Recent developments in technology have facilitated substantial advances in the characterization of surface antigens from a wide variety of both normal and neoplastic cells. However, the immunochemistry of parasites has lagged behind. Efforts to apply conventional radiolabeling methods to helminths have not always been successful. Experimental work with Schistosoma mansoni is reviewed to illustrate common problems encountered in surface labeling studies. These findings should provide insight for the future investigation of other helminth species. (Auth.)
Hayunga, E.G. (Division of Tropical Public Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Murrell, K.D. (Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD (USA))
Recent developments in technology have facilitated substantial advances in the characterization of surface antigens from a wide variety of both normal and neoplastic cells. However, the immunochemistry of parasites has lagged behind. Efforts to apply conventional radiolabeling methods to helminths have not always been successful. Experimental work with Schistosoma mansoni is reviewed to illustrate common problems encountered in surface labeling studies. These findings should provide insight for the future investigation of other helminth species.
Hegewald, Jana; Gantin, Richard G.; Christian J. Lechner; Huang, Xiangsheng; Agosssou, Abram; Agbeko, Yvon F; Soboslay, Peter T.; Köhler, Carsten
Background In sub-Saharan Africa poly-parasite infections are frequently observed in children, and with poly-parasitism modulating immune mechanisms, mediated by cytokines and chemokines, are required to prevent overwhelming inflammation and host tissue damage. We analyzed in children co-infected with helminthes and protozoan parasites their cellular production of regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to parasite antigens and allergens. Methods Intestinal and in...
Terrazas, Luis I.; Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz; Magaly Pérez-Miranda; Mejía-Domínguez, Ana M.; Yadira Ledesma-Soto; Rafael Bojalil; Lorena Gómez-García
MicroRNAs have emerged as key regulators of immune responses. They influence immune cells' function and probably the outcome of several infections. Currently, it is largely unknown if helminth parasites and their antigens modify host microRNAs expression. The aim of this study was to explore if excreted/secreted antigens of Taenia crassiceps regulate LPS-induced miRNAs expression in human Dendritic Cells. We found that these antigens repressed LPS-let-7i induction but not mir-146a or mir-155 ...
Does treatment of intestinal helminth infections influence malaria? Background and methodology of a longitudinal study of clinical, parasitological and immunological parameters in Nangapanda, Flores, Indonesia (ImmunoSPIN Study).
Wiria, A.E.; Prasetyani, M.A.; Hamid, F.; Wammes, L.J.; Lell, B.; Ariawan, I.; Uh, H.W.; Wibowo, H.; Djuardi, Y.; Wahyuni, S.; Sutanto, I.; May, L.; Luty, A.J.F.; Verweij, J.J.; Sartono, E.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Supali, T.
BACKGROUND: Given that helminth infections are thought to have strong immunomodulatory activity, the question whether helminth infections might affect responses to malaria antigens needs to be addressed. Different cross-sectional studies using diverse methodologies have reported that helminth infect
Prasanphanich, Nina Salinger; Mickum, Megan L.; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Richard D. Cummings
Helminths are multicellular parasitic worms that comprise a major class of human pathogens and cause an immense amount of suffering worldwide. Helminths possess an abundance of complex and unique glycoconjugates that interact with both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity in definitive and intermediate hosts. These glycoconjugates represent a major untapped reservoir of immunomodulatory compounds, which have the potential to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, and antigenic glyca...
Concerted activity of IgG1 antibodies and IL-4/IL-25-dependent effector cells trap helminth larvae in the tissues following vaccination with defined secreted antigens, providing sterile immunity to challenge infection.
James P Hewitson
Full Text Available Over 25% of the world's population are infected with helminth parasites, the majority of which colonise the gastrointestinal tract. However, no vaccine is yet available for human use, and mechanisms of protective immunity remain unclear. In the mouse model of Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection, vaccination with excretory-secretory (HES antigens from adult parasites elicits sterilising immunity. Notably, three purified HES antigens (VAL-1, -2 and -3 are sufficient for effective vaccination. Protection is fully dependent upon specific IgG1 antibodies, but passive transfer confers only partial immunity to infection, indicating that cellular components are also required. Moreover, immune mice show greater cellular infiltration associated with trapping of larvae in the gut wall prior to their maturation. Intra-vital imaging of infected intestinal tissue revealed a four-fold increase in extravasation by LysM+GFP+ myeloid cells in vaccinated mice, and the massing of these cells around immature larvae. Mice deficient in FcRγ chain or C3 complement component remain fully immune, suggesting that in the presence of antibodies that directly neutralise parasite molecules, the myeloid compartment may attack larvae more quickly and effectively. Immunity to challenge infection was compromised in IL-4Rα- and IL-25-deficient mice, despite levels of specific antibody comparable to immune wild-type controls, while deficiencies in basophils, eosinophils or mast cells or CCR2-dependent inflammatory monocytes did not diminish immunity. Finally, we identify a suite of previously uncharacterised heat-labile vaccine antigens with homologs in human and veterinary parasites that together promote full immunity. Taken together, these data indicate that vaccine-induced immunity to intestinal helminths involves IgG1 antibodies directed against secreted proteins acting in concert with IL-25-dependent Type 2 myeloid effector populations.
An antigen is any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. This means your immune ... and is trying to fight it off. An antigen may be a substance from the environment, such ...
Dana Ditgen; Anandarajah, Emmanuela M.; Meissner, Kamila A.; Norbert Brattig; Carsten Wrenger; Eva Liebau
Helminths are the largest and most complex pathogens to invade and live within the human body. Since they are not able to outpace the immune system by rapid antigen variation or faster cell division or retreat into protective niches not accessible to immune effector mechanisms, their long-term survival depends on influencing and regulating the immune responses away from the mode of action most damaging to them. Immunologists have focused on the excretory and secretory products that are releas...
Sitcharungsi, Raweerat; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat
The relationships between allergic diseases and helminth infections are inconsistent. Some studies have suggested that helminth infections induce or increase the severity of atopic diseases. Other studies report that children infected with some helminths have lower prevalence and milder atopic symptoms. Expanding our knowledge on the mechanism of immunological modification as a result of helminth infection, and understanding the interaction between helminth infections and allergic diseases wi...
Vukman, K V; Lalor, R; Aldridge, A; O'Neill, S M
Helminth infection and their secreted antigens have a protective role in many immune-mediated inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. However, studies have focused primarily on identifying immune protective mechanisms of helminth infection and their secreted molecules on dendritic cells and macrophages. Given that mast cells have been shown to be implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of many inflammatory disorders, their role should also be examined and considered as cellular target for helminth-based therapies. As there is a dearth of studies examining the interaction of helminth-derived antigens and mast cells, this review will focus on the role of mast cells during helminth infection and examine our current understanding of the involvement of mast cells in TH 1/TH 17-mediated immune disorders. In this context, potential mechanisms by which helminths could target the TH 1/TH 17 promoting properties of mast cells can be identified to unveil novel therapeutic mast cell driven targets in combating these inflammatory disorders. PMID:26577605
Zhou, Guangyan; Stevenson, Mary M.; Geary, Timothy G.; Xia, Jianguo
Helminth infections affect more than a third of the world’s population. Despite very broad phylogenetic differences among helminth parasite species, a systemic Th2 host immune response is typically associated with long-term helminth infections, also known as the “helminth effect”. Many investigations have been carried out to study host gene expression profiles during helminth infections. The objective of this study is to determine if there is a common transcriptomic signature characteristic of the helminth effect across multiple helminth species and tissue types. To this end, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of publicly available gene expression datasets. After data processing and adjusting for study-specific effects, we identified ~700 differentially expressed genes that are changed consistently during helminth infections. Functional enrichment analyses indicate that upregulated genes are predominantly involved in various immune functions, including immunomodulation, immune signaling, inflammation, pathogen recognition and antigen presentation. Down-regulated genes are mainly involved in metabolic process, with only a few of them are involved in immune regulation. This common immune gene signature confirms previous observations and indicates that the helminth effect is robust across different parasite species as well as host tissue types. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first comprehensive meta-analysis of host transcriptome profiles during helminth infections. PMID:27058578
... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Soil-transmitted helminth infections Fact sheet Updated March 2016 Key facts Soil-transmitted helminth infections are caused by different species ...
Vennervald, Birgitte J; Polman, K.
-malignant change has taken place. Three helminth infections have been classified as definitely carcinogenic to humans (group 1 carcinogens), namely Schistosoma haematobium, which is associated with cancer of the urinary bladder and the food-borne liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini...... coupled with health education, especially in relation to food-borne liver fluke infections....
Fitzsimmons, Colin Matthew; Falcone, Franco Harald; Dunne, David William
The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths). Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens) are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g.,...
Li Jian Wang; Yue Cao; Hai Ning Shi
Evidence from epidemiological studies indicates an inverse correlation between the incidence of certain immune-mediated diseases,including inflammatory bowel diseases(IBD),and exposure to helminths.Helminth parasites are the classic inducers of Th2 responses.The Th2-polarized T cell response driven by helminth infection has been linked to the attenuation of some damaging Th1 driven inflammatory responses,preventing some Th1-mediated autoimmune diseases in the host,including experimentally induced colitis.Helminth parasites(the porcine whipworm,Trichurissuis)have been tested for treating IBD patients,resulting in clinical amelioration of the disease.As a result,there is a great deal of interest in the research community in exploring the therapeutic use of helminth parasites for the control of immune-mediated diseases,including IBD.However,recent studies have provided evidence indicating the exacerbating effects of helminths on bacterial as well as non-infectious colitis in animal models.Therefore,a better understanding of mechanisms by which helminths modulate host immune responses in the gut may reveal novel,more effective and safer approaches to helminth-based therapy of IBD.(C)2008 The WJG Press.All rights reserved.
Stefan Michael Geiger
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth co-infection in humans is common in tropical regions of the world where transmission of soil-transmitted helminths such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale as well as other helminths such as Schistosoma mansoni often occur simultaneously. METHODOLOGY: We investigated whether co-infection with another helminth(s altered the human immune response to crude antigen extracts from either different stages of N. americanus infection (infective third stage or adult or different crude antigen extract preparations (adult somatic and adult excretory/secretory. Using these antigens, we compared the cellular and humoral immune responses of individuals mono-infected with hookworm (N. americanus and individuals co-infected with hookworm and other helminth infections, namely co-infection with either A. lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, or both. Immunological variables were compared between hookworm infection group (mono- versus co-infected by bootstrap, and principal component analysis (PCA was used as a data reduction method. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to several animal studies of helminth co-infection, we found that co-infected individuals had a further downmodulated Th1 cytokine response (e.g., reduced INF-γ, accompanied by a significant increase in the hookworm-specific humoral immune response (e.g. higher levels of IgE or IgG4 to crude antigen extracts compared with mono- infected individuals. Neither of these changes was associated with a reduction of hookworm infection intensity in helminth co-infected individuals. From the standpoint of hookworm vaccine development, these results are relevant; i.e., the specific immune response to hookworm vaccine antigens might be altered by infection with another helminth.
Although regimes of chemoprophylaxis provide reasonable control of the important parasitic diseases of domestic ruminants there is little doubt that the development of vaccines would facilitate better use of available pasture and eliminate the potential problems associated with the development of drug-resistance. The practical use of such vaccines, as opposed to studies on their efficacy, has rarely been discussed. However, since there is one helminth vaccine, against Dictyocaulus viviparus infection of cattle, which has been used to immunize millions of calves over the past 20 years, the authors thought it appropriate to review the various practical aspects of its use that have emerged over this period. These include restrictions on the use of vaccine, the significance of the fact that the immunity is not sterile, the effects of massive challenge and a comparison of vaccination with recent developments in chemotherapy. Finally, the twin problems which bedevil the development of other helminth vaccines in ruminants, i.e. the isolation of adequate amounts of protective antigen and the problems of age-associated unresponsiveness to gastrointestinal nematodes, are briefly discussed. (author)
Gibson, D. I.; Bray, R. A.; Hunt, D.; Georgiev, B. B.; Scholz, Tomáš; Harris, P.D.; Bakke, T.A.; Pomajska, T.; Niewiadomska, K.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Tkach, V.; Bain, O.; Durette-Desset, M.-C.; Gibbons, L.; Moravec, František; Petter, A.; Dimitrova, Z.M.; Buchmann, K.; Valtonen, E. T.; de Jong, Y.
-, č. 2 (2014), e1060. ISSN 1314-2828 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acanthocephala * Biodiversity * Biodiversity Informatics * Cestoda * Fauna Europaea * Helminth * Monogenea * Nematoda * Parasite * Taxonomic indexing * Taxonomy * Trematoda * Zoology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology
Fitzsimmons, Colin Matthew; Falcone, Franco Harald; Dunne, David William
The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths). Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens) are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g., EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins). During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However, some infections (especially Ascaris) are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins) and highly similar molecules in dust-mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s 3) and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin. In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE-antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy. PMID:24592267
S G Rewatkar
Full Text Available Survey of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in camel migrated from U.P., M.P., and Rajasthan at Nagpur region was carried out in early summer, 2008. Total 28 samples (12 males and 16 females were collected from different places of Nagpur region. They revealed parasites as Trichuris sp.(50%, Strongyloides sp.(32.14%, Trichostrongylus sp.(10.71%, Nematodirus sp.(10.71%, Haemonchus sp.(14.28%, Eurytrema sp.(21.42% ,Eimeria sp.(25%, Entamoeba sp.(17.85% and Balantidium sp.(7.14%.All were found positive for mixed helminthic infection. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 258-258
Yang, Yong; Wen, Yun jun; Cai, Ya Nan; Vallée, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Liu, Ming Yuan; Cheng, Shi Peng
Serine proteases form one of the most important families of enzymes and perform significant functions in a broad range of biological processes, such as intra- and extracellular protein metabolism, digestion, blood coagulation, regulation of development, and fertilization. A number of serine proteases have been identified in parasitic helminths that have putative roles in parasite development and nutrition, host tissues and cell invasion, anticoagulation, and immune evasion. In this review, we described the serine proteases that have been identified in parasitic helminths, including nematodes (Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, Trichuris muris, Anisakis simplex, Ascaris suum, Onchocerca volvulus, O. lienalis, Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum, and Steinernema carpocapsae), cestodes (Spirometra mansoni, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistocephalus solidus), and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, and Schistosoma mansoni). Moreover, the possible biological functions of these serine proteases in the endogenous biological phenomena of these parasites and in the host-parasite interaction were also discussed. PMID:25748703
Yong YANG; Wen, Yun jun; Cai, Ya Nan; Vallée, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Liu, Ming Yuan; Cheng, Shi Peng
Serine proteases form one of the most important families of enzymes and perform significant functions in a broad range of biological processes, such as intra- and extracellular protein metabolism, digestion, blood coagulation, regulation of development, and fertilization. A number of serine proteases have been identified in parasitic helminths that have putative roles in parasite development and nutrition, host tissues and cell invasion, anticoagulation, and immune evasion. In this review, we...
Full Text Available Abstract Helminth infection may modulate the expression of Toll like receptors (TLR in dendritic cells (DCs and modify the responsiveness of DCs to TLR ligands. This may regulate aberrant intestinal inflammation in humans with helminthes and may thus help alleviate inflammation associated with human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Epidemiological and experimental data provide further evidence that reducing helminth infections increases the incidence rate of such autoimmune diseases. Fine control of inflammation in the TLR pathway is highly desirable for effective host defense. Thus, the use of antagonists of TLR-signaling and agonists of their negative regulators from helminths or helminth products should be considered for the treatment of IBD.
Christian J. Lechner; Komander, Karl; Hegewald, Jana; Huang, Xiangsheng; Gantin, Richard G.; Soboslay, Peter T.; Agossou, Abram; Banla, Meba; Köhler, Carsten
Background In rural sub-Saharan Africa, endemic populations are often infected concurrently with several intestinal and intravascular helminth and protozoan parasites. A specific, balanced and, to an extent, protective immunity will develop over time in response to repeated parasite encounters, with immune responses initially being poorly adapted and non-protective. The cellular production of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines and chemokines in response to helminth, protozoan antigens ...
Important insights have been gained in our understanding of how immune responses mediate resistance to helminths and control associated pathological responses. Although similar cells and cytokines are evoked in response to infection by helminths as diverse as nematodes and schistosomes, the componen...
The impact of helminths on the response to immunization and on the incidence of infection and disease in childhood in Uganda: design of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorial trial of deworming interventions delivered in pregnancy and early childhood [ISRCTN32849447
Alison M Elliott; Kizza, Moses; Maria A Quigley; Ndibazza, Juliet; Nampijja, Margaret; Muhangi, Lawrence; Morison, Linda; Namujju, Proscovia B; Muwanga, Moses; Kabatereine, Narcis; Whitworth, James AG
Background Helminths have profound effects on the immune response, allowing long-term survival of parasites with minimal damage to the host. Some of these effects "spill-over", altering responses to non-helminth antigens or allergens. It is suggested that this may lead to impaired responses to immunizations and infections, while conferring benefits against inflammatory responses in allergic and autoimmune disease. These effects might develop in utero, through exposure to maternal helminth inf...
Terefe, Bahiru; Zemene, Endalew; Mohammed, Abdurehman E.
Background Intestinal helminths infect more than two billion people worldwide. They are common in developing countries where sanitary facilities are inadequate. There is scarcity of documented data on the magnitude of intestinal helminths among inmates in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among inmates in Bedele prison, south-western Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 234 inmates in Bedele prison was conducted in Apr...
Biswal, Devendra Kumar; Debnath, Manish; Kharumnuid, Graciously; Thongnibah, Welfrank; Tandon, Veena
Most metazoan parasites that invade vertebrate hosts belong to three phyla: Platyhelminthes, Nematoda and Acanthocephala. Many of the parasitic members of these phyla are collectively known as helminths and are causative agents of many debilitating, deforming and lethal diseases of humans and animals. The North-East India Helminth Parasite Information Database (NEIHPID) project aimed to document and characterise the spectrum of helminth parasites in the north-eastern region of India, providin...
Davoust, B.; T. Normand; Bourry, O; H. Dang; Leroy, E.; G. Bourdoiseau
A survey of helminth parasites was carried out on 198 dogs living in almost complete liberty in villages in the northeast of Gabon. Faeces and blood samples were collected and analysed. Dirofilariaimmitis antigen was detected in 13.6 % of dogs using the SNAP 3Dx® test, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Faecal examination revealed that 91.4 % of dogs were infected by intestinal helminths. Ascarids were found in 58.5 % of the samples. Trichuris vulpis ...
Dawit Gebreegziabiher; Kassu Desta; Rawleigh Howe; Markos Abebe
Background. Approximately one-third of the world population is infected with M. tuberculosis and helminths (Kariminia et al. (2009), Walson et al. (2010)). Pregnancy and Helminth infection are known to suppress the TH1 response (Kariminia et al. (2009), Elias et al. (2006)) on which the QuantiFERON Gold in Tube (QFT-GIT) assay, that measures the released IFN-γ upon in vitro stimulation with mycobacterial antigens, relies on (Thomas et al. (2010)). Objective. To determine whether QFT-GIT indet...
Soares, Maria Fernanda de Macedo; Araújo, Claudia A
Helminths secrete several molecules that can modulate the immune responses, favoring their evasion and perpetuate their survival in the host. These molecules interfere with antigen presentation, cell proliferation and activation, antibody production, cause cell death, and stimulate regulatory responses. Here, we focus on some helminth products and address their immunomodulatory effects in the host immune system and, also, we describe some anti-inflammatory properties of an Ascaris suum-derived immunomodulatory molecule, named PAS-1. This protein is a 200-kDa molecule isolated by affinity chromatography using MAIP-1 (monoclonal antibody which recognizes PAS-1), coupled to Sepharose 4B. It suppresses the inflammatory responses in murine models of delayed-type hypersensitivity, lung allergic inflammation and LPS-induced inflammation into air pouches. PAS-1 also stimulates the secretion of regulatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-beta and primes IFN-gamma-secreting CD8+ and IL-10/ TGF-beta-secreting CD4+CD25+ cell clones that avoid the lung inflammation. Thus, this protein is a potent immunomodulatory component that may be used for therapeutic interventions in inflammatory diseases. PMID:18691141
Lukeš, Julius; Horák, Aleš; Scholz, Tomáš
Roč. 21, č. 6 (2005), s. 265-266. ISSN 1471-4922 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : genome project * helminth * Dracunculus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.526, year: 2005
Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R
transmission to their bird definitive host by predation. In experimental infections, we found an intensity-dependent establishment success, with a decrease in the success rate of cercariae developing into infective metacercariae with an increasing dose of cercariae applied to each amphipod. In natural......Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer a...... reduction in size, caused by crowding, virtually nothing is known about longer-lasting effects after transmission to the definitive host. This study is the first to use in vitro cultivation with feeding of adult trematodes to investigate how numbers of parasites in the intermediate host affect the size and...
Riet, Petronella Helena van
Worldwide, more than a billion people are infected with helminths. These worm infections are chronic in nature and can lead to considerable morbidity. Immunologically these infections are interesting; chronic helminth infections are characterized by skewing towards a T helper 2 type response as well as regulatory responses. The latter is thought to prevent strong immune responses against parasitic worms, allowing their long-term survival and restricting pathology. This regulatory network is t...
Walson, Judd L; John-Stewart, Grace
Background and Objectives The HIV-1 pandemic has disproportionately affected individuals in resource-constrained settings. It is important to determine if other prevalent infections affect the progression of HIV-1 in co-infected individuals in these settings. Some observational studies suggest that helminth infection may adversely affect HIV-1 progression. We sought to evaluate existing evidence on whether treatment of helminth infection impacts HIV-1 progression. Review Methods This review w...
Harris, Nicola L
Changing exposure to intestinal helminths, or alterations in our intestinal microbiome, have been independently proposed to underlie the increasing incidence of chronic inflammatory diseases including allergy, autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) observed in developed nations. A recent study in Science links these findings by showing that intestinal helminth infection can prevent the outgrowth of a common intestinal bacterium that causes IBD in genetically susceptible mice. PMID:27297236
Pence, Danny B; Tewes, Michael E; Laack, Linda L
In the USA, the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a highly endangered felid found only in a few remaining vestiges of native thornshrub brushland in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of extreme southern Texas. From 1987-1998, carcasses of 15 adult ocelots that died of vehicular accidents or natural causes were examined for helminths. All cats had 1-8 (mean = 3) helminth species. All were infected with 1-101 (mean +/- SE = 32 +/- 7) Toxascaris leonina. Other helminths from these ocelots were Alaria marcianae, Brachylaima sp., Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia rileyi, Oncicola canis, Dirofilaria immitis, Physaloptera rara, Ancylostoma tubaeformae, Cylicospirura chevreuxi, Vogeloides felis, and Metathelazia californica. Additionally, two cats had scarring of the aorta with lesions typical of those caused by Spriocerca lupi, although larval nematodes were not seen. A clinal variation in size of nearly three orders of magnitude was noted in the diplostomatid trematodes in the small intestine of one adult male ocelot. Despite the differences in size, all specimens appeared morphologically identical and were regarded as A. marcianae. Helminth prevalences and abundances, including those of potentially pathogenic species like D. immitis, were low. Although a single heartworm infection may have contributed to the death of one ocelot, helminth infections in general seemed to be of no great consequence to this endangered ocelot population. The helminth fauna of ocelots in the LRGV is reflective of that from wild felids in general; all have been reported previously from the bobcat (Lynx rufus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor) elsewhere in Texas. PMID:14567231
Saeed, I.; Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Monrad, J.; Kapel, C.M.O.
An epidemiological study of helminths in 1040 red foxes collected from various localities in Denmark during 1997-2002, revealed 21 helminth species at autopsy, including nine nematode species: Capillaria plica (prevalence 80.5%), Capillaria aerophila (74.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (17...... average worm intensity for each helminth species varied considerably according to geographical locality, season, and year. Aggregated distribution was found for several helminth species. The two species E. multilocularis and E. perfoliatus are first records for Denmark....
Full Text Available Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region, and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Helminths parasitic in animals represent a large assemblage of worms, representing three phyla, with more than 200 families and almost 4,000 species of parasites from all major vertebrate and many invertebrate groups. A general introduction is given for each of the major groups of parasitic worms, i.e. the Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda (Aspidogastrea and Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda. Basic information for each group includes its size, host-range, distribution, morphological features, life-cycle, classification, identification and recent key-works. Tabulations include a complete list of families dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition, a list of additional specialists who helped with particular groups, and a list of higher taxa dealt with down to the family level. A compilation of useful references is appended.
Ajendra, Jesuthas; Berbudi, Afiat; Hoerauf, Achim; Hübner, Marc P
Animal studies demonstrated that administration of helminth products can protect from autoimmune diseases. However, the success of such administrations is limited in the case of type 1 diabetes, as protection is only provided if the administration is started before the development of insulitis. In this study we investigated whether inclusion of helminth antigen administrations to an antigen-specific treatment with proinsulin improves the protective effect by triggering non-specific regulatory immune responses. Using a combination therapy of intraperitoneal Litomosoides sigmodontis antigen and intranasal pro-insulin, onset of diabetes was prevented in NOD mice after insulitis started, while either administration alone failed to protect. This protection was associated with an increased frequency of regulatory T cells within the pancreatic lymph nodes and a reduced inflammation of the pancreatic islets. This suggests that inclusion of helminth antigens improve the protective effect provided by antigen-specific therapies and represent a new potential therapeutic approach against autoimmune diseases. PMID:26898311
Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Pino, Livia; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Sethi, Aisha; Klaus, Sidney; Sangueza, Omar P; Fuller, Claire; Mendoza, Natalia; Ladizinski, Barry; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K
In the 21st century, despite increased globalization through international travel for business, medical volunteerism, pleasure, and immigration/refugees into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections and is divided into 2 parts: part I focuses on nematode infections, and part II focuses on trematode and cestode infections. This review highlights the clinical manifestations, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of helminth infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus. PMID:26568337
Helminthic parasites can trigger highly polarized immune responses typically associated with increased numbers of CD4+ Th2 cells, eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils. These cell populations are thought to coordinate an effective response ultimately leading to parasite expulsion, but they also pl...
Full Text Available Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial antigen was investigated in skin test on: (1 Microfilaria carriers, (2 Amicrofilaraemic cases from endemic villages with and without intestinal helminths, (3 Cases having apparent symptoms and signs of filariasis. The anti-gen reacted with specificity in cases having apparent symptoms and signs of filariasis. In microfilaria carriers and amicrofilaraemic individuals from endemic areas no reaction was seen. The diag-nostic value o f W. bancrofti microflarial antigen in chronic cases has been discussed.
Dennis, Roger D; Schubert, Uwe; Bauer, Christian
Successful metazoan parasitism, among many other factors, requires a supply of nutrients and the removal of waste products. There is a prerequisite for a parasite-defined vasculature. The angiogenic mechanism(s) involved presumably depend on the characteristics of the tissue- and vascular system-dwelling, parasitic helminths. Simplistically, 2 possibilities or a combination of both have been considered in this review. The multifactorial induction of parasitic helminth-associated neovascularization could arise through, either a host-, a parasite- or a host-/parasite-dependent, angiogenic switch. Most studies appear to support the first and third hypotheses, but evidence exists for the intrahepatic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis, the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the intravascular trematode Schistosoma mansoni for the second inference. In contrast, the nematode anti-coagulant protein NAPc2 from adult Ancylostoma caninum is also an anti-angiogenic factor. PMID:21232174
Sorvillo, Frank; Lawrence R. Ash; Berlin, O.G.W.; Yatabe, JoAnne; Degiorgio, Chris; Stephen A. Morse
Baylisascaris procyonis, a roundworm infection of raccoons, is emerging as an important helminthic zoonosis, principally affecting young children. Raccoons have increasingly become peridomestic animals living in close proximity to human residences. When B. procyonis eggs are ingested by a host other than a raccoon, migration of larvae through tissue, termed larval migrans, ensues. This larval infection can invade the brain and eye, causing severe disease and death. The prevalence of B. procyo...
Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) form one of the most important groups of infectious agents and are the cause of serious global health problems. The most important STHs are roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworms (Trichuris trichiura) and hookworms (Necator americanus or Ancylostoma duodenale); on a global level, more than a billion people have been infected by at least one species of this group of pathogens. This review explores the general concepts of transmission dynamics and the env...
Garg Gagan; Ranganathan Shoba
Abstract Background Helminths are important socio-economic organisms, responsible for causing major parasitic infections in humans, other animals and plants. These infections impose a significant public health and economic burden globally. Exceptionally, some helminth organisms like Caenorhabditis elegans are free-living in nature and serve as model organisms for studying parasitic infections. Excretory/secretory proteins play an important role in parasitic helminth infections which make thes...
Davoust, B; Normand, T; Bourry, O; Dang, H; Leroy, E; Bourdoiseau, G
A survey of helminth parasites was carried out on 198 dogs living in almost complete liberty in villages in the northeast of Gabon. Faeces and blood samples were collected and analysed. Dirofilaria immitis antigen was detected in 13.6% of dogs using the SNAP 3Dx test, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Faecal examination revealed that 91.4% of dogs were infected by intestinal helminths. Ascarids were found in 58.5% of the samples. Trichuris vulpis was observed in 49.5% of cases, and Uncinaria spp. and Ancylostoma spp. in 34.8%, Spirocerca lupi in 25.3% and Capillaria spp. in 10.6%. Cestode embryophores were found in 8.6% of the samples. PMID:19294992
Full Text Available A survey of helminth parasites was carried out on 198 dogs living in almost complete liberty in villages in the northeast of Gabon. Faeces and blood samples were collected and analysed. Dirofilariaimmitis antigen was detected in 13.6 % of dogs using the SNAP 3Dx® test, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Faecal examination revealed that 91.4 % of dogs were infected by intestinal helminths. Ascarids were found in 58.5 % of the samples. Trichuris vulpis was observed in 49.5 % of cases, and Uncinaria spp. and Ancylostoma spp. in 34.8 %, Spirocerca lupi in 25.3 % and Capillaria spp. in 10.6 %. Cestode embryophores were found in 8.6 % of the samples.
Cooper, C L; Crites, J L
Three hundred and thirty specimens of 7 species of passerine birds from South Bass Island, Ottawa County, Ohio, were examined for helminth parasites. The total number of helminth specimens collected was 4,333. Forty-one helminth taxa were identified. Ten species of helminths were identified as having foci of infection on the island. An index of association for these 10 species is presented. The low association revealed between helminth species utilizing common species of intermediate hosts indicated that a single intermediate host specimen is likely to harbor infective stages of only one species of parasitic helminth. An index of similarity is presented to express the species importance relationships of the helminth faunas of the 7 species of birds: red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), house sparrows (Passer domesticus), starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), and robins (Turdus migratorius). The results reveal that competition between these avian species for invertebrate food resources helps to maximize the transmission of those helminth populations which utilize these same invertebrates as intermediate hosts. The aggregation of birds into mixed feeding flocks insures a heavy loading of the feeding grounds with agents infective for the invertebrate populations. PMID:1255354
Kocan, A.A.; Locke, L.N.
Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found dead or moribund in the United States and Canada and submitted to Patuxent Wildlife Research Center were examined for helminth parasites. Nine genera of helminths were reported which include new host records for Clinostomum complanatum, Neogogatea pandionis, Centrorhynchus sp., Serratospiculum amaculata, Capillaria contorta, and Habronema americanum.
Blackwell, Aaron D; Tamayo, Marilyne A; Beheim, Bret; Trumble, Benjamin C; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael
Infection with intestinal helminths results in immunological changes that influence co-infections, and might influence fecundity by inducing immunological states affecting conception and pregnancy. We investigated associations between intestinal helminths and fertility in women, using 9 years of longitudinal data from 986 Bolivian forager-horticulturalists, experiencing natural fertility and 70% helminth prevalence. We found that different species of helminth are associated with contrasting effects on fecundity. Infection with roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) is associated with earlier first births and shortened interbirth intervals, whereas infection with hookworm is associated with delayed first pregnancy and extended interbirth intervals. Thus, helminths may have important effects on human fertility that reflect physiological and immunological consequences of infection. PMID:26586763
VASHETKO, Emilia V.; SIDDIKOV, Bakhodir H.
This paper presents the results of studies on the helminth fauna of the green toad, Bufo viridis, in Uzbekistan. Twently helminth species were identified. The highest diversity of helminths was recorded in toads in the newly-built districts of Tashkent (1966-76). The helminth fauna of the toads inhabiting foothills was less common.
Jirsa, Franz; Winiwarter, Verena
Galen was undoubtedly one of the most important physicians in antiquity. He left a voluminous work which was edited by numerous scholars. The most capacious edition was done by Karl Gottlob Kühn between 1821 and 1833, which is, besides other more recent editions, the major source for this work. Galen deals in his works with all aspects of medicine and with philosophy. The texts on intestinal helminths are spread over the whole works of Galen and give a deep insight of the understanding of parasitic diseases due to intestinal helminths in Antiquity. Intestinal helminths "vermes intestinales" are also subsumed as "lumbrici" of which three species are distinguished: "lati", "teretes" and "ascarides". Galen inherits the descriptions of these worms from the Corpus Hippocraticum and even indicates this once. Well defined amongst the "teretes" or "lumbrici rotundi" appears to be the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides of today. Less clear are the descriptions of the other "smaller worms", so-called "ascarides". Due to the described symptoms it is possible to identify the threadworm Enterobius vermicularis "that infests mainly children". If Galen distinguished other "small" worm species could not be clarified from this text. The third "species" "Lumbrici lati", today's tape worms, are described separately and also the hunger they cause is mentioned. With his model of explanation for the genesis of the worms Galen combines medicine, philosophy and the Doctrine of the Four Humours which was valid at his time: intestinal worms originate from "putridity and warmth" and therefore stand opposite the life forms that evolve from semen. In addition to the descriptions of the parasites Galen gives advice how and by which means parasites can be fought. Their successful expulsion can be achieved using substances that have the properties "cool" and/or "dry" following the Doctrine of the Four Humours. Some of the medicines described are still used as drugs in our society amongst others
Roberto Magalhães Pinto
Full Text Available The spectrum of intestinal parasites present in the SwissWebster, C57B1/6 and DBA/2 mice strains from different animal houses was identified and prevalences compared. Three parasites were observed during the course ofthis study, namely the cestode. Vampirolepis nana (Siebold, 1852 Spasskii, 1954(=Hymenolepis nana and the nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera (Nitzsch, 1821 Schulz, 1924 and Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916. The scope of thisinvestigation has been widened to also include morphometric data on the parasites, to further simplify their identification, since the presence of helminths in laboratory animals is regarded as a restricting factor for the proper attainment of experimental protocols.
Luís C. Muniz-Pereira
Full Text Available Three species of whale Balaenoptera borealis Lesson, 1828, B. physalus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 1758 captured in the Brazilian coast were necropsied for helminths. Balaenoptera borealis and B. physalus were infected by Crassicauda crassicauda (Nematoda, Tetrameridae and Ogmogaster antarcticus (Digenea: Notocotylidae, which are referred for the first time in Brazil. Balaenoptera borealis was also infected by Lecithodesmus goliath (Digenea, Campulidae and Bolbosoma turbinella (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae. Physeter catodon was infected by Anisakis physeteris (Nematoda, Anisakidae, which is a new record to this host in Brazilian waters.
Walson, Judd L; Stewart, Barclay T; Sangaré, Laura; Mbogo, Loice W.; Otieno, Phelgona A.; Piper, Benjamin K. S.; Richardson, Barbra A.; John-Stewart, Grace
Background Deworming HIV-1 infected individuals may delay HIV-1 disease progression. It is important to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1/helminth co-infection in helminth-endemic areas. Methods HIV-1 infected individuals (CD4>250 cells/ul) were screened for helminth infection at ten sites in Kenya. Prevalence and correlates of helminth infection were determined. A subset of individuals with soil-transmitted helminth infection was re-evaluated 12 weeks following albendazole the...
Szala, S.; Kasai, Yasushi; Steplewski, Z.; Rodeck, U.; Koprowski, H.; Linnenbach, A.J. (Wistar Inst. of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, PA (USA))
The human tumor-associated antigen CO-029 is a monoclonal antibody-defined cell surface glycoprotein of 27-34 kDa. By using the high-efficiency COS cell expression system, a full-length cDNA clone for CO-029 was isolated. When transiently expressed in COS cells, the cDNA clone directed the synthesis of an antigen reactive to monoclonal antibody CO-029 in mixed hemadsorption and immunoblot assays. Sequence analysis revealed that CO-029 belongs to a family of cell surface antigens that includes the melanoma-associated antigen ME491, the leukocyte cell surface antigen CD37, and the Sm23 antigen of the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni. CO-029 and ME491 antigen expression and the effect of their corresponding monoclonal antibodies on cell growth were compared in human tumor cell lines of various histologic origins.
The human tumor-associated antigen CO-029 is a monoclonal antibody-defined cell surface glycoprotein of 27-34 kDa. By using the high-efficiency COS cell expression system, a full-length cDNA clone for CO-029 was isolated. When transiently expressed in COS cells, the cDNA clone directed the synthesis of an antigen reactive to monoclonal antibody CO-029 in mixed hemadsorption and immunoblot assays. Sequence analysis revealed that CO-029 belongs to a family of cell surface antigens that includes the melanoma-associated antigen ME491, the leukocyte cell surface antigen CD37, and the Sm23 antigen of the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni. CO-029 and ME491 antigen expression and the effect of their corresponding monoclonal antibodies on cell growth were compared in human tumor cell lines of various histologic origins
Furtado, Luis Fernando Viana; de Paiva Bello, Ana Cristina Passos; Rabelo, Élida Mara Leite
Helminth parasites cause significant morbidity and mortality in endemic countries. Given the severity of symptoms that helminths may elicit in the host, intervention with prophylactic and therapeutic measures is imperative. Treatment with benzimidazoles is the most widely used means of combatting these parasites. However, widespread use of these drugs can select for drug-resistant parasite strains. In this review, we approach the problem of benzimidazole resistance in helminths in both humans and animals, focusing on the properties of the drug, the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance and how resistance is diagnosed. PMID:27338184
Moleón, María Soledad; Kinsella, John Mike; Moreno, Pablo Gastón; Ferreyra, Hebe Del Valle; Pereira, Javier; Pía, Mónica; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín
A total of 111 samples (43 faeces and 79 gastrointestinal tracts) of 14 wild carnivore species from 12 Argentine provinces were analyzed. Helminth eggs were identified in 73% of the faecal samples and adult worms were recovered from 81% of the gastrointestinal tracts. We found 19 helminth species. Among the most frequent findings were parasites of domestic carnivores, namely Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Uncinaria stenocephala. In addition, new hosts are reported for 6 nematode species and 5 helminth species are recorded for the first time in Argentina: Aonchotheca putorii, Molineus brachiurus, Cyathospirura chevreuxi, Physaloptera praeputialis and Oncicola martini. PMID:26701468
Debnath, Manish; Kharumnuid, Graciously; Thongnibah, Welfrank; Tandon, Veena
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Presents a listing of helminthes from Anserini based on numerous studies. Provides a description of parasite locations within reported hosts. Provides a way to...
Helminthic diseases in man and in animals are various and widespread, but to date the only successful vaccines to be developed against helminths are those based on the radiation treatment of infective larvae. A panel of experts met in Vienna in December 1963 to consider how the IAEA might support and encourage developments in this field. The present report gathers together some of the important contributions of the Panel members together with the general conclusions and recommendations. 77 refs, 19 figs, 16 tabs
Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Barca, Lorella; Kinsella, John M; Aznar, Francisco J
The helminth communities of nine species of herons from southern Italy were studied and compared. Of 24 taxa found including seven digeneans, seven nematodes, six cestodes and four acanthocephalans, only five taxa were found in more than one heron species, and five of the 21 taxa that could be identified to species level were classified as 'heron specialists'. The total number of helminth species per heron species ranged from 1 in Botaurus stellaris to 9 in Ixobrychus minutus with infection levels generally low. A statistical comparison was carried out for herons with a sample size >5. At the infracommunity level, only I. minutus clearly differed from other heron species. Diversity parameters of heminth infracommunities did not significantly differ among heron species. Species richness ranged from just 0.3 to 2.3 helminth taxa per individual host, and the Brillouin index, from 0 to 0.3. Total helminth abundance did not exceed 40 worms per host except in a single case of Ardeola ralloides. Infracommunities clearly were dominated by single helminth species. The present study confirms a depauperate helminth community in herons from southern Italy. Comparison with data from Spain and the Czech Republic showed strong quantitative similarities with values obtained in the present study. Results also suggest that the composition of local helminth communities are strongly variable depending on geographical location as is demonstrated by comparison with data from other European areas. However, whether herons in Europe naturally host depauperate helminth communities or these communities are depauperate because of other factors is unknown. PMID:27091547
Geets, A.; P. Van Damme; Hamerlynck, O.
Except for Monogenea, most other helminth parasites (Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda and Acanthocephala) of aquatic organisms have a rather complex life cycle, which includes one or more intermediate hosts. Studies have been carried out on the elucidation of helminth life cycles and on parasite-host relationships. Knowledge of the feeding behaviour of the host is a very useful starting-point for elucidation of the life cycles of its' parasites. Asymphylodora demeli, a trematode of two sympatric go...
The geographic distribution of helminth infection and tuberculosis (TB) overlap substantially. Experimental animal models and limited data from humans have shown that intestinal helminths could subvert the host immune response towards a T-helper 2 (Th2)-type immune response and an increased regulatory T-cell activity (Tregs). This in turn affects the host's ability to mount an effective Th1 immune-mediated protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, evidence for this hypothesis in...
Lundie, Rachel J; Webb, Lauren M; Marley, Angela K; Phythian-Adams, Alexander T; Cook, Peter C; Jackson-Jones, Lucy H; Brown, Sheila; Maizels, Rick M; Boon, Louis; O'Keeffe, Meredith; MacDonald, Andrew S
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the key initiators of T-helper (Th) 2 immune responses against the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni. Although the liver is one of the main sites of antigen deposition during infection with this parasite, it is not yet clear how distinct DC subtypes in this tissue respond to S. mansoni antigens in vivo, or how the liver microenvironment might influence DC function during establishment of the Th2 response. In this study, we show that hepatic DC subsets undergo distinct activation processes in vivo following murine infection with S. mansoni. Conventional DCs (cDCs) from schistosome-infected mice upregulated expression of the costimulatory molecule CD40 and were capable of priming naive CD4(+) T cells, whereas plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) upregulated expression of MHC class II, CD86 and CD40 but were unable to support the expansion of either naive or effector/memory CD4(+) T cells. Importantly, in vivo depletion of pDCs revealed that this subset was dispensable for either maintenance or regulation of the hepatic Th2 effector response during acute S. mansoni infection. Our data provides strong evidence that S. mansoni infection favors the establishment of an immunogenic, rather than tolerogenic, liver microenvironment that conditions cDCs to initiate and maintain Th2 immunity in the context of ongoing antigen exposure. PMID:26657145
Maurer, V; Amsler, Z; Perler, E; Heckendorn, F
The aim of this study carried out in 6 commercial layer houses was to examine the effect of litter management on water content, helminth egg count and litter infectiousness with the intestinal nematodes Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, and Capillaria spp. Three types of litter management were established in each layer house in parallel: in compartment A, litter was left undisturbed, in compartment B, wet litter was replaced and in compartment C, new litter material was added weekly. Dry matter (DM) contents of the litter and parasitological parameters (helminth egg concentration in litter samples, faecal egg counts (FECs) in the permanent layer flocks, helminth prevalence and burdens in two series of tracer animals) were determined every 4 weeks during the first 32 weeks of one laying period. DM contents of the litter varied in a broad range (48-95%); 8 weeks after onset of the study, there were significant differences between sites (Pgalli/H. gallinarum eggs were isolated from 91% of the litter samples, whereas eggs of Capillaria spp. were only extracted from 13% of the samples. Egg concentrations in litter remained at a similar level during the observation period. Neither management regime reduced helminth egg concentrations in the litter compared to the unmanaged regime. Laying hens started excreting helminth eggs 8 weeks after introduction to the layer house. In treatment C (litter added) FECs were lower than in the unmanaged treatment A in weeks 8 (Pgalli in tracer animals was lower (<10%) than the prevalences of H. gallinarum (68-80%) and Capillaria spp. (30-58%). Prevalences and H. gallinarum burdens did not differ significantly between management regimes. Although high helminth egg concentrations were found in litter, the prevalence and worm burdens in tracer animals were low compared to a similar study with tracers kept in poultry runs. The reasons for this may be that poultry litter negatively affects viability and infectiousness of helminth eggs
Tort, J; Brindley, P J; Knox, D; Wolfe, K H; Dalton, J P
Many parasites have deployed proteinases to accomplish some of the tasks imposed by a parasitic life style, including tissue penetration, digestion of host tissue for nutrition and evasion of host immune responses. Information on proteinases from trematodes, cestodes and nematode parasites is reviewed, concentrating on those worms of major medical and economical importance. Their biochemical characterization is discussed, along with their putative biological roles and, where available, their associated genes. For example, proteinases expressed by the various stages of the schistosome life-cycle, in particular the well-characterized cercarial elastase which is involved in the penetration of the host skin and the variety of proteinases, such as cathepsin B (Sm31), cathepsin L1, cathepsin L2, cathepsin D, cathepsin C and legumain (Sm32), which are believed to be involved in the catabolism of host haemoglobin. The various endo- and exoproteinases of Fasciola hepatica, the causative agent of liver fluke disease, are reviewed, and recent reports of how these enzymes have been successfully employed in cocktail vaccines are discussed. The various proteinases of cestodes and of the diverse superfamilies of parasitic nematodes are detailed, with special attention being given to those parasites for which most is known, including species of Taenia, Echinococcus, Spirometra, Necator, Acylostoma and Haemonchus. By far the largest number of papers in the literature and entries to the sequence data bases dealing with proteinases of parasitic helminths report on enzymes belonging to the papain superfamily of cysteine proteinases. Accordingly, the final section of the review is devoted to a phylogenetic analysis of this superfamily using over 150 published sequences. This analysis shows that the papain superfamily can be divided into two major branches. Branch A contains the cathepin Bs, the cathepsin Cs and a novel family termed cathepsin Xs, while Branch B contains the cruzipains
El-Tantawy, Nora L
By definition, parasites cause harm to their hosts. But, considerable evidence from ancient traditional medicine has supported the theory of using parasites and their products in treating many diseases. Maggots have been used successfully to treat chronic, long-standing, infected wounds which failed to respond to conventional treatment by many beneficial effects on the wound including debridement, disinfection, and healing enhancement. Maggots are also applied in forensic medicine to estimate time between the death and discovery of a corpse and in entomotoxicology involving the potential use of insects as alternative samples for detecting drugs and toxins in death investigations. Leeches are segmented invertebrates, famous by their blood-feeding habits and used in phlebotomy to treat various ailments since ancient times. Leech therapy is experiencing resurgence nowadays in health care principally in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Earthworms provide a source of medicinally useful products with potential antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer properties. Lumbrokinases are a group of fibrinolytic enzymes isolated and purified from earthworms capable of degrading plasminogen-rich and plasminogen-free fibrin and so can be used to treat various conditions associated with thrombotic diseases. Helminth infection has been proved to have therapeutic effects in both animal and human clinical trials with promising evidence in treating many allergic diseases and can block the induction of or reduce the severity of some autoimmune disorders as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. What is more, venomous arthropods such as scorpions, bees, wasps, spiders, ants, centipedes, snail, beetles, and caterpillars. The venoms and toxins from these arthropods provide a promising source of natural bioactive compounds which can be employed in the development of new drugs to treat diseases as cancer. The possibility of using these active molecules in biotechnological processes can
Colonization with helminthic parasites down-regulates inflammation in murine colitis and improves activity scores in human inflammatory bowel disease. Helminths induce mucosal regulatory T cells, which are important for intestinal immunologic homeostasis. Regulatory T cell function involves cytoki...
AO Egwunyenga; JA Ajayi; OPG Nmorsi; DD Duhlinska-Popova
Hospital based studies were conducted to investigate the occurrence of Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women, and their effects on birthweights, anaemia and spleen size. From 2,104 near-term pregnant women examined, 816 (38.8%) were found to be infected with malaria parasites. Among the 816 parasitaemic subjects, 394 (48.3%) were also infected with intestinal helminths, 102 (12.5%) having mixed helminth infections. The prevalence of the helminth species fo...
Osborne, Lisa C.; Monticelli, Laurel A.; Nice, Timothy J.; Sutherland, Tara E.; Siracusa, Mark C.; Hepworth, Matthew R.; Tomov, Vesselin T.; Kobuley, Dmytro; Tran, Sara V.; Bittinger, Kyle; Bailey, Aubrey G.; Laughlin, Alice L.; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Wherry, E. John; Bushman, Frederic D.
The mammalian intestine is colonized by beneficial commensal bacteria and is a site of infection by pathogens, including helminth parasites. Helminths induce potent immuno-modulatory effects, but whether these effects are mediated by direct regulation of host immunity or indirectly through eliciting changes in the microbiota is unknown. We tested this in the context of virus-helminth co-infection. Helminth co-infection resulted in impaired antiviral immunity and was associated with changes in...
O'Connell, Elise M; Nutman, Thomas B
Historically, the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) (e.g., Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Ascaris lumbricoides) has relied on often-insensitive microscopy techniques. Over the past several years, there has been an effort to use molecular diagnostics, particularly quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to detect intestinal pathogens. While some platforms have been approved by regulatory bodies (e.g., Food and Drug Administration) to detect intestinal bacteria, viruses, and protozoa, there are no approved tests currently available for STH. Although studies comparing qPCR to microscopy methods for STH are imperfect, due in large part to a lack of a sufficient gold standard, they do show a significant increase in sensitivity and specificity of qPCR compared with microscopic techniques. These studies, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of using qPCR for STH diagnosis, are discussed. Guidelines for those designing future studies utilizing qPCR are proposed for optimizing results, as is the proposition for using standardized molecular diagnostics routinely for STH in clinical laboratories and for field-based studies when possible. PMID:27481053
Eberhard Mark L
Full Text Available Abstract Nowaday, zoonoses are an important cause of human parasitic diseases worldwide and a major threat to the socio-economic development, mainly in developing countries. Importantly, zoonotic helminths that affect human eyes (HIE may cause blindness with severe socio-economic consequences to human communities. These infections include nematodes, cestodes and trematodes, which may be transmitted by vectors (dirofilariasis, onchocerciasis, thelaziasis, food consumption (sparganosis, trichinellosis and those acquired indirectly from the environment (ascariasis, echinococcosis, fascioliasis. Adult and/or larval stages of HIE may localize into human ocular tissues externally (i.e., lachrymal glands, eyelids, conjunctival sacs or into the ocular globe (i.e., intravitreous retina, anterior and or posterior chamber causing symptoms due to the parasitic localization in the eyes or to the immune reaction they elicit in the host. Unfortunately, data on HIE are scant and mostly limited to case reports from different countries. The biology and epidemiology of the most frequently reported HIE are discussed as well as clinical description of the diseases, diagnostic considerations and video clips on their presentation and surgical treatment. Homines amplius oculis, quam auribus credunt Seneca Ep 6,5 Men believe their eyes more than their ears
Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs form one of the most important groups of infectious agents and are the cause of serious global health problems. The most important STHs are roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides, whipworms (Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus or Ancylostoma duodenale; on a global level, more than a billion people have been infected by at least one species of this group of pathogens. This review explores the general concepts of transmission dynamics and the environment and intensity of infection and morbidity of STHs. The global strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis is based on (i regular anthelminthic treatment, (ii health education, (iii sanitation and personal hygiene and (iv other means of prevention with vaccines and remote sensoring. The reasons for the development of a control strategy based on population intervention rather than on individual treatment are discussed, as well as the costs of the prevention of STHs, although these cannot always be calculated because interventions in health education are difficult to measure. An efficient sanitation infrastructure can reduce the morbidity of STHs and eliminates the underlying cause of most poverty-related diseases and thus supports the economic development of a country.
Acosta-Virgen, Karla; López-Caballero, Jorge; García-Prieto, Luis; Mata-López, Rosario
From August 2011 to November 2013, 68 opossums (8 Didelphis sp., 40 Didelphisvirginiana, 15 Didelphismarsupialis, and 5 Philanderopossum) were collected in 18 localities from 12 Mexican states. A total of 12,188 helminths representing 21 taxa were identified (6 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 10 nematodes). Sixty-six new locality records, 9 new host records, and one species, the trematode Brachylaimadidelphus, is added to the composition of the helminth fauna of the opossums in Mexico. These data, in conjunction with previous records, bring the number of taxa parasitizing the Mexican terrestrial marsupials to 41. Among these species, we recognized a group of helminths typical of didelphids in other parts of the Americas. This group is constituted by the trematode Rhopaliascoronatus, the acanthocephalan Oligacanthorhynchusmicrocephalus and the nematodes Cruziatentaculata, Gnathostomaturgidum, and Turgidaturgida. In general, the helminth fauna of each didelphid species showed a stable taxonomic composition with respect to previously sampled sites. This situation suggests that the rate of accumulation of helminth species in the inventory of these 3 species of terrestrial marsupials in the Neotropical portion of Mexico is decreasing; however, new samplings in the Nearctic portion of this country will probably increase the richness of the helminthological inventory of this group of mammals. PMID:26257556
Chelsea E. Matisz
Full Text Available There is an urgent need to develop better therapeutics for autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases, of which musculoskeletal disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis are particularly prevalent and debilitating. Helminth parasites are accomplished masters at modifying their hosts' immune activity, and so attention has focused on rodent-helminth model systems to uncover the workings of the mammalian immune response to metazoan parasites, with the hope of revealing molecules and/or mechanisms that can be translated into better treatments for human autoimmune and idiopathic disorders. Substantial proof-of-principal data supporting the concept that infection with helminth parasites can reduce the severity of concomitant disease has been amassed from models of mucosal inflammation. Indeed, infection with helminth parasites has been tried as a therapy in inflammatory bowel disease, and there are case reports relating to other conditions (e.g., autism; however, the impact of infection with parasitic helminths on musculoskeletal diseases has not been extensively studied. Here, we present the view that such a strategy should be applied to the amelioration of joint inflammation and review the literature that supports this contention.
Full Text Available From August 2011 to November 2013, 68 opossums (8 Didelphis sp., 40 Didelphis virginiana, 15 Didelphis marsupialis, and 5 Philander opossum were collected in 18 localities from 12 Mexican states. A total of 12,188 helminths representing 21 taxa were identified (6 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 10 nematodes. Sixty-six new locality records, 9 new host records, and one species, the trematode Brachylaima didelphus, is added to the composition of the helminth fauna of the opossums in Mexico. These data, in conjunction with previous records, bring the number of taxa parasitizing the Mexican terrestrial marsupials to 41. Among these species, we recognized a group of helminths typical of didelphids in other parts of the Americas. This group is constituted by the trematode Rhopalias coronatus, the acanthocephalan Oligacanthorhynchus microcephalus and the nematodes Cruzia tentaculata, Gnathostoma turgidum, and Turgida turgida. In general, the helminth fauna of each didelphid species showed a stable taxonomic composition with respect to previously sampled sites. This situation suggests that the rate of accumulation of helminth species in the inventory of these 3 species of terrestrial marsupials in the Neotropical portion of Mexico is decreasing; however, new samplings in the Nearctic portion of this country will probably increase the richness of the helminthological inventory of this group of mammals.
Acosta-Virgen, Karla; López-Caballero, Jorge; García-Prieto, Luis; Mata-López, Rosario
Abstract From August 2011 to November 2013, 68 opossums (8 Didelphis sp., 40 Didelphis virginiana, 15 Didelphis marsupialis, and 5 Philander opossum) were collected in 18 localities from 12 Mexican states. A total of 12,188 helminths representing 21 taxa were identified (6 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 10 nematodes). Sixty-six new locality records, 9 new host records, and one species, the trematode Brachylaima didelphus, is added to the composition of the helminth fauna of the opossums in Mexico. These data, in conjunction with previous records, bring the number of taxa parasitizing the Mexican terrestrial marsupials to 41. Among these species, we recognized a group of helminths typical of didelphids in other parts of the Americas. This group is constituted by the trematode Rhopalias coronatus, the acanthocephalan Oligacanthorhynchus microcephalus and the nematodes Cruzia tentaculata, Gnathostoma turgidum, and Turgida turgida. In general, the helminth fauna of each didelphid species showed a stable taxonomic composition with respect to previously sampled sites. This situation suggests that the rate of accumulation of helminth species in the inventory of these 3 species of terrestrial marsupials in the Neotropical portion of Mexico is decreasing; however, new samplings in the Nearctic portion of this country will probably increase the richness of the helminthological inventory of this group of mammals. PMID:26257556
Full Text Available The paper describes the prevalence of helminth species in horses from five localities of Arad County, western Romania: Vinga, Pecica, Arad, Șiria and Lipova. A total of 56 horses (5 foals, 10 yearlings and 41 adults were sampled in order to establish the parasite spectrum. Faecal samples were processed by McMaster technique. All horses (100% were parasitized, and five types of helminthes were identified. Digestive strongyles were found in 73.21% of horses, roundworms (Parascaris equorum in 28.57%, threadworms (Strongyloides westeri in 8.92%, pinworms (Oxyuris equi in 12.50%, and tapeworms (Anoplocephala spp. in 19.64%, respectively. At least two helminth species were found in each individual.
Ramanan, Deepshika; Bowcutt, Rowann; Lee, Soo Ching; Tang, Mei San; Kurtz, Zachary D; Ding, Yi; Honda, Kenya; Gause, William C; Blaser, Martin J; Bonneau, Richard A; Lim, Yvonne A L; Loke, P'ng; Cadwell, Ken
Increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease, in developed nations is associated with changes to the microbial environment, such as decreased prevalence of helminth colonization and alterations to the gut microbiota. We find that helminth infection protects mice deficient in the Crohn's disease susceptibility gene Nod2 from intestinal abnormalities by inhibiting colonization by an inflammatory Bacteroides species. Resistance to Bacteroides colonization was dependent on type 2 immunity, which promoted the establishment of a protective microbiota enriched in Clostridiales. Additionally, we show that individuals from helminth-endemic regions harbor a similar protective microbiota and that deworming treatment reduced levels of Clostridiales and increased Bacteroidales. These results support a model of the hygiene hypothesis in which certain individuals are genetically susceptible to the consequences of a changing microbial environment. PMID:27080105
Sowemimo, O A; Asaolu, S O
An epidemiological study of gastrointestinal helminths of dogs (Canis familiaris) in two veterinary clinics in Ibadan, Nigeria, was conducted between January 2001 and December 2002. Faecal samples collected from 959 dogs were processed by modified Kato-Katz technique and then examined for helminth eggs. The results of the study showed that 237 (24.7%) of the dogs examined were infected with different types of helminths. The prevalences for the various helminth eggs observed were: Toxocara canis 9.0%, Ancylostoma spp. 17.9%, Toxascaris leonina 0.6%, Trichuris vulpis 0.5%, Uncinaria stenocephala 0.4% and Dipylidium caninum 0.2%. The faecal egg intensities, determined as mean egg count/gram of faeces ( +/- SEM), were: T. canis 462.0 +/- 100.5, Ancylostoma spp. 54.1 +/- 8.6, T. leonina 0.8 +/- 0.4, T. vulpis 0.1 +/- 0.0, U. stenocephala 1.0 +/- 0.7 and D. caninum 0.2 +/- 0.1. Host age was found to be a significant factor with respect to the prevalence and intensity of T. canis and Ancylostoma spp. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of intestinal helminth parasites between male (27.0%) and female (22.5%) dogs (P>0.05). The prevalence of helminth parasites was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the local breed (African shepherd) (41.2%) than in Alsatian dogs (16.2%) or in other exotic breeds (21.0%). Single parasite infections (85.7%) were more common than mixed infections (3.5%). PMID:18053301
King Shimumbo Nalubamba; Eugene Chisela Bwalya; Ntombi Basimbi Mudenda; Hetron Mweemba Munangandu; Musso Munyeme; David Squarre
Objective: To determine the gastrointestinal tract helminthic fauna in domestic and wild guineafowl in Zambia. Methods: Post-mortem and laboratory parasitological examinations for helminth identification and enumeration were conducted on 198 guineafowls (148 domestic and 50 wild) from November 2010 to October 2011. Results: All guineafowls were infested with one or more helminths. Eleven helminth species, namely, Raillietina echinobothrida, Raillietina tetragona, Raillietina cesticillus...
Sorin Morariu; Ion Oprescu; Narcisa Mederle,; Marius Ilie; Gheorghe Dărăbuș
The paper describes the prevalence of helminth species in horses from five localities of Arad County, western Romania: Vinga, Pecica, Arad, Șiria and Lipova. A total of 56 horses (5 foals, 10 yearlings and 41 adults) were sampled in order to establish the parasite spectrum. Faecal samples were processed by McMaster technique. All horses (100%) were parasitized, and five types of helminthes were identified. Digestive strongyles were found in 73.21% of horses, roundworms (Parascaris equorum) in...
León, G. Pérez-Ponce
Full Text Available This paper represents the first study of the helminth parasites of freshwater fishes from the Nazas River basinin northern Mexico. Between July 2005 and December 2008, 906 individual fish were collected and examined for helminthparasites in 23 localities along the river basin. Twenty-three species of fish were examined as a part of this inventory work.In total, 41 helminth species were identified: 19 monogeneans, 10 digeneans, seven cestodes, one acanthocephalan, andfour nematodes. The biogeographical implications of our findings are briefly discussed.
Kinsella, J.M.; Foster, Garry W.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Forrester, Donald J.
Twenty species of helminths (9 trematodes, 9 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans), including 9 new host records, were collected from 40 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from Florida. Intensities of infection were low and no lesions were attributed to the parasites. No species were considered specialists in bald eagles; 5 species were considered raptor generalists and the remainder, generalists in other orders of fish-eating birds. An undescribed species of Hamatospiculum was found in 3 birds. Most of the common helminths were acquired from eating fish intermediate hosts.
Kreisinger, Jakub; Bastien, Géraldine; Hauffe, Heidi C; Marchesi, Julian; Perkins, Sarah E
The gut microbiota is vital to host health and, as such, it is important to elucidate the mechanisms altering its composition and diversity. Intestinal helminths are host immunomodulators and have evolved both temporally and spatially in close association with the gut microbiota, resulting in potential mechanistic interplay. Host–helminth and host–microbiota interactions are comparatively well-examined, unlike microbiota–helminth relationships, which typically focus on experimental infection with a single helminth species in laboratory animals. Here, in addition to a review of the literature on helminth–microbiota interactions, we examined empirically the association between microbiota diversity and composition and natural infection of multiple helminth species in wild mice (Apodemus flavicollis), using 16S rRNA gene catalogues (metataxonomics). In general, helminth presence is linked with high microbiota diversity, which may confer health benefits to the host. Within our wild rodent system variation in the composition and abundance of gut microbial taxa associated with helminths was specific to each helminth species and occurred both up- and downstream of a given helminth's niche (gut position). The most pronounced helminth–microbiota association was between the presence of tapeworms in the small intestine and increased S24–7 (Bacteroidetes) family in the stomach. Helminths clearly have the potential to alter gut homeostasis. Free-living rodents with a diverse helminth community offer a useful model system that enables both correlative (this study) and manipulative inference to elucidate helminth–microbiota interactions. PMID:26150661
Amarasekera, Manori; Gunawardena, Nipul Kithsiri; de Silva, Nilanthi Renuka; Douglass, Jo Anne; O'Hehir, Robyn Elizabeth; Weerasinghe, Anura
Background The effect of helminth infections on allergic diseases is still inconclusive. Furthermore, the effect of helminth infections on childhood allergic diseases in a tropical area where prevalence of helminth infections has undergone dramatic changes is not well documented. Objective To investigate the relationship between allergic diseases and helminth infection in a cohort of schoolchildren in an area that has undergone dramatic changes in intensity of helminth infections. Methods Chi...
Kozak, Monika; Kołodziej-Sobocińska, Marta
Helminth infections are an important health problem for both humans and animals worldwide. The most sought for prophylactic strategy is vaccination due to the increasing incidence of anthelminthic resistance with little progress towards the discovery of novel drugs. However, the development of efficient anti-parasitic vaccines was proven to be a far greater challenge than in the case of bacteria or viruses. This is partly a result of the complex immunological interactions occurring during helminth infections, which are not yet fully understood, especially regarding the immune mechanisms conveying protection. Another problem is progressing from the research phase of vaccine development to commercial production and marketing. The advances made so far in developing efficient vaccines against helminth vary among the different classes, with a wide spectrum of both native and recombinant vaccine candidates. This review aims at presenting the current status and most important achievements in the field of helminth vaccine development, as well as the main obstacles and difficulties standing in the way of progress and practical applications. PMID:19670530
Salgado-Maldonado, G.; Caspeta-Mandujano, J. M.; Moravec, František; Soto-Galera, E.; Rodiles-Hernández, R.; Cabanas-Carranza, G.; Montoya-Mendoza, J.
Roč. 108, č. 1 (2011), s. 31-59. ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Helminth parasites * freshwater fish * Chiapas Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2011
Permin, A; Bisgaard, M; Frandsen, F; Pearman, M; Kold, J; Nansen, P
A cross-sectional prevalence study of gastrointestinal helminths in Danish poultry production systems was conducted on 268 adult chickens selected at random from 16 farms in Denmark from October 1994 to October 1995. The trachea and the gastrointestinal tract of each bird was examined for the presence of helminths. In the free-range/organic systems the following helminths were found: Ascaridia galli (63.8%), Heterakis gallinarum (72.5%), Capillaria obsignata (53.6%), Capillaria anatis (31.9%) and Capillaria caudinflata (1.5%). In the deep-litter systems: A. galli (41.9%), H. gallinarum (19.4%) and C. obsignata (51.6%). In the battery cages: A. galli (5%) and Raillietina cesticillus or Choanotaenia infundibulum (3.3%). Exact identification of the cestodes was not possible because of missing scolexices. In the broiler/parent system: C. obsignata (1.6%), and finally for the backyard system: A. galli (37.5%) H. gallinarum (68.8%), C. obsignata (50.0%), C. anatis (56.3%) and C. caudinflata (6.3%). The results confirm the higher risk of helminth infections in free-range and backyard systems but prevalence may also be high in deep litter systems. PMID:10579399
Full Text Available The present study deals with the investigation of the frequency of intestinal helminth parasites in children of Kupwara, Kashmir, India. Three hundred and twelve children in the age group of 4-15 years were examined for different intestinal helminths in three schools located in rural areas. Two hundred and twenty two of 312 (71.15% tested positive for various intestinal helminths. The various helminth parasites included Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichiura , Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia saginata . By far, the highest frequency of 69.23% (216/312 was noted for Ascaris lumbricoides followed by Trichuris trichiura 30.76% (96/312, Enterobius vermicularis 7.69% (24/312 and Taenia saginata 7.69% (24/312. Single infection was found in 33.65% (105/312 and mixed infection was seen in 37.5% (117/312 children. This study emphasizes the need for improved environmental conditions, i.e., clean water supplies, enhanced sanitation and chemotherapy of school-age children in rural areas.
de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim;
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on he...
Saeed, I; Maddox-Hyttel, C; Monrad, J; Kapel, C M O
An epidemiological study of helminths in 1040 red foxes collected from various localities in Denmark during 1997-2002, revealed 21 helminth species at autopsy, including nine nematode species: Capillaria plica (prevalence 80.5%), Capillaria aerophila (74.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (17.4%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (48.6% from Northern Zealand (endemic area)), Toxocara canis (59.4%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (68.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (0.6%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.5%); seven cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. (35.6%), a number of Taeniid species (Taenia pisiformis, T. hydatigena, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and unidentified Taenia spp.) (22.8%), and Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%); four trematodes: Alaria alata (15.4%), Cryptocotyle lingua (23.8%), Pseudamphystomum truncatum (3.6% from Northern Zealand), and Echinochasmus perfoliatus (2.4% from Northern Zealand); one acanthocephalan: Polymorphus sp. (1.2%). Significant difference in prevalence was found for T. canis and A. vasorum according to host sex, and for T. canis, U. stenocephala, Mesocestoides sp., Taenia spp., A. alata, A. vasorum, and Capillaria spp. according to age groups (adult, young or cub). Prevalence and average worm intensity for each helminth species varied considerably according to geographical locality, season, and year. Aggregated distribution was found for several helminth species. The two species E. multilocularis and E. perfoliatus are first records for Denmark. PMID:16580775
Helminth parasites are a large group of multi-cellular organisms that affect vast numbers of humans and are a major cause of disease. Several relevant experimental mouse models, representing the spectrum of human disease, have been very helpful in analyzing and characterizing the host immune respon...
van der Hoek, Wim; De, Nguyen Van; Konradsen, Flemming;
This paper provides a review of surveys on soil-transmitted helminths that were done in Vietnam between 1990 and 2001. Prevalence estimates could be obtained for 29 of the 61 provinces. Extrapolating from this, it is estimated that 33.9 million people in Vietnam are infected with Ascaris (prevale......, and human behavioral factors in the transmission of intestinal nematode infections in Vietnam....
Pomroy, W E
In a survey of 52 cats from the Saskatoon area, Ollulanus tricuspis were found in 2 animals with burdens of 2308 and 533, respectively. Small burdens of the following helminths were also found: Physaloptera spp., Toxocara cati, Taenia spp., Dipylidium caninum, and Ancylostoma sp.
Little, Susan; Adolph, Chris; Downie, Kathryn; Snider, Tim; Reichard, Mason
Fecal flotation is routinely used to identify feline helminth infections in clinical practice, but it is known to have limitations of sensitivity, particularly for cestodes. To determine the prevalence of helminths in a contemporary population of cats and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation to detect these infections, helminths were recovered from intestinal tracts removed from 116 adult cats humanely euthanized by an animal control shelter in northeastern Oklahoma. Results were compared to those of fecal flotation performed using both passive and centrifugal techniques. Helminths were identified in 78/116 (67.2%) cats, including Toxocara cati (48/116; 41.4%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (8/116; 6.9%), Dipylidium caninum (40/116; 34.5%), and Taenia taeniaeformis (30/116; 25.9%). Cats with T. cati were significantly more likely to harbor T. taeniaeformis (P = .001) than cats without ascarids. Centrifugal fecal flotation with sugar solution identified 37/48 (77.1%) T. cati infections, 8/30 (26.7%) T. taeniaeformis infections, and no D. caninum infections. Proglottids were detected on external examination in 19.0% (12/63) of cats with cestodes. Cestodes were present in over half of the cats examined in this study, but the majority of these infections were not evident by the detection of external proglottids or recovery of characteristic stages on fecal flotation. PMID:26535453
Yaya-Beas, R.E.; Ayala-Limaylla, C.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Van Lier, J.B.; Zeeman, G.
This research was conducted to study the anaerobic sludge filtration capacity regarding helminth egg removal in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. Two 25 L lab-scale UASB reactors were operated at an ambient temperature which varied between 17.1 and 28.6 °C. Ascaris suum egg was select
Laura Jane Appleby
Full Text Available The CD3ζ forms part of the T cell receptor (TCR where it plays an important role in coupling antigen recognition to several intracellular signal-transduction pathways leading to T cell effector functions. Down regulation of CD3ζ leads to impairment of immune responses including reduced cell proliferation and cytokine production. In experimental models helminth parasites have been shown to modulate immune responses directed against them and unrelated antigens, so called bystander antigens, but there is a lack of studies validating these observations in humans. This study focused on investigated the relationship between expression levels of the TCR CD3ζ chain with lymphocyte cell proliferation during human infection with the helminth parasite, Schistosoma haematobium which causes uro-genital schistosomiasis. Using flow cytometry, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from individuals naturally exposed to S. haematobium in rural Zimbabwe were phenotyped, and expression levels of CD3ζ on T cells were related to intensity of infection. In this population, parasite infection intensity was inversely related to CD3ζ expression levels (p<0.05, consistent with down-regulation of CD3ζ expression during helminth infection. Furthermore, PBMC proliferation was positively related to expression levels of CD3ζ (p<0.05 after allowing for confounding variables (host age, sex, infection level. CD3ζ expression levels had a differing relationship between immune correlates of susceptibility and immunity, measured by antibody responses, indicating a complex relationship between immune activation status and immunity. The relationships between the CD3ζ chain of the TCR and schistosome infection, PBMC proliferation and schistosome-specific antibody responses have not previously been reported, and these results may indicate a mechanism for the impaired T cell proliferative responses observed during human schistosome infection.
Valmonte, Gardette R.; Cauyan, Gil A.; Ramos, John Donnie A.
Background Common antigens between intestinal parasites and environmental allergens may play a role in the modulation of allergic immune responses. There is a growing interest in investigating cross-reactivity between common helminths and dust mites affecting humans, particularly in the tropics. Objective This study examined the cross-reactivity between the human roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides (Al) and three house dust mite (HDM) species. Methods Specific serum IgE levels to HDM species Blomi...
Full Text Available Background: Recognition of helminth-derived pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, including toll like receptors (TLRs is the first step towards initiating anti–helminth immune responses.Methods: Using somatic antigens of Ostertagia occidentalis, an important abomasal parasite of ruminants, the expression of ovine TLR2 and TLR4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was analyzed by real-time quatitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis were prepared to stimulate ovine PBMCs in a time and dose dependent manner.Results: A high expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was observed in PBMCs cultured with somatic antigens of the parasites specially when PBMCs were cultured with 100 µg/ml of somatic antigens and incubated for 2h. Up-regulation of TLR2 expression was more pronounced and evident in our study.Conclsusion: Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis have immunostimulatory and dominant role on peripheral immune cells. This study provide for the first time evidence of induction of TLRs in ovine PBMCs by somatic antigen of O. occidentalis
Oliphant, CJ; Hwang, YY; Walker, JA; Salimi, M; Wong, SH; Brewer, JM; Englezakis, A; Barlow, JL; Hams, E; Scanlon, ST; Ogg, GS; Fallon, PG; McKenzie, ANJ
Summary Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) release interleukin-13 (IL-13) during protective immunity to helminth infection and detrimentally during allergy and asthma. Using two mouse models to deplete ILC2s in vivo, we demonstrate that T helper 2 (Th2) cell responses are impaired in the absence of ILC2s. We show that MHCII-expressing ILC2s interact with antigen-specific T cells to instigate a dialog in which IL-2 production from T cells promotes ILC2 proliferation and IL-13 production. De...
Joseph D Turner
Full Text Available Circulating monocyte sub-sets have recently emerged as mediators of divergent immune functions during infectious disease but their role in helminth infection has not been investigated. In this study we evaluated whether 'classical' (CD14brightCD16-, 'intermediate' (CD14brightCD16+, and 'non-classical' (CD14dimCD16+ monocyte sub-sets from peripheral blood mononuclear cells varied in both abundance and ability to bind antigenic material amongst individuals living in a region of Northern Senegal which is co-endemic for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium. Monocyte recognition of excretory/secretory (E/S products released by skin-invasive cercariae, or eggs, of S. mansoni was assessed by flow cytometry and compared between S. mansoni mono-infected, S. mansoni and S. haematobium co-infected, and uninfected participants. Each of the three monocyte sub-sets in the different infection groups bound schistosome E/S material. However, 'intermediate' CD14brightCD16+ monocytes had a significantly enhanced ability to bind cercarial and egg E/S. Moreover, this elevation of ligand binding was particularly evident in co-infected participants. This is the first demonstration of modulated parasite pattern recognition in CD14brightCD16+ intermediate monocytes during helminth infection, which may have functional consequences for the ability of infected individuals to respond immunologically to infection.
Peón, Alberto N; Terrazas, Luis I
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Its pathophysiology is centered on neuron myelin sheath destruction in a manner largely dependent upon CD4+/CD8+ T-cell autoreactivity against myelin antigens, inducing Th1/Th17 pathogenic responses with the resulting production of free radicals and soluble mediators that exhibit the effector mechanisms of neurodegeneration. The immune response responsible for this disease is complex and challenges modern medicine. Consequently, many experimental therapies have been proposed in addition to the classical array of immunoregulatory/ immunosuppressive drugs that are normally used to treat MS. In this review, we will describe the effects and mechanisms of action of widely used disease-modifying MS drugs as well as those of select treatments that are currently in the experimental phase. Special emphasis is placed on helminth-derived immunoregulators, as some of them have shown promising results. Additionally, we will compare the mechanisms of action of both the MS drugs and the helminth-derived treatments to discuss the potential importance of some signaling pathways in the control of MS. PMID:26947777
T. Supali; Y. Djuardi; H. Wibowo; R. van Ree; M. Yazdanbakhsh; E. Sartono
Background: The association between allergen skin sensitization and helminth infection has been debated for years. Here, we sought to estimate the prevalence of atopic sensitization of residents living in area endemic for lymphatic filariasis and intestinal helminths and to investigate the associati
This invention relates to novel antigens associated with breast carcinoma, anti-sera specific to said antigens, 125I-labeled forms of said antigens and methods of detecting said antigens in serum or plasma. The invention also relates to a diagnostic kit containing standardised antigens or antisera or marked forms thereof for the detection of said antigens in human blood, serum or plasma. (author)
Foronda, P; Casanova, J C; Figueruelo, E; Abreu, N; Feliu, C
The helminth fauna of the barbary partridge (Alectoris barbara) in Tenerife Island (Canary Archipelago) was studied from 2001 to 2002, as there were no records of helminths from this host in the Canary Islands. Seven helminth species were identified: two cestodes Choanotaenia infundibulum and Lyruterina nigropunctata, and five nematodes Aonchotheca caudinflata, Baruscapillaria obsignata, Eucoleus annulatus, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum. Lyruterina nigropunctata, A. galli and E. annulatus are recorded for first time in A. barbara. An analysis of available data on Alectoris spp. reveals the importance of intermediate hosts such as arthropods and earthworms in the diet of partridges. Terrestrial helminths are dominant species, with monoxenous and heteroxenous species being present in similar numbers in different Alectoris species along their geographical distribution. Helminth species found in Tenerife from A. barbara are poor indicators of the host colonization from North Africa because these helminths are species that are commonly found in fowl with a cosmopolitan distribution. PMID:15946395
Some oases have been evaluated and characterized on the basis of certain biological groups. However, there is nothing known of the helminths in these freshwater environments. We analyzed the diversity of helminths of freshwater fish in thirteen desert oases of Baja California Sur (BCS), Mexico. There were 472 individuals of nine species of fish examined. 24 helminth species were recorded on 273 fish (58%); of these, 176 (64%) were parasitized with a single species and 97 (36%) ...
Reynolds, Lisa A.; Finlay, B. Brett; Rick M Maizels
Both intestinal helminth parasites and certain bacterial microbiota species have been credited with strong immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies have reported that the presence of helminth infection alters the composition of the bacterial intestinal microbiota, and conversely that the presence and composition of the bacterial microbiota affects helminth colonisation and persistence within mammalian hosts. This article reviews recent findings on these reciprocal relationships, in both human...
Dirceu Guilherme de Souza Ramos; Bruna Karina Alexandria Zocco; Mariana de Medeiros Torres; Ísis Assis Braga; Richard de Campos Pacheco; Afonso Lodovico Sinkoc
Helminths cause respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in animals, especially in neonates and young animals. Some species of helminth parasites of domestic animals have zoonotic potential, becoming a public health problem, especially when combined with lack of information about the population of these zoonosis and lack of control over of their hosts. This study aimed to identify and quantify the species of helminths from dogs that are not domiciled in the region of Cuiabá, in the Midwest...
Hamid, Firdaus; Amoah, Abena S.; van Ree, Ronald; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria
The immune response against helminths and allergens is generally characterized by high levels of IgE and increased numbers of Th2 cells, eosinophils, and mast cells, yet the clinical outcome with respect to immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation is clearly not the same. High levels of IgE are seen to allergens during helminth infections; however, these IgE responses do not translate into allergy symptoms. This chapter summarizes the evidence of the association between helminth infection...
he immune response against helminths and allergens is generally characterized by high levels of IgE and increased numbers of Th2 cells, eosinophils, and mast cells, yet the clinical outcome with respect to immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation is clearly not the same. High levels of IgE are seen to allergens during helminth infections; however, these IgE responses do not translate into allergy symptoms. This chapter summarizes the evidence of the association between helminth infections ...
Wiria, A.E.; Wammes, L. J.; Hamid, F.; Dekkers, O. M.; Prasetyani, M.A.; May, L; Kaisar, M.M.; Verweij, J. J.; Tamsma, J. T.; F. Partono; Sartono, E.; Supali, T.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Smit, J. W. A.
Objective To examine the association between helminth infections and atherosclerosis. Background Chronic helminth infection, which can lead to poor nutritional status and anti-inflammatory response, might protect against the development of atherosclerosis. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in Flores, Indonesia, an area highly endemic for soil-transmitted helminths (STH). Stool samples from 675 participants aged 18???80 years were collected and screened for Trichur...
Kreisinger, Jakub; Bastien, Géraldine; Hauffe, Heidi C.; Marchesi, Julian; Perkins, Sarah E.
The gut microbiota is vital to host health and, as such, it is important to elucidate the mechanisms altering its composition and diversity. Intestinal helminths are host immunomodulators and have evolved both temporally and spatially in close association with the gut microbiota, resulting in potential mechanistic interplay. Host–helminth and host–microbiota interactions are comparatively well-examined, unlike microbiota–helminth relationships, which typically focus on experimental infection ...
Lim Boon Huat; Mitra, Amal K; Noor Izani Noor Jamil; Pim Chau Dam; Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed; Wan Abdul Manan Wan Muda
Background: Soil-transmitted intestinal helminth infection is prevalent in rural communities of Malaysia. Risk factors contributing to helminth infections are largely unknown in the country. Aim: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among children in Beris Lalang, a rural Muslim community of Malaysia. Settings and Design : In this cross-sectional study, children aged 7-9 years were recruited during the mass Friday prayer at Beris Lalang mosque by trai...
Quiroz-Martínez, Benjamín; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo
In order to draw patterns in helminth parasite composition and species richness in Mexican freshwater fishes we analyse a presence-absence matrix representing every species of adult helminth parasites of freshwater fishes from 23 Mexican hydrological basins. We examine the distributional patterns of the helminth parasites with regard to the main hydrological basins of the country, and in doing so we identify areas of high diversity and point out the biotic similarities and differences among d...
Gebreegziabiher, Dawit; Desta, Kassu; Desalegn, Girmay; Howe, Rawleigh; Abebe, Markos
Background M. tuberculosis and helminth infection each affects one third of the world population. Helminth infections down regulate cell mediated immune responses and this may contribute to lower efficacy of BCG vaccination and higher prevalence of tuberculosis. Objective To determine the effect of maternal helminth infection on maternal and neonatal immune function and immunity to TB. Methods In this cross sectional study, eighty five pregnant women were screened for parasitic and latent TB ...
A preliminary survey of the helminth fish parasites was carried out in Imo River (Nigeria). A total of 191 fishes belonging to 15 genera were examined and only 13.6% were infested with various species of helminth parasites which is low percentage of infection. The following helminth parasites were recorded. Wenyonia virilis, kainji; Wenyonia sp., Procamallanus laeviconchus; Procamallanus sp., Sprionoura congolense; Spironoura sp., Cucullanus sp. and Serradacnitis serrata. It was found that he...
Santiago, Helton da Costa; Flávia L. Ribeiro-Gomes; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B.
Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, though the clinically-related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in helminth-infected population, we performed Immunocap™ tests in filarial-infected and non-infected individuals for IgE measu...
Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K
In the 21st century, despite increased international travel for vacation, work, and medical missions and immigration into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. It has been estimated that 20% to 70% of international travelers suffer from some travel-related health problem. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on cutaneous diseases caused by helminth infections. Part I of the review focused on nematode infections; part II will focus on trematode and cestode infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus. PMID:26568338
Evans, A C; Joubert, J J
In-patient and out-patient faeces examination reports from the State Hospital in Rundu, Kavango territory, Namibia, gave some idea of the prevalence of helminthic infections. 4174 specimens were examined over a 29-month period. Hookworm (6.8%) and Strongyloides (2.7%) were the most common infections, followed by Hymenolepis nana (1%), Schistosoma mansoni (1%) and Taenia sp. (0.9%). S. mansoni was more common in males than females, hookworm more common in females than males, and H. nana was most common in the pre-school group. Promiscuous defaecation on the banks of the Okavango river provides ideal situations for the development and transmission of hookworm and Strongyloides, while fishing and other activities enhance the transmission of S. mansoni infections. Larva migrans, probably due to Ancyclostoma braziliense or A. caninum, is common in the area. Studies involving schoolchildren would provide more accurate assessment of the prevalences of the various helminths. PMID:2617631
Steinfelder, Svenja; O’Regan, Noëlle Louise; Hartmann, Susanne
Helminths have evolved numerous pathways to prevent their expulsion or elimination from the host to ensure long-term survival. During infection, they target numerous host cells, including macrophages, to induce an alternatively activated phenotype, which aids elimination of infection, tissue repair, and wound healing. Multiple animal-based studies have demonstrated a significant reduction or complete reversal of disease by helminth infection, treatment with helminth products, or helminth-modulated macrophages in models of allergy, autoimmunity, and sepsis. Experimental studies of macrophage and helminth therapies are being translated into clinical benefits for patients undergoing transplantation and those with multiple sclerosis. Thus, helminths or helminth-modulated macrophages present great possibilities as therapeutic applications for inflammatory diseases in humans. Macrophage-based helminth therapies and the underlying mechanisms of their therapeutic or curative effects represent an under-researched area with the potential to open new avenues of treatment. This review explores the application of helminth-modulated macrophages as a new therapy for inflammatory diseases. PMID:27101372
Martínez-Aquino, Andrés; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Aguilar-Aguilar, Rogelio; Cabañas-Carranza, Guillermina; Ortega-Olivares, Mirza P
A total of 6 helminth species were recorded during helminthological examination of 50 Chapalichthys encaustus from Lake Chapala, Jalisco, Mexico. Helminth species identified included: Salsuginus sp. (an undescribed monogenea); Posthodiplostomum minimum (metacercariae); Cyclustera ralli (metacestode); Polymorphus brevis (cystacanth); Contracaecum sp. (nematode larvae); and Rhabdochona lichtenfelsi (adult nematode). Of these, 2 (Salsuginus sp. and R. lichtenfelsi) are specialist species. The observed species richness, individual parasite abundance, and diversity were low. Data suggest that host specificity is an important factor contributing to observed community composition and richness. Host feeding habits and helminth species availability seem to determine the characteristics of these helminth assemblages. PMID:15357094
Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi
Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively. PMID:24938826
Rogerio, Alexandre P.; Anibal, Fernanda F.
Leukotrienes (LTs), formed by the 5-lipoxygenase-(5-LO-) catalyzed oxidation of arachidonic acid, are lipid mediators that have potent proinflammatory activities. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of 5-LO biosynthesis in animals is associated with increased mortality and impaired clearance of bacteria, fungi, and parasites. LTs play a role in the control of helminth and protozoan infections by modulating the immune system and/or through direct cytotoxicity to parasites; however, LTs may als...
SUMMARY Schistosomiasis is a major human helminth infection endemic in developing countries. Urogenital schistosomiasis, caused by S. haematobium, is the most prevalent human schistosome disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently control of schistosome infection is by treatment of infected people with the anthelmintic drug praziquantel, but there are calls for continued efforts to develop a vaccine against the parasites. In order for successful vaccine development, it is necessary to understand...
Mejer, Helena; Roepstorff, Allan; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Lydehøj Hansen, Laurits; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik
Two similar trials were carried out to examine how dietary inclusion of an easily fermentable carbohydrate source such as chicory roots (Cichorium intybus) may effect established and establishing helminth infections in pigs. In the first trial varying feeding periods with crude chicory roots naturally rich in fructans (primarily inulin) were tested whereas crude chicory roots were compared with dried chicory roots and purified inulin in the second trial. In both trials pigs were infected with...
Maurer, V.; Amsler, Z; Perler, E.; Heckendorn, F.
The aim of this study carried out in 6 commercial layer houses was to examine the effect of litter management on water content, helminth egg count and litter infectiousness with the intestinal nematodes Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, and Capillaria spp. Three types of litter management were established in each layer house in parallel: in compartment A, litterwas left undisturbed, in compartment B, wet litter was replaced and in compartment C, new litter material was added weekly. Dry ...
Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the anaerobic sludge filtration capacity regarding helminth egg removal in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactors. Two 25 L lab-scale UASB reactors were operated at an ambient temperature which varied between 17.1 and 28.6 °C. Ascaris suum egg was selected as the model egg considering its similarity in terms of size and morphology to Ascaris lumbricoides, a human pathogen. Ascaris suum eggs were obtained from female parasites of infected pigs. The anaerobic sludge filtration capacity was performed applying upflow velocities between 0.09 and 0.68 m·h−1. Three sludge bed heights in the range of 0.30–0.40 m, 0.50–0.60 m and 0.60–0.70 m were applied. These sludge bed heights corresponded to 19%–25%, 31%–38% and 38%–44% of the total reactor height, respectively. Under the mentioned conditions, the average helminth egg removal efficiency was reciprocally correlated to the imposed upflow velocity. The studied lab-scale reactors reported an average helminth egg removal between 34%–100%, 30%–91% and 34%–56%, when the sludge bed in the UASB reactor was 19%–25%, 31%–38% and 38%–44% of the total reactor height, respectively. The decreased filtration capacity at increasing sludge bed heights might be likely related to biogas production and channeling formation. The average helminth egg removal efficiency in the control experiments performed without any sludge bed, by plain sedimentation, varied between 44% and 66%.
Ulukanligil Mustafa; Seyrek Adnan; Aslan Gonul; Ozbilge Hatice; Atay Suleyman
Soil transmitted helminth (STH) infection are endemic in developing countries. A study was carried out of sewage farms, streams and vegetables to determine the sources and routes of STH infection in Sanliurfa, Turkey. Stool samples from farmhouse inhabitants as well as soil and vegetable samples from the gardens were collected and examined. In addition, water samples from streams and vegetable samples from the city market were collected and examined. One hundred and eighty-seven (59.5%) of a ...
Kinsella, J.M.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Forrester, Donald J.; Roderick, Constance L.
A total of 28 species of helminths (17 trematodes, 3 cestodes, 7 nematodes, and 1 acanthocephalan) was recovered from 17 ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) from the United States. Intensities of infection were low and no lesions were attributed to the parasites. Seven species appear to be specialists in ospreys, 2 species generalists in raptors, and the remainder generalists in other orders of fish-eating birds. Pandiontrema rjikovi, Diasiella diasi, and Contracaecum pandioni are reported for the first time from North America.
Phongluxa, Khampheng; Xayaseng, Vilavanh; Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Akkhavong, Kongsap; van Eeuwijk, Peter; Odermatt, Peter
Background Helminthiasis is a public health concern in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Laos). This study aimed to understand helminth infection and associated risk factors in relation to existing local knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding worm infections in endemic communities. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 randomly selected villages in Saravane district, Southern Laos. Two stool samples obtained from 574 members (aged ≥2 years) of selected households...
Merlo-Serna, Aldo Iván; García-Prieto, Luis
Abstract A comprehensive and updated summary of the literature and unpublished records contained in scientific collections on the helminth parasites of the elasmobranchs from Mexico is herein presented for the first time. At present, the helminth fauna associated with Elasmobranchii recorded in Mexico is composed of 132 (110 named species and 22 not assigned to species), which belong to 70 genera included in 27 families (plus 4 incertae sedis families of cestodes). These data represent 7.2% of the worldwide species richness. Platyhelminthes is the most widely represented, with 128 taxa: 94 of cestodes, 22 of monogeneans and 12 of trematodes; Nematoda and Annelida: Hirudinea are represented by only 2 taxa each. These records come from 54 localities, pertaining to 15 states; Baja California Sur (17 sampled localities) and Baja California (10), are the states with the highest species richness: 72 and 54 species, respectively. Up to now, 48 elasmobranch species have been recorded as hosts of helminths in Mexico; so, approximately 82% of sharks and 67% of rays distributed in Mexican waters lack helminthological studies. The present list provides the host, distribution (with geographical coordinates), site of infection, accession number in scientific collections, and references for the parasites. A host-parasite list is also provided. PMID:27047240
Merlo-Serna, Aldo Iván; García-Prieto, Luis
A comprehensive and updated summary of the literature and unpublished records contained in scientific collections on the helminth parasites of the elasmobranchs from Mexico is herein presented for the first time. At present, the helminth fauna associated with Elasmobranchii recorded in Mexico is composed of 132 (110 named species and 22 not assigned to species), which belong to 70 genera included in 27 families (plus 4 incertae sedis families of cestodes). These data represent 7.2% of the worldwide species richness. Platyhelminthes is the most widely represented, with 128 taxa: 94 of cestodes, 22 of monogeneans and 12 of trematodes; Nematoda and Annelida: Hirudinea are represented by only 2 taxa each. These records come from 54 localities, pertaining to 15 states; Baja California Sur (17 sampled localities) and Baja California (10), are the states with the highest species richness: 72 and 54 species, respectively. Up to now, 48 elasmobranch species have been recorded as hosts of helminths in Mexico; so, approximately 82% of sharks and 67% of rays distributed in Mexican waters lack helminthological studies. The present list provides the host, distribution (with geographical coordinates), site of infection, accession number in scientific collections, and references for the parasites. A host-parasite list is also provided. PMID:27047240
Full Text Available In Peru, intestinal helminthiases have been widely studied, because they are a very frequent problem in Public Health. The aim of current research was to determinate prevalence of infection of enteroparasites in primary schoolchildren of two national schools, both of rural zones from Pachacamac and Chorrillos district, Lima, Peru during 1999. A coproparasitological survey to 162 childrens (3 per child on consecutive days in stool samples fixed in 10 % formaline, previous homogenization employing conventional exams by direct microscopy dyed with lugol, and by spontaneous Tube Sedimentation technique were performed. In addition, the occurrence of eggs of Enterobius vermicularis was examined by adhesive cellotape anal swap method. Eight helminthes were diagnosed to Chorrillos (n=72 and Pachacamac (n=90: Diphyllobothrium pacificum (1.3%; 0%, Taenia sp. (0%; 1.1%, Hymenolepis nana (37.5%; 8.8%, Hymenolepis diminuta (8.3%; 0%, Ancylostoma duodenale Necator americanus (0%; 2.2%, Trichuris trichiura (9.7%; 6.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides(15.3%; 35.5%, y E. vermicularis (31.9%; 45.5%. Total prevalence of infection was 72.2% and 72.2% and polyparasitism was 25% and 22.2%, respectively. Jaccard index showed a 50 % and Sörensen index a 66.7% of similarity between helminthes of both districts. Programs of sanitary and environmental education and control campaigns of intestinal helminthes should be improved and implemented in Lima, Peru.
I.G. P. Suweta
Full Text Available Helminthic diseases are widely spread throughout the world. In Indonesia, the cases in animals are primarily associated with the condition of the field, although the intensity of the infestations are also affected by various factors inside the body of the host. In general, the tropical and humid conditions in Indonesia, optimally support the development and spreading of the parasites, so that the prevalence of the infestations are usually high except in the very dry areas. In Indonesia, important helminthic diseases found in livestock are mostly caused by nematodes and trematodes, and there is a lack of information regarding cestode infestations, except infestation by immature stages of the worm such as cysticercosis in ruminants and swine. On the other hand, dogs and cats are usually infested by cestodes and nematodes. Here, the negative influence of helminthic infestation on live stock is mostiy shown by failure of growth, decrease of body weight and body resistance, damage of organs infested by the parasites, but it is not rare that the disease cause death of the infested animals such as haemonchiasis in sheep, ascariasis in young swine and calves, etc. The integrated system of farming combined with periodic anthelminthic treatments were favourable in the effort of controlling the disease.
van Kesteren, F; Piggott, K J; Bengui, T; Kubri, S B; Mastin, A; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Paris, M; Millar, R P; Macdonald, D W; Shiferaw, F; Craig, P S
Ethiopian wolves, Canis simensis, are an endangered carnivore endemic to the Ethiopian highlands. Although previous studies have focused on aspects of Ethiopian wolf biology, including diet, territoriality, reproduction and infectious diseases such as rabies, little is known of their helminth parasites. In the current study, faecal samples were collected from 94 wild Ethiopian wolves in the Bale Mountains of southern Ethiopia, between August 2008 and February 2010, and were screened for the presence of helminth eggs using a semi-quantitative volumetric dilution method with microscopy. We found that 66 of the 94 faecal samples (70.2%) contained eggs from at least one group of helminths, including Capillaria, Toxocara, Trichuris, ancylostomatids, Hymenolepis and taeniids. Eggs of Capillaria sp. were found most commonly, followed by Trichuris sp., ancylostomatid species and Toxocara species. Three samples contained Hymenolepis sp. eggs, which were likely artefacts from ingested prey species. Four samples contained taeniid eggs, one of which was copro-polymerase chain reaction (copro-PCR) and sequence positive for Echinococcus granulosus, suggesting a spillover from a domestic parasite cycle into this wildlife species. Associations between presence/absence of Capillaria, Toxocara and Trichuris eggs were found; and egg burdens of Toxocara and ancylostomatids were found to be associated with geographical location and sampling season. PMID:25007150
Soboslay, Peter T; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Huang, Xiangsheng; Gille, Christian; Spring, Bärbel; Kocherscheidt, Lars; Agossou, Abram; Banla, Meba; Bonin, Michael; Köhler, Carsten
Prenatal exposure to parasite antigens or allergens will influence the profile and strength of postnatal immune responses, such contact may tolerize and increase susceptibility to future infections or sensitize to environmental allergens. Exposure in utero to parasite antigens will distinctly alter cellular gene expression in newborns. Gene microarrays were applied to study gene expression in umbilical cord blood cell (UCBC) from parasite-exposed (Para-POS) and non-exposed (Para-NEG) neonates. UCBC were activated with antigens of helminth (Onchocerca volvulus), amoeba (Entamoeba histolytica) or allergens of mite (Dermatophagoides farinae). When UCBC from Para-POS and Para-NEG newborns were exposed to helminth antigens or allergens consistent differences occurred in the expression of genes encoding for MHC class I and II alleles, signal transducers of activation and transcription (STATs), cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulin heavy and light chains, and molecules associated with immune regulation (SOCS, TLR, TGF), inflammation (TNF, CCR) and apoptosis (CASP). Expression of genes associated with innate immune responses were enhanced in Para-NEG, while in Para-POS, the expression of MHC class II and STAT genes was reduced. Within functional gene networks for cellular growth, proliferation and immune responses, Para-NEG neonates presented with significantly higher expression values than Para-POS. In Para-NEG newborns, the gene cluster and pathway analyses suggested that gene expression profiles may predispose for the development of immunological, hematological and dermatological disorders upon postnatal helminth parasite infection or allergen exposure. Thus, prenatal parasite contact will sensitize without generating aberrant inflammatory immune responses, and increased pro-inflammatory but decreased regulatory gene expression profiles will be present in those neonates lacking prenatal parasite antigen encounter. PMID:27062712
Retnla (Resistin-like molecule alpha/FIZZ1) is induced during Th2 cytokine immune responses. Using Retnla deficient (-/-) mice and three helminth models, we show that Retnla functions as a negative regulator of Th2 responses. Pulmonary granuloma formation induced by the eggs of the helminth parasite...
von Sperling, M; Chernicharo, C A L; Soares, A M E; Zerbini, A M
The paper evaluates and models helminth eggs removal in a combined UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactor-maturation pond system (one baffled and one unbaffled pond in parallel). The system is comprised of demonstration-scale units, treating actual domestic sewage from Itabira city, Brazil. The paper addresses the following points: (i) removal of helminth eggs from the wastewater in the system; (ii) comparison of the observed removal efficiency with the predictions using the Ayres et al. model; (iii) accumulation of helminth eggs in the sludge; (iv) viability of eggs in the sludge; (v) distribution of helminth species in the sludge. The removal efficiency of helminth eggs from the wastewater in both ponds was 100% for most of the time (0 counts in the final effluent). The predictions of helminth eggs removal according to the Ayres et al. model can be considered reasonable. After one year of operation, 88% of the eggs in the sludge remained viable. Helminth eggs counts in the sludge tended to decrease along the baffled pond length (from first to last compartment). The prevailing helminth species found in the sludge from both ponds was Ascaris lumbricoides. PMID:14510201
Full Text Available Hospital based studies were conducted to investigate the occurrence of Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women, and their effects on birthweights, anaemia and spleen size. From 2,104 near-term pregnant women examined, 816 (38.8% were found to be infected with malaria parasites. Among the 816 parasitaemic subjects, 394 (48.3% were also infected with intestinal helminths, 102 (12.5% having mixed helminth infections. The prevalence of the helminth species found in stool samples of parasitaemic subjects examined was, Ascaris lumbricoides (19.1%, hookworm (14.2%, Trichuris trichiura (7% Schistosoma mansoni (3.4%, Enterobius vermicularis (2%, Hymenolepis sp. (1.6% and Taenia sp. (1%. Mothers with Plasmodium infection but without intestinal helminth infection had neonates of higher mean birthweights than those presenting both Plasmodium and intestinal helminth infections and this effect was more pronounced in primigravids. The mean haemoglobin values of malarial mothers with intestinal helminth infections were lower than those with Plasmodium infection but without intestinal helminth infections but these were not statistically significant. Severe splenomegaly was predominant among parasitaemic gravidae who also harboured S. mansoni infection in two of the hospitals studied.
Wiria, A.E.; Wammes, L.J.; Hamid, F.; Dekkers, O.M.; Prasetyani, M.A.; May, L.; Kaisar, M.M.; Verweij, J.J.; Tamsma, J.T.; Partono, F.; Sartono, E.; Supali, T.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Smit, J.W.A.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between helminth infections and atherosclerosis. BACKGROUND: Chronic helminth infection, which can lead to poor nutritional status and anti-inflammatory response, might protect against the development of atherosclerosis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was perf
Wiria, A.E.; Hamid, F.; Wammes, L.J.; Prasetyani, M.A.; Dekkers, O.M.; May, L.; Kaisar, M.M.; Verweij, J.J.; Guigas, B.; Partono, F.; Sartono, E.; Supali, T.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Smit, J.W.A.
OBJECTIVE: Given that helminth infections have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies, which may be explained by beneficial effects on energy balance or by a shift in the immune system to an anti-inflammatory profile, we investigated whether soil-transmitted helminth (STH)-infec
SARIMEHMETOĞLU, H. Oğuz
In this study, protein bands of excretory/secretory antigens of Fasciola hepatica were determined using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Blood and faecal samples were obtained from cattle brought to Kazan slaughterhouse. After examining the organs and faecal samples of these cattle for Fasciola hepatica and other helminths, serum samples were divided into two groups as positive (10 cattle) and negative (5 cattle) for F. hepatica. The sera of these two groups were tested using Western blotting. ...
GÖNENÇ, Bahadır; SARIMEHMETOĞLU, Hıfsı Oğuz
Crude and excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens of Fasciola hepatica were subjected to SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis in order to identify protein bands that would enable the specific and sensitive immunodiagnosis of sheep. Sera from 20 sheep with natural infections of F. hepatica, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Cyst hydatid, Cysticercus tenuicollis, Trichostrongylidae, Paramphistomum spp., and Trichuris spp. and the same number of sera naturally infected with the same helminths without F. hepati...
Zaiss, Mario M.; Rapin, Alexis; Lebon, Luc; Dubey, Lalit Kumar; Mosconi, Ilaria; Sarter, Kerstin; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Menin, Laure; Walker, Alan W.; Rougemont, Jacques; Paerewijck, Oonagh; Geldhof, Peter; McCoy, Kathleen D.; Macpherson, Andrew J.; Croese, John; Giacomin, Paul R.; Loukas, Alex; Junt, Tobias; Marsland, Benjamin J.; Harris, Nicola L.
Summary Intestinal helminths are potent regulators of their host’s immune system and can ameliorate inflammatory diseases such as allergic asthma. In the present study we have assessed whether this anti-inflammatory activity was purely intrinsic to helminths, or whether it also involved crosstalk with the local microbiota. We report that chronic infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb) altered the intestinal habitat, allowing increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. Transfer of the Hpb-modified microbiota alone was sufficient to mediate protection against allergic asthma. The helminth-induced anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion and regulatory T cell suppressor activity that mediated the protection required the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)-41. A similar alteration in the metabolic potential of intestinal bacterial communities was observed with diverse parasitic and host species, suggesting that this represents an evolutionary conserved mechanism of host-microbe-helminth interactions. PMID:26522986
Zaiss, Mario M; Rapin, Alexis; Lebon, Luc; Dubey, Lalit Kumar; Mosconi, Ilaria; Sarter, Kerstin; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Menin, Laure; Walker, Alan W; Rougemont, Jacques; Paerewijck, Oonagh; Geldhof, Peter; McCoy, Kathleen D; Macpherson, Andrew J; Croese, John; Giacomin, Paul R; Loukas, Alex; Junt, Tobias; Marsland, Benjamin J; Harris, Nicola L
Intestinal helminths are potent regulators of their host's immune system and can ameliorate inflammatory diseases such as allergic asthma. In the present study we have assessed whether this anti-inflammatory activity was purely intrinsic to helminths, or whether it also involved crosstalk with the local microbiota. We report that chronic infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb) altered the intestinal habitat, allowing increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. Transfer of the Hpb-modified microbiota alone was sufficient to mediate protection against allergic asthma. The helminth-induced anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion and regulatory T cell suppressor activity that mediated the protection required the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)-41. A similar alteration in the metabolic potential of intestinal bacterial communities was observed with diverse parasitic and host species, suggesting that this represents an evolutionary conserved mechanism of host-microbe-helminth interactions. PMID:26522986
Mulu, Andargachew; Kassu, Afework; Legesse, Mengistu;
BACKGROUND: Both helminth and malaria infections result in a highly polarized immune response characterized by IgE production. This study aimed to investigate the total serum IgE profile in vivo as a measure of Th2 immune response in malaria patients with and without helminth co-infection. METHODS......: A cross sectional observational study composed of microscopically confirmed malaria positive (N = 197) and malaria negative (N = 216) apparently healthy controls with and without helminth infection was conducted at Wondo Genet Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. A pre-designed structured format was...... utilized to collect socio-demographic and clinical data of the subjects. Detection and quantification of helminths, malaria parasites and determination of serum IgE levels were carried out following standard procedures. RESULTS: Irrespective of helminth infection, individuals infected by malaria showed...
Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu
Understanding the impact of helminth infections on clinical malaria is useful for designing effective malaria control strategies. Plenty of epidemiological studies have been conducted to unravel the nature of interactions between Plasmodium and helminth infection. Careful broad summarization of the existing literature suggests that Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infections may increase the risk of clinical malaria and associated morbidities, but Trichuris trichiura infection is not associated with the occurrence of clinical malaria and related outcomes. However, findings about effect of Ascaris lumbricoides and Schistosoma haematobium infection on clinical malaria are contradictory. Furthermore, the nature of relationship of helminth infection with severe malaria has also not been determined with certainty. This review summarizes the findings of epidemiological studies of Plasmodium and helminth coinfection, placing greater emphasis on the impact of the coinfection on malaria. Possible reasons for the heterogeneity of the findings on malaria and helminth coinfections are also discussed. PMID:27092310
Full Text Available Understanding the impact of helminth infections on clinical malaria is useful for designing effective malaria control strategies. Plenty of epidemiological studies have been conducted to unravel the nature of interactions between Plasmodium and helminth infection. Careful broad summarization of the existing literature suggests that Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infections may increase the risk of clinical malaria and associated morbidities, but Trichuris trichiura infection is not associated with the occurrence of clinical malaria and related outcomes. However, findings about effect of Ascaris lumbricoides and Schistosoma haematobium infection on clinical malaria are contradictory. Furthermore, the nature of relationship of helminth infection with severe malaria has also not been determined with certainty. This review summarizes the findings of epidemiological studies of Plasmodium and helminth coinfection, placing greater emphasis on the impact of the coinfection on malaria. Possible reasons for the heterogeneity of the findings on malaria and helminth coinfections are also discussed.
Lim Boon Huat
Full Text Available Background: Soil-transmitted intestinal helminth infection is prevalent in rural communities of Malaysia. Risk factors contributing to helminth infections are largely unknown in the country. Aim: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among children in Beris Lalang, a rural Muslim community of Malaysia. Settings and Design : In this cross-sectional study, children aged 7-9 years were recruited during the mass Friday prayer at Beris Lalang mosque by trained imams (religious leaders. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic profile, daily hygienic practices, and history of helminth infection. Results: Out of 79 samples, 29 (37% were positive for helminthic ova, of which 24 were ova of Trichuris trichiura. Poor education of the mother (primary education or less (P=0.015, eating raw salad (P=0.03, and no physical activities (P=0.03 were found independent risk factors for the child′s helminth infections in univariate analysis. A higher proportion of children with helminth infections complained of tiredness and fatigue compared to those without such infections (36% vs. 12%, P=0.019. In a multivariate analysis of predictors of helminth infection, poor education of the mother (P=0.02 and eating raw salad (P=0.04 remained statistically significant, after controlling for several other potential risk factors. Conclusions : T. trichiura was the most prevalent intestinal helminth infection in children in rural Malaysia. Risk factors of helminth infection included mother′s poor education and eating raw salad and vegetables.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capability of helminths to absorb heavy metals in comparison with that of the host tissues.We compared the concentration of cadmium (Cd and chromium (Cr in urban rats and in their harboring helminthes -Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta and larval stage of Taenia taenaeiformis (Cysticercus fasciolaris. The heavy metal absorption was evaluated in 1g wet weight of parasites and tissues digested in nitric acid, using Inductivity Coupled Plasma (ICP_OES.A higher concentration of heavy metals was revealed in the helminths than in the host tissues. Bioconcentration factor (BF= C in parasite/C in tissue for both Cd and Cr absorption was more than 10-fold higher in M. moniliformis than in the three compared host tissues. The BF of Cd in M. moniliformis compared to the liver, kidney and muscle of the host was 9.16, 14.14 and 17.09, respectively. BF in Cr in the same parasite and the same host tissues ranged from 10.67, 7.06 and 4.6. High level of absorption in H. diminuta was significantly likewise; the individual BF of Cd and Cr in H. diminuta compared to the liver, kidney and muscle of the hosts was 4.95, 5.94 and 4.67 vs. 2.67, 11.56 and 5.59. The mean concentration of Cd and Cr in C. fasciolaris was also significantly higher than that in the rat livers (P<0.007 and P<0.004, respectively.This study claims that parasites of terrestrial animals exposed to heavy metals can be more accurate indicators than the host tissues as new environmental monitoring agents.
Thompson, R C A
The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control. PMID:25743998
... more common in certain autoimmune diseases . For example, HLA-B27 antigen is found in many people (but not ... More Ankylosing spondylitis Autoimmune disorders Bone marrow transplant HLA-B27 antigen Kidney transplant Reactive arthritis Update Date 2/ ...
Gardenia Braz Figueiredo Carvalho
Full Text Available The development of a more sensitive diagnostic test for schistosomiasis is needed to overcome the limitations of the use of stool examination in low endemic areas. Using parasite antigens in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay is a promising strategy, however a more rational selection of parasite antigens is necessary. In this study we performed in silico analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni genome, using SchistoDB database and bioinformatic tools for screening immunogenic antigens. Based on evidence of expression in all parasite life stage within the definitive host, extracellular or plasmatic membrane localization, low similarity to human and other helminthic proteins and presence of predicted B cell epitopes, six candidates were selected: a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored 200 kDa protein, two putative cytochrome oxidase subunits, two expressed proteins and one hypothetical protein. The recognition in unidimensional and bidimensional Western blot of protein with similar molecular weight and isoelectric point to the selected antigens by sera from S. mansoni infected mice indicate a good correlation between these two approaches in selecting immunogenic proteins.
Movsesijan, M.; Jovanovic, B.; Borojevic, D.; Petrovic, M. (Institut za Primeni Nuklearne Energije u Poljoprivedri, Veterinarstvu i Sumarstvu, Zemun (Yugoslavia))
Specific antibodies from the serum of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus were isolated by combination with a ''solid phase antigen'' (soluble antigen coupled to an activated crystalline cellulose). The antibodies were labelled with /sup 125/I while bound to the solid phase then eluted and their potential demonstrated: (1) to determine amounts of specific antibody in unknown sera; (2) to determine amounts of soluble antigen in unknown preparations.
Specific antibodies from the serum of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus were isolated by combination with a ''solid phase antigen'' (soluble antigen coupled to an activated crystalline cellulose). The antibodies were labelled with 125I while bound to the solid phase then eluted and their potential demonstrated: (1) to determine amounts of specific antibody in unknown sera; (2) to determine amounts of soluble antigen in unknown preparations. (author)
Full Text Available Helminth infections are responsible for a considerable public health burden, yet the current drug armamentarium is small. Given the high cost of drug discovery and development, the high failure rates and the long duration to develop novel treatments, drug repurposing circumvents these obstacles by finding new uses for compounds other than those they were initially intended to treat. In the present review, we summarize in vivo and clinical trial findings testing clinical candidates and marketed drugs against schistosomes, food-borne trematodes, soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, the major human filariases lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and echinococcosis. While expanding the applications of broad-spectrum or veterinary anthelmintics continues to fuel alternative treatment options, antimalarials, antibiotics, antiprotozoals and anticancer agents appear to be producing fruitful results as well. The trematodes and nematodes continue to be most investigated, while cestodal drug discovery will need to be accelerated. The most clinically advanced drug candidates include the artemisinins and mefloquine against schistosomiasis, tribendimidine against liver flukes, oxantel pamoate against trichuriasis, and doxycycline against filariasis. Preclinical studies indicate a handful of promising future candidates, and are beginning to elucidate the broad-spectrum activity of some currently used anthelmintics. Challenges and opportunities are further discussed.
Paul C. Beaver
Full Text Available New observations in recent years have accented differences between the two common hookworms, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus,"nwith respect to modes of transmision and pathogenicity, and have established Ancylostoma ceylanicum as a species distinct from A. braziliense. Transmammary and paratenic transmission are now considered to be natural modes of infection in Ancylostoma caninum and possibly 111 other Ancylostoma species including A. duodenale, but not in Necator. The question of relative blood losses from laceration hemorrhage and blood-sucking in hookworm anemia is unresolved. The prevalence of Loeffler's syndrome in pulmonary ascariasis appears to be greatest in areas where transmission is sharply seasonal. Recent studies have failed to confirm reports of blood-sucking by Trichuris. Milk-borne transmission from mother to the newborn has been demonstrated for numberous species of Strongyloides not including S. stercoralis. Zoonotic soil-transmitted helminths 0; dogs and cats have become recognized as frequently causing visceral larva migrans and occasionally blindness in most parts of the world. Two major advances were made in diagnostic techniques - the Harada-Mori test-tube hookworm culture for species diagnosis and the Kato cellophane-covered thick fecal film ror ranid and quantitative diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections.
Full Text Available Canids are reservoir for some zoonoses helminthic disease. They are one of main public health problem. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of gastrointestinal helminthic infection of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeaster of Iran. In this descriptive study, 30 stray dogs were euthanized, intestine was removed by necropsy. Then, the intestines was opened by scalpel and their contents passed through mesh sieve. The helminth were collected. The nematodes were preserved in 70% ethanol with 5% glycerin and cestodes were preserved in 70% ethanol. The cestodes were stained by acetocarmine. The nematodes were cleared by lactophenol. The genus and species of helminth were identified by identification keys. Twenty two (73.3% of stray dogs had at least one intestinal helminthic infection. Recovered helminth from stray dogs include: Taenia hydatigena (53.3%, Taenia ovis (20%, Taenia multiceps (6.6%, Mesocestoides spp (10%, Toxocara canis (23.3%, Toxocara cati (3.3%. Data showed that the stray dogs in Zabol city harbor some important zoonoses helminth parasite like Toxocara.
Full Text Available Background: Malaria and intestinal helminths are parasitic diseases causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favor their prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible impact of falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Kajola, Osun state, Nigeria. Methods: Fresh stool and blood samples were collected from 117 primary school children age range 4-15 years. The stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood was collected by finger prick to determine malaria parasitemia using thick film method; and packed cell volume (PCV was determined by hematocrit. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, intestinal helminth infections, and co-infection of malaria and helminth in the study were 25.6%, 40.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Five species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were Ascaris lumbricoides (34.2%, hookworm (5.1%, Trichuris trichiura (2.6%, Diphyllobothrium latum (0.9% and Trichostrongylus species (0.9%. For the co-infection of both malaria and intestinal helminths, females (5.9% were more infected than males (2.0% but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3978. Children who were infected with helminths were equally likely to be infected with malaria as children without intestinal helminths [Risk Ratio (RR = 0.7295]. Children with A. lumbricoides (RR = 1.359 were also likely to be infected with P. falciparum as compared with uninfected children. Conclusions: Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminth infections do co-exist without clinical symp-toms in school children in Nigeria.
Sengupta, Mita E; Andersen, Thorbjørn J; Dalsgaard, Anders; Olsen, Annette; Thamsborg, Stig M
Helminth parasite eggs in low quality water represent main food safety and health hazards and are therefore important indicators used to determine whether such water can be used for irrigation. Through sedimentation helminth eggs accumulate in the sediment, however resuspension of deposited helminth eggs will lead to increased concentration of suspended eggs in the water. Our study aimed to determine the erodibility (erosion rate and erosion threshold) and settling velocity of Ascaris and Trichuris eggs as well as cohesive sediment at different time points after incorporation into the sediment. Cohesive sediment collected from a freshwater stream was used to prepare a sediment bed onto which helminth eggs were allowed to settle. The erodibility of both sediment and helminth eggs was found to decrease over time indicating that the eggs were incorporated into the surface material of the bed and that this material was stabilized through time. This interaction between eggs and bulk sediment was further manifested in an increased settling velocity of suspended eggs when sediment was present in the suspension as compared to a situation with settling in clean water. The incorporation into the sediment bed and the aggregation with sediment particles decrease the mobility of both helminth egg types. Our findings document that helminth eggs should not be viewed as single entities in water systems when modelling the distribution of eggs since both erodibility and settling velocity of eggs are determined by mobility of the sediment present in the water stream. Recalculation of the erosion threshold for helminth eggs and sediment showed that even at relatively low current velocities i.e. 0.07-0.12ms(-1) newly deposited eggs will be mobile in open irrigation channels. These environmental factors affecting resuspension must be taken into account when developing models for sedimentation of helminth eggs in different water systems. PMID:22591818
Hassouni, T; Belghyti, D
Gastrointestinal tracts of 300 chickens from three villages of the Gharb region, Morocco, were examined for adult helminths during 2002-2005. Helminth species found were: Notocotylus gallinarum (prevalence 0.7%), Hymenolepis carioca (3.7%), Raillietina echinobothrida (5.7%), Hymenolepis contaniana (7%), Raillietina tretragona (9.3%), Raillietina cesticillus (12%), Capillaria obsignata (6%), Subulura brumpti (15.3%), Heterakis gallinarum (10%), Cheilospirura hamulosa (2.7%), Dispharynx nasuta (5.3%), Ascaridia galli (9%), and Tetrameres sp. (3.3%). The prevalence and mean intensity of helminth infections did not differ significantly between male and female chickens. PMID:16541258
Unlü, Hakki; Eren, Hasan
Fecal specimens of a total of 200 dogs were examined by native, Fulleborn's floatation and Benedek's sedimentation methods to determine the prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in stray dogs in the Aydin Municipality Animal Shelter and the Kuşadasi Municipality Animal Shelter. Helminth infections were encountered in 82 (41%) of the fecal samples examined. One cestode egg and four nematode eggs were found in the infected fecal samples. The helminth eggs found were identified as follows: Taenia spp. (7.5%), Toxacara spp. (20%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Uncinaria stenocephala (21%) and Trichuris vulpis (1.5%). No trematode eggs and nematode larvae were found in this study. PMID:17471412
Wood, J. C.; Friedly, G; de la Maza, L M
The detection and identification of intestinal helminths were studied retrospectively by comparing the Formalin concentration technique with the trichrome-stained smear technique. A total of 3,997 stool samples from 1,570 patients were examined by both methods. Of the 3,997 samples, 31% (1,239 of 3,997) contained helminths or protozoans or both. A total of 11% (434 of 3,997) of the samples representing 14% (221 of 1,570) of the patients were positive for one or more helminth species. A total ...
Reynolds, Lisa A; Finlay, B Brett; Maizels, Rick M
Both intestinal helminth parasites and certain bacterial microbiota species have been credited with strong immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies reported that the presence of helminth infection alters the composition of the bacterial intestinal microbiota and, conversely, that the presence and composition of the bacterial microbiota affect helminth colonization and persistence within mammalian hosts. This article reviews recent findings on these reciprocal relationships, in both human populations and mouse models, at the level of potential mechanistic pathways and the implications these bear for immunomodulatory effects on allergic and autoimmune disorders. Understanding the multidirectional complex interactions among intestinal microbes, helminth parasites, and the host immune system allows for a more holistic approach when using probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and anthelmintics, as well as when designing treatments for autoimmune and allergic conditions. PMID:26477048
Helminth parasites ensure their survival by regulating host immunity through mechanisms that dampen inflammation. These properties have recently been exploited therapeutically to treat human diseases. The biocomplexity of the intestinal lumen suggests that interactions between the parasite and the i...
Hinojos, J G; Campbell, B K; Canaris, A G
Five species of cestodes and 1 species of trematode, for a total of 4,770 (chi- =79.5) helminths, were obtained from 60 American avocets, Recurvirostra americana, collected from July to September 1985 and 1986 in the Salt Lake basin, Utah. The most prevalent parasite was the cestode Diplophallus coili (95%). It occurred in mature pairs 90% of the time. All species of helminths showed a contagious distribution except for mature D. coili, which had a uniform distribution. This uniform distribution, which is unusual for species of helminths, has been observed for at least 4 species of large tapeworms in the recurvirostrids. The helminth community consisted of 3 specialists, 1 generalist, and 2 of uncertain status. The same specialists have been reported also in R. americana from Texas, Colorado, and Manitoba, Canada. PMID:8437049
Hamid, Firdaus; Amoah, Abena S; van Ree, Ronald; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria
The immune response against helminths and allergens is generally characterized by high levels of IgE and increased numbers of Th2 cells, eosinophils, and mast cells, yet the clinical outcome with respect to immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation is clearly not the same. High levels of IgE are seen to allergens during helminth infections; however, these IgE responses do not translate into allergy symptoms. This chapter summarizes the evidence of the association between helminth infections and allergic disorders. It discusses how helminth infection can lead to IgE cross-reactivity with allergens and how this IgE has poor biological activity. This information is important for developing new diagnostic methods and treatments for allergic disorders in low-to-middle-income countries. PMID:25553796
Freeman, Matthew C; Strunz, Eric; Utzinger, Jürg; Addiss, David G
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effectiveness of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to prevent soil-transmitted helminth infection.
Blair, Paul; Diemert, David
Intestinal helminth infections are some of world's most common tropical diseases and cause significant impairments in pediatric growth and cognitive impairment as well as maternal health, particularly in areas lacking adequate access to safe water or sanitation. Routine mass drug administration (MDA) of anthelminthic medications to children living in endemic areas and interventions to improve water hygiene and sanitation form the basis of current control efforts. We review recent evidence on the effectiveness of these approaches and outline the limitations of MDA, including poor cure rates against hookworm and Trichuris trichiura, rapid post-MDA reinfection, and inadequate coverage of at-risk populations. Ultimately, alternative tools and strategies, including new drugs, drug combinations, and vaccines, will be needed to control or ultimately eliminate these infections. PMID:25821189
Full Text Available Soil transmitted helminth (STH infection are endemic in developing countries. A study was carried out of sewage farms, streams and vegetables to determine the sources and routes of STH infection in Sanliurfa, Turkey. Stool samples from farmhouse inhabitants as well as soil and vegetable samples from the gardens were collected and examined. In addition, water samples from streams and vegetable samples from the city market were collected and examined. One hundred and eighty-seven (59.5% of a total of 314 samples, including 88.4% of the stool samples, 60.8% of the water samples, 84.4% of the soil samples and 14% of the vegetable samples, were found to be positive for STH eggs. These results indicate that the water, soil and vegetables are heavily contaminated, and suggest a vicious circle between humans and the environment. Improving environmental sanitation is imperative for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sanliurfa.
Zavoikin, V D; Tumolskaya, N I; Mazmanyan, M V; Zelya, O P; Tikhonova, D V
The paper gives the results of treatment with micronized albendazole (Gelmodol-BM, World Medicine, UK) in 87 patients of the Department of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Diseases, Clinical and Diagnostic Center, Clinical Center, I.M.Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University. Thirty-two patients with echinococcosis 8 with alveococcosis (including 4 inoperable patients), 10 with ascariasis, 10 with toxocariasis, 15 with enterobiasis, and 12 people diagnosed with larva migrans were treated in 2013-2014. The drug's routine doses and dosage regimens were used. Albendazole (Gelmodol, World Medicine, UK) showed a high efficacy with good tolerability, which is highly competitive with that of the drugs manufactured by IPCA Laboratories Ltd., India (such as nemozole). Both medicaments above-mentioned may be successfully used in the treatment of many helminthisms. PMID:26827590
Choudhury, A.; Dick, T.A.
Aim: Published information on the richness and diversity of helminth parasite communities in tropical freshwater fishes is reviewed in response to expectations of species-rich parasite communities in tropical regions. Location: Areas covered include the tropics and some subtropical areas. In addition, the north temperate area of the nearctic zone is included for comparison. Methods: Data from 159 communities in 118 species of tropical freshwater fish, summarized from 46 published studies, were used for this review. Parasite community descriptors used in the analyses included component community richness and calculated mean species richness. Data from 130 communities in 47 species of nearctic north temperate freshwater fish were summarized from 31 studies and used for comparison. Results: The component helminth communities of many tropical freshwater fish are species-poor, and considerable proportions of fish from certain parts of the tropics, e.g. West African drainages, are uninfected or lightly infected. Mean helminth species richness was low and equaled or exceeded 2.0 in only 22 of 114 communities. No single group of helminths was identified as a dominant component of the fauna and species composition was variable among and within broader geographical areas. The richest enteric helminth assemblages were found in mochokid and clariid catfish with a mixed carnivorous diet, whereas algal feeders, herbivores and detritivores generally had species-poor gut helminth communities. Comparisons indicated that certain areas in the north temperate region had higher helminth species richness in fishes than areas in the tropics. Main conclusions: Expectations of high species richness in helminth communities of tropical freshwater fishes are not fulfilled by the data. Direct comparisons of infracommunities and component communities in host species across widely separated phylogenetic and geographical lines are inappropriate. Examination of latitudinal differences in richness
Miguel M. Cabada
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections, anemia, and malnutrition among children in the Paucartambo province of Cusco region, Peru, in light of demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiologic contextual factors. Methods. Children from three to twelve years old from six communities in Huancarani district in the highlands of Peru were evaluated for helminth infections, anemia, and nutritional status. Data collected included demographic variables, socioeconomic status, exposures, complete blood counts, and direct and sedimentation stool tests. Results. Of 240 children analyzed, 113 (47% were infected with one or more parasites. Giardia (27.5% and Fasciola (9.6% were the most commonly identified organisms. Eosinophilia was encountered in 21% of the children. Anemia (48.8% was associated with age (3-4 vs 5-12 years old; odds ratio (OR: 5.86; 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.81-12.21. Underweight (10% was associated with male sex (OR: 5.97; CI: 1.12-31.72, higher eosinophil count (OR: 4.67; CI: 1.31-16.68 and education of the mother (OR: 0.6; CI: 0.4-0.9. Stunting (31.3% was associated with education of the mother (OR: 0.83; CI: 0.72-0.95; wasting (2.7% was associated with higher eosinophil count (OR: 2.75; CI: 1.04-7.25. Conclusions. Anemia and malnutrition remain significant problems in the Peruvian highlands. These findings suggest that demographic factors, socio-economic status, and possibly parasitic infections intertwine to cause these health problems.
William C Sorensen
Full Text Available Background: Soil transmitted helminths (STH remain a global public health concern in spite of occasional dosing campaigns. Aims: To determine baseline prevalence and intensity of STH infection in east Guatemalan school children, and describe the associated epidemiology of anemia, stunting, and wasting in this population. Setting and design: Ten schools in Izabal province (eastern Guatemala were identified, and 1,001 school children were selected for this study. Half of the schools were used as clinical testing sites (blood and stool. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measures were collected from all children. Over 300 children were tested for anemia and 229 for helminth infection. Ova and parasite specimens were examined via Direct, Kato Katz, and McMaster techniques. Hemoglobin was measured from venipuncture following the hemacue system. Statistical analysis: Correlation between infection intensities and growth indicators were examined. Chi Square or t tests were used for bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression was performed on significant variables from bivariate techniques. Results: Over two-thirds of school children were positive for infection by any STH. Prevalence of Hookworm was 30%; Ascaris, 52%; and Trichuris, 39%, most as low-intensity infection. Over half of the children were co-infected. In bivariate analysis, anemia was significantly associated with polyparasitism. Conclusions: For a Guatemalan child who experiences a unit decrease in hemoglobin, one expects to see a 24% increase in the odds of being infected with STH, controlling for age, sex, lake proximity, and growth characteristics. Infection with more than one STH, despite low intensity, led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin.
Full Text Available Infections with parasitic helminths (nematodes and trematodes represent a significant economic and welfare burden to the global ruminant livestock industry. The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistance means that current control programmes are costly and unsustainable in the long term. Recent changes in the epidemiology, seasonality and geographic distribution of helminth infections have been attributed to climate change. However, other changes in environment (e.g., land use and in livestock farming, such as intensification and altered management practices, will also have an impact on helminth infections. Sustainable control of helminth infections in a changing world requires detailed knowledge of these interactions. In particular, there is a need to devise new, sustainable strategies for the effective control of ruminant helminthoses in the face of global change. In this paper, we consider the impact of helminth infections in grazing ruminants, taking a European perspective, and identify scientific and applied priorities to mitigate these impacts. These include the development and deployment of efficient, high-throughput diagnostic tests to support targeted intervention, modelling of geographic and seasonal trends in infection, more thorough economic data and analysis of the impact of helminth infections and greater translation and involvement of end-users in devising and disseminating best practices. Complex changes in helminth epidemiology will require innovative solutions. By developing and using new technologies and models, the use of anthelmintics can be optimised to limit the development and spread of drug resistance and to reduce the overall economic impact of helminth infections. This will be essential to the continued productivity and profitability of livestock farming in Europe and its contribution to regional and global food security.
M. SHANTHALA; Hosetti, B. B.; REBECCA STOTT
Helminth ova removal rates from waste stabilization pond effluents under tropical conditions ofShimoga using both laboratory and field modal ponds was undertaken. The helminthes were removedto the tune of 100% from laboratory model batch system ponds within 15 days of detention timeand it was only 65% in case of laboratory model continuos flow system ponds. The observation infield model ponds revealed an average 90% removal with 10 days retention time. A 100% removalcan not be expected both i...
Bernabeu Adrian, A.; Geovanny Perez Ortiz, O.; Gomez Vera, D.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Amores Blasco, S.; Bernacer Bonora, I.; Esteban Sanchis, J. G.
The identification of helminth eggs in wastewater is essential for complying with microbiological water quality guidelines. Identification is based on morphological and morphometric criteria; in this sense, experience in parasitology is required, since identification is sometimes so complex that only a tentative diagnosis can be made. The present study details the criteria used for the taxonomic ascription of the helminth eggs detected in the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Alboraia (Valencia, Spain). (Author)
Bottomley, C.; Isham, V.; Basanez, M. G.
Despite evidence for the existence of interspecific interactions between helminth species, there has been no theoretical exploration of their effect on the distribution of the parasite species in a host population. We use a deterministic model for the accumulation and loss of adult worms of 2 interacting helminth species to motivate an individual-based stochastic model. The mean worm burden and variance: mean ratio (VMR) of each species, and the correlation between the two species are used to...
Kinung'hi, Safari M; Magnussen, Pascal; Kaatano, Godfrey M;
Malaria, schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) are important parasitic infections in Sub-Saharan Africa where a significant proportion of people are exposed to co-infections of more than one parasite. In Tanzania, these infections are a major public health problem...... particularly in school and pre-school children. The current study investigated malaria and helminth co-infections and anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania....
Rizvi, Anjum N.; Bhutia, Pasang T.
Helminth parasite fauna in anuran amphibia were investigated during the general faunistic surveys of Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary, situated in Haryana state. Three species of amphibian hosts were found to harbour 12 genera of helminth parasites. The prevalence, intensity and abundance were studied. Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis harboured maximum parasite species followed by Fejervarya limnocharis and Duttaphrynus melanostictus. In E. cyanophlyctis, among nematode parasites, the genus Camallanus was ...
Franssen, Frits; Nijsse, Rolf; Mulder, Jaap; Cremers, Herman J W M; Dam, Cecile; Takumi, Katsuhisa; van der Giessen, Joke
Background The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is host to a community of zoonotic and other helminth species. Tracking their community structure and dynamics over decades is one way to monitor the long term risk of parasitic infectious diseases relevant to public and veterinary health. Methods We identified 17 helminth species from 136 foxes by mucosal scraping, centrifugal sedimentation/flotation and the washing and sieving technique. We applied rarefaction analysis to our samples and compared the r...
Rinaldi, Laura; Pennacchio, Saverio; Musella, Vincenzo; Maurelli, Maria Paola; La Torre, Francesco; Cringoli, Giuseppe
Background Kennel dogs are at the high risk of infections with intestinal and extra-intestinal helminths. Therefore, regular parasitological surveillance, appropriate treatment strategies and high quality standard of hygiene are required to guarantee the health and welfare of kennel dogs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of helminth control in kennels using different broad-spectrum anthelmintics that are routinely used in canine veterinary practice. Particular attenti...
Davidson, Ross S.; Piran C L White; Glenn Marion; Naomi J Fox; Hutchings, Michael R.
Simple Summary Parasitic helminths represent one of the most pervasive challenges to livestock, and their intensity and distribution will be influenced by climate change. There is a need for long-term predictions to identify potential risks and highlight opportunities for control. We explore the approaches to modelling future helminth risk to livestock under climate change. One of the limitations to model creation is the lack of purpose driven data collection. We also conclude that models nee...
Robinson, Mark W.; Dalton, John P.
Zoonotic infections are among the most common on earth and are responsible for >60 per cent of all human infectious diseases. Some of the most important and well-known human zoonoses are caused by worm or helminth parasites, including species of nematodes (trichinellosis), cestodes (cysticercosis, echinococcosis) and trematodes (schistosomiasis). However, along with social, epidemiological and environmental changes, together with improvements in our ability to diagnose helminth infections, se...
Parasitic helminths have evolved together with the mammalian immune system over many millennia and as such they have become remarkably efficient modulators in order to promote their own survival. Their ability to alter and/or suppress immune responses could be beneficial to the host by helping control excessive inflammatory responses and animal models and pre-clinical trials have all suggested a beneficial effect of helminth infections on inflammatory bowel conditions, MS, asthma and atopy. T...
Goldberg, Stephen R; Bursey, Charles R
Two species of anurans from Colombia, South America, Atelopus spurrelli and Dendrobates histrionicus, were examined for helminths. A. spurrelli was found to harbor three species of Nematoda, adults of Cosmocerca podicipinus and larvae of Physocephalus sp. and Porrocaecum sp. D. histrionicus was found to harbor, in addition to C. podicipinus, Physocephalus sp. and Porrocaecum sp. and cystacanths of three species of Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchus sp., Onicola sp. and Polymorphus sp. A. spurrelli and D. histrionicus represent new host records for these helminths. PMID:14550481
Loxton, Karen C.; Colin Lawton; Peter Stafford; Celia V. Holland
Introduced species are often less parasitised compared to their native counterparts and to ecologically similar hosts in the new environment. Reduced parasitism may come about due to both the loss of original parasites and low acquisition of novel parasites. In this study we investigated the intestinal helminth parasites of the introduced bank vole (Myodes glareolus) in Ireland. Results were compared to data from other European studies and to the intestinal helminth fauna of an ecologically s...
Brooker, SJ; Pullan, RL; Gitonga, CW; Ashton, RA; Kolaczinski, JH; Kabatereine, NB; Snow, RW
Background. Plasmodium–helminth coinfection can have a number of consequences for infected hosts, yet our knowledge of the epidemiology of coinfection across multiple settings is limited. This study investigates the distribution and heterogeneity of coinfection with Plasmodium falciparum and 3 major helminth species across East Africa. Methods. Cross-sectional parasite surveys were conducted among 28 050 children in 299 schools across a range of environmental settings in Kenya, Uganda, and ...
Yildirimhan, Hikmet Sami
Twenty banded newts and 16 southern crested newts collected from Bursa on different dates from 1997-2006 were examined for helminths .As a result of the examination, 3 helminths (Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782), Megalobatrachonema terdentatum (Linstow 1890) and Oxysomatium brevicaudatum (Zeder 1800) were found on banded newts. One nematode (Oxysomatium brevicaudatum) was found on southern crested newts. This is the first helminthological study of Triturus spp. in Turkey and is a new detection of Megalobatrachonema terdentatum in Turkey. PMID:18645950
Soil-transmitted helminths are intestinal parasitic worms that isproportionally affect socio-economically deprived populations in tropical and subtropical countries living under poor hygienic conditions. The intestinal helminths are transmitted by the contamination of soil with human faeces containing the worms’ eggs and by subsequent accidental ingestion of the contaminated soil with food or hands, or by penetration of the worm larvae into the skin and body of humans. The global burden attri...
Tundup, Smanla; Srivastava, Leena; Norberg, Thomas; Watford, Wendy; Harn, Donald
The milk pentasaccharide LNFPIII has therapeutic action for metabolic and autoimmune diseases and prolongs transplant survival in mice when presented as a neoglycoconjugate. Within LNFPIII is the Lewis(x) trisaccharide, expressed by many helminth parasites. In humans, LNFPIII is found in human milk and also known as stage-specific embryonic antigen-1. LNFPIII-NGC drives alternative activation of macrophages and dendritic cells via NF kappa B activation in a TLR4 dependent mechanism. However, ...
Full Text Available Ethno botanical studies reveal that the indigenous knowledge of a community is a key player in the identification of medicinal plants and such plants have beenoften tested by generations of indigenous people. In the present investigation, the hydro-alcoholic extracts of leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neemand Swertia chirayta(Chirayta were assessed for anti-helminthic potential against helminths (earthworms were used as model at 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml. No anti-helminthic potential was observed at 10 mg/ml of dose of the hydro-alcoholic extracts of Swertia chirayta. The hydro-alcoholic extracts of both the plants showed significant anti-helminthicactivity on selected worms at higher doses. Hydro-alcoholic leaves extracts of Azadirachta indica (Neemwasfound to be more active as compared tohydro-alcoholic whole plant extracts of Swertia chirayta(Chirayta at concentration of 100 mg/ml. It was observed that with the variation in dose, the death time and paralysis time of the worms’ decreases. The results indicated that extracts possessed dose dependent anti-helminthic activity. The results were compared toPiperazine citrate and Albendazole (15 mg/ml. The hydro-alcoholic extracts demonstrated paralysis as well as death ofworms in a less time in comparison to the standard drugs. The anti-helminthic activity of the extracts indicates the presence of active principle responsible for anti-helminthic activity.
Dirceu Guilherme de Souza Ramos
Full Text Available Helminths cause respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in animals, especially in neonates and young animals. Some species of helminth parasites of domestic animals have zoonotic potential, becoming a public health problem, especially when combined with lack of information about the population of these zoonosis and lack of control over of their hosts. This study aimed to identify and quantify the species of helminths from dogs that are not domiciled in the region of Cuiabá, in the Midwest region of Brazil. A total of 100 animals, from the Center for Zoonosis Control of Cuiabá were euthanized and necropsied for helminth searching. Overall 8,217 helminths were found in 85 animals identified in six species: Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma. braziliense, Trichuris vulpis, Toxocara canis, Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum. It was evidenced the wide distribution of helminths pathogenic to domestic dogs and especially with zoonotic potential as A. caninum, T. canis, D. caninum and D. immitis. The presence of D. immitis is an important finding, since it is a potentially zoonotic agent, however, this finding is considered sporadic.
Berbudi, Afiat; Ajendra, Jesuthas; Wardani, Ajeng P F; Hoerauf, Achim; Hübner, Marc P
It is estimated that by the year 2035 almost 600 million people will suffer from diabetes. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the strongest increase of diabetes incidence occurs in developing and newly industrialized countries. This increase correlates not only with a progressing sedentary lifestyle and nutritional changes, but also environmental changes. Similarly, the increase of type 1 diabetes incidence in industrialized countries over the past decades cannot be explained by genetic factors alone, suggesting that environmental changes are also involved. One such environmental change is a reduced exposure to pathogens because of improved hygiene. Parasitic helminths modulate the immune system of their hosts and induce type 2 as well as regulatory immune responses. As pro-inflammatory immune responses are crucial for the onset of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, helminth-induced immunomodulation may prevent diabetes onset and ameliorate insulin sensitivity. Several epidemiological studies in human and experimental animal models support such a protective effect of helminths for autoimmune diabetes. Recent studies further suggest that helminths may also provide such a beneficial effect for type 2 diabetes. In this review we summarize studies that investigated parasitic helminths and helminth-derived products and their impact on both type 1 and type 2 diabetes highlighting potential protective mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26119261
Vhora, M Suhail; Bolek, Matthew G
Currently, little information is available about the temporal recruitment of helminth communities in amphibian hosts. We examined the helminth community structure and temporal recruitment of helminth parasites in southern leopard frogs, Rana sphenocephala. Specifically, we were interested in how host life history such as habitat, age and/or size, diet, sex, and temporal variation in abiotic factors (precipitation and temperature) were important in determining monthly infection patterns of helminth populations and communities in southern leopard frogs. From May to September 2011, 74 southern leopard frogs were collected from Teal Ridge in Stillwater Payne County, OK, USA. Sixty-nine (93 %) of 74 frogs were infected with 1 or more helminth species. During our collecting period, the average monthly temperature was lowest in May and highest in July, and monthly precipitation was highest in May and lowest during the first week of September. The component community consisted of 11 species of helminth, including 1 larval and 1 adult cestode, 2 larval and 3 adult trematodes, and 1 juvenile and 3 adult nematodes. Of the 1790 helminths recovered, 51 % (911) were nematodes, 47 % (842) were cestodes, and 2 % (37) were trematodes. There were significant differences in the total abundance and mean species richness of helminths acquired by skin contact or through frog diet in monthly component communities of southern leopard frogs. A positive correlation existed for percentage of all helminths acquired by skin contact and monthly precipitation (r = 0.94, P < 0.01). Conversely, a negative correlation existed for monthly precipitation and percentage of helminths acquired by diet (r = -0.94, P < 0.01). Our results indicate that abiotic conditions such as precipitation have a major influence on the avenues for and constraints on the transmission of helminths with life cycles associated with water/moisture or terrestrial intermediate/paratenic hosts and are important in structuring
Hübner, Marc P.; Shi, Yinghui; Torrero, Marina N.; Mueller, Ellen; Larson, David; Soloviova, Kateryna; Gondorf, Fabian; Hoerauf, Achim (Prof. Dr.); Killoran, Kristin E.; Stocker, J. Thomas; Davies, Stephen J; Tarbell, Kristin V; Mitre, Edward
Leading hypotheses to explain helminth-mediated protection against autoimmunity postulate that type 2 or regulatory immune responses induced by helminth infections in the host limit pathogenic Th1-driven autoimmune responses. We tested these hypotheses by investigating whether infection with the filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis prevents diabetes onset in IL-4-deficient nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice and whether depletion or absence of regulatory T cells, IL-10, or TGFβ alters helminth...
Ivan, Emil; Crowther, Nigel J.; Mutimura, Eugene; Osuwat, Lawrence Obado; Janssen, Saskia; Grobusch, Martin P
Background Within sub-Saharan Africa, helminth and malaria infections cause considerable morbidity in HIV-positive pregnant women and their offspring. Helminth infections are also associated with a higher risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and the protective and risk factors for helminth and malaria infections in pregnant HIV-positive Rwandan women receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Methodology and principle findings Pregn...
Emil Ivan; Nigel J Crowther; Eugene Mutimura; Lawrence Obado Osuwat; Saskia Janssen; Grobusch, Martin P.
BACKGROUND: Within sub-Saharan Africa, helminth and malaria infections cause considerable morbidity in HIV-positive pregnant women and their offspring. Helminth infections are also associated with a higher risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and the protective and risk factors for helminth and malaria infections in pregnant HIV-positive Rwandan women receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Pre...
H. Ziaee; E.Mobedi; Sh.Gholami; Sharif, M
SummaryBackground and purpose : Zoonotic helminth infection is one of the most important diseases in the north of Iran. This study was done on collected intestinal helminth parasites in dogs and jackals in the geographical areas of Sari in Mazandaran province of Iran.Materials and Methods : this study was done on 30 stray dogs and 45 stray jackals in the central parts of Sari in 1371-1372. After autopsy , samples were looked for the presence of intestinal helminthes. All of the helminthes col...
Utzinger, Jürg; Brattig, Norbert W; Leonardo, Lydia; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Bergquist, Robert
Global health has substantially improved over the past 20 years. In low- and middle-income countries, in particular, great strives have been made in the control of communicable diseases, including helminth infections. Nevertheless, the most marginalised communities still suffer from infectious diseases that are intimately connected with poverty and lack of access to essential commodities and services, such as clean water, improved sanitation and sufficient food. A two-pronged approach is thus necessary: (i) intensifying control in remaining high-endemicity areas and pockets of high transmission; and (ii) moving from morbidity control to interruption of disease transmission in low-endemicity areas with the goal of local elimination. The latter will require new tools and strategies, going hand-in-hand with strong partnerships and new strategic alliances. In this special issue of Acta Tropica, 35 articles are featured that, together, provide an up-to-date overview of the latest progress made in research, control and elimination of helminth infections in East and Southeast Asia. The first 12 articles expound tools and approaches for improved detection, surveillance and monitoring of helminth infections. Control and elimination approaches for the most important helminth infections are revisited in the next 20 articles. The three remaining articles are cross-cutting pieces examining the interface of agriculture, environment and helminth infections and providing a rationale for integrated, multi-sectorial control approaches that are necessary for sustaining helminthiasis control and progressively moving towards elimination. An interesting aspect revealed through an in-depth analysis of the provenance of the 35 contributions is that the People's Republic of China emerges as a key player in global health, which is documented through its prominent role in research and control of helminth infection and networking throughout Asia. Policy implications are discussed and will
Jiménez, B; Maya, C; Velásquez, G; Torner, F; Arambula, F; Barrios, J A; Velasco, M
A system was developed to identify and quantify up to seven species of helminth eggs (Ascaris lumbricoides -fertile and unfertile eggs-, Trichuris trichiura, Toxocara canis, Taenia saginata, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta, and Schistosoma mansoni) in wastewater using different image processing tools and pattern recognition algorithms. The system was developed in three stages. Version one was used to explore the viability of the concept of identifying helminth eggs through an image processing system, while versions 2 and 3 were used to improve its efficiency. The system development was based on the analysis of different properties of helminth eggs in order to discriminate them from other objects in samples processed using the conventional United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) technique to quantify helminth eggs. The system was tested, in its three stages, considering two parameters: specificity (capacity to discriminate between species of helminth eggs and other objects) and sensitivity (capacity to correctly classify and identify the different species of helminth eggs). The final version showed a specificity of 99% while the sensitivity varied between 80 and 90%, depending on the total suspended solids content of the wastewater samples. To achieve such values in samples with total suspended solids (TSS) above 150 mg/L, it is recommended to dilute the concentrated sediment just before taking the images under the microscope. The system allows the helminth eggs most commonly found in wastewater to be reliably and uniformly detected and quantified. In addition, it provides the total number of eggs as well as the individual number by species, and for Ascaris lumbricoides it differentiates whether or not the egg is fertile. The system only requires basically trained technicians to prepare the samples, as for visual identification there is no need for highly trained personnel. The time required to analyze each image is less than a minute. This
Peter C Cook
Full Text Available Infection of the mammalian host by schistosome larvae occurs via the skin, although nothing is known about the development of immune responses to multiple exposures of schistosome larvae, and/or their excretory/secretory (E/S products. Here, we show that multiple (4x exposures, prior to the onset of egg laying by adult worms, modulate the skin immune response and induce CD4(+ cell hypo-responsiveness in the draining lymph node, and even modulate the formation of hepatic egg-induced granulomas. Compared to mice exposed to a single infection (1x, dermal cells from multiply infected mice (4x, were less able to support lymph node cell proliferation. Analysis of dermal cells showed that the most abundant in 4x mice were eosinophils (F4/80(+MHC-II(-, but they did not impact the ability of antigen presenting cells (APC to support lymphocyte proliferation to parasite antigen in vitro. However, two other cell populations from the dermal site of infection appear to have a critical role. The first comprises arginase-1(+, Ym-1(+ alternatively activated macrophage-like cells, and the second are functionally compromised MHC-II(hi cells. Through the administration of exogenous IL-12 to multiply infected mice, we show that these suppressive myeloid cell phenotypes form as a consequence of events in the skin, most notably an enrichment of IL-4 and IL-13, likely resulting from an influx of RELMα-expressing eosinophils. We further illustrate that the development of these suppressive dermal cells is dependent upon IL-4Rα signalling. The development of immune hypo-responsiveness to schistosome larvae and their effect on the subsequent response to the immunopathogenic egg is important in appreciating how immune responses to helminth infections are modulated by repeated exposure to the infective early stages of development.
S. Mukaratirwa; M.P. Khumalo
A total of 79 chickens were randomly collected from 4 rural localities and processed to detect the presence of helminth parasites and their prevalences. Sixteen helminth species comprising 12 nematode and 4 cestode species were recorded from the 4 localities. Syngamus trachea and Cyathostoma spp. were the only helminth species recovered from the respiratory tract and the rest of the helminth species were from the gastrointestinal tract. The most prevalent nematode species across the 4 localit...
Coomes, Stephanie M.; Pelly, Victoria S.; Kannan, Yashaswini; Okoye, Isobel S.; Czieso, Stephanie; Entwistle, Lewis J.; Perez-Lloret, Jimena; Nikolov, Nikolay; Potocnik, Alexandre J.; Biró, Judit; Langhorne, Jean; Wilson, Mark S.
Parasitic helminths establish chronic infections in mammalian hosts. Helminth/Plasmodium co-infections occur frequently in endemic areas. However, it is unclear whether Plasmodium infections compromise anti-helminth immunity, contributing to the chronicity of infection. Immunity to Plasmodium or helminths requires divergent CD4+ T cell-driven responses, dominated by IFNγ or IL-4, respectively. Recent literature has indicated that Th cells, including Th2 cells, have phenotypic plasticity with ...
Janssen, Saskia; Hermans, Sabine; Knap, Martijn; Moekotte, Alma; Rossatanga, Elie G.; Adegnika, Akim A.; Bélard, Sabine; Hänscheid, Thomas; Grobusch, Martin P
Background Foci of the HIV epidemic and helminthic infections largely overlap geographically. Treatment options for helminth infections are limited, and there is a paucity of drug-development research in this area. Limited evidence suggests that antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces prevalence of helminth infections in HIV-infected individuals. We investigated whether ART exposure and cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CTX-P) is associated with a reduced prevalence of helminth infections. Metho...
Shah, Humaira Bashir; Yousuf, A R; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, Fayaz
This paper deals largely with the dynamics and changes in the helminth parasite communities of fish along the trophic gradient of lakes. The use of parasitological community data as a bioindicator of environmental health underlines the need to study parasite communities at comparable localities with known pollution levels. The comparison of the conditions in different habitats might be helpful to differentiate between normal fluctuations in ambient conditions and pollution-mediated effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the community structure of parasites in snow trout (Schizothorax niger Heckel) inhabiting 3 lakes of contrasting trophic status in Kashmir. The idea of selecting the lakes, namely Anchar (strongly hypereutrophic), Dal (eutrophic) and Manasbal (mesotrophic) for this study was intentional as they depict different trophic gradients and exhibit the desirable pattern which was a prerequisite for this study. The findings presented in this article suggest an apparent lake-wise gradient in community structure, as the increase in trematode and cestode infections in Anchar was markedly greater, to levels clearly distinguishable from those in the other two water bodies. We conclude that human-induced eutrophication of lakes modifies the parasite community at component level and community-level studies on parasites may provide information on health status of lakes. PMID:23127258
Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI parasites in Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Approximately, 10 g of feces was collected from recently voided feces in airtight fecal collection vials (HiMedia, India. Fecal samples were subjected to the direct method and centrifuge flotation method for finding out parasitic ova. The ova were identified on the basis of morphological characters described by Soulsby, 1982. Result: A total of 78 fecal samples were collected. Of 78, 44 (56.41% samples were found positive. Most of the positive fecal sample showed mixed infection of different helminths parasites egg. Fasciola spp. and Amphistome spp. were the two predominant parasites among the flukes. In nematodes infection, Toxocara vitulorum was the least prevalent GI nematodes. In the case of cestodes Moniezia expansa was little higher (14% in semi-intensive. Conclusion: The present study reveals that Mithun is infected by several GI parasites. Among trematodes, Fasciola, and Amphistomes are predominantly spp. whereas, Strongyle and Trichuris are more prevalent spp. among nematodes and Moniezia among cestodes parasites.
Kingthom Chung; Stevens, S.E. Jr. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Dept. of Biology)
The degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms, fungi, and helminths is reviewed. Azo dyes are used in a wide variety of products and can be found in the effluent of most sewage treatment facilities. Substantial quantities of these dyes have been deposited in the environment, particularly in streams and rivers. Azo dyes were shown to affect microbial activities and microbial population sizes in the sediments and in the water columns of aquatic habitats. Only a few aerobic bacteria have been found to reduce azo dyes under aerobic conditions, and little is known about the process. A substantial number of anaerobic bacteria capable of azo dye reduction have been reported. The enzyme responsible for azo dye reduction has been partially purified, and characterization of the enzyme is proceeding. The nematode Ascaris lumbricoides and the cestode Moniezia expanza have been reported to reduce azo dyes anaerobically. Recently the fungus Phanerochaete chrysoporium was reported to mineralize azo dyes via a peroxidation-mediated pathway. A possible degradation pathway for the mineralization of azo dye is proposed and future research needs are discussed.
Full Text Available Khuzestan province in the south west of Iran having several seasonal and permanent lagoons which are shelter for domestic and migratory birds including, fish-eating birds. This research study was carried out to find the intestinal helminth parasites of birds in this ecosystem and evaluation of their medically importance with emphasis on heterophyid trematodes. For these reasons, the total of 37 birds including; Himantopus himantopus, Fulica atra, Egretta grazetta, Bubulcus ibis, Ceryle rudis, Vanellus indicus, Vanellus vanellus, Charadrius sp. Calidris sp. and Saher (Local name were hunted and transported to Ahwaz Health Research Center as alive or freshly dead after having been shot. Helminthes collected as alive or dead and fixed in ethanol or formaldehyde. Parasites were identified using morphometric measurements and morphological descriptions. 24 species of intestinal helminth parasites were found as follow: trematodes (Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchis pumilio, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Centrocestus formosanus. Psiloterma marki, Echinostoma revolutum, Parechinostomum cinctum, Echinochasmus coaxatus, Paramonostomum alveatum, Uvitellina pseudocotylea, Cyclocoelum mutabile, Apharyngostrigea cornu, Cardiocephallus brandesi, Cotylurus cornutus, Pseudostrigea buteonis and nematodes (Amidostomum fuligulae, Cosmocephalus diesingii, Microtetrameres accipiter, Strongyloides minimus and cestodes (Gyrocoelia perversa, Infula burhini, Dirorchis tringae, Echinocotyle nitida, Spiniglans microsoma. These results have suggested that, the birds are reservoir for helminth parasitic diseases such as heterophyiasis for man and animals in the areas. These helminthes are reported for the first time in the region.
Okoro, C K; Wilson, B S; Lorenzo-Morales, J; Robinson, R D
An investigation into the potential for transmission of gastrointestinal helminths from wild hogs to livestock and humans was prompted by concerns of recreational wild-hog hunting in the Caribbean region and the recent practice, by livestock farmers in Jamaica, of co-rearing wild and domesticated swine. Thirty-one wild hogs from the Hellshire Hills, a dry limestone forest in southern Jamaica, were necropsied during the period June 2004 to August 2006. Thirteen of the captured animals were male and 18 female. Four species of adult helminths were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of the wild hogs: Hyostrongylus rubidus (77%), Globocephalus urosubulatus (48%), Oesophagostomum dentatum (42%) and Macroacanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (77%). Two (6.2%), ten (32.2%) and 18 (58.0%) hogs harboured one, two and three species of helminths, respectively. Mean infection intensities varied from 8.1 for M. hirudinaceus, to 115.5 for O. dentatum. There was no association between any of the recovered helminths and sex of the host; however, a multivariate analysis indicated a positive association between the prevalence of G. urosubulatus and host age (odds ratio (OR) = 6.517). Domesticated hogs co-reared with wild hogs are potentially at risk of infection with all four helminths, while wild-hog hunters and pig farmers may be exposed to M. hirudinaceus. PMID:26821705
Full Text Available Helminth ova removal rates from waste stabilization pond effluents under tropical conditions ofShimoga using both laboratory and field modal ponds was undertaken. The helminthes were removedto the tune of 100% from laboratory model batch system ponds within 15 days of detention timeand it was only 65% in case of laboratory model continuos flow system ponds. The observation infield model ponds revealed an average 90% removal with 10 days retention time. A 100% removalcan not be expected both in continuous flow system laboratory model and field pond systems asthese receive daily fresh load of helminth eggs through influent sewage. The helminth ova are usallyremoved from waste stabilization ponds systems through sedimentation process. It is because thehelminth eggs attached to the suspended solids and when these solids settle to the bottom, the eggsare also removed from pelagic water. In the present study eggs of 4 helminth species viz. Ascarislumbricoides, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana and Enterobius vermicularis wereencountered. Their rate of ova removal in batch system ponds was 99%, 97.4%, 94.9% and 98.8%for respective species. Presence of these ova in the sewage water indicates the prevalence of infectionin city population.
Alamneh Abera; Endalkachew Nibret
Objective:To determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes and associated risk factors among schoolchildren inTilili town, northwestEthiopia.Methods:A cross-sectional study involving385 schoolchildren was conducted betweenNovember2011 toFebruary2012.Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method.Questionnaire and observation were used to identify socio-demographic and associated risk factors.Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration technique.Data were analyzed usingSPSS16.0 statistical software.Results:Four species of intestinal helminthes were identified with an overall prevalence of44.2%(170 of385 schoolchildren).The predominant parasites wereAscaris lumbricoides(A. lumbricoides)153(39.7%) andTrichuris trichiura(T. trichiura)30(7.8%).One hundred thirty five(35.1%) had single infectionsand35(9.2%) were infected with more than one helminthic parasites in which32(8.4%) were double infections and3(0.8%) were triple infections. Significant associations were observed between intestinal helminth infection and those of age, grade level, and school variables.Prevalence of hookworm infection was significant in children who did not wear shoes regularly(P<0.05).Conclusions: intervention programs and education on personal and environmental hygiene should be implemented for the prevention and control of helminthic infections in the study area.
Soo Ching Lee
Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths colonize more than 1.5 billion people worldwide, yet little is known about how they interact with bacterial communities in the gut microbiota. Differences in the gut microbiota between individuals living in developed and developing countries may be partly due to the presence of helminths, since they predominantly infect individuals from developing countries, such as the indigenous communities in Malaysia we examine in this work. We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities from the fecal microbiota of 51 people from two villages in Malaysia, of which 36 (70.6% were infected by helminths. The 16S rRNA V4 region was sequenced at an average of nineteen thousand sequences per samples. Helminth-colonized individuals had greater species richness and number of observed OTUs with enrichment of Paraprevotellaceae, especially with Trichuris infection. We developed a new approach of combining centered log-ratio (clr transformation for OTU relative abundances with sparse Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (sPLS-DA to enable more robust predictions of OTU interrelationships. These results suggest that helminths may have an impact on the diversity, bacterial community structure and function of the gut microbiota.
Emamapour, Seyed Rasoul; Borji, Hassan; Nagibi, Abolghasem
This research was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in stray dogs in the northeast of Iran, with special attention to those parasites that can be transmitted to human. In this experiment, a total of 72 adult and 18 juvenile stray dogs were collected and necropsied for the presence of helminth parasites from October 2011 to August 2012. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths was 86 % (95 % CI: 79.2-92.8 %). The observed helminths of the gastrointestinal tract were listed as follows: Toxocara canis (29 %), Toxascaris leonina (7 %), Ancylostoma caninum (2 %), Taenia hydatigena (43 %), Dipylidium caninum (39 %), Echinococcus granulosus (38 %), Mesocestoides lineatus (16 %), Taenia multiceps (11 %), Taenia ovis (3 %). There were no significant differences for the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths between female (83.6 %) and male (89.7 %) and between young (89 %) and adult (72.2 %) animals. However, the prevalence of E. granulosus, T. hydatigena and D. caninum showed an increasing trend with increasing host age, significantly. Based on our data, it is important to point out the presence of zoonotic agents, namely E. granulosus and T. canis in stray dogs in the investigated area. Due to its impact on public health, appropriate control measures should be taken and it is recommended to determine the most appropriate preventive methods. PMID:26064015
Mario M Zaiss
Full Text Available Approximately 2 billion people currently suffer from intestinal helminth infections, which are typically chronic in nature and result in growth retardation, vitamin A deficiency, anemia and poor cognitive function. Such chronicity results from co-evolution between helminths and their mammalian hosts; however, the molecular mechanisms by which these organisms avert immune rejection are not clear. We have found that the natural murine helminth, Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hp elicits the secretion of IL-1β in vivo and in vitro and that this cytokine is critical for shaping a mucosal environment suited to helminth chronicity. Indeed in mice deficient for IL-1β (IL-1β(-/-, or treated with the soluble IL-1βR antagonist, Anakinra, helminth infection results in enhanced type 2 immunity and accelerated parasite expulsion. IL-1β acts to decrease production of IL-25 and IL-33 at early time points following infection and parasite rejection was determined to require IL-25. Taken together, these data indicate that Hp promotes the release of host-derived IL-1β that suppresses the release of innate cytokines, resulting in suboptimal type 2 immunity and allowing pathogen chronicity.
Paredes-Calderón, Laura; León-Règagnon, Virginia; García-Prieto, Luis
A total of 76 adult individuals of Rana vaillanti were collected in Laguna Escondida, Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico, and their helminth infracommunity structure was determined. Among the 21 helminth taxa collected (10 digeneans, 8 nematodes, and 3 acanthocephalans), the digenean Langeronia macrocirra reached the highest prevalence (64.4%), mean abundance (6.6), and mean intensity (10.4), as well as the highest total number of individuals (499). Only 2 frogs were uninfected, the remainder harbored between 1 and 7 helminth species and 1-102 individuals; mean species richness and abundance were 3.49 +/- 0.22 and 16.1 +/- 16.3, respectively. Langeronia macrocirra dominated in 50.6% of the infracommunities, with relatively low Berger-Parker index values (0.56); for this reason, the evenness was high (0.70 +/- 0.31), and consequently, diversity values are the highest recorded to date in species of Rana. However, patterns of helminth infracommunity richness and diversity were similar to those previously observed in amphibians. This structure is attributed to the feeding habits (between 66.7 and 81% of helminth species parasitizing R. vaillanti enter using the food web dynamics) and low vagility (the remainder species infect by host penetration). PMID:15357055
McKenney, Erin A; Williamson, Lauren; Yoder, Anne D; Rawls, John F; Bilbo, Staci D; Parker, William
The microbiome is now widely recognized as being important in health and disease, and makes up a substantial subset of the biome within the ecosystem of the vertebrate body. At the same time, multicellular, eukaryotic organisms such as helminths are being recognized as an important component of the biome that shaped the evolution of our genes. The absence of these macroscopic organisms during the early development and life of humans in Western culture probably leads to a wide range of human immunological diseases. However, the interaction between the microbiome and macroscopic components of the biome remains poorly characterized. In this study, the microbiome of the cecum in rats colonized for 2 generations with the small intestinal helminth Hymenolepis diminuta was evaluated. The introduction of this benign helminth, which is of considerable therapeutic interest, led to several changes in the cecal microbiome. Most of the changes were within the Firmicutes phylum, involved about 20% of the total bacteria, and generally entailed a shift from Bacilli to Clostridia species in the presence of the helminth. The results point toward ecological relationships between various components of the biome, with the observed shifts in the microbiome suggesting potential mechanisms by which this helminth might exert therapeutic effects. PMID:25942385
Bogoch, Isaac I; Andrews, Jason R; Speich, Benjamin; Utzinger, Jürg; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Keiser, Jennifer
We created a mobile phone microscope and assessed its accuracy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths compared with conventional microscopy. Mobile phone microscopy has a sensitivity of 69.4% for detecting any helminth egg and sensitivities of 81.0%, 54.4%, and 14.3% for the diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm respectively. PMID:23478580
Bogoch, Isaac I.; Andrews, Jason R.; Speich, Benjamin; Utzinger, Jürg; Ame, Shaali M.; Ali, Said M.; Keiser, Jennifer
We created a mobile phone microscope and assessed its accuracy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths compared with conventional microscopy. Mobile phone microscopy has a sensitivity of 69.4% for detecting any helminth egg and sensitivities of 81.0%, 54.4%, and 14.3% for the diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm respectively. PMID:23478580
Helminths induce potent Th2-type immune responses that can lead to worm expulsion, but it remains undetermined whether components of this response can enhance the wound healing responses elicited as these large multi-cellular parasites traffic thru vital tissues. We used a model of helminth infecti...
Williamson, Lauren L; McKenney, Erin A; Holzknecht, Zoie E; Belliveau, Christine; Rawls, John F; Poulton, Susan; Parker, William; Bilbo, Staci D
The incidence of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases has risen dramatically in post-industrial societies. "Biome depletion" - loss of commensal microbial and multicellular organisms such as helminths (intestinal worms) that profoundly modulate the immune system - may contribute to these increases. Hyperimmune-associated disorders also affect the brain, especially neurodevelopment, and increasing evidence links early-life infection to cognitive and neurodevelopmental disorders. We have demonstrated previously that rats infected with bacteria as newborns display life-long vulnerabilities to cognitive dysfunction, a vulnerability that is specifically linked to long-term hypersensitivity of microglial cell function, the resident immune cells of the brain. Here, we demonstrate that helminth colonization of pregnant dams attenuated the exaggerated brain cytokine response of their offspring to bacterial infection, and that combined with post-weaning colonization of offspring with helminths (consistent with their mothers treatment) completely prevented enduring microglial sensitization and cognitive dysfunction in adulthood. Importantly, helminths had no overt impact on adaptive immune cell subsets, whereas exaggerated innate inflammatory responses in splenic macrophages were prevented. Finally, helminths altered the effect of neonatal infection on the gut microbiome; neonatal infection with Escherichia coli caused a shift from genera within the Actinobacteria and Tenericutes phyla to genera in the Bacteroidetes phylum in rats not colonized with helminths, but helminths attenuated this effect. In sum, these data point toward an inter-relatedness of various components of the biome, and suggest potential mechanisms by which this helminth might exert therapeutic benefits in the treatment of neuroinflammatory and cognitive disorders. PMID:26162711
Abate, Ebba; Belayneh, Meseret; Gelaw, Aschalew;
Areas endemic of helminth infection, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV are to a large extent overlapping. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of asymptomatic helminth infection on the immunological response among TB patients with and without HIV, their house hold contacts and community controls....
Mickum, Megan L; Prasanphanich, Nina Salinger; Song, Xuezheng; Dorabawila, Nelum; Mandalasi, Msano; Lasanajak, Yi; Luyai, Anthony; Secor, W Evan; Wilkins, Patricia P; Van Die, Irma; Smith, David F; Nyame, A Kwame; Cummings, Richard D; Rivera-Marrero, Carlos A
Infection of mammals by the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni induces antibodies to glycan antigens in worms and eggs, but the differential nature of the immune response among infected mammals is poorly understood. To better define these responses, we used a shotgun glycomics approach in which N-glycans from schistosome egg glycoproteins were prepared, derivatized, separated, and used to generate an egg shotgun glycan microarray. This array was interrogated with sera from infected mice, rhesus monkeys, and humans and with glycan-binding proteins and antibodies to gather information about the structures of antigenic glycans, which also were analyzed by mass spectrometry. A major glycan antigen targeted by IgG from different infected species is the FLDNF epitope [Fucα3GalNAcβ4(Fucα3)GlcNAc-R], which is also recognized by the IgG monoclonal antibody F2D2. The FLDNF antigen is expressed by all life stages of the parasite in mammalian hosts, and F2D2 can kill schistosomula in vitro in a complement-dependent manner. Different antisera also recognized other glycan determinants, including core β-xylose and highly fucosylated glycans. Thus, the natural shotgun glycan microarray of schistosome eggs is useful in identifying antigenic glycans and in developing new anti-glycan reagents that may have diagnostic applications and contribute to developing new vaccines against schistosomiasis. PMID:26883596
Loxton, Karen C; Lawton, Colin; Stafford, Peter; Holland, Celia V
Introduced species are often less parasitised compared to their native counterparts and to ecologically similar hosts in the new environment. Reduced parasitism may come about due to both the loss of original parasites and low acquisition of novel parasites. In this study we investigated the intestinal helminth parasites of the introduced bank vole (Myodes glareolus) in Ireland. Results were compared to data from other European studies and to the intestinal helminth fauna of an ecologically similar native rodent in Ireland, the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). The helminth fauna of introduced bank voles exhibited low diversity with only 3 species recovered: Aspiculuris tianjinensis; Aonchotheca murissylvatici and Taenia martis larvae. In particular, no adult parasites with indirect life-cycles were found in bank voles suggesting that indirectly transmitted parasites are less likely to establish in invasive hosts. Also, the results of this study add support to the enemy release hypothesis. PMID:27408800
Kurt, M; Acici, M
A cross-sectional survey was performed to determine the prevalence and intensity of helminth infections in 185 chickens from nine districts in the Samsun region, northern Turkey between July 1999 and June 2000. In total, 88% of 83 scavenging chickens and 4% of 52 layers from laying batteries were infected, but none of the 50 broilers harboured helminths in the alimentary tract or trachea. The difference in prevalence was statistically significant among broilers, layers from laying batteries and scavenging chickens. A total of 16 different species were detected. The helminth species found were: Davainea proglottina (23%), Raillietina echinobothrida (13%), Raillietina cesticillus (12%), Hymenolepis carioca (10%), Raillietina tetragona (6%), Choanotaenia. infundibulum (2%), Amoebotaenia cuneata (2%), Echinoparyhium recurvatum (1%), Echinostoma revolutum (1%), Heterakis gallinarum (29%), Ascaridia galli (16%), Capillaria caudinflata (12%), Capillaria retusa (6%), Capillaria bursata (4%), Capillaria annulata (1%) and Syngamus trachea (2%). PMID:18605376
Steenhard, N.R.; Roepstorff, A.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Boes, J.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Aasted, B.; Ornbjerg, N.
Concomitant infections with helminths and bacteria may affect the course and the resulting disease outcome of the individual infections. Salmonella, Oesophagostomum, Trichuris and Ascaris coexist naturally in pig herds in Denmark, and possible interactions were studied. Pigs in one experiment were...... was not demonstrated in either experiment. The helminth effect on the pigs was modest and may explain the lack of influence on the Salmonella infection. A previous experiment with a larger Oesophagostomum infection level resulted in enhancement of the S. Typhimurium infection. A dose dependency of the...... interaction is therefore suggested. However, the relatively high worm burdens in the present study suggest that infection with these common pig helminths does generally not influence the course of concurrent S. Typhimurium infections under natural conditions....
Full Text Available The objective of the current research project was to document the prevalent helminths of dairy animals of Nestle milk collection areas of Punjab (Pakistan. For this purpose, seven high milk-producing areas of Punjab province including Farooqa, Kot Adu, Dunya Pur, Layyah, Mor Mandi, Shorkot and Jalapur were selected. The animals were randomly selected and screened for parasitic eggs through standard coprological examination procedures. The helminth species found prevalent in the study areas included; Ascaris vitulorum, Fasciola hepatica, Haemonchus contortus, Bunostomum phlebotomum, Ostertagia circumcinta, Oesophagostomum radiatum, and Trichostrongylus spp. The possible determinants associated with the prevalence of these parasites were also studied in this project. The results of this study provided a basic epidemiological data for planning a wide scaled helminth control program in the above-mentioned high producing areas of Pakistan.
Moraga, P; Kinsella, J M; Sepúlveda, M S
Very little is known about parasitic diseases of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). The objective of this study was to examine the parasitic fauna of eastern box turtles collected from southern Indiana, USA. Turtles (n = 40) were salvaged mostly as road kills from southern Indiana between May and October 2009. Seven species of helminths in total were found parasitizing the gastrointestinal tract, including two digenean trematodes (Brachycoelium salamandrae and Telorchis robustus) and five nematodes (Oswaldocruzia pipiens, Cosmocercoides dukae, Falcaustra affinis, F. chelydrae and Serpinema trispinosus). We report prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of infection for all helminths. Helminths were not found in any other organs examined (heart, gonads, liver, heart, kidney and urinary bladder) and no ectoparasites were found. Overall, mean intensity of infections was low (1-14 parasites/host), suggesting that these parasites are unlikely to be associated with negative health impacts. This constitutes the first study of this kind for Indiana. PMID:21294936
Rosewell, Alexander; Robleto, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Barragne-Bigot, Philippe; Amador, Juan José; Aldighieri, Sylvain
The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis is close to half the population in Central America, with the marginalized peri-urban poor disproportionately affected. Previous single province helminth surveys conducted in Nicaragua have shown Ascaris lumbricoides to be the predominant species. In 2005, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 880 children in 10 Nicaraguan primary schools located in four provinces. We aimed to establish the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and to investigate the factors associated with helminthiasis. Almost half (46%) of the children were infected with soil-transmitted helminths. Tichuris trichiura was the most common infective species (34.7%). The prevalence and intensity of helminthiasis was heterogeneous in the provinces, with children educated in peri-urban schools most affected. Healthy policies are required that favour the peri-urban poor who have inadequate and declining access to water and sanitation. PMID:20555043
Full Text Available A disproportionate burden of helminthiases in human populations occurs in marginalised, low-income, and resource-constrained regions of the world, with over 1 billion people in developing areas of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas infected with one or more helminth species. The morbidity caused by such infections imposes a substantial burden of disease, contributing to a vicious circle of infection, poverty, decreased productivity, and inadequate socioeconomic development. Furthermore, helminth infection accentuates the morbidity of malaria and HIV/AIDS, and impairs vaccine efficacy. Polyparasitism is the norm in these populations, and infections tend to be persistent. Hence, there is a great need to reduce morbidity caused by helminth infections. However, major deficiencies exist in diagnostics and interventions, including vector control, drugs, and vaccines. Overcoming these deficiencies is hampered by major gaps in knowledge of helminth biology and transmission dynamics, platforms from which to help develop such tools. The Disease Reference Group on Helminths Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. In this review, we provide an overview of the forces driving the persistence of helminthiases as a public health problem despite the many control initiatives that have been put in place; identify the main obstacles that impede progress towards their control and elimination; and discuss recent advances, opportunities, and challenges for the understanding of the biology, epidemiology, and control of these infections. The helminth infections that will be discussed include: onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis/cysticercosis.
Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Odermatt, Peter; Biedermann, Patricia; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Muth, Sinuon; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope
Soil-transmitted helminth infections are intimately connected with poverty. Yet, there is a paucity of using socioeconomic proxies in spatially explicit risk profiling. We compiled household-level socioeconomic data pertaining to sanitation, drinking-water, education and nutrition from readily available Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and World Health Surveys for Cambodia and aggregated the data at village level. We conducted a systematic review to identify parasitological surveys and made every effort possible to extract, georeference and upload the data in the open source Global Neglected Tropical Diseases database. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed to spatially align the village-aggregated socioeconomic predictors with the soil-transmitted helminth infection data. The risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection was predicted at a grid of 1×1km covering Cambodia. Additionally, two separate individual-level spatial analyses were carried out, for Takeo and Preah Vihear provinces, to assess and quantify the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and socioeconomic indicators at an individual level. Overall, we obtained socioeconomic proxies from 1624 locations across the country. Surveys focussing on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from 16 sources reporting data from 238 unique locations. We found that the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection from 2000 onwards was considerably lower than in surveys conducted earlier. Population-adjusted prevalences for school-aged children from 2000 onwards were 28.7% for hookworm, 1.5% for Ascaris lumbricoides and 0.9% for Trichuris trichiura. Surprisingly, at the country-wide analyses, we did not find any significant association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and village-aggregated socioeconomic proxies. Based also on the individual-level analyses we conclude that socioeconomic proxies might not be good predictors at an
L.W. Irungu; R.N. Kimani; S.M. Kisia
A study was carried out on 456 indigenous poultry intestinal specimens from various towns in Kenya to determine the occurrence and distribution of helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of the birds. Of the specimens examined, 414 had parasites whereas the remaining 42 had none, which is an infection rate of 90.78 %. The main species of helminths found in the intestines were Raillietina sp. (47.53 %), Heterakis gallinarum (21.33 %), Ascaridia galli (10.03 %), Strongyloides avium (9.96 %),...
Goldberg, S.R.; Bursey, C.R.; Fisher, R.N.
As part of an ongoing study of the biogeography of helminth parasites of lizards from Oceania, 53 specimens of Emoia (11 species) were examined, as follows: E. atrocostata, E. boettgeri, E. caerulocauda, E. cyanogaster, E. cyanura, E. impar, E. nigra, E. nigromarginata, E. ponapea, E. sanfordi, E. trossula. One species of Digenea, Paradistomoides gregarium, and six species of Nematoda, Hedruris hanleyae, Maxvachonia chabaudi, Parapharyngodon maplestoni, Physalopteroides arnoensis, Spauligodon gehyrae, and Moaciria sp. indet., were found. These helminths have been reported previously from other lizard species. Seventeen new host records and eight new locality records are reported. ?? 2005 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.
Rinaldi, Laura; Hendrickx, Guy; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Biggeri, Annibale; Ducheyne, Els; Catelan, Dolores; Morgan, Eric; Williams, Diana; Charlier, Johannes; Von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Vercruysse, Jozef
Mapping and modelling helminth infections in cattle and sheep in Europe through advanced geospatial research was one of the main task of GLOWORM, a three year project (2012-2014) funded under the European Commission's (EC) seventh framework programme (FP7). Liver flukes as Fasciola hepatica and gastrointestinal nematodes, such as Haemonchus contortus were chosen for the project since these parasites constitute a major cause of lost productivity in small and large ruminants. The output of the GLOWORM project delivered guidelines for standardized and harmonized cross-sectional surveys of helminth parasites in ruminants allowing the development of updated prevalence maps and multi-scale, spatial models for the European area. PMID:25826306
Antigenics is developing a therapeutic cancer vaccine based on heat-shock proteins (HSPs). The vaccine [HSPPC-96, Oncophage] is in a pivotal phase III clinical trial for renal cancer at 80 clinical sites worldwide. The trial is enrolling at least 500 patients who are randomised to receive surgical removal of the primary tumour followed by out-patient treatment with Oncophage((R)) or surgery only. This study was initiated on the basis of results from a pilot phase I/II study and preliminary results from a phase II study in patients with renal cell cancer. In October 2001, Oncophage was designated as a fast-track product by the Food and Drug Administration in the US for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Oncophage is in phase I/II trials in Italy for colorectal cancer (30 patients) and melanoma. The trials in Italy are being conducted at the Istituto dei Tumouri, Milan (in association with Sigma-Tau). Preliminary data from the phase II trial for melanoma was presented at the AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference in Florida, USA, in October 2001. Oncophage is also in a phase I/II (42 patients) and a phase II trial (84 patients) in the US for renal cell cancer, a phase II trial in the US for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (35 patients), a phase II trial in the US for sarcoma (20-35 patients), a phase I/II trial in the US for melanoma (36 patients), and phase I/II trials in Germany for gastric (30 patients) and pancreatic cancers. A pilot phase I trial in patients with pancreatic cancer began in the US in 1997 with 5 patients enrolled. In November 2000, Antigenics announced that this trial had been expanded to a phase I/II study which would now include survival as an endpoint and would enroll 5 additional patients. The US trials are being performed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. The trials in Germany are being carried out at Johannes Gutenberg-University Hospital, Mainz. Oncophage is an autologous vaccine consisting of
Full Text Available Group 2 Innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s are innate cells that produce the TH2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. The importance of these cells has recently been demonstrated in experimental models of parasitic diseases but there is a paucity of data on ILC2s in the context of human parasitic infections and in particular of the blood dwelling parasite Schistosoma haematobium.In this case-control study human peripheral blood ILC2s were analysed in relation to infection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 36 S. haematobium infected and 36 age and sex matched uninfected children were analysed for frequencies of ILC2s identified as Lin-CD45+CD127+CD294+CD161+. ILC2s were significantly lower particularly in infected children aged 6-9 years compared to healthy participants. Curative anti-helminthic treatment resulted in an increase in levels of the activating factor TSLP and restoration of ILC2 levels.This study demonstrates that ILC2s are diminished in young helminth infected children and restored by removal of the parasites by treatment, indicating a previously undescribed association between a human parasitic infection and ILC2s and suggesting a role of ILC2s before the establishment of protective acquired immunity in human schistosomiasis.
Moravec, F.; Vidal-Martínez, V.M.; Aguirre-Macedo, M.L.
Moravec, F., V.M. Vidal-Martinez & M.L. Aguirre-Macedo, 1995. Some helminth parasites of Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae) from the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 72: 55-68. One nematode species, Hysterothylacium eurycheilum, the acanthocephalan Gorgorhynchus
Full Text Available In parasitology, particularly in helminthes studies, several methods have been used to look for the expression of specific molecules, such as RT-PCR, western blot, 2D-electrophoresis, and microscopy, among others. However, these methods require homogenization of the whole helminth parasite, preventing evaluation of individual cells or specific cell types in a given parasite tissue or organ. Also, the extremely high interaction between helminthes and host cells (particularly immune cells is an important point to be considered. It is really hard to obtain fresh parasites without host cell contamination. Then, it becomes crucial to determine that the analyzed proteins are exclusively from parasitic origin, and not a consequence of host cell contamination. Flow cytometry is a fluorescence-based technique used to evaluate the expression of extra-and intracellular proteins in different type cells, including protozoan parasites. It also allows the isolation and recovery of single-cell populations. Here, we describe a method to isolate and obtain purified helminthes cells.
Full Text Available The principal aim of this study was realize a helminthological register of the species founded in ornamental fishes cultured in three fish farms and wild fishes existent in the effluents close to these farms in Morelos State, Mexico and an analysis and comparation of the infection values and their relative importance of helminth species invaders associated to ornamental fish industry and their manifestation in wild fishes close to farms. The helminth parasites of freshwater fishes of commercial fish farms, in Morelos State, Mexico were analysed. A total of 419 organisms of six freshwater fish species were collected in three fish farms and in small streams adjacent, in rainy and dry seasons. A total of 40 528 helminth were collected; the metacercarian of the flatworm Centrocestus formosanus affected largest number of host species. There were high levels of infection in all fish for this fluke, specifically for the Mexican molly, Poecilia sphenops it was also found in the native poeciliid fish the Asian tapeworm Botriocephalus acheilognathi, although with lower values in the parameters of infection. A non-deteriorated environment allowed complete the life cycles of parasites, permitting the establishment and maturation in various native and exotic fishes favoured the lack of host specificity of helminths and allogeneic generalists.
Salgado-Maldonado, G.; Moravec, František; Cabanas-Carranza, G.; Aguilar-Aguilar, R.; Sánchez-Nava, P.; Báez-Valé, R.; Scholz, Tomáš
Roč. 90, č. 2 (2004), s. 260-265. ISSN 0022-3395 Grant ostatní: Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología(MX) 27668N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Helminths * fish parasites * communities Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.439, year: 2004
Boggs, J F; McMurry, S T; Leslie, D M; Engle, D M; Lochmiller, R L
The influence of five brush management treatments using the herbicides tebuthiuron and triclopyr, with or without prescribed burning, on the intestinal helminth community of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) was studied in 1987 on the Cross Timbers Experimental Range in Payne County, Oklahoma (USA). Six helminth species were found (Dermatoxys veligera, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Passalurus nonanulatus, Wellcomia longejector, Taenia pisiformis cystercercus, and Mosgovoyia pectinata americana) in 102 rabbits (88 adult and 14 juveniles) collected over two seasons (winter and summer). Prevalence of M. pectinata americana in cottontail rabbits was significantly greater in untreated control pastures than herbicide treated pastures in winter, while prevalence of T. pisiformis was significantly greater in burned than unburned pastures. Abundances of helminth species in the intestinal tract of cottontail rabbits were unaffected by brush treatments. Mosgovoyia pectinata americana abundance demonstrated a highly significant increase from winter to summer; conversely, abundance of all oxyurid pinworms combined (D. veligera, P. nonanulatus, W. longejector) was significantly higher in winter than summer. Helminth community dynamics were significantly influenced by season, but were unaffected by brush treatments. Habitat modification could have influenced cestode transmission by altering the ecology of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. PMID:2338720
Amissah-Reynolds, Papa Kofi; Monney, Isaac; Adowah, Lucy Mawusi; Agyemang, Samuel Opoku
Dogs are popular pets that live closely with humans. However, this cohabitation allows for the transmission of zoonotic parasites to humans. In Ghana, very little is known about zoonotic parasites in dogs. We examined excrements of 154 dogs for intestinal helminthes using saturated sodium chloride as a floatation medium and further interviewed 100 dog owners regarding knowledge on zoonosis and pet management practices. Thirteen parasite species were identified, with an overall prevalence of 52.6%. Nematodes were more common than cestodes, with Toxocara canis being the most prevalent helminth (18.8%). Age (p = 0.011; χ (2) = 9.034) and location (p = 0.02; χ (2) = 12.323) of dogs were significant risk factors of helminthic infections, while mode of housing, function, and gender of dogs were not. Knowledge on zoonosis and pet management practices were poor, including irregular deworming and feeding of animals off the bare ground. Dogs may play an active role in the transmission of zoonotic diseases in the area, given the cohabitation of infected dogs with humans; irregular deworming pattern of dogs; and rampant excretion of helminth-infested dog excreta into the environment. PMID:26941994
GS da Silva
Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian poultry industry is an outstanding national and international agribusiness sector. Among the Brazilian states, São Paulo is the largest producer of commercial eggs and the fourth largest producer and exporter of chicken meat. Alternatively, semi-intensive and/or organic poultry production have also obtained a significant share of the domestic market as a result of consumer demand. Helminths affect the performance of the birds, causing significant direct or indirect losses. The objective of the present study was to identify the main helminth species present in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo. In total, 359 adult birds were investigated. The birds were reared in different housing systems and were obtained from 69 farms in the selected regions. The birds were submitted to procedures for the detection and identification of helminth parasites, following international standards. The evaluation of the small intestine employed the Mello-Campos method (Mello & Campos, 1974, which allows better recovery of cestode scolices attached to the intestinal mucosa. Stereomicroscopy was used to evaluate the collected materials, and light microscopy was used to identify the species based on their morphological characteristics. The following helminth species were diagnosed in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo: nematodes (Ascaridia galli, Capillaria sp., Cheilospirura hamulosa, Heterakis gallinarum, Oxyspirura mansoni, and Strongyloides sp., cestodes (Amoebotaenia cuneata, Choanotaenia infundibulum, Hymenolepis sp., Raillietina cesticillus, Raillietina echinobothrida, and Raillietina tetragona, and trematodes (Zygocotyle lunata and Postharmostomum commutatum.
Full Text Available A study was carried out on 456 indigenous poultry intestinal specimens from various towns in Kenya to determine the occurrence and distribution of helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of the birds. Of the specimens examined, 414 had parasites whereas the remaining 42 had none, which is an infection rate of 90.78 %. The main species of helminths found in the intestines were Raillietina sp. (47.53 %, Heterakis gallinarum (21.33 %, Ascaridia galli (10.03 %, Strongyloides avium (9.96 %, Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.61 %, Cotugnia digonopora (3.6 %, Capillaria sp. (1.5 %, Trichostrongylus tenius (1.04 % and Syngamus trachea (0.40 %. Most helminths were present in both the mid- and hindguts. Syngamus trachea and C. digonopora were only found in the foregut and midgut, respectively. Although chickens from which the specimens were collected appeard healthy, the high prevalence of helminthiasis observed shows the poor level of helminth infection control practiced by the indigenous poultry keepers in the country, which might affect the health status of the birds and their growth rates. Poultry keepers should be encouraged to prevent, control and treat such cases.
E.Z. Mushi; M.G. Binta; R.G. Chabo; R. Ndebele; T. Thibanyane
Thirteen adult indigenous chickens from Oodi, Kgatleng district, Botswana, were examined for helminth parasites. Two species of nematodes, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum, and species of the cestode genus Raillietina, were recovered. A. galli and H. gallinarumwere the most commonly seen parasites. The nematode A. galli occurred concurrently with Raillietina spp.
Full Text Available Thirteen adult indigenous chickens from Oodi, Kgatleng district, Botswana, were examined for helminth parasites. Two species of nematodes, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum, and species of the cestode genus Raillietina, were recovered. A. galli and H. gallinarumwere the most commonly seen parasites. The nematode A. galli occurred concurrently with Raillietina spp.
Ross S. Davidson
Full Text Available Climate change is a driving force for livestock parasite risk. This is especially true for helminths including the nematodes Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Nematodirus battus, and the trematode Fasciola hepatica, since survival and development of free-living stages is chiefly affected by temperature and moisture. The paucity of long term predictions of helminth risk under climate change has driven us to explore optimal modelling approaches and identify current bottlenecks to generating meaningful predictions. We classify approaches as correlative or mechanistic, exploring their strengths and limitations. Climate is one aspect of a complex system and, at the farm level, husbandry has a dominant influence on helminth transmission. Continuing environmental change will necessitate the adoption of mitigation and adaptation strategies in husbandry. Long term predictive models need to have the architecture to incorporate these changes. Ultimately, an optimal modelling approach is likely to combine mechanistic processes and physiological thresholds with correlative bioclimatic modelling, incorporating changes in livestock husbandry and disease control. Irrespective of approach, the principal limitation to parasite predictions is the availability of active surveillance data and empirical data on physiological responses to climate variables. By combining improved empirical data and refined models with a broad view of the livestock system, robust projections of helminth risk can be developed.
Papa Kofi Amissah-Reynolds
Full Text Available Dogs are popular pets that live closely with humans. However, this cohabitation allows for the transmission of zoonotic parasites to humans. In Ghana, very little is known about zoonotic parasites in dogs. We examined excrements of 154 dogs for intestinal helminthes using saturated sodium chloride as a floatation medium and further interviewed 100 dog owners regarding knowledge on zoonosis and pet management practices. Thirteen parasite species were identified, with an overall prevalence of 52.6%. Nematodes were more common than cestodes, with Toxocara canis being the most prevalent helminth (18.8%. Age (p=0.011; χ2=9.034 and location (p=0.02; χ2=12.323 of dogs were significant risk factors of helminthic infections, while mode of housing, function, and gender of dogs were not. Knowledge on zoonosis and pet management practices were poor, including irregular deworming and feeding of animals off the bare ground. Dogs may play an active role in the transmission of zoonotic diseases in the area, given the cohabitation of infected dogs with humans; irregular deworming pattern of dogs; and rampant excretion of helminth-infested dog excreta into the environment.
Efunshile, Akinwale Michael; Olawale, Temitope; Stensvold, Christen Rune;
The relationship between intestinal helminth infection and susceptibility to malaria remains unclear. We studied the relationship between these infections. Seven schools in Ilero, Nigeria referred all pupils with febrile illness to our study center for free malaria treatment during a 3-month study...... period. At the end, all pupils submitted a stool sample for microscopic investigation for helminth eggs. We used an unmatched case-control design to calculate the odds ratios for helminth infection in children with at least one attack of malaria (cases) and children with no malaria episodes during the...... study (controls). We recorded 115 malaria cases in 82 of 354 (23.2%), 16 of 736 (2.2%), and 17 of 348 (4.7%) children ages ≤ 5, 6-10, and 11-15 years old, respectively (P = 0.001). Helminth infection rate in cases was 21 of 115 (18.3%) compared with 456 of 1,327 (34.4%) in controls. Weighted odds ratio...
Fox, Naomi J; Marion, Glenn; Davidson, Ross S; White, Piran C L; Hutchings, Michael R
Climate change is a driving force for livestock parasite risk. This is especially true for helminths including the nematodes Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Nematodirus battus, and the trematode Fasciola hepatica, since survival and development of free-living stages is chiefly affected by temperature and moisture. The paucity of long term predictions of helminth risk under climate change has driven us to explore optimal modelling approaches and identify current bottlenecks to generating meaningful predictions. We classify approaches as correlative or mechanistic, exploring their strengths and limitations. Climate is one aspect of a complex system and, at the farm level, husbandry has a dominant influence on helminth transmission. Continuing environmental change will necessitate the adoption of mitigation and adaptation strategies in husbandry. Long term predictive models need to have the architecture to incorporate these changes. Ultimately, an optimal modelling approach is likely to combine mechanistic processes and physiological thresholds with correlative bioclimatic modelling, incorporating changes in livestock husbandry and disease control. Irrespective of approach, the principal limitation to parasite predictions is the availability of active surveillance data and empirical data on physiological responses to climate variables. By combining improved empirical data and refined models with a broad view of the livestock system, robust projections of helminth risk can be developed. PMID:26486780
Helminth infections in ruminants are a major impediment to the profitable production of meat and dairy products, especially for small farmers. Gastrointestinal parasitism is not just a disease that negatively impacts productivity, including reduced weight gain and milk yield, but is also a leading ...
Venugopal, Priyanka Goel; Nutman, Thomas B.; Semnani, Roshanak Tolouei
Helminth (worm) infections are major public health problems that have important socioeconomic consequences for the more than 2 billion infected individuals. Chronicity (their hallmark) can lead to anemia (in hookworm infection), river blindness (onchcerciasis), cirrhosis (schistosomiasis), and elephantiasis (lymphatic filariasis). Although there have been many studies examining innate immune responses (including TLR expression and function) in response to intracellular pathogens, fewer have e...
Helminth parasites cause massive damage when migrating through host tissues, thus making rapid tissue repair imperative to prevent bleeding and bacterial dissemination. We observed that mice lacking antibodies (AID-/-) or activating Fc receptors (FcR'-/-) displayed impaired intestinal repair followi...
Helminth infection in pigs serves as an excellent model for the study of the interaction between human malnutrition and parasitic infection and could have important implications in human health. We had observed that pigs infected with Trichuris suis for 21 days showed significant changes in the prox...
Theis, J.H.; Bolton, V.; Storm, D.R.
The occurrence and persistence of helminth parasites under a range of sludge application rates, cropping patterns, and regional practices are determined. Prevelance of positive sludge samples varies on a geographical basis. Killing temperatures and/or humidity levels can be reached in a compost pile. (11 photos, 4 tables)
Tenora, F.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Prokeš, Miroslav; Šumbera, R.; Koubková, B.
Roč. 40, č. 3 (2003), s. 153-160. ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093104; GA ČR GA206/00/1699 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Bathyergidae * helminth s * Malawi Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.474, year: 2003
Latham, A D M; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; McFarland, L H; Poulin, R
The whelk Cominella glandiformis is an important predator-scavenger of New Zealand intertidal ecosystems; a few whelks can quickly eat all the soft tissues of recently dead crabs. In this study, we demonstrate that whelks can also ingest and act as paratenic hosts for at least 4 helminth species ...
Robben, S.R.; Nobel, le W.E.; Dopfer, D.D.V.; Hendrikx, W.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Fransen, F.; Eysker, M.
To determine the prevalence of infections with helminths and protozoa in cats in animal shelters, faecal samples from 305 cats from 22 animal shelters in the Netherlands were examined, using a centrifugation-sedimentation-flotation-technique. The association between potential risk factors and the oc
Full Text Available Background: Cats play a crucial role in the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthic parasites and also play a major role in transmitting of these parasites through faecal contamination of soil, food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the species of gastrointestinal helminthes parasites in stray cats from a rural area of Bandar-e-Anzali, Iran.Method: Gastrointestinal helminthes were collected from 50 necropsied stray cats (Felis catus after capturing them by trapping from different regions of the city and humanely euthanatized in Bandar-e-Anzali, a port in the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, from March to November 2003. Results: The prevalence of infection was 90%, with those of individual parasites being Diplopylidium nolleri 54%, Physaloptera praeputialis 32%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme 20%, Joyeuxiella pasqualei 10%, Toxocara cati 8%, Pterygodermatites affinis 6%, Ancylostoma caninum 4%, and Taenia taeniaeformis 2%. Concurrent infections with two or more parasites were recorded in 34% of the individuals. In relation to the sex, the differences were not significant. Conclusion: P. praeputialis, T. cati, D. nolleri and sometime J. pasqualei are the commonest Helminthes in cats. This is the first reported isolation of P. affinis and A. caninum infections from cats in Iran.
Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Okulewicz, A.; Zoun, P.E.F.; Okulewicz, J.
Eighteen species of birds of prey in Netherlands were examined for helminth parasites: Accipitriformes - Accipiter gentilis (15 birds), A. nisus (9), Aquila pomarina (1), Buteo buteo (56), B. lagopus (4), Circaetus gallicus (2), Circus aeruginosus (2), C. cyaneus (3), Pernis apivorus (5); Falconifor
A. W. Wekesa
Full Text Available Intestinal helminth infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes including low birth weight and prenatal mortality. The infections are a major public health problem in developing countries. A hospital based survey was undertaken for six months to determine the infection prevalence, intensity, and risk factors. The study involved expectant women attending antenatal clinic. Stool samples were screened microscopically for helminth ova using Kato Katz technique. Information on risk factors was collected using semistructured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Epidemiological data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of infection was 21 (13.8%. Ascariasis was the most prevalent 10 (6.5%, hookworm infection was 6 (3.9%, and trichuriasis was 2 (1.3%. Pregnant women aged below 29 years (OR = 3.63, CI = 0.87–11.75 and those with primary level of education (OR = 3.21, CI = 0.88–11.75 were at a higher risk of infection compared to those aged ≥ 29 years with secondary level of education. Hand washing was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of infection (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57. It was concluded that intestinal helminth infections were prevalent among pregnant women. We recommended that all expectant women visiting antenatal clinics be screened for intestinal helminth infections and positive cases be advised to seek treatment.
Milazzo, C.; Ribas, Alexis; Casanova, J. C.; Cagnin, M.; Geraci, F.; Di Bella, C.
Roč. 47, č. 4 (2010), s. 238-240. ISSN 0440-6605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : wild brown rats * helminths * Sicily * Italy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.847, year: 2010
Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Dercksen, D.P.
An investigation was carried out on coccidial and helminth infections in goats kept indoors on five farms in the Netherlands. The goats were individually sampled. Coccidial oocysts were identified and nematode eggs counted. Larval cultures were made and infective larvae identified to the generic or
Cardoso, Luciana S; Costa, Daniela M.; Almeida, Maria Cecília F.; Souza, Robson P.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Maria Ilma Araujo; Oliveira, Ricardo R.
Protective factors associated with atopy or asthma in rural areas include socioeconomic level, overcrowding, and helminth infection. However, little epidemiological information was originated from schistosomiasis areas. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with asthma in a schistosomiasis endemic area. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographics, socioeconomic, and environmental features. The ISAAC questionnaire was used to identify individuals with asthma. Pa...
Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier
The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells. PMID:24922567
Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable and updated maps of helminth (worm infection distributions are essential to target control strategies to those populations in greatest need. Although many surveys have been conducted in endemic countries, the data are rarely available in a form that is accessible to policy makers and the managers of public health programmes. This is especially true in sub-Saharan Africa, where empirical data are seldom in the public domain. In an attempt to address the paucity of geographical information on helminth risk, this article describes the development of an updated global atlas of human helminth infection, showing the example of East Africa. Methods Empirical, cross-sectional estimates of infection prevalence conducted since 1980 were identified using electronic and manual search strategies of published and unpublished sources. A number of inclusion criteria were imposed for identified information, which was extracted into a standardized database. Details of survey population, diagnostic methods, sample size and numbers infected with schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths were recorded. A unique identifier linked each record to an electronic copy of the source document, in portable document format. An attempt was made to identify the geographical location of each record using standardized geolocation procedures and the assembled data were incorporated into a geographical information system. Results At the time of writing, over 2,748 prevalence surveys were identified through multiple search strategies. Of these, 2,612 were able to be geolocated and mapped. More than half (58% of included surveys were from grey literature or unpublished sources, underlining the importance of reviewing in-country sources. 66% of all surveys were conducted since 2000. Comprehensive, countrywide data are available for Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda. In contrast, information for Kenya and Tanzania is typically clustered in specific regions of
The aspergillus antigen skin test determines whether or not a person has been exposed to the mold aspergillus. It is performed by injecting an aspergillus antigen under the skin with a needle. After 48 ...
Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena K; Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Heerkens, Jasper L T; Verwer, Cynthia; Niebuhr, Knut; Willett, Alice; Grilli, Guido; Thamsborg, Stig M; Sørensen, Jan T; Mejer, Helena
Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify management factors that might be associated with helminth infections, with emphasis on Ascaridia galli. Data on flock-level management factors (e.g. nutritional factors, litter quality, housing system, opening- and closing hours of popholes, pasture rotation and provision of occupational materials) were collected during a farm visit when the hens were on average 62 weeks old. Worm counts were performed for 892 hens from 55 flocks and the number of ascarid (presumably primarily A. galli) eggs per g faeces (EPG) for 881 hens from 54 flocks. The association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, worm burden and EPG) and the management factors were analysed by multivariate models. Results showed that A. galli was highly prevalent across Europe with an overall mean prevalence of 69.5% and mean worm burden of 10 worms per hen. The overall mean prevalence and worm burden for Heterakis spp. were 29.0% and 16 worms per hen, respectively, with a large variation between countries. On average, the hens excreted 576 ascarid EPG. The mean prevalence of Raillietina spp. was 13.6%. A positive correlation was found between mean A. galli worm burden and ascarid EPG. Of the analysed management factors, only pasture access time had a significant negative association with A. galli worm burden which was in contrast to the general belief that outdoor access may increase the risk of helminth infections in production animals. In conclusion, the complexity of on-farm transmission dynamics is thus a challenge when evaluating the relative importance of management factors in relation to helminth infections. PMID:26518645
Full Text Available Helminthes are one of the causer agents of the type I reactions of hypersensitivity. In this article will review the findings of recent human studies of the association between helminth parasite infections and allergy and discuss their potential relevance to public health. The parasitic worms are an important risk factor for anaphylaxy reaction, but this could be explained by an enhanced ability of atopics to produce IgE. The human immune response to helminth infections is associated with elevated levels of IgE, tissue eosinophilia and mastocytosis. The involvement of immunologic mechanisms in the pathogenesis which are caused by worms in the gastro-intestinal tract are associated with anaphylaxy response. For this study, faeces were collected primary in children aged 1-15 years old, because the worms are most frequent in these ages. Through the coproscopic method were analyzed as biological materials, the feces of 300 children for the presence of protozoa’s eggs, helminthes larva, trophosoids, cists, etc. We have taken the photo of the positive cases. The analysis have been done in the Parasitological Laboratory of the Institute of Public Health, Tirana through the method of concentration with floatation in sulphat zinc; the permanent color as Ziehln-Neelsen stain, Giemsa stain, Blu-metilen, etc. We have used the color methods and blood striche to diagnose the eosiniphilia presence. To determine the IgE are used the EIA kits. The level of the eosinophyle and IgE in the blood is performed in 152 individes who had been positive cases by helminths.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value Results Out of 319 study subjects, 263 (82.4% of the study participants infected with one or more parasites. From soil transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22% followed by Hookworms (19% and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%. Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible.
... All About Food Allergies Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen KidsHealth > For Parents > Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen Print A A A Text Size What's in ... sample is used to determine if H. pylori antigens are present in your child's gastrointestinal (GI) system. ...
A method is described of immunoassay of an antigen in a liquid sample wherein a complex is formed between antigen contained in the said sample and two or more antibody reagents, and the said complex is bound to a solid support by non-covalent bonding as defined herein: and the amount of complex becoming bound to the support is determined; the process employing at least one monoclonal antibody reagent. Labelling methods including radioactive, fluorimetric and enzyme labelling may be used to effect determination of the binding ofthe complex to the solid support. The solid support may take the form of particles, beads, wall-coatings on the reaction vessel or an insert of large surface area. The method is particularly applicable to the assay of TSH, CEA, HCG, alphafeto protein, immunoglobulins, viruses, allergens, bacteria, toxins, drugs and vitamins. Use of monoclonal reagents improves the specificity of the process, and also decreases non-specific binding
Concetta Milazzo; Calogero Di Bella; Juan Carlos Casanova; Alexis Ribas; Mara Cagnin
Helminth parasites of woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus were studied from May 1993 through to June 1994 on the River Avena (Calabria, southern Italy), which, as other Mediterranenan rivers, is dry for most of the year. Trapping sites were located in three different habitats of the river: slopes, shores and the riverbed. A total of 106 animals was captured and screened for the presence of helminths. Five endoparasitic species were detected: Corrigia vitta,...
Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Martínez-Gallo, Mónica; Carrillo, Eugenia; Molina, Israel
Abstract Background Helminth infections are highly prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, coexisting in Chagas disease endemic areas. Helminth infections in humans may modulate the host immune system, changing the Th1/Th2 polarization. This immunological disturbance could modify the immune response to other infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinical, microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of Chagas disease patients, with the presence of helminth infection. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted at Vall d’Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain). Inclusion criteria were: age over 18 years, diagnosis of Chagas disease, and not having received specific treatment for Chagas disease previously to the inclusion. The study protocol included Chagas disease assessment (cardiac and digestive evaluation, detection of T. cruzi DNA measured by PCR in peripheral blood), and helminth infection diagnosis (detection of IgG anti-Strongyloides stercoralis by ELISA, microscopic examination of stool samples from three different days, and specific faecal culture for S. stercoralis larvae). Results Overall, 65 patients were included, median age was 38 years, 75.4% were women and most of them came from Bolivia. Cardiac and digestive involvement was present in 18.5% and 27.7% of patients respectively. T. cruzi PCR was positive in 28 (43.1%) patients. Helminth infection was diagnosed in 12 (18.5%) patients. No differences were observed in clinical and epidemiological characteristics between patients with and without helminth infection. Nevertheless, the proportion of patients with positive T. cruzi PCR was higher among patients with helminth infection compared with patients without helminth infection (75% vs 35.8%, p = 0.021). Conclusions We observed a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection among chronic Chagas disease patients attended in our tropical medicine unit. Strongyloidiasis was associated
Bogoch, Isaac I.; Andrews, Jason R.; Speich, Benjamin; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Stothard, J Russell; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer
We evaluated the Newton Nm1, a commercially available handheld light microscope and compared it with conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. A total of 91 Kato-Katz thick smears were examined by experienced microscopists and helminth eggs were counted and expressed as eggs per gram of stool (EPG). Mean egg counts were significantly higher with the conventional light microscope (5,190 EPG versus 2,386 EPG for Ascaris lumbricoides; 826 versus 456...
Ottow, M. K.; Klaver, E. J.; van der Pouw Kraan, T. C. T. M.;
Recent clinical trials in patients with inflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have shown the beneficial effects of probiotic helminth administration, although the underlying mechanism of action remains largely unknown. Potential cellular targets may...... include innate immune cells that propagate inflammation in these diseases, like pro-inflammatory macrophages. We here investigated the effects of the helminth Trichuris suis soluble products (SPs) on the phenotype and function of human inflammatory (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM...
Jang, Jessica C; Chen, Gang; Wang, Spencer H; Barnes, Mark A; Chung, Josiah I; Camberis, Mali; Le Gros, Graham; Cooper, Philip J; Steel, Cathy; Nutman, Thomas B; Lazar, Mitchell A; Nair, Meera G
Parasitic helminth infections can be associated with lifelong morbidity such as immune-mediated organ failure. A better understanding of the host immune response to helminths could provide new avenues to promote parasite clearance and/or alleviate infection-associated morbidity. Murine resistin-like molecules (RELM) exhibit pleiotropic functions following helminth infection including modulating the host immune response; however, the relevance of human RELM proteins in helminth infection is unknown. To examine the function of human resistin (hResistin), we utilized transgenic mice expressing the human resistin gene (hRetnTg+). Following infection with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb), hResistin expression was significantly upregulated in infected tissue. Compared to control hRetnTg- mice, hRetnTg+ mice suffered from exacerbated Nb-induced inflammation characterized by weight loss and increased infiltration of inflammatory monocytes in the lung, along with elevated Nb egg burdens and delayed parasite expulsion. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the infected tissue revealed that hResistin promoted expression of proinflammatory cytokines and genes downstream of toll-like receptor signaling. Moreover, hResistin preferentially bound lung monocytes, and exogenous treatment of mice with recombinant hResistin promoted monocyte recruitment and proinflammatory cytokine expression. In human studies, increased serum resistin was associated with higher parasite load in individuals infected with soil-transmitted helminths or filarial nematode Wuchereria bancrofti, and was positively correlated with proinflammatory cytokines. Together, these studies identify human resistin as a detrimental factor induced by multiple helminth infections, where it promotes proinflammatory cytokines and impedes parasite clearance. Targeting the resistin/proinflammatory cytokine immune axis may provide new diagnostic or treatment strategies for helminth infection and associated
King; Shimumbo; Nalubamba; Eugene; Chisela; Bwalya; Ntombi; Basimbi; Mudenda; Hetron; Mweemba; Munangandu; Musso; Munyeme; David; Squarre
Objective: To determine the gastrointestinal tract helminthic fauna in domestic and wild guineafowl in Zambia.Methods: Post-mortem and laboratory parasitological examinations for helminth identification and enumeration were conducted on 198 guineafowls(148 domestic and 50 wild) from November 2010 to October 2011.Results: All guineafowls were infested with one or more helminths. Eleven helminth species, namely, Raillietina echinobothrida, Raillietina tetragona, Raillietina cesticillus, Ascaridia galli, Allodapa suctoria, Gongylonema ingluvicola, Tetrameres spp., Heterakis spp., Acuaria spiralis, Syngamus trachea, and Streptocara pectinifera were identified with no trematodes recorded. Mean nematode burden between domestic and wild fowl showed no differences having 113.7 [confidence interval(CI) 98.9-128.6] and 108(CI 76.6-139.5) nematodes respectively. In contrast, female guineafowls had a mean of 151.9(CI 128.4-177.8) nematodes per host which was significantly more than the males that had a mean of 79.6(CI 66.8-94.4). However, there were differences in helminth species richness between domestic and wild guineafowls with domestic guineafowls having more species present at a mean of 4.2(CI 3.91-4.44) than the wild ones at a mean of 3.4(CI 2.92-3.88) but there were no sex differences. Eight of the eleven helminth species co-occurred in domestic and wild fowl and five of the helminth species had higher prevalence in domestic guineafowls.Conclusions: Syngamus trachea, Streptocara pectinifera and Acuaria spiralis are reported for the first time in domestic poultry in Zambia. This study represents the first comparative study of helminths in domestic and wild guineafowls at an interface area and adds to the knowledge base in a discipline where a dearth currently exists.
Heckendorn, F.; Häring, D.A.; Amsler, Z; Maurer, V.
The aim of this experiment conducted at four sites in Switzerland was to investigate the transmission and infectivity of the two main helminth parasite species of poultry (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum) in outdoor runs with two different stocking rates. Additionally, the inﬂuence of a simplemanagement practice (mowing of run) on helminth transmission was studied. Three run types were created on each site: runs C served as control (stocking rate 10 m2/hen, no management), runs B ...
McSorley, Henry J; O'Gorman, Mary T.; Blair, Natalie; Sutherland, Tara E.; Filbey, Kara J.; Maizels, Rick M.
Allergic asthma is less prevalent in countries with parasitic helminth infections, and mice infected with parasites such as Heligmosomoides polygyrus are protected from allergic airway inflammation. To establish whether suppression of allergy could be mediated by soluble products of this helminth, we tested H. polygyrus excretory-secretory (HES) material for its ability to impair allergic inflammation. When HES was added to sensitising doses of ovalbumin, the subsequent allergic airway respon...
Yi Hu; Rui Li; Ward, Michael P.; Yue Chen; Henry Lynn; Decheng Wang; Gengxin Chen; Zonggui He; Liqian Sun; Chenglong Xiong; Zhijie Zhang; Qingwu Jiang
Helminth infections are believed to be common in tropical and subtropical countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two villages located in Guichi District in Anhui Province, the People’s Republic of China, where multiparasitism was investigated using parasitological tests. The data collected were fitted to Bayesian multi-level models to profile risk factors for helminth infections. The prevalence of Schistosoma (S.) japonicum, Ascaris (A.) lumbricoides and Trichuris (T.) trichiur...
Jason M. Garvon; Alan M. Fedynich; Markus J Peterson; Danny B. Pence
The influence of spatially distinct host subpopulations on helminth community structure and pattern was examined in a migratory avian host species. Forty helminth species represented by 24,082 individuals were collected from 184 blue-winged teal (Anas discors; BWT) from 2 primary migratory corridors in Florida (eastern migratory corridor; EMC) and Louisiana and Texas (western migratory corridor; WMC). Mean species richness was greater in BWT from the WMC ( x ̅ ± SE = 10.2 ± 0.3 species) than ...
Ananta Hembram; M. R. Panda; B. N. Mohanty; Pradhan, C. R.; Dehuri, M.; Sahu, A.; Behera, M.
Aim: Studies on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths infection in Banaraja fowls of three blocks (Chandua, Shamakhunta and Bangriposi) of Mayurbhanj district in Odisha with respect to semi-intensive system of rearing. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 Banaraja birds (30 males and 130 females) belonging to two age groups (below 1 month age and above 1 month) were examined for the presence of different species of gastrointestinal helminth infection over a period of 1-year. The metho...
It was analysed the dynamic of helminth community of wild animals in the condition of Poles'e reserve and it was shown that radiation contamination had great influence at the settled community of parasite worms resulting in disappearance or sharp diminution of species quantity that were common for wild ungulate animals and domestics cattle. It was concluded that stabilisation of helminth community of wild ungulate animals had not yet achieved
Jiménez-Ruiz, F Agustin; García-Prieto, Luis; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo
Seventy-two Mexican garter snakes (Thamnophis eques) and 126 black-bellied garter snakes (T. melanogaster) were collected from 4 localities of the Mesa Central of Mexico between July 1996 and February 1998 and examined for helminths. Both species of garter snakes occurred sympatrically in every locality except in Lake Cuitzeo. Both species of snakes shared 9 helminth species, and in general, T. melanogaster hosted a larger number of species than T. eques. In each locality, a different helminth species showed the highest levels of prevalence and abundance (Spiroxys susanae in Ciénaga de Lerma, Telorchis corti in Lago de Pátzcuaro, Proteocephalus variabilis in Lago de Cuitzeo, and Contracaecum sp. in Lago de Chapala). Helminth communities in garter snakes of the Mesa Central are depauperate and dominated by a single parasite species. In those localities where the snakes occurred in sympatry, helminth communities were, in general, more diverse and species-rich in T. melanogaster. Differences in the ecology and physiology of these species of garter snakes may explain this pattern because black-bellied garter snakes (T. melanogaster) are more aquatic than Mexican garter snakes (T. eques) and primarily eat aquatic prey, potentially exposing themselves to a larger number of helminths transmitted by predator-prey infection. The helminth infracommunities of garter snakes in the Mesa Central of Mexico show a strong Nearctic influence because most of the species infecting these hosts have been recorded in other Nearctic colubrid snakes. However, the helminth infracommunities of these garter snakes are less species-rich and less diverse than those in colubrid snakes in more temperate latitudes. The widespread ecological perturbation of sampling sites in the Mesa Central because of human activity, and geographic differences in foraging ecology of the hosts and, thus, exposure to parasites transmitted by intermediate hosts may help to explain these patterns. PMID:12099411
Rachel L Pullan
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals living in areas endemic for helminths are commonly infected with multiple species. Despite increasing emphasis given to the potential health impacts of polyparasitism, few studies have investigated the relative importance of household and environmental factors on the risk of helminth co-infection. Here, we present an investigation of exposure-related risk factors as sources of heterogeneity in the distribution of co-infection with Necator americanus and Schistosoma mansoni in a region of southeastern Brazil. METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional parasitological and socio-economic data from a community-based household survey were combined with remotely sensed environmental data using a geographical information system. Geo-statistical methods were used to explore patterns of mono- and co-infection with N. americanus and S. mansoni in the region. Bayesian hierarchical models were then developed to identify risk factors for mono- and co-infection in relation to community-based survey data to assess their roles in explaining observed heterogeneity in mono and co-infection with these two helminth species. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The majority of individuals had N. americanus (71.1% and/or S. mansoni (50.3% infection; 41.0% of individuals were co-infected with both helminths. Prevalence of co-infection with these two species varied substantially across the study area, and there was strong evidence of household clustering. Hierarchical multinomial models demonstrated that relative socio-economic status, household crowding, living in the eastern watershed and high Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI were significantly associated with N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection. These risk factors could, however, only account for an estimated 32% of variability between households. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that variability in risk of N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection between households cannot be entirely explained by
César A. Terrazas, Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz, Ana M. Mejía-Domínguez, Luis M. Amezcua-Guerra, Luis I. Terrazas, Rafael Bojalil, Lorena Gómez-García
Full Text Available Pathogens have developed strategies to modify Dendritic Cells (DCs phenotypes and impair their functions in order to create a safer environment for their survival. DCs responses to helminths and their derivatives vary among different studies. Here we show that excretory/secretory products of the cestode Taenia crassiceps (TcES do not induce the maturation of human DCs judged by a lack of increment in the expression of CD83, HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86 molecules but enhanced the production of IL-10 and positively modulated the expression of the C-type lectin receptor MGL and negatively modulated the expression of DC-SIGN. Additionally, these antigens were capable of down-modulating the inflammatory response induced by LPS in these cells by reducing the expression of the maturation markers and the production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF, IL-12 and IL-6. The effects of TcES upon the DCs responses to LPS were stronger if cells were exposed during their differentiation to the helminth antigens. All together, these findings suggest the ability of TcES to induce the differentiation of human DCs into a tolerogenic-like phenotype and to inhibit the effects of inflammatory stimuli.
Cardoso, T S; Simões, R O; Luque, J L F; Maldonado, A; Gentile, R
The influence of habitat structure on helminth communities of three sigomdontinae rodent species (Akodon cursor, A. montensis and Oligoryzomys nigripes) was investigated in forest fragments within an agricultural landscape in south-eastern Brazil. This is a pionner study correlating the occurrence of helminth species of rodent hosts with microhabitat characteristics. Rodents were collected from 12 fragments and in a continuous conserved area. Up to 13 nematode, three cestode and two trematode species were identified, and habitat fragmentation was found to have more influence on the helminth composition of O. nigripes compared to the other two rodent species. Fragmentation appeared to limit the development of some helminths' life cycles, e.g. with some species such as Trichofreitasia lenti, Protospirura numidica, Cysticercus fasciolaris and Avellaria sp., occurring mostly in areas with less anthropic impact. However, fragmentation did not seem to affect the life cycles of other dominant helminths, such as the trematode Canaania obesa, the nematodes Stilestrongylus lanfrediae, S. eta and S. aculeata, and the cestode Rodentolepis akodontis. The helminth community structure followed a nested pattern of distribution in A. montensis and O. nigripes. Stilestrongylus lanfrediae seemed to be more associated with dense understorey, C. obesa with open canopy and dense understorey, and Guerrerostrongylus zetta with organic matter on the ground. Their presence in each area may be explained by aspects of their life cycles that take place in the external environment outside the host. PMID:26206199
Simões, R O; Luque, J L; Gentile, R; Rosa, M C S; Costa-Neto, S; Maldonado, A
Rattus norvegicus has attracted much attention because of its role as a reservoir of zoonotic pathogens. This work aimed to identify the intestinal helminth species in R. norvegicus and to analyse the effects of temperature, rainfall, host age and sex on the helminth community structure. Moreover, this study investigated the possible associations among helminth species in an urban population of R. norvegicus in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, sampled during the rainy and dry seasons over a span of 2 years. A total of 112 rats were infected by six species of helminths. The nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis was the most prevalent and abundant species, with high mean intensity in both seasons, followed by Strongyloides venezuelensis, Heterakis spumosa, Raillietina sp., Hymenolepis nana and Moniliformis moniliformis. Co-occurrence was found between N. brasiliensis and S. venezuelensis and between N. brasiliensis and H. spumosa. The occurrence of S. venezuelensis was related to rainfall. The understanding of the helminth community structure in this synanthropic rat provides basic information on parasites of public health importance, as two helminth species (H. nana and M. moniliformis) recovered from rats in the urban area studied can infect humans. PMID:25264030
Schou, T W; Permin, A; Juul-Madsen, H R; Sørensen, P; Labouriau, R; Nguyên, T L H; Fink, M; Pham, S L
This study compared the prevalence and intensity of infections of helminths in 2 chicken breeds in Vietnam, the indigenous Ri and the exotic Luong Phuong. Also, possible correlations with the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) were tested. The most prevalent helminths were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis beramporia, Tetrameres mothedai, Capillaria obsignata, Raillietina echinobothrida and Raillietina tetragona. Differences in prevalence and intensity of infection were found between the 2 breeds. Comparing the 2 groups of adult birds, Ri chickens were observed to have higher prevalence and infection intensities of several species of helminths, as well as a higher mean number of helminth species. In contrast, A. galli and C. obsignata were shown to be more prevalent in Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, an age-dependent difference was indicated in the group of Ri chickens in which the prevalence and the intensity of infection was higher for the adult than the young chickens for most helminths. The most notable exception was the significantly lower prevalence and intensities of A. galli in the group of adult chickens. In contrast, the prevalence and intensity were very similar in both age groups of Luong Phuong chickens. Using a genetic marker located in the MHC, a statistically significant correlation between several MHC haplotypes and the infection intensity of different helminth species was inferred. This is the first report of an association of MHC haplotype with the intensity of parasite infections in chickens. PMID:17166322
Centeno-Chalé, Oscar Arturo; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel
During an environmental impact study of an accidental oil spill in the Campeche Sound in October 2007, we examined the helminth parasites of the benthic flatfish Cyclopsetta chittendeni as well as the concentrations of hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the sediment. The aim of this study was to determine the potential effects of these contaminants on the helminth communities of the flatfish. A total of 427 hosts were examined, and 16,895 helminths, representing 17 species, were obtained from two surveys (March and July, 2008). Statistically significant negative associations were observed between the hydrocarbons and helminth parasite abundances using multivariate methods. The results suggest that in October 2007, the oil spill had a strong negative effect on these helminth communities. However, after five months, the impacted stations were re-populated by both the flatfish and helminths. The most likely explanation for this rapid recovery is the rescue effect from non-impacted habitats to impacted stations. PMID:26004356
Mohammad Yakhchali; Ali-Asghar Tehrani; Mozafar Ghoreishi
This investigation was undertaken to verify the prevalence of helminths parasites in the gastrointestinal tract of catfish. A total number of 116 catfish (Silurus glanis) were collected from Zarrine-roud river and examined for helminths. Fish were examined after washing contents of gastrointestinal tract and observed for the presence of helminths using a stereo microscope and a light microscope. Results indicated that 18.96% of the examined catfish were infected with digenean trematodes inclu...
Stein, Miguel; Greenberg, Zalman; Boaz, Mona; Handzel, Zeev T; Meshesha, Mesfin K.; Bentwich, Zvi
Helminth infection may be protective against allergy and account for the low prevalence of allergy in developing countries. We studied prospectively the prevalence of allergy in Ethiopian immigrants with heavy helminth infection on arrival in Israel, and again after a year of adjustment to an urban industrialized setting, to explore the roles of helminth infection, changed environment and background immunity on the manifestations of allergy. 126 newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants were studied...
Brown, J.; Baisley, K.; Kavishe, B; Changalucha, J.; Andreasen, A.; Mayaud, P.; Gumodoka, B; Kapiga, S.; Hayes, R.; Watson-Jones, D.
BACKGROUND: Endemic malaria and helminth infections in sub-Saharan Africa can act as immunological modulators and impact responses to standard immunizations. We conducted a cohort study to measure the influence of malaria and helminth infections on the immunogenicity of the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine. METHODS: We evaluated the association between malaria and helminth infections, and HPV-16/18 antibody responses among 298 Tanzanian females aged 10-25 years enrolled in a randomized controlled t...
Knopp, Stefanie; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Stothard, J Russell; Khamis, I. Simba; Rollinson, David; Marti, Hanspeter; Utzinger, Jürg
Background The control of helminth infections and prevention of anemia in developing countries are of considerable public health importance. The purpose of this study was to determine patterns and risk factors of helminth infections and anemia in a rural and a peri-urban community of Zanzibar, Tanzania, in the context of national helminth control programs. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a community-based cross-sectional study in 454 individuals by examining at least two stool s...
von Sperling, M; Chernicharo, C A L; Soares, A M E; Zerbini, A M
The paper presents the monitoring results of a pilot UASB reactor followed by a baffled polishing pond treating domestic sewage in Brazil. Longitudinal profiles of E coli and helminth eggs along the baffled pond have been undertaken. The experimental results have been compared with von Sperling's model for coliform removal and Ayres' model for helminth eggs removal, and the fitting was considered satisfactory in both cases. The distribution of the helminth species along the system is also presented. PMID:12188551
Nguiffo Nguete Daniel; Wabo Pone Josue; Mpoame Mbida
The gastro-intestinal helminth parasites of goliath frog (Conraua goliath) from the Littoral Region of Cameroon in the Localities of Loum, Yabassi and Nkondjock were surveyed. Out of the 30 goliath frogs examined (13 males and 17 females) between April and May 2013, 26 (85%) contained at least one helminth parasite and yielded a total of nine hundred and seventy three (973) helminths comprising: Nematodes (90.5%), Trematodes (9.4%) and Pentastomids (0.1%). Nematodes included: Africana taylori...
Biswal, Debraj; Nandi, Anadi Prasad; Chatterjee, Soumendranath
The present paper is an attempt to study the interaction between the helminth parasite and bacteria residing in the gut of domestic pigeon, Columba livia domestica. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the gut bacterial isolate were done and the isolate was identified as Staphylococcus sp. DB1 (JX442510). The interaction of Staphylococcus sp. with Cotugnia cuneata, an intestinal helminth parasite of domestic pigeon was studied on the basis of the difference between 'mean worm burden' of antibiotic treated infected pigeons and infected pigeons without any antibiotic treatment. The ANOVA and Tukey tests of the data obtained showed that antibiotic treatment reduced the mean worm burden significantly. The biochemical properties of Staphylococcus sp. DB1 (JX442510) also showed a mutualistic relationship with the physiology of C. cuneata. PMID:27065609
Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.;
are prevalent in children enrolled in pre-schools in Zambia. Future studies should explore local factors associated with transmission of these infections, and consequently provide the necessary health education to parents and teachers. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Royal...... helminths in children attending pre-school or day-care centres in Kafue District, Zambia. Single stool samples were collected from 403 children from 10 pre-schools and Were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears to identify and quantify helminths. A commercial immunofluorescence kit was used...... was 28.0 and 29.0%, respectively, with more girls infected with Giardia (33.8%) than boys (22.7%) (P = 0.02). Significant differences in infections with A. lumbricoides and Cryptosporidium were observed between the various pre-schools (P
Soledad Gómez, M; Gracenea, M; Montoliu, I; Feliu, C; Monleon, A; Fernandez, J; Enseñat, C
The faunistic results regarding intestinal parasitism by protozoa and helminths in 21 primate species (three Cebidae, thirteen Cercopithecidae, one Hylobatidae, one Lemuridae, three Pongidae) are reported. The primate species were housed in four separate galleries. Six faecal samples of each host species were subjected to coprological analysis. Fifteen parasite species were detected: 11 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, E. chattoni, E. hartmanni, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Endolimax nana, Giardia intestinalis, Chilomastix mesnilii, Enteromonas hominis, Trichomonas intestinalis, Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis hominis) and 4 helminths (Ancylostoma sp., Strongyloides fuelleborni, Strongyloides sp., and Trichuris trichiura). The results reveal certain parasitic similarities between host species housed in the same gallery; however, these primate species do not always carry identical parasite species. PMID:9210027
Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L; Lule, Swaib;
Background. Helminth and malaria coinfections are common in the tropics. We investigated the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to these parasites might influence susceptibility to infections such as malaria in childhood.Methods. In a birth cohort of 2,345 mother-child pairs in Uganda, maternal...... helminth and malaria infection status was determined during pregnancy, and childhood malaria episodes recorded from birth to age five years. We examined associations between maternal infections and malaria in the offspring.Results. Common maternal infections were hookworm (45%), Mansonella perstans (21......%), Schistosoma mansoni (18%), and Plasmodium falciparum (11%). At age 5 years, 69% of the children were still under follow-up. The incidence of malaria was 34 episodes per 100 child-years, and the mean prevalence of asymptomatic malaria at annual visits was 5.4%. Maternal hookworm and M. perstans infections were...
Mafiana, C F; Osho, M B; Sam-Wobo, S
A survey of 612 black rats, Rattus rattus (282 mates and 330 females), for infections with helminth parasites was carried out in Abeokuta, in southwest Nigeria. Three hundred and ninety six (64.7%) were infected with one or more of seven species of helminths comprising three cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, Taenia taeniaeformis (cyst) and Raillietina sp.) three nematodes (Mastophorus muris, Trichuris muris and Syphacia sp.) and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis). Although the prevalence of infection in males (76.6%) was more than in females (54.5%) (P130 g (73.9%, MI=9.3). Moniliformis moniliformis was the most common species encountered (39.2%) and had the highest mean intensity in both sexes (x=7.4+/-0.74). Considering the rat-man proximity, this finding has considerable public health implications. PMID:9705679
Kollipara, Ramya; Peranteau, Andrew J; Nawas, Zeena Y; Tong, Yun; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Yan, Albert C; Lupi, Omar; Tyring, Stephen K
Given increased international travel, immigration, changing climate conditions, and the increased incidence of iatrogenic immunosuppression, fungal, protozoan, helminthic, and ectoparasitic infections that were once uncommon are being seeing more frequently in the Western hemisphere. However, the diagnosis and management of these infections is fraught with a lack of consistency because there is a dearth of dermatology literature on the cutaneous manifestations of these infections. In addition, delays in the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases can lead to significant patient morbidity and mortality. We review the epidemiology, cutaneous manifestations, diagnostic modalities, and treatment options for emerging fungal, protozoan, helminthic, and ectoparasitic infections. It should be noted, however, that throughout this review we cite statistics documenting their increased incidence to back-up these infections as emerging, and although some of the diagnoses are clinical, others rely on newer laboratory tests, and the possibility exists that the increased incidence could be caused by better detection methods. PMID:27317513
Bastos, Veridiana Karmann; Cutolo, Silvana Audra; Doria, Maria do Carmo Oliveira; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe
Some epidemiologic studies conducted in developing countries demonstrated a high incidence of enteroparasites, Ascaris sp. being the most prevalent. Therefore, the use of sewage sludge in agriculture may pose risks to human health. In order to protect public health, a Brazilian regulation has established standards regarding its use in rural areas. The objective of this study was to quantify Ascaris sp. and other helminth eggs in sewage sludge from five wastewater treatment plants from a dense metropolitan region, and also to check compliance with the law. The analysis was carried according to USEPA 2003 . A rich parasitological fauna was found, with a prevalence of the eggs of Ascaris sp. (9.55%). The samples analyzed presented a large variety of helminth eggs, and Ascaris sp. proved to be the most prevalent which put in evidence that its application poses public health concerns. PMID:23072414
Full Text Available Mapping and modelling helminth infections in cattle and sheep in Europe through advanced geospatial research was one of the main task of GLOWORM, a three year project (2012-2014 funded under the European Commission’s (EC seventh framework programme (FP7. Liver flukes as Fasciola hepatica and gastrointestinal nematodes, such as Haemonchus contortus were chosen for the project since these parasites constitute a major cause of lost productivity in small and large ruminants. The output of the GLOWORM project delivered guidelines for standardized and harmonized cross-sectional surveys of helminth parasites in ruminants allowing the development of updated prevalence maps and multi-scale, spatial models for the European area.
Papdopoulos, H; Himonas, C; Papazahariadou, M; Antoniadou-Sotiriadou, K
Twenty species of helminth parasites were identified from fox, wolf, jackal and wild cat material collected in Greece. Of the 314 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) examined, 18 helminth species were recovered comprising one trematode, eight cestodes, seven nematodes and two acanthocephalans, with the cestode species Mesocestoides sp. (73.2%), Joyeuxiella echinorhynchoides (24.5%) and the nematode species Uncinaria stenocephala (43.9%), and Toxara canis (28.6%) being the most prevalent. Five cestode and three nematode species were reported from six wolves (CaniS lupus), together with one trematode, three cestode and four nematode species from five jackals (Canis aureus) and two cestode and three nematode species from four wild cats (Felis silvestris) examined. The species J. echinorhynchoides, Taenia crassiceps and Onicola canis and the genera Spirometra, Rictularia and Pachysentis are reported here for the first time in Greece. The results are discussed in the light of the feeding characteristics of wild carnivores in rural areas of Greece. PMID:9705680
Canaris Albert G
Full Text Available Thirteen species of helminth parasites were recovered from six species of charadriid shorebirds (Aves: Charadriiformes from Belize: the ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres, the snowy plover, Charadrius alexandrinus, the semipalmated plover, C. semipalmatus, the killdeer, C. vociferus, the white-rumped sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis, and the black-bellied plover, Pluvialis squatarola. Cestode species were predominant (N = 8, followed by trematode species (N = 3 and acanthocephala (N = 2. The trematode, Paramaritremopsis solielangi infected four of the six species of hosts. The cestodes, Nadejdolepis litoralis and N. paranitidulans infected three and two host species respectively. Helminth parasite species were contagious (clumped and not evenly distributed among hosts. Twelve of the 13 species were generalists. The one specialist Microphallus kinsellae was recovered from one C. fuscicollis. Three of the four types of feeding guilds were present and in approximately the same number. All but M. kinsellae have been reported from other species of hosts, mostly from Eurasia and North America.
Full Text Available A wide variety of helminth parasite, which is quite prevalent in Iran, can infect man by the oral route. The main sources of infections are meat, vegetables and water. Some of these parasites, e.g. Cysticercus bovis, C. cellulose, Trichinella spairalis and Anisakis larvae, are present in the tissue of food animal. Human infection establish by consuming raw or inadequately cooked pork, beef or fish. The infective stages of some helminths, e.g. Trichostrongylus spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichura, Fasciola spp. Dicrocelium dendriticum and Dracuncwlus medinensis may infect man through vegetable and drinking water. Using human and animal manure as fertilizer of the soil, facilitate the transmission of these parasites to man. Contaminated food materials can pay also a role in, human hydatidosis. Hygiene is a key factor in the control of all conditions and both medical and veterinary professions have an important function in this field.
Tumour marker analysis has increased our understanding of the presence of tumours in the body. Carcino-embryonic antigen, CEA, is one of the best studied tumour markers and has proved an ideal diagnostic adjuvant. It has helped in quantifying the amount of disease present in a patient and thence to make accurate prognosis on the various diagnosed ailments. At UCH, it is observed that there is an increase in cancer related ailments and therefore the need for early diagnosis is more compelling in our environment to mitigate future cost of managing advanced manifestation
Full Text Available Abstract Background Puumala virus, the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE, is the most prevalent hantavirus in Europe. The risk for human infection seems to be strongly correlated with the prevalence of Puumala virus (PUUV in populations of its reservoir host species, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. In humans, the infection risks of major viral diseases are affected by the presence of helminth infections. We therefore proposed to analyse the influence of both helminth community and landscape on the prevalence of PUUV among bank vole populations in the Ardennes, a PUUV endemic area in France. Results Among the 313 voles analysed, 37 had anti-PUUV antibodies. Twelve gastro-intestinal helminth species were recorded among all voles sampled. We showed that PUUV seroprevalence strongly increased with age or sexual maturity, especially in the northern forests (massif des Ardennes. The helminth community structure significantly differed between this part and the woods or hedgerows of the southern cretes pre-ardennaises. Using PUUV RNA quantification, we identified significant coinfections between PUUV and gastro-intestinal helminths in the northern forests only. More specifically, PUUV infection was positively associated with the presence of Heligmosomum mixtum, and in a lesser extent, Aonchotheca muris-sylvatici. The viral load of PUUV infected individuals tended to be higher in voles coinfected with H. mixtum. It was significantly lower in voles coinfected with A. muris-sylvatici, reflecting the influence of age on these latter infections. Conclusions This is the first study to emphasize hantavirus - helminth coinfections in natural populations. It also highlights the importance to consider landscape when searching for such associations. We have shown that landscape characteristics strongly influence helminth community structure as well as PUUV distribution. False associations might therefore be evidenced if geographic patterns of helminths or PUUV
Tanner, Susan; Chuquimia-Choque, Maria E; Huanca, Tomás; McDade, Thomas W; Leonard, William R; Reyes-García, Victoria
Social science has long recognized the importance of understanding how interactions between culture and behavior shape disease patterns, especially in resource-poor areas where individuals draw on multiple medical treatments to maintain health. While global health programs aimed at controlling high infection rates of soil-transmitted helminthes among indigenous groups often acknowledge the value of local culture, little research has been able to examine this value. This study investigates the association between parental ethnomedical knowledge, parental biomedical knowledge, and household sanitation behavior and childhood soil-transmitted helminth infections among a group of foragers-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon (Tsimane'). During 2007, a parasitological survey was completed for 329 children (≤ 16 years of age) from 109 households in combination with a comprehensive survey of both of the child's parents to assess biomedical and ethnomedical knowledge and household sanitary environment. Soil-transmitted helminthes were found to be common with 67% of sample positive for hookworm species. Indices that capture a household's relative state of risky and preventive hygienic behavior were significantly associated with risk of hookworm infection. Mother's but not father's ethnomedical knowledge was also negatively associated with a child's probability of being positive for hookworm infection. The effect was stronger for young children and boys. Like many rural populations, Tsimane' actively draw upon multiple medical systems to respond to health challenges. Integration into markets and national societies is likely to affect local medical systems by increasing the use of biomedicine as formal education prioritizes biomedical over ethnomedical systems. This study underscores the value of considering both ethnomedical knowledge systems and household hygiene in public health campaigns to treat and control soil-transmitted helminths. There is no question that providing
Strunz, Eric C.; David G Addiss; Meredith E Stocks; Stephanie Ogden; Jürg Utzinger; Freeman, Matthew C.
Editors' Summary Background Worldwide, more than a billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), parasitic worms that live in the human intestine (gut). These intestinal worms, including roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm, mainly occur in tropical and subtropical regions and are most common in developing countries, where personal hygiene is poor, there is insufficient access to clean water, and sanitation (disposal of human feces and urine) is inadequate or absent. STHs c...
Kathrin Ziegelbauer; Benjamin Speich; Daniel Mäusezahl; Robert Bos; Jennifer Keiser; Jürg Utzinger
Editors' Summary Background Worldwide, more than a billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths, parasitic worms that live in the human intestine (gut). Roundworm, whipworm, and hookworm infections mainly occur in tropical and subtropical regions and are most common in developing countries, where personal hygiene is poor, there is insufficient access to clean water, and sanitation (disposal of human feces and urine) is inadequate or absent. Because infected individuals excrete ...
Strunz, Eric C.; Addiss, David G; Stocks, Meredith E.; Ogden, Stephanie; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C.
Editors' Summary Background Worldwide, more than a billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), parasitic worms that live in the human intestine (gut). These intestinal worms, including roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm, mainly occur in tropical and subtropical regions and are most common in developing countries, where personal hygiene is poor, there is insufficient access to clean water, and sanitation (disposal of human feces and urine) is inadequate or absent. STHs c...
Sheferaw, Desie; Alemu, Melese
The prevalence of equines helminthosis studied from November 2011 to May 2012 in two agroecological zones Damot-Gale district, Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, and to see the distribution of internal helminth parasites of equines. A total of 500 faecal samples collected for coprological examination of gastrointestinal helminth ova. From each species of studied animals 200 positive faecal samples were pooled and cultured, and then the larvae recovered and identified. The coprological examination revealed 100 % Strongyle, 16.6 % Fasciola species, 10.2 % Parascaris equorum, 2.1 % Oxyuris equi, 1.1 % Strongyloides westeri, and 0.7 % Gastrodiscus species in donkeys. The coproscopic examination of horse faeces revealed prevalence of 100 % Strongyle, 17.5 % Fasciola species, 5.5 % Parascaris equorum, 1.4 % Oxyuris equi, 0.5 % Strongyloides westeri. A statistically significant variations in the prevalence of equines helminthes were not observed among putative risk factors (P > 0.05), except in the case of Parascaris equorum and Fasciola species, in which statistical significant variations were observed with age and purpose of the animal, respectively (P < 0.05). The average egg per gram of faeces in this study was 689.8, with a range of 100-1,600 eggs per gram of faeces. Statistically significant variations in mean eggs per gram of faeces were observed in all the considered putative risk factors (P < 0.05), except in the case of sexes. The coproculture performed on 200 pooled faecal samples revealed that Cyathostome species, Strongyius vulgaris, Trichostrongylus axei, Triodontophorus species, Strongylus equinus, Strongylus edentatus and Oesophagodontus robustus were the major helminth parasites of equines in Damot-Gale district, Wolaita. PMID:26064026
Hinrichsen, Lena Karina
The consumers’ motivation to buy organic products includes animal welfare aspects, and even though the retail market share for organic eggs in Denmark is relative high, there are a number of welfare issues in the organic egg production compared to other production systems, like higher mortality and prevalence of helminth infections, that are not in agreement with the consumers’ expectation. The aim of this PhD study was to investigate animal welfare in organic egg production in Denmark, wi...
Greenland, K; Dixon, R.; Khan, SA; Gunawardena, K; Kihara, JH; Smith, JL; L. Drake; Makkar, P; Raman, S; Singh, S.; Kumar, S.
Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) infect over a billion individuals worldwide. In India, 241 million children are estimated to need deworming to avert the negative consequences STH infections can have on child health and development. In February-April 2011, 17 million children in Bihar State were dewormed during a government-led school-based deworming campaign. Prior to programme implementation, a study was conducted to assess STH prevalence in the school-age population to direct t...
Graciela T Navone; Juliana Notarnicola; Santiago Nava; M. del Rosario Robles; Carlos Galliari; Marcela Lareschi
The assemblage of arthropods and helminths, present in sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae) from a broad wetland area of the Río de la Plata, Argentina, was studied. A total of 250 sigmodontines were captured during a two-year sampling period: Scapteromys aquaticus and Oxymycterus rufus were the most abundant hosts, followed by Oligoryzomys nigripes, Akodon azarae, Oligoryzomys flavescens, and Deltamys kempi. There were 33102 parasites collected, corresponding with Rhopalopsyllidae fleas (Siphon...
GS da Silva; DM Romera; LEC Fonseca; MV Meireles
Abstract The Brazilian poultry industry is an outstanding national and international agribusiness sector. Among the Brazilian states, São Paulo is the largest producer of commercial eggs and the fourth largest producer and exporter of chicken meat. Alternatively, semi-intensive and/or organic poultry production have also obtained a significant share of the domestic market as a result of consumer demand. Helminths affect the performance of the birds, causing significant direct or indirect loss...
Yaya Beas, R.E.
Where fresh water resources are scarce, treated wastewater becomes an attractive alternative for agricultural irrigation. However, the presence of large amounts of pathogens, even in treated wastewater, constraints its productive use, which is aggravated when sanitation and public health are poor. Among pathogenic indicators, helminth eggs are one of the most persistent microorganisms in treated effluents that may survive for several months in the irrigated fields. Application of upflow anaer...
P. N. Panigrahi
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the presence of gastrointestinal helminthic parasites in clinically apparent canines of Bhubaneswar, Odisha and to determine the risk of zoonotic infection to dog owners through questionnaire survey. Materials and Methods: A total of 154 dogs, with clinical signs of gastroenteritis were examined for the presence of helminthic ova and /or larvae in their faecal sample by direct smear and/ or floatation and centrifugation method. Prevalence was determined by sex wise, age wise, and breed wise. A structured questionnaire on 50 dog owners was designed to gather information on dog ownership, management and related risks on public health. Results: In the present investigation, the overall prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths infection was 41.46%. The infection rate was highest for mixed parasitic infection (26.57% followed by Ancylostoma caninum (23.44%, Toxocara canis (20.31% and lowest for Taenia spp. (3.13%. In relation to different groups, the prevalence was higher in male than female, highest in younger animals and it was shown a decreasing trend as age increased. It was also higher in non-descriptive breeds than pure and exotic breeds. Very few dog owners (10% were conscious about that canine parasite could be transmitted to humans but none of them could provide correct information on the mode of transmission. Only 12 % dog owners had maintained standard deworming schedule. Conclusion: The findings showed that the high levels of ignorance among dog owners about canine helminthic parasites and transmission coupled with significant infection rates among the dogs in the community warrants immediate action needs to be taken to decrease infection rate in dogs and to raise awareness among the community about zoonotic diseases.
I., Ziadinov; P., Deplazes; A., Mathis; B., Mutunova; K., Abdykerimov; R., Nurgaziev; P.R, Torgerson
Echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in central Asia. A study of the helminth fauna of foxes from Naryn Oblast in central Kyrgyzstan was undertaken to investigate the abundance of Echinococcus multilocularis in a district where a high prevalence of this parasite had previously been detected in dogs. A total of 151 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were investigated in a necropsy study. Of these 96 (64%) were infected with E. multilocularis with a mean abundance of 8669 parasites per fox. This indi...
Laura Rinaldi; Guy Hendrickx; Giuseppe Cringoli; Annibale Biggeri; Els Ducheyne; Dolores Catelan; Eric Morgan; Diana Williams; Johannes Charlier; Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna; Jozef Vercruysse
Mapping and modelling helminth infections in cattle and sheep in Europe through advanced geospatial research was one of the main task of GLOWORM, a three year project (2012-2014) funded under the European Commission’s (EC) seventh framework programme (FP7). Liver flukes as Fasciola hepatica and gastrointestinal nematodes, such as Haemonchus contortus were chosen for the project since these parasites constitute a major cause of lost productivity in small and large ruminants. The output of the ...
Torres-Acosta, J.F.J.; Hoste, Herve; Salem, A. Z. M.; Chan-Pérez, J.I.
Use of plants containing bioactive compounds to control of helminths in the gastrointestinaltract, either as phytotherapeutic or nutraceutical options, has been a growing researcharea in recent years. We discuss strategies to identify viable candidate compounds within vitro and in vivo anthelmintic properties. We also discuss factors which may influencein vitro and in vivo results, and difficulties of translating in vitro results to in vivo conditionsare considered using experiences with smal...
The livers and lungs of 5596 sheep (443 local, 473 Romanian and 4680 Australian) slaughtered in Amman Central Abattoir during November-December 1999 were examined in routine meat inspection procedures for helminths. Dictyocaulus filaria, hydatid cyst, Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium dendriticum were recovered from the examined sheep with variable prevalences. Dicrocoelium dendriticum is reported from the livers of imported sheep in Jordan for the first time.
The only commercially available irradiated vaccine is Dictol, the anti-Dictiyocaulus viviparus vaccine used in cattle. This succesful product has been in use for over 20 years. Irradiated vaccines have been applied to a number of different host-parasite systems and it has been shown that a high degree of protection can be conferred on the host by administration of radiation-attenuated larvae. In this paper, present situation of radiation attenuated vaccines against helminthic diseases of ruminants is reviewed. (author)
Ziegelbauer, Kathrin; Speich, Benjamin; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Bos, Robert; Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg
Editors' Summary Background Worldwide, more than a billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths, parasitic worms that live in the human intestine (gut). Roundworm, whipworm, and hookworm infections mainly occur in tropical and subtropical regions and are most common in developing countries, where personal hygiene is poor, there is insufficient access to clean water, and sanitation (disposal of human feces and urine) is inadequate or absent. Because infected individuals excrete ...
HOSTE, H; Torres-Acosta, J.F.J.
Infections with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) remain a major threat for ruminant production, health and welfare associated with outdoor breeding. The control of these helminth parasites has relied on the strategic or tactical use of chemical anthelmintic (AH) drugs. However, the expanding development and diffusion of anthelmintic resistance in nematode populations imposes the need to explore and validate novel solutions (or to re-discover old knowledge) for a more sustainable control of...
Full Text Available A programme periodically distributing anthelminthic drugs to school-aged children for the control of soiltransmitted helminthiasis was launched in Zanzibar in the early 1990s. We investigated the spatial distribution of soiltransmitted helminth infections, including Strongyloides stercoralis, in 336 children from six districts in Unguja, Zanzibar, in 2007. One stool sample per child was examined with the Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate and Baermann methods. The point prevalence of the different helminth infections was compared to the geological characteristics of the study sites. The observed prevalences for Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and S. stercoralis were 35.5%, 12.2%, 11.9% and 2.2%, respectively, with considerable spatial heterogeneity. Whilst T. trichiura and hookworm infections were found in all six districts, no A. lumbricoides infections were recorded in the urban setting and only a low prevalence (2.2% was observed in the South district. S. stercoralis infections were found in four districts with the highest prevalence (4.0% in the West district. The prevalence of infection with any soil-transmitted helminth was highest in the North A district (69.6% and lowest in the urban setting (22.4%. A. lumbricoides, hookworm and, with the exception of the North B district, S. stercoralis infections were observed to be more prevalent in the settings north of Zanzibar Town, which are characterized by alluvial clayey soils, moist forest regions and a higher precipitation. After a decade of large-scale administration of anthelminthic drugs, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections across Unguja is still considerable. Hence, additional measures, such as improving access to adequate sanitation and clean water and continued health education, are warranted to successfully control soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Zanzibar.
HOLLAND, CELIA; Jackson, Andrew
PUBLISHED The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) in children aged 0?25 months and to identify the associated risk factors for Ascaris lumbricoides infections. The study was conducted in three villages outside Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria in May/June 2005. Stool samples (369) were processed by formol-ether concentration. Ascaris lumbricoides (12.2%) was the dominant infection. Age, father's occupation an...
Full Text Available We present the results of helminthological examinations of 25 otter carcasses (14 males and 11 females and 117 specimens of otter faeces (spraints, collected from both natural and transformed ecosystems of Belorussian Polesie between 1981 and May of 1999. Carcasses were collected from hunters, whilst the spraints were collected along riverbanks and adjoining channels. The rate of infection of otters by helminthes, determined by dissection, was found to be 76.0%.
Knopp, Stefanie; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Simba Khamis, I; Mgeni, Ali F; Stothard, J Russell; Rollinson, David; Marti, Hanspeter; Utzinger, Jürg
A programme periodically distributing anthelminthic drugs to school-aged children for the control of soiltransmitted helminthiasis was launched in Zanzibar in the early 1990s. We investigated the spatial distribution of soiltransmitted helminth infections, including Strongyloides stercoralis, in 336 children from six districts in Unguja, Zanzibar, in 2007. One stool sample per child was examined with the Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate and Baermann methods. The point prevalence of the different helminth infections was compared to the geological characteristics of the study sites. The observed prevalences for Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and S. stercoralis were 35.5%, 12.2%, 11.9% and 2.2%, respectively, with considerable spatial heterogeneity. Whilst T. trichiura and hookworm infections were found in all six districts, no A. lumbricoides infections were recorded in the urban setting and only a low prevalence (2.2%) was observed in the South district. S. stercoralis infections were found in four districts with the highest prevalence (4.0%) in the West district. The prevalence of infection with any soil-transmitted helminth was highest in the North A district (69.6%) and lowest in the urban setting (22.4%). A. lumbricoides, hookworm and, with the exception of the North B district, S. stercoralis infections were observed to be more prevalent in the settings north of Zanzibar Town, which are characterized by alluvial clayey soils, moist forest regions and a higher precipitation. After a decade of large-scale administration of anthelminthic drugs, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections across Unguja is still considerable. Hence, additional measures, such as improving access to adequate sanitation and clean water and continued health education, are warranted to successfully control soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Zanzibar. PMID:19021108
Full Text Available A survey on the prevalence and intensity of infection with gastrointestinal helminths of Dorper sheep in relation to age and weather factors was carried out on a ranch in Kajiado district, a semi-arid area of Kenya for a period of 13 months (May 1999 to May 2000. Faecal samples from lambs (3 months to 1 year, yearlings (1-2 years and adult breeding ewes (2-4 years were examined for helminth egg output and helminth genus composition at 3-week intervals. The results indicated that the prevalence of strongyle and tapeworms infections were highest for lambs, followed by the adult breeding ewes and then for the yearlings. In all age groups the proportions of infected animals were higher during the wet season than in the dry season for both nematodes and tapeworms. The mean strongyle egg counts were higher during the dry season for lambs, but were higher during the wet season for the other age groups. Mixed strongyle infections were detected, with Trichostrongylus (55 %, Haemonchus (28 %, Cooperia (10.5 % and Oesophagostomum (6.5 % being the most frequently encountered genera throughout the study period. The trends in strongyle faecal egg counts indicated the occurrence of hypobiosis, with resumption of development towards the end of the dry season and at the onset of the short rains in October and November. Self-cure was also observed in September and November in all age groups, although less frequently in lactating ewes. The prevalence and intensities of infection with gastrointestinal helminths in this area appeared to be influenced by the age of the host and weather factors.
Dursun, G; Acar, A; Turgay, M; Calgüner, M
This study was designed to evaluate the association between certain HLA antigens and tympanosclerosis. The serum concentrations of HLA antigens were measured by a microlymphocytotoxicity technique in patients with tympanosclerosis and compared with a healthy control group. The serum levels of HLA-B35 and -DR3 were significantly higher in the patients with tympanosclerosis. This result suggests that certain types of HLA antigens may play an important role as an indicator or mediator in the pathogenesis of tympanosclerosis. PMID:9088683
Wiktor, TJ; Koprowski, H
Antigenic variants of CVS-11 strain of rabies virus were selected after treatment of virus populations with monoclonal antibodies directed against the glycoprotein antigen of the virus. These variants resisted neutralization by the hybridoma antibody used for their selection. Two independently mutating antigenic sites could be distinguished when five variants were tested with nine hybridoma antibodies. The frequency of single epitope variants in a cloned rabies virus seed was approximately 1:...
Wong, Weng Kin; Foo, Phiaw Chong; Roze, Mohamad Noor Mohamad; Pim, Chau Dam; Subramaniam, Puvaneswari; Lim, Boon Huat
Background. Orang Asli (aborigine) children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC), Kato-Katz (KK), and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33) of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33) of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97%) were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs. PMID:27366156
Weng Kin Wong
Full Text Available Background. Orang Asli (aborigine children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC, Kato-Katz (KK, and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33 of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33 of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97% were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs.
Britton, Collette; Winter, Alan D; Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. They were first identified in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where the miRNAs lin-4 and let-7 were shown to be essential for regulating correct developmental progression. The sequence of let-7 was subsequently found to be conserved in higher organisms and changes in expression of let-7, as well as other miRNAs, are associated with certain cancers, indicating important regulatory roles. Some miRNAs have been shown to have essential functions, but the roles of many are currently unknown. With the increasing availability of genome sequence data, miRNAs have now been identified from a number of parasitic helminths, by deep sequencing of small RNA libraries and bioinformatic approaches. While some miRNAs are widely conserved in a range of organisms, others are helminth-specific and many are novel to each species. Here we review the potential roles of miRNAs in regulating helminth development, in interacting with the host environment and in development of drug resistance. Use of fluorescently-labeled small RNAs demonstrates uptake by parasites, at least in vitro. Therefore delivery of miRNA inhibitors or mimics has potential to alter miRNA activity, providing a useful tool for probing the roles of miRNAs and suggesting novel routes to therapeutics for parasite control. PMID:25057458
Bogoch, Isaac I; Andrews, Jason R; Speich, Benjamin; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Stothard, J Russell; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer
We evaluated the Newton Nm1, a commercially available handheld light microscope and compared it with conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. A total of 91 Kato-Katz thick smears were examined by experienced microscopists and helminth eggs were counted and expressed as eggs per gram of stool (EPG). Mean egg counts were significantly higher with the conventional light microscope (5,190 EPG versus 2,386 EPG for Ascaris lumbricoides; 826 versus 456 for Trichuris trichiura; both P < 0.05). Using regression coefficients and accounting for intensity of infection, we found that the agreement between the two devices was excellent for both species (κ = 0.90, 95% confidence interval = 0.82-0.99 for A. lumbricoides and κ = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.00 for T. trichiura). The Newton Nm1 microscope may be a useful tool for the detection and quantification of soil-transmitted helminth infection in clinical, epidemiologic, and public health settings. PMID:25246697
Bogoch, Isaac I; Coulibaly, Jean T; Andrews, Jason R; Speich, Benjamin; Keiser, Jennifer; Stothard, J Russell; N'goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg
The diagnosis of parasitic worm (helminth) infections requires specialized laboratory settings, but most affected individuals reside in locations without access to such facilities. We tested two portable microscopic devices for the diagnosis of helminth infections in a cross-sectional survey in rural Côte d'Ivoire. We examined 164 stool samples under a light microscope and then re-examined with a commercial portable light microscope and an experimental mobile phone microscope for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths. Additionally, 180 filtered urine samples were examined by standard microscopy and compared with the portable light microscope for detection of Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Conventional microscopy was considered the diagnostic reference standard. For S. mansoni, S. haematobium and Trichuris trichiura, the portable light microscope showed sensitivities of 84.8%, 78.6% and 81.5%, respectively, and specificities of 85.7%, 91.0% and 93.0%, respectively. For S. mansoni and T. trichiura, we found sensitivities for the mobile phone microscope of 68.2% and 30.8%, respectively, and specificities of 64.3% and 71.0%, respectively. We conclude that the portable light microscope has sufficient diagnostic yield for Schistosoma and T. trichiura infections, while the mobile phone microscope has only modest sensitivity in its current experimental set-up. Development of portable diagnostic technologies that can be used at point-of-sample collection will enhance diagnostic coverage in clinical and epidemiological settings. PMID:24776232
Rizvi, Anjum N; Bhutia, Pasang T
Helminth parasite fauna in anuran amphibia were investigated during the general faunistic surveys of Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary, situated in Haryana state. Three species of amphibian hosts were found to harbour 12 genera of helminth parasites. The prevalence, intensity and abundance were studied. Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis harboured maximum parasite species followed by Fejervarya limnocharis and Duttaphrynus melanostictus. In E. cyanophlyctis, among nematode parasites, the genus Camallanus was most prevalent followed by Cosmocerca and Cosmocercoides, whereas, Rhabdias and Aplectana were the least prevalent genera. Among trematode parasites, Ganeo was the most prevalent genus and least was Diplodiscus. Acanthocephalus was recovered only once and no cestode infection was found. In F. limnocharis, the most prevalent nematode genus was Oxysomatium, followed by Cosmocerca and the only trematode recorded was Ganeo, whereas, cestode Proteocephalus was also recovered once. In D. melanostictus, only two nematode genera were recovered of which Oxysomatium was dominant followed by Cosmocerca. The helminth parasite community in anuran amphibia of Kalesar WLS comprised 52.9% of nematodes, 46.2% of trematodes, 0.58% cestodes and 0.29% acanthocephala. PMID:21966125
Hussen, Heyradin; Chaka, Hassen; Deneke, Yosef; Bitew, Molalegne
A cross-sectional survey on gastrointestinal helminths was conducted on 124 chickens raised under traditional management system in two selected districts namely Ada'a and Adamitulu of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 111 (89.5%) were found to harbor one of the five different helminth parasites and 13 (10.48%) were free of helminths parasites. The study also found that 103 (83.0%) and 72 (58.0%) of the examined chickens were invariably infected by diverse species of cestodes and nematodes species, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference (p Ascaridia galli 40 (32.0%), Gongylonema ingluvicola 32 (25.8%), Dispharynx nasuta 5 (4.0%), Heterakis isolonche 11 (8.9%), Allodapa suctoria 9 (7.3%), Capillaria anatis 4 (3.2%) and Heterakis dispar 8 (6.5%). The study also tried to see the prevalence of these parasites in relation with age and sex however, it has no significant difference (p > 0.05) with those risk factors. On the other hand district significantly affect the prevalence of some parasites (p < 0.05). This study strongly suggested that helminthosis is a very serious problem of backyard chickens in eastern Shewa zone of Oromia and appropriate control strategies need to be devised. PMID:24175425
Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong
In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia. PMID:25548418
Sager, H; Moret, Ch Steiner; Grimm, F; Deplazes, P; Doherr, M G; Gottstein, B
Coproscopic examination of 505 dogs originating from the western or central part of Switzerland revealed the presence (prevalence data) of the following helminthes: Toxocara canis (7.1%), hookworms (6.9%), Trichuris vulpis (5.5%), Toxascaris leonina (1.3%), Taeniidae (1.3%), Capillaria spp. (0.8%), and Diphyllobothrium latum (0.4%). Potential risk factors for infection were identified by a questionnaire: dogs from rural areas significantly more often had hookworms and taeniid eggs in their feces when compared to urban family dogs. Access to small rodents, offal, and carrion was identified as risk factor for hookworm and Taeniidae, while feeding of fresh and uncooked meat did not result in higher prevalences for these helminths. A group of 111 dogs was treated every 3 months with a combined medication of pyrantel embonate, praziquantel, and febantel, and fecal samples were collected for coproscopy in monthly intervals. Despite treatment, the yearly incidence of T. canis was 32%, while hookworms, T. vulpis, Capillaria spp., and Taeniidae reached incidences ranging from 11 to 22%. Fifty-seven percent of the 111 dogs had helminth eggs in their feces at least once during the 1-year study period. This finding implicates that an infection risk with potential zoonotic pathogens cannot be ruled out for the dog owner despite regular deworming four times a year. PMID:16374614
Pullola, T; Vierimaa, J; Saari, S; Virtala, A-M; Nikander, S; Sukura, A
In this survey, the prevalence of canine gastrointestinal helminths in Finland was investigated by coprological examination (n = 541) and possible risk factors for helminth infections in dogs were analysed. In addition, the dog owners (n = 296) completed a questionnaire about use of anthelmintics, sources of information about parasites and antiparasitic treatments and reasons for choosing the drugs. The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths was 5.9%. Eggs from four different species were identified in the faecal samples. Toxocara canis eggs were present in 17 dogs (3.1%), Uncinaria stenocephala eggs in 14 dogs (2.6%) and Diphyllobothrium latum eggs in 2 dogs (0.4%). Moreover, one sample contained eggs of Trichuris vulpis (0.2%). Kennel housing and visits abroad were identified as risk factors for T. canis and U. stenocephala infections. Most dogs (86.0%) received anthelmintic treatment at least once a year. Hunting dogs were dewormed least; one-third was treated less than once a year. Approximately, half of the owners occasionally changed the anthelmintic used. The most important trait of the anthelmintic was its broad spectrum, fenbendazole being the most commonly chosen. Veterinarians, dog magazines and dog breeders were the predominant sources of information concerning parasites and deworming strategies. PMID:16650936
Mbuh, J V; Ntonifor, N H; Ojong, J
A cross-sectional study of the prevalence, intensity and effects of soil-transmitted helminth and protozoan infections was undertaken among patients at the Buea Hospital Annex located in Buea sub-division of Cameroon. Stool samples from 356 subjects (174 males and 182 females) were collected and processed using standard concentration methods. Our results showed that 31.0% of subjects were infected with intestinal helminths and the prevalence was higher in females (32.4%) than in males (30.5%). A significantly higher prevalence was observed in rural (47.2%) than in urban areas (21.0%); significance helminth infections were 19.3% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 14.0% for hookworm and 11.8% for Trichuris trichiura. The intensity of infection was unevenly distributed, with very heavy loads concentrated in a few individuals. Data also showed that 28.1% (100/356) of the subjects were infected with protozoans. Females showed a higher prevalence (28.6%; 52/182) than males (20.7%; 36/174). Also, there was a significantly higher prevalence in rural (34.0%; 49/144) than urban areas (18.4%; 39/212); significance sewage management and a congenial environment will all help to minimize infection. PMID:21281528
Guadagnini, Regiane Aparecida; dos Santos, Luciana Urbano; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Guimarães, José Roberto
The contamination of bodies of water by raw and even treated sewage is worrying because pathogens that affect public health and the environment are not fully eliminated in wastewater treatment systems. The disinfection step is an important barrier to adopt to reduce this contamination. However, widely used disinfectants such as chlorine do not guarantee the inactivation of resistant organisms such as spore-forming bacteria and helminth eggs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of processes of peroxidation (H2O2), ultraviolet radiation (UV) and peroxidation assisted by ultraviolet radiation (H2O2/UV) in terms of reduction and inactivation of total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, helminth eggs and larvae present in a treated sewage. Doses of UV radiation of 70 mJ cm(-2) and hydrogen peroxide concentration of 30 mg L(-1) were used. The number of bacteria reduced after UV and H2O2/UV processes was 3 and 4 log, respectively. An average reduction of 59% in the number of eggs was verified when using H2O2, UV, and H2O2/UV processes. Helminth larvae were reduced by 24% after H2O2 and UV; the process H2O2/UV did not reduce the number of larvae. Statistically significant differences between the processes for both organisms were not observed. PMID:24185066
C. B. I. Alawa ab*, A. M. Adamu, J. O. Gefub, O. J. Ajanusic, P. A. Abdud and N. P. Chiezeyb
Full Text Available Fifteen Bunaji calves (Bos indicus averaging 105±12.5 Kg liveweight and approximately nine months of age with natural helminth infection were distributed into three treatment groups of five animals each. Animals were either treated orally with aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina at a dose concentration of 1.1g/Kg body weight, a conventional anthelmintic or left untreated. V. amygdalina treatment produced 59.5% reduction in eggs per gram (EPG of faeces which was significantly different (P<0.001 from the untreated control (-17.24%, whereas levamisol hydrochloride treatment produced 100% reduction in EPG. A total of six genera of helminths were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts and liver of experimental animals. These were Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp, Bunostomum spp, Oesophagostomum spp, Fasciola spp and Dicrocoelium spp. There was significant difference (P<0.001 in worm load between the different treatment groups. Except for Haemonchus spp, animals in the untreated group had significantly (P<0.001 higher worm load for all the genera of helminth recovered than those of the V. amygdalina treated group, indicating that V. amygdalina had no effect on Haemonchus contortus.
Rostami, Ali; Ebrahimi, Maryam; Mehravar, Saeed; Fallah Omrani, Vahid; Fallahi, Shirzad; Behniafar, Hamed
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are responsible for significant burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Consumption of raw vegetables without proper washing is one of the major routes of such infections. We evaluate the prevalence of STH contamination in commonly used vegetables in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. A total of 772 fresh raw vegetables were obtained from retail markets. Each sample was divided into two groups. One group was used as the unwashed sample and the second group was washed with standard washing procedures. Then, samples were examined for helminth eggs by using standard methods. Data analysis was performed using SPSS20. The overall prevalence of STHs was 14.89% (115/772). The rate of STH contamination was significantly higher in warm seasons (20.5%, 79/386) than in cold seasons (9.32%, 36/386) among the unwashed vegetables (OR=2.50; CI 95%=1.64-3.8; PAscaris lumbricoides (3.36%), Trichuris trichiura (2.2%), hookworms (2.9%), Toxocara spp. (1.68%), Trichostrongylus spp. (1.55), Taenia sp. (0.9%) and Hymenolepis nana (2.2%). The results of the present study emphasized that vegetables are potential risk factor for transmission of helminth infection to human in northern Iran. It is necessary that health authorities trained the consumers to proper and standard washing of vegetables before consumption. PMID:26999768
Stepek, Gillian; Lowe, Ann E; Buttle, David J; Duce, Ian R; Behnke, Jerzy M
Infections with gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are amongst the most prevalent worldwide, especially in tropical climates. Control of these infections is primarily through treatment with anthelmintic drugs, but the rapid development of resistance to all the currently available classes of anthelmintic means that alternative treatments are urgently required. Cysteine proteinases from plants such as papaya, pineapple and fig are known to be substantially effective against three rodent GI nematodes, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Trichuris muris and Protospirura muricola, both in vitro and in vivo. Here, based on in vitro motility assays and scanning electron microscopy, we extend these earlier reports, demonstrating the potency of this anthelmintic effect of plant cysteine proteinases against two GI helminths from different taxonomic groups - the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, and the rodent cestode, Rodentolepis microstoma. In the case of hookworms, a mechanism of action targeting the surface layers of the cuticle indistinguishable from that reported earlier appears to be involved, and in the case of cestodes, the surface of the tegumental layers was also the principal location of damage. Hence, plant cysteine proteinases have a broad spectrum of activity against intestinal helminths (both nematodes and cestodes), a quality that reinforces their suitability for development as a much-needed novel treatment against GI helminths of humans and livestock. PMID:18005461
Matosinhos, F C; Valenzuela, V C; Silveira, J A; Rabelo, E M
Despite reports that food-borne parasitic infections have been increasing worldwide, the methodologies employed to detect food contamination by helminths are still largely based on methodologies used to detect these pathogens in feces and water. This study sought to improve the diagnosis of parasitic contaminants in lettuce by standardizing a method for detecting helminth eggs and larvae and estimating their percentage of recovery. Sanitized lettuces were artificially contaminated with different amounts of Ascaris suum and hookworm eggs and larvae. To standardize the method, we tested liquid extractors, vegetable washing steps, and spontaneous sedimentation times. Higher percentages of egg and larvae recovery were obtained using 1 M glycine as the liquid extractor, manual shaking for 3 min and 2 h of sedimentation. Five different levels of artificial contamination (ten replicates each; n = 50) were tested using these standardized conditions, yielding an average recovery of 62.6 % (±20.2), 51.9 % (±20.0), and 50.0 % (±27.3) for A. suum eggs, hookworm eggs, and larvae, respectively. Tests were performed with a different matrix to evaluate the performance of the method. Furthermore, collaborative analytical studies performed by different laboratories produced satisfactory results. The method for the identification of helminth eggs and larvae proposed in this study proved to be simpler and more efficient than previously published procedures, thereby demonstrating its potential contribution to health surveillance and epidemiological studies. PMID:26786833
Parakkal Jovvian George
Full Text Available Helminth infections are known to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses in active and latent tuberculosis (TB. However, the role of helminth infections in modulating responses associated with inflammation and immune activation (reflecting disease activity and/or severity in TB is not known.We measured markers of inflammation and immune activation in active pulmonary TB individuals (ATB with co-incidental Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss infection. These included systemic levels of acute phase proteins, matrix metalloproteinases and their endogenous inhibitors and immune activation markers. As a control, we measured the systemic levels of the same molecules in TB-uninfected individuals (NTB with or without Ss infection.Our data confirm that ATB is associated with elevated levels of the various measured molecules when compared to those seen in NTB. Our data also reveal that co-incident Ss infection in ATB individuals is associated with significantly decreased circulating levels of acute phase proteins, matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases as well as the systemic immune activation markers, sCD14 and sCD163. These changes are specific to ATB since they are absent in NTB individuals with Ss infection.Our data therefore reveal a profound effect of Ss infection on the markers associated with TB disease activity and severity and indicate that co-incidental helminth infections might dampen the severity of TB disease.
Christine E Ferragine
Full Text Available Schistosomes are intravascular helminths that infect over 200 million people worldwide. Deposition of eggs by adult schistosomes stimulates Th2 responses to egg antigens and induces granulomatous pathology that is a hallmark of schistosome infection. Paradoxically, schistosomes require host immune function for their development and reproduction and for egress of parasite eggs from the host. To identify potential mechanisms by which immune cells might influence parasite development prior to the onset of egg production, we assessed immune function in mice infected with developing schistosomes. We found that pre-patent schistosome infection is associated with a loss of T cell responsiveness to other antigens and is due to a diminution in the ability of innate antigen-presenting cells to stimulate T cells. Diminution of stimulatory capacity by schistosome worms specifically affected CD11b(+ cells and did not require concomitant adaptive responses. We could not find evidence for production of a diffusible inhibitor of T cells by innate cells from infected mice. Rather, inhibition of T cell responsiveness by accessory cells required cell contact and only occurred when cells from infected mice outnumbered competent APCs by more than 3∶1. Finally, we show that loss of T cell stimulatory capacity may in part be due to suppression of IL-12 expression during pre-patent schistosome infection. Modulation of CD4(+ T cell and APC function may be an aspect of host immune exploitation by schistosomes, as both cell types influence parasite development during pre-patent schistosome infection.
Roger K Prichard
Full Text Available Recognising the burden helminth infections impose on human populations, and particularly the poor, major intervention programmes have been launched to control onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, and cysticercosis. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. A summary of current helminth control initiatives is presented and available tools are described. Most of these programmes are highly dependent on mass drug administration (MDA of anthelmintic drugs (donated or available at low cost and require annual or biannual treatment of large numbers of at-risk populations, over prolonged periods of time. The continuation of prolonged MDA with a limited number of anthelmintics greatly increases the probability that drug resistance will develop, which would raise serious problems for continuation of control and the achievement of elimination. Most initiatives have focussed on a single type of helminth infection, but recognition of co-endemicity and polyparasitism is leading to more integration of control. An understanding of the implications of control integration for implementation, treatment coverage, combination of pharmaceuticals, and monitoring is needed. To achieve the goals of morbidity reduction or elimination of infection, novel tools need to be developed, including more efficacious drugs, vaccines, and/or antivectorial agents, new diagnostics for infection and assessment of drug efficacy, and markers for possible anthelmintic resistance. In addition, there is a need for the development of new formulations of some existing anthelmintics (e.g., paediatric formulations. To achieve ultimate elimination of helminth parasites, treatments for the above mentioned helminthiases, and for taeniasis
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pullorum antigen. 113.407 Section 113... and Reagents § 113.407 Pullorum antigen. Pullorum Antigen shall be produced from a culture of... standard for stained antigen K's and 50 ±10 times McFarland No. 1 standard for tube antigen....
Stein, Miguel; Greenberg, Zalman; Boaz, Mona; Handzel, Zeev T; Meshesha, Mesfin K; Bentwich, Zvi
Helminth infection may be protective against allergy and account for the low prevalence of allergy in developing countries. We studied prospectively the prevalence of allergy in Ethiopian immigrants with heavy helminth infection on arrival in Israel, and again after a year of adjustment to an urban industrialized setting, to explore the roles of helminth infection, changed environment and background immunity on the manifestations of allergy. 126 newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants were studied at baseline and 115 after a year of follow up in Israel. Allergic symptoms, Skin prick tests (SPT), Tuberculin (PPD) skin tests, stool and blood samples were obtained for determining parasites, blood IgE and eosinophil levels, respectively. Anti-helminthic therapy was offered to the entire infected individuals, but only 50/108 (46.3%) took the medication. At baseline, there was a significant negative association between helminth infection and allergy, 4/18 (22.2%) of uninfected participants were allergic compared to 7/108 (6.5%) of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.028), as well as between helminth infection and SPT reactivity, 12/18 (66.6%) of uninfected participants compared to 43/108 (39.8%) of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.033). After one year, a significant general increase in allergy and SPT was observed. While only 11/126 (8.7%) were allergic at baseline, 30/115 (26.1%) became allergic at follow-up (pimmigration to Israel, allergy and SPT reactivity increased significantly in all immigrants; c) Higher increases in positive SPT and allergy were observed after a year in the group that remained infected with helminths, even though they had a lowered helminth load; d) The reasons for the increased allergy one year after immigration needs further investigation but probably reflects the combined influence of the decreased helminth load and novel environmental factors. PMID:26752538
Reshka Renanti M
Full Text Available AbstrakAnak usia sekolah merupakan golongan yang sering teinfeksi cacing Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH karena sering berkontak dengan tanah. Infeksi STH dapat menimbulkan kerugian zat gizi, kehilangan darah, serta menurunkan ketahanan tubuh sehingga mudah terkena penyakit. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan antara infeksi soil transmitted helminth dengan status gizi. Penelitian dengan pendekatan cross sectional ini dilakukan di Sekolah Dasar Negeri 29 Purus Padang yang dilaksanakan dari Oktober 2014 sampai dengan Februari 2015. Populasi adalah semua murid SDN 29 Purus dengan jumlah subjek 78 orang. Pengambilan subjek dengan multistage sampling. Instrumen penelitian yaitu pemeriksaan feses dengan metode Kato-Katz dan pengukuran berat badan serta tinggi badan. Metode analisa data adalah Chi square dengan derajat kepercayaan 90%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan lebih dari separuh (51,3% murid SDN 29 Purus Padang tahun 2014 menderita infeksi STH dan infeksi campuran A. lumbricoides dan T. trichiura sebanyak 23,1%. Status gizi berdasarkan BB/U sebagian besar (82,1% memiliki gizi baik, berdasarkan TB/U sebagian besar (71,8% memiliki tinggi normal dan berdasarkan BB/TB sebagian besar (91% adalah normal. Murid SDN 29 Purus Padang yang positif terinfeksi STH sebagian besar (87,5% memiliki gizi baik, sebagian besar (72,5% memiliki tinggi normal dan sebagian besar (92,5% memiliki gizi normal. Kesimpulan penelitian ini ialah tidak terdapat hubungan secara statistik antara infeksi STH dengan status gizi (p>0,05.Kata kunci: soil transmitted helminth, status gizi, infeksiAbstractSchool-age children are often exposed to a class of worm Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH because of frequent contact with the ground. STH infections can lead to loss of nutrients, blood loss and decreased health, so susceptible to disease. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between soil transmitted helminth infections and nutritional status
1. 1 Organization of the Immune System One of the most important survival mechanisms of vertebrates is their ability to recognize and respond to the onslaught of pathogenic microbes to which they are conti- ously exposed. The collection of host cells and molecules involved in this recognition 12 response function constitutes its immune system. In man, it comprises about 10 cells 20 (lymphocytes) and 10 molecules (immunoglobulins). Its ontogenic development is c- strained by the requirement that it be capable of responding to an almost limitless variety of molecular configurations on foreign substances, while simultaneously remaining inert to those on self components. It has thus evolved to discriminate, with exquisite precision, between molecular patterns. The foreign substances which induce a response, called antigens, are typically large molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. The portions of these with which immunoglobulins interact are called epitopes or determinants. A typical protein epitope m...
Full Text Available Circulating antigens were detected in sera of mice experimentally infected with a high close of Trypanosoma cruzi by reaction with sera from chronically infected mice. The immunodiffusion reaction between homologous acute and chronic sera produced four precipitation lines. By reaction with chronic mouse serum, circulating antingens were detected in sera from heavily infected hamsters, dogs, rabbits and in sera from chagasic patients. A reaction was also found in urine from acutely infected mice and dogs. Trypanosoma cruzi exoantigen was detected in trypanosome culture medium and in the supernatant of infected cell cultures. Attempts to isolate the antigens are described.Antígenos circulantes foram detectados em soros de camundongos infectados experimentalmente com elevadas doses de Trypanosoma cruzi pela reação com soros obtidos de camundongos em fase crônica de infecção. A reação de imunodifusão entre soros homólogos agudo e crônico produziu quatro linhas de precipitação. Por reação com soro crônico de camundongo antígenos circulantes foram detectados em soros de crícetos, cães e coelhos infectados com doses elevadas de Trypanosoma cruzi e em soros de pacientes chagásicos. Uma reação foi também observada com urina de camundongos e cães infectados de forma aguda. Exoantígeno de Trypanosoma cruzi foi detectado em meio de cultura de tripanosomas e em sobrenadantes de culturas de células infectadas. Tentativas de isolamento dos antigenos são descritas.
Høgdall, Estrid Vilma Solyom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review addresses recently reported progress in cancer antigen 125 as a prognostic marker in patients with ovarian cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Serum cancer antigen 125 levels measured preoperatively in both early and late stage ovarian cancer may be of prognostic value. Before...... cancer antigen 125 determination may be implemented into clinical practice, cut-off levels must be evaluated and internationally defined. Studies examining serum cancer antigen 125 levels after surgery but before, during, or after treatment confirmed that changes in serum levels are of prognostic value....... Furthermore, recent studies have shown that the level of expression of cancer antigen 125 in tissue may be an independent prognostic indicator in late stage ovarian cancer. SUMMARY: Prognostic markers may potentially help to individualize treatment within subgroups of patients. In a recent study the level of...
猪囊尾蚴免疫诊断抗原的研究是囊虫病免疫诊断的基础.猪囊尾蚴抗原成分复杂,特别是虫体粗抗原,与多种寄生虫存在明显的交叉抗原成分,影响检测的特异性.近年来随着分子生物学的发展,重组抗原制备简单,检测效果良好,已成为囊虫病免疫诊断研究的热点.本文对近年来囊虫病免疫诊断抗原的分子生物学研究进展进行了综述.%Study of the antigens of Taenia solium is the basis for immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis. Taenia solium antigens have a number of components, which is particularly true of the parasite's crude antigens. Cross-reactivity with other helminth infections occurs with whole worm antigen and affects the specificity of the parasitr's detection. Immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis has garnered attention because of recent advances in molecular biology, ready preparation of recombinant antigens, and the increased effectiveness of the disease's detection. This review describes recent advances in molecular biology research on antigens for use in immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis.
Beck, C A; Forrester, D J; Beck, C
We examined 215 Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) at necropsy to determine the helminth fauna. Six species were identified: Heterocheilus tunicatus (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea); Anoplocephala sp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea); and 4 species of trematodes, Cochleotrema cochleotrema (Digenea: Opisthotrematidae), Chiorchis fabaceus (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae), Nudacotyle undicola (Digenea: Nudacotylidae), and Moniligerum blairi (Digenea: Opisthotrematidae). Seventy-three percent of the manatees examined were infected with at least 1 species of helminth. The mean number of species of helminths per infected manatee was 1.9 with a range of 1-4. Fifty-nine manatees were helminth-free; 30 of these were calves. No associations were found between the intensity of helminth infections and host sex, age class, season, and geographic location of recovery, or cause of death. Differences in parasite prevalence between age classes were highly significant for Chiorchis, Cochleotrema, and Heterocheilus, due to a low number of infected calves. A higher prevalence of Cochleotrema was found in manatees recovered from eastern Florida, and Heterocheilus was evident in significantly more manatees from western and souther Florida. Comparisons in the parasite fauna are made among Florida manatees and other sirenian populations, and a brief review of sirenian parasites is included. PMID:3397825
van der Voort, Mariska; Charlier, Johannes; Lauwers, Ludwig; Vercruysse, Jozef; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Van Meensel, Jef
Helminth infections are considered to be an important constraint on livestock productivity worldwide. The economic impact of these infections or their control strategies has traditionally been assessed by their effect on animal performance indicators or traditional economic calculation methods (e.g. budgeting and cost-benefit analysis). Because the impact of helminth infections has become more subtle and is farm-specific, one needs more refined economic evaluations of actions meant to increase or maintain the health of livestock on individual farms. This paper proposes an interdisciplinary framework that combines the developments in the veterinary control of helminth infections with economic performance measurements to identify farm-specific and profitable anthelmintic management decisions. Our framework positions individual farms' performance against performance benchmarks and is based on the farms' efficiency in transforming input(s) into output(s). We show how this positioning makes it possible to establish a linkage between input and output transformation, helminth infection levels and effects of control strategies. Furthermore, the framework allows for the identification of improvement paths that are not necessarily related to the helminth infection, but which may lead to other management improvements. We discuss the epidemiological information required and which complementary methods (e.g. efficiency analysis and budgeting techniques) can be used to make the framework operational. PMID:23219140
Full Text Available Background: Cats and other felines act as definitive hosts for many intestinal parasites, some of which are responsible for several zoonotic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the type and prevalence of protozoa and gastrointestinal helminthes among stray cats. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted. Digestive tracts of 100 stray cats in Zanjan Province, north-west of Iran were autopsied in order to recognize gastrointestinal helminthes and intestinal protozoan parasites. These cats were collected by baited cage trapped from October 2007 to September 2008. Gender and species of helminthes and protozoa were recognized using authentic diagnostic criteria. Statistical evaluation was performed by SPSS version 14. Results: Forty-two percent of cats were infected with intestinal protozoan parasites, 33% were infected with cestodes and 39% infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Four species protozoan parasites and eight gastrointestinal helminthes were recovered from the animals, including Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium spp., Joyeuxiella pasqaulei, Toxocara cati, Physaloptera praeputialis, Rectalaria spp., Onicolla, Cystoisospora spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis spp . Conclusions: The high infection rate of Toxoplasma and some gastrointestinal helminthes in stray cats is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health importance.
Toledo, Gislayne M; Aguiar, Aline; Silva, Reinaldo J; Anjos, Luciano A
Two amphibian species, Physalaemus cuvieri and Physalaemus olfersii, from Serra do Mar State Park, which is an old-growth environment of the Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil, were surveyed for endoparasites. Hosts were sampled in 2 ponds; each was colonized by only 1 Physalaemus species. The overall prevalence of helminths was high and similar in both amphibian species. The mean intensity of infection in P. olfersii did not differ statistically from that in P. cuvieri . Nine helminth species were found: 2 acanthocephalans, 1 cestode, and 6 nematodes. Parasite richness in the 2 host species was similar. The composition of helminth fauna differed but the 2 hosts shared the most prevalent taxon of nematode (an unidentified species of Cosmocercidae). All helminth species exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern in the host species. The present results demonstrate relatively low species richness and the dominance of generalist parasite species. This study contributes to knowledge regarding the structure and composition of the helminth community in anurans. PMID:23409941
Ilana C. van Wyk
Full Text Available Little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the Limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. The aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. Ten impalas (Aepyceros melampus, eight kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros, four blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus, two black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou, three gemsbok (Oryx gazella, one nyala (Tragelaphus angasii, one bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus, one waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus, six warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus and a single bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus were sampled from various localities in the semi-arid northern and western areas of the Limpopo province. New host–parasite associations included Trichostrongylus deflexus from blue wildebeest, Agriostomum gorgonis from black wildebeest, Stilesia globipunctata from the waterbuck and Fasciola hepatica in a kudu. The mean helminth burden, including extra-gastrointestinal helminths, was 592 in impalas, 407 in kudus and blue wildebeest, 588 in black wildebeest, 184 in gemsbok, and 2150 in the waterbuck. Excluding Probstmayria vivipara, the mean helminth burden in warthogs was 2228 and the total nematode burden in the bushpig was 80. The total burdens and species richness of the helminths in this study were consistently low when compared with similar studies on the same species in areas with higher rainfall. This has practical implications when animals are translocated to areas with higher rainfall and higher prevalence of helminths.
Van Wyk, Ilana C; Boomker, Joop
Little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the Limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. The aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. Ten impalas (Aepyceros melampus), eight kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), four blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), two black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou), three gemsbok (Oryx gazella), one nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), one bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), one waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), six warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) and a single bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) were sampled from various localities in the semi-arid northern and western areas of the Limpopo province. New host-parasite associations included Trichostrongylus deflexus from blue wildebeest, Agriostomum gorgonis from black wildebeest, Stilesia globipunctata from the waterbuck and Fasciola hepatica in a kudu. The mean helminth burden, including extra-gastrointestinal helminths, was 592 in impalas, 407 in kudus and blue wildebeest, 588 in black wildebeest, 184 in gemsbok, and 2150 in the waterbuck. Excluding Probstmayria vivipara, the mean helminth burden in warthogs was 2228 and the total nematode burden in the bushpig was 80. The total burdens and species richness of the helminths in this study were consistently low when compared with similar studies on the same species in areas with higher rainfall. This has practical implications when animals are translocated to areas with higher rainfall and higher prevalence of helminths. PMID:23327219
Máttar, S; Broquetas, J M; Gea, J; Aran, X; el-Banna, N; Sauleda, J; Torres, J M
We analyze serum samples from 70 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 50 healthy individuals. The antigenic activity (IgG) against protein purified antigen (PPD) and antigen 60 (A60) from M. tuberculosis. Thirteen patients were also HIV infected, and three patients had AIDS defined by the presence of disseminated tuberculosis. The test using antigen alone showed a 77% sensitivity and 74% specificity when PPD is used. When A60 was used, both values improved (81% sensitivity, 94% specificity). The use of a combined test (PPD and A60) improves the sensitivity (89%) but reduces the specificity (82%). The HIV infected patients showed similar responses to those of other patients. The combined use of different antigens might be useful for diagnosing tuberculosis. PMID:1390996
Elefant, G R; Roldán, W H; Seeböck, A; Kosma, P
Serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis is based on the detection of specific IgG antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using Toxocara larvae excretory-secretory (TES) antigens, but its production is a laborious and time-consuming process being also limited by the availability of adult females of T. canis as source for ova to obtain larvae. Chemical synthesis of the di-O-methylated (DiM) glycan structure found in the TES antigens has provided material for studying the antibody reactivity in a range of mammalian hosts, showing reactivity with human IgM and IgG. In this study, we have evaluated the performance of the DiM glycan against a panel of sera including patients with toxocariasis (n = 60), patients with other helminth infections (n = 75) and healthy individuals (n = 94), showing that DiM is able to detect IgG antibodies with a sensitivity and specificity of 91·7% and 94·7%, respectively, with a very good agreement with the TES antigens (kappa = 0·825). However, cross-reactivity was observed in some sera from patients with ascariasis, hymenolepiasis and fascioliasis. These results show that the DiM glycan could be a promising antigenic tool for the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis. PMID:26896376
Odinaka, Kelechi Kenneth; Nwolisa, Emeka Charles; Mbanefo, Francis; Iheakaram, Alfreda Chinekwu; Okolo, Seline
Background. Soil-transmitted helminthic infection is a common public health challenge of primary school children in resource challenged and developing countries. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and pattern of soil-transmitted helminthic infection among primary school children in a rural community in Imo State, Nigeria. Method. The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 284 primary school children in a rural community. Results. The overall prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthic infection (STHI) was 30.3%. Of all STHIs, hookworm was the commonest geohelminth observed, 81 (94.2%). The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthic infection was more in males, 58 (38.4%), than in females, 28 (21.1%). This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Conclusion. The high prevalence rate of soil-transmitted helminthic infection amongst the study population is worrisome. There is need for organized and routine deworming among school children in the community. PMID:26435717
Rita G SOUSA
Full Text Available Context Colonoscopy is essential for synchronous and metachronous cancer detection. Carcinoembryonic antigen is a colorectal cancer tumor marker, important as a follow-up tool in patients with previous colorectal cancer. False-positive carcinoembryonic antigen elevation results in multiples exams and in patient anxiety. In literature, there is reference to transient carcinoembryonic antigen increase with colonoscopy. Objective To evaluate the influence of bowel preparation and colonoscopy in carcinoembryonic antigen blood levels. Methods We prospectively studied subjects that underwent routine colonoscopy in our institution. Blood samples were collected (1 before bowel cleaning, (2 before colonoscopy and (3 immediately after colonoscopy. Blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels were determined by “Sandwich” immunoassay. The statistical methods used were the paired t-test and ANOVA. Results Thirty-seven patients (22M/15F were included; age range 28-84 (mean 56 years. Mean carcinoembryonic antigen values were 1.9, 2 and 1.8 for (1, (2 and (3, respectively. An increase in value (2 compared with (1 was observed in 20/37 patients (P = 0.018, mainly in younger patients and in patients requiring more endoluminal interventions. In 29/37 patients, the CEA value decreased from (2 to (3 (P = 1.3x10-7. Conclusions A trend for carcinoembryonic antigen increase after bowel cleaning was observed, especially in younger patients and in patients with more endoluminal interventions, but without clinical meaning.
Eshetu, Y; Mulualem, E; Ibrahim, H; Berhanu, A; Aberra, K
A total of 267 rural scavenging chickens were examined from October 1998 to August 1999 in four woredas (districts) of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 243 (91.01%) were found to harbour one to nine different helminth parasites and 24 (8.99%) were free of helminth parasites. A significant difference (P agro-ecology has a major influence on the distribution of helminth parasites. Nematodes recovered included Heterakis gallinarum (17.28%), Subulura brumpti (17.60%), Ascaridia galli (35.58%), Cheilospirura hamulosa (0.75%) and Dyspharynx spiralis (2.62%). The principal cestode species encountered were Raillietina echinobothrida (25.84%), Raillietina tetragona (45.69%), Raillietina cesticillus (5.62%), Amoebotaenia sphenoides (40.45%), Davainea proglottina (1.12%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.49%). PMID:11732422
GeovanPerez Ortiz, O. G.; Gomez Vera, D. [Estacion Depuradora de Aguas Residuales. Alboraia. Valencia (Spain); Faubell Brell, M. [Universidad de Valencia (Spain); Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Bernacer Bonora, I. [Entididad Publica de Saneamiento. Valencia (Spain); Bernabeu Adrian, A. [S. A. Agricultures de la Vega. Valencia (Spain); Amores Blasco, S. [Depuracion de Aguas del Mediterraneo. Valencia (Spain)
Land application is one of the best options for the elimination of wastewater sludge, because sludge is useful as conditioner and fertilizer in soils. However, land application represents a sanitary hazards due to the sludge's content in pathogenic agents. Helminth eggs are among these agents, and their hardness and resistance to adverse environmental conditions allows them to survive in soils for months. With this in mind, we have launched a study of the presence of helminth eggs in the sludge of a wastewater treatment plant in Alboraia (Valencia). The results show a concentration of helminth eggs in digestion sludge of 27.000 eggs/kg dry matter. We discuss the potential sanitary relevant of these results and the need to continue with this evaluation program. (Author) 20 refs.
Thapa, Sundar; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina; Brenninkmeyer, Christine;
factors that might be associated with helminth infections, with emphasis on Ascaridia galli. Data on flock-level management factors (e.g. nutritional factors, litter quality, housing system, opening- and closing hours of popholes, pasture rotation and provision of occupational materials) were collected......Helminths are associated with health- and welfare problems in organic laying hens. The present observational cross-sectional study therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence and worm burdens of intestinal helminths in organic flocks of laying hens in 8 European countries, and to identify management...... and EPG) and the management factors were analysed by multivariate models. Results showed that A. galli was highly prevalent across Europe with an overall mean prevalence of 69.5% and mean worm burden of 10 worms per hen. The overall mean prevalence and worm burden for Heterakis spp. were 29.0% and 16...
Borgsteede, F. H. M.; Van den Broek, E.; Swennen, C.
The digestive tracts of 90 oystercatchers (equal numbers of males and females and of juveniles, subadults and adults) wintering in the Dutch Wadden Sea were examined for helminth parasites. The nematodes Capillaria sp. (36.7%) and Streptocara crassicauda (7.8%) were found in the stomach. Unidentified cestodes (76.7%) and the trematodes Psilostomum brevicolle (42.2%), Notocotylus sp. (81.1%), and unidentified gymnophallids (100%) were found in the intestine and caeca. Two birds were infected with Gymnophallidae only, while all other birds contained additional helminth species. Compared with subadult and adult birds, the juveniles had significantly more infections with Capillaria sp. and cestodes. Moreover, the juveniles were infected with a greater variety of species. No further relation was found between the presence of helminths or worm numbers and age groups or sexes of birds.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In countries of high endemicity of the soil-transmitted helminth parasites Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm, preventive chemotherapy (i.e., repeated administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations is the main strategy to control morbidity. However, rapid reinfection of humans occurs after successful deworming, and therefore effective preventive measures are required to achieve public health goals with optimal efficiency and sustainability. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of sanitation (i.e., access and use of facilities for the safe disposal of human urine and feces on infection with soil-transmitted helminths. PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, and the World Health Organization Library Database were searched without language restrictions and year of publication (search performed until December 31, 2010. Bibliographies of identified articles were hand-searched. All types of studies reporting data on sanitation availability (i.e., having access at own household or living in close proximity to sanitation facility, or usage, and soil-transmitted helminth infections at the individual level were considered. Reported odds ratios (ORs of the protective effect of sanitation on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from the papers or calculated from reported numbers. The quality of published studies was assessed with a panel of criteria developed by the authors. Random effects meta-analyses were used to account for observed heterogeneity. Thirty-six publications, consisting of 39 datasets, met our inclusion criteria. Availability of sanitation facilities was associated with significant protection against infection with soil-transmitted helminths (OR = 0.46 to 0.58. Regarding the use of sanitation, ORs of 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-1.02, 0.63 (95% CI 0.37-1.05, and 0.78 (95% CI 0.60-1.00 were determined for T
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The control of helminth infections and prevention of anemia in developing countries are of considerable public health importance. The purpose of this study was to determine patterns and risk factors of helminth infections and anemia in a rural and a peri-urban community of Zanzibar, Tanzania, in the context of national helminth control programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a community-based cross-sectional study in 454 individuals by examining at least two stool samples with different methods for soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura and one urine sample for Schistosoma haematobium. Finger-prick blood was taken to estimate anemia levels and to detect antibody reactions against ascariasis, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA approach. Parasitological methods determined a helminth prevalence of 73.7% in the rural, and 48.9% in the peri-urban setting. Most helminth infections were of light intensity with school-aged children showing the highest intensities. Multiple helminth species infections were pervasive in rural dwellers regardless of age. More than half of the participants were anemic, with a particularly high prevalence in the peri-urban setting (64.7%. Risk factors for helminth infections were age, sex, consumption of raw vegetables or salad, recent travel history, and socio-economic status. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: After several years of chemotherapy-based morbidity control efforts in Zanzibar, helminth prevalences are still high and anemia is common, but helminth infection intensities are low. Hence, chemotherapy should be continued, and complemented with improved access to clean water, adequate sanitation, and health education, along with poverty alleviation measures for a more enduring impact.
Umar I Ibrahim
Full Text Available Aim: To determine the various helminth parasites and associated helminth reservoir status of captive wild ruminants in the semi-arid region of north-eastern, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Faecal samples were examined for nematode ova by the simple floatation technique using saturated sodium chloride solution as floatation medium. Trematode eggs were examined by the sedementation technique. The modified McMaster technique was used to determine the intensity of helminth infections among the various species of wild ruminants examined, while larval isolation and identification using the modified Baerman’s technique was used to determine the various species of parasites encountered. Results: Out of the 36 samples examined, a high parasite count due to Strongyle infection without the manifestation of overt clinical signs was observed among the captive wild ruminants. The egg counts ranged from 500 + 10.0 among the Grimm’s duicker (Sylvicaprea grimmia to 5, 350 + 51.70 among the Senegal hartebeest (Damaliscus korrigum. The helminth larvae recovered which were common to all the species of wild ruminants were those of Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrogylus axei and Strongyloides papillosus, Demographic data such as age, sex and species of wild animals showed no significant (p>0.05 variation on the prevalence of the helminth infections. Conclusion: The results of this study suggests that the captive wild ruminants in the semi-arid region of north-eastern, Nigeria, were reservoirs of various helminth parasites of medical and veterinary importance. It was therefore, recommended that improved sanitary conditions in animal enclosures, regular and strategic anthelmintic medications may on one hand protect the spread of infection to attendants and visitors to the park. On the other hand it will enhance the in-situ conservation of the rare and endangered species of wild ruminants in the area. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 530-534
Casavechia, Maria Teresinha Gomes; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Campanerut-Sá, Paula Aline Zanetti; da Costa Benalia, Hugo Rafael; Mattiello, Matheus Felipe; Menechini, Pedro Victor Lazaretti; Dos Santos, Carlos Aparecido; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira
Approximately 2 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was performed with a large random sample to identify the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care in Marialva, southern Brazil, from April 2011 to September 2013. Stool samples from 775 individuals were analyzed for the presence of protozoan cysts, helminth eggs, and larvae. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 13.94 %, and the prevalence of protozoa and helminths was 15.1 and 2.9 %, respectively. The predictor variables that were associated with intestinal parasites were male gender odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.10-2.40) and the absence of a kitchen garden (OR 2.28, 95 % CI, 1.08-4.85). Positive associations were found between Giardia duodenalis and individuals aged ≤18 with high risk (OR 19.0, 95 % CI 2.16-167.52), between Endolimax nana and the absence of a kitchen garden (p < 0.01), and between Trichuris trichiura and the presence of a kitchen garden (p = 0.014). Polyparasitism was present in 27.27 % of infected individuals. Our findings confirmed a relatively low prevalence in primary care, compared to international standards, despite the rare publications in the area. As variables, male gender and the absence of a kitchen garden stood out as important predictors. It is highly relevant that the health conditions of the population comply with consistent standards. PMID:26987643
John T Pesce
Full Text Available Retnla (Resistin-like molecule alpha/FIZZ1 is induced during Th2 cytokine immune responses. However, the role of Retnla in Th2-type immunity is unknown. Here, using Retnla(-/- mice and three distinct helminth models, we show that Retnla functions as a negative regulator of Th2 responses. Pulmonary granuloma formation induced by the eggs of the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni is dependent on IL-4 and IL-13 and associated with marked increases in Retnla expression. We found that both primary and secondary pulmonary granuloma formation were exacerbated in the absence of Retlna. The number of granuloma-associated eosinophils and serum IgE titers were also enhanced. Moreover, when chronically infected with S. mansoni cercariae, Retnla(-/- mice displayed significant increases in granulomatous inflammation in the liver and the development of fibrosis and progression to hepatosplenic disease was markedly augmented. Finally, Retnla(-/- mice infected with the gastrointestinal (GI parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis had intensified lung pathology to migrating larvae, reduced fecundity, and accelerated expulsion of adult worms from the intestine, suggesting Th2 immunity was enhanced. When their immune responses were compared, helminth infected Retnla(-/- mice developed stronger Th2 responses, which could be reversed by exogenous rRelmalpha treatment. Studies with several cytokine knockout mice showed that expression of Retnla was dependent on IL-4 and IL-13 and inhibited by IFN-gamma, while tissue localization and cell isolation experiments indicated that eosinophils and epithelial cells were the primary producers of Retnla in the liver and lung, respectively. Thus, the Th2-inducible gene Retnla suppresses resistance to GI nematode infection, pulmonary granulomatous inflammation, and fibrosis by negatively regulating Th2-dependent responses.
Aprilianto E Wiria
Full Text Available Given that helminth infections have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies, which may be explained by beneficial effects on energy balance or by a shift in the immune system to an anti-inflammatory profile, we investigated whether soil-transmitted helminth (STH-infected subjects are more insulin sensitive than STH-uninfected subjects.We performed a cross-sectional study on Flores island, Indonesia, an area with high prevalence of STH infections.From 646 adults, stool samples were screened for Trichuris trichiura by microscopy and for Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Strongyloides stercoralis by qPCR. No other helminth was found. We collected data on body mass index (BMI, kg/m2, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, fasting blood glucose (FBG, mmol/L, insulin (pmol/L, high sensitive C-reactive protein (ng/ml and Immunoglobulin E (IU/ml. The homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMAIR was calculated and regression models were used to assess the association between STH infection status and insulin resistance.424 (66% participants had at least one STH infection. STH infected participants had lower BMI (23.2 vs 22.5 kg/m2, p value = 0.03 and lower HOMAIR (0.97 vs 0.81, p value = 0.05. In an age-, sex- and BMI-adjusted model a significant association was seen between the number of infections and HOMAIR: for every additional infection with STH species, the HOMAIR decreased by 0.10 (p for linear trend 0.01. This effect was mainly accounted for by a decrease in insulin of 4.9 pmol/L for every infection (p for trend = 0.07.STH infections are associated with a modest improvement of insulin sensitivity, which is not accounted for by STH effects on BMI alone.
Coakley, Gillian; Buck, Amy H; Maizels, Rick M
Helminths are metazoan organisms many of which have evolved parasitic life styles dependent on sophisticated manipulation of the host environment. Most notably, they down-regulate host immune responses to ensure their own survival, by exporting a range of immuno-modulatory mediators that interact with host cells and tissues. While a number of secreted immunoregulatory parasite proteins have been defined, new work also points to the release of extracellular vesicles, or exosomes, that interact with and manipulate host gene expression. These recent results are discussed in the overall context of how helminths communicate effectively with the host organism. PMID:27297184
Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Min, Duk-Young; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Insisiengmay, Sithat; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong
A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode ...
Alessandra Queiroga Gonçalves
Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Few studies have described the risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections in the Amazon. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed in a City of the State of Amazonas (Brazil to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites and determine the risk factors for helminth infections. RESULTS: Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent parasite. The main risk factors determined were: not having a latrine for A. lumbricoides infection; being male and having earth or wood floors for hookworm infection; and being male for multiple helminth infections. CONCLUSIONS: We reported a high prevalence of intestinal parasites and determined some poverty-related risk factors.
Mabaso Musawenkosi LH
Full Text Available Abstract Background The convergent distribution of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and helminth infections has led to the suggestion that infection with helminths exacerbates the HIV epidemic in developing countries. In South Africa, it is estimated that 57% of the population lives in poverty and carries the highest burden of both HIV and helmith infections, however, the disease interactions are under-researched. Methods We employed both coproscopy and Ascaris lumbricoides-specific serum IgE to increase diagnostic sensitivity and to distinguish between different helminth infection phenotypes and their effects on immune responses in HIV co-infected individuals. Coproscopy was done by formol ether and Kato Katz methods. HIV positive and negative adults were stratified according to the presence or absence of A. lumbricoides and/or Trichuris trichuria eggs with or without elevated Ascaris IgE. Lymphocyte subsets were phenotyped by flow cytometry. Viral loads, serum total IgE and eosinophils were also analysed. Lymphocyte activation markers (CCR5, HLA-DR, CD25, CD38 and CD71 were determined. Non parametric statistics were used to describe differences in the variables between the subgroups. Results Helminth prevalence ranged between 40%-60%. Four distinct subgroups of were identified, and this included egg positive/high Ascaris-specific IgE (egg+IgEhi, egg positive/low IgE (egg+IgElo, egg negative/high IgE (egg-IgEhi and egg negative/low IgE (egg-IgElo individuals. The egg+IgEhi subgroup displayed lymphocytopenia, eosinophilia, (low CD4+ counts in HIV- group, high viral load (in HIV+ group, and an activated lymphocyte profile. High Ascaris IgE subgroups (egg+IgEhi and egg-IgEhi had eosinophilia, highest viral loads, and lower CD4+ counts in the HIV- group. Egg excretion and low IgE (egg+IgElo status demonstrated a modified Th2 immune profile with a relatively competent response to HIV. Conclusions People with both helminth egg excretion and high
Campbell, Suzy J; Nery, Susana V; McCarthy, James S; Gray, Darren J; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Clements, Archie C A
Interventions that lead to reductions in soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) include chemotherapy with anthelmintic drugs and improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). In this opinion article we aim to determine the evidence for optimal approaches for STH control. First we explore the evidence for the above interventions. We then appraise two integration strategies: current chemotherapy-oriented integrated neglected tropical disease (NTD) control and expanded 'multicomponent integration', which includes integrated chemotherapy, WASH, and other intervention strategies. While multicomponent integrated control may be an effective approach to sustainably reduce STH transmission, there is a need for evidence to prove the feasibility of this approach. PMID:26795294
Kimura, Akio; MORISHIMA, Yasuyuki; NAGAHAMA, Shinya; HORIKOSHI, Takashi; Edagawa, Akiko; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Yamasaki, Hiroshi
ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate intestinal helminth infection in stray dogs in Osaka Prefecture by surveying coprological samples from dogs captured from 2006–2011. Of 212 fecal samples collected, overall prevalence of infection was 39.2%. The most common species was Toxocara canis (25.0%), followed by Trichuris vulpis (8.0%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (3.3%), Taeniidae (2.4%), Ancylostoma caninum (1.9%) and Toxascaris leonine (0.5%). In the molecular analysis, all of the taeniid e...
UMUR, Şinasi; AÇICI, Mustafa
This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of helminth species in horses, donkeys, and mules in the Central Black Sea region, between March 2004 and July 2005. For this purpose, 140 faecal samples were taken from horses (n = 83), donkeys (n = 31), and mules (n = 26) in Samsun, Sinop, Ordu, Amasya, and Tokat provinces. Infection rates were 91.57% (76 of 83) in horses, 96.77% (30 of 31) in donkeys, and 96.15% (25 of 26) in mules. The parasite species and their prevalence in examined...
Vermeer, Herman M.; Borgsteede, Fred H.M.; Gaasenbeek, Cor P.H.; Blanken, Klaas
Ascaris suum is the most prevalent helminth on organic pig farms (Carstensen et al., 2002) and is transmitted mainly via the faeces. The use of anthelmintics does not fit in the organic principles and preventive measures are promoted. This project focused on assessing the efficacy of a cleaning protocol for the dunging area of pens on Ascaris s. transmission to pigs. In 4 batches with 8 identical pens for 15 pigs each (n=480 pigs) 6 pigs per pen were orally infected with Ascari...
Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J
Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...
Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P. D.; Brisson, D.
The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed ‘cassettes...
Nishikado, Hideto; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Taka, Hikari; Mineki, Reiko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Takai, Toshiro
Th2 type immune responses are essential for protective immunity against parasites and play crucial roles in allergic disorders. Helminth parasites secrete a variety of proteases for their infectious cycles including for host entry, tissue migration, and suppression of host immune effector cell function. Furthermore, a number of pathogen-derived antigens, as well as allergens such as papain, belong to the family of cysteine proteases. Although the link between protease activity and Th2 type immunity is well documented, the mechanisms by which proteases regulate host immune responses are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the cysteine proteases papain and bromelain selectively cleave the α subunit of the IL-3 receptor (IL-3Rα/CD123) on the surface of murine basophils. The decrease in CD123 expression on the cell surface, and the degradation of the extracellular domain of recombinant CD123 were dependent on the protease activity of papain and bromelain. Pre-treatment of murine basophils with papain resulted in inhibition of IL-3-IL-3R signaling and suppressed IL-3- but not thymic stromal lymphopoietin-induced expansion of basophils in vitro. Our unexpected findings illuminate a novel mechanism for the regulation of basophil functions by protease antigens. Because IL-3 plays pivotal roles in the activation and proliferation of basophils and in protective immunity against helminth parasites, pathogen-derived proteases might contribute to the pathogenesis of infections by regulating IL-3-mediated functions in basophils. PMID:25778870
Brasso, K; Skaarup, P; Roosen, Jens Ulrik; Iversen, Peter
Since it was first introduced, measurement of prostate specific antigen has gained increasing interest, and prostate specific antigen is regarded as being the best tumour marker available. The antigen lacks cancer specificity, limiting the usefulness in early diagnosis, The use of prostate specific...... antigen in early diagnosis, staging, and in monitoring patients with prostate cancer is reviewed....
Bjørn, H; Roepstorff, A; Grøndahl, C; Eriksen, L; Bjerregaard, J; Nansen, P
This study was carried out to compare potential methods of transplanting adult Oesophagostomum dentatum from experimentally infected donor pigs to helminth naive recipient pigs. The following methods were each tested in five pigs: A. Transfer of worms by stomach tube to the gastric ventricle of pigs per os pretreated with 0.5 mg/kg cisapride to increase gastrointestinal peristalsis; B. Transfer by stomach tube to the gastric ventricle of pigs per os pre-treated with cisapride (0.5 mg/kg) and omeprazol 20 mg which blocks hydrochloric acid secretion; C. Surgical transfer of worms to caecum of pigs. Worms for transplantation to pigs were obtained after slaughter of experimentally infected donor pigs and following isolation from the contents of the large intestine, using an agar gel migration technique. A mean of 1054 nematodes were transferred into each recipient pig within 2 hours. Procedures A and B resulted in establishment rates corresponding to only 0.5% and 7.6% of the transferred worms. In contrast, surgical transfer allowed 74.2% of the transplanted worms to be established. In all groups the transplanted worms migrated to the normal predilection site, i.e. the middle part of the large intestine. More female than male worms established in all groups. It was concluded from this study that surgical transfer was the most reliable of the methods tested for experimental establishment of adult O. dentatum in helminth naive pigs. PMID:8583123
Borgsteede, F. H. M.; Bus, H. G. J.; Verplanke, J. A. W.; van Burg, W. P. J.
The endoparasitic helminth fauna of harbour seals which had died during the epidemic of the phocine distemper virus in 1988 was studied. Lungs, heart and gastrointestinal tracts of 94 animals collected along the Dutch coast were available for investigation. The following parasites and infection percentages were found: Nematoda: Dipetalonema spirocauda (24.5%), Otostrongylus circumlitus (6.4%), Parafilaroides gymnurus (24.5%), Ascaridoidea spec. (58.5%); Trematoda: Phagicola septentrionalis (66.0%), Cryptocotyle lingua (74.5%); Cestoda: Diphyllobothrium spec. (8.5%); Acanthocephala: Corynosoma strumosum (70.2%). The presence of worm species was not evenly distributed over the age classes. Seals younger than one year harboured fewer parasites. The highest percentages were found in 1 to 2 year old seals. The number of worms per seal varied greatly. The highest burden for ascarids was 253, for P. septentrionalis 123 000, for C. lingua 112 000 and for C. strumosum 251. A comparison of the present results with those described in the literature shows that in Dutch seals the same species were present and that numbers of worms were not higher than before the 1988 mass mortality. It is therefore concluded that helminth parasites did not cause the mass mortality.
Full Text Available We analysed the viscera of 321 red foxes collected over the last 30 years in 34 of the 47 provinces of peninsular Spain, and identified their helminth parasites. We measured parasite diversity in each sampled province using four diversity indices: Species richness, Margalef's species richness index, Shannon's species diversity index, and inverse Simpson's index. In order to find geographical, environmental, and/or human-related predictors of fox parasite diversity, we recorded 45 variables related to topography, climate, lithology, habitat heterogeneity, land use, spatial situation, human activity, sampling effort, and fox presence probability (obtained after environmental modelling of fox distribution. We then performed a stepwise linear regression of each diversity index on these variables, to find a minimal subset of statistically significant variables that account for the variation in each diversity index. We found that most parasite diversity indices increase with the mean distance to urban centres, or in other words, foxes in more rural provinces have a more diverse helminth fauna. Sampling effort and fox presence probability (probably related to fox density also appeared as conditioning variables for some indices, as well as soil permeability (related with water availability. We then extrapolated the models to predict these fox parasite diversity indices in non-sampled provinces and have a view of their geographical trends.
Kaufmann, Falko; Daş, Gürbüz; Preisinger, Rudolf; Schmutz, Matthias; König, Sven; Gauly, Matthias
Groups of Lohmann Brown (LB) and Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) hens were reared under helminth-free conditions and kept afterwards together in a free range system. Mortality rate, body weight development, laying performance and faecal egg counts (FEC) were recorded during a 12 month laying period. At the end of the laying period, 246 LSL and 197 LB hens were necropsied and worms counted following the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) guidelines. In addition adult Heterakis gallinarum and Ascaridia galli were sexed and measured for length. Significant (Pgalli. LB hens showed a significantly (Pgalli was in tendency lower in these animals. In total, LB had a significantly (Pgalli and the average worm lengths were not significantly (P>0.05) different between the genotypes. There was no significant phenotypic correlation between body weight and worm burden in LSL, whereas it was the case in LB (r=0.17, P<0.05). Based on the estimated heritabilities it is possible to select for helminth resistance in both genotypes. PMID:21185121
M K Ghebremariam
Full Text Available The prevalence of helminth parasites in indigenous fowls was investigated in Zoba Anseba, Eritrea. The rate of infection was as high as 52.43% in rectal swab examination and 63.00% in the slaughtered fowls. The helminth parasites recorded were: Ascaridia galli (70.58%, Subulura sp. (5.88%, Heterakis sp. (52.94%, Tetrameres sp. (11.76%, Cheilospirura sp. (5.88%, Raillietina sp. (82.35% and Amoebotaenia sp. (11.76%. The infection rate between nematodes and cestodes was 92.59% and 59.25%, respectively. Mixed infection with two to three species was common. Cloacal swabs of 82 fowls collected were found positive with different types of ova. Out of which 22 were positive for Ascaridia (51.16%, 14 for Heterakis sp. (32.55%, 6 for Tetrameres sp. (13.95% and 30 were positive for Raillietina sp. (69.76%. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 492-494
Abdelqader, A; Gauly, M; Wollny, C B A; Abo-Shehada, M N
We conducted a cross-sectional study from December 2004 to February 2005 and from June 2005 to August 2005. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal and tracheal helminthes among local chickens in northern Jordan. A total of 208 male and female local scavenging chickens were selected randomly. We examined the trachea and gastrointestinal tract of each bird for the presence of helminthes. We recovered three nematode and eight cestode species. No trematodes were found. One hundred and fifty-two birds (73.1%) (95% CI: 67, 79) were infected. The prevalences of different species were as follows: Ascaridia galli female 28%, male 43%; Capillaria obsignata 0.5%; Heterakis gallinarum 33%; Amoebotaenia cuneata 4.3%; Choanotaenia infundibulum female 23%, male 13%; Davainea proglottina 1.4%; Hymenolepsis cantaniana 11%; Hymenolepsis carioca female 35%, male 24%; Raillietina cesticillius female 5%, male 11%; Raillietina echinobothrida 16%; and Raillietina tetragona 18%. The prevalences of A. galli and R. cesticillus were higher in male than female hosts while those of C. infundibulum and H. carioca were higher in females. The median worm burden was 7 (range 0-168) worms per chicken. PMID:18329115
Szafrańska, E; Wasielewski, O; Bereszyński, A
One hundred and three samples of faeces of reared grey wolves from four locations (Stobnica Park and Zoological Gardens in Bydgoszcz, Wrocław and Cracow) and twenty-six samples of faeces from two free-roaming packs of grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Piła (Forest Divisions: Borne Sulinowo, Czarnobór, Jastrowo) and Zielona Góra (Forest Divisions: Torzym, Krosno Odrzańskie) were collected between 2005 and 2007. Helminth eggs were detected in 78.6% of faecal samples of reared grey wolves and in 88.4% of those of free-roaming wolves. The trematode Alaria alata (80.1%) and nematodes Eucoleus aerophilus (23.1%) and Spirocerca lupi (11.5%) were only detected from wild packs of wolves and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (35.9%), Trichuris vulpis (15.5%) and Toxocara canis (3.9%) were only detected from reared wolves. Differences were observed in the prevalence and composition of helminth fauna between reared and wild grey wolves and our results are compared with those from studies within Poland and elsewhere in Europe. PMID:20236557
Full Text Available Because of the establishment of a sewage treatment plant in the city of Isfahan in recent years, a study was undertaken to investigate the effect of this system in reducing the high prevalence of helminthiases. Samples obtained from various parts of the plant and at different stages of processing were examined and it was found that the eggs of Ascaris, Trichostrongylus spp. and Trichuris are found in very high numbers in the canal entering the plant, the majority of which were undeveloped. The average number of Ascaris ova found in one gram of fertilizer at the end of processing was 18, 100, the culture of which yielded a high proportion (up to 45 per cent of eggs in larval stages. An examination of the inhabitants of two quarters of the city, one with and the other without .a sewage system, showed high prevalence of infection with helminthes among both groups. The difference between the prevalence of infection with each helminth was not significant in these, two groups. Similar infection rates were also found among the laborers working at the sewage plant. The contaminated fertilizer is used in vegetable farms and, because of the large consumption of vegetables by the inhabitants of the city, the important role of contaminated fertilizer in the transmission of Ascaris infection in the city of Isfahan is discussed.
Full Text Available The effect of a combination of Oxantel- Pyrantel with a single dose of 10 mg/ kg body weight on Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris, Trichostrongylus spp. and Ancylostoma duodenale has been evaluated among the population of two rural areas in Khuzestan, Southwest Iran (41 persons and Isfahan, Central (30 persons. All patients were infected with Trichuris trichiura and some simultaneously with one or more other helminthes. In addition to stool examinations, to elucidate the possible side- effects, several blood and urine tests were conducted before and after treatment. A cure rate of 83% has been found among Trichuris cases treated in both areas. Cure rates observes for ascariasis and trichostrongyliasis were 93. 3% and 23% in Khuzestan, as well as 90% and 50% in Isfahan, respectively. Cure rate for ancylostomiasis was 86% in Khuzestan.Significant reduction in the mean number of egg.gr of faeces has been observed.Side- effects encountered were mild and transient. The promisisng effect of this drug on soil – transmitted helminthes, particulary Trichuris trichiura has been proven.
Timothy J. C. Anderson
Full Text Available Fecal egg count scores were used to investigate the distribution and abundance of intestinal helminths in the population of a rural village. Prevalences of the major helminths were 41% with Ascaris lumbricoides 60% with Trichuris trichiura and 50% with Necator americanus. All three parasites showed a highly aggregated distribution among hosts. Age/prevalence and age/intensity profiles were typical for both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura with the highest worm burdens in the 50-10 year old children. For hookworm both prevalence and intensity curves were convex in shape with maximum infection levels in the 30-40 year old age class. Infected females had higher burdens of T. trichiura than infected males in all age classes of the population; there were no other effects of host gender. Analysis of associations between parasites within hosts revealed strong correlations between A. lumbricoides and T. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Individuals with heavy infections of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura showed highly significant aggregation within households. Associations between a variety of household features and heavy infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura are described.
Parasite community interactions: Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infecting wild golden lion tamarins Leontopithecus rosalia and golden-headed lion tamarins L. chrysomelas (Callitrichidae, L., 1766).
Monteiro, Rafael V; Dietz, James M; Raboy, Becky; Beck, Benjamin; De Vleeschouwer, Kristel; Vleeschouwer, Kristel D; Baker, Andrew; Martins, Andréia; Jansen, Ana Maria
The parasite prevalence and infection intensity in primate wild populations can be affected by many variables linked to host and/or parasite ecology or either to interparasite competition/mutualism. In this study, we tested how host sex, age, and place of origin, as well parasitic concomitant infections affect the structure of golden lion and golden-headed lion tamarins parasite community, considering Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infection in these primates. A total of 206 tamarins from two Atlantic Coastal rain forest areas in Brazil were tested during 4 years for prevalence of T. cruzi infection and helminth prevalence. Three intestinal helminth groups showed high prevalences in both tamarin species: Prosthenorchis sp., Spiruridae, and Trichostrongylidae. An association between presence of T. cruzi infection and higher intestinal helminth prevalence was found in both tamarin species. Two explanations for this association seem to be plausible: (1) lower helminth-linked mortality rates in T. cruzi-infected tamarins and (2) lower elimination rates of helminths in such tamarins. A higher frequency of T. cruzi-positive blood cultures was significantly correlated to female tamarins and to the presence of Trichostrongylidae infection. The possibility of an increase in the transmissibility of T. cruzi and the three analyzed helminths in lion tamarins with concomitant infections is discussed. PMID:17676342
Full Text Available Background : Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods : Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results : Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion : Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.
Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results: Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%, hookworm (16.19% and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%. Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001. Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion: Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.
Kohn, A.; Moravec, František; Cohen, S.C.; Canzi, C.; Takemoto, R.M.; Fernandes, B. M. M.
Roč. 7, č. 5 (2011), 681-690. ISSN 1809-127X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Helminths * fish * Paraná River Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine
Development of an effective vaccine against malaria remains a priority. However, a significant number of individuals living in tropical areas are also likely to be co-infected with helminths, which are known to adversely affect immune responses to a number of different existing vaccines. Here we com...
Malaria and helminth infections are two of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in tropical areas. While concomitant infection is common, mechanisms contributing to altered disease outcomes during co-infection remain poorly defined. We have previously reported exacerbation of normally non-lethal ...
Full Text Available Helminth parasites of woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus were studied from May 1993 through to June 1994 on the River Avena (Calabria, southern Italy, which, as other Mediterranenan rivers, is dry for most of the year. Trapping sites were located in three different habitats of the river: slopes, shores and the riverbed. A total of 106 animals was captured and screened for the presence of helminths. Five endoparasitic species were detected: Corrigia vitta, Rictularia proni, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia stroma and S. frederici. Four helminth species were recorded from the riverbed and shore sections, whereas only H. polygyrus and S. frederici were found on the slopes. Syphacia frederici occurred at every trapping site. The total prevalence was 25.5% and total mean intensity was 27.2 parasites/mouse. No statistical significant difference was found for both the prevalence and mean intensity of infection between either habitats or sexes, suggesting that, from the point of view of the helminth community, the study area should be considered as a single habitat.
Scholz, Tomáš; Uhlířová, Michaela; Ditrich, Oleg
Roč. 10, č. 4 (2003), s. 343-350. ISSN 1252-607X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : human parasites * helminths * Laos Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.488, year: 2003
Reperant, Leslie A; Hegglin, Daniel; Fischer, Claude; Kohler, Lucia; Weber, Jean-Marc; Deplazes, Peter
Dixenous helminths that depend on rodent intermediate hosts are supposed to be negatively affected by urbanization due to lower supply of rodents in urbanized environments. Prevalence rates of dixenous, non-strictly monoxenous, and monoxenous helminths in 228 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) along a gradient of increasing urbanization were assessed by morphological parasite identification in the city of Geneva, Switzerland. Multivariate analyses for the five most prevalent helminth species or genera revealed a significant decrease of prevalence rates for the dixenous helminths Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia spp. from the rural (52.1 and 54.3%, respectively) to the urban area (30.0 and 20.0%, respectively), but not for the monoxenous nematode Uncinaria stenocephala (overall prevalence of 78.2%) and the non-strictly monoxenous nematode Toxocara canis (overall prevalence of 44.3%). The lower prevalence of Toxascaris leonina in the urban area (8.0%) compared to the rural area (59.6%) raises the question of whether rodent paratenic hosts play a major role for the population dynamics of this species. PMID:17393184
Robinson, R D; Thompson, D L; Lindo, J F
This study investigates the level of helminthic infestation in better-cared-for dogs in a middle-class community in suburban Kingston. A canine zoographic study was conducted, and fresh faecal deposits were collected and analysed for helminth life-cycle stages. The survey indicated that 73% (n = 93) of households in the study area owned one dog or more (mean = 1.4). Resident's attitudes towards canine management suggested that the dog population was, in general, restricted to the residential estate, and most owners claimed to have dewormed their dogs at least as young animals. Of 141 faecal specimens, 58% contained eggs or larvae of one or more of eight helminths: Uncinaria stenocephala (26%), Ancylostoma sp. (23%), Trichuris vulpis (9%), Toxocara canis (8%), Spirocerca lupi (6%), Strongyloides sp. (6%), Apophallus sp. (4%) and taeniids (1%). There was a high level of multiple infection in the host animals, with approximately one fifth of the infected samples containing three or more helminth types. Infection intensity was apparently low, but some dogs harboured heavy worm loads. PMID:2723384
King Shimumbo Nalubamba
Conclusions: Syngamus trachea, Streptocara pectinifera and Acuaria spiralis are reported for the first time in domestic poultry in Zambia. This study represents the first comparative study of helminths in domestic and wild guineafowls at an interface area and adds to the knowledge base in a discipline where a dearth currently exists.
Hidalgo-Vila, J.; Martínez-Silvestre, A.; Ribas, Alexis; Casanova, J. C.; Pérez-Santigosa, N.; Díaz-Paniagua, C.
Roč. 47, č. 1 (2011), s. 201-205. ISSN 0090-3558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : helminth * invasive exotic turtles * pancreatitis * reptiles Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2011 http://www.jwildlifedis.org/cgi/reprint/47/1/201
Full Text Available The occurrence of helminth parasites of barbel in the Doganci Dam Lake was investigated monthly from December 1998 to November 1999. During this study a total of 47 barbell were caught and examined for helminth parasites. A total of 5 species of helminth parasites was found as follows. Dactylogyrus carpathicus (Monogenea was observed on gills of the fish and Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Cestoda Allocreadium isoporum (Digenea and Contracaecum sp (Nematoda were present in the intestines and the abdominal cavity of fishes. D. carpathicus was the dominant parasite species found in barbel. A total of 117 parasites were recorded on 27 of the 47 fish examined. The overall prevalence of D. carpathicus was 57%. A. isoporum was the second most dominant parasite in this study. A total of 35 parasites were found in 9 of 47 fish examined and the total prevalence of A. isoporum was 19.1%. However B. acheliognathi were present only in very small numbers. Only seven B. acheliognathi were found in 4 of the 47 fish examined. Four fish were infected by C. laticeps and a total of 13 parasites was found. A single species of Nematoda, Contracaecum sp was observed in 5 of the 47 fish examined. A total of 25 parasites was recorded. The overall prevalence of Contracaecum sp was 27.2%. D. carpathicus and.A. isoporum were new records for the helminth fauna of Turkey.
Bordes, F.; Ponlet, N.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Ribas, A.; Krasnov, B. R.; Morand, S.
Roč. 170, č. 1 (2012), s. 123-135. ISSN 0029-8549 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Apodemus sylvaticus * Body condition * Testes mass * Spleen * PHA * Helminths * Sexual dimorphism * Parasites * Resistance * Tolerance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.011, year: 2012
Gordon, Catherine A; McManus, Donald P; Acosta, Luz P; Olveda, Remigio M; Williams, Gail M; Ross, Allen G; Gray, Darren J; Gobert, Geoffrey N
The global socioeconomic importance of helminth parasitic disease is underpinned by the considerable clinical impact on millions of people. While helminth polyparasitism is considered common in the Philippines, little has been done to survey its extent in endemic communities. High morphological similarity of eggs between related species complicates conventional microscopic diagnostic methods which are known to lack sensitivity, particularly in low intensity infections. Multiplex quantitative PCR diagnostic methods can provide rapid, simultaneous identification of multiple helminth species from a single stool sample. We describe a multiplex assay for the differentiation of Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma, Taenia saginata and Taenia solium, building on our previously published findings for Schistosoma japonicum. Of 545 human faecal samples examined, 46.6% were positive for at least three different parasite species. High prevalences of S. japonicum (90.64%), A. lumbricoides (58.17%), T. saginata (42.57%) and A. duodenale (48.07%) were recorded. Neither T. solium nor N. americanus were found to be present. The utility of molecular diagnostic methods for monitoring helminth parasite prevalence provides new information on the extent of polyparasitism in the Philippines municipality of Palapag. These methods and findings have potential global implications for the monitoring of neglected tropical diseases and control measures. PMID:25858090
Zelmer, Derek A; Paredes-Calderón, Laura; León-Règagnon, Virginia; García-Prieto, Luis
Colonization probabilities of parasite species often are determined by the habitat preference and vagility of host individuals. Although extinction-based interpretations have been investigated for nested subset patterns of parasite infracommunities, the low relative frequency of nestedness in colonization-dominated systems makes the determination and interpretation of nested infracommunities of broad ecological importance. In these systems, ontogenetic shifts in habitat preference or diet of the host have the potential to produce nested subset patterns of parasite infracommunities. Helminth infracommunity structure was investigated for 76 Rana vaillanti individuals collected from Laguna Escondida, Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico, in 1998. Pooled helminth infracommunities were significantly nested, as were penetrating and ingested helminth infracommunities when considered separately. Richness, diversity, and evenness of the helminth infracommunities were not correlated with host size, and did not differ between host sexes, suggesting that the structure of infracommunities simply is a product of the interaction between host individuals and their landscape mediated by individual differences in vagility. It is hypothesized that individual differences in recruitment can produce nested subset infracommunity patterns when the habitats or habitat preferences of hosts are themselves nested. PMID:15357057
Fatiregun AA; Oluwatoba OA
Despite a substantial reduction in the incidence and prevalence of parasitic diseases in the industrialized world, they continue to be an important public health problem in many developing African countries,including Nigeri-a.However,estimates of the prevalence of such infections among school age children,who bear the greatest health burden due to these diseases,are hard to come by.The objective of this study was therefore to deter-mine the prevalence and type of intestinal helminth infections among primary school pupils.The study was cross-sectional in design.The participants included 266 pupils recruited from three government primary schools in the Mokola area of Ibadan,Nigeria.The pupils were interviewed and their stool samples examined for eggs of common helminths.The mean age of the pupils was 9.8 ±2.6 years,and 128 (48.1%)were males.Nine-teen pupils (7.1%)had intestinal helminth infestations.Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 17 pupils (6. 4%)and was the most prevalent helminth among the children,while Trichuris trichiura was found in only two subjects (0.8%).Previous infestations and the use of public toilets were found to be significantly associated with current infections (P <0.05).This study demonstrated that the prevalence of intestinal infections was low among the pupils studied,and that Ascaris infection was the commonest infestation.
Ondríková, J.; Miklisová, D.; Ribas, Alexis; Stanko, M.
Roč. 55, č. 4 (2010), s. 369-378. ISSN 1230-2821 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : helminth community * rodents * south-eastern Slovakia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.144, year: 2010
Bordes, Frédéric; Morand, Serge; Pilosof, Shai; Claude, Julien; Krasnov, Boris R; Cosson, Jean-François; Chaval, Yannick; Ribas, Alexis; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Blasdell, Kim; Herbreteau, Vincent; Dupuy, Stéphane; Tran, Annelise
1. While the effects of deforestation and habitat fragmentation on parasite prevalence or richness are well investigated, host-parasite networks are still understudied despite their importance in understanding the mechanisms of these major disturbances. Because fragmentation may negatively impact species occupancy, abundance and co-occurrence, we predict a link between spatiotemporal changes in habitat and the architecture of host-parasite networks. 2. For this, we used an extensive data set on 16 rodent species and 29 helminth species from seven localities of South-East Asia. We analysed the effects of rapid deforestation on connectance and modularity of helminth-parasite networks. We estimated both the degree of fragmentation and the rate of deforestation through the development of land uses and their changes through the last 20 to 30 years in order to take into account the dynamics of habitat fragmentation in our statistical analyses. 3. We found that rapid fragmentation does not affect helminth species richness per se but impacts host-parasite interactions as the rodent-helminth network becomes less connected and more modular. 4. Our results suggest that parasite sharing among host species may become more difficult to maintain with the increase of habitat disturbance. PMID:25777342
Finlay, Conor M; Stefanska, Anna M; Walsh, Kevin P; Kelly, Patrick J; Boon, Louis; Lavelle, Ed C; Walsh, Patrick T; Mills, Kingston H G
Epidemiologic studies in humans have demonstrated that infection with helminth parasites is associated with a reduced risk of developing autoimmune diseases. Mechanistic studies in mice have linked the protective effect of helminths on autoimmunity to the suppressive activity of helminth-induced regulatory T cells (Tregs) or Th2 cells. In this study, we demonstrate that treatment of mice with Fasciola hepatica excretory-secretory products (FHES) attenuated the clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Protection was associated with a significant reduction in the infiltration of pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells into the brain. Although FHES enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine and Th2 responses, protection against EAE was independent of IL-4, IL-10, and Tregs. However, administration of FHES induced production of the type 2 cytokines IL-33 and IL-5, which promoted accumulation of eosinophils. FHES-induced expansion of eosinophils and protection against EAE was lost in IL-33(-/-) mice and upon neutralization of IL-5. Furthermore, transfer of FHES-induced or IL-33-induced eosinophils conferred protection against EAE. In addition, treatment of mice with recombinant IL-33 attenuated autoimmunity, and this was dependent on IL-5. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a role for helminth-induced IL-5 and IL-33 in protection against autoimmunity. PMID:26673140
Rafi, Wasiulla; Bhatt, Kamlesh; Gause, William C.
Previously we had reported that Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, a helminth with a lung migratory phase, affected host resistance against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection through the induction of alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. Several helminth species do not have an obligatory lung migratory phase but establish chronic infections in the host that include potent immune downregulatory effects, in part mediated through induction of a FoxP3+ T regulatory cell (Treg) response. Treg cells exhibit duality in their functions in host defense against M. tuberculosis infection since their depletion leads to enhanced priming of T cells in the lymph nodes and attendant improved control of M. tuberculosis infection, while their presence in the lung granuloma protects against excessive inflammation. Heligmosomoides polygyrus is a strictly murine enteric nematode that induces a strong FoxP3 Treg response in the host. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether host immunity to M. tuberculosis infection would be modulated in mice with chronic H. polygyrus infection. We report that neither primary nor memory immunity conferred by Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination was affected in mice with chronic enteric helminth infection, despite a systemic increase in FoxP3+ T regulatory cells. The findings indicate that anti-M. tuberculosis immunity is not similarly affected by all helminth species and highlight the need to consider this inequality in human coinfection studies. PMID:25605766
Full Text Available Helminth infection may be protective against allergy and account for the low prevalence of allergy in developing countries. We studied prospectively the prevalence of allergy in Ethiopian immigrants with heavy helminth infection on arrival in Israel, and again after a year of adjustment to an urban industrialized setting, to explore the roles of helminth infection, changed environment and background immunity on the manifestations of allergy. 126 newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants were studied at baseline and 115 after a year of follow up in Israel. Allergic symptoms, Skin prick tests (SPT, Tuberculin (PPD skin tests, stool and blood samples were obtained for determining parasites, blood IgE and eosinophil levels, respectively. Anti-helminthic therapy was offered to the entire infected individuals, but only 50/108 (46.3% took the medication. At baseline, there was a significant negative association between helminth infection and allergy, 4/18 (22.2% of uninfected participants were allergic compared to 7/108 (6.5% of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.028, as well as between helminth infection and SPT reactivity, 12/18 (66.6% of uninfected participants compared to 43/108 (39.8% of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.033. After one year, a significant general increase in allergy and SPT was observed. While only 11/126 (8.7% were allergic at baseline, 30/115 (26.1% became allergic at follow-up (p<0.0001, and while 55/126 (43.7% were SPT+ at baseline, 79/115 (68.7% became SPT+ at follow-up (p<0.001. A twofold increase in allergen sensitization was also observed after one year in Israel, particularly for dust mites, grasses and olive tree (p<0.001. These results show that: a Helminth infection is significantly associated with low allergy and low SPT reactivity; b One year after immigration to Israel, allergy and SPT reactivity increased significantly in all immigrants; c Higher increases in positive SPT and allergy were observed after a year in
José Carlos Sousa-Figueiredo
Full Text Available Namibia is now ready to begin mass drug administration of praziquantel and albendazole against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, respectively. Although historical data identifies areas of transmission of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, there is a need to update epidemiological data. For this reason, Namibia adopted a new protocol for mapping of schistosomiasis and geohelminths, formally integrating rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs for infections and morbidity. In this article, we explain the protocol in detail, and introduce the concept of 'mapping resolution', as well as present results and treatment recommendations for northern Namibia.This new protocol allowed a large sample to be surveyed (N = 17,896 children from 299 schools at relatively low cost (7 USD per person mapped and very quickly (28 working days. All children were analysed by RDTs, but only a sub-sample was also diagnosed by light microscopy. Overall prevalence of schistosomiasis in the surveyed areas was 9.0%, highly associated with poorer access to potable water (OR = 1.5, P<0.001 and defective (OR = 1.2, P<0.001 or absent sanitation infrastructure (OR = 2.0, P<0.001. Overall prevalence of geohelminths, more particularly hookworm infection, was 12.2%, highly associated with presence of faecal occult blood (OR = 1.9, P<0.001. Prevalence maps were produced and hot spots identified to better guide the national programme in drug administration, as well as targeted improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene. The RDTs employed (circulating cathodic antigen and microhaematuria for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively performed well, with sensitivities above 80% and specificities above 95%.This protocol is cost-effective and sensitive to budget limitations and the potential economic and logistical strains placed on the national Ministries of Health. Here we present a high resolution map of disease prevalence levels, and treatment regimens are
Full Text Available Background: Rattus norvegicus (brown rat and Rattus rattus (black rat are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis to farm animals. We aimed to study the intestinal and intramuscular helminths in wild rats from three different environments to assess the relevance of rats as carrier of zoonotic parasites for public health. Materials and methods: Wild brown rats (117 individuals and black rats (44 individuals were captured at farms, in suburban and in rural environments in the Netherlands. Intestinal helminths were isolated and identified morphologically. Artificial digestion was used to isolate muscle larvae. Results and discussion: Morphological analysis of rat intestinal contents yielded six nematode species (Syphacia muris, Heterakis spumosa, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Trichuris muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, and Strongyloides sp., three cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. nana and Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis fraterna, and four trematode species (Plagiorchis muris, Plagiorchis proximus, Echinostoma chloropodis, and Notocotylus imbricatus.Black rats at farms displayed the lowest intestinal helminth species variation (six species and carried overall on average 0.93 species simultaneously. In comparison, brown rats at farms carried seven helminth species and 1.91 species simultaneously. Brown rats from suburban environments displayed the highest species variation (11 species at 1.82 simultaneous helminth species. Absence of trematodes from rats at farms may suggest limited exchange of rats between farms and surrounding wet rural environments. We report four species of veterinary (Syphacia muris or zoonotic relevance (Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana and Plagiorchis muris. We did not find Trichinella muscle larvae, consistent with long-term prevalence in Dutch wild rats.
Pence, D B; Windberg, L A
The effects of selected intrinsic variables operating on host subpopulations and of extrinsic variables across the collective host population on the distributions of 10 common helminth species from coyotes in south Texas were compared. The intrinsic variables of host sex and presence and severity of sarcoptic mange had little effect on the distributions of most helminth species. The combined influences of (1) seasonal changes across the collective host population and (2) host subpopulations delineated by age were responsible for the overdispersed distributions of Oncicola canis, Physaloptera rara, and Protospirura numidica. Overdispersion in Ancylostoma caninum, Alaria marcianae, and Spirocerca lupi populations resulted almost exclusively from the heterogeneity of factors contributing to their rates of establishment, survival, and reproduction as generated across host age subpopulations. Aggregated abundances of A. caninum and A. marcianae occurred in young hosts, but were cumulative in older animals infected with S. lupi. The hypothesis that heterogeneity within the host population, rather than across the collective host population, is the main factor generating overdispersion in natural populations was confirmed for only 3 of 10 helminth species (A. caninum, A. marcianae, and S. lupi). The effects of extrinsic factors operating across the collective host population appeared to be equal to, or in some instances of greater importance than, these forces operating over host subpopulations in determining the dispersion patterns of some helminth species (O. canis, P. rara, and P. numidica). The distributions of Taenia pisiformis, Mesocestoides lineatus, Oslerus osleri, and Toxascaris leonina were not affected, or only minimally influenced, by these intrinsic or extrinsic variables. The effects of these habitat variables on dispersion patterns are highly correlated with the life cycle and mode of transmission of the respective helminth species. PMID:6512639
Heckendorn, F; Häring, D A; Amsler, Z; Maurer, V
The aim of this experiment conducted at four sites in Switzerland was to investigate the transmission and infectivity of the two main helminth parasite species of poultry (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum) in outdoor runs with two different stocking rates. Additionally, the influence of a simple management practice (mowing of run) on helminth transmission was studied. Three run types were created on each site: runs C served as control (stocking rate 10 m(2)/hen, no management), runs B corresponded to runs C but were managed (10 m(2)/hen, management). In runs A stocking rates were doubled compared to control runs (5m(2)/hen, no management). During two subsequent layer flocks, a set of parasitological parameters (faecal egg counts (FECs), prevalence, worm burdens in hens and in tracer animals, helminth eggs in soil) as well as parameters describing the run vegetation were determined. The increased stocking rate (runs A) led to a larger proportion of bare soil and to a reduction of the average vegetation height. In runs with a lower stocking rate (B and C), the proportion of bare soil did not increase during the experimental period. Irrespective of the run type, numbers of helminth eggs in the soil decreased significantly with an increasing distance to the hen houses, while the percentage of ground coverage as well as vegetation height increased. However, across runs the correlation between the percentage of ground cover and the values of eggs per gram soil between runs was very low (r(2)=0.0007, P=0.95) indicating a non-causal relationship. Significant differences in FEC were found in flock 2 (Pgalli and H. gallinarum and repeated mowing of runs did not reduce helminth infections. Lower stocking rates, however, led to a substantial improvement of the run vegetation. PMID:19019546
Franssen, Frits; Swart, Arno; van Knapen, Frans; van der Giessen, Joke
Background Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) and Rattus rattus (black rat) are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis to farm animals. We aimed to study the intestinal and intramuscular helminths in wild rats from three different environments to assess the relevance of rats as carrier of zoonotic parasites for public health. Materials and methods Wild brown rats (117 individuals) and black rats (44 individuals) were captured at farms, in suburban and in rural environments in the Netherlands. Intestinal helminths were isolated and identified morphologically. Artificial digestion was used to isolate muscle larvae. Results and discussion Morphological analysis of rat intestinal contents yielded six nematode species (Syphacia muris, Heterakis spumosa, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Trichuris muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, and Strongyloides sp.), three cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. nana and Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis) fraterna), and four trematode species (Plagiorchis muris, Plagiorchis proximus, Echinostoma chloropodis, and Notocotylus imbricatus). Black rats at farms displayed the lowest intestinal helminth species variation (six species) and carried overall on average 0.93 species simultaneously. In comparison, brown rats at farms carried seven helminth species and 1.91 species simultaneously. Brown rats from suburban environments displayed the highest species variation (11 species) at 1.82 simultaneous helminth species. Absence of trematodes from rats at farms may suggest limited exchange of rats between farms and surrounding wet rural environments. We report four species of veterinary (Syphacia muris) or zoonotic relevance (Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana and Plagiorchis muris). We did not find Trichinella muscle larvae, consistent with long-term prevalence in Dutch wild rats. PMID
Full Text Available Aim: Studies on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths infection in Banaraja fowls of Mayurbhanj district in Odisha with respect to semi-intensive system of rearing. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 Banaraja birds (30 males and 130 females belonging to two age groups (below 1 month age and above 1 month were examined for the presence of different species of gastrointestinal helminth infection over a period of 1-year. The method of investigation included collection of fecal sample and gastrointestinal tracts, examination of fecal sample of birds, collection of parasites from different part of gastrointestinal tract, counting of parasites, and examination of the collected parasites by standard parasitological techniques followed by morphological identification as far as possible up to the species level. Results: Overall, 58.75% birds were found infected with various gastrointestinal helminths. Total five species of parasites were detected that included Ascaridia galli (25.63%, Heterakis gallinarum (33.75%, Raillietina tetragona (46.25%, Raillietina echinobothrida (11.87%, and Echinostoma revolutum (1.87%. Both single (19.15% as well as mixed (80.85% infection were observed. Highest incidence of infection was observed during rainy season (68.88% followed by winter (66.66% and least in summer season (41.81%. Sex-wise incidence revealed slightly higher occurrence among females (59.23% than males (56.67%. Age-wise prevalence revealed that chicks were more susceptible (77.77% than adults (51.30% to gastrointestinal helminths infection. Conclusions: Present study revealed that mixed infection with gastrointestinal helminths of different species was more common than infection with single species and season-wise prevalence was higher in rainy season followed by winter and summer. Chicks were found to be more prone to this parasitic infection and a slight higher prevalence among female birds was observed.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Areas endemic of helminth infection, tuberculosis (TB and HIV are to a large extent overlapping. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of asymptomatic helminth infection on the immunological response among TB patients with and without HIV, their house hold contacts and community controls. METHODOLOGY: Consecutive smear positive TB patients (n = 112, their household contacts (n = 71 and community controls (n = 112 were recruited in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Stool microscopy, HIV serology, serum IgE level, eosinophil and CD4 counts were performed and tuberculosis patients were followed up for 3 months after initiation of anti-TB treatment. RESULTS: Helminth co-infection rate was 29% in TB patients and 21% in both community control and household contacts (p = 0.3 where Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent parasite. In TB patients the seroprevalence of HIV was 47% (53/112. Eosinophilia and elevated IgE level were significantly associated with asymptomatic helminth infection. During TB treatment, the worm infection rate of HIV+/TB patients declined from 31% (10/32 at week 0 to 9% (3/32 at week 2 of TB treatment, whereas HIV-/TB patients showed no change from baseline to week 2, 29% (13/45 vs. 22.2% (10/45. This trend was stable at week 8 and 12 as well. CONCLUSION: One third of smear positive TB patients were infected with helminths. Eosinophilia and elevated IgE level correlated with asymptomatic worm infection, indicating an effect on host immunity. The rate of worm infection declined during TB treatment in HIV+/TB co-infected patients whereas no decline was seen in HIV-/TB group.
Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M
Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. PMID:22477566
Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Buzzulini, Carolina; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Campos, Gabriel Pimentel; Soares, Vando Edésio; Bergamasco, Paula Luzia Formigoni; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José
By means of parasitological necropsies, the present study aimed to evaluate, in six experiments, the degree of susceptibility or resistance of different helminth species which naturally infect horses to ivermectin 0.2 mg/kg, abamectin 0.2 mg/kg, moxidectin 0.4 mg/kg, trichlorfon 35 mg/kg, ivermectin 0.2 mg/kg+praziquantel 2.5 mg/kg, abamectin 0.2 mg/kg+praziquantel 2.5 mg/kg and ivermectin 0.2 mg/kg+6.6 mg/kg pyrantel. At experimental day zero, the horses were allocated to treatment groups based on average counts of strongylid eggs per gram of feces (EPG) obtained on days -3, -2 and -1. Oxyuris sp. infections were confirmed as positive or negative. All the animals in the six experiments were naturally infected by this helminth species. Each group (control or treated) consisted of six animals. All the assessed Habronema muscae populations analyzed were susceptible to ivermectin, abamectin and moxidectin. Of the six Trichostrongylus axei populations, four were susceptible to ivermectin, abamectin, moxidectin, trichlorfon and ivermectin+praziquantel, and two were resistant to abamectin+praziquantel and ivermectin+pyrantel. Both Strongyloides westeri populations analyzed were susceptible to ivermectin, abamectin, moxidectin and abamectin+praziquantel. For O. equi, resistance was found in four different populations treated with ivermectin, abamectin, moxidectin, trichlorfon and ivermectin+praziquantel. Only combinations of abamectin+praziquantel and ivermectin+pyrantel were effective against this parasite species. All the large strongyles diagnosed in the present study (Strongyus edentatus, Strongyus vulgaris and Triodontophorus serratus) were susceptible to all the chemicals tested, with the exception of trichlorfon. Of the Cyathostominae populations, one was diagnosed as resistant to ivermectin and another to trichlorfon. The remaining populations from this nematode group were considered to be sensitive to ivermectin, abamectin, moxidectin, ivermectin
Gawor, Jakub; Borecka, Anna
Agritourism provides ecological tourist services for urban dwellers in rural areas. Agritourism farms offer space and attractive scenery for people seeking to rest in quiet place and wanting healthy, outdoor recreational activities. The high epidemiological standard of agritourism farms is beneficial for the health of the farm owners and the guests. Upgraded level of the farm sanitation, also from parasitological point of view is of great importance, especially that among agritourism farms guests predominate families with small children. A field survey was carried out in 57 farms in central-eastern Poland to evaluate the environmental risk factors for geohelminth infections on agritourism farms offering tourist services for urban dwellers. Samples of soil were collected from 76 sites, i.e. yards surrounding houses, vegetable, fruit and flower gardens, playgrounds and sandpits. In addition, samples were taken from 27 public places of recreation (playgrounds at forest clearing) visited by agritourism farm guests. During visits the farms were inspected and the owners were questioned about their awareness of the threat of parasitic infections. Soil contamination with geohelminth eggs was found in 4 examined farms (7.0%), in one locality on each farm. The eggs of Toxocara spp. and Ascaris spp. were detected in single samples from 3 backyards (6.4%) and one sandpit (10.0%). In the soil samples from places of recreation outside the farms eggs of human or animal helminths were not identified. The results of this study showed that the risk of helminth infections on agritourism farms is low, since geohelminth eggs (1-3 per sample) were detected only in four samples (0.5%) among 760 collected from farms households. The farm owners must be aware of the importance of preventive measures to eliminate the environmental contamination with eggs of zoonotic soiltransmitted helminths. Special attention should be paid to the risk of intestinal parasites of cats of semi domestic
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to know the prevalence of s oil-transmitted helminths (STH in children aged 1-14 years attending outpati ents and inpatients from both urban and rural background. Out of the 550 stool samples exami ned, 450 were from the study group and 100 from the control group. All the 450 children of the study group presented one or more of the classical symptoms like abdominal pain, low grade fever, diarrhoea, dysentery, constipation and pica. Hundred children from the control group did not have any classical symptoms. Thirty five per cent from the study group and 21 per cent fro m the control group were found positive for one or more of the helminthic infection. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris tr ichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale & Necator americanus (hookworm, Hymenolepis nana and Enterobius vermicularis were 27%, 15%, 0.4%, 2% and 0.22%, respectively in the study g roup and 15%, 10%, 4%, 2%, and 2%, respectively in the control group. Strongyloides ster coralis was not found either in the study or control groups. Helminthic infections were more comm on in 7-9 years of age group, urban children with low socio-economic strata, and with m ale preponderance. Majority of children who harboured STH were suffering from abdominal pain and low grade fever. Total 450 clinical samples (control group examined b y direct wet mount, saturated salt floatation, and formalin-ether sedimentation; and o nly 391 samples examined by Kato-Katz semiquantitative techniques. Twenty six per cent posi tive by direct wet mount, 35% by both saturated salt floatation and formalin-ether sedime ntation whereas 38% of the samples were found positive by Kato-Katz semiquantitative techniq ue. In conclusion, concentration techniques like saturated salt floatation and forma lin-ether sedimentation are the best diagnostic tools to get authentic and reliable resu lts and to rule out fallacious inference caused by relying only on direct wet mount
Dunn, Julia C; Turner, Hugo C; Tun, Aung; Anderson, Roy M
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections of humans fall within the World Health Organization's (WHO) grouping termed the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It is estimated that they affect approximately 1.4 billion people worldwide. A significant proportion of these infections are in the population of Southeast Asia. This review analyses published data on STH prevalence and intensity in Southeast Asia over the time period of 1900 to the present to describe age related patterns in these epidemiological measures. This is with a focus on the four major parasite species affecting humans; namely Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms; Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Data were also collected on the diagnostic methods used in the published surveys and how the studies were designed to facilitate comparative analyses of recorded patterns and changes therein over time. PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infections search engines were used to identify studies on STH in Southeast Asia with the search based on the major key words, and variants on, "soil-transmitted helminth" "Ascaris" "Trichuris" "hookworm" and the country name. A total of 280 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria from 11 Southeast Asian countries; Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam. It was concluded that the epidemiological patterns of STH infection by age and species mix in Southeast Asia are similar to those reported in other parts of the world. In the published studies there were a large number of different diagnostic methods used with differing sensitivities and specificities, which makes comparison of the results both within and between countries difficult. There is a clear requirement to standardise the methods of both STH diagnosis in faecal material and how the
Diniz, L M; Magalhães, E F L; Pereira, F E L; Dietze, R; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, R
Resistance to intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium leprae is dependent upon an effective T helper type 1 (Th1)-type immune response. On the other hand, intestinal helminths are known to subvert the host's immune response towards to either a Th2-type immune response or a regulatory T cell up-regulation, which may affect the host's ability to mount an effective response to mycobacteria. Here, we report a significant association between intestinal helminth infections and lepromatous leprosy [odds ratio (OR), 10.88; confidence interval (CI) 95%: 4.02-29.4; Pleprosy patients co-infected with intestinal helminths when compared to leprosy patients without worms. Conversely, lepromatous leprosy patients with intestinal worms produced higher levels of both interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10. Our results suggest that a pre-existing infection by intestinal helminths may facilitate the establishment of M. leprae infection or its progression to more severe forms of leprosy. PMID:20491787
A study of the helminth parasites of fish of river swat was conducted from September, 2012 to August, 2013. A total of 250 fish belonging to five genera and six species were examined. The parasites collected were diplozoon khyberensis, bathybothrium rectangulum, bothriocephalus, nippotaenia, cucullanidae, proteocephalus, rhabdochona charsaddiensis, rhabdochona schizothoracis and neoechynorhynchus devdevi. They were indentified by morphological characteristics through microscopic techniques. Overall prevalence of the fish parasites was 58% (145/250. Among these schizothorax plageostomus fish 93.04% |(107/115), schizothorax labiatus 61.11% (33/54), salmo trutta fario 17.85% (05/28), Gara gotyla 0% (0/09), rita rita 0% (0/25) and oncorhynchus mykiss were 0% |(0/19). The intensity of the parasite varied from 1% to 9.2%. Among them high intensity was noted in rhabdochona schizothoracis (9.2%) and schizothorax labiatus. (author)
Full Text Available Parasitic worms (helminths within the Phyla Nematoda and Platyhelminthes are responsible for some of the most debilitating and chronic infectious diseases of human and animal populations across the globe. As no subunit vaccine for any parasitic helminth is close to being developed, the frontline strategy for intervention is administration of therapeutic, anthelmintic drugs. Worryingly, and unsurprising due to co-evolutionary mechanisms, many of these worms are developing resistance to the limited compound classes currently being used. This unfortunate reality has led to a renaissance in next generation anthelmintic discovery within both academic and industrial sectors. However, a major bottleneck in this process is the lack of quantitative methods for screening large numbers of small molecules for their effects on the whole organism. Development of methodologies that can objectively and rapidly distinguish helminth viability or phenotype would be an invaluable tool in the anthelmintic discovery pipeline. Towards this end, we describe how several basic techniques currently used to assess single cell eukaryote viability have been successfully applied to parasitic helminths. We additionally demonstrate how some of these methodologies have been adopted for high-throughput use and further modified for assessing worm phenotype. Continued development in this area is aimed at increasing the rate by which novel anthelmintics are identified and subsequently translated into everyday, practical applications.Vermes parasíticos (helmintos dos filos Nematoda e Platelmintos são responsáveis por algumas das doenças infecciosas crônicas e mais debilitantes das populações humana e animal em todo o globo. Já que nenhuma vacina está prestes a ser desenvolvida para nenhum parasita helmíntico, a frente estratégica de intervenção é a administração de drogas terapêuticas anti-helmínticas. De maneira preocupante, e não surpreendente devido a mecanismos
Full Text Available Parasite diversity has important implications in several research fields including ecology, evolutionary biology and epidemiology. Wide-ranging analysis has been restricted because of the difficult, highly specialised and time-consuming processes involved in parasite identification. In this study, we assessed parasite diversity in wild rats using 18S rDNA-based metagenomics. 18S rDNA PCR products were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencer and the analysis of the sequences using the QIIME software successfully classified them into several parasite groups. The comparison of the results with those obtained using standard methods including microscopic observation of helminth parasites in the rat intestines and PCR amplification/sequencing of 18S rDNA from isolated single worms suggests that this new technique is reliable and useful to investigate parasite diversity.
Kimura, Akio; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Nagahama, Shinya; Horikoshi, Takashi; Edagawa, Akiko; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Yamasaki, Hiroshi
This study aimed to investigate intestinal helminth infection in stray dogs in Osaka Prefecture by surveying coprological samples from dogs captured from 2006-2011. Of 212 fecal samples collected, overall prevalence of infection was 39.2%. The most common species was Toxocara canis (25.0%), followed by Trichuris vulpis (8.0%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (3.3%), Taeniidae (2.4%), Ancylostoma caninum (1.9%) and Toxascaris leonine (0.5%). In the molecular analysis, all of the taeniid eggs were negative for Echinococcus multilocularis and were identified as other taeniid species (e.g., Taenia pisiformis). Our results suggest that stray dogs remain important infection reservoirs of zoonotic parasites in Osaka Prefecture. Therefore, control of stray dogs is crucial for reducing the risk of public health problems due to parasitic infections. PMID:23774027
Paulsrud, B.; Gjerde, B.; Lundar, A.
The Norwegian sewage sludge regulation requires disinfection (hygienisation) of all sludges for land application, and one of the criteria is that disinfected sludge should not contain viable helminth ova. All disinfection processes have to be designed and operated in order to comply with this criteria, and four processes employed in Norway (thermophilic aerobic pre-treatment, pre-pasteurisation, thermal vacuum drying in membrane filter presses and lime treatment) have been tested in full scale by inserting semipermeable bags of Ascaris suum eggs into the processes for certain limes. For lime treatment supplementary laboratory tests have been conducted. The paper presents the results of the experiments, and it could be concluded that all processes, except lime treatment, could be operated at less stringent time-temperature regimes than commonly experienced at Norwegian plants today. (author)
Banas, S.; Schwartzbrod, J. [Lab. de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie de l' Environnement, Nancy (France); Remy, M. [Lhoist, on behalf of the European Lime Assoication (EuLA), Bruessel (Germany); Boehm, R. [Univ. Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Verfuerden, M. [Fels-Werke GmbH, im Namen des Bundesverbandes der Deutschen Kalkindustrie (BVK), Koeln (Germany)
Most pathogens in the raw sewage are concentrated into the sewage sludge. They can be separated into four categories: viruses, bacteria, protozoa and larger parasites such as human roundworms, tapeworms and liver flukes. Such micro-organisms can cause disease in humans, the transmission occurring in several ways e.g. by inhaling sludge aerosols or dust, by eating vegetables or fruits contaminated by sludge, drinking water contaminated by run-off or by eating meat from livestock infected by grazing pastures fertilised with sludge. The presence of helminth eggs in urban sludge may constitute a sanitary risk when used as agricultural fertiliser. To avoid any contamination, the efficiency of a certain number of sludge hygienization processes must be tested. One of these involves decontamination with quicklime. The Ascaris egg inactivation by liming with lime milk, slaked lime and quicklime is studied in a series of sludges coming from slaughterhouses. (orig.)
Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Göring, H. H.;
Intestinal helminth infections are causing health and welfare problems in both human and animal populations. A family, in which susceptibility towards Ascaris (large round worm) and Trichuris (whipworm) infections are segregating, was constructed. Our data demonstrate that genetic components are...... Ascaris egg excretion and worm load. The proportion of phenotypic variance accounted for by a SNP's genotype ranged from 0.08-0.14 and 0.06-0.12 for Ascaris and Trichuris, respectively. The identified QTLs will be verified in unrelated pig material and we are currently collecting samples for that purpose...... responsible for approximately 45% and 70% of the variation in Ascaris and Trichuris parasite loads, respectively. A genome scan using the Ilummina 7K SNP-chip has been performed in order to locate genomic regions controlling this susceptibility. A total of 194 pigs from 19 full-sib litters have been genotyped...
Certaines races locales de ruminants présentent des aptitudes génétiques particulières à résister et/ou à tolérer les parasites internes. Cet article passe en revue les données encore éparses existant sur les variabilité intra et inter-races de la résistance aux helminthes des bovins, ovins et caprins, et décrit plus précisément les projets de recherches de l’International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) en matière de résistance génétique aux nématodes gastro-intestinaux des petits rumina...
Hála, K.; Plachý, Jiří; Kaufman, J.
New York : Academic Press, 1998 - (Pastoret, P.; Griebel, P.; Bazin, H.; Govaerts, A.), s. 92-95 ISBN 0-12-546401-0 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/96/0670 Keywords : chicken MHC * histocompatibility antigens * disease resistance Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology
Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote
Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote
Dalimi, A; Sattari, A; Motamedi, Gh
Human infection especially with helminth parasites is an emerging health issue, as the human environment is increasingly shared with infected animals, either pets or wild life. In this survey, the intestinal content of 83 stray dogs, 22 red foxes and 10 golden Jackals collected from the West Azarbaijan, Kordestan and Kermanshah provinces in the west of Iran, were studied for the presence of helminth parasites. The percentage of different species recovered from these animals is listed as follows: From stray dogs: Toxocara canis (6.02%), Toxascaris leonina (32.53%), Ancylostoma caninum (3.61%), Oxynema sp. (1.35%), Rictularia affinis (12.05%), Taenia hydatigena (53.01%), Taenia ovis (7.23%), Taenia multiceps (4.82%), Echinococcus granulosus (13.25%), Dipylidium caninum (38.55%), Mesocestoides lineatus (26.50%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (4.82%). From red foxes: T. canis (4.54%), T. leonina (31.82%), A. caninum (4.54%), Uncinaria stenocephala (13.64%), Oxynema sp. (9.09%), R. affinis (54.54%), Strongyloides sp. (4.54%), Physaloptera sp. (4.54%), T. hydatigena (9.09%), E. granulosus (4.54%), D. caninum (9.09%), M. lineatus (81.82%), Joyeuxiella pasqalei (27.27%), Diplopylidium nolleri (4.54%), M. hirudinaceus (22.72%) and Macracanthorhynchus sp. (9.09%). From golden jackals: T. canis (10%), T. leonina (30%), R. affinis (50%), T. hydatigena (10%), D. caninum (20%), M. lineatus (70%), J. pasqalei (30%.), Alaria canis (10%), M. hirudinaceus (30%) and Macracanthomynchus sp. (10%). PMID:16899340
Ionizing radiations have a deleterious effect on protozoa and helminths. Some of the variables affecting radiosensitivity are the stage of development of the organism, the temperature at which irradiation carried out and variation in the susceptibility of individuals of a species. The introduction of meat inspection and chemotherapy, general education of the public as to sanitation and proper food preparation and certain food pretreatments such as salting and freezing have done much to control or alleviate the spread of parasitic infections. Nevertheless, parasitism of humans and livestock persists in some degree in all parts of the world. There is need to develop other methods of controlling parasites. One such alternative is the use of ionizing radiation to treat foods so as to render any parasites they contain noninfectious or nonpathogenic. This paper concentrates on the general effects of radiation on protozoa and helminths and covers the literature on food irradiation applications including the research carried out on the inhibition of viability and infectivity of Cysticercus bovis by irradiation of meat. Viability of Taenia saginata cysticerci was studied in vitro by exposing them to gamma radiation. It was round that a minimum of 3.7 kGy is required to devitalize C. bovis cysts. However, for complete de-vitalization, 6 kGy of irradiation was needed. Inhibition of infectivity of C. bovis by irradiation of meat was also investigated. It was concluded that 0.3 kGy could be accepted as the minimal effective dose to inhibit the development of C. bovis larvae into adult tapeworm
Gicheha, M G; Kosgey, I S; Bebe, B O; Kahi, A K
Economic values for resistance to gastrointestinal (GI) helminths in meat sheep were estimated based on previously published genetic and phenotypic parameters in a selection index objectively optimizing gains on yearling weight (YW). A two-trait index of YW and faecal egg count (FEC) were considered when accounting only for tangible roles of sheep production using individual records for index calculation (scheme 1) or including individual, sire, dam and male paternal half-sib information (scheme 2). Schemes 3 and 4 were similar to schemes 1 and 2, respectively, but accounted for both tangible and intangible roles of sheep production. Economic values within each scheme were estimated for five breeding objectives as follows: (i) index response in YW equals response from single trait selection, (ii) index response in YW is maximum, (iii) the level of FEC was held constant, (iv) A predetermined response of -0.22 (x1000) eggs per gram was assumed and (v) Monetary value of response in FEC is minimum. All estimated economic values were negative, and were Kenya Shillings (KSh) -34.90 (US dollar -0.50), 0.00, -92.20 (US dollar -1.32), -153.31 (US dollar -2.19) and -47.90 (US dollar -0.68), respectively, for options 1-5 in scheme 1. In all schemes the breeding options ranked 4, 3, 5 and 1 in descending order; however, options 1 and 5 exchanged positions in schemes 2 and 4. Economic values were responsive to changes in heritability of FEC and genetic correlation between the two traits. The magnitude of the economic values reflects the importance of including resistance to GI helminths in the breeding objectives for meat sheep in different production systems. PMID:16130467
Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal parasites have world wide prevalence and are considered to be as one of the leading hygienic and economic problems in the world. It can be said that there is nowhere in the world without parasitic infestations. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients referring to Yazd Central Laboratory in 2000-2002. Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional, analytic and descriptive study including 13388 stool specimens examined by two methods; Formalin-Ethyl Acetate and direct Method for intestinal parasites and Scotch tape method for Enterobius vermicularis. Results: 13388 samples examined included 6913 women and 6475 men. Parasites were observed in 1151 cases (8.6% including 618 (53.7% men and 533 (46.3% women, respectively. Of these, 98.6% were infected with protozoa and 1.4% with helminths. Giardia lambdia (41.05%, E.coli (27.45% and Blastocystis hominis (15.51% were the most common infecting organisms. Helminth infections were few, but the highest frequency was related to Hymenolepis nana and Enterobious vermicularis. Maximum frequency was reported in summer. There was a significant association between stool consistency and infestation by intestinal parasites (P=0.002. There was a significant relationship with sex, too (P=0.001 Conclusion: In the present study, the most common parasites were Giardia, E.coli and Blastocystis hominis (higher than five, but the prevalence was less as compared to previous similar studies in other regions, which could be because of the hot and dry weather, better personal hygiene and improved sewage system of Yazd.
Rahmawati Soeyoko Sri Sumarni
Full Text Available The prevalenses of soil transmitted helminths (STH infection in Lombok are relatively high. It isclosley associated with poor environmetal hygiene, non healthy sanitation status, poverty andimproper health services. The highest prevalences is normally observed in elementary school children.The aim of this study was to evalaute the relationship between hygiene, sanitation and STH infectionamong elementary school children in West Lombok. An observational study with cross-sectionaldesign was performed involving 197 elementary school children in Terong Tawah Village, LabuapiSub District, West Lombok District and 197 children in Ampenan, Mataram City as control. Thestool specimen of the children were collected and processed using Kato-Katz technique. Hygieneand sanitation of each subject that consisted nail hygiene, hand washing, using footwear, latrine,clean water availability, house floor, soil around the house were taken by questionnaire and directobservation. The result showed that the prevalences of STH among elementary school children inTerong Tawah (81.7% was higher than that in Ampenan (12.7%.Trichuris trichiura was thepredominant helminth both in Terong Tawah (36.0% and Ampenan (7.0% followed by A.lumbricoides (20.4% in Terong Tawah and 4.5% in Ampenan. The mix infections between T.trichiura and A. lumbricoides among the children in Terong Tawah (24.4% and Ampenan (1.0%were also found. A significant relationship between hygiene and sanitaion i.e. nail cleaniness, washinghands, contaminated soil around the house and STH infection among elementary school children inTerong Tawah and Ampenan (p<0.05. In conclusion, there is a significant relationship betweenpersonal hygiene, environmental sanitation and STH infections among elementary school children.
Domestic ruminants, including sheep, are frequently infected with a variety of gastrointestinal helminth parasites. As a result their productivity in terms of survival, live weight gain, wool and milk production and reproductive performance can be seriously depressed and cause major economic losses. The mechanisms by which parasites cause impaired productivity have become the subject of intensive study and radioisotopic techniques have played a key role in these studies. Despite the variety of different gastrointestinal parasites which infect sheep, the clinical signs and changes in haemological and blood biochemical indices show a number of similarities. In particular, it has been found that a reduction in the concentration of serum albumin is a frequent finding and anaemia also commonly occurs. The development of simple radioisotopic techniques to measure albumin and red cell breakdown and turnover rates using 125I-albumin, 51CrCl3, 59Fe-transferrin and 51Cr-red cells has enabled accurate quantitation of kinetic changes associated with hypoalbuminaemia and anaemias in a variety of gastrointestinal helminth infections of sheep. As a result of these studies it is apparent that the gastrointestinal loss of blood proteins is a major factor in the pathogenesis of such infections. More recent experiments using cannulated sheep and flow marker techniques have attempted to quantify the amount of lost protein which is reabsorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Associated changes in protein and metabolism have been examined using radiolabelled amino acids to examine tissue protein synthesis in parasitized animals. From such studies it is apparent that there is a net movement of amino acid nitrogen from muscle to the liver and intestines which decreases the availability for growth and milk and wool production. Resultant changes in body composition have been investigated by standard methods of carcase analysis and, recently, by use of neutron activation analysis. (author)
Mohammed Khalfan A; Deb Rinki M; Stanton Michelle C; Molyneux David H
Abstract Background Ivermectin and albendazole are used in annual mass drug administration (MDA) for the lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes in African countries co-endemic for onchocerciasis, but have additional impact on soil transmitted helminths and the ectoparasitic mite which causes scabies. Assessing these collateral impacts at scale is difficult due to the insensitivity of available parasite detection techniques. Methods The numbers of cases diagnosed with intestinal helminths...
Shewtank Goel; Rakesh Tank; Abhishek Singh; Sanjeev Kumar Khichi; Pooja Goyal; Rakesh Arya
Background: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are a major public health problem in our country, affecting the physical growth and cognitive development. STH infections are considered a leading cause of sickness, absenteeism and disability adjusted life years lost. Aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of soil transmitted helminths (STH) in Farrukhabad district, India. Methods: A total of 1203 study subjects from 602 eligible households fulfilling the eligibilty cri...
Renganathan, E.; Ercole, E.; Albonico, M; De Gregorio, G.; Alawi, K. S.; Kisumku, U. M.; Savioli, L
Intestinal helminthic infections in Pemba Island, United Republic of Tanzania, have been perceived as a public health problem for many decades. School surveys in 1988 and 1992 and a community survey in 1991 were carried out to assess the distribution of prevalence and the intensity of these infections and to define the most effective strategy for control. The prevalence of helminthic infections exceeded 85% in all the surveys, and intensity was moderate. These studies identified the high-risk...
Katoch, R.; Yadav, Anish; Godara, R.; Khajuria, J. K.; S Borkataki; Sodhi, S. S.
Necropsy of gastrointestinal tract of 125 free-range chickens from a subtropical and humid zone of northwestern India revealed four nematode spp. (Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, Capillaria spp. and Cheilospirurahamulosa) and four cestode spp. (Raillietina cesticillus, Raillietina echinobothrida, Raillietina tetragona and Amoebotaenia cuneata) The overall prevalence of the helminth parasites was 72.0%. Amongst various helminth species encountered in the region, A. galli emerged out as ...
Modjarrad, Kayvon; Zulu, Isaac; Redden, David T.; Njobvu, Lungowe; Freedman, David O; Vermund, Sten H.
Sub-Saharan Africa is disproportionately burdened by intestinal helminth and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. Recent evidence suggests detrimental immunologic effects from concomitant infection with the two pathogens. Few studies, however, have assessed the prevalence of and predictors for intestinal helminth infection among HIV-1–infected adults in urban African settings where HIV infection rates are highest. We collected and analyzed sociodemographic and parasitologic data fr...
Nikolay, B; Brooker, SJ; Pullan, RL
Reliable, sensitive and practical diagnostic tests are an essential tool in disease control programmes for mapping, impact evaluation and surveillance. To provide a robust global assessment of the relative performance of available diagnostic tools for the detection of soil-transmitted helminths, we conducted a meta-analysis comparing the sensitivities and the quantitative performance of the most commonly used copro-microscopic diagnostic methods for soil-transmitted helminths, namely Kato-Kat...
McNulty, Samantha N; Rosa, Bruce A; Fischer, Peter U; Rumsey, Jeanne M; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra; Curtis, Kurt C; Specht, Sabine; Townsend, R Reid; Weil, Gary J; Mitreva, Makedonka
Improved diagnostic methods are needed to support ongoing efforts to eliminate onchocerciasis (river blindness). This study used an integrated approach to identify adult female Onchocerca volvulus antigens that can be explored for developing serodiagnostic tests. The first step was to develop a detailed multi-omics database of all O. volvulus proteins deduced from the genome, gene transcription data for different stages of the parasite including eight individual female worms (providing gene expression information for 94.8% of all protein coding genes), and the adult female worm proteome (detecting 2126 proteins). Next, female worm proteins were purified with IgG antibodies from onchocerciasis patients and identified using LC-MS with a high-resolution hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer. A total of 241 immunoreactive proteins were identified among those bound by IgG from infected individuals but not IgG from uninfected controls. These included most of the major diagnostic antigens described over the past 25 years plus many new candidates. Proteins of interest were prioritized for further study based on a lack of conservation with orthologs in the human host and other helminthes, their expression pattern across the life cycle, and their consistent expression among individual female worms. Based on these criteria, we selected 33 proteins that should be carried forward for testing as serodiagnostic antigens to supplement existing diagnostic tools. These candidates, together with the extensive pan-omics dataset generated in this study are available to the community (http://nematode.net) to facilitate basic and translational research on onchocerciasis. PMID:26472727
McKevitt, Matthew; Brinkman, Mary Beth; McLoughlin, Melanie; Perez, Carla; Howell, Jerrilyn K.; Weinstock, George M.; Norris, Steven J; Palzkill, Timothy
Antibody responses for 882 of the 1,039 proteins in the proteome of Treponema pallidum were examined. Sera collected from infected rabbits were used to systematically identify 106 antigenic proteins, including 22 previously identified antigens and 84 novel antigens. Additionally, sera collected from rabbits throughout the course of infection demonstrated a progression in the breadth and intensity of humoral immunoreactivity against a representative panel of T. pallidum antigens.
Diana Magalhães de Oliveira
Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an important effector molecule involved in immune regulation and defense. NO produced by cytokine-activated macrophages was reported to be cytotoxic against the helminth Schistosoma mansoni. Identification and characterization of S. mansoni antigens that can provide protective immunity is crucial for understanding the complex immunoregulatory events that modulate the immune response in schistosomiasis. It is, then, essential to have available defined, purified parasite antigens. Previous work by our laboratory identified a fraction of S. mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation (SWAP, named PIII, able to elicit significant in vitro cell proliferation and at the same time lower in vitro and in vivo granuloma formation when compared either to SEA (soluble egg antigen or to SWAP. In the present work we report the effect of different in vivo trials with mice on their spleen cells ability to produce NO. We demonstrate that PIII-immunization is able to significantly increase NO production by spleen cells after in vitro stimulation with LPS. These data suggest a possible role for NO on the protective immunity induced by PIII.
Lipopolysaccharide on the surface of Escherichia coli constitute the O antigens, which are important virulence factors that are targets of both the innate and adaptive immune system and play a major role in host-pathogen interactions. O antigens that are responsible for antigenic specificity of the ...
Carter, P B; Zahorchak, R J; Brubaker, R R
The virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica, biotype 2, serotype O:8, in mice is related to its ability to produce plague V and W antigens. V and W antigens in Y. enterocolitica are shown to be immunologically identical to the previously described V and W antigens of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.
Hanff, P A; Miller, J N; Lovett, M A
A molecular characterization of cross-reactive antigens of Treponema pallidum Nichols and Treponema phagedenis biotype Reiter that are reactive with normal and syphilitic human sera is described. At least 8 common polypeptides, 14 T. pallidum-specific antigens, and 2 T. phagedenis biotype Reiter-specific antigens were identified.
The precore/core gene of hepatitis B virus directs the synthesis of two polypeptides, the 21-kilodalton subunit (p21c) forming the viral nucleocapsid (serologically defined as core antigen [HBcAg]) and a secreted processed protein (p17e, serologically defined as HBe antigen [HBeAg]). Although most of their primary amino acid sequences are identical, HBcAg and HBeAg display different antigenic properties that are widely used in hepatitis B virus diagnosis. To locate and to characterize the corresponding determinants, segments of the core gene were expressed in Escherichia coli and probed with a panel of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blots, and competition assays. Three distinct major determinants were characterized. It is postulated that HBcAg and HBeAg share common basic three-dimensional structure exposing the common linear determinant HBe1 but that they differ in the presentation of two conformational determinants that are either introduced (HBc) or masked (HBe2) in the assembled core. The simultaneous presentation of HBe1 and HBc, two distinctly different antigenic determinants with overlapping amino acid sequences, is interpreted to indicate the presence of slightly differently folded, stable conformational states of p21c in the hepatitis virus nucleocapsid
Wilhelm, Christoph; Harrison, Oliver J; Schmitt, Vanessa; Pelletier, Martin; Spencer, Sean P; Urban, Joseph F; Ploch, Michelle; Ramalingam, Thirumalai R; Siegel, Richard M; Belkaid, Yasmine
Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) play an important role in many immune processes, including control of infections, inflammation, and tissue repair. To date, little is known about the metabolism of ILC and whether these cells can metabolically adapt in response to environmental signals. Here we show that type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), important mediators of barrier immunity, predominantly depend on fatty acid (FA) metabolism during helminth infection. Further, in situations where an essential nutrient, such as vitamin A, is limited, ILC2 sustain their function and selectively maintain interleukin 13 (IL-13) production via increased acquisition and utilization of FA. Together, these results reveal that ILC2 preferentially use FAs to maintain their function in the context of helminth infection or malnutrition and propose that enhanced FA usage and FA-dependent IL-13 production by ILC2 could represent a host adaptation to maintain barrier immunity under dietary restriction. PMID:27432938
Emanuel Senyael Swai; Deogratius Mshanga; Robert Fyumagwa; Deogratius Mpanduji; Idrisa Chuma; Sayael Kuya; Ernest Eblate; Zablon Katale; Julius Keyyu
Objective: To determine the prevalence and spectrum of helminths in free-ranging African buffaloes in Tanzania by a cross-sectional study.Methods:Faecal samples (n=123) from Arusha National Park and Ngorongoro Crater were examined for helminth eggs using sedimentation and floatation techniques during the period of March to June 2012. Results: Coprological examination revealed that 34.1% (n=42) of the buffaloes excreted nematodes and trematodes eggs and protozoan oocyst in their faces. The pattern of infection was either single or mixed. Single (52.4%) and concurrent infections with two, three, four and five parasites were recorded in 19.0%, 11.9%, 14.3% and 2.3% respectively of the cases. The nematode eggs encountered were those of Trichostrongylus sp. (20.3%), Oesophagostomum sp. (7.3%), Strongyle sp. (4.1%), Bunostomum sp. (4.1%), Ostertegia sp. (3.3%) and Toxocara sp. (2.4%). The trematode eggs encountered were those of Fasciola sp. (9.8%), Paramphistomum sp. (4.9%), Gastrothylax sp. (1.6%), Ornithobilharzia sp. (0.81%) and Fischoederius sp (0.81%). The protozoan oocyst recorded was that of Eimeria sp. (8.1%). Geographical location of buffaloes had significant influence on the prevalence of infection with Trichostrongylus (P=0.046) and Fasciola (P=0.001), and the mean prevalances in Arusha National Park are significantly higher than those in Ngorongoro Crater. Age had significant influence on infection with Fasciola (P=0.036), and juvenile recorded higher levels of infection than sub-adults. Health status, body condition score and sex-wise prevalence of helminths were not significant (P>0.05). Conclusions: This study indicates that helminths species are numerous and highly prevalent in the two protected areas and may be one of the contributing factors to lower buffalo productivity.
Emanuel Senyael Swai
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and spectrum of helminths in free-ranging African buffaloes in Tanzania by a cross-sectional study. Methods: Faecal samples (n=1 23 from Arusha National Park and Ngorongoro Crater were examined for helminth eggs using sedimentation and floatation techniques during the period of March to June 2012. Results: Coprological examination revealed that 34.1% (n=42 of the buffaloes excreted nematodes and trematodes eggs and protozoan oocyst in their faces. The pattern of infection was either single or mixed. Single (52.4% and concurrent infections with two, three, four and five parasites were recorded in 19.0%, 11.9%, 14.3% and 2.3% respectively of the cases. The nematode eggs encountered were those of Trichostrongylus sp. (20.3%, Oesophagostomum sp. (7.3%, Strongyle sp. (4.1%, Bunostomum sp. (4.1%, Ostertegia sp. (3.3% and Toxocara sp. (2.4%. The trematode eggs encountered were those of Fasciola sp. (9.8%, Paramphistomum sp. (4.9%, Gastrothylax sp. (1.6%, Ornithobilharzia sp. (0.81% and Fischoederius sp (0.81%. The protozoan oocyst recorded was that of Eimeria sp. (8.1%. Geographical location of buffaloes had significant influence on the prevalence of infection with Trichostrongylus (P=0.046 and Fasciola (P=0.001, and the mean prevalances in Arusha National Park are significantly higher than those in Ngorongoro Crater. Age had significant influence on infection with Fasciola (P=0.036, and juvenile recorded higher levels of infection than sub-adults. Health status, body condition score and sex-wise prevalence of helminths were not significant (P>0.05. Conclusions: This study indicates that helminths species are numerous and highly prevalent in the two protected areas and may be one of the contributing factors to lower buffalo productivity.
Thomas Schmidlin; Eveline Hürlimann; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Yapi, Richard B.; Clarisse Houngbedji; Kouadio, Bernadette A.; Acka-Douabélé, Cinthia A.; Dongo Kouassi; Mamadou Ouattara; Fabien Zouzou; Bassirou Bonfoh; Eliézer K. N'Goran; Jürg Utzinger; Giovanna Raso
BACKGROUND: More than 1 billion people are currently infected with soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomes. The global strategy to control helminthiases is the regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations. However, rapid re-infection occurs in areas where hygiene, access to clean water, and sanitation are inadequate. METHODOLOGY: In July 2011, inhabitants from two villages and seven hamlets of the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d'...
Lem, Mbafor Fidelia; Vincent, Khan Payne; Pone, Josue Wabo; Joseph, Tchoumboue
Background: It is important to understand the biology and health impact of parasites affecting horses in the Western highlands of Cameroon. Aim: to evaluate the prevalence and intensity of infection of gastrointestinal helminths in these animals. Materials and Methods: A total of 894 horses (367 males and 527 females), and aged ≤1 to ≥7 years old were examined. A parasitological investigation of faeces was carried out using two techniques: concentration method of Full Born Willis (flotation i...
Zeleke Mekonnen; Selima Meka; Mio Ayana; Johannes Bogers; Jozef Vercruysse; Bruno Levecke
BACKGROUND: In veterinary parasitology samples are often pooled for a rapid assessment of infection intensity and drug efficacy. Currently, studies evaluating this strategy in large-scale drug administration programs to control human soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm), are absent. Therefore, we developed and evaluated a pooling strategy to assess intensity of STH infections and drug efficacy. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stool samples fro...
Hassan NAYEBZADEH; AHMADI DEZAKI, Amin; Ebrahimi, Mansoor
Indigenous chickens play an essential role in the Iranian economy especially in the rural sector. Juxtaposing the economic factor against the state of the health of the indigenous birds in Iran, more specifically the prevalence of parasitic infectious diseases, this study was conducted to determine the presence and intensity of species of helminthes in the alimentary canals of the local chickens in the Isfahan area, which is centrally located in Iran. For the purpose of this study, 100 local ...
Fernando Emmanuel Gonçalves Vieira; Milton Hissashi Yamamura; Roberta Lemos Freire; Selwyn Arlington Headley
The effects of managerial systems on the occurrence of gastrointestinal helminths in Free-Range Chickens (FRCs) from northern Paraná, Brazil were investigated. The most predominant (23.3%; 61/262) cestode observed was Raillietina cesticillus; Heterakis gallinarum (71.4%; 187/262) and Ascaridia galli (45%; 118/262) were the predominant nematodes; Postharmostomum commutatum was the only trematode observed in 2.7% (7/262) of FRCs. The most elevated parasitic burdens were associated with Heteraki...
Syahputri, Iskandar Nazar
Background : Soil Transmitted Helminths (STH) is one of the classes nematode worm infection which causes disease transmission through the soil and is one of the health problems that exist in Indonesia. Eating vegetables in a raw state to be one cause of the high number of worm infection in Indonesia. And supported by the use of excreta as fertilizer and processing washing vegetables before consumption. Objective : The purpose of this study was to look at contamination on vegetables sold in...
Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Insisiengmay, Sithat; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong
A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 4.4%. For recovery of adult helminths, 12 STE or nematode/cestode egg-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and 15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 2 Haplorchis species (H. pumilio and H. taichui), Centrocestus formosanus, Opisthorchis viverrini, a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including hookworms and Enterobius vermicularis were detected. The worm load for trematodes was the highest for H. pumilio with an average of 283.5 specimens per infected person followed by C. formosanus, H. taichui, and O. viverrini. The worm load for nematodes was the highest for hookworms (21.5/infected case) followed by E. vermicularis (3.2/infected case). The results revealed that the surveyed areas of Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR are endemic areas of various species of intestinal helminths. The STE found in the surveyed population were verified to be those of heterophyids, particularly H. pumilio. PMID:26323842
Claudia Campos; Milena Beltrán; Marcela Duarte; Luz Medina; Francisco Lucena; Juan Jofre
The reduction of helminth eggs, fecal coliforms and somatic coliphages present in sewage sludge after treatments and abatement by application to soil was determined. Traditional stabilization processes produced small changes in the concentrations of the parameters studied. In contrast, thermal treatments and liming produced dramatic reductions. Fecal coliforms were the most affected by both types of treatments; somatic coliphages showed some persistence after 30 minutes at 60°C; and both...
Martin, Juan E.; Roca Velasco, Vicente
A survey of gastrointestinal helminth communities of Gallotia caesaris caesaris (Lehrs, 1914) and G. c. gomerae (Boettger and Müller, 1914), from the islands of El Hierro and La Gomera, respectively, in the Canary Archipelago, Spain, was conducted to determine the prevalence, intensity, and diversity of intestinal parasites of these lacertid lizards. Larval forms of cestodes, nematodes, and acanthocephalans were found in the body cavity of G. c. caesaris; this lizard is the intermediate or pa...
Ondríková, J.; Miklisová, D.; Ribas, Alexis; Stanko, M.
Brno : Ústav biologie obratlovců AV ČR, 2010 - (Bryja, J.; Zasadil, P.). s. 163 ISBN 978-80-87189-07-8. [Zoologické dny. 11.02.2010-12.02.2010, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : helminth s * rodents * Slovakia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://zoo.ivb.cz/doc/sborniky/sbornik_2010.pdf
Xu, Li-Li; Jiang, Bin; Duan, Ji-Hui; Zhuang, Shi-Feng; Liu, Yong-Chun; Zhu, Shi-Qiao; Zhang, Li-Ping; Zhang, Hao-Bing; Xiao, Shu-Hua; Zhou, Xiao-Nong
Background Both tribendimidine and mebendazole are broad-spectrum drugs for anti-intestinal nematodes. We aim to assess the efficacy and safety of tribendimidine and mebendazole in patients with co-infection of Clonorchis sinensis and other helminths. Method We performed a randomized open-label trial in Qiyang, People's Republic of China. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (i) a single dose of 400 mg tribendimidine, (ii) 200 mg tribendimidine twice daily, (iii...
Background: Consuming lettuce, cucumber, cabbage, leek leaves and chives which is not cleaned previously will cause parasite contamination. Therefore awareness of the importance of washing the lettuce, cucumber, cabbage, leek leaves and chives should be owned by the seller or buyer. Objective: This study was conducted to determine differences Transmitted helminths Soil contamination in raw vegetables sold in traditional markets and modern markets and leaching treatment in vegetables purcha...
I. Francisco; Arias, M.; Cortiñas, F. J.; R. Francisco; E. Mochales; Dacal, V.; J. L. Suárez; Uriarte, J.; Morrondo, P.; Sánchez-Andrade, R.; P. Díez-Baños; Paz-Silva, A.
A coprological survey to determine the influence of some intrinsic factors (breed, age, and sex) on the infection by helminth parasites in equine livestock (n = 418) under an oceanic climate area (NW Spain) was conducted. Faecal samples were individually collected and analyzed by the coprological techniques. The main strongylid genera identified were Trichonema and Cyalocephalus spp (small strongyles) and Strongylus and Triodontophorus (large strongyles). The prevalence of gastrointestinal ne...
Vidal-Martínez, V M; Aguirre-Macedo, M L; Del Rio-Rodríguez, R; Gold-Bouchot, G; Rendón-von Osten, J; Miranda-Rosas, G A
The pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum may acquire pollutants, helminths and symbionts from their environment. Statistical associations were studied between the symbionts and helminths of F. duorarum and pollutants in sediments, water and shrimps in Campeche Sound, Mexico. The study area spatially overlapped between offshore oil platforms and natural shrimp mating grounds. Spatial autocorrelation of data was controlled with spatial analysis using distance indices (SADIE) which identifies parasite or pollutant patches (high levels) and gaps (low levels), expressing them as clustering indices compared at each point to produce a measure of spatial association. Symbionts included the peritrich ciliates Epistylis sp. and Zoothamnium penaei and all symbionts were pooled. Helminths included Hysterothylacium sp., Opecoeloides fimbriatus, Prochristianella penaei and an unidentified cestode. Thirty-five pollutants were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides and heavy metals. The PAHs (2-3 ring) in water, unresolved complex mixture (UCM), Ni and V in sediments, and Zn, Cr and heptachlor in shrimps were significantly clustered. The remaining pollutants were randomly distributed in the study area. Juvenile shrimps acquired pesticides, PAHs (2-3 rings) and Zn, while adults acquired PAHs (4-5 rings), Cu and V. Results suggest natural PAH spillovers, and continental runoff of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), PCBs and PAHs (2-3 ring). There were no significant associations between pollutants and helminths. However, there were significant negative associations of pesticides, UCM and PCBs with symbiont numbers after controlling shrimp size and spatial autocorrelation. Shrimps and their symbionts appear to be promising bioindicators of organic chemical pollution in Campeche Sound. PMID:16768859
Tengku Shahrul Anuar; Fatmah Md Salleh; Norhayati Moktar
Currently, information on prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among different tribes of Orang Asli (aboriginal) is scarce in Malaysia. The present study is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the factors associated with the prevalence of STH infections among the Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi tribes. Faecal samples were collected from 500 participants and socioeconomic data was collected via pre-tested questionnaire. All samples were processed using formalin-ethe...
Ilechukwu, GC; Ilechukwu, CGA; Ubesie, AC; Onyire, NB; Emechebe, G; Eze, JC
Background: Intestinal helminthiasis is associated with malnutrition in children. Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the intensity and effect of the common intestinal helminths on the nutritional status of children in Enugu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 460 children conducted in Enugu metropolis, south-east Nigeria between August and September 2003. Their stools were analyzed at the research laboratory of the Federal Ministry of Health, National Arb...
B.J. Oribhabor; A.E. Ogbeibu; Okaka, C. E.
This study which is the ninth in a series to provide data on the biology and ecology of fish species of Buguma Creek, is the first to provide information on the gastrointestinal helminth parasites of the threadfin fish, Polydactylus quadrifilis in any Niger Delta mangrove creek, estuarine or marine ecosystem in Nigeria. Threadfin fish, Polydactylus quadrifilis was isolated from fish samples collected monthly from November 2004 to June 2006 at flood tides in Buguma Creek, Niger Delta Nigeria. ...
The possibility of using experimental microbe antigenous preparation out of Flexner and Zonne shigellas as a protector and a remedy in the case of gamma irradiation, is investigated. The experiments are carried out on mice of both sexes immunized before or after irradiation by two methods: subcutaneously and enerally. It is found that in most cases investigated, the introduction of the experimental preparation 3, 5, 7 and 10 days before irradiation increases the survivability of animals
Bogoch, Isaac I.; Andrews, Jason R.; Speich, Benjamin; Ame, Shaali M.; Ali, Said M.; Stothard, J. Russell; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer
We evaluated the Newton Nm1, a commercially available handheld light microscope and compared it with conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. A total of 91 Kato-Katz thick smears were examined by experienced microscopists and helminth eggs were counted and expressed as eggs per gram of stool (EPG). Mean egg counts were significantly higher with the conventional light microscope (5,190 EPG versus 2,386 EPG for Ascaris lumbricoides; 826 versus 456 for Trichuris trichiura; both P < 0.05). Using regression coefficients and accounting for intensity of infection, we found that the agreement between the two devices was excellent for both species (κ = 0.90, 95% confidence interval = 0.82–0.99 for A. lumbricoides and κ = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91–1.00 for T. trichiura). The Newton Nm1 microscope may be a useful tool for the detection and quantification of soil-transmitted helminth infection in clinical, epidemiologic, and public health settings. PMID:25246697
Aldridge, Allison; O'Neill, Sandra M
FoxP3(+) Treg cells and anergic T cells are the two regulatory phenotypes of T-cell responses associated with helminth infection. Here, we examine the T-cell responses in mice during Fasciola hepatica infection, and to its tegumental coat antigens (FhTeg) that are shed from the fluke every 2-3 h. FhTeg comprises a rich source of glycoproteins, mainly oligomannose N-glycans that bind to mannose receptor. This study demonstrated a novel mechanism for the T-cell unresponsiveness observed during F. hepatica infection and after injection with FhTeg. Markers of T-cell anergy, such as GRAIL, EGR2, ICOS, and ITCH, are enhanced amongst CD4(+) T-cell populations during infection and following FhTeg injection. This is characterized by a lack of cytokine responses and reduced proliferative activity, which can be reversed with the addition of IL-2. FhTeg-activated dendritic cells (DCs) suppress T cells in vitro as measured by enhanced GRAIL and CTLA4 by RNA and suppressed cytokine expression in anti-CD3 stimulated CD4(+) T cells. FhTeg-treated DCs have enhanced MR expression, which is critical for DC-CD4(+) T-cell communication. Taken together, this study presents markers of anergy in a mouse model of F. hepatica infection, and improves our understanding of host-pathogen interactions and how helminths modulate host immunity. PMID:26931640
Roberto Magalhães Pinto
Full Text Available Helminth samples (n = 35 recovered from Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758 Lilljeborg, 1873 (3 and from another rabbit species, Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758 Thomas, 1901 (32, from August 1909 to February 1948 and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute were analyzed. The studied samples were represented by the cysticercus of the cestode Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780 and by the nematodes Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819, Vianella fariasi (Travassos, 1915, Longistriata perfida Travassos, 1943, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis (Zeder, 1800. The scope of the present investigation is to survey the parasites infecting these hosts, commonly used as laboratory animal models in scientific research and supply figurative data on the helminths in order to provide their easy identification, since the presence of autochthonous parasite burdens, if undetected or misinterpreted, can alter the final results of experimental assays, mainly those related to immunological approaches, when cross-reactions can occur.Trinta e cinco amostras de helmintos coletadas de Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758 Lilljeborg, 1873 (3 e de uma outra espécie de coelho, Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758 Thomas, 1901 (32, de agosto de 1909 a fevereiro de 1948 e que estão depositadas na Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, foram analisadas. As amostras estudadas estão representadas pelo cisticerco do cestóide Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780 e pelos nematóides Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819, Vianella fariasi (Travassos, 1915, Longistriata perfida Travassos, 1943, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis (Zeder, 1800. O objetivo da presente investigação é o de inventariar os parasitos que infectam estes hospedeiros, comumente utilizados como modelos de animais de laboratório na pesquisa científica e fornecer dados figurativos sobre os helmintos a fim de facilitar sua identificação, uma vez que
Pullan Rachel L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the global limits of transmission of soil-transmitted helminth (STH species is essential for quantifying the population at-risk and the burden of disease. This paper aims to define these limits on the basis of environmental and socioeconomic factors, and additionally seeks to investigate the effects of urbanisation and economic development on STH transmission, and estimate numbers at-risk of infection with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm in 2010. Methods A total of 4,840 geo-referenced estimates of infection prevalence were abstracted from the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection and related to a range of environmental factors to delineate the biological limits of transmission. The relationship between STH transmission and urbanisation and economic development was investigated using high resolution population surfaces and country-level socioeconomic indicators, respectively. Based on the identified limits, the global population at risk of STH transmission in 2010 was estimated. Results High and low land surface temperature and extremely arid environments were found to limit STH transmission, with differential limits identified for each species. There was evidence that the prevalence of A. lumbricoides and of T. trichiura infection was statistically greater in peri-urban areas compared to urban and rural areas, whilst the prevalence of hookworm was highest in rural areas. At national levels, no clear socioeconomic correlates of transmission were identified, with the exception that little or no infection was observed for countries with a per capita gross domestic product greater than US$ 20,000. Globally in 2010, an estimated 5.3 billion people, including 1.0 billion school-aged children, lived in areas stable for transmission of at least one STH species, with 69% of these individuals living in Asia. A further 143 million (31.1 million school-aged children lived in areas of unstable