction in unsampled locations. A major advantage of MBG risk mapping approaches is that they provide a flexible statistical platform for handling and representing different sources of uncertainty, providing plausible and robust information on the spatial distribution of infections to inform the design and implementation of control programmes. Focussing on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, with additional examples for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, we review the progress made to date with the application of MBG tools in large-scale, real-world control programmes and propose a general framework for their application to inform integrative spatial planning of helminth disease control programmes.

  9. Helminth species richness of introduced and native grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabeev, Volodimir

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative complex analyses of parasite communities of invaders across different native and introduced populations are largely lacking. The present study provides a comparative analysis of species richness of helminth parasites in native and invasive populations of grey mullets. The local species richness differed between regions and host species, but did not differ when compared with invasive and native hosts. The size of parasite assemblages of endohelminths was higher in the Mediterranean and Azov-Black Seas, while monogeneans were the most diverse in the Sea of Japan. The helminth diversity was apparently higher in the introduced population of Liza haematocheilus than that in their native habitat, but this trend could not be confirmed when the size of geographic range and sampling efforts were controlled for. The parasite species richness at the infracommunity level of the invasive host population is significantly lower compared with that of the native host populations that lends support to the enemy release hypothesis. A distribution pattern of the infracommunity richness of acquired parasites by the invasive host can be characterized as aggregated and it is random in native host populations. Heterogeneity in the host susceptibility and vulnerability to acquired helminth species was assumed to be a reason of the aggregation of species numbers in the population of the invasive host.

  10. Inactivation of bacteria and helminth in wastewater treatment plant effluent using oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagnini, Regiane Aparecida; dos Santos, Luciana Urbano; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Guimarães, José Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The contamination of bodies of water by raw and even treated sewage is worrying because pathogens that affect public health and the environment are not fully eliminated in wastewater treatment systems. The disinfection step is an important barrier to adopt to reduce this contamination. However, widely used disinfectants such as chlorine do not guarantee the inactivation of resistant organisms such as spore-forming bacteria and helminth eggs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of processes of peroxidation (H2O2), ultraviolet radiation (UV) and peroxidation assisted by ultraviolet radiation (H2O2/UV) in terms of reduction and inactivation of total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, helminth eggs and larvae present in a treated sewage. Doses of UV radiation of 70 mJ cm(-2) and hydrogen peroxide concentration of 30 mg L(-1) were used. The number of bacteria reduced after UV and H2O2/UV processes was 3 and 4 log, respectively. An average reduction of 59% in the number of eggs was verified when using H2O2, UV, and H2O2/UV processes. Helminth larvae were reduced by 24% after H2O2 and UV; the process H2O2/UV did not reduce the number of larvae. Statistically significant differences between the processes for both organisms were not observed.

  11. Gastrointestinal helminthes of green-winged teal (Anas crecca) from North Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hadi Alijani Ardeshir; Farshid Jafarzade; Mohammad Taghi Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the helminth parasites of Anas crecca (A. crecca) in one of proper refuges of Iran, Fereydunkenar. Methods: A total number of one hundred thirty-six gastrointestinal tracts of green-winged teal (A. crecca) were collected from Fereydunkenar, Mazandaran province during September and October 2011. The gastrointestinal tracts were examined for helminth infection.Results:shown helminthes infection. The examined A. crecca harbored one species of Nematoda, Cestoda and two species of Digenea which were as following: Contracaecum larvae (from stomach wall), Diorchis stefanskii (D. stefanskii) (from small intestine), Hypoderaeum conoideum (from small intestine) and Notocotylus attenuatus (N. attenuatus) (from caecum), respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of infection between examined males and females ducks in Hypoderaeum conoideum, D. stefanskii and N. attenuatus (P>0.05) whereas a significant relationship was observed between males and females in Contracaecum larvae (P<0.05). The total infection rate was 70.50% (96) that 68.96% (40) of males and 71.79% (56) of females Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that A. crecca plays a prominent role in transmission of mentioned parasites. In addition, this is the first report ofContracaecum larvae, D. stefanskii and N. attenuatus from A. crecca in Iran.

  12. Coincident helminth infection modulates systemic inflammation and immune activation in active pulmonary tuberculosis.

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    Parakkal Jovvian George

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are known to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses in active and latent tuberculosis (TB. However, the role of helminth infections in modulating responses associated with inflammation and immune activation (reflecting disease activity and/or severity in TB is not known.We measured markers of inflammation and immune activation in active pulmonary TB individuals (ATB with co-incidental Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss infection. These included systemic levels of acute phase proteins, matrix metalloproteinases and their endogenous inhibitors and immune activation markers. As a control, we measured the systemic levels of the same molecules in TB-uninfected individuals (NTB with or without Ss infection.Our data confirm that ATB is associated with elevated levels of the various measured molecules when compared to those seen in NTB. Our data also reveal that co-incident Ss infection in ATB individuals is associated with significantly decreased circulating levels of acute phase proteins, matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases as well as the systemic immune activation markers, sCD14 and sCD163. These changes are specific to ATB since they are absent in NTB individuals with Ss infection.Our data therefore reveal a profound effect of Ss infection on the markers associated with TB disease activity and severity and indicate that co-incidental helminth infections might dampen the severity of TB disease.

  13. Prevalence and predictors associated with intestinal infections by protozoa and helminths in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavechia, Maria Teresinha Gomes; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Campanerut-Sá, Paula Aline Zanetti; da Costa Benalia, Hugo Rafael; Mattiello, Matheus Felipe; Menechini, Pedro Victor Lazaretti; Dos Santos, Carlos Aparecido; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 2 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was performed with a large random sample to identify the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care in Marialva, southern Brazil, from April 2011 to September 2013. Stool samples from 775 individuals were analyzed for the presence of protozoan cysts, helminth eggs, and larvae. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 13.94 %, and the prevalence of protozoa and helminths was 15.1 and 2.9 %, respectively. The predictor variables that were associated with intestinal parasites were male gender odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.10-2.40) and the absence of a kitchen garden (OR 2.28, 95 % CI, 1.08-4.85). Positive associations were found between Giardia duodenalis and individuals aged ≤18 with high risk (OR 19.0, 95 % CI 2.16-167.52), between Endolimax nana and the absence of a kitchen garden (p infected individuals. Our findings confirmed a relatively low prevalence in primary care, compared to international standards, despite the rare publications in the area. As variables, male gender and the absence of a kitchen garden stood out as important predictors. It is highly relevant that the health conditions of the population comply with consistent standards.

  14. Helminth-induced Ly6Chi monocyte-derived alternatively activated macrophages suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, Cesar; de Dios Ruiz-Rosado, Juan; Amici, Stephanie A.; Jablonski, Kyle A.; Martinez-Saucedo, Diana; Webb, Lindsay M.; Cortado, Hanna; Robledo-Avila, Frank; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis I.; Guerau-de-Arellano, Mireia; Partida-Sánchez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Helminths cause chronic infections and affect the immune response to unrelated inflammatory diseases. Although helminths have been used therapeutically to ameliorate inflammatory conditions, their anti-inflammatory properties are poorly understood. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMϕs) have been suggested as the anti-inflammatory effector cells during helminth infections. Here, we define the origin of AAMϕs during infection with Taenia crassiceps, and their disease-modulating activity on the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our data show two distinct populations of AAMϕs, based on the expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 molecules, resulting upon T. crassiceps infection. Adoptive transfer of Ly6C+ monocytes gave rise to PD-L1+/PD-L2+, but not PD-L1+/PD-L2− cells in T. crassiceps-infected mice, demonstrating that the PD-L1+/PD-L2+ subpopulation of AAMϕs originates from blood monocytes. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of PD-L1+/PD-L2+ AAMϕs into EAE induced mice reduced disease incidence, delayed disease onset, and diminished the clinical disability, indicating the critical role of these cells in the regulation of autoimmune disorders. PMID:28094319

  15. Helminth fauna of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 from the suburban area of Belgrade, Serbia

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    Kataranovski D.S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The helminth fauna of the house mouse (Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 was studied on the basis of 429 host individuals from the suburban area of Belgrade. Eleven helminth species were recorded: three cestode species - Catenotaenia pusilla, Rodentolepis fraterna, and Cysticercus (= Strobilocercus fasciolaris [larval stage of Taenia taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1821]; and eight nematode species - Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia sp., Aspiculuris tetraptera, Syphacia obvelata, Heterakis spumosa, Trichuris muris, Mastophorus muris, and Gongylonema sp. Within the general helminth fauna, H. polygyrus was found to be the most prevalent species (39.2% and caused the highest infection intensity. Prevalences of A. tetraptera, C. pusilla, and S. obvelata ranged from 12.8% to 6.1%, while the remaining species showed prevalences ranging from 4.9% (for Syphacia sp. to 0.2% (for Gongylonema sp.. All the species found in males were also present in females, with the exceptions of M. muris and Gongylonema sp. No significant differences were found between males and females regarding prevalence (P%, mean infection intensity (MI, or mean abundance (MA.

  16. Urban/rural differences in prevalence and risk factors for intestinal helminth infection in southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, K; Whitty, C J; Graham, S M; Ssembatya-Lule, G

    2000-06-01

    Urbanization may increase the risk of human infection with intestinal helminths. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence, intensity and potential risk factors of acquiring such infection, among children aged 3-14 years in similar urban and rural communities in southern Malawi. Stool samples were collected from 553 children (273 urban and 280 rural). The overall prevalence of helminth infection was significantly higher in the urban subjects than in the rural (16.5% v. 3.6%; P urban community was associated with a significantly higher risk of infection [odds ratio (OR) = 5.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.6-12.1], even after controlling for potential confounding factors. In the urban community, risk factors included having pools of water/sewage around houses (OR = 3.0; CI = 1.4-6.5), not wearing shoes (OR = 7.1; CI = 2.7-19.2), not attending school (OR = 2.8; CI = 1.2-6.5), having mothers with 4-8 years of education (OR = 5.2; CI = 2.0-14.0), and having mothers below 35 years of age (OR = 4.09; CI = 1.39-16.28). In this part of Africa, efforts to reduce helminth infections may best be focused on reducing geohelminth burden in urban areas.

  17. Helminthes of synanthropic rodents (Rodentia: Muridae) from Dakahlia and Menoufia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshazly, Atef M; Awad, Soha I; Azab, Manar S; Elsheikha, Hany M; Abdel-Gawad, Abdel Gawad E; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2008-12-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to monitor and compare the prevalence of helminthes in rodents from Dakahlia and Menoufia governorates. The domestic rodents (271) were Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus frugivorous, Rattus r. alexandrinus, & Mus musculus. The overall prevalence of helminthes was 52.8%. In Dakahlia, 72/145 rats (49.6%) were infected. The highest prevalence of infection was in R. r. frugivorous 43 (60.4%), then R. r. alexandrinus 44 (47.7%), R. norvegicus 38 (44.7%), and the lowest was M. musculus 20 (40%). In Menoufia, 71/126 rats (56.3%) were infected. The highest prevalence of infection was in R. r. frugivorous 36 (77.7%), then M. musculus 27 (48.1%), R. norvegicus 23 (47.8%), and the lowest was in R. r. alexandrinus 40 (47.5%). A total of 24 species of helminthes (11 trematodes, 4 cestodes & 10 nematodes) were identified among the 271 rodents. The commonest trematode was Mesostephanus aegypticus followed by Stictodora tridactyla. The commonest cestode was Hymenolepis diminuta followed by Taenia taeniaformis. The commonest nematode was Capillaria hepatica followed by Trichurus muris. Given the zoonotic potential of rodents' parasites and since several residential, commercial, and agricultural sites exist in the examined geographic areas, the potential health risk should not be ignored.

  18. Epizootic and zoonotic helminths of the bobcat (Lynx rufus in Illinois and a comparison of its helminth component communities across the American Midwest

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    Hiestand Shelby J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 6257 helminths of 19 taxa were recovered from the digestive tract and lungs of 67 bobcats in Illinois. Infections caused by Alaria mustelae, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens are reported for the first time in bobcats. From all the taxa recovered, only three species occurred in high prevalence and caused intense infections: Taenia rileyi, Alaria marcianae, and Toxocara cati, with prevalence and mean intensity of 70% and 6; 42% and 193, and 25% and 14 individuals, respectively. Prevalence lower than 15% of 14 helminth species suggests bobcats are not continuously exposed to infective stages of a single parasite, and may be exposed to a large variety of generalists during their lifespan. No significant difference in parasite species according to host sex or age was detected, except for Diphyllobothrium spp., which were found more frequently in females and in trapped bobcats, and the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, which infected juveniles more frequently. Average species richness per infracommunity was 2.4 (±1.2, and the parasite component community showed low qualitative similarity with neighbor communities. The taxa A. caninum, Alaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Paragonimus kellicotti, and T. cati are etiological agents of epizootic and zoonotic diseases.

  19. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-05-19

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest.

  20. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J.; Laclette, Juan P.; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest. PMID:25989346

  1. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: intervention for control and elimination.

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    Roger K Prichard

    Full Text Available Recognising the burden helminth infections impose on human populations, and particularly the poor, major intervention programmes have been launched to control onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, and cysticercosis. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. A summary of current helminth control initiatives is presented and available tools are described. Most of these programmes are highly dependent on mass drug administration (MDA of anthelmintic drugs (donated or available at low cost and require annual or biannual treatment of large numbers of at-risk populations, over prolonged periods of time. The continuation of prolonged MDA with a limited number of anthelmintics greatly increases the probability that drug resistance will develop, which would raise serious problems for continuation of control and the achievement of elimination. Most initiatives have focussed on a single type of helminth infection, but recognition of co-endemicity and polyparasitism is leading to more integration of control. An understanding of the implications of control integration for implementation, treatment coverage, combination of pharmaceuticals, and monitoring is needed. To achieve the goals of morbidity reduction or elimination of infection, novel tools need to be developed, including more efficacious drugs, vaccines, and/or antivectorial agents, new diagnostics for infection and assessment of drug efficacy, and markers for possible anthelmintic resistance. In addition, there is a need for the development of new formulations of some existing anthelmintics (e.g., paediatric formulations. To achieve ultimate elimination of helminth parasites, treatments for the above mentioned helminthiases, and for taeniasis

  2. Cancer testis antigen and immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnadas DK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deepa Kolaseri Krishnadas, Fanqi Bai, Kenneth G Lucas Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: The identification of cancer testis (CT antigens has been an important advance in determining potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple previous studies have shown that CT antigen vaccines, using both peptides and dendritic cell vaccines, can elicit clinical and immunologic responses in several different tumors. This review details the expression of melanoma antigen family A, 1 (MAGE-A1, melanoma antigen family A, 3 (MAGE-A3, and New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1 in various malignancies, and presents our current understanding of CT antigen based immunotherapy. Keywords: cancer testis antigens, immunotherapy, vaccine

  3. Cross-reactivity of Toxocariasis with Crude Antigen of Toxascaris leonina Larvae by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Shen, Chenghua; Huh, Sun; Choi, Min-Ho; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2015-05-01

    Roundworms of Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina are common gastrointestinal helminths of canids over the world. Humans are infected with T. canis larvae through ingestion of infective eggs in contaminated environments or larvae by consumption of raw or uncooked meat or livers. Recently, patients of clinically diagnosed toxocariasis are increasing and require correct diagnosis in Korea. The present study investigated serological cross-reactivity between crude antigens of T. canis (TCLA) and T. leonina (TLLA) larvae. We collected serum specimens from 177 toxocariasis patients who were clinically suspected in the Seoul National University Hospital and 115 healthy controls. An ELISA method for toxocariasis was used to evaluate diagnostic efficacy of TLLA for serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis. The IgG ELISA using TLLA gave 14 (14.3%) positives of 98 TCLA positive specimens among 177 suspected toxocariasis patients. Most of them showed high absorbances with TCLA. In conclusion, there is a partial cross reaction between serum specimens of toxocariasis and TLLA.

  4. Exosome-transported microRNAs of helminth origin: new tools for allergic and autoimmune diseases therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles-Lucas, M; Morchon, R; Simon, F; Manzano-Roman, R

    2015-04-01

    Chronic diseases associated with inflammation show fast annual increase in their incidence. This has been associated with excessive hygiene habits that limit contacts between the immune system and helminth parasites. Helminthic infections induce regulation and expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg) leading to atypical Th2 type immune responses, with downregulation of the inflammatory component usually associated with these type of responses. Many cells, including those of the immune system, produce extracellular vesicles called exosomes which mediate either immune stimulation (DCs) or immune modulation (T cells). The transfer of miRNAs contained in T-cell exosomes has been shown to contribute to downregulate the production of inflammatory mediators. It has been recently described the delivery to the host-parasite interface of exosomes containing miRNAs by helminths and its internalization by host cells. In this sense, helminth microRNAs transported in exosomes and internalized by immune host cells exert an important role in the expansion of Treg cells, resulting in the control of inflammation. We here provide relevant information obtained in the field of exosomes, cell-cell communication and miRNAs, showing the high potential of helminth miRNAs delivered in exosomes to host cells as new therapeutic tools against diseases associated with exacerbated inflammatory responses.

  5. [Of worms and men--Administration of helminth products as an innovative approach to treatment of autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sega, Yahel; Versini, Mathilde; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-07-01

    In areas where helminth infections are common, there is a low prevalence of autoimmune diseases. This observation gave rise to the hygiene hypothesis, claiming that certain organisms which were abundant in the human microenvironment hold an immunoregulatory and immunosuppressive effect, therefore, their eradication led to an increase in immune mediated diseases. This hypothesis laid the foundation for several directions of research which demonstrated an immunosuppressive and immunoregulatory effect of helminths on both the acquired and the innate immune systems. These studies led to the examination of the therapeutic potential of helminths and their components in treating different autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. The administration of helminth products in murine models of these diseases exhibited a positive effect on disease expression, morbidity and mortality, as well as the ability to prevent the onset of disease to some extent (when given in a preventive protocol). Recently, a synthetic molecule composed of phosphorylcholine (a product of the nematode a. vitae) combined with the protein tuftsin, which is produced by human splenocytes, was shown to exert the aforementioned positive effects on a murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These discoveries point to a new direction in research for developing helminth-based therapies for autoimmune diseases.

  6. Prevalence of Protozoa and Gastrointestinal Helminthes in Stray Cats in Zanjan Province, North-West of Iran

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    SA Altome

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats and other felines act as definitive hosts for many intestinal parasites, some of which are responsible for several zoonotic diseases.  The aim of this study was to determine the type and prevalence of protozoa and gastrointestinal helminthes among stray cats. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted. Digestive tracts of 100 stray cats in Zanjan Province, north-west of Iran were autopsied in order to recognize gastrointestinal helminthes and intestinal protozoan parasites. These cats were collected by baited cage trapped from October 2007 to September 2008. Gender and species of helminthes and protozoa were rec­ognized using authentic diagnostic criteria. Statistical evaluation was performed by SPSS version 14. Results: Forty-two percent of cats were infected with intestinal protozoan parasites, 33% were infected with cestodes and 39% infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Four species protozoan parasites and eight gastrointestinal helminthes were recovered from the animals, including Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium spp., Joyeuxiella pasqaulei, Toxocara cati, Phy­saloptera praeputialis, Rectalaria spp., Onicolla, Cystoisospora spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis spp . Conclusions: The high infection rate of Toxoplasma and some gastrointestinal helminthes in stray cats is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health importance.

  7. A survey on helminthic infection in mice (Mus musculus and rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus in Kermanshah, Iran

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    Norollah Pakdel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections of rodents can compromise scientific research as well as the health of the animals and humans. Based on previous studies, infection rate of parasitic helminths is different in various regions of Iran. The current survey was aimed to determine endoparasitic helminths infection in 138 trapped rodents of Kermanshah county, Iran. Mice and rats were trapped using metal snares from January to October 2011 and euthanized. Rodents included 110 Mus musculus (79.00%, 23 Rattus norvegicus (17.00%, and five Rattus rattus (4.00%. The gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts were removed and examined to identify parasitic helminths. The results indicated that 42.02% of examined rodents were infected with eight helminths species, i.e. Trichuris muris (14.49%, Syphacia obvelata (13.76%, Syphacia muris (2.89%, Aspicularis tetrapetra (5.07%, Heterakis spumosa (5.07%, Capillaria hepatica eggs (3.62%, Hyminolepis diminuta (12.30%, and Cystisercus fasciolaris, the larva of Taenia teanieformis (4.34%. Given the results of this study, we concluded that examined rodents were more infected with nematodes than other helminths. As rodents are usually infected with a number of zoonotic parasites, hence control of these animals has an important role in safeguarding public health.

  8. Conceptual framework for analysing farm-specific economic effects of helminth infections in ruminants and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, Mariska; Charlier, Johannes; Lauwers, Ludwig; Vercruysse, Jozef; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Van Meensel, Jef

    2013-05-01

    Helminth infections are considered to be an important constraint on livestock productivity worldwide. The economic impact of these infections or their control strategies has traditionally been assessed by their effect on animal performance indicators or traditional economic calculation methods (e.g. budgeting and cost-benefit analysis). Because the impact of helminth infections has become more subtle and is farm-specific, one needs more refined economic evaluations of actions meant to increase or maintain the health of livestock on individual farms. This paper proposes an interdisciplinary framework that combines the developments in the veterinary control of helminth infections with economic performance measurements to identify farm-specific and profitable anthelmintic management decisions. Our framework positions individual farms' performance against performance benchmarks and is based on the farms' efficiency in transforming input(s) into output(s). We show how this positioning makes it possible to establish a linkage between input and output transformation, helminth infection levels and effects of control strategies. Furthermore, the framework allows for the identification of improvement paths that are not necessarily related to the helminth infection, but which may lead to other management improvements. We discuss the epidemiological information required and which complementary methods (e.g. efficiency analysis and budgeting techniques) can be used to make the framework operational.

  9. Antigen antibody interactions

    CERN Document Server

    DeLisi, Charles

    1976-01-01

    1. 1 Organization of the Immune System One of the most important survival mechanisms of vertebrates is their ability to recognize and respond to the onslaught of pathogenic microbes to which they are conti- ously exposed. The collection of host cells and molecules involved in this recognition­ 12 response function constitutes its immune system. In man, it comprises about 10 cells 20 (lymphocytes) and 10 molecules (immunoglobulins). Its ontogenic development is c- strained by the requirement that it be capable of responding to an almost limitless variety of molecular configurations on foreign substances, while simultaneously remaining inert to those on self components. It has thus evolved to discriminate, with exquisite precision, between molecular patterns. The foreign substances which induce a response, called antigens, are typically large molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. The portions of these with which immunoglobulins interact are called epitopes or determinants. A typical protein epitope m...

  10. Variation in the helminth community structure of Thrichomys pachyurus (Rodentia: Echimyidae) in two sub-regions of the Brazilian Pantanal: the effects of land use and seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, R; Gentile, R; Rademaker, V; D'Andrea, P; Herrera, H; Freitas, T; Lanfredi, R; Maldonado, A

    2010-09-01

    The Pantanal is a large ecosystem located in South America. This preserved area is seasonally flooded due to abundant rainfall during the summer and the subsequent overflow of the Paraguai River. In this paper, we examine the helminth community structure in the wild rodent Thrichomys pachyurus during the wet and dry seasons in two locations of the preserved and cattle ranching areas in the Southern Pantanal. We identified 12 species of helminth, and, although we did not find any differences in species richness between locations within the Pantanal, we found that richness was higher during the wet season. Helminth species were largely aggregated in both farm locations and during seasons. The most common helminth species were more abundant during the dry season than during the wet season, which may have been due to the increased habitat availability and rodent population increase. The intensity of the infection also followed the same pattern for most helminths. The trichostrongylids (Heligmostrongylus crucifer, H. almeidai and Pudica cercomysi) were dominant at both farm locations. The land use of each area was not correlated with helminth diversity. However, species composition of the helminth community of T. pachyurus differed between locations and may be correlated with environmental differences between the habitats. The seasonality of the Pantanal was highly correlated with helminth parasitism in T. pachyurus.

  11. Antigenic Variation in Bacterial Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Guy H; Bankhead, Troy; Seifert, H Steven

    2016-02-01

    Antigenic variation is a strategy used by a broad diversity of microbial pathogens to persist within the mammalian host. Whereas viruses make use of a minimal proofreading capacity combined with large amounts of progeny to use random mutation for variant generation, antigenically variant bacteria have evolved mechanisms which use a stable genome, which aids in protecting the fitness of the progeny. Here, three well-characterized and highly antigenically variant bacterial pathogens are discussed: Anaplasma, Borrelia, and Neisseria. These three pathogens display a variety of mechanisms used to create the structural and antigenic variation needed for immune escape and long-term persistence. Intrahost antigenic variation is the focus; however, the role of these immune escape mechanisms at the population level is also presented.

  12. Radioimmunoassays of hidden viral antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neurath, A.R. (Lindsley F. Kimbell Research Inst., New York, NY); Strick, N.; Baker, L.; Krugman, S.

    1982-07-01

    Antigens corresponding to infectious agents may be present in biological specimens only in a cryptic form bound to antibodies and, thus, may elude detection. We describe a solid-phase technique for separation of antigens from antibodies. Immune complexes are precipitated from serum by polyethylene glycol, dissociated with NaSCN, and adsorbed onto nitrocellulose or polystyrene supports. Antigens remain topographically separated from antibodies after removal of NaSCN and can be detected with radiolabeled antibodies. Genomes from viruses immobilized on nitrocellulose can be identified by nucleic acid hybridization. Nanogram quantities of sequestered hepatitis B surface and core antigens and picogram amounts of hepatitis B virus DNA were detected. Antibody-bound adenovirus, herpesvirus, and measles virus antigens were discerned by the procedure.

  13. Radioimmunoassays of hidden viral antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurath, A R; Strick, N; Baker, L; Krugman, S

    1982-01-01

    Antigens corresponding to infectious agents may be present in biological specimens only in a cryptic form bound to antibodies and, thus, may elude detection. We describe a solid phase technique for separation of antigens from antibodies. Immune complexes are precipitated from serum by polyethylene glycol, dissociated with NaSCN, and adsorbed onto nitrocellulose or polystyrene supports. Antigens remain topographically separated from antibodies after removal of NaSCN and can be detected with radiolabeled antibodies. Genomes from viruses immobilized on nitrocellulose can be identified by nucleic acid hybridization. Nanogram quantities of sequestered hepatitis B surface and core antigens and picogram amounts of hepatitis B virus DNA were detected. Antibody-bond adenovirus, herpesvirus, and measles virus antigens were discerned by the procedure. Images PMID:6956871

  14. Paleoparasitological Surveys for Detection of Helminth Eggs in Archaeological Sites of Jeolla-do and Jeju-do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong-Ju; Shin, Dong Hoon; Song, Mi-Jin; Song, Hye-Young

    2013-01-01

    A paleoparasitological survey to detect helminth eggs was performed in archaeological sites of Jeolla-do and Jeju-do, the Republic of Korea. Total 593 soil samples were collected in 12 sites of Jeolla-do and 5 sites of Jeju-do from April to November 2011, and examined by the methods of Pike and coworkers. A total of 4 helminth eggs, 2 eggs each for Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris sp., were found in soil samples from 1 site, in Hyangyang-ri, Jangheung-eup, Jangheung-gun, Jeollanam-do. The egg-recovery layer was presumed to represent a 19th century farm, which fact suggested the use of human manures. This is the third archaeological discovery of parasite eggs in Jeolla-do. Additionally, no helminth eggs in archaeological sites of Jeju-do is an interesting problem to be solved in the further investigations. PMID:24039296

  15. Presence of helminth eggs in wastewater sludge; Presencia de huevos de helmintos en fangos de depuracion de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GeovanPerez Ortiz, O. G.; Gomez Vera, D. [Estacion Depuradora de Aguas Residuales. Alboraia. Valencia (Spain); Faubell Brell, M. [Universidad de Valencia (Spain); Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Bernacer Bonora, I. [Entididad Publica de Saneamiento. Valencia (Spain); Bernabeu Adrian, A. [S. A. Agricultures de la Vega. Valencia (Spain); Amores Blasco, S. [Depuracion de Aguas del Mediterraneo. Valencia (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Land application is one of the best options for the elimination of wastewater sludge, because sludge is useful as conditioner and fertilizer in soils. However, land application represents a sanitary hazards due to the sludge's content in pathogenic agents. Helminth eggs are among these agents, and their hardness and resistance to adverse environmental conditions allows them to survive in soils for months. With this in mind, we have launched a study of the presence of helminth eggs in the sludge of a wastewater treatment plant in Alboraia (Valencia). The results show a concentration of helminth eggs in digestion sludge of 27.000 eggs/kg dry matter. We discuss the potential sanitary relevant of these results and the need to continue with this evaluation program. (Author) 20 refs.

  16. Helminths of the two mountain frogs, banded frog, Rana camerani Boulenger, 1886 and Uludağ frog Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 (Anura: Ranidae), collected from the Antalya province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düşen, Serdar

    2007-01-01

    In this study, two mountain frogs (Rana camerani and Rana macrocnemis) were collected in the Antalya Province in south-western Turkey during 2001 and 2002 and were examined for helminths. Out of 15 Rana camerani, 10 (66.7%) were infected with 1 or more helminths and out of 20 Rana macrocnemis, 17 (85%) were infected with 1 or more helminths. The helminth fauna of Rana camerani included 4 species of which were 3 trematode species (Haplometra cylindracea, Pleurogenoides medians, Opisthioglyphe rastellus), and 1 nematode species (Cosmocerca ornata). The helminth fauna of Rana macrocnemis included 3 species with 1 trematode species (H. cylindracea), 1 nematode species (C. ornata), and 1 acanthocephalan species (Acanthocephalus ranae). H. cylindracea and C. ornata were observed in both of the mountain frogs.

  17. Anti-Arthritic Activity of Schistosoma mansoni and Trichinella spiralis Derived-Antigens in Adjuvant Arthritis in Rats: Role of FOXP3+ Treg Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Maha M.; Ghazy, Amany A.; El azzouni, Mervat Z.; Boulos, Laila M.; Younis, Layla K.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the concept of helminths therapy in a variety of autoimmune diseases. Here, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of autoclaved Schistosoma mansoni antigen (ASMA) and Trichinella spiralis antigen (ATSA) on the clinical and immunopathological features of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Adjuvant arthritis was induced by subcutaneous and intradermal injections of complete Freund’s adjuvant into the plantar surface of the right hind paw and the root of the tail, respectively. Rats were randomly assigned to serve as normal control, untreated arthritis, ASMA or ATSA-treated arthritis groups. Antigens were given by intradermal injection in two doses, two weeks apart. The development, progression of arthritic features, and the impact on animals’ gait and body weight were followed up for 4 weeks. The associated changes in serum cytokines (IL-17, IFN-γ and IL-10), joints’ histopathology and immunohistochemistry of Foxp3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) were evaluated at the end of the study. Treatment with either ASMA or ATSA attenuated the progression of clinical features of polyarthritis, improved gait and body weight gain, reduced the elevated serum IL-17 and further increased both IFN-γ and IL-10. Histopathologically, this was associated with a remarkable regression of paws’ inflammation that was limited only to the subcutaneous tissue, and a significant increase in the number of Foxp 3+ cells versus the untreated arthritis group. In conclusion, both Schistosoma mansoni and Trichinella spiralis derived antigens exerted protective effect against adjuvant arthritis with better effect achieved by ASMA treatment. This anti-arthritic activity is attributed to upregulation of the Foxp3+ Tregs, with subsequent favorable modulation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The use of autoclaved parasitic antigens excludes the deleterious effects of imposing helminthic infection by using live parasites, which may pave the way to a

  18. Contamination of commonly consumed raw vegetables with soil transmitted helminth eggs in Mazandaran province, northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Ali; Ebrahimi, Maryam; Mehravar, Saeed; Fallah Omrani, Vahid; Fallahi, Shirzad; Behniafar, Hamed

    2016-05-16

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are responsible for significant burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Consumption of raw vegetables without proper washing is one of the major routes of such infections. We evaluate the prevalence of STH contamination in commonly used vegetables in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. A total of 772 fresh raw vegetables were obtained from retail markets. Each sample was divided into two groups. One group was used as the unwashed sample and the second group was washed with standard washing procedures. Then, samples were examined for helminth eggs by using standard methods. Data analysis was performed using SPSS20. The overall prevalence of STHs was 14.89% (115/772). The rate of STH contamination was significantly higher in warm seasons (20.5%, 79/386) than in cold seasons (9.32%, 36/386) among the unwashed vegetables (OR=2.50; CI 95%=1.64-3.8; Pcontamination was significantly higher in leafy vegetables than root vegetables (OR=1.67; CI 95%=1.09-2.55; P<0.05). The prevalence of STHs species in all the vegetables were as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides (3.36%), Trichuris trichiura (2.2%), hookworms (2.9%), Toxocara spp. (1.68%), Trichostrongylus spp. (1.55), Taenia sp. (0.9%) and Hymenolepis nana (2.2%). The results of the present study emphasized that vegetables are potential risk factor for transmission of helminth infection to human in northern Iran. It is necessary that health authorities trained the consumers to proper and standard washing of vegetables before consumption.

  19. Helminth species diversity and biology in the bobcat, Lynx rufus (Schreber), from Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiekotter, K L

    1985-04-01

    Cestodes of 4 species and nematodes of 9 species were collected from 75 bobcats, Lynx rufus (Schreber), in Nebraska from 1977 to 1979. Of these 75, 11 were trapped from 6 border counties in 3 border states: South Dakota, 7 carcasses/3 counties; Kansas, 3/2; and Wyoming, 1/1. Helminths recovered included: Mesocestoides corti Hoeppli, 1925 (15% prevalence), Taenia rileyi Loewen, 1929 (67%), Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780) Gmelin, 1790 (27%), Taenia macrocystis (Diesing, 1850) Lühe, 1910 (19%), Physaloptera praeputialis von Linstow, 1889 (55%), Physaloptera rara Hall and Wigdor, 1918 (32%), Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) Leiper, 1907 (31%), Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1780) (39%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (Zeder, 1800) von Linstow, 1885 (5%), Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) cahirensis (Jägerskiöld, 1909) Quentin, 1969 (1%), Vogeloides felis (Vogel, 1928) Davtian, 1933 (7%), Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925) Sandground, 1932 (12%), and Capillaria aerophila (Creplin, 1839) (4%). One bobcat was not infected; 74 had 1 to 7 species (means = 3). Simpson's index for helminth species was moderately low (0.12), indicating a relatively diverse helminth fauna. Mean levels of infection between prominent species pairs and within each species were compared with bobcat sex and age differences using Student's t-test. Mean intensity of Physaloptera praeputialis was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of Toxocara cati; mean intensity of Mesocestoides corti was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of all other prominent species. No significant intensity differences were indicated among bobcat sex and age categories. G-tests computed for prevalence of prominent species with bobcat age indicated no significance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Gastrointestinal helminths are highly prevalent in scavenging chickens of selected districts of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussen, Heyradin; Chaka, Hassen; Deneke, Yosef; Bitew, Molalegne

    2012-03-15

    A cross-sectional survey on gastrointestinal helminths was conducted on 124 chickens raised under traditional management system in two selected districts namely Ada'a and Adamitulu of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 111 (89.5%) were found to harbor one of the five different helminth parasites and 13 (10.48%) were free of helminths parasites. The study also found that 103 (83.0%) and 72 (58.0%) of the examined chickens were invariably infected by diverse species of cestodes and nematodes species, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference (p Raillietina echinobothrida 79 (63.7%), Raillietina tetragona 70 (56.5%), Raillietina cesticillus 50 (40.3%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum 17 (13.7%), Davainea proglottina 10 (8.1%), Hymenolepis contaniana 22 (17.7%) and Hymenolepis carioca 7 (17.7%). The major nematode species encountered were Heterakis gallinarum 47 (37.9%), Ascaridia galli 40 (32.0%), Gongylonema ingluvicola 32 (25.8%), Dispharynx nasuta 5 (4.0%), Heterakis isolonche 11 (8.9%), Allodapa suctoria 9 (7.3%), Capillaria anatis 4 (3.2%) and Heterakis dispar 8 (6.5%). The study also tried to see the prevalence of these parasites in relation with age and sex however, it has no significant difference (p > 0.05) with those risk factors. On the other hand district significantly affect the prevalence of some parasites (p < 0.05). This study strongly suggested that helminthosis is a very serious problem of backyard chickens in eastern Shewa zone of Oromia and appropriate control strategies need to be devised.

  1. 囊虫病免疫诊断候选抗原研究进展%Advances in research on candidate antigens for immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕

    2011-01-01

    猪囊尾蚴免疫诊断抗原的研究是囊虫病免疫诊断的基础.猪囊尾蚴抗原成分复杂,特别是虫体粗抗原,与多种寄生虫存在明显的交叉抗原成分,影响检测的特异性.近年来随着分子生物学的发展,重组抗原制备简单,检测效果良好,已成为囊虫病免疫诊断研究的热点.本文对近年来囊虫病免疫诊断抗原的分子生物学研究进展进行了综述.%Study of the antigens of Taenia solium is the basis for immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis. Taenia solium antigens have a number of components, which is particularly true of the parasite's crude antigens. Cross-reactivity with other helminth infections occurs with whole worm antigen and affects the specificity of the parasitr's detection. Immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis has garnered attention because of recent advances in molecular biology, ready preparation of recombinant antigens, and the increased effectiveness of the disease's detection. This review describes recent advances in molecular biology research on antigens for use in immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis.

  2. The Case for Mass Treatment of Intestinal Helminths in Endemic Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Joan Hamory; Kremer, Michael; Miguel, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Two articles published earlier this year in the International Journal of Epidemiology [1,2] have re-ignited the debate over the World Health Organization’s long-held recommendation of mass-treatment of intestinal helminths in endemic areas. In this note, we discuss the content and relevance of these articles to the policy debate, and review the broader research literature on the educational and economic impacts of deworming. We conclude that existing evidence still indicates that mass deworming is a cost-effective health investment for governments in low-income countries where worm infections are widespread. PMID:26492528

  3. A Critical Appraisal of Control Strategies for Soil-Transmitted Helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Suzy J; Nery, Susana V; McCarthy, James S; Gray, Darren J; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Clements, Archie C A

    2016-02-01

    Interventions that lead to reductions in soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) include chemotherapy with anthelmintic drugs and improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). In this opinion article we aim to determine the evidence for optimal approaches for STH control. First we explore the evidence for the above interventions. We then appraise two integration strategies: current chemotherapy-oriented integrated neglected tropical disease (NTD) control and expanded 'multicomponent integration', which includes integrated chemotherapy, WASH, and other intervention strategies. While multicomponent integrated control may be an effective approach to sustainably reduce STH transmission, there is a need for evidence to prove the feasibility of this approach.

  4. Patterns and risk factors of helminthiasis and anemia in a rural and a peri-urban community in Zanzibar, in the context of helminth control programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Knopp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The control of helminth infections and prevention of anemia in developing countries are of considerable public health importance. The purpose of this study was to determine patterns and risk factors of helminth infections and anemia in a rural and a peri-urban community of Zanzibar, Tanzania, in the context of national helminth control programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a community-based cross-sectional study in 454 individuals by examining at least two stool samples with different methods for soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura and one urine sample for Schistosoma haematobium. Finger-prick blood was taken to estimate anemia levels and to detect antibody reactions against ascariasis, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA approach. Parasitological methods determined a helminth prevalence of 73.7% in the rural, and 48.9% in the peri-urban setting. Most helminth infections were of light intensity with school-aged children showing the highest intensities. Multiple helminth species infections were pervasive in rural dwellers regardless of age. More than half of the participants were anemic, with a particularly high prevalence in the peri-urban setting (64.7%. Risk factors for helminth infections were age, sex, consumption of raw vegetables or salad, recent travel history, and socio-economic status. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: After several years of chemotherapy-based morbidity control efforts in Zanzibar, helminth prevalences are still high and anemia is common, but helminth infection intensities are low. Hence, chemotherapy should be continued, and complemented with improved access to clean water, adequate sanitation, and health education, along with poverty alleviation measures for a more enduring impact.

  5. Molecular Insights for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Soil-Transmitted Helminths from a Facility-Based Surveillance System in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Daniel E.; Arvelo, Wences; Cama, Vitaliano A.; López, Beatriz; Reyes, Lissette; Roellig, Dawn M.; Kahn, Geoffrey D.; Lindblade, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    We molecularly characterized samples with Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and soil-transmitted helminths from a facility-based surveillance system for diarrhea in Santa Rosa, Guatemala. The DNA sequence analysis determined the presence of Giardia assemblages A (N = 7) and B (N = 12) and, Cryptosporidium hominis (N = 2) and Cryptosporidium parvum (N = 2), suggestive of different transmission cycles. All 41 samples with soil-transmitted helminths did not have the β-tubulin mutation described for benzimidazole resistance, suggesting potential usefulness in mass drug administration campaigns. PMID:22144459

  6. Study of gastro-intestinal helminths of scavenging chickens in four rural districts of Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetu, Y; Mulualem, E; Ibrahim, H; Berhanu, A; Aberra, K

    2001-12-01

    A total of 267 rural scavenging chickens were examined from October 1998 to August 1999 in four woredas (districts) of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 243 (91.01%) were found to harbour one to nine different helminth parasites and 24 (8.99%) were free of helminth parasites. A significant difference (P Raillietina echinobothrida (25.84%), Raillietina tetragona (45.69%), Raillietina cesticillus (5.62%), Amoebotaenia sphenoides (40.45%), Davainea proglottina (1.12%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.49%).

  7. Host parasite communications-Messages from helminths for the immune system: Parasite communication and cell-cell interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Gillian; Buck, Amy H; Maizels, Rick M

    2016-07-01

    Helminths are metazoan organisms many of which have evolved parasitic life styles dependent on sophisticated manipulation of the host environment. Most notably, they down-regulate host immune responses to ensure their own survival, by exporting a range of immuno-modulatory mediators that interact with host cells and tissues. While a number of secreted immunoregulatory parasite proteins have been defined, new work also points to the release of extracellular vesicles, or exosomes, that interact with and manipulate host gene expression. These recent results are discussed in the overall context of how helminths communicate effectively with the host organism.

  8. COLONOSCOPY AND CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita G SOUSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Colonoscopy is essential for synchronous and metachronous cancer detection. Carcinoembryonic antigen is a colorectal cancer tumor marker, important as a follow-up tool in patients with previous colorectal cancer. False-positive carcinoembryonic antigen elevation results in multiples exams and in patient anxiety. In literature, there is reference to transient carcinoembryonic antigen increase with colonoscopy. Objective To evaluate the influence of bowel preparation and colonoscopy in carcinoembryonic antigen blood levels. Methods We prospectively studied subjects that underwent routine colonoscopy in our institution. Blood samples were collected (1 before bowel cleaning, (2 before colonoscopy and (3 immediately after colonoscopy. Blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels were determined by “Sandwich” immunoassay. The statistical methods used were the paired t-test and ANOVA. Results Thirty-seven patients (22M/15F were included; age range 28-84 (mean 56 years. Mean carcinoembryonic antigen values were 1.9, 2 and 1.8 for (1, (2 and (3, respectively. An increase in value (2 compared with (1 was observed in 20/37 patients (P = 0.018, mainly in younger patients and in patients requiring more endoluminal interventions. In 29/37 patients, the CEA value decreased from (2 to (3 (P = 1.3x10-7. Conclusions A trend for carcinoembryonic antigen increase after bowel cleaning was observed, especially in younger patients and in patients with more endoluminal interventions, but without clinical meaning.

  9. Evaluation of a di-O-methylated glycan as a potential antigenic target for the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elefant, G R; Roldán, W H; Seeböck, A; Kosma, P

    2016-04-01

    Serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis is based on the detection of specific IgG antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using Toxocara larvae excretory-secretory (TES) antigens, but its production is a laborious and time-consuming process being also limited by the availability of adult females of T. canis as source for ova to obtain larvae. Chemical synthesis of the di-O-methylated (DiM) glycan structure found in the TES antigens has provided material for studying the antibody reactivity in a range of mammalian hosts, showing reactivity with human IgM and IgG. In this study, we have evaluated the performance of the DiM glycan against a panel of sera including patients with toxocariasis (n = 60), patients with other helminth infections (n = 75) and healthy individuals (n = 94), showing that DiM is able to detect IgG antibodies with a sensitivity and specificity of 91·7% and 94·7%, respectively, with a very good agreement with the TES antigens (kappa = 0·825). However, cross-reactivity was observed in some sera from patients with ascariasis, hymenolepiasis and fascioliasis. These results show that the DiM glycan could be a promising antigenic tool for the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis.

  10. The distribution of intestinal helminth infections in a rural village in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. C. Anderson

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal egg count scores were used to investigate the distribution and abundance of intestinal helminths in the population of a rural village. Prevalences of the major helminths were 41% with Ascaris lumbricoides 60% with Trichuris trichiura and 50% with Necator americanus. All three parasites showed a highly aggregated distribution among hosts. Age/prevalence and age/intensity profiles were typical for both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura with the highest worm burdens in the 50-10 year old children. For hookworm both prevalence and intensity curves were convex in shape with maximum infection levels in the 30-40 year old age class. Infected females had higher burdens of T. trichiura than infected males in all age classes of the population; there were no other effects of host gender. Analysis of associations between parasites within hosts revealed strong correlations between A. lumbricoides and T. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Individuals with heavy infections of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura showed highly significant aggregation within households. Associations between a variety of household features and heavy infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura are described.

  11. Helminth parasites of the red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) from the reef Santiaguillo, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Mendoza, Jesús; Jiménez-Badillo, Lourdes; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F

    2014-12-01

    A total of 21 helminth species were recovered from 52 specimens of red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus , captured in the reef Santiaguillo, Parque Nacional Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano, State of Veracruz, in the Southern Gulf of Mexico. These helminths included 9 trematodes (7 adults and 2 metacercariae), 4 nematodes (3 adults and 1 larva), 4 acanthocephalans (1 adult and 3 juvenile), 2 cestodes (both larvae), and 2 monogeneans. Sixteen of the 21 species are new host records; 7 are common species with a prevalence >40% and mean intensity >4.1. The monogenean Euryhaliotrema tubocirrus was the most-prevalent parasite with a prevalence of 78.8%, followed by the intestinal plerocercoids of Tetraphyllidea with a prevalence of 59.6%. The richness (S = 21), and diversity (Shannon index H = 2.17) in the component community, as well as in the infracommunity level (S = 5.1 ± 2.2, H = 0.92 ± 0.4), was similar to those found in other marine fish of temperate and tropical latitudes. The present study suggests that the composition of the parasite community is associated with the host feeding habits because 18/21 of the recorded species are trophically transmitted.

  12. Prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal helminthes among local chickens, in northern Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelqader, A; Gauly, M; Wollny, C B A; Abo-Shehada, M N

    2008-06-15

    We conducted a cross-sectional study from December 2004 to February 2005 and from June 2005 to August 2005. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal and tracheal helminthes among local chickens in northern Jordan. A total of 208 male and female local scavenging chickens were selected randomly. We examined the trachea and gastrointestinal tract of each bird for the presence of helminthes. We recovered three nematode and eight cestode species. No trematodes were found. One hundred and fifty-two birds (73.1%) (95% CI: 67, 79) were infected. The prevalences of different species were as follows: Ascaridia galli female 28%, male 43%; Capillaria obsignata 0.5%; Heterakis gallinarum 33%; Amoebotaenia cuneata 4.3%; Choanotaenia infundibulum female 23%, male 13%; Davainea proglottina 1.4%; Hymenolepsis cantaniana 11%; Hymenolepsis carioca female 35%, male 24%; Raillietina cesticillius female 5%, male 11%; Raillietina echinobothrida 16%; and Raillietina tetragona 18%. The prevalences of A. galli and R. cesticillus were higher in male than female hosts while those of C. infundibulum and H. carioca were higher in females. The median worm burden was 7 (range 0-168) worms per chicken.

  13. Parasitic helminths of the wild rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, in different bioclimatic zones in Tenerife, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, P; Del Castillo, A; Abreu, N; Figueruelo, E; Piñero, J; Casanova, J C

    2003-12-01

    Faunistic and ecological analyses of the wild rabbit helminth fauna were undertaken in Tenerife island (Canary Islands). Rabbits were collected between 1998 and 2000 in seven bioclimatic zones in Tenerife selected by orientation and altitude. Five parasite species were identified, three cestodes (Taenia pisiformis (larvae), Andrya cuniculi and Mosgovoyia ctenoides) and two nematodes (Trichostrongylus retortaeformis and Passalurus ambiguus). Taenia pisiformis presented an irregular distribution with significant differences in prevalences between the zones. Andrya cuniculi was only found in two zones and there were no significant differences in prevalence values. Mosgovoyia ctenoides presented a wide distribution with significant prevalences, which were higher in northern compared to southern zones. Trichostrongylus retortaeformis was absent in the low southern zones of the island. Passalurus ambiguus was found in all zones with no significant difference in the prevalence of infection. The differences in prevalences are likely to be explained by abiotic factors in the case of T. retortaeformis, and by the absence of definitive and intermediate hosts in the case of T. pisiformis and A. cuniculi, respectively. All parasite species in Tenerife are common helminths in the Iberian Peninsula, from which their rabbit hosts originated. No significant differences were recorded in the mean intensities of infection of any of the parasite species identified.

  14. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Reduces the Development of Colitis-Associated Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Cabrera, Sonia; Callejas, Blanca E.; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Coronel, Jossimar; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Cirlos, Emma B.; Ávila-Moreno, Federico; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Marquina-Castillo, Brenda; Chirino, Yolanda I.; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2014-01-01

    Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) is one of the most common cancers and is closely related to chronic or deregulated inflammation. Helminthic infections can modulate inflammatory responses in some diseases, but their immunomodulatory role during cancer development remains completely unknown. We have analyzed the role of Taenia crassiceps-induced anti-inflammatory response in determining the outcome of CAC. We show that extraintestinal T. crassiceps infection in CAC mice inhibited colonic inflammatory responses and tumor formation and prevented goblet cell loss. There was also increased expression of IL-4 and alternatively activated macrophages markers in colonic tissue and negative immunomodulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. In addition, T. crassiceps infection prevented the upregulation of β-catenin and CXCR2 expression observed in the CAC mice, which are both markers associated with CAC-tumorigenesis, and reduced the numbers of circulating and colonic CD11b+Ly6ChiCCR2+ monocytes. Thus, immunomodulatory activities induced by helminth infections may have a role in the progression of CAC. PMID:25210492

  15. Predictors of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes Helminth Parasite Diversity in the Provinces of Spain

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    Miquel, J.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the viscera of 321 red foxes collected over the last 30 years in 34 of the 47 provinces of peninsular Spain, and identified their helminth parasites. We measured parasite diversity in each sampled province using four diversity indices: Species richness, Margalef's species richness index, Shannon's species diversity index, and inverse Simpson's index. In order to find geographical, environmental, and/or human-related predictors of fox parasite diversity, we recorded 45 variables related to topography, climate, lithology, habitat heterogeneity, land use, spatial situation, human activity, sampling effort, and fox presence probability (obtained after environmental modelling of fox distribution. We then performed a stepwise linear regression of each diversity index on these variables, to find a minimal subset of statistically significant variables that account for the variation in each diversity index. We found that most parasite diversity indices increase with the mean distance to urban centres, or in other words, foxes in more rural provinces have a more diverse helminth fauna. Sampling effort and fox presence probability (probably related to fox density also appeared as conditioning variables for some indices, as well as soil permeability (related with water availability. We then extrapolated the models to predict these fox parasite diversity indices in non-sampled provinces and have a view of their geographical trends.

  16. Parasite contamination (helminth eggs) in sludge treatment plants: definition of a sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Philippe G; Schwartzbrod, Janine

    2003-03-01

    The use of sludge in agriculture must be carried out according to many guidelines, especially regarding a precise knowledge of the pathogenic microorganisms it contains. The control of the produced sludge requires a sampling strategy that is representative of the contamination present in the sludge. Thus, we evaluated the distribution of helminth eggs in sludge to determine how to sample and at what frequency. Two plants were studied, firstly we studied sludge that was undergoing biological treatment (anaerobic digestion, prolonged aeration), secondly we evaluated the dehydration step (centrifugation and filter press). The helminth egg concentrations were measured over short periods (between 5 minutes and 7 hours) and for periods of over 24 hours (7 to 28 days). The results showed that there was much homogeneity in periods of less than 7 hours, thus it was advisable to take grab samples. An appropriate sample weight was 30 g dry matter, because this allowed an analysis in triplicate when testing treatment processes according to standards of France, (less than 3 viable eggs/10 g dry matter). Determination of the egg concentration in the plants during periods of over 24 hours showed that the parasite flow was stable. In some cases, large variations were due to the treatment processes (storage or thickening, mixing of different sludges). These results have been confirmed with the study of 6 other plants during a one year period. Thus, the recommended sampling frequency can be limited to every 3 to 6 months, by adapting the sampling methods to the characteristics of the plant.

  17. Viscous heating effect on deactivation of helminth eggs in ventilated improved pit sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, D; Foutch, G L; Smay, J; Archer, C; Buckley, C A

    2015-01-01

    Viscous heating by extrusion of faecal material obtained from ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrines can be used to deactivate soil-transmitted helminth (STH) eggs by increasing the temperature of faecal sludge uniformly. Viscous heating can deactivate STH eggs present in sludge to make the material safer to transport, dispose of, or use in agricultural applications or as an energy source. The mechanical energy required to generate the shear rate can originate from any source. No other heat source or additive is required. Here we determined a baseline for the deactivation of STH eggs using viscous heating. To characterize equipment performance, three parameters were investigated: (1) minimum temperature required for deactivation; (2) local maximum temperatures for various flow rates and moisture contents (MCs); and (3) thermal efficiency. Excess water is undesirable since low viscosities require extended residence time and increased energy input. The minimum temperature to achieve greater than 90% helminth egg deactivation is 70 °C. For the laboratory-scale equipment tested, the maximum allowable mass flow rate for VIP sludge with 77% MC was found to be 3.6 g/s.

  18. "EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF OXANTEL – PYRANTEL ON VARIOUS SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS IN IRAN "

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    E. Farahmandian

    1977-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a combination of Oxantel- Pyrantel with a single dose of 10 mg/ kg body weight on Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris, Trichostrongylus spp. and Ancylostoma duodenale has been evaluated among the population of two rural areas in Khuzestan, Southwest Iran (41 persons and Isfahan, Central (30 persons. All patients were infected with Trichuris trichiura and some simultaneously with one or more other helminthes. In addition to stool examinations, to elucidate the possible side- effects, several blood and urine tests were conducted before and after treatment. A cure rate of 83% has been found among Trichuris cases treated in both areas. Cure rates observes for ascariasis and trichostrongyliasis were 93. 3% and 23% in Khuzestan, as well as 90% and 50% in Isfahan, respectively. Cure rate for ancylostomiasis was 86% in Khuzestan.Significant reduction in the mean number of egg.gr of faeces has been observed.Side- effects encountered were mild and transient. The promisisng effect of this drug on soil – transmitted helminthes, particulary Trichuris trichiura has been proven.

  19. Endoparasitic helminths of the harbour seal, Phoca vitulina, in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgsteede, F. H. M.; Bus, H. G. J.; Verplanke, J. A. W.; van Burg, W. P. J.

    The endoparasitic helminth fauna of harbour seals which had died during the epidemic of the phocine distemper virus in 1988 was studied. Lungs, heart and gastrointestinal tracts of 94 animals collected along the Dutch coast were available for investigation. The following parasites and infection percentages were found: Nematoda: Dipetalonema spirocauda (24.5%), Otostrongylus circumlitus (6.4%), Parafilaroides gymnurus (24.5%), Ascaridoidea spec. (58.5%); Trematoda: Phagicola septentrionalis (66.0%), Cryptocotyle lingua (74.5%); Cestoda: Diphyllobothrium spec. (8.5%); Acanthocephala: Corynosoma strumosum (70.2%). The presence of worm species was not evenly distributed over the age classes. Seals younger than one year harboured fewer parasites. The highest percentages were found in 1 to 2 year old seals. The number of worms per seal varied greatly. The highest burden for ascarids was 253, for P. septentrionalis 123 000, for C. lingua 112 000 and for C. strumosum 251. A comparison of the present results with those described in the literature shows that in Dutch seals the same species were present and that numbers of worms were not higher than before the 1988 mass mortality. It is therefore concluded that helminth parasites did not cause the mass mortality.

  20. Malaria, Intestinal Helminths and Other Risk Factors for Stillbirth in Ghana

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    Nelly J. Yatich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of the study was to assess Plasmodium/intestinal helminth infection in pregnancy and other risk factors for stillbirth in Ghana. Methods. A cross-sectional study of women presenting for delivery in two hospitals was conducted during November-December 2006. Data collected included sociodemographic information, medical and obstetric histories, and anthropometric measures. Laboratory investigations for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal helminths, and tests for hemoglobin levels were also performed. Results. The stillbirth rate was relatively high in this population (5%. Most of the stillbirths were fresh and 24% were macerated. When compared to women with no malaria, women with malaria had increased risk of stillbirth (OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.2–9.3. Other factors associated with stillbirth were severe anemia, low serum folate concentration, past induced abortion, and history of stillbirth. Conclusion. The fact that most of the stillbirths were fresh suggests that higher quality intrapartum care could reduce stillbirth rates.

  1. Helminth infections in British troops following an operation in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M S; Thomas, R; Green, A D; Bailey, J W; Beeching, N J

    2006-09-01

    One hundred and fifty-three British soldiers and 86 Royal Air Force (RAF) personnel were deployed on a hostage rescue operation in Sierra Leone. For 3 days they were exposed to various infection risks and 6 weeks later some of the soldiers presented with gastrointestinal complaints. Both groups were screened with structured questionnaires, blood investigations and (where indicated) faecal microscopy and charcoal culture for helminths. Definite and probable cases of helminth infection were treated with albendazole and all soldiers were screened again after 3 months. Among the soldiers investigated, 73/145 (50%) reported gastrointestinal symptoms and 70/139 (50%) had eosinophilia. Among these, 17/66 (26%) had hookworm infection, 6/66 (9%) had Strongyloides stercoralis infection and 1/66 (2%) had Giardia lamblia infection. Eosinophilia was most strongly associated with entering the enemy camp and being in the platoon that attacked the area around the camp latrines. Among RAF personnel, who were not involved in activities on the ground, 3/86 (3%) had borderline eosinophilia. Treatment of 105/153 (69%) soldiers with albendazole was well tolerated and, on follow-up screening 3 months later, 23/124 soldiers (19%) had gastrointestinal symptoms and 18/121 (15%) had eosinophilia. Faecal investigations and schistosomiasis serology tests were all negative at this stage.

  2. Survey on helminths in the small intestine of wild foxes in Qinghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Zhihong; Duo, Hong; Fu, Yong; Peng, Mao; Shen, Xiuying; Tsukada, Hideharu; Irie, Takao; Nasu, Tetsuo; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki

    2013-10-01

    The intestinal helminth fauna of Tibetan sand foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) inhabiting in Qinghai, China, was evaluated by conducting necropsy of hunted foxes and fecal egg examination of field-collected feces. In northeast and south Qinghai, 36 foxes were necropsied, and the species of foxes and the parasites detected were identified by the DNA barcoding. In 27 red foxes and 9 Tibetan sand foxes examined, Mesocestoides litteratus (total prevalence: 64%), Toxascaris leonina (50%), Taenia pisiformis (8%) and Taenia crassiceps (8%) were found in both species of foxes. Echinococcus shiquicus (8%) and Taenia multiceps (6%) were found only in Tibetan sand foxes. Echinococcus multilocularis (3%) and Alaria alata (8%) were found only in red foxes. In the fecal egg examination of the rectal feces, 100% of taeniid cestodes, 73% of Toxascaris and 27% of Mesocestoides worm-positive samples showed egg-positive, indicating that coprological survey for parasite eggs could only provide partial information of intestinal parasite fauna. For field-collected feces, molecular identification of feces origins and fecal egg examination were performed. In 15 Tibetan sand fox and 30 red fox feces, we found E. multilocularis eggs in one feces of Tibetan sand fox. The present study indicated that the upper intestinal helminth fauna of the two fox species in Qinghai does not differ significantly and both species would play an important role in the maintenance of taeniid cestodes.

  3. Helminth fauna of the Siberian chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus Laxmann (Rodentia, Sciuridae) introduced in suburban French forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, Benoît; Jerusalem, Christelle; Huchery, Cindy; Marmet, Julie; Chapuis, Jean-Louis

    2007-05-01

    The spread of an immigrant host species can be influenced both by its specific helminth parasites that come along with it and by newly acquired infections from native fauna. The Siberian chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus Laxmann (Rodentia, Sciuridae), a northeastern Eurasiatic ground nesting Sciurid, has been introduced in France for less than three decades. Thirty individuals were collected from three suburban forests in the Ile-de-France Region between 2002 and 2006. Two intestinal nematode species dominated the helminth fauna: Brevistriata skrjabini [Prevalence, P, 99% C.I., 87% (64-97%); mean intensity, M.I., 99% C.I., 43 (28-78)] and Aonchotheca annulosa [P, 47% (25-69%); M.I., 35 (3-157)]. B. skrjabini is a direct life cycle nematode species of North Eurasiatic origin, with a restricted spectrum of phylogenetically related suitable hosts. This result indicates that B. skrjabini successfully settled and spread with founder pet chipmunks maintained in captivity and released in natura. Chipmunks acquired A. annulosa, a nematode species with a large spectrum of phylogenetically unrelated suitable host species, from local Muroid rodent species with similar behavior, life-history traits and habitats. Quantitative studies are needed to evaluate the potential for both B. skrjabini and A. annulosa to impede the spread of Tamias and for B. skrjabini to favor chipmunk colonization through detrimental effects upon native co-inhabiting host species.

  4. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...

  5. Occurrence of gastrointestinal and renal helminths inZenaida auriculata (Des Murs, 1847 trap-captured from Brazil

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    Alessandra Taroda

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal and renal helminths from naturally infected Zenaida auriculatacaptured in Londrina, Paraná State. Two hundred and one Eared doves were trapped and the gastrointestinal and renal helminths were collected and identified according to morphological structures. One hundred and sixteen (57.71% doves were parasitized by helminths with specific prevalences forOrnithostrongylus quadriradiatus in 50 doves (24.88%,Ascaridia columbae in 47 (23.38%, Paratanaisia bragai and P. confusa in 34 (16.92%,Tetrameres fissispina in 17 (8.46%, Synhimantus nasuta in 14 (6.47%, Brachylaima mazzantii in 4 (1.99% and Raillietina allomyodes in 2 doves (1.00%. Seventy four/201 (37.00% birds were infected with only one species, and 96/201 (48.00% pigeons were infected with nematodes. The association between different classes of helminths occurred in 40/201 (20.00% animals. The results showed statistically differences between the presence of nematode (p = 0.00001 and trematode species (p ≤ 0.05 in the doves, and there was an association between the local of capture and the presence of trematodes and A. columbae (p ≤ 0.05. This study is the first to report the infection of Z. auriculata from Brazil with O. quadriradiatus, A. columbae, T. fissispina, S. nasuta, R. allomyodes, P. bragai and P. confusa.

  6. Prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal helminths in wild and domestic guineafowls (Numida meleagris in the Southern Province of Zambia

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    King Shimumbo Nalubamba

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: Syngamus trachea, Streptocara pectinifera and Acuaria spiralis are reported for the first time in domestic poultry in Zambia. This study represents the first comparative study of helminths in domestic and wild guineafowls at an interface area and adds to the knowledge base in a discipline where a dearth currently exists.

  7. Counter-regulatory anti-parasite cytokine responses during concurrent Plasmodium yoelii and intestinal helminth infections in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaria and helminth infections are two of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in tropical areas. While concomitant infection is common, mechanisms contributing to altered disease outcomes during co-infection remain poorly defined. We have previously reported exacerbation of normally non-lethal ...

  8. Helminth infection impairs the immunogenicity of a Plasmodium falciparum DNA vaccine, but not irradiated sporozoites, in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of an effective vaccine against malaria remains a priority. However, a significant number of individuals living in tropical areas are also likely to be co-infected with helminths, which are known to adversely affect immune responses to a number of different existing vaccines. Here we com...

  9. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

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    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results: Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion: Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  10. Pattern of intestinal helminth infections among school chil-dren in an urban community in Ibadan,Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatiregun AA; Oluwatoba OA

    2008-01-01

    Despite a substantial reduction in the incidence and prevalence of parasitic diseases in the industrialized world, they continue to be an important public health problem in many developing African countries,including Nigeri-a.However,estimates of the prevalence of such infections among school age children,who bear the greatest health burden due to these diseases,are hard to come by.The objective of this study was therefore to deter-mine the prevalence and type of intestinal helminth infections among primary school pupils.The study was cross-sectional in design.The participants included 266 pupils recruited from three government primary schools in the Mokola area of Ibadan,Nigeria.The pupils were interviewed and their stool samples examined for eggs of common helminths.The mean age of the pupils was 9.8 ±2.6 years,and 128 (48.1%)were males.Nine-teen pupils (7.1%)had intestinal helminth infestations.Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 17 pupils (6. 4%)and was the most prevalent helminth among the children,while Trichuris trichiura was found in only two subjects (0.8%).Previous infestations and the use of public toilets were found to be significantly associated with current infections (P <0.05).This study demonstrated that the prevalence of intestinal infections was low among the pupils studied,and that Ascaris infection was the commonest infestation.

  11. A comparison of the prevalence and burdens of helminth infections in growers and adult free-range chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwisha, H B; Kassuku, A A; Kyvsgaard, N C; Permin, A

    2002-05-01

    Matched samples of 100 chickens of each of growers and adult rural free-range chickens in Morogoro, Tanzania, were purchased from the beginning to the end of the long rainy season. At necropsy, the trachea, the gastrointestinal tract and the oviduct were examined for helminth infections. The helminth species isolated comprised 18 nematodes and 8 cestodes but no trematodes. Tetrameres fissispina is a new record in Tanzania. All the chickens harboured at least three different helminth species. Growers contained 4-14 and adults 3-12 helminth species. The number of species isolated per chicken increased as the rainy season advanced. The prevalence of the following species were significantly higher in growers than in adults (p Raillietina tetragona (36%, 21%). Allodapa suctoria (3%, 20%) and Capillaria annulata (1%, 10%) had a significantly lower prevalence in growers than in adults (p tetragona, S. trachea, T. americana, T. fissispina and T. tenuis. Conversely, A. suctoria and C. annulata showed significantly higher worm burdens in adults (p < 0.05). The sex of the chickens influenced the burdens of Heterakis brevispiculum (p < 0.05). There was an interaction effect such that growing males and adult females had statistically higher (p < 0.05) burdens of T. tenuis and A. suctoria, respectively.

  12. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods : Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results : Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion : Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  13. Detection of selected intestinal helminths and protozoa at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia using multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuni, M; Mohamed, Z; Ahmad, M; Zakaria, N Z; Noordin, R

    2012-09-01

    Intestinal parasites are the causative agents of a number of important human infections in developing countries. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of selected helminths and protozoan infections among patients admitted with gastrointestinal disorders at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia using multiplex real-time PCR. In addition microscopic examination was also performed following direct smear, zinc sulphate concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques; and the presence of protozoan parasites was confirmed using trichrome and acid-fast stains. Of the 225 faecal samples analysed, 26.2% were positive for intestinal parasites by the multiplex real-time PCR, while 5.3% were positive by microscopy. As compared to microscopy, the multiplex real-time PCR detected 5.8 and 4.5 times more positives for the selected helminth and protozoan infections respectively. Among the selected helminths detected in this study, hookworm was the most prevalent by real-time PCR, while Ascaris lumbricoides was detected the most by microscopy. Meanwhile, among the selected protozoa detected in this study, Entamoeba histolytica was the most prevalent by real-time PCR, however microscopy detected equal number of cases with E. histolytica and Giardia lamblia. This study showed that real-time PCR can be used to obtain a more accurate prevalence data on intestinal helminths and protozoa.

  14. The effect of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) on parasite intensities and performance of lambs naturally infected with helminth parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, C L; Cook, R; Keatinge, R; Barrett, J; Lampkin, N H

    2003-02-28

    Conventionally, farmers rely upon the routine use of anthelmintics to control helminth parasites and their use has proved highly cost-effective. However, several factors, including the emergence of helminths resistant to pharmaceutical anthelmintics, are forcing farmers to seek alternative approaches to parasite control. Studies in New Zealand have shown that some alternative forages may reduce parasitic infestation in sheep. In the current study, it was found that under UK environmental conditions lambs with naturally acquired helminth infections grazing chicory (Cichorium intybus) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) had fewer helminth parasites than sheep grazing ryegrass/white clover (Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens). Twelve pure-bred Lleyn male lambs grazed replicated 0.5ha plots of birdsfoot trefoil, chicory or ryegrass/white clover for 5 weeks. Liveweight and faecal egg counts (FECs) were determined weekly and eight lambs per forage were slaughtered at the end of the trial to determine total helminth intensities. Lambs grazing birdsfoot trefoil had a lower FEC on day 7 (P<0.05) and fewer total adult helminths than those grazing the other forages on day 35 (P<0.01). Lambs grazing chicory did not have significantly lower FEC than lambs grazing other forages but these lambs were found to have fewer total adult abomasal helminths than lambs grazing ryegrass/white clover (P<0.001). As the performance of grazing lambs is inversely correlated with the intensity of helminth parasites, these alternative forages could be used to improve the liveweight gain of lambs produced in the UK. Overall, the results support the contention that alternative forages could have a positive role in the control of helminth parasites in sheep, subject to successful agronomic development and integration of these forages into whole farm systems.

  15. The Role of Helminth Infection and Environment in the Development of Allergy: A Prospective Study of Newly-Arrived Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel.

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    Miguel Stein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infection may be protective against allergy and account for the low prevalence of allergy in developing countries. We studied prospectively the prevalence of allergy in Ethiopian immigrants with heavy helminth infection on arrival in Israel, and again after a year of adjustment to an urban industrialized setting, to explore the roles of helminth infection, changed environment and background immunity on the manifestations of allergy. 126 newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants were studied at baseline and 115 after a year of follow up in Israel. Allergic symptoms, Skin prick tests (SPT, Tuberculin (PPD skin tests, stool and blood samples were obtained for determining parasites, blood IgE and eosinophil levels, respectively. Anti-helminthic therapy was offered to the entire infected individuals, but only 50/108 (46.3% took the medication. At baseline, there was a significant negative association between helminth infection and allergy, 4/18 (22.2% of uninfected participants were allergic compared to 7/108 (6.5% of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.028, as well as between helminth infection and SPT reactivity, 12/18 (66.6% of uninfected participants compared to 43/108 (39.8% of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.033. After one year, a significant general increase in allergy and SPT was observed. While only 11/126 (8.7% were allergic at baseline, 30/115 (26.1% became allergic at follow-up (p<0.0001, and while 55/126 (43.7% were SPT+ at baseline, 79/115 (68.7% became SPT+ at follow-up (p<0.001. A twofold increase in allergen sensitization was also observed after one year in Israel, particularly for dust mites, grasses and olive tree (p<0.001. These results show that: a Helminth infection is significantly associated with low allergy and low SPT reactivity; b One year after immigration to Israel, allergy and SPT reactivity increased significantly in all immigrants; c Higher increases in positive SPT and allergy were observed after a year in

  16. Helminths infecting Mabuya dorsivittata (Lacertilia, Scincidae) from a high-altitude habitat in Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    We analysed the helminth fauna associated with the lizard Mabuya dorsivittata (Scincidae) from a high-altitude area in Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Of the 16 lizards examined, 12 (75%) were infected by at least one helminth. Only two helminth species were found: Physaloptera retusa and Skrjabinodon spinosulus (Nematoda), the former with a prevalence of 68.8% and a mean infection intensity of 3.6 ± 2.8 and the latter with a prevalence of 56.3% and a mean infection inte...

  17. Intestinal helminths infection of rats (Ratus norvegicus in the Belgrade area (Serbia: the effect of sex, age and habitat*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataranovski M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal helminths of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus from the Belgrade area were studied as a part of a wider ecological research of rats in Serbia (data on the distribution, population ecology, economic and epizoothiological-epidemiological importance, and density control. Rats were captured from May 2005 to July 2009 at both urban and suburban-rural sites. Of a total of 302 trapped rats 48% were males and 52% females, with 36.5% and 38.8% of juvenile-subadult individuals, per sex respectively. Intestinal helminth infection was noted in 68.5% of rats, with a higher prevalence in male hosts and in adult individuals. Higher numbers of infected juveniles-subadults were noted in suburban-rural habitats, while an opposite tendency was noted in adult rats. Seven helminth species were recovered, of which five were nematode (Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Capillaria sp., Trichuris muris and Syphacia muris and two cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta and Rodentolepis fraterna. The most prevalent parasites were Heterakis spumosa (36.7% and Hymenolepis diminuta (30.5%. Sex and habitat-related differences were noted in the prevalence of infection with Capillaria sp. and Trichuris muris, while there were no age-related differences in the prevalence of infection with any individual helminth species. Significantly higher prevalence of infection was noted in summer as compared to spring or winter, with a tendency to be higher in autumn as compared to spring. The only significant difference in the prevalence of infection between habitat-related was noted during spring. H. spumosa was most prevalent in summer, while H. diminuta and N. brasiliensis in autumn. The mean intensity of infection with H. spumosa, R. fraterna, S. muris and T. muris was higher in autumn than in the other seasons, while N. brasiliensis and Capillaria sp. occured in winter. No more than four helminth species were found in one host.

  18. The impact of asymptomatic helminth co-infection in patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis in north-west Ethiopia.

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    Ebba Abate

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Areas endemic of helminth infection, tuberculosis (TB and HIV are to a large extent overlapping. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of asymptomatic helminth infection on the immunological response among TB patients with and without HIV, their house hold contacts and community controls. METHODOLOGY: Consecutive smear positive TB patients (n = 112, their household contacts (n = 71 and community controls (n = 112 were recruited in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Stool microscopy, HIV serology, serum IgE level, eosinophil and CD4 counts were performed and tuberculosis patients were followed up for 3 months after initiation of anti-TB treatment. RESULTS: Helminth co-infection rate was 29% in TB patients and 21% in both community control and household contacts (p = 0.3 where Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent parasite. In TB patients the seroprevalence of HIV was 47% (53/112. Eosinophilia and elevated IgE level were significantly associated with asymptomatic helminth infection. During TB treatment, the worm infection rate of HIV+/TB patients declined from 31% (10/32 at week 0 to 9% (3/32 at week 2 of TB treatment, whereas HIV-/TB patients showed no change from baseline to week 2, 29% (13/45 vs. 22.2% (10/45. This trend was stable at week 8 and 12 as well. CONCLUSION: One third of smear positive TB patients were infected with helminths. Eosinophilia and elevated IgE level correlated with asymptomatic worm infection, indicating an effect on host immunity. The rate of worm infection declined during TB treatment in HIV+/TB co-infected patients whereas no decline was seen in HIV-/TB group.

  19. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in Banaraja fowls reared in semi-intensive system of management in Mayurbhanj district of Odisha

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    Ananta Hembram

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Studies on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths infection in Banaraja fowls of Mayurbhanj district in Odisha with respect to semi-intensive system of rearing. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 Banaraja birds (30 males and 130 females belonging to two age groups (below 1 month age and above 1 month were examined for the presence of different species of gastrointestinal helminth infection over a period of 1-year. The method of investigation included collection of fecal sample and gastrointestinal tracts, examination of fecal sample of birds, collection of parasites from different part of gastrointestinal tract, counting of parasites, and examination of the collected parasites by standard parasitological techniques followed by morphological identification as far as possible up to the species level. Results: Overall, 58.75% birds were found infected with various gastrointestinal helminths. Total five species of parasites were detected that included Ascaridia galli (25.63%, Heterakis gallinarum (33.75%, Raillietina tetragona (46.25%, Raillietina echinobothrida (11.87%, and Echinostoma revolutum (1.87%. Both single (19.15% as well as mixed (80.85% infection were observed. Highest incidence of infection was observed during rainy season (68.88% followed by winter (66.66% and least in summer season (41.81%. Sex-wise incidence revealed slightly higher occurrence among females (59.23% than males (56.67%. Age-wise prevalence revealed that chicks were more susceptible (77.77% than adults (51.30% to gastrointestinal helminths infection. Conclusions: Present study revealed that mixed infection with gastrointestinal helminths of different species was more common than infection with single species and season-wise prevalence was higher in rainy season followed by winter and summer. Chicks were found to be more prone to this parasitic infection and a slight higher prevalence among female birds was observed.

  20. Prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths after mass albendazole administration in an indigenous community of the Manu jungle in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Lopez, Martha; Arque, Eulogia; Clinton White, A

    2014-06-01

    Few data are available on the epidemiology of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) in indigenous populations of the Peruvian Amazon. While albendazole is being increasingly used in deworming campaigns, few data exist on the impact of mass drug administration in isolated populations. We studied the prevalence of STHs, anemia, and malnutrition in a Matsigenka ethnic group from the Peruvian Amazon. Participants had received two doses of albendazole on consecutive days, 3 months before and again 2 weeks before data collection. Overall, 290 subjects were included. Most were female (53.7%) and 63.9% were ≤19 years old. Half of the participants had helminth infections. Trichiuris (30.2%), hookworm (19.1%), Ascaris (17.7%), and Strongyloides (5.6%) were the most common helminths. Other helminth ova included Capillaria hepatica and Fasciola-like eggs. Subjects of 5-19 years (51.8 %) and 20-35 years (68.6 %) old had helminths more often than those under 5 years (38%) and older than 35 years (41.5%) (P  =  0.02). Anemia was detected in 41% of children and this was more common in children under 5 years that in those of 5-19 years [odd ratio (OR) = 5.68; 95% CI: 2.71-11.88]. Overall, 72.1% of children were malnourished. Stunting was common in children (70.7%), but wasting was not (2.9%). Despite repeated albendazole administration, this population continued to have a high prevalence of STHs, anemia, and malnutrition. In addition, we detected unusual organisms and organisms that do not respond to albendazole. Further studies are needed to assess the rationale and efficacy of mass chemotherapy for STHs in the Amazon.

  1. Mapping of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Namibia: The First Large-Scale Protocol to Formally Include Rapid Diagnostic Tests.

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    José Carlos Sousa-Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Namibia is now ready to begin mass drug administration of praziquantel and albendazole against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, respectively. Although historical data identifies areas of transmission of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, there is a need to update epidemiological data. For this reason, Namibia adopted a new protocol for mapping of schistosomiasis and geohelminths, formally integrating rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs for infections and morbidity. In this article, we explain the protocol in detail, and introduce the concept of 'mapping resolution', as well as present results and treatment recommendations for northern Namibia.This new protocol allowed a large sample to be surveyed (N = 17,896 children from 299 schools at relatively low cost (7 USD per person mapped and very quickly (28 working days. All children were analysed by RDTs, but only a sub-sample was also diagnosed by light microscopy. Overall prevalence of schistosomiasis in the surveyed areas was 9.0%, highly associated with poorer access to potable water (OR = 1.5, P<0.001 and defective (OR = 1.2, P<0.001 or absent sanitation infrastructure (OR = 2.0, P<0.001. Overall prevalence of geohelminths, more particularly hookworm infection, was 12.2%, highly associated with presence of faecal occult blood (OR = 1.9, P<0.001. Prevalence maps were produced and hot spots identified to better guide the national programme in drug administration, as well as targeted improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene. The RDTs employed (circulating cathodic antigen and microhaematuria for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively performed well, with sensitivities above 80% and specificities above 95%.This protocol is cost-effective and sensitive to budget limitations and the potential economic and logistical strains placed on the national Ministries of Health. Here we present a high resolution map of disease prevalence levels, and treatment regimens are

  2. Mapping of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Namibia: The First Large-Scale Protocol to Formally Include Rapid Diagnostic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos; Stanton, Michelle C.; Katokele, Stark; Arinaitwe, Moses; Adriko, Moses; Balfour, Lexi; Reiff, Mark; Lancaster, Warren; Noden, Bruce H.; Bock, Ronnie; Stothard, J. Russell

    2015-01-01

    Background Namibia is now ready to begin mass drug administration of praziquantel and albendazole against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, respectively. Although historical data identifies areas of transmission of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), there is a need to update epidemiological data. For this reason, Namibia adopted a new protocol for mapping of schistosomiasis and geohelminths, formally integrating rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for infections and morbidity. In this article, we explain the protocol in detail, and introduce the concept of ‘mapping resolution’, as well as present results and treatment recommendations for northern Namibia. Methods/Findings/Interpretation This new protocol allowed a large sample to be surveyed (N = 17 896 children from 299 schools) at relatively low cost (7 USD per person mapped) and very quickly (28 working days). All children were analysed by RDTs, but only a sub-sample was also diagnosed by light microscopy. Overall prevalence of schistosomiasis in the surveyed areas was 9.0%, highly associated with poorer access to potable water (OR = 1.5, P<0.001) and defective (OR = 1.2, P<0.001) or absent sanitation infrastructure (OR = 2.0, P<0.001). Overall prevalence of geohelminths, more particularly hookworm infection, was 12.2%, highly associated with presence of faecal occult blood (OR = 1.9, P<0.001). Prevalence maps were produced and hot spots identified to better guide the national programme in drug administration, as well as targeted improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene. The RDTs employed (circulating cathodic antigen and microhaematuria for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively) performed well, with sensitivities above 80% and specificities above 95%. Conclusion/Significance This protocol is cost-effective and sensitive to budget limitations and the potential economic and logistical strains placed on the national Ministries of Health. Here we present a high resolution map

  3. Application of small RNA technology for improved control of parasitic helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Collette; Winter, Alan D; Marks, Neil D; Gu, Henry; McNeilly, Tom N; Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

    2015-08-15

    Over the last decade microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression. miRNAs are short, non-coding RNAs that regulate a variety of processes including cancer, organ development and immune function. This class of small RNAs bind with partial complementarity to their target mRNA sequences, most often in the 3'UTR, to negatively regulate gene expression. In parasitic helminths, miRNAs are being increasingly studied for their potential roles in development and host-parasite interactions. The availability of genome data, combined with small RNA sequencing, has paved the way to profile miRNAs expressed at particular developmental stages for many parasitic helminths. While some miRNAs are conserved across species, others appear to be unique to specific parasites, suggesting important roles in adaptation and survival in the host environment. Some miRNAs are released from parasites, in exosomes or in protein complexes, and the potential effects of these on host immune function are being increasingly studied. In addition, release of miRNAs from schistosome and filarial parasites into host plasma can be exploited for the development of specific and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of infection. Interfering with miRNA function, as well as silencing key components of the pathways they regulate, will progress our understanding of parasite development and provide a novel approach to therapeutic control. RNA interference (RNAi) by siRNAs has proven to be inconsistent in parasitic nematodes. However, the recent successes reported for schistosome and liver fluke RNAi, encourage further efforts to enhance delivery of RNA and improve in vitro culture systems and assays to monitor phenotypic effects in nematodes. These improvements are important for the establishment of reliable functional genomic platforms for novel drug and vaccine development. In this review we focus on the important roles of mi

  4. Risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections on agritourism farms in central and eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawor, Jakub; Borecka, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Agritourism provides ecological tourist services for urban dwellers in rural areas. Agritourism farms offer space and attractive scenery for people seeking to rest in quiet place and wanting healthy, outdoor recreational activities. The high epidemiological standard of agritourism farms is beneficial for the health of the farm owners and the guests. Upgraded level of the farm sanitation, also from parasitological point of view is of great importance, especially that among agritourism farms guests predominate families with small children. A field survey was carried out in 57 farms in central-eastern Poland to evaluate the environmental risk factors for geohelminth infections on agritourism farms offering tourist services for urban dwellers. Samples of soil were collected from 76 sites, i.e. yards surrounding houses, vegetable, fruit and flower gardens, playgrounds and sandpits. In addition, samples were taken from 27 public places of recreation (playgrounds at forest clearing) visited by agritourism farm guests. During visits the farms were inspected and the owners were questioned about their awareness of the threat of parasitic infections. Soil contamination with geohelminth eggs was found in 4 examined farms (7.0%), in one locality on each farm. The eggs of Toxocara spp. and Ascaris spp. were detected in single samples from 3 backyards (6.4%) and one sandpit (10.0%). In the soil samples from places of recreation outside the farms eggs of human or animal helminths were not identified. The results of this study showed that the risk of helminth infections on agritourism farms is low, since geohelminth eggs (1-3 per sample) were detected only in four samples (0.5%) among 760 collected from farms households. The farm owners must be aware of the importance of preventive measures to eliminate the environmental contamination with eggs of zoonotic soiltransmitted helminths. Special attention should be paid to the risk of intestinal parasites of cats of semi domestic

  5. SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS IN CHILDREN WITH CLINICA L SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION

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    Rudramuneswara Swamy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to know the prevalence of s oil-transmitted helminths (STH in children aged 1-14 years attending outpati ents and inpatients from both urban and rural background. Out of the 550 stool samples exami ned, 450 were from the study group and 100 from the control group. All the 450 children of the study group presented one or more of the classical symptoms like abdominal pain, low grade fever, diarrhoea, dysentery, constipation and pica. Hundred children from the control group did not have any classical symptoms. Thirty five per cent from the study group and 21 per cent fro m the control group were found positive for one or more of the helminthic infection. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris tr ichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale & Necator americanus (hookworm, Hymenolepis nana and Enterobius vermicularis were 27%, 15%, 0.4%, 2% and 0.22%, respectively in the study g roup and 15%, 10%, 4%, 2%, and 2%, respectively in the control group. Strongyloides ster coralis was not found either in the study or control groups. Helminthic infections were more comm on in 7-9 years of age group, urban children with low socio-economic strata, and with m ale preponderance. Majority of children who harboured STH were suffering from abdominal pain and low grade fever. Total 450 clinical samples (control group examined b y direct wet mount, saturated salt floatation, and formalin-ether sedimentation; and o nly 391 samples examined by Kato-Katz semiquantitative techniques. Twenty six per cent posi tive by direct wet mount, 35% by both saturated salt floatation and formalin-ether sedime ntation whereas 38% of the samples were found positive by Kato-Katz semiquantitative techniq ue. In conclusion, concentration techniques like saturated salt floatation and forma lin-ether sedimentation are the best diagnostic tools to get authentic and reliable resu lts and to rule out fallacious inference caused by relying only on direct wet mount

  6. Sludge hygienization: Helminth eggs destruction by lime treatment Ascaris eggs as model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, S.; Schwartzbrod, J. [Lab. de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie de l' Environnement, Nancy (France); Remy, M. [Lhoist, on behalf of the European Lime Assoication (EuLA), Bruessel (Germany); Boehm, R. [Univ. Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Verfuerden, M. [Fels-Werke GmbH, im Namen des Bundesverbandes der Deutschen Kalkindustrie (BVK), Koeln (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Most pathogens in the raw sewage are concentrated into the sewage sludge. They can be separated into four categories: viruses, bacteria, protozoa and larger parasites such as human roundworms, tapeworms and liver flukes. Such micro-organisms can cause disease in humans, the transmission occurring in several ways e.g. by inhaling sludge aerosols or dust, by eating vegetables or fruits contaminated by sludge, drinking water contaminated by run-off or by eating meat from livestock infected by grazing pastures fertilised with sludge. The presence of helminth eggs in urban sludge may constitute a sanitary risk when used as agricultural fertiliser. To avoid any contamination, the efficiency of a certain number of sludge hygienization processes must be tested. One of these involves decontamination with quicklime. The Ascaris egg inactivation by liming with lime milk, slaked lime and quicklime is studied in a series of sludges coming from slaughterhouses. (orig.)

  7. Full scale validation of helminth ova (Ascaris suum) inactivation by different sludge treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsrud, B.; Gjerde, B.; Lundar, A.

    2003-07-01

    The Norwegian sewage sludge regulation requires disinfection (hygienisation) of all sludges for land application, and one of the criteria is that disinfected sludge should not contain viable helminth ova. All disinfection processes have to be designed and operated in order to comply with this criteria, and four processes employed in Norway (thermophilic aerobic pre-treatment, pre-pasteurisation, thermal vacuum drying in membrane filter presses and lime treatment) have been tested in full scale by inserting semipermeable bags of Ascaris suum eggs into the processes for certain limes. For lime treatment supplementary laboratory tests have been conducted. The paper presents the results of the experiments, and it could be concluded that all processes, except lime treatment, could be operated at less stringent time-temperature regimes than commonly experienced at Norwegian plants today. (author)

  8. Assessment of helminth biodiversity in wild rats using 18S rDNA based metagenomics.

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    Ryusei Tanaka

    Full Text Available Parasite diversity has important implications in several research fields including ecology, evolutionary biology and epidemiology. Wide-ranging analysis has been restricted because of the difficult, highly specialised and time-consuming processes involved in parasite identification. In this study, we assessed parasite diversity in wild rats using 18S rDNA-based metagenomics. 18S rDNA PCR products were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencer and the analysis of the sequences using the QIIME software successfully classified them into several parasite groups. The comparison of the results with those obtained using standard methods including microscopic observation of helminth parasites in the rat intestines and PCR amplification/sequencing of 18S rDNA from isolated single worms suggests that this new technique is reliable and useful to investigate parasite diversity.

  9. Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted Helminths in Tana Delta District of Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njaanake, Kariuki H.; Vennervald, Birgitte J.; Simonsen, Paul E.;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) (hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides) are widely distributed in developing countries where they infect over 230 million and 1.5 billion people, respectively. The parasites are frequently co-endemic and many individuals......, the urinary tract was ultrasound-examined for S. haematobium-related pathology, and the height and weight was measured and used to calculate the body mass index (BMI). Results: Prevalences of S. haematobium, hookworm, T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides infection were 94, 81, 88 and 46 %, respectively....... There was no significant association between S. haematobium and STH infection but intensity of hookworm infection significantly increased with that of T. trichiura. Lower BMI scores were associated with high intensity of S. haematobium (difference =-0.48, p > 0.05) and A. lumbricoides (difference =-0.67, p

  10. Cross-disciplinary approaches for measuring parasitic helminth viability and phenotype

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    Emily Peak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic worms (helminths within the Phyla Nematoda and Platyhelminthes are responsible for some of the most debilitating and chronic infectious diseases of human and animal populations across the globe. As no subunit vaccine for any parasitic helminth is close to being developed, the frontline strategy for intervention is administration of therapeutic, anthelmintic drugs. Worryingly, and unsurprising due to co-evolutionary mechanisms, many of these worms are developing resistance to the limited compound classes currently being used. This unfortunate reality has led to a renaissance in next generation anthelmintic discovery within both academic and industrial sectors. However, a major bottleneck in this process is the lack of quantitative methods for screening large numbers of small molecules for their effects on the whole organism. Development of methodologies that can objectively and rapidly distinguish helminth viability or phenotype would be an invaluable tool in the anthelmintic discovery pipeline. Towards this end, we describe how several basic techniques currently used to assess single cell eukaryote viability have been successfully applied to parasitic helminths. We additionally demonstrate how some of these methodologies have been adopted for high-throughput use and further modified for assessing worm phenotype. Continued development in this area is aimed at increasing the rate by which novel anthelmintics are identified and subsequently translated into everyday, practical applications.Vermes parasíticos (helmintos dos filos Nematoda e Platelmintos são responsáveis por algumas das doenças infecciosas crônicas e mais debilitantes das populações humana e animal em todo o globo. Já que nenhuma vacina está prestes a ser desenvolvida para nenhum parasita helmíntico, a frente estratégica de intervenção é a administração de drogas terapêuticas anti-helmínticas. De maneira preocupante, e não surpreendente devido a mecanismos

  11. Helminths in feline coprolites up to 9000 years in the Brazilian Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianto, Luciana; de Souza, Mônica Vieira; Chame, Marcia; da Luz, Maria de Fátima; Guidon, Niéde; Pessis, Anne-Marie; Araújo, Adauto

    2014-12-01

    The identification of parasites in animal coprolites has been an important tool to promote knowledge about parasites infecting different zoological groups in the past. It also helps the understanding of parasites causing zoonoses, which is especially important for animals that were part of the diet of prehistoric human groups. Nevertheless, the study of feline coprolites is still scarce. This study analyzed 30 feline coprolites from southeastern Piauí taken from archeological sites used by human groups in the past. Eggs of Spirometra sp., Toxocara cati, Spirurida, Oxyuroidea Calodium cf. hepaticum, Trichuris cf. muris, Trichuris sp., and other Trichuridae, Oncicola sp., and nematode larvae were found. Some of these findings reflect the consumption of infected prey. The role of felines in the transmission of helminthes causing zoonoses in the region is discussed.

  12. Parasitic helminths of the digestive system of wild boars bred in captivity

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    Diego Silva da Silva

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the parasites that inhabit the digestive system of Sus scrofa scrofa from a commercial breeding facility in southern Brazil, and reports the first occurrence of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in wild boars. The gastrointestinal tracts of 40 wild boars from a commercial breeding facility were collected and individualized during slaughter in a cold-storage slaughterhouse. Out of this total, 87.5% were parasitized by the helminths Ascaris suum,Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichuris suis. T. colubriformis presented a prevalence of 45%, mean intensity of 28.4 and mean abundance of 12.8. The data from this study showed that T. colubriformis not only has a capacity to develop in the small intestines of wild boars, but also adapts well to animals raised in captivity, thus representing a possible cause of economic loss in commercial wild boar farming.

  13. The gastro-intestinal helminth infections of domestic fowl in Dschang, western Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpoame, M; Agbede, G

    1995-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty one chickens purchased from the Dschang animal market were examined for gastro-intestinal helminths. Ten species were found with the following prevalences: Heterakis brevispiculum (59.3%), Ascaridia galli (51.6%), Hymenolepis carioca (48.4%), Dispharynx spiralis (20.8%), Tetrameres americana (17.1%), Amoebotaenia cuneata (15.1%), Raillietina tetragona (14.5%), Syngamus trachea (13.7%), Hymenolepis cantaniana (5.7%) and Capillaria contorta (2.0%). Infections were predominantly mixed (93.5%). The infection rates were not influenced by host sex except for A. galli which was more prevalent in cocks. Older chickens showed some resistance to A. cuneata and S. trachea. Parasite prevalence and/or worm burdens were generally higher during the rainy season (April to October).

  14. Gastrointestinal helminths of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae from Antarctica

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    Julia Inés Diaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about parasitic organisms in Antarctica is scarce and fragmentary. The study reported here adds to the knowledge of gastrointestinal parasites of the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae (Sphenisciformes, from 25 de Mayo/King George Island (South Shetlands, Bahia Esperanza (Hope Bay and Avian Island (Antarctica. Thirty-five freshly dead specimens (20 chicks and 15 adults were collected from December 2007 to December 2014 and examined for internal macroparasites. Three adult parasite species were found: one Cestoda, Parorchites zederi, and two Nematoda, Stegophorus macronectes and Tetrameres sp. Immature Tetrabothrius sp. were found in hosts from Avian Island. Helminth communities are known to be related to host feeding behaviours. Low parasite richness observed in Adélie penguins could be related to the stenophagic and pelagic diet of this host species, which feeds almost exclusively on krill.

  15. Gastrointestinal helminthes of houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata) from north of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Navid Rahmani; Mohammad Asadi Iraee; Mohammad Reza Youssefi

    2016-01-01

    The parasitic infection of houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulate) in north of Iran, Golestan Province was reported in this study. The carcass of a male houbara bustard about 2 years old with 2.5 kg body weight, was forfeited from impermissible hunters by the Department of Environment in Gorgan,Golestan Province during January 2015. The gastrointestinal tracts was dissected and examined for helminth infection. Species of Nematoda, Cestoda and Acanthocephala were found which were as following:Hartertia obesa,Idiogenes otidis, Mediorhynchus taeniatus, respectively from small intestine. Based on the results obtained from the present study, it can be concluded thatChlamydotis undulata may play an important role in the transmission of the mentioned parasites. In addition, this is the first report ofHartertia obesa,Idiogenes otidis,Mediorhynchus taeniatus in Iran.

  16. Helminth parasites of wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes L.) in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgsteede, F H

    1984-01-01

    To study the helminth fauna of wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in The Netherlands, material was collected from 139 foxes. The following parasites were found. Cestodes: Taenia spp. 53.3%, Hymenolepis spp. 1.5%; Trematodes: Alaria alata 10.9%, Cryptocotyle lingua 3.6%, Euparyphium melis 1.5%, Apophallus donicus 0.7%; Nematodes: Toxocara canis 73.7%, Uncinaria stenocephala 59.9%, Capillaria aerophila 46.8%, C. plica 23.5%, Molineus patens 5.1%, Crenosoma vulpis 4.5%, Strongyloides spp. 0.7%. The tapeworms Mesocestoides spp. and Echinococcus spp. were not seen. No relationship was observed between worm burden and sex, time of year or place of origin.

  17. Assessment of helminth biodiversity in wild rats using 18S rDNA based metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryusei; Hino, Akina; Tsai, Isheng J; Palomares-Rius, Juan Emilio; Yoshida, Ayako; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Kikuchi, Taisei

    2014-01-01

    Parasite diversity has important implications in several research fields including ecology, evolutionary biology and epidemiology. Wide-ranging analysis has been restricted because of the difficult, highly specialised and time-consuming processes involved in parasite identification. In this study, we assessed parasite diversity in wild rats using 18S rDNA-based metagenomics. 18S rDNA PCR products were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencer and the analysis of the sequences using the QIIME software successfully classified them into several parasite groups. The comparison of the results with those obtained using standard methods including microscopic observation of helminth parasites in the rat intestines and PCR amplification/sequencing of 18S rDNA from isolated single worms suggests that this new technique is reliable and useful to investigate parasite diversity.

  18. [Parasitic helminths of flying starlings (Sturnus vulgaris L.) in their nesting area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J

    1987-10-01

    1.150 flying starlings and 226 pulli have been necropsied and their helminth parasites collected. Localities where the birds has been captured are given in table 1 and the map. Flying birds are parasited in the proportion of 97.1%. There are three trematodes species, eight cestodes, six nematodes and one acanthocephalan (table 2). Differences are noted according with the locality, the season and the age of the bird. Pulli are parasited by 47% with a very important difference between the two places. The number of parasitic species is lesser: one trematode, two cestodes and three nematodes. The helminthological fauna of belgian starlings seems common but more important and much varied that in the birds hibernating in North Africa.

  19. Status of intestinal helminthic infections of borderline residents in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunyu; Shen, Chenghua; Choi, Min-Ho; Bae, Young Mee; Yoon, Hiwon; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2006-09-01

    The present authors investigated intestinal parasitic infections among North Korean residents and refugees in China in 2003. The Kato-Katz method was applied to 236 residents and soldiers in a town on the North Korea-China border and to 46 people at a refugee camp in China. Only eggs of Ascaris and Trichuris were detected, with egg positive rates of 41.1% and 37.6%, respectively. The total egg positive rate was 55.0% and most of those who were egg positive were only lightly infected. Women of 61.2% and men of 53.1% were egg positive. The refugees from rural areas showed higher egg positive rates than those from urban areas. The present investigation confirmed high prevalence of soil-transmitted intestinal helminths in rural borderline areas of North Korea.

  20. Reprint of 'Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2016-07-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  1. Parasitic Infections (Helminth and Protozoa in Cases Referring to Yazd Central Laboratory, 2002-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Dehghani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal parasites have world wide prevalence and are considered to be as one of the leading hygienic and economic problems in the world. It can be said that there is nowhere in the world without parasitic infestations. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients referring to Yazd Central Laboratory in 2000-2002. Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional, analytic and descriptive study including 13388 stool specimens examined by two methods; Formalin-Ethyl Acetate and direct Method for intestinal parasites and Scotch tape method for Enterobius vermicularis. Results: 13388 samples examined included 6913 women and 6475 men. Parasites were observed in 1151 cases (8.6% including 618 (53.7% men and 533 (46.3% women, respectively. Of these, 98.6% were infected with protozoa and 1.4% with helminths. Giardia lambdia (41.05%, E.coli (27.45% and Blastocystis hominis (15.51% were the most common infecting organisms. Helminth infections were few, but the highest frequency was related to Hymenolepis nana and Enterobious vermicularis. Maximum frequency was reported in summer. There was a significant association between stool consistency and infestation by intestinal parasites (P=0.002. There was a significant relationship with sex, too (P=0.001 Conclusion: In the present study, the most common parasites were Giardia, E.coli and Blastocystis hominis (higher than five, but the prevalence was less as compared to previous similar studies in other regions, which could be because of the hot and dry weather, better personal hygiene and improved sewage system of Yazd.

  2. Hygiene, sanitation and the soil transmitted helminths (STH infection among elementary school students in West Lombok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Soeyoko Sri Sumarni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalenses of soil transmitted helminths (STH infection in Lombok are relatively high. It isclosley associated with poor environmetal hygiene, non healthy sanitation status, poverty andimproper health services. The highest prevalences is normally observed in elementary school children.The aim of this study was to evalaute the relationship between hygiene, sanitation and STH infectionamong elementary school children in West Lombok. An observational study with cross-sectionaldesign was performed involving 197 elementary school children in Terong Tawah Village, LabuapiSub District, West Lombok District and 197 children in Ampenan, Mataram City as control. Thestool specimen of the children were collected and processed using Kato-Katz technique. Hygieneand sanitation of each subject that consisted nail hygiene, hand washing, using footwear, latrine,clean water availability, house floor, soil around the house were taken by questionnaire and directobservation. The result showed that the prevalences of STH among elementary school children inTerong Tawah (81.7% was higher than that in Ampenan (12.7%.Trichuris trichiura was thepredominant helminth both in Terong Tawah (36.0% and Ampenan (7.0% followed by A.lumbricoides (20.4% in Terong Tawah and 4.5% in Ampenan. The mix infections between T.trichiura and A. lumbricoides among the children in Terong Tawah (24.4% and Ampenan (1.0%were also found. A significant relationship between hygiene and sanitaion i.e. nail cleaniness, washinghands, contaminated soil around the house and STH infection among elementary school children inTerong Tawah and Ampenan (p<0.05. In conclusion, there is a significant relationship betweenpersonal hygiene, environmental sanitation and STH infections among elementary school children.

  3. A helminth cestode parasite express an estrogen-binding protein resembling a classic nuclear estrogen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth Guadalupe; Escobedo, Galileo; Nava-Castro, Karen; Jesús Ramses, Chávez-Rios; Hernández-Bello, Romel; García-Varela, Martìn; Ambrosio, Javier R; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Fonseca-Liñán, Rocío; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe; Pavón, Lenin; Hernández, María Eugenia; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The role of an estrogen-binding protein similar to a known mammalian estrogen receptor (ER) is described in the estradiol-dependent reproduction of the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps. Previous results have shown that 17-β-estradiol induces a concentration-dependent increase in bud number of in vitro cultured cysticerci. This effect is inhibited when parasites are also incubated in the presence of an ER binding-inhibitor (tamoxifen). RT-PCR assays using specific oligonucleotides of the most conserved ER sequences, showed expression by the parasite of a mRNA band of molecular weight and sequence corresponding to an ER. Western blot assays revealed reactivity with a 66 kDa protein corresponding to the parasite ER protein. Tamoxifen treatment strongly reduced the production of the T. crassiceps ER-like protein. Antibody specificity was demonstrated by immunoprecipitating the total parasite protein extract with anti-ER-antibodies. Cross-contamination by host cells was discarded by flow cytometry analysis. ER was specifically detected on cells expressing paramyosin, a specific helminth cell marker. Parasite cells expressing the ER-like protein were located by confocal microscopy in the subtegumental tissue exclusively. Analysis of the ER-like protein by bidimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot identified a specific protein of molecular weight and isoelectric point similar to a vertebrates ER. Sequencing of the spot produced a small fragment of protein similar to the mammalian nuclear ER. Together these results show that T. crassiceps expresses an ER-like protein which activates the budding of T. crassiceps cysticerci in vitro. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an ER-like protein in parasites. This finding may have strong implications in the fields of host-parasite co-evolution as well as in sex-associated susceptibility to this infection, and could be an important target for the design of new drugs.

  4. Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  5. Helminth fauna of chiropterans in Amazonia: biological interactions between parasite and host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Ana Cláudia Alexandre; Moraes, Marcela Figueiredo Duarte; Silva, Ana Carolina; Lapera, Ivan Moura; Tebaldi, José Hairton; Lux Hoppe, Estevam G

    2016-08-01

    Amazonia, the largest Brazilian biome, is one of the most diverse biomes around the world. Considering the Brazilian chiropteran species, 120 out of known 167 species are registered in Pará state, with 10 endemic species. Despite the high diversity of bats in Amazonia, studies on their parasites, especially on helminths, are scarce. Therefore, the present study aims to study the helminth fauna of different bats from the Pará state, Amazon biome, determine the descriptors of infection, and evaluate the host-parasite interactions, as well as evaluate differences in ecological indexes in accordance with the feeding guilds. The study was developed on 67 bats of 21 species captured in several areas of the Pará state. The animals were identified, divided into feeding guilds, and necropsied. The parasites obtained were identified and quantified. A total of 182 parasites were found in 20.89 % of the studied bats, representing nine species, as follows: Anenterotrema eduardocaballeroi, Anenterotrema liliputianum, Ochoterenatrema caballeroi, Tricholeiperia sp., Parahistiostrongylus octacanthus, Litomosoides guiterasi, Litomosoides brasiliensis, Capillariinae gen. sp., and Hymenolepididae gen. sp. Also, the results indicated that there was no impact of parasitism on host body condition and no relationship between sex and parasite intensity. In relation to the feeding guilds, the omnivores showed higher prevalence and mean intensity. Animals from regions closer to the equator tend to have greater richness in parasite species, but the present study revealed low diversity and richness in species. In conclusion, the ecological pattern observed for other animal groups, in which higher parasitic diversity are registered in lower latitudes, is not applicable to chiropterans from the study area.

  6. Helminths of Murres (Alcidae: Uria spp.): markers of ecological change in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Sabir Bin

    2009-07-01

    Seabirds are prominent components of the North Atlantic marine environment, and their parasites offer an insight into seabird ecologic interactions. Parasites also provide vital information on historic biogeography of host associations and thus may reveal broad changes in the marine ecosystem. Helminths of Common Murres (Uria aalge) and Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia) in the northwest Atlantic marine environment were assessed to determine parasite community composition and changes in their parasite fauna since the 1960s. In total, 623 helminths, representing Digenea, Eucestoda, Nematoda, and Acanthocephala, were recorded from 100 Common and Thick-billed Murres collected from breeding colonies along the coasts of Labrador, Newfoundland, and Greenland. Parasite communities differed from those reported from the 1960s, and over 85% of the specimens were tapeworms (mostly in the genus Alcataenia). The high prevalence (26%) and mean intensity (14.6) of A. longicervica, a Pacific species recorded recently from Newfoundland, indicates that this tapeworm was established in the Atlantic by 2006. Significantly higher A. longicervica prevalence (>53%) and mean intensity (27.3) in the murres from Greenland and in wintering murres compared to murres from breeding colonies in Labrador and Newfoundland suggest a mechanism for the introduction of this species to the Atlantic. Periodic mixing of populations of Thysanoessa species, the euphausiid intermediate host of Alcataenia, occurs along the seas adjacent to the North Pacific and those along the Siberian Arctic. The mixing of infected Thysanoessa likely exposed North Atlantic and Arctic murres, which are geographically isolated from Pacific murres, to this tapeworm. The greater prevalence of A. longicervica in Thick-billed Murres was consistent with diet analyses, which revealed a greater proportion of euphausiids.

  7. Helminths infecting Mabuya dorsivittata (Lacertilia, Scincidae) from a high-altitude habitat in Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J; Cunha-Barros, M

    2003-02-01

    We analysed the helminth fauna associated with the lizard Mabuya dorsivittata (Scincidae) from a high-altitude area in Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Of the 16 lizards examined, 12 (75%) were infected by at least one helminth. Only two helminth species were found: Physaloptera retusa and Skrjabinodon spinosulus (Nematoda), the former with a prevalence of 68.8% and a mean infection intensity of 3.6 +/- 2.8 and the latter with a prevalence of 56.3% and a mean infection intensity of 2.6 +/- 2.6. The helminth fauna of the studied population of Mabuya dorsivittata was considerably poorer than those of other previously studied populations of congeners.

  8. Pathological Studies on the Small Intestine of Wild Rabbit Fish (Siganus Rivulatus) Infected by Helminthes Parasite (Procamallanus Sp) in Red Sea Coast Area, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Salah Eldeen Y.M.H; Omer F. Idris; Murwan K. Sabahelkhier

    2012-01-01

    Wild rabbit fish (Siganus rivulatus) Forsskål (Teleostei, Siganidae) herbivores fish were collected from two sites (Dongnab and Swakin) on Sudanese Red Sea Coast during February 2010 - January 2011 and then examine for helminthes parasites. Microscopic anatomy of intestine with worms and without worms compared to each other. Helminth parasites belong to Procamallanus sp. The abundance of lymphocytes cell, eosinphils, red blood cells and goblet cells in parasitized intestine was significantly ...

  9. HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses induced by Listeria vector vaccines are maintained in mice subsequently infected with a model helminth parasite, Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shollenberger, Lisa M; Bui, Cac T; Paterson, Yvonne; Nyhoff, Lindsay; Harn, Donald A

    2013-11-19

    In areas co-endemic for helminth parasites and HIV/AIDS, infants are often administered vaccines prior to infection with immune modulatory helminth parasites. Systemic Th2 biasing and immune suppression caused by helminth infection reduces cell-mediated responses to vaccines such as tetanus toxoid and BCG. Therefore, we asked if infection with helminthes post-vaccination, alters already established vaccine induced immune responses. In our model, mice are vaccinated against HIV-1 Gag using a Listeria vaccine vector (Lm-Gag) in a prime-boost manner, then infected with the human helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. This allows us to determine if established vaccine responses are maintained or altered after helminth infection. Our second objective asked if helminth infection post-vaccination alters the recipient's ability to respond to a second boost. Here we compared responses between uninfected mice, schistosome infected mice, and infected mice that were given an anthelminthic, which occurred coincident with the boost or four weeks prior, as well as comparing to un-boosted mice. We report that HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses generated by Listeria vector HIV-1 vaccines are maintained following subsequent chronic schistosome infection, providing further evidence that Listeria vector vaccines induce potent vaccine-specific responses that can withstand helminth infection. We also were able to demonstrate that administration of a second Listeria boost, which markedly enhanced the immune response, was minimally impacted by schistosome infection, or anthelminthic therapy. Surprisingly, we also observed enhanced antibody responses to HIV Gag in vaccinated mice subsequently infected with schistosomes.

  10. Helminth parasites of the Kafue lechwe antelope ( Kobus leche kafuensis): a potential source of infection to domestic animals in the Kafue wetlands of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, A M; Chota, A; Muma, J B; Munyeme, M; Sikasunge, C S

    2011-03-01

    The Kafue lechwe antelope (Kobus leche kafuensis), a medium-sized, semi-aquatic antelope, grazes extensively on pastures accessed by livestock in and around Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon national parks in the Kafue wetlands of Zambia. This interaction has a potential for bi-modal transmission of a wide range of parasitic helminths between lechwe and domestic ruminants. A survey was conducted to investigate the status of helminths in the Kafue lechwe during the 2008 (July-December) hunting season, involving 65 animals hunted under special research licences. Worm identification was based on morphological features using standard identification keys. Eleven different types of helminths were identified in the animals studied; namely, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, Cooperia, Dictyocaulus, Marshallagia, Stilesia, Setaria, Trichuris, Fasciola, amphistomes and Schistosoma. Amphistomes (100%) and Oesophagostomum (60.9%) were the most common while Fasciola (7.8%) and Stilesia (1.6%) were the least of the identified helminths. There was no evidence that helminths, at intensities observed, adversely affected the health of the lechwe. The degree of worm infection was observed to vary between the two study areas, with Blue Lagoon recording higher infection levels compared to Lochinvar. The host range of many of the helminths found in the Kafue lechwe is broad and could serve as a potentially stable source of infection to domestic animals such as goats and cattle. Therefore, issues concerning livestock management and conservation may arise.

  11. Concepts and applications for influenza antigenic cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Influenza antigenic cartography projects influenza antigens into a two or three dimensional map based on immunological datasets, such as hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. A robust antigenic cartography can facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection since the antigenic map can simplify data interpretation through intuitive antigenic map. However, antigenic cartography construction is not trivial due to the challenging features embedded in the immunological data, such as data incompleteness, high noises, and low reactors. To overcome these challenges, we developed a computational method, temporal Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS), by adapting the low rank MC concept from the movie recommendation system in Netflix and the MDS method from geographic cartography construction. The application on H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses demonstrates that temporal MC-MDS is effective and efficient in constructing influenza antigenic cartography. The web sever is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap. PMID:21761589

  12. Helminth parasites of cats from the Vientiane Province, Laos, as indicators of the occurrence of causative agents of human parasitoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholz T.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 55 domestic cats (Felis calus f. domestico and one wild (Bengal cat (Prionailurus bengalensis from the Vientiane Province, central Laos, were examined for helminth parasites with emphasis given to potential human parasites. The following species were found (parasites infective to man marked with an asterisk: Opisthorchis viverrini*, Haplorchis pumilio*,H. laichui*,H. yokogawai*, Stellantchasmus falcatus* (Digenea; Spirometra sp.*, Dipylidium caninum*, Taenia taeniaeformis (Cestoda; Capillariidae gen. sp., Toxocara canis*, T. cati*, Ancylostoma ceylanicum*, A. tubaeforme, Gnathostoma spinigerum*, Physaloptera preputials (Nematoda; and Oncicola sp. (Acanthocephala. This study demonstrated that examination of cats may provide useful data on the occurrence of helminths which are potential causative agents of human diseases.

  13. Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Kapel, Christian M. O.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring parasitic infections in the red fox is essential for obtaining baseline knowledge on the spread of diseases of veterinary and medical importance. In this study, screening for cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) was done on 118 foxes...... originating from two distinct localities in Denmark, (Copenhagen) greater area and southern Jutland. Fifteen parasite species were recorded in 116 foxes (98.3%), nine parasitic species are of zoonotic potential. Parasite diversity was greater in foxes of Copenhagen in terms of overall parasite species...... richness and species richness of all helminth groups individually: trematodes; cestodes; and nematodes. Six parasite species were recovered from foxes of Copenhagen, but not from foxes of Southern Jutland: Echinochasmus perfoliatus; Echinostoma sp.; Pseudamphistomum truncatum; Dipylidium caninum...

  14. Nitazoxanide compared with quinfamide and mebendazole in the treatment of helminthic infections and intestinal protozoa in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Gutierrez, Cesar E; Vasquez, Clemente; Trujillo-Hernandez, Benjamin; Huerta, Miguel

    2002-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of nitazoxanide compared with that of quinfamide, mebendazole, or both in the treatment of intestinal protozoa and helminthic infections. A total of 677 stool specimens from children aged 2-12 years living in 3 communities of Colima, México, were analyzed in order to detect the presence of cysts, trophozoites, eggs, or larvae of intestinal protozoa or helminths. A total of 275 infected children were enlisted in a double-blind controlled study and randomly assigned to one of 2 treatment groups: Group A, nitazoxanide (200 mg for 3 days) and Group B, quinfamide (100 mg for 1 day), mebendazole (200 mg for 3 days), or both. A posttreatment fecal examination was conducted on Day 14 from treatment initiation. In Group A (n = 143), the parasitosis eradication rate was superior to that of Group B (n = 132). However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups (P > 0.05).

  15. Critical role of fatty acid metabolism in ILC2-mediated barrier protection during malnutrition and helminth infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Christoph; Harrison, Oliver J; Schmitt, Vanessa; Pelletier, Martin; Spencer, Sean P; Urban, Joseph F; Ploch, Michelle; Ramalingam, Thirumalai R; Siegel, Richard M; Belkaid, Yasmine

    2016-07-25

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) play an important role in many immune processes, including control of infections, inflammation, and tissue repair. To date, little is known about the metabolism of ILC and whether these cells can metabolically adapt in response to environmental signals. Here we show that type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), important mediators of barrier immunity, predominantly depend on fatty acid (FA) metabolism during helminth infection. Further, in situations where an essential nutrient, such as vitamin A, is limited, ILC2 sustain their function and selectively maintain interleukin 13 (IL-13) production via increased acquisition and utilization of FA. Together, these results reveal that ILC2 preferentially use FAs to maintain their function in the context of helminth infection or malnutrition and propose that enhanced FA usage and FA-dependent IL-13 production by ILC2 could represent a host adaptation to maintain barrier immunity under dietary restriction.

  16. Prevalence and spectrum of helminths in free-ranging African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer in wildlife protected areas, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Senyael Swai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and spectrum of helminths in free-ranging African buffaloes in Tanzania by a cross-sectional study. Methods: Faecal samples (n=1 23 from Arusha National Park and Ngorongoro Crater were examined for helminth eggs using sedimentation and floatation techniques during the period of March to June 2012. Results: Coprological examination revealed that 34.1% (n=42 of the buffaloes excreted nematodes and trematodes eggs and protozoan oocyst in their faces. The pattern of infection was either single or mixed. Single (52.4% and concurrent infections with two, three, four and five parasites were recorded in 19.0%, 11.9%, 14.3% and 2.3% respectively of the cases. The nematode eggs encountered were those of Trichostrongylus sp. (20.3%, Oesophagostomum sp. (7.3%, Strongyle sp. (4.1%, Bunostomum sp. (4.1%, Ostertegia sp. (3.3% and Toxocara sp. (2.4%. The trematode eggs encountered were those of Fasciola sp. (9.8%, Paramphistomum sp. (4.9%, Gastrothylax sp. (1.6%, Ornithobilharzia sp. (0.81% and Fischoederius sp (0.81%. The protozoan oocyst recorded was that of Eimeria sp. (8.1%. Geographical location of buffaloes had significant influence on the prevalence of infection with Trichostrongylus (P=0.046 and Fasciola (P=0.001, and the mean prevalances in Arusha National Park are significantly higher than those in Ngorongoro Crater. Age had significant influence on infection with Fasciola (P=0.036, and juvenile recorded higher levels of infection than sub-adults. Health status, body condition score and sex-wise prevalence of helminths were not significant (P>0.05. Conclusions: This study indicates that helminths species are numerous and highly prevalent in the two protected areas and may be one of the contributing factors to lower buffalo productivity.

  17. The systematic position of some ethiopian nippostrongylinae (nematoda, trichostrongylina, heligmosomoidea) from the National Collection of Animal Helminths, Onderstepoort, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    M.-C. Durette-Desset; M.-C. Digiani

    2005-01-01

    The taxonomic status of some nippostrongyline nematodes deposited in the National Collection ofAnimal Helminths, Onderstepoort, is revised. Heligmonina boomkeri n. sp. is described from Aethomys chrysophilus from South Africa. The most closely related species by the body measurementsand the pattern of the caudal bursa is Heligmonina bignonensis Diouf, Bâ & Durette-Desset, 1997, a parasite of Mastomys erythroleucus from Senegal. It differs from the new species mainly in thenumber o...

  18. A Pentaplex Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection of Four Species of Soil-Transmitted Helminths

    OpenAIRE

    Basuni, Madihah; Muhi, Jamail; Othman, Nurulhasanah; Verweij, Jaco J.; Ahmad, Maimunah; Miswan, Noorizan; Rahumatullah, Anizah; Aziz, Farhanah Abdul; Zainudin, Nurul Shazalina; Noordin, Rahmah

    2011-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections remain a major public health burden in low- and middle-income countries. The traditional diagnosis by microscopic examination of fecal samples is insensitive and time-consuming. In this study, a pentaplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was evaluated for the simultaneous detection of Ancylostoma, Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The results were compared with those obtained by conventional parasitological d...

  19. [The routes of helminth egg appearance on the territory of recreational areas and sites of the lower Don River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khromenkova, E P

    1993-01-01

    Sanitary and parasitologic problems of recreation use of water bodies and coast lines are still to be studied. The author has examined the routes of invasion at recreation areas by the lower Don river. The river bed depositions and water as well as coastline soil were found contaminated with helminthic eggs. These eggs were brought by sewage water, feces, and surface flow. Effective ecologically justified measures should be developed to prevent it.

  20. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ashley K.; O'Hara, Todd M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Castellini, Margaret; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; Ballweber, Lora R.

    2015-01-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to beToxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from < 1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ13C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host.

  1. The pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum, its symbionts and helminths as bioindicators of chemical pollution in Campeche Sound, Mexico.

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    Vidal-Martínez, V M; Aguirre-Macedo, M L; Del Rio-Rodríguez, R; Gold-Bouchot, G; Rendón-von Osten, J; Miranda-Rosas, G A

    2006-06-01

    The pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum may acquire pollutants, helminths and symbionts from their environment. Statistical associations were studied between the symbionts and helminths of F. duorarum and pollutants in sediments, water and shrimps in Campeche Sound, Mexico. The study area spatially overlapped between offshore oil platforms and natural shrimp mating grounds. Spatial autocorrelation of data was controlled with spatial analysis using distance indices (SADIE) which identifies parasite or pollutant patches (high levels) and gaps (low levels), expressing them as clustering indices compared at each point to produce a measure of spatial association. Symbionts included the peritrich ciliates Epistylis sp. and Zoothamnium penaei and all symbionts were pooled. Helminths included Hysterothylacium sp., Opecoeloides fimbriatus, Prochristianella penaei and an unidentified cestode. Thirty-five pollutants were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides and heavy metals. The PAHs (2-3 ring) in water, unresolved complex mixture (UCM), Ni and V in sediments, and Zn, Cr and heptachlor in shrimps were significantly clustered. The remaining pollutants were randomly distributed in the study area. Juvenile shrimps acquired pesticides, PAHs (2-3 rings) and Zn, while adults acquired PAHs (4-5 rings), Cu and V. Results suggest natural PAH spillovers, and continental runoff of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), PCBs and PAHs (2-3 ring). There were no significant associations between pollutants and helminths. However, there were significant negative associations of pesticides, UCM and PCBs with symbiont numbers after controlling shrimp size and spatial autocorrelation. Shrimps and their symbionts appear to be promising bioindicators of organic chemical pollution in Campeche Sound.

  2. Prevalence and spectrum of helminths in free-ranging African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in wildlife protected areas, Tanzania

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    Emanuel Senyael Swai; Deogratius Mshanga; Robert Fyumagwa; Deogratius Mpanduji; Idrisa Chuma; Sayael Kuya; Ernest Eblate; Zablon Katale; Julius Keyyu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and spectrum of helminths in free-ranging African buffaloes in Tanzania by a cross-sectional study.Methods:Faecal samples (n=123) from Arusha National Park and Ngorongoro Crater were examined for helminth eggs using sedimentation and floatation techniques during the period of March to June 2012. Results: Coprological examination revealed that 34.1% (n=42) of the buffaloes excreted nematodes and trematodes eggs and protozoan oocyst in their faces. The pattern of infection was either single or mixed. Single (52.4%) and concurrent infections with two, three, four and five parasites were recorded in 19.0%, 11.9%, 14.3% and 2.3% respectively of the cases. The nematode eggs encountered were those of Trichostrongylus sp. (20.3%), Oesophagostomum sp. (7.3%), Strongyle sp. (4.1%), Bunostomum sp. (4.1%), Ostertegia sp. (3.3%) and Toxocara sp. (2.4%). The trematode eggs encountered were those of Fasciola sp. (9.8%), Paramphistomum sp. (4.9%), Gastrothylax sp. (1.6%), Ornithobilharzia sp. (0.81%) and Fischoederius sp (0.81%). The protozoan oocyst recorded was that of Eimeria sp. (8.1%). Geographical location of buffaloes had significant influence on the prevalence of infection with Trichostrongylus (P=0.046) and Fasciola (P=0.001), and the mean prevalances in Arusha National Park are significantly higher than those in Ngorongoro Crater. Age had significant influence on infection with Fasciola (P=0.036), and juvenile recorded higher levels of infection than sub-adults. Health status, body condition score and sex-wise prevalence of helminths were not significant (P>0.05). Conclusions: This study indicates that helminths species are numerous and highly prevalent in the two protected areas and may be one of the contributing factors to lower buffalo productivity.

  3. Immunological interactions between 2 common pathogens, Th1-inducing protozoan Toxoplasma gondii and the Th2-inducing helminth Fasciola hepatica.

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    Catherine M D Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nature of the immune response to infection is dependent on the type of infecting organism. Intracellular organisms such as Toxoplasma gondii stimulate a Th1-driven response associated with production of IL-12, IFN-gamma, nitric oxide and IgG2a antibodies and classical activation of macrophages. In contrast, extracellular helminths such as Fasciola hepatica induce Th2 responses characterised by the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IgG1 antibodies and alternative activation of macrophages. As co-infections with these types of parasites commonly exist in the field it is relevant to examine how the various facets of the immune responses induced by each may influence or counter-regulate that of the other. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Regardless, of whether F. hepatica infection preceded or succeeded T. gondii infection, there was little impact on the production of the Th1 cytokines IL-12, IFN-gamma or on the development of classically-activated macrophages induced by T. gondii. By contrast, the production of helminth-specific Th2 cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-5, was suppressed by infection with T. gondii. Additionally, the recruitment and alternative activation of macrophages by F. hepatica was blocked or reversed by subsequent infection with T. gondii. The clinical symptoms of toxoplasmosis and the survival rate of infected mice were not significantly altered by the helminth. CONCLUSIONS: Despite previous studies showing that F. hepatica suppressed the classical activation of macrophages and the Th1-driven responses of mice to bystander microbial infection, as well as reduced their ability to reject these, here we found that the potent immune responses to T. gondii were capable of suppressing the responses to helminth infection. Clearly, the outcome of particular infections in polyparasitoses depends on the means and potency by which each pathogen controls the immune response.

  4. Interferon regulatory factor modulation underlies the bystander suppression of malaria antigen-driven IL-12 and IFN-γ in filaria-malaria co-infection.

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    Metenou, Simon; Kovacs, Michael; Dembele, Benoit; Coulibaly, Yaya I; Klion, Amy D; Nutman, Thomas B

    2012-03-01

    In areas where polyparasitism is highly prevalent, the impact of multiple parasites on the host response is underestimated. In particular, the presence of helminth infection coincident with malaria profoundly alters the production of malaria-specific IFN-γ, IL-12p70, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11, cytokines/chemokines known to be critical in mediating malaria-specific immunity. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the suppression of malaria-specific cytokines/chemokines, we assessed the expression of malaria-specific IL-12Rβ1, IL-12Rβ2 and interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1 in blood obtained from 18 filaria-infected (Fil(+)) and 17 filaria-uninfected (Fil(-)) individuals in a filaria-malaria co-endemic region of Mali. We found that Fil(+) individuals had significantly lower RNA expression of IRF-1 but not IL-12Rβ1 or IL-12Rβ2 in response to malaria antigen stimulation. We also measured the frequency of IL-12-producing DCs from these subjects and found that Fil(+) subjects had lower frequencies of IL-12(+) mDCs after malaria antigen stimulation than did the Fil(-) subjects. Modeling these data in vitro, we found that mDCs pre-exposed to live microfilariae not only produced significantly lower levels of CXCL-9, CXCL-10, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-12p19 and CXCL-11 following stimulation with malaria antigen but also markedly downregulated the expression of IRF-1, IRF-2 and IRF-3 compared with microfilaria-unexposed mDCs. siRNA-inhibition of irf-1 in mDCs downregulated the production of IL-12p70 through repression of IL-12p35. Our data demonstrate that the modulation of IRFs seen in filarial (and presumably other tissue-invasive helminths) infection underlies the suppression of malaria-specific cytokines/chemokines that play a crucial role in immunity to malaria.

  5. Long-term spatiotemporal stability and dynamic changes in helminth infracommunities of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in NE Poland.

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    Grzybek, Maciej; Bajer, Anna; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Al-Sarraf, Mohammed; Behnke-Borowczyk, Jolanta; Harris, Philip D; Price, Stephen J; Brown, Gabrielle S; Osborne, Sarah-Jane; Siński, Edward; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-12-01

    Parasites are considered to be an important selective force in host evolution but ecological studies of host-parasite systems are usually short-term providing only snap-shots of what may be dynamic systems. We have conducted four surveys of helminths of bank voles at three ecologically similar woodland sites in NE Poland, spaced over a period of 11 years, to assess the relative importance of temporal and spatial effects on helminth infracommunities. Some measures of infracommunity structure maintained relative stability: the rank order of prevalence and abundance of Heligmosomum mixtum, Heligmosomoides glareoli and Mastophorus muris changed little between the four surveys. Other measures changed markedly: dynamic changes were evident in Syphacia petrusewiczi which declined to local extinction, while the capillariid Aonchotheca annulosa first appeared in 2002 and then increased in prevalence and abundance over the remaining three surveys. Some species are therefore dynamic and both introductions and extinctions can be expected in ecological time. At higher taxonomic levels and for derived measures, year and host-age effects and their interactions with site are important. Our surveys emphasize that the site of capture is the major determinant of the species contributing to helminth community structure, providing some predictability in these systems.

  6. Occurrence and HAT-RAPD analysis of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Phayao province, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butboonchoo, Preeyaporn; Wongsawad, Chalobol

    2017-01-01

    The present study determined the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) between November 2012 and August 2013. One hundred and twenty domestic chickens were purchased from villages in four districts of Phayao province; Mae Chai, Dok Khamtai, Chun and Chiang Kham. Morphological differences were used to identify the helminth species, and HAT-RAPD technique was used to differentiate among closely related species. The results revealed that the total prevalence of infection was 99.2%. Cestode and nematode infections showed the highest prevalence in rainy season, while trematode infections were low and only found in hot season. The species and their prevalence were: Ascaridia galli (50.8%), Heterakis gallinarum (86.7%), Prosthogonimus macrorchis (1.7%), Echinostoma revolutum (0.8%), Raillietina echinobothrida (48.3%), Raillietina tetragona (57.5%), Raillietina cesticillus (12.5%), Raillietina sp. (35.8%), Cotugnia chiangmaii (14.2%) and Cotugnia sp. (32.5%). The prevalence of helminth infections did not differ significantly between male and female chickens. HAT-RAPD analysis, the specific fragment of 400 and 250 bp indicated that Raillietina sp. and Cotugnia sp. found, respectively, differ from other closely related species. This study has confirmed that HAT-RAPD technique can be used to differentiate among related species combined with morphological observations.

  7. Occurrence and HAT-RAPD analysis of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus in Phayao province, northern Thailand

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    Preeyaporn Butboonchoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus between November 2012 and August 2013. One hundred and twenty domestic chickens were purchased from villages in four districts of Phayao province; Mae Chai, Dok Khamtai, Chun and Chiang Kham. Morphological differences were used to identify the helminth species, and HAT-RAPD technique was used to differentiate among closely related species. The results revealed that the total prevalence of infection was 99.2%. Cestode and nematode infections showed the highest prevalence in rainy season, while trematode infections were low and only found in hot season. The species and their prevalence were: Ascaridia galli (50.8%, Heterakis gallinarum (86.7%, Prosthogonimus macrorchis (1.7%, Echinostoma revolutum (0.8%, Raillietina echinobothrida (48.3%, Raillietina tetragona (57.5%, Raillietina cesticillus (12.5%, Raillietina sp. (35.8%, Cotugnia chiangmaii (14.2% and Cotugnia sp. (32.5%. The prevalence of helminth infections did not differ significantly between male and female chickens. HAT-RAPD analysis, the specific fragment of 400 and 250 bp indicated that Raillietina sp. and Cotugnia sp. found, respectively, differ from other closely related species. This study has confirmed that HAT-RAPD technique can be used to differentiate among related species combined with morphological observations.

  8. Development of fatal intestinal inflammation in MyD88 deficient mice co-infected with helminth and bacterial enteropathogens.

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    Libo Su

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Infections with intestinal helminth and bacterial pathogens, such as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, continue to be a major global health threat for children. To determine whether and how an intestinal helminth parasite, Heligomosomoides polygyrus, might impact the TLR signaling pathway during the response to a bacterial enteropathogen, MyD88 knockout and wild-type C57BL/6 mice were infected with H. polygyrus, the bacterial enteropathogen Citrobacter rodentium, or both. We found that MyD88 knockout mice co-infected with H. polygyrus and C. rodentium developed more severe intestinal inflammation and elevated mortality compared to the wild-type mice. The enhanced susceptibility to C. rodentium, intestinal injury and mortality of the co-infected MyD88 knockout mice were found to be associated with markedly reduced intestinal phagocyte recruitment, decreased expression of the chemoattractant KC, and a significant increase in bacterial translocation. Moreover, the increase in bacterial infection and disease severity were found to be correlated with a significant downregulation of antimicrobial peptide expression in the intestinal tissue in co-infected MyD88 knockout mice. Our results suggest that the MyD88 signaling pathway plays a critical role for host defense and survival during helminth and enteric bacterial co-infection.

  9. Recognition of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae antigens by sera from human infected with this parasite and its potential use in diagnosis.

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    Chapa-Ruiz, M R; Salinas-Tobón, M R; Aguilar-Alvarez, D J; Martínez-Marañón, R

    1992-01-01

    Human antibody response to total soluble extract of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (TSE) was analyzed by Western blot. The most frequently recognized antigens had molecular weights of 96, 67, 63, 60, 55 and 47 kDa. An antigenic fraction containing two peptides with M.W. of 43, 47 kDa from the parasite (p43, 47 Ts L1) was isolated by elution from polyacrylamide gel slabs. It was used as antigen in an ELISA test and compared to that of TSE. Serum samples from 51 symptomatic trichinellosis patients--43 with high antibody levels to TSE, 5 of them with positive biopsy and 8 with low levels of these antibodies--as well as 38 from asymptomatic individuals from the area where the trichinellosis outbreaks had occurred and 43 from apparently healthy individuals from a non-endemic area, 37 from patients with intestinal parasitic infections caused by helminth and protozoan parasites--11 from recurrent and 26 from non-recurrent disease--were analyzed by ELISA using both antigens. The ELISA using p43, 47 Ts L1 detected all trichinellosis patients with high antibody levels as well as 6 out of 8 of those with low antibody levels. All control groups were negative. Therefore, this purified fraction allowed the ELISA to be more specific and sensitive for human trichinellosis diagnosis.

  10. Immunization with PIII, a fraction of Schistosoma mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation, affects nitric oxide production by murine spleen cells

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    Diana Magalhães de Oliveira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an important effector molecule involved in immune regulation and defense. NO produced by cytokine-activated macrophages was reported to be cytotoxic against the helminth Schistosoma mansoni. Identification and characterization of S. mansoni antigens that can provide protective immunity is crucial for understanding the complex immunoregulatory events that modulate the immune response in schistosomiasis. It is, then, essential to have available defined, purified parasite antigens. Previous work by our laboratory identified a fraction of S. mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation (SWAP, named PIII, able to elicit significant in vitro cell proliferation and at the same time lower in vitro and in vivo granuloma formation when compared either to SEA (soluble egg antigen or to SWAP. In the present work we report the effect of different in vivo trials with mice on their spleen cells ability to produce NO. We demonstrate that PIII-immunization is able to significantly increase NO production by spleen cells after in vitro stimulation with LPS. These data suggest a possible role for NO on the protective immunity induced by PIII.

  11. Antigen Export Reduces Antigen Presentation and Limits T Cell Control of M. tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Grace, Patricia S; Ernst, Joel D

    2016-01-13

    Persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis results from bacterial strategies that manipulate host adaptive immune responses. Infected dendritic cells (DCs) transport M. tuberculosis to local lymph nodes but activate CD4 T cells poorly, suggesting bacterial manipulation of antigen presentation. However, M. tuberculosis antigens are also exported from infected DCs and taken up and presented by uninfected DCs, possibly overcoming this blockade of antigen presentation by infected cells. Here we show that the first stage of this antigen transfer, antigen export, benefits M. tuberculosis by diverting bacterial proteins from the antigen presentation pathway. Kinesin-2 is required for antigen export and depletion of this microtubule-based motor increases activation of antigen-specific CD4 T cells by infected cells and improves control of intracellular infection. Thus, although antigen transfer enables presentation by bystander cells, it does not compensate for reduced antigen presentation by infected cells and represents a bacterial strategy for CD4 T cell evasion.

  12. THE LYMPH SELF ANTIGEN REPERTOIRE

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    Laura eSantambrogio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The lymphatic fluid originates from the interstitial fluid which bathes every parenchymal organ and reflects the omic composition of the tissue from which it originates in its physiological or pathological signature. Several recent proteomic analyses have mapped the proteome-degradome and peptidome of this immunologically relevant fluid pointing to the lymph as an important source of tissue-derived self-antigens. A vast array of lymph-circulating peptides have been mapped deriving from a variety of processing pathways including caspases, cathepsins, MMPs, ADAMs, kallikreins, calpains and granzymes, among others. These self peptides can be directly loaded on circulatory dendritic cells and expand the self-antigenic repertoire available for central and peripheral tolerance.

  13. The global limits and population at risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections in 2010

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    Pullan Rachel L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the global limits of transmission of soil-transmitted helminth (STH species is essential for quantifying the population at-risk and the burden of disease. This paper aims to define these limits on the basis of environmental and socioeconomic factors, and additionally seeks to investigate the effects of urbanisation and economic development on STH transmission, and estimate numbers at-risk of infection with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm in 2010. Methods A total of 4,840 geo-referenced estimates of infection prevalence were abstracted from the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection and related to a range of environmental factors to delineate the biological limits of transmission. The relationship between STH transmission and urbanisation and economic development was investigated using high resolution population surfaces and country-level socioeconomic indicators, respectively. Based on the identified limits, the global population at risk of STH transmission in 2010 was estimated. Results High and low land surface temperature and extremely arid environments were found to limit STH transmission, with differential limits identified for each species. There was evidence that the prevalence of A. lumbricoides and of T. trichiura infection was statistically greater in peri-urban areas compared to urban and rural areas, whilst the prevalence of hookworm was highest in rural areas. At national levels, no clear socioeconomic correlates of transmission were identified, with the exception that little or no infection was observed for countries with a per capita gross domestic product greater than US$ 20,000. Globally in 2010, an estimated 5.3 billion people, including 1.0 billion school-aged children, lived in areas stable for transmission of at least one STH species, with 69% of these individuals living in Asia. A further 143 million (31.1 million school-aged children lived in areas of unstable

  14. Spatial modelling of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Kenya: a disease control planning tool.

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    Rachel L Pullan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Implementation of control of parasitic diseases requires accurate, contemporary maps that provide intervention recommendations at policy-relevant spatial scales. To guide control of soil transmitted helminths (STHs, maps are required of the combined prevalence of infection, indicating where this prevalence exceeds an intervention threshold of 20%. Here we present a new approach for mapping the observed prevalence of STHs, using the example of Kenya in 2009. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Observed prevalence data for hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were assembled for 106,370 individuals from 945 cross-sectional surveys undertaken between 1974 and 2009. Ecological and climatic covariates were extracted from high-resolution satellite data and matched to survey locations. Bayesian space-time geostatistical models were developed for each species, and were used to interpolate the probability that infection prevalence exceeded the 20% threshold across the country for both 1989 and 2009. Maps for each species were integrated to estimate combined STH prevalence using the law of total probability and incorporating a correction factor to adjust for associations between species. Population census data were combined with risk models and projected to estimate the population at risk and requiring treatment in 2009. In most areas for 2009, there was high certainty that endemicity was below the 20% threshold, with areas of endemicity ≥ 20% located around the shores of Lake Victoria and on the coast. Comparison of the predicted distributions for 1989 and 2009 show how observed STH prevalence has gradually decreased over time. The model estimated that a total of 2.8 million school-age children live in districts which warrant mass treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Bayesian space-time geostatistical models can be used to reliably estimate the combined observed prevalence of STH and suggest that a quarter of Kenya's school-aged children live in

  15. Helminths of rabbits (Lagomorpha, Leporidae deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute

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    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Helminth samples (n = 35 recovered from Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758 Lilljeborg, 1873 (3 and from another rabbit species, Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758 Thomas, 1901 (32, from August 1909 to February 1948 and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute were analyzed. The studied samples were represented by the cysticercus of the cestode Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780 and by the nematodes Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819, Vianella fariasi (Travassos, 1915, Longistriata perfida Travassos, 1943, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis (Zeder, 1800. The scope of the present investigation is to survey the parasites infecting these hosts, commonly used as laboratory animal models in scientific research and supply figurative data on the helminths in order to provide their easy identification, since the presence of autochthonous parasite burdens, if undetected or misinterpreted, can alter the final results of experimental assays, mainly those related to immunological approaches, when cross-reactions can occur.Trinta e cinco amostras de helmintos coletadas de Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758 Lilljeborg, 1873 (3 e de uma outra espécie de coelho, Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758 Thomas, 1901 (32, de agosto de 1909 a fevereiro de 1948 e que estão depositadas na Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, foram analisadas. As amostras estudadas estão representadas pelo cisticerco do cestóide Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780 e pelos nematóides Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819, Vianella fariasi (Travassos, 1915, Longistriata perfida Travassos, 1943, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis (Zeder, 1800. O objetivo da presente investigação é o de inventariar os parasitos que infectam estes hospedeiros, comumente utilizados como modelos de animais de laboratório na pesquisa científica e fornecer dados figurativos sobre os helmintos a fim de facilitar sua identificação, uma vez que

  16. Bacterial phospholipide antigens and their taxonomic significance.

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    Karalnik, B V; Razbash, M P; Akhmetova, E A

    1981-01-01

    The investigation of interrelationships between the phospholipides of various microorganisms (33 strains of corynebacteria, mycobacteria and staphylococci) using crossed antibody neutralization reactions with phospholipide antigenic erythrocyte diagnostic was used for the assessment of the degree of antigenic propinquity and antigenic differences between the phospholipides of bacteria of the same species, genus, and of different genera. The role of the determinants of the corresponding (their own) and "foreign" genera in the antigenic differences between the phospholipides of the microorganisms investigated was established. On the basis of the results obtained the conclusion has been drawn that the method of assessment of antigenic interrelationships between phospholipides can be used for the study of some taxonomic problems.

  17. [HLA antigens in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumba, I V; Sochnev, A M; Kukaĭne, E M; Burshteĭn, A M; Benevolenskaia, L I

    1990-01-01

    Antigens of I class HLA system (locus A and B) were investigated in 67 patients of Latvian nationality suffering from juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Associations of HLA antigens with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis partially coincided with the ones revealed earlier. Typing established an increased incidence of antigen B27 (p less than 0.01) and gaplotype A2, B40 (p less than 0.01). Antigen B15 possessed a protective action with respect to JRA. Interlocus combinations demonstrated a closer association with the disease than a single antigen. The authors also revealed markers of various clinico-anatomical variants of JRA.

  18. A predictable suite of helminth parasites in the long-billed dowitcher, Limnodromus scolopaceus, from the Chihuahua desert in Texas and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaris, Albert G; Ortiz, Rafael; Canaris, Gay J

    2010-12-01

    Eighty-eight long-billed dowitchers, Limnodromus scolopaceus, were examined for helminth parasites, 62 from Texas and 26 from Mexico. In total, 3,558 helminth parasites were obtained from this host, 2,273 from Texas birds and 1,285 from birds from Mexico. The component communities consisted of 22 species of helminths in Texas, and 19 in Mexico. Of a total of 26 helminth species recorded from the 2 localities, 15 were common to both, 7 found only in Texas, and 4 only in Mexico. Fifty-nine of 62 Texas birds and 25 of 26 birds from Mexico were infected. The most prevalent helminth for Texas was the cestode Shipleya inermis. The cestode Aploparaksis retroversa was the most abundant, accounting for 37% of the total abundance, and was second highest in prevalence. Five species of cestodes, A. retroversa, Aploparaksis diagonalis, Aploparaksis occidentalis, Aploparaksis rissae, and Shipleya inermis accounted for 79% of total abundance. In the sample from Mexico, S. inermis was also highest in prevalence, followed by the nematode Hystrichis tricolor. The cestode A. retroversa was highest in abundance at 50% of the total, and was third highest in prevalence. Mean species richness, diversity, and evenness were similar among the component communities of Texas and Mexico. A predictable suite of aploparaksid cestodes, together with the cestode S. inermis, constituted 79%, and 61%, of total abundance for the component communities of Texas and Mexico, respectively, and were present in all component communities for locality, season, and year. The cestodes, A. retroversa and S. inermis, were the dominant species in all component communities. Differences among component communities and low similarities for all other comparisons were largely caused by less predictable suites of helminth species. A checklist of helminth parasites reported for long-billed dowitchers is included.

  19. Impact of helminth diagnostic test performance on estimation of risk factors and outcomes in HIV-positive adults.

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    Michael B Arndt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditional methods using microscopy for the detection of helminth infections have limited sensitivity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays enhance detection of helminths, particularly low burden infections. However, differences in test performance may modify the ability to detect associations between helminth infection, risk factors, and sequelae. We compared these associations using microscopy and PCR. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was nested within a randomized clinical trial conducted at 3 sites in Kenya. We performed microscopy and real-time multiplex PCR for the stool detection and quantification of Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Schistosoma species. We utilized regression to evaluate associations between potential risk factors or outcomes and infection as detected by either method. RESULTS: Of 153 HIV-positive adults surveyed, 55(36.0% and 20(13.1% were positive for one or more helminth species by PCR and microscopy, respectively (p<0.001. PCR-detected infections were associated with farming (Prevalence Ratio 1.57, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.40, communal water source (PR 3.80, 95% CI: 1.01, 14.27, and no primary education (PR 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.33, whereas microscopy-detected infections were not associated with any risk factors under investigation. Microscopy-detected infections were associated with significantly lower hematocrit and hemoglobin (means of -3.56% and -0.77 g/dl and a 48% higher risk of anemia (PR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.88 compared to uninfected. Such associations were absent for PCR-detected infections unless infection intensity was considered, Infections diagnosed with either method were associated with increased risk of eosinophilia (PCR PR 2.42, 95% CI: 1.02, 5.76; microscopy PR 2.92, 95% CI: 1.29, 6.60. CONCLUSION: Newer diagnostic methods, including PCR, improve the detection of helminth infections. This heightened sensitivity may improve the

  20. A cross-sectional study of helminths in rural scavenging poultry in Tanzania in relation to season and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permin, A; Magwisha, H; Kassuku, A A; Nansen, P; Bisgaard, M; Frandsen, F; Gibbons, L

    1997-09-01

    A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of helminths in rural scavenging poultry on six hundred adult chickens selected randomly from six villages in the Morogoro Region, Tanzania during the wet and the dry seasons, was conducted. The trachea and gastrointestinal tract of each bird were examined for the presence of parasites. All chickens were infected with one or several species of helminths, the average being 4.8 +/- 1.7 helminths per chicken during the wet season and 5.1 +/- 1.8 during the dry season. A total of 29 different helminth species were shown in the trachea or the gastrointestinal tract. The following species were identified: Syngamus trachea (0.7% (wet season), 2% (dry season)); Gongylonema ingluvicola (6.3%, 17.7%); Tetrameres americana (54.3%, 60.3%); Dispharynx nasuta (0%, 2.7%); Acuaria hamulosa (8.3%, 19.3%); Ascaridia galli (28.3%, 32.3%); Heterakis gallinarum (74.0%, 78.7%); H. isolonche (18.7%, 5.0%); H. dispar (25.7%, 6.3%); Allodapa suctoria (40.0%, 52.0%); Subulura strongylina (3.3%, 1.0%); Strongyloides avium (0.3%, 3.0%); Capillaria annulata (2.0%, 0.0%); C. contorta (9.0%, 1.0%); C. caudinflata (2.0%, 4.3%); C. obsignata (8.7%, 25.0%); C. anatis (4.0%, 9.0%); C. bursata (1.0%, 2.7%); Raillietina echinobothrida (41.3%, 46.3%); R. tetragona (25.3%, 21. 3%); R. cesticillus (8.7%, 2.7%); Choanotaenia infundibulum (0.0%, 3. 7%); Hymenolepis carioca (9.0%, 18.0%); H. cantaniana (48.0%, 43. 0%); Amoebotaenia cuneata (39.3%, 36.0%); Metroliasthes lucida (1.0%, 0.3%); Davainea proglottina (5.7%, 0.3%) and Polymorphus boschadis (0.3%, 0.0%). No trematodes were found. No correlation was found between season and prevalence, or season and mean worm burdens. Twelve helminths of the species recovered represent new local records.

  1. Intestinal helminth fauna of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and fur seal Arctocephalus australis from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

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    Hernández-Orts, J S; Montero, F E; Juan-García, A; García, N A; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 56 South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, and 5 South American fur seals, Arctocephalus australis, from northern Patagonia, Argentina. A total of 97,325 helminth specimens were collected from sea lions. Gravid individuals were represented by 6 species of parasites: 1 digenean (Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis), 1 cestode (Diphyllobothrium spp.), 3 nematodes (Uncinaria hamiltoni, Contracaecum ogmorhini s.s., Pseudoterranova cattani) and 1 acanthocephalan (Corynosoma australe). In addition, third-stage larvae of 2 nematodes (Contracaecum sp. and Anisakis sp. type I) and 3 juvenile acanthocephalans (Andracantha sp., Profilicollis chasmagnathi and Corynosoma cetaceum) were also collected. Andracantha sp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and P. chasmagnathi represent new host records. A total of 1516 helminth specimens were collected from fur seals. Gravid individuals were represented by three species of parasites, namely, Diphyllobothrium spp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and C. australe. In addition, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and P. cattani, juveniles of C. cetaceum and immature cestodes (Tetrabothriidae gen. sp.) were also collected. Corynosoma australe was the most prevalent and abundant parasite in both hosts, accounting for >90% of all specimens. Sea lions and furs seals from northern Patagonia harbour the intestinal helminth communities that could be predicted for otariids, i.e. the combination of species of the genera Corynosoma, Diphyllobothrium, Pseudoterranova, Contracaecum and, in pups, Uncinaria. Additionally, both species of otariid are apparently unsuitable hosts (i.e. non-hosts) for as many as five parasite taxa. The inclusion or exclusion of these species affects estimation of species richness at both component community (11 versus 6 species in sea lions; 7 versus 3 species in fur seals) and infracommunity (mean: 3.1 versus 2.6 in sea lions; 2.2 versus 1.7 species) levels. Information about the reproductive status of

  2. Stable solid-phase Rh antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yared, M A; Moise, K J; Rodkey, L S

    1997-12-01

    Numerous investigators have attempted to isolate the Rh antigens in a stable, immunologically reactive form since the discovery of the Rh system over 56 years ago. We report here a successful and reproducible approach to solubilizing and adsorbing the human Rh antigen(s) to a solid-phase matrix in an antigenically active form. Similar results were obtained with rabbit A/D/F red blood cell antigens. The antigen preparation was made by dissolution of the red blood cell membrane lipid followed by fragmentation of the residual cytoskeleton in an EDTA solution at low ionic strength. The antigenic activity of the soluble preparations was labile in standard buffers but was stable in zwitterionic buffers for extended periods of time. Further studies showed that the antigenic activity of these preparations was enhanced, as was their affinity for plastic surfaces, in the presence of acidic zwitterionic buffers. Adherence to plastic surfaces at low pH maintained antigenic reactivity and specificity for antibody was retained. The data show that this approach yields a stable form of antigenically active human Rh D antigen that could be used in a red blood cell-free assay for quantitative analysis of Rh D antibody and for Rh D antibody immunoadsorption and purification.

  3. Common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers

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    Shima Daneshpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different research groups reported a negative correlation between cancers and parasitical infections. As an example, the prevalence of a hydatid cyst among patients with cancer was significantly lower than its prevalence among normal population. Tn antigens exist both in cancer and hydatid cyst. This common antigen may be involved in the effect of parasite on cancer growth. So in this work, common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers have been investigated. Materials and Methods: Different hydatid cyst antigens including hydatid fluid, laminated and germinal layer antigens, and excretory secretory antigens of protoscolices were run in SDS PAGE and transferred to NCP paper. In western immunoblotting, those antigens were probed with sera of patients with different cancer and also sera of non-cancer patients. Also, cross reaction among excretory secretory products of cancer cells and antisera raised against different hydatid cyst antigen was investigated. Results: In western immunoblotting, antisera raised against laminated and germinal layers of hydatid cyst reacted with excretory secretory products of cancer cells. Also, a reaction was detected between hydatid cyst antigens and sera of patients with some cancers. Conclusion: Results of this work emphasize existence of common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers. More investigation about these common antigens is recommended.

  4. Common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshpour, Shima; Bahadoran, Mehran; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Eskandarian, Abas Ali; Mahmoudzadeh, Mehdi; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different research groups reported a negative correlation between cancers and parasitical infections. As an example, the prevalence of a hydatid cyst among patients with cancer was significantly lower than its prevalence among normal population. Tn antigens exist both in cancer and hydatid cyst. This common antigen may be involved in the effect of parasite on cancer growth. So in this work, common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers have been investigated. Materials and Methods: Different hydatid cyst antigens including hydatid fluid, laminated and germinal layer antigens, and excretory secretory antigens of protoscolices were run in SDS PAGE and transferred to NCP paper. In western immunoblotting, those antigens were probed with sera of patients with different cancer and also sera of non-cancer patients. Also, cross reaction among excretory secretory products of cancer cells and antisera raised against different hydatid cyst antigen was investigated. Results: In western immunoblotting, antisera raised against laminated and germinal layers of hydatid cyst reacted with excretory secretory products of cancer cells. Also, a reaction was detected between hydatid cyst antigens and sera of patients with some cancers. Conclusion: Results of this work emphasize existence of common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers. More investigation about these common antigens is recommended. PMID:26962511

  5. Helminth antigens enable CpG-activated dendritic cells to inhibit the symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis through Foxp3+ regulatory T cells.

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    Franco Carranza

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC have the potential to control the outcome of autoimmunity by modulating the immune response. In this study, we tested the ability of Fasciola hepatica total extract (TE to induce tolerogenic properties in CpG-ODN (CpG maturated DC, to then evaluate the therapeutic potential of these cells to diminish the inflammatory response in collagen induced arthritis (CIA. DBA/1J mice were injected with TE plus CpG treated DC (T/C-DC pulsed with bovine collagen II (CII between two immunizations with CII and clinical scores CIA were determined. The levels of CII-specific IgG2 and IgG1 in sera, the histological analyses in the joints, the cytokine profile in the draining lymph node (DLN cells and in the joints, and the number, and functionality of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells (Treg were evaluated. Vaccination of mice with CII pulsed T/C-DC diminished the severity and incidence of CIA symptoms and the production of the inflammatory cytokine, while induced the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The therapeutic effect was mediated by Treg cells, since the adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells, inhibited the inflammatory symptoms in CIA. The in vitro blockage of TGF-β in cultures of DLN cells plus CII pulsed T/C-DC inhibited the expansion of Treg cells. Vaccination with CII pulsed T/C-DC seems to be a very efficient approach to diminish exacerbated immune response in CIA, by inducing the development of Treg cells, and it is therefore an interesting candidate for a cell-based therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA.

  6. Gastrointestinal Helminth Parasites Community of Fish Species in a Niger Delta Tidal Creek, Nigeria

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    Anthony Ekata Ogbeibu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pool of fish species in a Niger Delta tidal creek, Buguma Creek, Nigeria, collected monthly from November 2004 to June 2006, at flood tides, were examined for gastrointestinal helminth parasites. The fish species were caught with hooks and lines and cast nets. Only nematode parasites were encountered in the study. Of the 1,149 fish specimens examined, 213 (representing 18.5% were infected with various nematodes parasites. Dasyatis margarita had the highest prevalence rate of 66.7% (2 infected out of 3 examined, followed by Pseudotolithus (Pseudotolithus senegalensis with a prevalence of 41.7% (10 infected out of 24, while the least infected were Arius gigas and Pomadasys jubelini with prevalence of 3.8% and 1.4%, respectively. No infection was recorded in Elops lacerta, Gobius sp., Lutjanus agennes, L. goreensis, Argyrosomus regius, Sphyraena guachancho, S. sphyraena, Cynoglossus senegalensis, Sarotherodon melanotheron, Tilapia guineensis, Liza falcipinnis, Mugil cephalus, and M. curema. The nematode parasites, Capillaria zederi, and Aplectana hamatospicula had the highest prevalence of 33.3% in D. margarita. Laurotravassoxyuris sp. also had the same prevalence in Trichiurus lepturus. Goezia sigalasi had the second highest prevalence of 12.5% in P. (Fonticulus elongatus which had the highest number examined, due to its high dominance in the water.

  7. Pronounced phenotype in activated regulatory T cells during a chronic helminth infection.

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    Layland, Laura E; Mages, Jörg; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Hoerauf, Achim; Wagner, Hermann; Lang, Roland; da Costa, Clarissa U Prazeres

    2010-01-15

    Although several markers have been associated with the characterization of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and their function, no studies have investigated the dynamics of their phenotype during infection. Since the necessity of Tregs to control immunopathology has been demonstrated, we used the chronic helminth infection model Schistosoma mansoni to address the impact on the Treg gene repertoire. Before gene expression profiling, we first studied the localization and Ag-specific suppressive nature of classically defined Tregs during infection. The presence of Foxp3+ cells was predominantly found in the periphery of granulomas and isolated CD4+CD25(hi)Foxp3+ Tregs from infected mice and blocked IFN-gamma and IL-10 cytokine secretion from infected CD4+CD25- effector T cells. Furthermore, the gene expression patterns of Tregs and effector T cells showed that 474 genes were significantly regulated during schistosomiasis. After k-means clustering, we identified genes exclusively regulated in all four populations, including Foxp3, CD103, GITR, OX40, and CTLA-4--classic Treg markers. During infection, however, several nonclassical genes were upregulated solely within the Treg population, such as Slpi, Gzmb, Mt1, Fabp5, Nfil3, Socs2, Gpr177, and Klrg1. Using RT-PCR, we confirmed aspects of the microarray data and also showed that the expression profile of Tregs from S. mansoni-infected mice is simultaneously unique and comparable with Tregs derived from other infections.

  8. Parasitism level by helminths and weight gain of calves kept in organic and conventional grazing

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    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable production is a principle in which we must meet the needs of the present without compromising the capacity of future generations. Despite the successful development of pesticides against endo and ectoparasites found in domestic ruminants, these parasites are still the major problem of the herbivore production system. The purpose of this study was to know the population of gastrintestinal parasites and their influence on weight gain of calves kept in organic and conventional grazing. Thus, organic and conventional calves were randomly selected in 2008 and 2009. The fecal egg count (FEC indentified the following genders of helminths: Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum, Cooperia, Strongyloides, Trichuris and oocysts of Eimeria. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 between FEC in organic and conventional animals. Calves younger than 6 months showed significant higher infection (p<0.05 than calves between 7 and 12 months of age. The weight gain observed during the study was of 327g/day and 280g/day for conventional and organic systems animals, respectively. Consequently, the combination of sustainable practices of grazing associated with the selective application of anthelmintics may be a feasible alternative for nematode control in a conventional system and in transition to an organic one.

  9. High prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in Southern Belize-highlighting opportunity for control interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rina Girard Kaminsky; Steven K Ault; Phillip Castillo; Kenton Serrano; Guillermo Troya

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in school age children of two southern districts as baseline information prior to implement a deworming program against intestinal parasites as part of an integrated country development plan. Methods:Children randomly selected from urban and rural schools in Southern Belize provided one stool sample each, analysed by the Kato-Katz method to assess prevalence and intensity of STH infections. Epi Info software was used for data analysis;Chi-square test and Fischer exact test were applied to compare group proportions;P Results:A total of 500 children from 10 schools participated in the study from May to December 2005. Prevalence of STH ranged between 40%and 82%among schools, with a median of 59.2%;the majority of light intensity, and with 2.2%high intensity infection. Trichuris and Ascaris infections presented similar frequency in children aged from 6 to 9 years old;hookworm infections tended to be more frequent in the older group 10 to 12 years old. Statistical significances (P≤0.01) were found in children in rural schools infected with any species of STH, in moderate Trichuris infections, in hookworm infections in rural areas with strong Mayan presence and in Ascaris infections in children of Mayan origin. Conclusions:High prevalence of STH in Southern Belize provided sound ground for implementing an integrated deworming control program.

  10. Soil-transmitted helminths of humans in Southeast Asia--towards integrated control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jex, Aaron R; Lim, Yvonne A L; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Hotez, Peter J; Young, Neil D; Gasser, Robin B

    2011-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) pose significant public health challenges in many countries of Southeast Asia (SEA). Overall, approximately one-third of the world's cases of ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm disease occur in the 11 major SEA countries. Various countries are at different stages in their response to controlling these diseases. For instance, in Malaysia and Thailand, the major burden of disease is confined to rural/remote, indigenous and/or refugee populations. In countries, such as Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Vietnam, the burden remains high, although extensive deworming programmes are underway and are yielding encouraging results. The present chapter reviews the current status of STH infections in SEA, identifies knowledge gaps and offers a perspective on the development of improved, integrated surveillance and control in this geographical region. It indicates that advances in our understanding of the epidemiology of these parasites, through the strategic use of molecular and predictive (e.g. geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS)) technologies, could readily underpin future research and control programmes. It is hoped that the gradual move towards integrated treatment/control programmes will assist substantially in decreasing the chronic disease burden linked to STHs, thus increasing human health and welfare, and supporting socio-economic growth and development in SEA countries.

  11. Intestinal protozoa and intestinal helminthic infections among schoolchildren in Central Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-aziz M Ahmed; Azam A Afifi; Elfatih M Malik; Ishag Adam

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) among primary schoolchildren in El dhayga, Central Sudan.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, three fresh faecal samples were collected from each child, which were examined by direct wet mount, brine flotation, formalin–ether and Kato–Katz techniques. The intensity of each STH infection was expressed as the mean of eggs per gram counts of the three samples.Results: In total, 142 (90.4%) of 157 children harboured at least one type of intestinal parasite.Ascaris lumbricoides,Hymenolepis nana,Entamoeba histolytica andGiardia lamblia were the most common parasites found, with prevalence rates of 32.5%, 30.6%, 33.1% and 19.7%, respectively. Out of these 157 children, 29(18.5%) harboured more than two intestinal parasitic infections. No cases ofSchistosoma mansoni orEnterobius vermicularis were identified. Conclusions: The study demonstrates significant burden of intestinal protozoa and STH infections in this part of Sudan and highlights the need for preventive and intervention measures.

  12. The nutritional impacts of soil-transmitted helminths infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in rural Malaysia

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    Ahmed Abdulhamid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH infections, anaemia and malnutrition are major public health problems in school-age children in developing countries. This study was conducted on 289 Orang Asli (aboriginal schoolchildren in order to assess the current prevalence and predictors of anaemia and malnutrition, as well as the nutritional impacts of STH infections among these children. Methods A cross-sectional study was combined with a longitudinal follow-up three months after treatment with anthelminthic drugs. Blood samples were collected from the children to measure haemoglobin (Hb level. Anthropometric and socioeconomic data were also collected and the children were screened for STH. Results The baseline findings revealed that the prevalence of anaemia, significant stunting, underweight and wasting among the children were 41.0%, 28.0%, 29.2% and 12.5%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 84.6%, 47.6% and 3.9%, respectively. Haemoglobin level was significantly lower among the moderate-to-heavy infected children compared to the negative-to-light infected children. Age Conclusion STH infections, anaemia and malnutrition are still prevalent and a matter of public health concern in Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Sustainable deworming programme at school and community levels among these populations will help to improve their health and nutritional status.

  13. Height, Zinc and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren: A Study in Cuba and Cambodia

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    Brechje de Gier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia or hair (Cuba. We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001, while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029, but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051. Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  14. A survey of helminths in stray cats from Copenhagen with ecological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbaek, K; Madsen, H; Larsen, S O

    1984-01-01

    At autopsy of 230 adult stray cats, 120 from backyards and 110 from gardens, the intestinal tract was scrutinized for helminths. The prevalence of Toxocara cati, Taenia taeniaeformis and Dipylidium caninum was found to be 79%, 11% and 14%, respectively. Comparisons were made with the results of previous Danish investigations. The prevalence of Toxocara cati was found to be independent of time of collection and the sex and habitat of the cats and identical in cats with or without Taenia. This indicates that paratenic hosts do not play an important epizootiological role in the transmission of T. cati. The intensity of Toxocara per cat followed a negative binomial pattern. The high prevalence of T. cati combined with most cats having a low wormload shows that the cat population generally possesses a high degree of resistance against superimposed infections. The intensity of male Toxocara increases with the size of the worm population. This we consider to be an expression of increasing susceptibility of the cats. The prevalence of T. taeniaeformis was significantly higher in garden cats, due to their greater opportunity for catching mice. D. caninum, however, was significantly more frequent in backyard cats, probably owing to better living condition for the flea larvae in backyards. For both T. taeniaeformis and D. caninum a higher frequency was found in female cats, which is thought to be associated with their care for the kittens.

  15. The Role of More Sensitive Helminth Diagnostics in Mass Drug Administration Campaigns: Elimination and Health Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, G F; Turner, H C; Baggaley, R F; Holland, C; Hollingsworth, T D

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostics play a crucial role in determining treatment protocols and evaluating success of mass drug administration (MDA) programmes used to control soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). The current diagnostic, Kato-Katz, relies on inexpensive, reusable materials and can be used in the field, but only trained microscopists can read slides. This diagnostic always underestimates the true prevalence of infection, and the accuracy worsens as the true prevalence falls. We investigate how more sensitive diagnostics would impact on the management and life cycle of MDA programmes, including number of mass treatment rounds, health impact, number of unnecessary treatments and probability of elimination. We use an individual-based model of STH transmission within the current World Health Organization (WHO) treatment guidelines which records individual disability-adjusted life years (DALY) lost. We focus on Ascaris lumbricoides due to the availability of high-quality data on existing diagnostics. We show that the effect of improving the sensitivity of diagnostics is principally determined by the precontrol prevalence in the community. Communities at low true prevalence (70%) do not benefit greatly from improved diagnostics. Communities with intermediate prevalence benefit greatly from increased chemotherapy application, both in terms of reduced DALY loss and increased probability of elimination. Our results suggest that programmes should be extended beyond school-age children, especially in high prevalence communities. Finally, we argue against using apparent or measured prevalence as an uncorrected proxy for true prevalence.

  16. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren: a study in Cuba and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja

    2015-04-20

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  17. A slaughter slab survey for extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, H A; Kassuku, A A; Maeda, G E M; Boa, M E; Willingham, A L

    2004-05-01

    A survey on extra-intestinal porcine helminths was conducted at three slaughter slabs that receive pigs from Mbulu, a district endemic for porcine cysticercosis in northern Tanzania. Seventy carcases of pigs between 1 and 2 years old were examined between December 1997 and March 1998. The examination involved ante-mortem lingual examination for Taenia solium cysticercosis followed by post-mortem inspection. In addition, a laboratory procedure was performed to determine whether any of these domestic pigs were infected with Trichinella species. Parasites detected were Ascaris suum (44.3%), Echinococcus granulosus (4.3%) and Taenia hydatigena (1.4%). The lack of cases of porcine cysticercosis in this study compared to previous studies suggests that pig traders are conducting their own ante-mortem lingual examinations before purchasing pigs in the rural communities where the parasite is still highly prevalent. It is concluded that improved meat inspection could prove useful in reducing the local population's risk of infection with these parasites. The results of this study have revealed the parasites of agricultral and public health importance in the targeted communities. Further epidemiological investigations are required to better determine parasite prevalence and impact in order to formulate appropriate and cost-effective strategies for control.

  18. Efficacy of integrated school based de-worming and prompt malaria treatment on helminths -Plasmodium falciparum co-infections: A 33 months follow up study

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    Chadukura Vivian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The geographical congruency in distribution of helminths and Plasmodium falciparum makes polyparasitism a common phenomenon in Sub Saharan Africa. The devastating effects of helminths-Plasmodium co-infections on primary school health have raised global interest for integrated control. However little is known on the feasibility, timing and efficacy of integrated helminths-Plasmodium control strategies. A study was conducted in Zimbabwe to evaluate the efficacy of repeated combined school based antihelminthic and prompt malaria treatment. Methods A cohort of primary schoolchildren (5-17 years received combined Praziquantel, albendazole treatment at baseline, and again during 6, 12 and 33 months follow up surveys and sustained prompt malaria treatment. Sustained prompt malaria treatment was carried out throughout the study period. Children's infection status with helminths, Plasmodium and helminths-Plasmodium co-infections was determined by parasitological examinations at baseline and at each treatment point. The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, STH, malaria, helminths-Plasmodium co-infections and helminths infection intensities before and after treatment were analysed. Results Longitudinal data showed that two rounds of combined Praziquantel and albendazole treatment for schistosomiasis and STHs at 6 monthly intervals and sustained prompt malaria treatment significantly reduced the overall prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, hookworms and P. falciparum infection in primary schoolchildren by 73.5%, 70.8%, 67.3% and 58.8% respectively (p P. f + schistosomes, and P. f + STHs + schistosomes co-infections were reduced by 68.0%, 84.2%, and 90.7%, respectively. The absence of anti-helminthic treatment between the 12 mth and 33 mth follow-up surveys resulted in the sharp increase in STHs + schistosomes co-infection from 3.3% at 12 months follow up survey to 10.7%, slightly more than the baseline level (10.3% while other

  19. Gastrintestinal helminths Of Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 -Smith, 1839 from the caatinga area of the Paraíba State, Brazil

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    Roberto César Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 – Smith, 1839, is a medium sized canid which is found in almost every region of Brazil. It is the only registered native canid specie to be found in the semi-arid Northeastern region of the country. This study had as its objectives: the identification of the helminth fauna common to Cerdocyon thous found in the Caatinga of the state of Paraíba; and the determination of the ecological indications of helminthic infection, hoping to make a favourable addition to the understanding of this little known biome. In this study, 58 animals that were found as ‘roadkill’ on the highways in the municipality of Patos were used. The gastrointestinal helminths from these animals were colected. All the animals in this study were infected with helminths. 16 species of helminths were identified, two being trematodes, one being a cestode, one being an acanthocephalus, and the remaining twelve being nematodes. In this study a new specie, named Pterygodermatites pluripectinata n. sp. Was discovered and its host and location described.

  20. Helminth Infections of Meriones persicus (Persian Jird, Mus musculus (House Mice and Cricetulus migratorius (Grey Hamster: A Cross-Sectional Study in Meshkin-Shahr District, Northwest Iran

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    Zabiholah ZAREI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rodents have important role as reservoirs of different parasites. The aim of this study was to determine helminth parasites of abundant rodents in Meshkin-Shahr, Ardabil Province northwest Iran.Methods: From April 2014 to March 2015; 205 rodents including 118 Meriones persicus, 63 Mus musculus and 24 Cricetulus migratorius were collected, using live traps. All rodents were dissected and their different tissues examined for infectivity with helminth parasites.Results: Overall, 74.2% of rodents were infected with helminth parasites. The rate of infectivity in M. persicus, M. musculus and C. migratorius was 82.2%, 61.9%, 66.7%, respectively. In general, among all 205 rodents, the species and infection rates of helminthes were as follows: Nematoda: Trichuris sp. (46.8 %, Capillaria hepatica (18.1%, Syphacia frederici (14.2%, Aspicularis tetraptera (3.4%, Trichuris rhombomidis (2%, Heligmosomom sp. (2%, Streptopharagus kuntzi (0.5%, Spiruridae gen. sp. (0.5%; Cestoda: Hymenolepis nana fraterna (16.6% Hymenolepis diminuta (7.3% tetratiridium of Mesocestoides sp. (1%, Paranoplocephala sp. (0.5%, Cysticercus fasciolaris (0.5%, Taenia endothoracicus larva (0.5%, and Acanthocephala: Moniliformis moniliformis (18.5%.Conclusions: Variable species of helminthes circulate in the rodents of the study area. Presence of several zoonotic species highlights the potential risk of infections for public health.

  1. The effect of urbanization on helminth communities in the Eurasian blackbird (Turdus merula L.) from the eastern part of the Czech Republic.

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    Sitko, J; Zaleśny, G

    2014-03-01

    In the present study we investigated two ecologically distinct populations of T. merula for the presence of helminths. We wished to determine whether urban populations of blackbirds had reduced helminth fauna compared to birds from forest habitats. Birds were caught in two ecologically distinct sites located in the eastern part of the Czech Republic. A total of 320 birds were examined. The first site was located in Prerov where the birds were obtained from a typical urban population, and the second site was Zahlinice, which constitutes a typical forest area. As a result of parasitological examination, 30 helminth species belonging to Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were recorded from both sites: 29 species were found in the forested site and 15 in the urban site. The overall prevalence of infection was 93.1% and differed significantly between the sites (Zahlinice 97.2%, Prerov 85.1%). The mean species richness was almost three times higher in the forest population (3.37 ± 0.10) than in the urban one (1.78 ± 0.11). The clear qualitative and quantitative differences in the helminth community of T. merula obtained from two ecologically disparate localities show that urbanization leads to a significant reduction in the helminth fauna of a bird which is highly adapted to synanthropic habitats, while still remaining common in its original forest habitat.

  2. Helminth Infections of Meriones persicus (Persian Jird), Mus musculus (House Mice) and Cricetulus migratorius (Grey Hamster): A Cross-Sectional Study in Meshkin-Shahr District, Northwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZAREI, Zabiholah; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; HEIDARI, Zahra; DAVOODI, Jaber; SHABESTARI, Afshin; MOTEVALLI HAGHI, Afsaneh; KHANALIHA, Khadijeh; KIA, Eshrat Beigom

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rodents have important role as reservoirs of different parasites. The aim of this study was to determine helminth parasites of abundant rodents in Meshkin-Shahr, Ardabil Province northwest Iran. Methods: From April 2014 to March 2015; 205 rodents including 118 Meriones persicus, 63 Mus musculus and 24 Cricetulus migratorius were collected, using live traps. All rodents were dissected and their different tissues examined for infectivity with helminth parasites. Results: Overall, 74.2% of rodents were infected with helminth parasites. The rate of infectivity in M. persicus, M. musculus and C. migratorius was 82.2%, 61.9%, 66.7%, respectively. In general, among all 205 rodents, the species and infection rates of helminthes were as follows: Nematoda: Trichuris sp. (46.8%), Capillaria hepatica (18.1%), Syphacia frederici (14.2%), Aspicularis tetraptera (3.4%), Trichuris rhombomidis (2%), Heligmosomom sp. (2%), Streptopharagus kuntzi (0.5%), Spiruridae gen. sp. (0.5%); Cestoda: Hymenolepis nana fraterna (16.6%) Hymenolepis diminuta (7.3%) tetratiridium of Mesocestoides sp. (1%), Paranoplocephala sp. (0.5%), Cysticercus fasciolaris (0.5%), Taenia endothoracicus larva (0.5%), and Acanthocephala: Moniliformis moniliformis (18.5%). Conclusions: Variable species of helminthes circulate in the rodents of the study area. Presence of several zoonotic species highlights the potential risk of infections for public health. PMID:28096855

  3. Helminth communities of the autochthonous mustelids Mustela lutreola and M. putorius and the introduced Mustela vison in south-western France.

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    Torres, J; Miquel, J; Fournier, P; Fournier-Chambrillon, C; Liberge, M; Fons, R; Feliu, C

    2008-12-01

    This study presents the first comprehensive helminthological data on three sympatric riparian mustelids (the European mink Mustela lutreola, the polecat M. putorius and the American mink M. vison) in south-western France. One hundred and twenty-four specimens (45 M. lutreola, 37 M. putorius and 42 M. vison) from eight French departments were analysed. Globally, 15 helminth species were detected: Troglotrema acutum, Pseudamphistomum truncatum, Euryhelmis squamula, Euparyphium melis and Ascocotyle sp. (Trematoda), Taenia tenuicollis (Cestoda), Eucoleus aerophilus, Pearsonema plica, Aonchotheca putorii, Strongyloides mustelorum, Molineus patens, Crenosoma melesi, Filaroides martis and Skrjabingylus nasicola (Nematoda) and larval stages of Centrorhynchus species (Acanthocephala). The autochthonous European mink harboured the highest species richness (13 species) followed by the polecat with 11 species. The introduced American mink presented the most depauperate helminth community (nine species). The prevalence and worm burden of most of the helminths found in M. putorius and M. lutreola were also higher than those of M. vison. Some characteristics of their helminth communities were compared to relatively nearby populations (Spain) and other very distant populations (Belarus). This comparison emphasized M. patens as the most frequent parasite in all of the analysed mustelid populations. It was possible to conclude that the invasive M. vison contributes to the maintenance of the life cycle of the pathogenic T. acutum and S. nasicola helminths, with possible implications for the conservation of the endangered European mink.

  4. The occurrence of helminth parasites in the gastrointestinal of catfish (Silurus glanis Linnaeus 1758) from the Zarrine-roud river, Iran.

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    Yakhchali, Mohammad; Tehrani, Ali-Asghar; Ghoreishi, Mozafar

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to verify the prevalence of helminths parasites in the gastrointestinal tract of catfish. A total number of 116 catfish (Silurus glanis) were collected from Zarrine-roud river and examined for helminths. Fish were examined after washing contents of gastrointestinal tract and observed for the presence of helminths using a stereo microscope and a light microscope. Results indicated that 18.96% of the examined catfish were infected with digenean trematodes including Orientocreadium siluri (27%), Crowcrocoecum skrjabini (39%), and cestode Bothriocephalus gowkongensis (34%). All the parasites were found in the intestine. Mid-gut followed by foregut appeared to be the most commonly infected parts of the alimentary tract of hosts. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between infection rate, catfish body size, and weight (P < 0.05).

  5. The occurrence of helminth parasites in the gastrointestinal of catfish (Silurus glanis Linnaeus 1758 from the Zarrine-roud river, Iran

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    Mohammad Yakhchali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was undertaken to verify the prevalence of helminths parasites in the gastrointestinal tract of catfish. A total number of 116 catfish (Silurus glanis were collected from Zarrine-roud river and examined for helminths. Fish were examined after washing contents of gastrointestinal tract and observed for the presence of helminths using a stereo microscope and a light microscope. Results indicated that 18.96% of the examined catfish were infected with digenean trematodes including Orientocreadium siluri (27%, Crowcrocoecum skrjabini (39%, and cestode Bothriocephalus gowkongensis (34%. All the parasites were found in the intestine. Mid- gut followed by foregut appeared to be the most commonly infected parts of the alimentary tract of hosts. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between infection rate, catfish body size, and weight (P < 0.05.

  6. Prevalence and distribution of gastro-intestinal helminths and haemoparasites in young scavenging chickens in upper eastern region of Ghana, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, J; Permin, A; Hindsbo, O; Yelifari, L; Nansen, P; Bloch, P

    2000-06-12

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and species of gastro-intestinal helminths and haemoparasites in 100 chickens kept under extensive management systems in Ghana, West Africa. All the examined chickens (100%) were infected with gastro-intestinal helminths; a total of 18 species were detected. The species and their prevalences were: Acuaria hamulosa (25%), Allodapa suctoria (20%), Ascaridia galli (24%), Capillaria spp. (60%), Choanotaenia infundibulum (13%), Gongylonema ingluvicola (62%), Heterakis gallinarum (31%), H. isolonche (16%), Hymenolepis spp. (66%), Raillietina cesticillus (12%), R. echinobothrida (81%), R. tetragona (59%), Strongyloides avium (2%), Subulura strongylina (10%), Tetrameres fissispina (58%), Trichostronygylus tenuis (2%), and finally one unidentified acanthocephalan (1%) and one unidentified trematode (1%). Thirty-five per cent of the chickens were infected with the haemoparasites Aegyptinella pullorum and Plasmodium juxtanucleare (prevalences 9% and 27%, respectively). Association between chicken sex and prevalences was not significant. An over-dispersed distribution was seen for most of the helminth species.

  7. Characterization of Sm14 related components in different helminths by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis

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    Nilton Thaumaturgo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Sm14 was the first fatty acid-binding protein homologue identified in helminths. Thereafter, members of the same family were identified in several helminth species, with high aminoacid sequence homology between them. In addition, immune crossprotection was also reported against Fasciola hepatica infection, in animals previously immunized with the Schistosoma mansoni vaccine candidate, r-Sm14. In the present study, data on preliminary sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis of nine different helminth extracts focusing the identification of Sm14 related proteins, is reported. Out of these, three extracts - Ascaris suum (males and females, Echinostoma paraensei, and Taenia saginata - presented components that comigrated with Sm14 in SDS-PAGE, and that were recognized by anti-rSm14 policlonal serum, in Western blotting tests.

  8. Presence of helminth eggs in sewage sludge from waste water plants; Presencia de huevos de helmintos en lodos procedentes de la depuracion de aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Muro, J. L.; Garcia Orenes, F.; Nieto Asensio, N.; Bonora, I. B.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.

    2003-07-01

    Land application of sewage sludge is a usual practice in wide areas of the Comunidad Valencia, due the low organic contents and nutrients of the soils, and the sewage sludge is a suitable material to use os organic amendment of soils. However the use of sewage sludge involves a very detailed characterization of sewage, to avoid sanitary hazards as the presence of helminth eggs and its high resistant to most of the treatment used to stabilize sewage sludge. The aim of this work was determine the parasitic contamination of helminths found in sewage sludge, stabilized by anaerobic digestion, from two waste water plants of Alicante (Alcoy y Benidorm) destined to agricultural land. Also it was studies the evolution of helminth eggs content of a sewage sludge subjected to composting process. (Author) 12 refs.

  9. [Antigenic relationships between Debaryomyces strains (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoycan, N

    1980-01-01

    The results of the agglutinations between homologous and heterologous Debaryomyces strains and their agglutinating sera are shown in table I. According to these findings, D. hansenii and D. marama are antigenically different from other Debaryomyces strains in this genus. In a previous study Aksoycan et al. have shown a common antigenic factor between D. hansenii, D. marama strains and Salmonella 0:7 antigen. This factor was not present in other six strains of Debaryomyces. These results also show that D. tamarii does not have any antigenic relationship with the other seven species of Debaryomyces in this genus.

  10. Fingernail biting increase the risk of soil transmitted helminth (STH infection in elementary school children

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    Liena Sofiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar  belakang:  Infeksi  cacing  usus  yang  ditularkan melalui tanah  (Soil  Transmitted  Helminth-STH merupakan infeksi tersering dan terbanyak di antara infeksi-infeksi parasit. Kunci pemberantasan kecacingan adalah memperbaiki higiene perorangan dan sanitasi lingkungan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk Mengidentifikasi faktor risiko yang meningkatkan infeksi STH pada anak sekolah dasar (SD.Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan desain potong lintang dengan sampel purposif. Penelitian ini dilakukan di  suatu SD di  wilayah kerja  Puskesmas  di Yogyakarta  pada  bulan Oktober  sampai Desember 2009. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan survei tinja dan wawancara. Pemeriksaan tinja menggunakan metode Kato Katz dan wawancara menggunakan kuesioner. Hasil:  Di antara  211  subjek,  52  (24,6%  murid  mengidap cacingan dan  yang  terbanyak  adalah  Trichusis trihiura, sedangkan cacingan  Ascaris  lumbricoides,  sedangkan infeksi campuran Trichuris  trichiura  dan Hookworm sangat jarang. Risiko tertinggi (2,8 kali lipat terjadi di antara murid yang mempuyai kebiasaan menggigit kuku jari dibandngkan dengan yang tidak mempunyai kebiasan ini [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 2,80; 95% interval kepercayaan  (CI = 1,22-4,04]. Subjek yang tidak mencuci tangan sebelum makan atau tidak mencuci tangan dengan sabun setelah buang air besar mempunyai risiko 2,2 kali terhadap terinfeksi cacingan.Kesimpulan: Kebiasaan menggigit kuku jari, tidak mencuci tangan sebelum makan dan tidak mencuci tangan dengan sabun  setelah buang  air  besar mempertinggi  risiko infeksi cacingan.  (Health Science Indones 2011;2:81-6.AbstractBackground: Intestinal worm infections transmitted through the soil are the most common infection among parasitic infections. The key to worm eradication is to improve personal hygiene and environmental sanitation. This study aimed to identify several risk factors related to occurrence of Soil

  11. Improved PCR-Based Detection of Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections Using a Next-Generation Sequencing Approach to Assay Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotte, Nils; Papaiakovou, Marina; Grant, Jessica R.; Bierwert, Lou Ann; Llewellyn, Stacey; McCarthy, James S.; Williams, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The soil transmitted helminths are a group of parasitic worms responsible for extensive morbidity in many of the world’s most economically depressed locations. With growing emphasis on disease mapping and eradication, the availability of accurate and cost-effective diagnostic measures is of paramount importance to global control and elimination efforts. While real-time PCR-based molecular detection assays have shown great promise, to date, these assays have utilized sub-optimal targets. By performing next-generation sequencing-based repeat analyses, we have identified high copy-number, non-coding DNA sequences from a series of soil transmitted pathogens. We have used these repetitive DNA elements as targets in the development of novel, multi-parallel, PCR-based diagnostic assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Utilizing next-generation sequencing and the Galaxy-based RepeatExplorer web server, we performed repeat DNA analysis on five species of soil transmitted helminths (Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis). Employing high copy-number, non-coding repeat DNA sequences as targets, novel real-time PCR assays were designed, and assays were tested against established molecular detection methods. Each assay provided consistent detection of genomic DNA at quantities of 2 fg or less, demonstrated species-specificity, and showed an improved limit of detection over the existing, proven PCR-based assay. Conclusions/Significance The utilization of next-generation sequencing-based repeat DNA analysis methodologies for the identification of molecular diagnostic targets has the ability to improve assay species-specificity and limits of detection. By exploiting such high copy-number repeat sequences, the assays described here will facilitate soil transmitted helminth diagnostic efforts. We recommend similar analyses when designing PCR-based diagnostic tests for the detection of other

  12. Therapeutic helminth infection of macaques with idiopathic chronic diarrhea alters the inflammatory signature and mucosal microbiota of the colon.

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    Mara Jana Broadhurst

    Full Text Available Idiopathic chronic diarrhea (ICD is a leading cause of morbidity amongst rhesus monkeys kept in captivity. Here, we show that exposure of affected animals to the whipworm Trichuris trichiura led to clinical improvement in fecal consistency, accompanied by weight gain, in four out of the five treated monkeys. By flow cytometry analysis of pinch biopsies collected during colonoscopies before and after treatment, we found an induction of a mucosal T(H2 response following helminth treatment that was associated with a decrease in activated CD4(+ Ki67+ cells. In parallel, expression profiling with oligonucleotide microarrays and real-time PCR analysis revealed reductions in T(H1-type inflammatory gene expression and increased expression of genes associated with IgE signaling, mast cell activation, eosinophil recruitment, alternative activation of macrophages, and worm expulsion. By quantifying bacterial 16S rRNA in pinch biopsies using real-time PCR analysis, we found reduced bacterial attachment to the intestinal mucosa post-treatment. Finally, deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA revealed changes to the composition of microbial communities attached to the intestinal mucosa following helminth treatment. Thus, the genus Streptophyta of the phylum Cyanobacteria was vastly increased in abundance in three out of five ICD monkeys relative to healthy controls, but was reduced to control levels post-treatment; by contrast, the phylum Tenericutes was expanded post-treatment. These findings suggest that helminth treatment in primates can ameliorate colitis by restoring mucosal barrier functions and reducing overall bacterial attachment, and also by altering the communities of attached bacteria. These results also define ICD in monkeys as a tractable preclinical model for ulcerative colitis in which these effects can be further investigated.

  13. The ecology of Echinococcus multilocularis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. II. Helminth populations in the definitive host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, R L; Fay, F H; Williamson, F S

    1990-01-01

    The helminths of 1,579 arctic foxes from St. Lawrence Island were investigated by standard methods. The foxes, obtained mainly during the winter from fur trappers, harbored 22 species of helminths. Four of those were trematodes, viz., Maritrema afanassjewi Belopol'skaia, 1952, Orthosplanchnus pygmaeus Iurakhno, 1967, Plagiorchis elegans (Rudolphi, 1802) and Alaria marcianae (LaRue, 1917), each of which occurred in a single host. Two species of cestodes, Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitzsch, 1824) and Mesocestoides kirbyi Chandler, 1940, were uncommon (in 2.7 and 1.3% of the foxes, respectively). Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856 and Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 were present in about 80% of the foxes, and Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) in less than 10%. The specimens of Taenia spp. from the autumn-winter sample were usually destrobilate. In about 2% of the foxes, acanthocephalans of six species occurred. Four of those, of the genus Corynosoma Lühe, 1904, were common in marine mammals of the region; a fifth, Corynosoma clavatum Goss, 1940, has been reported previously only from marine birds of the Southern Hemisphere; and the sixth, Polymorphus cf. minutus (Goeze, 1782), has been found widely in waterfowl of the Northern Hemisphere. Of the nematodes, Sobolophyme baturini Petrov, 1930, Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925), and Physaloptera sp. were rare (with each in only one to three foxes). Trichinella nativa Boev et Britov, 1972 and Crenosoma vulpis (Dujardin, 1844) were uncommon (1.5 and 4%, respectively). The nematodes most often present were Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) (89%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884) (40%). Several of the rare to uncommon helminths probably were transported to the island by foxes immigrating from the adjacent continents via the pack ice.

  14. Stray animal and human defecation as sources of soil-transmitted helminth eggs in playgrounds of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zain, S N; Rahman, R; Lewis, J W

    2015-11-01

    Soil contaminated with helminth eggs and protozoan cysts is a potential source of infection and poses a threat to the public, especially to young children frequenting playgrounds. The present study determines the levels of infection of helminth eggs in soil samples from urban and suburban playgrounds in five states in Peninsular Malaysia and identifies one source of contamination via faecal screening from stray animals. Three hundred soil samples from 60 playgrounds in five states in Peninsular Malaysia were screened using the centrifugal flotation technique to identify and determine egg/cyst counts per gram (EPG) for each parasite. All playgrounds, especially those in Penang, were found to be contaminated with eggs from four nematode genera, with Toxocara eggs (95.7%) the highest, followed by Ascaris (93.3%), Ancylostoma (88.3%) and Trichuris (77.0%). In addition, faeces from animal shelters were found to contain both helminth eggs and protozoan cysts, with overall infection rates being 54% and 57% for feline and canine samples, respectively. The most frequently occurring parasite in feline samples was Toxocara cati (37%; EPG, 42.47 ± 156.08), while in dog faeces it was Ancylostoma sp. (54%; EPG, 197.16 ± 383.28). Infection levels also tended to be influenced by season, type of park/playground and the texture of soil/faeces. The occurrence of Toxocara, Ancylostoma and Trichuris eggs in soil samples highlights the risk of transmission to the human population, especially children, while the presence of Ascaris eggs suggests a human source of contamination and raises the issue of hygiene standards and public health risks at sites under investigation.

  15. Spatial structure of the helminth parasite communities of the tonguefish, Symphurus plagiusa, from the Campeche coast, southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Piñeros, Ana María; Pech, Daniel; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor M

    2012-09-01

    The goals of this paper were to determine whether the helminth communities of the blackcheek tonguefish, Symphurus plagiusa, exhibit a spatial structure and, if so, to determine the relative influence of selected environmental and spatial variables. The parasite communities of tonguefish and environmental data (e.g., temperature, salinity, oxygen) were sampled monthly over a network of 37 stations over 1 year (February 2006 to January 2007). Analysis of similarities (ANOSIM), non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and redundancy analysis (RDA) were used. Spatial variables were generated using the analysis of principal coordinates of neighbour matrices (PCNM) method. A total of 1,010 flatfishes and nine helminth taxa were collected. For the environmental variables, hierarchical cluster analyses produced groups of stations associated with the Yucatan dry, rainy and winter seasons. At the infracommunity level, there was no group formation as indicated by ANOSIM and NMDS nor association with environmental or spatial variables. At the component community level, there was significant group formation, and RDA analyses of core, satellite and all species produced significant associations with environmental variables. However, model fit improved substantially (from 17-52% to 49-83% of explained variance) when the spatial variables (variables generated with PCNM method) were added. Thus, the helminth component communities of S. plagiusa were affected by associated environmental variables and unknown ecological processes captured by the spatial variables acting at different spatial scales over time. In contrast, at the infracommunity level there was apparently a very fine spatial grain, where the numerical dominance of core species resulted in biased group formation.

  16. The prevalence, intensity and ecological determinants of helminth infection among children in an urban and rural community in Southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, K S

    2001-09-01

    Rapid urbanisation and poor town planning in Malawi has been associated with poor environmental hygiene and sanitation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence, intensity and some potential risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among children aged 3 - 14 years in an urban and rural community in Southern Malawi. A randomised cross-sectional survey was conducted in July, 1998. Data were collected through questionnaire interview regarding socio-demographic and environmental conditions from households in both areas. Stool samples were collected from 273 children in the urban community and 280 in the rural. There was a significant difference (purban and rural communities, 16.5% and 3.6% respectively. Most of the infections were light (93.2% for Ascaris lumbricodes, 85.7% for hookworm). Large variance to mean ratios of egg intensity within age groups and the total study population suggested a high degree of aggregation of the parasites in the communities. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that certain groups of children in the urban community were much more likely to develop helminth infection. They included children who had pools of water/sewage around houses (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4 ñ 6.5), did not wear shoes (OR a 7.1, 95% CI = 2.7 - 19.2), did not attend school (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.2 ñ 6.5), had mothers who had 4 to 8 years of education (OR = 5.2, 95% CI = 2.0 - 14.0), had mothers below 35 years of age (OR = 4.09, 95% CI = 1.39 - 16.28) and living in an urban community (OR = 5.3, 95% CI = 2.6 - 12.1). Efforts to reduce helminth infections should focus on reducing exposures.

  17. Intestinal helminth coinfection is associated with mucosal lesions and poor response to therapy in American tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo-Coutinho, Rilza Beatriz G; Pimentel, Maria Inês; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Madeira, Maria F; Cataldo, Jamyra Iglesias; Schubach, Armando O; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Mendonça, Sergio C F

    2016-02-01

    The most severe clinical form of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) due to Leishmania braziliensis is mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), characterized by destructive lesions in the facial mucosa. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 109 ATL patients from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, where ATL is caused by L. braziliensis, to evaluate the influence of intestinal parasite coinfections in the clinical course of ATL. Parasitological stool examination (PSE) was performed with samples from all patients by the sedimentation, Kato-Katz and Baermann-Moraes methods. The diagnosis of ATL was made from lesion biopsies by direct observation of amastigotes in Giemsa-stained imprints, isolation of Leishmania promastigotes or histopathological examination. All patients were treated with meglumine antimoniate. Patients with positive PSE had a frequency of mucosal lesions significantly higher than those with negative PSE (pAscaris lumbricoides (p<0.05), but not for protozoan infections. Patients with intestinal parasites had poor response to therapy (therapeutic failure or relapse) significantly more frequently than the patients with negative stool examination (p<0.005). A similar difference (p<0.005) was observed between patients with positive and negative results for intestinal helminths, but not for intestinal protozoa. Patients with positive PSE took significantly longer to heal than those with negative PSE (p<0.005). A similar difference was observed for intestinal helminth infections (p<0.005), but not for protozoan infections. Our results indicate a deleterious influence of intestinal helminth infections in the clinical course of ATL and evidence for the first time an association between ML and these coinfections, particularly with nematodes and A. lumbricoides.

  18. Malaria helminth co-infections and their contribution for aneamia in febrile patients attending Azzezo health center, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia:a cross sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abebe Alemu; Yitayal Shiferaw; Aklilu Ambachew; Halima Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of malaria helminth co-infections and their contribution for aneamia in febrile patients attending Azzezo health center, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross section study was conducted among febrile patients attending Azezo health center from February-March 30, 2011. Convenient sampling technique was used to select 384 individuals. Both capillary blood and stool were collected. Giemsa stained thick and thin blood film were prepared for identification of Plasmodium species and stool sample was examined by direct wet mount and formalin-ether concentration technique for detection of intestinal helminthes parasites. Haemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable haemoglobin spectrophotometer, Hemocue Hb 201 analyzer. Results:Out of 384 febrile patients examined for malaria parasites, 44 (11.5%) individuals were positive for malaria parasites, of which Plasmodium vivax accounted for 75.0%(33), Plasmodium falciparum for 20.5%(9) infectious, whereas two person (4.5%) had mixed species infection. Prevalence of malaria was higher in males (28) when compared with prevalence in females (16). More than half (207, 53.9%) of study participants had one or more infection. Prevalence was slightly higher in females (109, 52.7%) than in males (98, 47.3%). About helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (62.1%) followed by hookworms (18.4%). Only 22 participants were co-infected with malaria parasite and helminths and co-infection with Ascaris lumbricoides was predominant (45.0%). The prevalence of anemia was 10.9%and co-infection with Plasmodium and helminth parasites was significantly associated with (P< 0.000 1) higher aneamia prevalence compared to individuals without any infection. Conclusions:Prevalence of malaria and soil transmitted helminths is high and the disease is still major health problem in the study area. Hence, simultaneous combat against the two parasitic infections is very crucial to improve

  19. Medium-term temporal stability of the helminth component community structure in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) from the Mazury Lake District region of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, A; Behnke, J M; Pawełczyk, A; Kuliś, K; Sereda, M J; Siński, E

    2005-02-01

    The structure of helminth communities in wild rodents is subject to seasonal variation, and is dependent on host age within years. Although between-year variation has been monitored, seldom has it been assessed rigorously by appropriate multifactorial analysis with potentially confounding factors taken into account. In this study we tested the null hypothesis that despite seasonal, host age and sex effects, helminth communities should show relative stability between years. Over a period of 3 years (1998-2000) we sampled bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) populations (total n = 250) at 2 points in the year: in spring, at the start of the breeding season, and in autumn, after the cessation of breeding. In spite of seasonal differences and strong age effects, the between-year effects were surprisingly small. Measures of component community structure (Berger-Parker dominance index, the dominant species, S. petrusewiczi) did not vary, or varied only slightly from year to year. The majority of measures of infracommunity structure [Brillouin's index of diversity, prevalence of all helminths combined, prevalence and abundance of H. mixtum (the most prevalent helminth), mean species richness] did not differ significantly between years when other factors such as age, sex and seasonal variation had been taken into account. Some between-year variations were found (at the component community level, Simpson's index of diversity; at the infracommunity level, prevalence and abundance of S. petrusewiczi and abundance of all helminths combined), but even these were modest in comparison to seasonal and age differences, and were primarily attributable to S. petrusewiczi. We conclude that despite dynamic within-year fluctuations, helminth communities in bank voles in this region of Poland show relative stability across years. The sporadic occurrence of individual platyhelminths at low prevalence, makes little difference to the overall structure, which is largely maintained by the key

  20. Prevalence of helminth parasites in free-range chickens from selected rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Khumalo, M P

    2010-06-01

    A total of 79 chickens were randomly collected from 4 rural localities and processed to detect the presence of helminth parasites and their prevalences. Sixteen helminth species comprising 12 nematode and 4 cestode species were recorded from the 4 localities. Syngamus trachea and Cyathostoma spp. were the only helminth species recovered from the respiratory tract and the rest of the helminth species were from the gastrointestinal tract. The most prevalent nematode species across the 4 localities were Heterakis gallinarum (prevalence range 80-94.4%), Gongylonema ingluvicola (43.3-867%), Tetrameres american (53.3-66.7%) and Ascaridia galli (22.2-43.8%) and for cestode species, Raillietina tetragona (16.7-40%) and Skrijabinia cesticillus (3.3-13.3%) were the most prevalent in that order. Heterakis gallinarum and T americana had the highest intensity of infection in chickens across all the rural areas compared with other helminth species. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) observed in the sex distribution for As. galli, Baruscapillaria obsignata (syn. Capillaria obsignata), Eucoleus annulatus (syn. Capillaria annulata), Eucoleus contortus (syn. Capillaria contorta) and Subulura suctoria among the 4 rural areas. However, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in the intensity of infection of both males and females for H. gallinarum and T americana across the 4 localities studied. Tetrameres americana, A. galli, C. obsignata and C. annulata had prevalence and number of females higher than that of males, while H. gallinarum showed the opposite. Prevalence of H. gallinarum and T. americana as determined by faecal egg count were much lower compared with the prevalence as determined by post mortem examination, confirming the limitation of using faecal samples in determining the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in chickens.

  1. Prevalence of helminth parasites in free-range chickens from selected rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa

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    S. Mukaratirwa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 79 chickens were randomly collected from 4 rural localities and processed to detect the presence of helminth parasites and their prevalences. Sixteen helminth species comprising 12 nematode and 4 cestode species were recorded from the 4 localities. Syngamus trachea and Cyathostoma spp. were the only helminth species recovered from the respiratory tract and the rest of the helminth species were from the gastrointestinal tract. The most prevalent nematode species across the 4 localities were Heterakis gallinarum (prevalence range 80-94.4 %, Gongylonema ingluvicola (43.3-86.7 %, Tetrameres americana (53.3-66.7 % and Ascaridia galli (22.2-43.8 % and for cestode species, Raillietina tetragona(16.7-40 % and Skrijabinia cesticillus (3.3-13.3 % were the most prevalent in that order.Heterakis gallinarum and T. americana had the highest intensity of infection in chickens acrossall the rural areas compared with other helminth species. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05 observed in the sex distribution for As. galli, Baruscapillaria obsignata (syn. Capillaria obsignata, Eucoleus annulatus (syn. Capillaria annulata, Eucoleus contortus (syn. Capillaria contorta and Subulura suctoria among the 4 rural areas. However, a significant difference (P<0.05 was observed in the intensity of infection of both males and females for H. gallinarum and T. americana across the 4 localities studied. Tetrameres americana, A. galli, C. obsignata and C. annulata had prevalence and number of females higher than that of males, while H. gallinarum showed the opposite. Prevalence of H. gallinarum and T. americana as determined by faecal egg count were much lower compared with the prevalence as determined by post mortem examination, confirming the limitation of using faecal samples in determining the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in chickens.

  2. Effects of albendazole on the clinical outcome and immunological responses in helminth co-infected tuberculosis patients: a double blind randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, E; Elias, D; Getachew, A; Alemu, S; Diro, E; Britton, S; Aseffa, A; Stendahl, O; Schön, T

    2015-02-01

    Despite several review papers and experimental studies concerning the impact of chronic helminth infection on tuberculosis in recent years, there is a scarcity of data from clinical field studies in highly endemic areas for these diseases. We believe this is the first randomised clinical trial investigating the impact of albendazole treatment on the clinical and immunological outcomes of helminth co-infected tuberculosis patients. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of albendazole (400mg per day for 3 days) in helminth-positive tuberculosis patients was conducted in Gondar, Ethiopia. The primary outcome was clinical improvement (ΔTB score) after 2 months. Among secondary outcomes were changes in the levels of eosinophils, CD4+ T cells, regulatory T cells, IFN-γ, IL-5 and IL-10 after 3 months. A total of 140 helminth co-infected tuberculosis patients were included with an HIV co-infection rate of 22.8%. There was no significant effect on the primary outcome (ΔTB score: 5.6±2.9 for albendazole versus 5.9±2.5 for placebo, P=0.59). The albendazole-treated group showed a decline in eosinophil cells (P=0.001) and IL-10 (P=0.017) after 3 months. In an exploratory analysis after 12 weeks, the albendazole treated group showed a trend towards weight gain compared with the placebo group (11.2±8.5 kg versus 8.2±8.7 kg, P=0.08)). The reductions in eosinophil counts and IL-10 show that asymptomatic helminth infection significantly affects host immunity during tuberculosis and can be effectively reversed by albendazole treatment. The clinical effects of helminth infection on chronic infectious diseases such as tuberculosis merit further characterisation.

  3. Helminth Infections of House Mouse (Mus musulus and Wood Mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus from the Suburban Areas of Hamadan City, Western Iran.

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    Ali Yousefi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and intensity of helminths and their zoonotic importance in small rodents inhabiting in the suburban areas of Hamadan City, Iran.The present survey was conducted on the helminth infections of two species of rodents Apodemus sylvaticus (n=60 and Mus musculus(n=72 in the suburban areas of Hamadan City during 2010-2012. Rodents were collected and examined for helminth in the different organs. The nematodes were collected in 5% formalin solution and cleared in lactophenol, cestodes and trematodes collected from intestine fixed in AFA solution and stained by acetocarmine, cleared in xylol for identification.Helminths found in A. sylvaticus and M. musculus and their prevalence for the first time in suburban areas of Hamadan City were as follows; In A. sylvaticus: Cysticercus fasciolaris(3.33%, Syphacia fredrici(26.67%, S. stroma(8.33%, Anoplocephalidae sp. (1.67%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata(5%, Plagiorchis muris(1.67% and in M. musculus:Hymenolepis nana (16.67%, H.diminuta (5.55%, S. obvelata(30.56%, S. ohtarom (9.72%, Rodentolepis crassa (1.39%, C. fasciolaris (1.39%. Among 11 species in two rodents 4 species including S. obvelata, H. nana, H.diminuta,and P. muris have zoonotic importance. Statistically the relation between gender and their helminth infections was not significant in either M. musculus or A. sylvaticus (P>0.05.This study reports 11 species of helminths and on the other hand 3 species were identified for the first time in Iran and 5 species of them have potential health importance for public health and cat.

  4. Towards effective prevention and control of helminth neglected tropical diseases in the Western Pacific Region through multi-disease and multi-sectoral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Jun; Ehrenberg, John P; Nealon, Joshua; Fürst, Thomas; Aratchige, Padmasiri; Gonzales, Glenda; Chanthavisouk, Chitsavang; Hernandez, Leda M; Fengthong, Tayphasavanh; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) cause serious health, social and economic burdens in the countries of the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region. Among the NTDs, helminth infections are particularly prominent with regard to the number of infected individuals and health impact. Co-endemicity is common among impoverished and marginalized populations. To achieve effective and sustainable control of helminth NTDs, a deeper understanding of the social-ecological systems governing their endemicity and strategies beyond preventive chemotherapy are required to tackle the multiple causes of infection and re-infection. We discuss the feasibility of implementing multi-disease, multi-sectoral intervention packages for helminth NTDs in the Western Pacific Region. After reviewing the main determinants for helminth NTD endemicity and current control strategies, key control activities that involve or concern other programmes within and beyond the health sector are discussed. A considerable number of activities that have an impact on more than one helminth NTD are identified in a variety of sectors, suggesting an untapped potential for synergies. We also highlight the challenges of multi-sectoral collaboration, particularly of involving non-health sectors. We conclude that multi-sectoral collaboration for helminth NTD control is feasible if the target diseases and sectors are carefully selected. To do so, an incentive analysis covering key stakeholders in the sectors is crucial, and the disease-control strategies need to be well understood. The benefits of multi-disease, multi-sectoral approaches could go beyond immediate health impacts by contributing to sustainable development, raising educational attainment, increasing productivity and reducing health inequities.

  5. Helminth communities of owls (strigiformes indicate strong biological and ecological differences from birds of prey (accipitriformes and falconiformes in southern Italy.

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    Mario Santoro

    Full Text Available We compared the helminth communities of 5 owl species from Calabria (Italy and evaluated the effect of phylogenetic and ecological factors on community structure. Two host taxonomic scales were considered, i.e., owl species, and owls vs. birds of prey. The latter scale was dealt with by comparing the data here obtained with that of birds of prey from the same locality and with those published previously on owls and birds of prey from Galicia (Spain. A total of 19 helminth taxa were found in owls from Calabria. Statistical comparison showed only marginal differences between scops owls (Otus scops and little owls (Athene noctua and tawny owls (Strix aluco. It would indicate that all owl species are exposed to a common pool of 'owl generalist' helminth taxa, with quantitative differences being determined by differences in diet within a range of prey relatively narrow. In contrast, birds of prey from the same region exhibited strong differences because they feed on different and wider spectra of prey. In Calabria, owls can be separated as a whole from birds of prey with regard to the structure of their helminth communities while in Galicia helminths of owls represent a subset of those of birds of prey. This difference is related to the occurrence in Calabria, but not Galicia, of a pool of 'owl specialist' species. The wide geographical occurrence of these taxa suggest that local conditions may determine fundamental differences in the composition of local communities. Finally, in both Calabria and Galicia, helminth communities from owls were species-poor compared to those from sympatric birds of prey. However, birds of prey appear to share a greater pool of specific helmith taxa derived from cospeciation processes, and a greater potential exchange of parasites between them than with owls because of phylogenetic closeness.

  6. Effect of different helminth extracts on the development of asthma in mice: The influence of early-life exposure and the role of IL-10 response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitrez, P M; Gualdi, L P; Barbosa, G L; Sudbrack, S; Ponzi, D; Cao, R G; Silva, A C A; Machado, D C; Jones, M H; Stein, R T; Graeff-Teixeira, C

    2015-09-01

    It is not currently clear whether different parasites have distinct effects on the airway inflammatory response in asthma and whether exposure in early life to helminths have a stronger impact in a potential inhibitory effect on asthma. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of exposure to different helminth extracts on the development of allergic pulmonary response in mice, including early-life exposure. Different helminth extracts (Angiostrongylus costaricensis, Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Ascaris lumbricoides) were studied in female adult BALB/c and C57BL/6 IL-10-deficient mice in a protocol of murine asthma, injected intraperitoneally in different periods of exposure (early, pre-sensitization and post-sensitization). Cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) from lung tissue, cytokine levels from BAL/spleen cell cultures, and lung histology were analyzed. Airway cellular influx induced by OVA was significantly inhibited by extracts of A. cantonensis and A. lumbricoides. Extracts of A. lumbricoides and A. costaricensis led to a significant reduction of IL-5 in BAL (p < 0.001). Only the exposure to A. lumbricoides led to an increased production of IL-10 in the lungs (p < 0.001). In IL-10-deficient mice exposed to A. costaricensis pre-sensitization, eosinophil counts and IL-5 levels in BAL and EPO in lung tissue were significantly reduced. In the early exposure to A. cantonensis, lung inflammation was clearly inhibited. In conclusion, different helminth extracts inhibit allergic lung inflammation in mice. IL-10 may not play a central role in some helminth-host interactions. Early exposure to helminth extracts could be a potential strategy to explore primary prevention in asthma.

  7. Co-endemicity of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Intestinal Helminth Infection in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Xu; Ren, Zhou-Peng; Wang, Li-Xia; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Jin-Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-03-01

    Both pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and intestinal helminth infection (IHI) affect millions of individuals every year in China. However, the national-scale estimation of prevalence predictors and prevalence maps for these diseases, as well as co-endemic relative risk (RR) maps of both diseases' prevalence are not well developed. There are co-endemic, high prevalence areas of both diseases, whose delimitation is essential for devising effective control strategies. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models including socio-economic, climatic, geographical and environmental predictors were fitted separately for active PTB and IHI based on data from the national surveys for PTB and major human parasitic diseases that were completed in 2010 and 2004, respectively. Prevalence maps and co-endemic RR maps were constructed for both diseases by means of Bayesian Kriging model and Bayesian shared component model capable of appraising the fraction of variance of spatial RRs shared by both diseases, and those specific for each one, under an assumption that there are unobserved covariates common to both diseases. Our results indicate that gross domestic product (GDP) per capita had a negative association, while rural regions, the arid and polar zones and elevation had positive association with active PTB prevalence; for the IHI prevalence, GDP per capita and distance to water bodies had a negative association, the equatorial and warm zones and the normalized difference vegetation index had a positive association. Moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in western regions, low to moderate prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in north-central regions and the southeast coastal regions, and moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and high prevalence of IHI were predicted in the south-western regions. Thus, co-endemic areas of active PTB and IHI were located in the south-western regions of China, which

  8. Co-endemicity of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Intestinal Helminth Infection in the People's Republic of China.

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    Xin-Xu Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Both pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and intestinal helminth infection (IHI affect millions of individuals every year in China. However, the national-scale estimation of prevalence predictors and prevalence maps for these diseases, as well as co-endemic relative risk (RR maps of both diseases' prevalence are not well developed. There are co-endemic, high prevalence areas of both diseases, whose delimitation is essential for devising effective control strategies. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models including socio-economic, climatic, geographical and environmental predictors were fitted separately for active PTB and IHI based on data from the national surveys for PTB and major human parasitic diseases that were completed in 2010 and 2004, respectively. Prevalence maps and co-endemic RR maps were constructed for both diseases by means of Bayesian Kriging model and Bayesian shared component model capable of appraising the fraction of variance of spatial RRs shared by both diseases, and those specific for each one, under an assumption that there are unobserved covariates common to both diseases. Our results indicate that gross domestic product (GDP per capita had a negative association, while rural regions, the arid and polar zones and elevation had positive association with active PTB prevalence; for the IHI prevalence, GDP per capita and distance to water bodies had a negative association, the equatorial and warm zones and the normalized difference vegetation index had a positive association. Moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in western regions, low to moderate prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in north-central regions and the southeast coastal regions, and moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and high prevalence of IHI were predicted in the south-western regions. Thus, co-endemic areas of active PTB and IHI were located in the south-western regions of

  9. Helminths in horses : use of selective treatment for the control of strongyles

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    S. Matthee

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The current level of anthelmintic resistance in the horse-breeding industry is extremely high and therefore more emphasis is being placed on studies that focus on the judicious use of anthelmintic products. The aims of the study were to: 1 establish if there is variation in the egg excretion pattern of strongyles between the different age classes of Thoroughbred horses in the Western Cape Province (WCP, 2 test if a selective treatment approach successfully reduces the number of anthelmintic treatments and maintains acceptably low helminth burdens in adult Thoroughbred horses, and 3 evaluate the efficacy of subsampling large horse herds for faecal egg counts (FECs to monitor the strongyle burden. In 2001 the FECs of 4 adult mare, 5 yearling and 3 weanling herds from 8 different farms were compared in the WCP. Within the mare herds there were generally fewer eggexcreting individuals with lower mean FECs compared with the younger age classes. Individual faecal samples were collected every 3-4 weeks from 52 adult Thoroughbred mares from 1 farm in the WCP during a 12-month period (2002/2003. Animals with strongyle FECs > 100 eggs per gram (epg were treated with an ivermectin-praziquantel combination drug (Equimax oral paste, Virbac. The mean monthly strongyle FEC for the entire group was < 300 epg throughout the study and the number of treatments was reduced by 50 %. Resampling methods showed that an asymptote to mean FEC was reached at 55 animals for each of the pooled weanling, yearling and mare egg counts. Resampling within 4 different mare herds recorded asymptotes of between 24 and 28 animals. Subsampling entire herds for FECs therefore provided an effective approach to treatment management. This study demonstrates that selective treatment is both a practical and an effective approach to the management of anthelmintic resistance.

  10. Mapping Soil Transmitted Helminths and Schistosomiasis under Uncertainty: A Systematic Review and Critical Appraisal of Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Nicholas A. S.; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J.; Stein, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    Background Spatial modelling of STH and schistosomiasis epidemiology is now commonplace. Spatial epidemiological studies help inform decisions regarding the number of people at risk as well as the geographic areas that need to be targeted with mass drug administration; however, limited attention has been given to propagated uncertainties, their interpretation, and consequences for the mapped values. Using currently published literature on the spatial epidemiology of helminth infections we identified: (1) the main uncertainty sources, their definition and quantification and (2) how uncertainty is informative for STH programme managers and scientists working in this domain. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a systematic literature search using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol. We searched Web of Knowledge and PubMed using a combination of uncertainty, geographic and disease terms. A total of 73 papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Only 9% of the studies did not address any element of uncertainty, while 91% of studies quantified uncertainty in the predicted morbidity indicators and 23% of studies mapped it. In addition, 57% of the studies quantified uncertainty in the regression coefficients but only 7% incorporated it in the regression response variable (morbidity indicator). Fifty percent of the studies discussed uncertainty in the covariates but did not quantify it. Uncertainty was mostly defined as precision, and quantified using credible intervals by means of Bayesian approaches. Conclusion/Significance None of the studies considered adequately all sources of uncertainties. We highlighted the need for uncertainty in the morbidity indicator and predictor variable to be incorporated into the modelling framework. Study design and spatial support require further attention and uncertainty associated with Earth observation data should be quantified. Finally, more attention

  11. Gene cloning, expression, and localization of antigen 5 in the life cycle of Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuzhe; Xu, Hongxu; Chen, Jiajia; Gan, Wenjia; Wu, Weihua; Wu, Weiping; Hu, Xuchu

    2012-06-01

    Antigen 5 (Ag5) has been identified as a dominant component of cyst fluid of Echinococcus granulosus and is considered as a member of serine proteases family, which in other helminth, plays an important role in the egg hatch and larva invasion. However, whether Ag5 is expressed and secreted in all life stages is unknown. In this study, according to the sequence in GenBank, we cloned and sequenced the open reading frame (ORF) of Ag5 gene from the protoscolices of E. granulosus isolated from the sheep in Qinhai Province of China, and found several substitutions and a base insert and deletion in a short region near the stop code, leading to a frameshift mutation which is conserved with the homologue of other cestode. The ORF is 1,455 bp in length, encoding 484 amino acids with a secretory signal peptide. Bioinformatics analysis predicted several phosphorylation and myristoylation sites and a N-glycosylation site and a species-specific linear B epitope in the protein. The ORF was cloned into the plasmid pET28a(+) vector and expressed in Escherichia coli . The recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography. Anti-rEgAg5 antiserum was prepared in rats and used to analyze the localization of Ag5 in protoscolex and adult worm by immunofluorescence technique. Results demonstrated that the Ag5 is strongly expressed in the tegument of protoscolex and the embryonic membrane of egg and surface of oncosphere; meanwhile, it is also weakly expressed in tegument of the adult. This study showed that Ag5 is expressed in all stages of life cycle, secreted from the surface of the worm and may be anchored in membrane by its myristoylation sites; these characteristics make it a candidate antigen for diagnosis and vaccine for both intermediate and definitive hosts.

  12. Impact of combined intermittent preventive treatment of malaria and helminths on anaemia, sustained attention, and recall in Northern Ghanaian schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opoku, Ernest Cudjoe; Olsen, Annette; Browne, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The benefits of integrated control of malaria, schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminth infections have not been fully explored in Ghanaian schoolchildren. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of co-administered artemether-lumefantrine plus albendazole, and artemether-lumefantrine plus......-administered to 131 schoolchildren in Study Arm 1; artemether-lumefantrine, albendazole, and praziquantel to 90 children in Study Arm 2 versus albendazole and praziquantel to 127 children in Control Arm 3. Medicines were administered to all children at least 30 min after a meal. A HemoCue(®) photometer was used...

  13. Effects of hygiene and defecation behavior on helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Cote d'Ivoire.

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    Thomas Schmidlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 1 billion people are currently infected with soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomes. The global strategy to control helminthiases is the regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations. However, rapid re-infection occurs in areas where hygiene, access to clean water, and sanitation are inadequate. METHODOLOGY: In July 2011, inhabitants from two villages and seven hamlets of the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d'Ivoire provided stool and urine samples. Kato-Katz and ether-concentration methods were used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm, and intestinal protozoa. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. A questionnaire was administered to households to obtain information on knowledge, attitude, practice, and beliefs in relation to hygiene, sanitation, and defecation behavior. Logistic regression models were employed to assess for associations between questionnaire data and parasitic infections. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 1,894 participants had complete data records. Parasitological examinations revealed prevalences of hookworm, S. haematobium, T. trichiura, S. mansoni, and A. lumbricoides of 33.5%, 7.0%, 1.6%, 1.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were detected in 15.0% and 14.4% of the participants, respectively. Only one out of five households reported the presence of a latrine, and hence, open defecation was common. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, socioeconomic status, hygiene, and defecation behavior are determinants for helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that inadequate sanitation and hygiene behavior are associated with soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in the Taabo

  14. Spatial structure of helminth communities in the golden grey mullet, Liza aurata (Actinopterygii: Mugilidae), from the Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez-Lozano, Raúl; Pardo-Carranza, Trinidad V; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Balbuena, Juan Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Ecological investigations regarding the parasite fauna of grey mullets are scarce. The present study provides a detailed description of the helminth communities of Liza aurata in the Spanish western Mediterranean and analyzes the role of spatial, temporal, and host variables in shaping the infracommunities. In total, 204 fish were collected in 2 localities, situated ca. 290 km apart, in spring and fall of 2004 and 2005. A non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to visualize an ordination of the infracommunities according to their relative similarities in parasite abundances. The relationship between infracommunity composition and explanatory variables (host size, locality, year, and season of harvest) was examined by permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) applied to species abundances. Permutational tests for homogeneity of multivariate dispersion were used to test the null hypothesis of no differences in dispersion among groups formed by the factors whose effects were significant in PERMANOVA. A total of 33,241 helminth parasites, belonging to 18 species, was collected, i.e., 12 species of adult digeneans (23% of the parasite specimens), 3 digeneans as metacercariae (68%), 1 acanthocephalan (2.1%), and 2 monogeneans (6.5%). An important part of this helminth fauna is specialized to grey mullets, with a sizable portion of the component community restricted to the Mediterranean and northeast Atlantic. The NMDS ordination indicated high heterogeneity among infrapopulations. However, most differences at both the component and infracommunity level were related to geographic locality. In fact, the PERMANOVA showed that, among the explanatory variables considered, sampling locality accounted for the largest share of variation. The geographical differences observed may be related to local environmental characteristics or to the limited spatial dispersal of the species forming the component community. The latter was supported by the significant portion

  15. Diet and helminths of Enyalius brasiliensis (Lacertilia, Iguania, Leiosauridae) in an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorigo, T A; Maia-Carneiro, T; Almeida-Gomes, M; Siqueira, C C; Vrcibradic, D; Van Sluys, M; Rocha, C F D

    2014-02-01

    Our study aimed to add information about the diet and endoparasites of Enyalius brasiliensis from an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Regarding diet, E. brasiliensis consumed arthropods, with caterpillars and beetles being the most important preys. Regarding helminth parasites, overall prevalence was low (9.5%), with 238 nematodes of the genus Physaloptera found in the stomach of one specimen and one nematode of the genus Rhabdias inside the lung of another. Our results corroborate the observations of previous studies that indicate that lizards of the genus Enyalius tend to feed mainly on relatively large-bodied arthropods and to harbour depauperate endoparasite fauna.

  16. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrew, Ashley K. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1619 (United States); O' Hara, Todd M. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1619 (United States); Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Stricker, Craig A. [U. S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Margaret Castellini, J. [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Beckmen, Kimberlee B. [Alaska Department of Fish & Game, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Salman, Mo D. [Animal Population Health Institute, Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1644 (United States); Ballweber, Lora R. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1619 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to be Toxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from < 1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ{sup 13}C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host. - Highlights: • [THg] and stable isotopes together provide insight on host-parasite-Hg interactions. • A

  17. Blastogenic response of human lymphocytes to early antigen(s) of human cytomegalovirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Waner, J L; Kong, N; Biano, S

    1983-01-01

    The lymphocytes of asymptomatic, seropositive donors demonstrated blastogenic responses to early antigens of human cytomegalovirus whether or not antibodies to early antigens were detectable. The lymphocytes of six of nine patients with active cytomegalovirus infections gave stimulation indexes of greater than or equal to 2.00 with antigens of productively infected cells, whereas only two patients demonstrated comparable stimulation indexes with early antigens. Four patients with stimulation ...

  18. Helminths infection patterns in a lizard (Tropidurus hispidus) population from a semiarid neotropical area: associations between female reproductive allocation and parasite loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdino, Conrado A B; Ávila, Robson W; Bezerra, Castiele H; Passos, Daniel C; Melo, Gabriela C; Zanchi-Silva, Djan

    2014-12-01

    This study reports helminth infection patterns of the lizard Tropidurus hispidus from an area of semiarid caatinga in northeastern Brazil (Ceará state). The lizard population was parasitized by 8 helminth species, and the species composition of the component community resembles that found for other Neotropical lizards. The prevalence of parasites was higher for males compared with females, whereas no relation was found between intensity of infection of 2 parasites (Parapharyngodon alvarengai and Physaloptera lutzi) and the lizards body size. For reproductive females, parasite infection intensity was negatively correlated to reproductive investment.

  19. Cysteine protease antigens cleave CD123, the α subunit of murine IL-3 receptor, on basophils and suppress IL-3-mediated basophil expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikado, Hideto [Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Fujimura, Tsutomu; Taka, Hikari; Mineki, Reiko [Laboratory of Proteomics and Biomolecular Science, BioMedical Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko [Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Takai, Toshiro, E-mail: t-takai@juntendo.ac.jp [Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Th2 type immune responses are essential for protective immunity against parasites and play crucial roles in allergic disorders. Helminth parasites secrete a variety of proteases for their infectious cycles including for host entry, tissue migration, and suppression of host immune effector cell function. Furthermore, a number of pathogen-derived antigens, as well as allergens such as papain, belong to the family of cysteine proteases. Although the link between protease activity and Th2 type immunity is well documented, the mechanisms by which proteases regulate host immune responses are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the cysteine proteases papain and bromelain selectively cleave the α subunit of the IL-3 receptor (IL-3Rα/CD123) on the surface of murine basophils. The decrease in CD123 expression on the cell surface, and the degradation of the extracellular domain of recombinant CD123 were dependent on the protease activity of papain and bromelain. Pre-treatment of murine basophils with papain resulted in inhibition of IL-3-IL-3R signaling and suppressed IL-3- but not thymic stromal lymphopoietin-induced expansion of basophils in vitro. Our unexpected findings illuminate a novel mechanism for the regulation of basophil functions by protease antigens. Because IL-3 plays pivotal roles in the activation and proliferation of basophils and in protective immunity against helminth parasites, pathogen-derived proteases might contribute to the pathogenesis of infections by regulating IL-3-mediated functions in basophils. - Highlights: • We identified the murine IL3R as a novel target of papain-family cysteine proteases. • Papain-family cysteine proteases cleaved IL3Rα/CD123 on murine basophils. • Papain suppressed IL3- but not TSLP-induced expansion of murine basophils. • The inactivation of IL3R might be a strategy for pathogens to suppress host immunity.

  20. A computational framework for influenza antigenic cartography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Cai

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses have been responsible for large losses of lives around the world and continue to present a great public health challenge. Antigenic characterization based on hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay is one of the routine procedures for influenza vaccine strain selection. However, HI assay is only a crude experiment reflecting the antigenic correlations among testing antigens (viruses and reference antisera (antibodies. Moreover, antigenic characterization is usually based on more than one HI dataset. The combination of multiple datasets results in an incomplete HI matrix with many unobserved entries. This paper proposes a new computational framework for constructing an influenza antigenic cartography from this incomplete matrix, which we refer to as Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS. In this approach, we first reconstruct the HI matrices with viruses and antibodies using low-rank matrix completion, and then generate the two-dimensional antigenic cartography using multidimensional scaling. Moreover, for influenza HI tables with herd immunity effect (such as those from Human influenza viruses, we propose a temporal model to reduce the inherent temporal bias of HI tables caused by herd immunity. By applying our method in HI datasets containing H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated from 1968 to 2003, we identified eleven clusters of antigenic variants, representing all major antigenic drift events in these 36 years. Our results showed that both the completed HI matrix and the antigenic cartography obtained via MC-MDS are useful in identifying influenza antigenic variants and thus can be used to facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection. The webserver is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap.

  1. A computational framework for influenza antigenic cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2010-10-07

    Influenza viruses have been responsible for large losses of lives around the world and continue to present a great public health challenge. Antigenic characterization based on hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay is one of the routine procedures for influenza vaccine strain selection. However, HI assay is only a crude experiment reflecting the antigenic correlations among testing antigens (viruses) and reference antisera (antibodies). Moreover, antigenic characterization is usually based on more than one HI dataset. The combination of multiple datasets results in an incomplete HI matrix with many unobserved entries. This paper proposes a new computational framework for constructing an influenza antigenic cartography from this incomplete matrix, which we refer to as Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS). In this approach, we first reconstruct the HI matrices with viruses and antibodies using low-rank matrix completion, and then generate the two-dimensional antigenic cartography using multidimensional scaling. Moreover, for influenza HI tables with herd immunity effect (such as those from Human influenza viruses), we propose a temporal model to reduce the inherent temporal bias of HI tables caused by herd immunity. By applying our method in HI datasets containing H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated from 1968 to 2003, we identified eleven clusters of antigenic variants, representing all major antigenic drift events in these 36 years. Our results showed that both the completed HI matrix and the antigenic cartography obtained via MC-MDS are useful in identifying influenza antigenic variants and thus can be used to facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection. The webserver is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap.

  2. The Macrophage Galactose-Type Lectin-1 (MGL1 Recognizes Taenia crassiceps Antigens, Triggers Intracellular Signaling, and Is Critical for Resistance to This Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Montero-Barrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available C-type lectins are multifunctional sugar-binding molecules expressed on dendritic cells (DCs and macrophages that internalize antigens for processing and presentation. Macrophage galactose-type lectin 1 (MGL1 recognizes glycoconjugates expressing Lewis X structures which contain galactose residues, and it is selectively expressed on immature DCs and macrophages. Helminth parasites contain large amounts of glycosylated components, which play a role in the immune regulation induced by such infections. Macrophages from MGL1−/− mice showed less binding ability toward parasite antigens than their wild-type (WT counterparts. Exposure of WT macrophages to T. crassiceps antigens triggered tyrosine phosphorylation signaling activity, which was diminished in MGL1−/− macrophages. Following T. crassiceps infection, MGL1−/− mice failed to produce significant levels of inflammatory cytokines early in the infection compared to WT mice. In contrast, MGL1−/− mice developed a Th2-dominant immune response that was associated with significantly higher parasite loads, whereas WT mice were resistant. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses showed overexpression of the mannose receptors, IL-4Rα, PDL2, arginase-1, Ym1, and RELM-α on MGL1−/− macrophages. These studies indicate that MGL1 is involved in T. crassiceps recognition and subsequent innate immune activation and resistance.

  3. The macrophage galactose-type lectin-1 (MGL1) recognizes Taenia crassiceps antigens, triggers intracellular signaling, and is critical for resistance to this infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Barrera, Daniel; Valderrama-Carvajal, Héctor; Terrazas, César A; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Vera-Arias, Laura; Carrasco-Yépez, Maricela; Gómez-García, Lorena; Martínez-Saucedo, Diana; Becerra-Díaz, Mireya; Terrazas, Luis I

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectins are multifunctional sugar-binding molecules expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages that internalize antigens for processing and presentation. Macrophage galactose-type lectin 1 (MGL1) recognizes glycoconjugates expressing Lewis X structures which contain galactose residues, and it is selectively expressed on immature DCs and macrophages. Helminth parasites contain large amounts of glycosylated components, which play a role in the immune regulation induced by such infections. Macrophages from MGL1(-/-) mice showed less binding ability toward parasite antigens than their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Exposure of WT macrophages to T. crassiceps antigens triggered tyrosine phosphorylation signaling activity, which was diminished in MGL1(-/-) macrophages. Following T. crassiceps infection, MGL1(-/-) mice failed to produce significant levels of inflammatory cytokines early in the infection compared to WT mice. In contrast, MGL1(-/-) mice developed a Th2-dominant immune response that was associated with significantly higher parasite loads, whereas WT mice were resistant. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses showed overexpression of the mannose receptors, IL-4Rα, PDL2, arginase-1, Ym1, and RELM-α on MGL1(-/-) macrophages. These studies indicate that MGL1 is involved in T. crassiceps recognition and subsequent innate immune activation and resistance.

  4. Antigen/Antibody Analyses in Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    antibodies in human sera with antigens of protozoan parasites . It was found that enzyme substrate reactions had distinct advantages over typical...autoradiographic procedures. Analyses of various sera identified a number of antigens of protozoan parasites which may be useful in discriminating infections

  5. Virosomes for antigen and DNA delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daemen, T; de Mare, A; Bungener, L; de Jonge, J; Huckriede, A; Wilschut, J

    2005-01-01

    Specific targeting and delivery as well as the display of antigens on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are key issues in the design and development of new-generation vaccines aimed at the induction of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Prophylactic vaccination agains

  6. An ELISA for sensitive and specific detection of circulating antigen of Angiostrongylus vasorum in serum samples of naturally and experimentally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, M; Tanner, I; Webster, P; Barutzki, D; Deplazes, P

    2011-06-30

    Canine angiostrongylosis is an emerging cardiopulmonary disease in Europe which can be fatal if left untreated. We developed a sandwich-ELISA based on a monoclonal antibody (mAb Av 56/1/2) and on polyclonal rabbit antibodies directed against Angiostrongylus vasorum adult excretory/secretory - antigen for the detection of circulating serum antigen of A. vasorum. The sensitivity of the test was 95.7% (78.1-99.9, 95% CI) as determined with sera of 23 dogs naturally infected with A. vasorum. The specificity was 94.0% (83.5-98.7, 95% CI) using 50 dog sera (control group) submitted for reasons other than parasitic infections. Potential cross-reactions were investigated with sera of a group of totally 61 dogs with proven infections with Dirofilaria immitis (n=23), Crenosoma vulpis (n=14), Ancylostoma caninum (n=4) or Toxocara canis (n=20). No significant difference was observed concerning the proportion of positive reactions between the control group and the group with proven helminth infections other than A. vasorum. In experimentally inoculated dogs with proven worm burdens of A. vasorum, the proportion of seropositive dogs increased over the first 3 months of infection, starting from 35 days post inoculation (dpi) which was before the onset of larval excretion. Ten weeks post inoculation, 98.6% of the dogs were seropositive, and circulating antigen persisted in two dogs with long-term follow-up over 286 and 356 days, respectively. In contrast, in dogs with a single treatment with imidacloprid/moxidectin at four or 32 dpi, no circulating antigen was observed, while in dogs treated at 88-92 dpi, OD values decreased within 13-34 days. The specific detection of circulating A. vasorum antigen by ELISA represents a valid alternative for reliable diagnosis and for follow-up investigations after anthelmintic treatment. Moreover, the test can be used for mass screening in large epidemiological investigations.

  7. Protein antigen delivery by gene gun-mediated epidermal antigen incorporation (EAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Ritter, Uwe; Thalhamer, Josef; Weiss, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The gene gun technology can not only be employed for efficient transfer of gene vaccines into upper layers of the skin, but also for application of protein antigens. As a tissue rich in professional antigen presenting cells, the skin represents an attractive target for immunizations. In this chapter we present a method for delivery of the model antigen ovalbumin into the skin of mice termed epidermal antigen incorporation and describe in detail how antigen-specific proliferation in draining lymph nodes can be followed by flow cytometry.

  8. Heligmosomoides induces tolerogenic dendritic cells that block colitis and prevent antigen-specific gut Tcell responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunological diseases like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are infrequent in less developed countries possibly because helminths provide protection by modulating host immunity. In IBD murine models, the helminth Heligmosomoides bakeri (Hb) prevents colitis. It was determined if Hb mediated IBD pro...

  9. Tumor antigens as related to pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T M; Holyoke, E D; Douglass, H O

    1980-01-01

    Data are presented suggesting the presence of pancreas tumor-associated antigens. Slow progress has been made during the past few years in the identification of pancreatic tumor antigens that may be of clinical usefulness and it seems unlikely that many of the practical problems now being faced in identification and isolation of these antigens and in development of a specific, sensitive assay will be solved by conventional immunochemical approaches. The study of antigen and/or antibody purified from immune complexes in the host and the application of leukocyte adherence inhibition techniques to immunodiagnosis of pancreatic cancer are among the new approaches that may provide effective alternatives in the study of pancreatic tumor antigens.

  10. The intestinal helminth community of the spiny-tailed lizard Darevskia rudis (Squamata, Lacertidae) from northern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, V; Jorge, F; Ilgaz, Ç; Kumlutaş, Y; Durmuş, S H; Carretero, M A

    2016-03-01

    Populations of the lizard Darevskia rudis (Bedriaga, 1886) from northern Anatolia were examined for intestinal parasites in adult specimens. One cestode, Nematotaenia tarentolae López-Neyra, 1944 and four nematode species, Spauligodon saxicolae Sharpilo, 1962, Skrjabinelazia hoffmanni Li, 1934, Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782) and Strongyloides darevskyi Sharpilo, 1976, were found. Three of these nematodes, S. saxicolae, S. hoffmanni and S. darevskyi are suggested to be part of a module in the network of Darevskia spp. and their parasites. Only one, S. darevskyi, was identified as a Darevskia spp. specialist. The very low infection and diversity parameters are indicative of the depauperate helminth communities found in this lacertid lizard, falling among the lowest within the Palaearctic saurians. Nevertheless these values are higher than those found in parthenogenetic Darevskia spp. Interpopulation variation in the intensity of S. saxicolae and N. tarentolae is attributable to local changes in ecological conditions. On the other hand, parasite abundance and richness increased in the warmer localities, while the effect of lizard sex and size on infection was negligible. The structure of these helminth communities in D. rudis are compared with those observed in other European lacertid lizards.

  11. Venus Kinase Receptors at the Crossroads of Insulin Signaling: Their Role in Reproduction for Helminths and Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissous, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) are invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (TKs) first discovered in the human parasite Schistosoma. They contain an extracellular Venus FlyTrap module similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C and an intracellular TK domain similar to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are present from cnidarians to echinoderms. They were shown to be activated by amino-acids, to induce insulin-like intracellular pathways, and to be highly expressed in larvae an